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Sample records for absorption line intensity

  1. Determination of vibration-rotation lines intensities from absorption Fourier spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandin, J. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The method presented allows the line intensities to be calculated from either their equivalent widths, heights, or quantities deduced from spectra obtained by Fourier spectrometry. This method has proven its effectiveness in measuring intensities of 60 lines of the molecule H2O with a precision of 10%. However, this method cannot be applied to isolated lines.

  2. Recovery of acetylene absorption line profile basing on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Thursby, Graham; Stewart, George; Arsad, Norhana; Uttamchandani, Deepak; Culshaw, Brian; Wang, Yiding

    2010-04-01

    A novel and direct absorption line recovery technique based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation is presented. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied for high sensitivity, zero background and efficient acoustic enhancement at a low modulation frequency. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used for generating laser intensity modulation (without wavelength modulation) through the external reflection. The MEMS mirror with 10μm thick structure material layer and 100nm thick gold coating is formed as a circular mirror of 2mm diameter attached to an electrothermal actuator and is fabricated on a chip that is wire-bonded and placed on a PCB holder. Low modulation frequency is adopted (since the resonant frequencies of the photoacoustic gas cell and the electrothermal actuator are different) and intrinsic high signal amplitude characteristics in low frequency region achieved from measured frequency responses for the MEMS mirror and the gas cell. Based on the property of photoacoustic spectroscopy and Beer's law that detectable sensitivity is a function of input laser intensity in the case of constant gas concentration and laser path length, a Keopsys erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) with opto-communication C band and high output power up to 1W is chosen to increase the laser power. High modulation depth is achieved through adjusting the MEMS mirror's reflection position and driving voltage. In order to scan through the target gas absorption line, the temperature swept method is adopted for the tunable distributed feed-back (DFB) diode laser working at 1535nm that accesses the near-infrared vibration-rotation spectrum of acetylene. The profile of acetylene P17 absorption line at 1535.39nm is recovered ideally for ~100 parts-per-million (ppm) acetylene balanced by nitrogen. The experimental signal to noise ratio (SNR) of absorption line recovery for 500mW laser power was ~80 and hence the

  3. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  4. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25 μm absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-07-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400-1840 cm-1 and 3440-3970 cm-1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with those in HITRAN-2012. Maximum systematic differences do not exceed 4% for intensities (1600 cm-1 band) and 7% for self-broadening coefficients (3600 cm-1 band). For many lines however significant disagreements were detected with the HITRAN-2012 data, exceeding the average uncertainty of the retrieval. In addition, water vapour line parameters for 5300 cm-1 (1.9 μm) band reported by us in 2005 were also compared with HITRAN-2012, and show average differences of 4-5% for both intensities and half-widths.

  5. Absolute number density calibration of the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp and the calculated effect of argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W.; McClean, R.E. ); Oldenborg, R.C. )

    1991-03-21

    The absolute number density calibration for the absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonance line from a high-intensity lead hollow cathode lamp (Photron superlamp) is determined and found to be the same as that of a standard hollow cathode lamp. Comparisons of the calibrations to theoretical calculations are found to be quite satisfactory. The effects of argon pressures in the absorption cell on the calibration are examined theoretically by using a simple Lorentzian broadening and shifting model. These calculations show the expected reduction in sensitivity and increasing linearity of Beer-Lambert plots with increasing argon pressure.

  6. Quasar Absorption Line Survey - Cycle 4 High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John

    1994-01-01

    The Absorption Line Survey of bright quasars provides a homogeneous data base for studying fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of gaseous systems in the universe. The initial results determine at small redshifts the number densities of Ly-ALPHA systems, of metal-lines and extragalactic halos, of Lyman-limit systems, of associated absorption systems, and the shapes and intensities of quasar emission lines and spectral energy distributions. The survey reveals that much of the sky is covered by high or very high velocity metal-line clouds present in the Galactic halo. A larger sample, which includes the requested Cycle 3 observations, is required to answer many important questions. For example, what is the correlation function of Ly-ALPHA systems at small redshifts? What fraction of the metal, the Ly-ALPHA, and the Ly-limit systems are associated with galaxies and what are the characteristic sizes of the outer gaseous regions of different types of galaxies? Do absorbing systems show evidence of the large-scale structure seen with galaxies and clusters of galaxies? The observations requested in Cycle 3 will extend the region of coverage of the Key Project sample from the redshift range of z = 0.0 to 1.0 (Cycles 1& 2) to z = 0.0 to 1.6 (Cycles 1-3). THIS FILE CONTAINS THE HIGH PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS FROM CYCLES 2 and 3 WHICH WERE NOT COMPLETED IN THOSE CYCLES.

  7. Towards Perfect Water Line Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-06-01

    Over the last ten years the increased availability of computational resources and the steady refinement of theoretical methods have permitted more and more accurate first principle calculations of water-vapor spectra as exemplified, e.g., by the very successful BT2 line list both line positions and intensities, a reliable dipole moment surface (DMS), affecting line intensities. It is also very useful to several application to give reasonable uncertainty bars for computed quantities, an aspect which traditionally has received little attention. We report here recent progress leading to very accurate room-temperature linelists covering the range 0.05-20 000 cm-1, complete with uncertainty bars, for the H_218O and H_217O water isotopologues Line intensities were produced using a recent DMS produced by our group which is capable of giving line intensites accurate to 1% for most medium and strong transitions. Line positions are based if possible on the experimentally derived energy levels recently produced by a IUPAC task group and have a typical accuracy of 0.0002 cm-1; when experimentally derived energy levels are unavailable calculated line position are provided, with an accuracy of the order of 0.2 cm-1. An extension to the main isotopologue H_216O is currently underway. R. J. Barber, J. Tennyson, G. J. Harris and R. N. Tolchenov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. {368}, 1087-1094 (2006). L. Lodi and J. Tennyson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.023 L. Lodi, J. Tennyson and O. L. Polyansky, J. Chem. Phys. {135}, 034113 (2011). J. Tennyson at al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. {110}, 573-96 (2009).

  8. Do Atoms Really "Emit" Absorption Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Presents three absorption line sources that enhance student understanding of the phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter and help dispel the misconception that atoms "emit" absorption lines. Sources include neodymium, food coloring and other common household liquids, and fluorescent materials. (MDH)

  9. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Innes, D.; Ayres, T.; Peter, H.; Curdt, W.; Jaeggli, S.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary. The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales and introduces a new complexity into our understanding of solar thermal structure. It lends credence to previous numerical studies that found evidence for elevated pockets of cool gas in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Non-Voigt Lyalpha Absorption Line Profiles.

    PubMed

    Outram; Carswell; Theuns

    2000-02-01

    Recent numerical simulations have lead to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the intergalactic medium and the loss of a physical justification for Voigt profile fitting of the Lyalpha forest. Many individual lines seen in simulated spectra have significant departures from the Voigt profile, yet could be well fitted by a blend of two or more such lines. We discuss the expected effect on the line profiles due to ongoing gravitational structure formation and Hubble expansion. We develop a method to detect departures from Voigt profiles of the absorption lines in a statistical way and apply this method to simulated Lyalpha forest spectra, confirming that the profiles seen do statistically differ from Voigt profiles. PMID:10622758

  11. High-intensity laser heating in liquids: Multiphoton absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    At high laser intensities, otherwise transparent liquids can absorb strongly by the mechanism of multiphoton absorption, resulting in absorption and heating several orders of magnitude greater than classical, low-intensity mechanisms. The use of multiphoton absorption provides a new mechanism for strong, controlled energy deposition in liquids without bulk plasma formation, shock waves, liquid ejection, etc., which is of interest for many laser-liquid applications, including laser desorption of liquid films, laser particle removal, and laser water removal from microdevices. This work develops a microscopically based model of the heating during multiphoton absorption in liquids. The dependence on pulse duration, intensity, wavelength, repetition rate, and liquid properties is discussed. Pure water exposed to 266 nm laser radiation is investigated, and a novel heating mechanism for water is proposed that uses multiple-wavelength laser pulses.

  12. Studying Velocity Turbulence from Doppler-broadened Absorption Lines: Statistics of Optical Depth Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2008-10-10

    We continue our work on developing techniques for studying turbulence with spectroscopic data. We show that Doppler-broadened absorption spectral lines, in particular, saturated absorption lines, can be used within the framework of the previously introduced technique termed the velocity coordinate spectrum (VCS). The VCS relates the statistics of fluctuations along the velocity coordinate to the statistics of turbulence; thus, it does not require spatial coverage by sampling directions in the plane of the sky. We consider lines with different degree of absorption and show that for lines of optical depth less than one, our earlier treatment of the VCS developed for spectral emission lines is applicable, if the optical depth is used instead of intensity. This amounts to correlating the logarithms of absorbed intensities. For larger optical depths and saturated absorption lines, we show that only wings of the line are available for the analysis. In terms of the VCS formalism, this results in introducing an additional window, whose size decreases with the increase of the optical depth. As a result, strongly saturated absorption lines only carry the information about the small-scale turbulence. Nevertheless, the contrast of the fluctuations corresponding to the small-scale turbulence increases with the increase of the optical depth, which provides advantages for studying turbulence by combining lines with different optical depths. By combining different absorption lines one can develop a tomography of the turbulence in the interstellar gas in all its complexity.

  13. Properties of quasar broad absorption line outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, Daniel Moshin

    2012-06-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high velocity outflows that likely exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. In this dissertation, I use two methods to illuminate important properties of these outflows with the goal of a better understanding of these outflow systems and ultimately of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies. The variability of BALs can help us understand the structure, evolution, and basic physical properties of the outflows. I report here on a BAL monitoring programme of a sample of 24 luminous quasars at redshifts 1.2absorption to try to ascertain the cause(s) of the variability. I find that Si IV BALs are more likely to vary than C IV BALs. When both C IV and Si IV varied, those changes always occurred in the same sense (either getting weaker or stronger). The multi-epoch data, including up to 10 epochs of data per quasar, show that the BAL changes were not generally monotonic across the full ˜5 to ˜8 yr time span of our observations, suggesting that the characteristic time-scale for significant line variations, and (perhaps) for structural changes in the outflows, is less than a few years. The evidence presented here indicates that the cause of variability is likely a complex mixture of changing ionization in the outflowing

  14. Correlation between cosmic noise absorption and VHF coherent echo intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevitch, R. A.; Honary, F.

    2005-07-01

    We present examples and statistical analysis of the events with statistically significant correlation between the cosmic noise absorption (CNA) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the VHF coherent echo intensity in the area monitored simultaneously by an imaging riometer and two oblique-sounding coherent VHF radars in Northern Scandinavia. By only considering the observations from the narrow riometer beams comparable (in terms of the intersection with the ionosphere) with the VHF radar cells, we identify ~200 one-hour high correlation periods (HCPs) for 2 years near the solar cycle maximum, 2000 2001. The HCP occurrence is maximized in the afternoon (12:00 17:00 UT, MLT≅UT+3), with the secondary peak near the midnight (21:00 02:00 UT). Relative to the VHF echo occurrence, HCPs occur more frequently from 11:00 to 20:00 UT. The diurnal variation of HCP occurrence is similar to that of the 1-h intervals with the lowest mean absorption A<0.25dB.

    line-height: 20px;"> The HCPs are observed more frequently during the winter months, which, combined with the fact that VHF echoes observed during HCPs exhibit features typical for field-aligned E-region irregularities, makes their association with the polar mesospheric echoes (for which some positive CNA/SNR correlation has been reported in the past) very unlikely. Instead, we attribute the high positive CNA/SNR correlation to the synchronous, to a first approximation, variation of the particle fluxes for two different but close sets of energies.

    line-height: 20px;"> By considering the dependence of the CNA/SNR correlation coefficients for both VHF radars (CA1 and CA2) upon the correlation between SNRs for two radars (C12), we show that both coefficients, CA1 and CA2, and the agreement between them decrease drastically with a C12 decrease, which we interpreted through the progressively increasing role of the spatial inhomogeneity of the processes leading to the enhanced CNA and SNR. In this situation

  15. Evidence for Photoionization-driven Broad Absorption Line Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan; Ferland, Gary

    2015-12-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C iv, Si iv, and N v. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths (EWs) of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption-line EWs when the well-established intrinsic Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanied by the dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption-line component is accompanied by the brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C iv absorption component is only the extreme case, when the ionic column density is very sensitive to continuum variations or the continuum variability the amplitude is larger. These results support the idea that absorption-line variability is driven mainly by changes in the gas ionization in response to continuum variations, that the line-absorbing gas is highly ionized, and in some extreme cases, too highly ionized to be detected in UV absorption lines. Due to uncertainties in the spectroscopic flux calibration, we cannot quantify the fraction of quasars with asynchronized continuum and absorption-line variations.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. II - Data calibration and absorption-line selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Saxe, David H.; Weymann, Ray J.; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the observational and data processing aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Topics discussed include the observational technique, calibration of the data, software that simulates the data, the automated procedure used to identify and characterize the absorption features, and the determination of the sensitivity limits of the survey.

  17. Quasar absorption lines with a nonzero cosmological constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Edwin L.; Ikeuchi, Satoru

    1992-01-01

    Quasar absorption lines in flat universes with nonzero cosmological constant Lambda are examined and compared with more conventional zero Lambda universes. Various evolution effects for intergalactic absorbers and the observed number density evolution of each absorption system are examined in order to discriminate between evolution effects and the cosmological models. An interesting interaction between Lambda effects and cosmic absorption phenomena is explored. Equations describing IGM absorption statistics are developed for nonzero Lambda cosmologies, both for unevolving absorber populations and some of the more popular physical models for the IGM and intergalactic clouds which include the effects of the absorber evolution.

  18. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  19. Active Galactic Nuclei Probed by QSO Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru

    2007-07-01

    Quasars are the extremely bright nuclei found in about 10% of galaxies. A variety of absorption features (known collectively as quasar absorption lines) are detected in the rest-frame UV spectra of these objects. While absorption lines that have very broad widths originate in gas that is probably physocally related to the quasars, narrow absorption lines (NALs) were thought to arise in galaxies and/or in the intter-alacttic medium between the quasars and us. Using high-resolution spectra of quasars, it is found that a substantial fraction of NALs arise in gas in the immediate vicinity of the quasars. A dramatically variable, moderately-broad absorption line in the spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820l is also found. The variability of this line is monitored in a campaign with Subaru telescope. These observational results are compared to models for outflows from the quasars, specifically, models for accretion disk winds and evaporating obscuring tori. It is quite important to determine the mechanism of outflow because of its cosmological implications. The outflow could expel angular momentum from the accretion disk and enable quasars to accrete and shine. In addition, the outflow may also regulate star formation in the early stages of the assembly of the host galaxy and enrich the interstellar and intergalactic medium with metals.

  20. CRIRES spectroscopy and empirical line-by-line identification of FeH molecular absorption in an M dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wende, S.; Reiners, A.; Seifahrt, A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2010-11-01

    Molecular FeH provides a large number of sharp and isolated absorption lines that can be used to measure radial velocity, rotation, or magnetic field strength with high accuracy. Our aim is to provide an FeH atlas for M-type stars in the spectral region from 986 nm to 1077 nm (Wing-Ford band). To identify these lines in CRIRES spectra of the magnetically inactive, slowly rotating, M5.5 dwarf GJ1002, we calculated model spectra for the selected spectral region with theoretical FeH line data. In general this line list agrees with the observed data, but several individual lines differ significantly in position or in line strength. After identification of as many as possible FeH lines, we corrected the line data for position and line strength to provide an accurate atlas of FeH absorption lines for use in high precision spectroscopy of low mass stars. For all lines, we used a Voigt function to obtain their positions and equivalent widths. Identification with theoretical lines was done by hand. For confirmation of the identified lines, we used statistical methods, cross-correlation techniques, and line intensities. Eventually, we were able to identify FeH lines from the (0,0), (1,0), (1,1), (2,1), (2,2), (3,2), and (4,3) vibrational bands in the observed spectra and correct the positions of the lines if necessary. The deviations between theoretical and observed positions follow a normal distribution approximately around zero. In order to empirically correct the line strength, we determined Teff, instrumental broadening (rotational broadening) and a van der Waals enhancement factor for the FeH lines in GJ1002. We also give the scaling factors for the Einstein A values to correct the line strengths. With the identified lines, we derived rotational temperatures from the line intensities for GJ1002. We conclude that FeH lines can be used for a wide variety of applications in astrophysics. With the identified lines it will be possible for example to characterize magnetically

  1. CO Emission from Low-Redshift QSO Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Bechtold, J.; Black, J. H.

    1994-12-01

    By studying the physical conditions in galaxies at different redshifts, we can begin to understand the evolutionary process of starformation from early epochs to the present. Such studies have been performed at optical and centimeter wavelengths for a number of years. Due to advances in receiver and telescope technology at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, molecular line studies have recently been performed toward high redshift absorption line systems. Observations of the mm/submm CO lines in these very young galaxies provide a way to investigate abundances of and conditions in potential starforming material. CO provides some of the strongest emission lines associated with star formation in nearby disk galaxies. Here we report the detection of CO in emission toward 4 galaxies at redshifts of 0.02 to 0.40. From these observations we are able to compute the molecular mass of the starforming material. Studies of starformation in galaxies at low to mid-redshift ranges are important, because these systems represent a transitional phase between starformation at early epochs and the present. Our recent detections of CO emission indicate total molecular masses in three of the galaxies to be a few times 10(9) Msun, using the ``standard conversion factor'' for molecular hydrogen column density to integrated CO intensity ratio (N(H_2)/Ico) and an H_o=75km/s/Mpc and q_o= 0.5. The fourth system, the z=0.40 21 cm absorber toward PKS 1229-021, has a molecular mass of ~ 10(11) M_sunh(-2) . Together with data at other wavelengths, the z=0.40 absorber may be a in pre-starburst phase. All four of our sources were selected to be metal line systems (with high HI column densities) and possess strong FIR fluxes detected by IRAS at 60 and/or 100{microns }. The source possessing the brightest FIR emission among the four is the z=0.05 21 cm absorber toward S4 0248+43. The total observed FIR luminosity for this source is LFIR =3.0x10E11 Lsun. Taking into account its luminosity and

  2. Ultrafast absorption of intense x rays by nitrogen molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Buth, Christian; Liu Jicai; Chen, Mau Hsiung; Cryan, James P.; Fang Li; Hoener, Matthias; Berrah, Nora; Glownia, James M.; Coffee, Ryan N.

    2012-06-07

    We devise a theoretical description for the response of nitrogen molecules (N{sub 2}) to ultrashort and intense x rays from the free electron laser Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). We set out from a rate-equation description for the x-ray absorption by a nitrogen atom. The equations are formulated using all one-x-ray-photon absorption cross sections and the Auger and radiative decay widths of multiply-ionized nitrogen atoms. Cross sections are obtained with a one-electron theory and decay widths are determined from ab initio computations using the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) method. We also calculate all binding and transition energies of nitrogen atoms in all charge states with the DHS method as the difference of two self-consistent field (SCF) calculations ({Delta}SCF method). To describe the interaction with N{sub 2}, a detailed investigation of intense x-ray-induced ionization and molecular fragmentation are carried out. As a figure of merit, we calculate ion yields and the average charge state measured in recent experiments at the LCLS. We use a series of phenomenological models of increasing sophistication to unravel the mechanisms of the interaction of x rays with N{sub 2}: a single atom, a symmetric-sharing model, and a fragmentation-matrix model are developed. The role of the formation and decay of single and double core holes, the metastable states of N{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and molecular fragmentation are explained.

  3. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-12-05

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  4. Terahertz vibrational absorption spectroscopy using microstrip-line waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, M. B.; Cunningham, J.; Tych, K.; Burnett, A. D.; Stringer, M. R.; Wood, C. D.; Dazhang, L.; Lachab, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate that terahertz microstrip-line waveguides can be used to measure absorption spectra of polycrystalline materials with a high frequency resolution (˜2 GHz) and with a spatial resolution that is determined by the microstrip-line dimensions, rather than the free-space wavelength. The evanescent terahertz-bandwidth electric field extending above the microstrip line interacts with, and is modified by, overlaid dielectric samples, thus enabling the characteristic vibrational absorption resonances in the sample to be probed. As an example, the terahertz absorption spectrum of polycrystalline lactose monohydrate was investigated; the lowest lying mode was observed at 534(±2) GHz, in excellent agreement with free-space measurements. This microstrip technique offers both a higher spatial and frequency resolution than free-space terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and requires no contact between the waveguide and sample.

  5. Variations in the Absorption Lines Associated with SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.

    Analysis of 8th year IUE data for a faint sdOB star situated behind the young and suspected Type I supernova remnant of AD 1006 together with a careful re-analysis of earlier IUE spectra (Wu et al. 1983) confirm the presence of several very strong and definitely non-stellar absorption lines in this star's UV spectrum (Fesen, Wu, Leventhal, and Hamilton 1986). Exceedingly broad and strong absorption features at 2370 and 2600 A agree well with the relative strengths and wavelengths of the Fe II 2343, 2382, and 2599 A resonance lines and indicate an Fe II mass of about 0.1 solar mass. Other strong absorption features at 1282, 1331, and 1420 A are identified as redshifted S II (1259, 1254), O I (1302), and Si IV (1393, 1402) respectively with radial velocities of 5000 to 6700 km s^-1. The UV spectra of this sdOB star has provided us with an exciting and invaluable observational probe of the elemental composition and dynamical properties of a young Type I supernova remnant via the line-of-sight interception of the remnant's outer ejecta knots and expanding central iron core. The elements, ionization, and velocities implied by these absorption lines are in good agreement with both optical spectral features seen in Type I SN as well as detailed model calculations predicting the final explosive nucleosynthesis production and expansion velocities. Importantly however, some absorption line variations are seen between the 1982/83 and 1986 IUE spectra. Indeed, if the 1282, 1331, and 1420 A features are really due to knots of ejecta with dimensions similar to those of other remnants (i.e., 0.01 pc), these features cannot persist or remain unchanged over time scales greater than a few years. In order to understand fully the nature of the remnant's ejecta, we propose to monitor these changes in these absorption features over the next two IUE observing seasons (1987/88 and 1988/89). The exposure times are well known with the data reduction and analysis already established and

  6. Absorption of ultra-intense intense laser pulse in self-generated pair plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grismayer, Thomas; Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Plasma physics in extreme fields requires taking into account Quantum Electrodynamics effects such as non-linear Compton scattering and Breit-Wheeler pair production. Such effects intervene in laser-plasma interactions at ultra high intensities (I >1023 W/cm2). The self-consistent modeling of these scenarios is challenging since some localized regions of ultra-intense field will produce a vast number of pairs that may cause memory overflow during the simulation. To overcome this issue, we have developed a merging algorithm that allows merging a large number of particles into fewer particles with higher particle weights while conserving local particle distributions. This algorithm is crucial to investigate the laser absorption in self-generated pair plasmas. During the interaction, the laser energy is converted into pairs and photons and the absorption become significant when the plasma density reaches the critical density. We present the results of 3D PIC-QED simulations (Osiris 2.0) showing the respective fraction of laser energy transferred into pairs and photons. The dependence of the laser absorption on the laser parameters for various configurations is also discussed.

  7. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF RADIO-SELECTED BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; Becker, R. H.; Gregg, M. D.; Tran, H. D.; White, R. L.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2010-07-15

    We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. Both high- and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) shows large continuum polarization (2%-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths; emission lines are typically less polarized than the continuum; and absorption line troughs often show large polarization jumps. There are no significant correlations between polarization properties and radio properties, including those indicative of system orientation, suggesting that BAL quasars are not simply normal quasars seen from an edge-on perspective.

  8. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Multiwavelength diode-laser absorption spectroscopy using external intensity modulation by semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Karagiannopoulos, Solon; Cheadle, Edward; Wright, Paul; Tsekenis, Stylianos; McCann, Hugh

    2012-12-01

    A novel opto-electronic scheme for line-of-sight Near-IR gas absorption measurement based on direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is reported. A diode-laser-based, multiwavelength system is designed for future application in nonintrusive, high temporal resolution tomographic imaging of H2O in internal combustion engines. DAS is implemented with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) to enable wavelength multiplexing and to induce external intensity modulation for phase-sensitive detection. Two overtone water transitions in the Near-IR have been selected for ratiometric temperature compensation to enable concentration measurements, and an additional wavelength is used to account for nonabsorbing attenuation. A wavelength scanning approach was used to evaluate the new modulation technique, and showed excellent absorption line recovery. Fixed-wavelength, time-division-multiplexing operation with SOAs has also been demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time SOAs have been used for modulation and switching in a spectroscopic application. With appropriate diode laser selection this scheme can be also used for other chemical species absorption measurements. PMID:23207374

  10. Multiwavelength diode-laser absorption spectroscopy using external intensity modulation by semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Karagiannopoulos, Solon; Cheadle, Edward; Wright, Paul; Tsekenis, Stylianos; McCann, Hugh

    2012-12-01

    A novel opto-electronic scheme for line-of-sight Near-IR gas absorption measurement based on direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is reported. A diode-laser-based, multiwavelength system is designed for future application in nonintrusive, high temporal resolution tomographic imaging of H2O in internal combustion engines. DAS is implemented with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) to enable wavelength multiplexing and to induce external intensity modulation for phase-sensitive detection. Two overtone water transitions in the Near-IR have been selected for ratiometric temperature compensation to enable concentration measurements, and an additional wavelength is used to account for nonabsorbing attenuation. A wavelength scanning approach was used to evaluate the new modulation technique, and showed excellent absorption line recovery. Fixed-wavelength, time-division-multiplexing operation with SOAs has also been demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time SOAs have been used for modulation and switching in a spectroscopic application. With appropriate diode laser selection this scheme can be also used for other chemical species absorption measurements.

  11. What sodium absorption lines tell us about Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2014-10-01

    We propose that the sodium responsible for the variable Na ID absorption lines in some Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) originate mainly from dust residing at ˜1 pc from the supernovae. In this Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model, the process by which the SN Ia peak luminosity releases sodium from dust at ˜1 pc from the SN is similar to the processes by which solar radiation releases sodium from cometary dust when comets approach a distance of ≲ 1 au from the Sun. The dust grains are not sublimated but rather stay intact, and release sodium by photon-stimulated desorption (or photosputtering). Some of the Na might start in the gas phase before the explosion. Weakening in absorption strength is caused by Na-ionizing radiation of the SN. We apply the NaDA model to SN 2006X and SN 2007le, and find it to comply better with the observed time variability of the Na ID absorption lines than the Na recombination model. The mass in the dusty shell of the NaDA model is much too high to be accounted for in the single-degenerate scenario for SN Ia. Therefore, the presence of variable Na ID lines in some SN Ia further weakens the already very problematic single-degenerate scenario for SN Ia.

  12. A SURVEY OF ALKALI LINE ABSORPTION IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: sredfield@wesleyan.edu E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: barman@lowell.edu

    2011-12-20

    We obtained over 90 hr of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra-i.e., the transmission spectra-to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at {lambda}{lambda}5889, 5895 and neutral potassium (K I) at {lambda}7698. We used the transmission spectrum at Ca I {lambda}6122-which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres-as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantify these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same data set using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen Na I absorption in HD 189733b at a level of (- 5.26 {+-} 1.69) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} (the average value over a 12 A integration band to be consistent with previous authors). Additionally, we tentatively confirm the Na I absorption seen in HD 209458b (independently by multiple authors) at a level of (- 2.63 {+-} 0.81) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, though the interpretation is less clear. Furthermore, we find Na I absorption of (- 3.16 {+-} 2.06) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} at <3{sigma} in HD 149026b; features apparent in the transmission spectrum are consistent with real absorption and indicate this may be a good target for future observations to confirm. No other results (Na I in HD 147506b and Ca I and K I in all four targets) are significant to {>=}3{sigma}, although we observe some features that we argue are primarily artifacts.

  13. On Wolf-Rayet stars with unshifted absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Lamontagne, R.; Shara, M. M.; McAlister, H. A.

    1986-06-01

    The authors examine a sample of 16 galactic Wolf-Rayet stars that exhibit unshifted absorption lines, but for which orbital motion involving the WR star and an O-type companion is either unknown or thought to be absent. If all of these are binaries, this would increase the estimate of the binary frequency for WR stars by about 10%. Speckle interferometry of three bright non-WNL+abs stars in Cygnus fails to reveal any astrometric companions down to a separation of 0.05arcsec. Thus, either the absorption lines are intrinsic to the WR star in these three cases or, more likely, they arise in a bound companion. The search for wide spectroscopic orbits for WR 137 and the WN3+abs star WR 3 is re-examined.

  14. Observational Cosmology Using Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaee, A.

    2016-09-01

    Distant, highly luminous quasars are important cosmological probes for a variety of astrophysical questions: the first generation of galaxies, the star formation history and metal enrichment in the early Universe, the growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs), the role of feedback from quasars and SMBHs in galaxy evolution, the epoch of reionization, etc. In addition, they are used as background illuminating source that reveal any object located by chance on the line of sight. I will present our group works in these issues that can be done using absorption lines in the quasar spectra.

  15. Interstellar absorption lines in the galaxy NGC 1705

    SciTech Connect

    York, D.G.; Caulet, A.; Rybski, P.M.; Gallagher, J.S.; Blades, J.C. Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1990-03-01

    The possibility is considered, and shown to be plausible, that the strong C IV and Si IV absorption lines in low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of gas-rich dwarf galaxies are primarily interstellar, not stellar as has been supposed. The argument is based on analogies with H II regions in the Local Group, on low-resolution equivalent width measurements of gas-rich dwarf galaxies from the literature and on high-resolution UV spectra of NGC 1705. 48 refs.

  16. Interstellar absorption lines in the galaxy NGC 1705

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Donald G.; Caulet, Adeline; Rybski, Paul M.; Gallagher, John S.; Blades, J. Chris

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is considered, and shown to be plausible, that the strong C IV and Si IV absorption lines in low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of gas-rich dwarf galaxies are primarily interstellar, not stellar as has been supposed. The argument is based on analogies with H II regions in the Local Group, on low-resolution equivalent width measurements of gas-rich dwarf galaxies from the literature and on high-resolution UV spectra of NGC 1705.

  17. Observations of Absorption Lines from Highly Ionized Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1984-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. fewX 0.001/cucm) existing at coronal temperatures, 5.3 or = log T or = 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity 9v or = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic uv radiation from very hot, dward stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  18. Stark broadening of impurity absorption lines by inhomogeneous electric fields in highly compensated germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Fujii, K.; Ohyama, T.; Itoh, K. M.; Haller, E. E.

    1996-06-01

    Stark broadening of Zeeman absorption lines caused by inhomogeneous electric fields in highly compensated Ge has been studied by means of far-infrared magneto-optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. A number of transmutation-doped Ge single crystals with a systematically varying compensation ratio were employed. The broadening of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of an absorption line of the Ga acceptor is studied as a function of excitation light intensity with above-band-gap energy. The FWHM increases with decreasing intensity of the band-edge light excitation. Observation of the theoretically predicted 4/3-power law of Stark broadening, due to ionized impurities, is reported. The line broadening originates in the Stark effect, due to inhomogeneous electric fields caused by the random distribution of ionized impurities. In order to understand the mechanism for the line broadening in detail, a numerical approach based on a Monte Carlo simulation has been performed. The results of this simulation show that the inhomogeneity of the field distribution becomes larger with increasing concentration of ionized impurities. The simulation based on a perfectly random distribution for an initial impurity arrangement gives a fairly good agreement with the experimental results. We conclude that the distribution of impurities in transmutation-doped Ge samples is close to random.

  19. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.

  20. Optical line intensities in the Trifid nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Lynds, B.T.; Oneil, E.J. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Observations of the Trifid nebula (M20) obtained in H-alpha; He I (587.6 nm); and the forbidden lines of N II (658.3 nm), S II (671.6 and 673 nm), O III (500.7 nm), and O II (272.6 and 372.9 nm) using either the CIT long-slit spectrograph or a direct-mode CCD with narrow-band interference filters on the 92-cm telescope at KPNO are reported. The data are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail and a model is proposed to explain the scattering measurements. Findings discussed include a single central O7 V star with Teff = about 37,500 K, a dusty plasma ionized by this star, mean nebular electron density 150/cu cm, a central hole of radius 0.2 times that of the ionized zone, dust extending beyond the ionized region, overall temperature 7000-8000 K, filament temperatures up to 9000 K, dust optical depth 1.5 at H-beta, dust albedo 0.5, emission-nebula radius 2.8 pc, and total mass about 1700 solar mass (comprising 340 solar mass ionized material, about 800 solar mass unionized cloud material, and about 600 solar mass in an outer dust sphere). 18 references.

  1. Optical line intensities in the Trifid nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, B. T.; Oneil, E. J., Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Observations of the Trifid nebula (M20) obtained in H-alpha; He I (587.6 nm); and the forbidden lines of N II (658.3 nm), S II (671.6 and 673 nm), O III (500.7 nm), and O II (272.6 and 372.9 nm) using either the CIT long-slit spectrograph or a direct-mode CCD with narrow-band interference filters on the 92-cm telescope at KPNO are reported. The data are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail and a model is proposed to explain the scattering measurements. Findings discussed include a single central O7 V star with Teff = about 37,500 K, a dusty plasma ionized by this star, mean nebular electron density 150/cu cm, a central hole of radius 0.2 times that of the ionized zone, dust extending beyond the ionized region, overall temperature 7000-8000 K, filament temperatures up to 9000 K, dust optical depth 1.5 at H-beta, dust albedo 0.5, emission-nebula radius 2.8 pc, and total mass about 1700 solar mass (comprising 340 solar mass ionized material, about 800 solar mass unionized cloud material, and about 600 solar mass in an outer dust sphere).

  2. The Nature of Partial Covering in Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Ejected gas is seen as broad absorption lines in 20% of quasars. It has been known for 15 years that prominent lines such as CIV are usually saturated but not black because the absorbing gas only partially covers the continuum emission region. Therefore, column densities estimated from these lines are only lower limits. Accurate column densities can be obtained from rare ions that have two or more transitions from the same lower level, so that the optical depth and covering fraction can be solved for simultanously. Suitable lines are hard to find, so such measurements are rare. We have found that metastable helium is particularly useful for these measurements. Yet despite these advances, partial covering remains a just a parameter and its physical nature is not understood.We propose a unique experiment to constrain the physical nature of partial covering. We will compare the covering fraction measured from PV {a doublet in the far UV} with that measured from metastable HeI {optical and IR}. The ions creating these lines are relatively rare, and they present similar opacity over a wide range of gas parameters. But due to their wide wavelength separation, these lines probe dramatically different regions of the continuum source, the temperature-dependent accretion disk. So we expect different covering fraction behavior for different partial covering scenarios. This experiment is relevant for understanding the geometry and clumpiness of the outflow, and the results may impact our understanding of the global covering fraction, a parameter critical for determining the outflow kinetic luminosity, and thereby estimating feedback efficiency for broad absorption line outflows.

  3. Are cold flows detectable with metal absorption lines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimm, Taysun; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien; Pichon, Christophe

    2011-05-01

    Cosmological simulations have shown that dark matter haloes are connected to each other by large-scale filamentary structures. Cold gas flowing within this ‘cosmic web’ is believed to be an important source of fuel for star formation at high redshift. However, the presence of such filamentary gas has never been observationally confirmed despite the fact that its covering fraction within massive haloes at high redshift is predicted to be significant (˜25 per cent). In this Letter, we investigate in detail whether such cold gas is detectable using low-ionization metal absorption lines, such as C IIλ1334, as this technique has a proven observational record for detecting gaseous structures. Using a large statistical sample of galaxies from the MARENOSTRUM N-body+ adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulation, we find that the typical covering fraction of the dense, cold gas in 1012 M⊙ haloes at z˜ 2.5 is lower than expected (˜5 per cent). In addition, the absorption signal by the interstellar medium of the galaxy itself turns out to be so deep and so broad in velocity space that it completely drowns that of the filamentary gas. A detectable signal might be obtained from a cold filament exactly aligned with the line of sight, but this configuration is so unlikely that it would require surveying an overwhelmingly large number of candidate galaxies to tease it out. Finally, the predicted metallicity of the cold gas in filaments is extremely low (≤10-3 Z⊙). If this result persists when higher resolution runs are performed, it would significantly increase the difficulty of detecting filamentary gas inflows using metal lines. However, even if we assume that filaments are enriched to Z⊙, the absorption signal that we compute is still weak. We are therefore led to conclude that it is extremely difficult to observationally prove or disprove the presence of cold filaments as the favourite accretion mode of galaxies using low-ionization metal absorption

  4. VERY LARGE TELESCOPE SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2011-03-15

    We present spectropolarimetry of 19 confirmed and four possible bright, southern broad absorption line (BAL) quasars from the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. A wide range of redshifts is covered in the sample (from 0.9 to 3.4), and both low- and high-ionization quasars are represented, as well as radio-loud and radio-quiet BALQSOs. We continue to confirm previously established spectropolarimetric properties of BALQSOs, including the generally rising continuum polarization with shorter wavelengths and comparatively large fraction with high broadband polarization (6 of 19 with polarizations >2%). Emission lines are polarized less than or similar to the continuum, except in a few unusual cases, and absorption troughs tend to have higher polarizations. A search for correlations between polarization properties has been done, identifying two significant or marginally significant correlations. These are an increase in continuum polarization with decreasing optical luminosity (increasing absolute B magnitude) and decreasing C IV emission-line polarization with increased continuum polarization.

  5. Line Intensities of the Phosphine Dyad at 10 mu m

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Linda R.; Sams, Robert L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Cottaz, C; Sagui, L

    2002-10-01

    Over 1000 measured line intensities of phosphine (PH3) are reported for the 830 to 1310 cm-1 region that contains the two lowest fundamentals in Coriolis interaction. These measurements are fitted to 1.5% for v2 at 992.13 cm-1 for v4 at 1118.31 cm-1, respectively, using five intensity parameters that include three Herman-Wallis type terms. In addition, some 60 intensities of the 2v2-v2 hot band are modeled. The corresponding assignments and line positions of the dyad from previous work [L. Fusina and G. Di Lonardo, J. Mol. Struct. 517-518, 67-78 (2000)] are combined with the present intensity study to provide an improved PH3 database for planetary studies. The total integrated intensity for the dyad is 156.(4) cm-2atm-1 at 296 K.

  6. The First HeI* 10830 Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen; Dietrich, M.; Barber, S.

    2010-03-01

    We report discovery of the first metastable HeI* broad absorption line quasar using SpeX on IRTF. The blue-shifted absorption profile extends in velocity space from about -1,000 to -11,000 km/s, and it shows considerable velocity structure of the order of 1,000 km/s. The maximum apparent optical depth is 0.6. Integration over the 10830 apparent optical depth profile yields a lower limit on the log HeI* column density of >14.3. Absorption is also seen in the HeI* λ3888Å line in optical spectra from SDSS and the MDM Hiltner telescope. These two transitions have the same lower level; thus, the covering fraction and optical depth can be determined. A pure partial covering model yields log HeI* column of 15.5-15.7, while a power law absorption distribution yields 16.1. These column densities are significantly larger than the lower limit because of the high ratio of the product of the wavelength and the oscillator strength (23.3). This property, plus the relatively low densities of HeI* in ionized gas, makes HeI* absorption a valuable probe of high column densities. Cloudy simulations were performed to investigate the nature of the absorber. The HeI* column density yielded a lower limit on the log ionization parameter of -0.2 and a corresponding lower limit on the log hydrogen column density of 23. The latter value is at least an order of magnitude larger than those generally obtained from BALQSOs with spectra amenable to partial covering analysis. The lack of Balmer absorption provided an upper limit on the log density of 7. The log kinetic luminosity was constrained to be between 46 and 48, corresponding to at least 0.3% to a large fraction of the bolometric luminosity. A proposed Suzaku observation may remove model degeneracy between the spectral energy distribution and ionization parameter. This work is funded by NSF AST-0707703.

  7. Ultraviolet observations of interstellar absorption lines toward SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Joseph, Charles L.; De Boer, Klass S.

    1989-01-01

    High-dispersion IUE echelle spectra of SN 1987A were averaged in order to obtain UV absorption-line profiles of the highest possible quality in the direction of SN 1987A. The profiles for Si IV and C IV are quite similar and have much less structure than the Al III profile. On relating column densities, while the C IV and Si IV ratio is relatively constant over the 0-100 km/s velocity range, the C IV to Al III and Si IV to Al III ratios vary by nearly a factor of 10. This suggests that the C IV and Si IV along this sight line in the Galaxy and its halo may have a common origin which differs from that for Al III.

  8. [Physical meaning of temperature measured by spectral line intensity method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Tang, Huang-Zai; Shen, Yan; Shi, Yong; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2007-11-01

    The difference between electron temperature and excitation temperature is analyzed in the aspect of statistics thermodynamics. It is presented clearly that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature, but internal electronic excitation temperature of heavy particle. Under thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is equal to the electron temperature, while under non-thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is not equal to the electron temperature. In the study of arc jet plume in vacuum chamber, spectral line intensity method was employed to measure the apparent excitation temperature of arc jet plume, and Langmuir probe was employed to measure the electron temperature of arcjet plume. The big difference between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature proved that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature.

  9. Line intensity enhancements in stellar coronal X-ray spectra due to opacity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Matranga, M.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Wark, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    Context: The I(15.01 Å)/I(16.78 Å) emission line intensity ratio in Fe xvii has been reported to deviate from its theoretical value in solar and stellar X-ray spectra. This is attributed to opacity in the 15.01 Å line, leading to a reduction in its intensity, and was interpreted in terms of a geometry in which the emitters and absorbers are spatially distinct. Aims: We study the I(15.01 Å)/I(16.78 Å) intensity ratio for the active cool dwarf EV Lac, in both flare and quiescent spectra. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the XMM-Newton satellite. The emission measure distribution versus temperature reconstruction technique is used for our analysis. Results: We find that the 15.01 Å line exhibits a significant enhancement in intensity over the optically thin value. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such an enhancement has been detected on such a sound statistical basis. We interpret this enhancement in terms of a geometry in which the emitters and absorbers are not spatially distinct, and where the geometry is such that resonant pumping of the upper level has a greater effect on the observed line intensity than resonant absorption in the line-of-sight.

  10. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  11. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    PubMed

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  12. Sharp intense line in the bioluminescence emission of the firefly.

    PubMed

    Barua, A Gohain; Sharma, U; Phukan, M; Hazarika, S

    2014-06-01

    Numerous investigations have been carried out on the spectral distribution of the light of different species of fireflies. Here we record the emission spectrum of the Indian species of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae) on a color film. Green and red color-sectors, with an intense yellow one in between, appear in this spectrum. Intensity profile of this spectrum reveals a hitherto undetected strong narrow yellow line, which lies within the full-width-at-half maximum (FWHM) of the intensity profile. The spectrum recorded in a high-resolution spectrometer confirms the presence of this sharp intense line. This finding lends support to an earlier drawn analogy between the in vivo emission of the firefly and laser light.

  13. Theory of absorption rate of carriers in fused silica under intense laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hongxiang; Xiang, Xia; Zheng, WG; Yuan, XD; Wu, SY; Jiang, XD; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Sun, Kai

    2010-11-15

    A quantum non-perturbation theory for phonon-assisted photon absorption of conduction band electron in intense laser was developed. By carrying out the calculation in fused silica at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared in terawatt intensity laser, we show that the Non-perturbation approach can make a uniform description of energy absorption rate at both short wavelengths and long wavelengths on TW / cm2 intensity laser.

  14. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  15. Nonlinear absorption of short intense laser pulse in multispecies plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargarian, A.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehdian, H.

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the detailed investigation concerning the effect of inclusion of heavy negative ions into the finite background plasma on the laser absorption has been carried out by employing particle-in-cell simulation method. For this purpose, in this configuration, the laser energy absorption relying on the nonlinear phenomena such as phase-mixing, wave-breaking, and scattering has been studied in the Raman-Brillouin regime. It is shown that the inclusion of heavy negative ions suppresses the scattering while increases the phase-mixing time. Moreover, it is illustrated that this inclusion can increase the laser absorption in finite plasma environment, after saturation. The obtained results are expected to be relevant to the experiments on the mass spectrometry with laser desorption techniques as well as on the laser-plasma interaction with application to particles acceleration.

  16. Reionisation and High-Redshift Galaxies: The View from Quasar Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.; Lidz, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Determining when and how the first galaxies reionised the intergalactic medium promises to shed light on both the nature of the first objects and the cosmic history of baryons. Towards this goal, quasar absorption lines play a unique role by probing the properties of diffuse gas on galactic and intergalactic scales. In this review, we examine the multiple ways in which absorption lines trace the connection between galaxies and the intergalactic medium near the reionisation epoch. We first describe how the Ly α forest is used to determine the intensity of the ionising ultraviolet background and the global ionising emissivity budget. Critically, these measurements reflect the escaping ionising radiation from all galaxies, including those too faint to detect directly. We then discuss insights from metal absorption lines into reionisation-era galaxies and their surroundings. Current observations suggest a buildup of metals in the circumgalactic environments of galaxies over z ~ 6 to 5, although changes in ionisation will also affect the evolution of metal line properties. A substantial fraction of metal absorbers at these redshifts may trace relatively low-mass galaxies. Finally, we review constraints from the Ly α forest and quasar near zones on the timing of reionisation. Along with other probes of the high-redshift Universe, absorption line data are consistent with a relatively late end to reionisation (5.5 ≲ z ≲ 7); however, the constraints are still fairly week. Significant progress is expected to come through improved analysis techniques, increases in the number of known high-redshift quasars from optical and infrared sky surveys, large gains in sensitivity from next-generation observing facilities, and synergies with other probes of the reionisation era.

  17. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  18. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  19. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  20. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Kai E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  1. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ~103-105 cm-3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage. Based on data collected at Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile in programs 65.O-0063(B), 65.O-0474(A), 67.A-0078(A), 68.A-0461(A), 69.A-0204(A), 70.B-0522(A), 072.A-0346(A), 076.A-0860(A), 079.B-0469(A), and 166.A-0106(A).

  2. The Physical Nature of Polar Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghost, Kajal; Punsly, Brian

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown based on radio variability arguments that some BALQSOs (broad absorption line quasars) are viewed along the polar axis (o rthogonal to accretion disk) in the recent article of Zhou et a. Thes e arguments are based on the brightness temperature, T(sub b) exceedi ng 10(exp 12) K which leads to the well-known inverse Compton catastr ophe unless the radio jet is relativistic and is viewed along its axi s. In this letter, we expand the Zhou et al sample of polar BALQSOs u sing their techniques applied to SDSS DR5. In the process, we clarify a mistake in their calculation of brightness temperature. The expanded sample of high T(sub b) BALQSOS, has an inordinately large fraction of LoBALQSOs (low ionization BALQSOs). We consider this an important clue to understanding the nature of the polar BALQSOs. This is expec ted in the polar BALQSO analytical/numerical models of Punsly that pr edicted that LoBALQSOs occur when the line of sight is very close to the polar axis, where the outflow density is the highest.

  3. Observations and modelling of line intensity ratios of OV multiplet lines for ? - ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Rachlew-Källne, E.; Hörling, P.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    1996-09-01

    Line intensity ratios of OV multiplet lines for the 0953-4075/29/18/019/img3 (J = 2,1,0) transitions are studied using a collisional radiative model and the results are compared with measurements from the reversed field pinch experiments Extrap T1 and T2 at KTH. The measured line intensity ratios deviate from the predictions of the model and the possible causes for the discrepancy are discussed with regard to errors in rate coefficients and non-quasi-steady state.

  4. Empowering line intensity mapping to study early galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comaschi, P.; Ferrara, A.

    2016-09-01

    Line intensity mapping is a superb tool to study the collective radiation from early galaxies. However, the method is hampered by the presence of strong foregrounds, mostly produced by low-redshift interloping lines. We present here a general method to overcome this problem which is robust against foreground residual noise and based on the cross-correlation function ψαL(r) between diffuse line emission and Lyα emitters (LAE). We compute the diffuse line (Lyα is used as an example) emission from galaxies in a (800Mpc)3 box at z = 5.7 and 6.6. We divide the box in slices and populate them with 14000(5500) LAEs at z = 5.7(6.6), considering duty cycles from 10-3 to 1. Both the LAE number density and slice volume are consistent with the expected outcome of the Subaru HSC survey. We add gaussian random noise with variance σN up to 100 times the variance of the Lyα emission, σα, to simulate residual foregrounds and compute ψαL(r). We find that the signal-to-noise of the observed ψαL(r) does not change significantly if σN ≤ 10σα and show that in these conditions the mean line intensity, ILyα, can be precisely recovered independently of the LAE duty cycle. Even if σN = 100σα, Iα can be constrained within a factor 2. The method works equally well for any other line (e.g. [CII], HeII) used for the intensity mapping experiment.

  5. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 ..mu.. x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10/sup 4/) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail.

  6. Theoretical rovibrational line intensities in the electronic ground state of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehr, Matthieu; Rosmus, Pavel; Carter, Stuart; Knowles, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    First-principles calculations of absolute line intensities and rovibrational energies of ozone (16O3) are reported using potential energy and electric dipole moment functions calculated by the internally contracted MRCI approach. The rovibrational energies and eigenfunctions (up to about 8500 cm-1 and J = 64) were obtained variationally with an exact Hamiltonian in internal valence coordinates. More than 4.8 × 106 electric dipole transition matrix elements were calculated for the absolute rovibrational line intensities. They are compared with the values of the HITRAN database. The purely rotational absolute line intensities in the (000) state and the rovibrational intensities for the (001)-(000) band agree to within about 0.3 to 1% for the (010)-(000) band to within about 3 to 4%. Excellent agreement with experiment is also achieved for low-lying overtone and combination bands. Inconsistencies are found for the (100)-(000) band overlapping with the antisymmetric stretching fundamental and also for the (002)-(000) antisymmetric stretching overtone. The generated dipole moment function can be used for predicting the absorption intensities in any of the heavier isotopomers, hot bands or the rates of spontaneous emission.

  7. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-23

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  8. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane; Hamann, Fred; Murphy, Michael T.; Nestor, Daniel

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  9. INTERPRETING THE UNRESOLVED INTENSITY OF COSMOLOGICALLY REDSHIFTED LINE RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Switzer, E. R.; Chang, T.-C.; Pen, U.-L.; Voytek, T. C.

    2015-12-10

    Intensity mapping experiments survey the spectrum of diffuse line radiation rather than detect individual objects at high signal-to-noise ratio. Spectral maps of unresolved atomic and molecular line radiation contain three-dimensional information about the density and environments of emitting gas and efficiently probe cosmological volumes out to high redshift. Intensity mapping survey volumes also contain all other sources of radiation at the frequencies of interest. Continuum foregrounds are typically ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} times brighter than the cosmological signal. The instrumental response to bright foregrounds will produce new spectral degrees of freedom that are not known in advance, nor necessarily spectrally smooth. The intrinsic spectra of foregrounds may also not be well known in advance. We describe a general class of quadratic estimators to analyze data from single-dish intensity mapping experiments and determine contaminated spectral modes from the data themselves. The key attribute of foregrounds is not that they are spectrally smooth, but instead that they have fewer bright spectral degrees of freedom than the cosmological signal. Spurious correlations between the signal and foregrounds produce additional bias. Compensation for signal attenuation must estimate and correct this bias. A successful intensity mapping experiment will control instrumental systematics that spread variance into new modes, and it must observe a large enough volume that contaminant modes can be determined independently from the signal on scales of interest.

  10. Interpreting The Unresolved Intensity Of Cosmologically Redshifted Line Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, E. R.; Chang, T.-C.; Masui, K. W.; Pen, U.-L.; Voytek, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping experiments survey the spectrum of diffuse line radiation rather than detect individual objects at high signal-to-noise ratio. Spectral maps of unresolved atomic and molecular line radiation contain three-dimensional information about the density and environments of emitting gas and efficiently probe cosmological volumes out to high redshift. Intensity mapping survey volumes also contain all other sources of radiation at the frequencies of interest. Continuum foregrounds are typically approximately 10(sup 2)-10(Sup 3) times brighter than the cosmological signal. The instrumental response to bright foregrounds will produce new spectral degrees of freedom that are not known in advance, nor necessarily spectrally smooth. The intrinsic spectra of fore-grounds may also not be well known in advance. We describe a general class of quadratic estimators to analyze data from single-dish intensity mapping experiments and determine contaminated spectral modes from the data themselves. The key attribute of foregrounds is not that they are spectrally smooth, but instead that they have fewer bright spectral degrees of freedom than the cosmological signal. Spurious correlations between the signal and foregrounds produce additional bias. Compensation for signal attenuation must estimate and correct this bias. A successful intensity mapping experiment will control instrumental systematics that spread variance into new modes, and it must observe a large enough volume that contaminant modes can be determined independently from the signal on scales of interest.

  11. Contrasting levels of absorption of intense femtosecond laser pulses by solids

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Cui, Y. Q.; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Chatterjee, Gourab; Brijesh, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    The absorption of ultraintense, femtosecond laser pulses by a solid unleashes relativistic electrons, thereby creating a regime of relativistic optics. This has enabled exciting applications of relativistic particle beams and coherent X-ray radiation, and fundamental leaps in high energy density science and laboratory astrophysics. Obviously, central to these possibilities lies the basic problem of understanding and if possible, manipulating laser absorption. Surprisingly, the absorption of intense light largely remains an open question, despite the extensive variations in target and laser pulse structures. Moreover, there are only few experimental measurements of laser absorption carried out under very limited parameter ranges. Here we present an extensive investigation of absorption of intense 30 femtosecond laser pulses by solid metal targets. The study, performed under varying laser intensity and contrast ratio over four orders of magnitude, reveals a significant and non-intuitive dependence on these parameters. For contrast ratio of 10−9 and intensity of 2 × 1019 W cm−2, three observations are revealed: preferential acceleration of electrons along the laser axis, a ponderomotive scaling of electron temperature, and red shifting of emitted second-harmonic. These point towards the role of J × B absorption mechanism at relativistic intensity. The experimental results are supported by particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:26648399

  12. Line Positions and Intensities for the ν12 Band of 13C12CH_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of mono-substituted 13C-ethane (13C12CH_6) in the 12.2 μm region were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra were obtained for four sample pressures at three different temperatures between 130 and 208 K using a 99% 13C-enriched ethane sample contained in a 20.38-cm long coolable absorption cell. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique was used to fit the same intervals in the four spectra simultaneously to determine line positions and intensities. Similar to our previous analyses of 12C_2H_6 spectra in this same region, constraints were applied to accurately fit each pair of doublet components arising from torsional Coriolis interaction of the excited ν12 = 1 state with the nearby torsional ν_6 = 3 state. Line intensities corresponding to each spectrum temperature (130 K, 178 K and 208 K) are reported for 1660 ν12 absorption lines for which the assignments are known, and integrated intensities are estimated as the summation of the measured values. The measured line positions and intensities (re-scaled to 296 K) are compared with values in recent editions of spectroscopic databases. K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, L. R. Brown, et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 162 (2010) 124-134. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith and D. Atkins, JQSRT, 53 (1995) 705-721. V. Malathy Devi, C. P. Rinsland, D. Chris Benner, et al., JQSRT, 111 (2010) 1234-1251 V. Malathy Devi, D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, et al., JQSRT, 111 (2010) 2481-2504. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the College of William and Mary, NASA Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. THE VIEWING ANGLES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VERSUS UNABSORBED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.

    2012-06-10

    It was recently shown that there is a significant difference in the radio spectral index distributions of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and unabsorbed quasars, with an overabundance of BAL quasars with steeper radio spectra. This result suggests that source orientation does play into the presence or absence of BAL features. In this paper, we provide more quantitative analysis of this result based on Monte Carlo simulations. While the relationship between viewing angle and spectral index does indeed contain a lot of scatter, the spectral index distributions are different enough to overcome that intrinsic variation. Utilizing two different models of the relationship between spectral index and viewing angle, the simulations indicate that the difference in spectral index distributions can be explained by allowing BAL quasar viewing angles to extend about 10 Degree-Sign farther from the radio jet axis than non-BAL sources, though both can be seen at small angles. These results show that orientation cannot be the only factor determining whether BAL features are present, but it does play a role.

  14. X-Ray Continua of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    The targets for this program, PG1416-129 and LBQS 2212-1759 were known to be Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs). BALQSOs are highly absorbed in soft X-rays. Good high energy response of Rossi-XTE made them ideal targets for observation. We observed LBQS 2212-1759 with PCA. We have now analyzed the data and found that the source was not detected. Since our target was expected to be faint, reliable estimate of background was very important. With the release of new FTOOLS (version 4.1) we were able to do so. We also analyzed a well known bright object and verified our results with the published data. This gave us confidence in the non-detection of our target LBQS 2212-1759. We are currently investigating the implications of this non-detection. Due to some scheduling problems, our second target PG1416-129 was not observed in A01. It was observed on 06/26/98. This target was detected with RXTE. We are now working on the spectral analysis with XSPEC.

  15. Heterodyne detection of the 752.033-GHz H2O rotational absorption line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Chang, T. S.; Litvak, M. M.; Fetterman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable high resolution two stage heterodyne radiometer was developed for the purpose of investigating the intensity and lineshape of the 752.033 GHz rotational transition of water vapor. Single-sideband system noise temperatures of approximately 45,000 K were obtained using a sensitive GaAs Schottky diode as the first stage mixer. First local oscillator power was supplied by a CO2 laser pumped formic acid laser (761.61 GHz), generating an X-band IF signal with theoretical line center at 9.5744 GHz. Second local oscillator power was provided by means of a 3 GHz waveguide cavity filter with only 9 dB insertion loss. In absorption measurements of the H2O taken from a laboratory simulation of a high altitude rocket plume, the center frequency of the 752 GHz line was determined to within 1 MHz of the reported value. A rotational temperature 75 K, a linewidth 5 MHz and a Doppler shift 3 MHz were measured with the line-of-sight intersecting the simulated-plume axis at a distance downstream of 30 nozzle diameters. These absorption data were obtained against continuum background radiation sources at temperatures of 1175 and 300 K.

  16. Absolute Rovibrational Intensities of C-12O2-16 Absorption Bands in the 3090-3850/ CM Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    1998-01-01

    A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique has been used to determine the absolute intensities for approximately 1500 spectral lines in 36 vibration - rotation bands Of C-12O2-16 between 3090 and 3850/ cm. A total of six absorption spectra of a high- purity (99.995% minimum) natural sample of carbon dioxide were used in the analysis. The spectral data (0.01/cm resolution) were recorded at room temperature and low pressure (1 to 10 Torr) using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. The absorption path lengths for these spectra varied between 24.86 and 385.76 m. The first experimental determination of the intensity of the theoretically predicted 2(nu)(sub 2, sup 2) + nu(sub 3) "forbidden" band has been made. The measured line intensities obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity, S(sub nu), in /cm/( molecule/sq cm) at 296 K, square of the rotationless transition dipole moment |R|(exp 2) in Debye, as well as the nonrigid rotor coefficients. The results are compared to the values listed in the 1996 HITRAN database which are obtained using the direct numerical diagonalization (DND) technique as well as to other published values where available.

  17. Line by Line Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Absorption for Predicting Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The anthropologic cause of global warming rests on the impact of CO2 on the green house effect. Previous derivations of the increase in the CO2 Forcing Function caused by doubling of atmospheric CO2 from 320 ppm to 640 ppm reported a value of 4 W/M2( Ramananathan,V,et al, J.of Geophysical Research Vol 84, C8,p4949, Aug.1979) This value leads to a calculated temperature rise of 1 deg.K (Charney,J. et al,”Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment”, National Academy of Science, Washington D.C., 1979). This increase in global temperature leads to an increase in water vapor if it is assumed that the relative humidity is constant. This ampflication leads to a calculated temperature rise of an additional 2 deg.K. Different arguments as to the effects of the earth’s albido change, clouds, and the oceans also impact the earths global warming with predictions of total temperature rise of as high as 6 deg.K { IPCC,2007 Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Sciences Basis. Contributions of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC [ Solomon,S,D. et al (eds)] Cambridge University Press, NY,USA}. Regardless of the other effects, the only way that man can be held responsible for global warming is by CO2 emissions and the resulting increase in the Forcing Function. This paper challenges the magnitude of the 4 W/M2 Forcing Function. The earth radiates in the 4 to 30 micron wavelength range. CO2 has absorption bands in the 4, 10, and 15 micron wavelengths (Hertzberg G. Molecular Spectra & Molecular Structure,Norstrand Co.,1960). McClatchey has tabulated the line stengths for all CO2 transitions and they are used to calculate the atmospheric absorption (McClatchey,R, et al “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameter Compilation”,AFCRL-TR-0096,1973). Detailed calculations of the CO2 line absorption in the 8 to 12 micron atmospheric window shows an increase of 0.3 W/M2 for CO2 doubling. The increase in absorbed fluence in

  18. Absolute Line Intensities in the 2ν 02 Band of Cyanogen Chloride at 12.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepère, Muriel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Walrand, Jacques

    2000-05-01

    Absolute line intensities were measured at high resolution with a tunable diode laser. This work concerns the 2ν02 band of cyanogen chloride ClCN in the region 780 cm-1. Thirty-two absorption lines were recorded for the isotopomer 35ClCN and 26 lines for 37ClCN. From the analysis of these lines, we determined the bandstrengths: S0v = 19.14 cm-2 atm-1 for 35ClCN and S0v = 17.84 cm-2 atm-1 for 37ClCN.

  19. Tracing inflows and outflows with absorption lines in circumgalactic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Amanda Brady; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Thompson, Robert; Weinberg, David H.

    2014-10-01

    We examine how H I and metal absorption lines within low-redshift galaxy haloes trace the dynamical state of circumgalactic gas, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include a well-vetted heuristic model for galactic outflows. We categorize inflowing, outflowing, and ambient gas based on its history and fate as tracked in our simulation. Following our earlier work, showing that the ionization level of absorbers was a primary factor in determining the physical conditions of absorbing gas, we show here that it is also a governing factor for its dynamical state. Low-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. Mg II) tend to arise in gas that will fall on to galaxies within several Gyr, while high-ionization metal absorbers (e.g. O VI) generally trace material that was deposited by outflows many Gyr ago. Inflowing gas is dominated by enriched material that was previously ejected in an outflow; hence, accretion at low redshifts is typically substantially enriched. Recycling wind material is preferentially found closer to galaxies, and is more dominant in lower mass haloes since high-mass haloes have more hot gas that is able to support itself against infall. Low-mass haloes also tend to re-eject more of their accreted material, owing to our outflow prescription that employs higher mass loading factors for lower mass galaxies. Typical H I absorbers trace unenriched ambient material that is not participating in the baryon cycle, but stronger H I absorbers arise in cool, enriched inflowing gas. Instantaneous radial velocity measures of absorbers are generally poor at distinguishing between inflowing and outflowing gas, except in the case of very recent outflows. These results suggest that probing halo gas using a range of absorbers can provide detailed information about the amount and physical conditions of material that is participating in the baryon cycle.

  20. EUV line intensities above the limb measured by CDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fludra, A.; DelZanna, G.; Bromage, B. J. I.; Thomas, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) above the limb observed with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer (CDS) are discussed. The CDS spectra were obtained up to 0.3 solar radii above the east and west limb, and above the polar coronal holes. A large data set was acquired during the campaign in August 1996. The intensities of the chromospheric, transition region and coronal lines were derived as a function of the radial distance. The density-sensitive line ratios of Si IX 350/342 A and Si X 356/347 A were used to derive an average electron density. The temperature and density in the coronal holes were found to be lower than in the closed field regions.

  1. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ne III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Thomas, R. J.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 4),2s2p(sup 5),2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 3)3s, and 2s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT,(K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) per cubic centimeter. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensities are compared with SERTS rocket measurements of a solar active region and of a laboratory EUV light source.

  2. What Drives the Outflows in Broad Absorption Line QSOs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1997-01-01

    We have made progress in the areas related to the propulsion and confinement of gas responsible for broad absorption troughts in QSOs: Radiative Acceleration in BALQSOs; The "Ghost" of Lyman (alpha); and Magnetic Confinement of Absorbing Gas.

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project: The Unusual Absorption-Line System in the Spectrum of PG 2302+029--Ejected or Intervening?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jannuzi, B. T.; Hartig, G. F.; Kirhakos, S.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Turnshek, D. A.; Weymann, R. J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bergeron, J.; Boksenberg, A.; Savage, B. D.; Schneider, D. P.; Wolfe, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of a high-ionization broad absorption line system at a redshift of z(sub abs) = 0.695 in the spectrum of the z(sub em) = 1.052 radio-quiet quasar PG 2302+029. Broad absorption with FWHM from 3000 to 5000 km/s is detected from C iv, N v, and O vi in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph spectra of the quasar. A narrow-line system (FWHM approx. 250 km/s) at z(sub abs) = 0.7016 is resolved from the broad blend and includes absorption by Ly alpha and the C iv, N v, and O vi doublets. No absorption by low-ionization metal species (e.g., Si II and Mg II) is detected in the HST or ground-based spectra for either the broad or the narrow system. The centroids of the broad system lines are displaced by approx. 56,000 km/s to the blue of the quasar's broad emission lines. The reddest extent of the broad-line absorption is more than 50,000 km/s from the quasar. The properties of this system are unprecedented, whether it is an intervening or an ejected system.

  4. Detection of harmonics and recovery of the absorption line profile using logarithmic-transformed wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Menglong; Sun, Dandan

    2016-07-01

    A versatile signal processing strategy for eliminating the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) and distortion in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is theoretically demonstrated and experimentally validated. The strategy involves logarithmic transformation and differential detection, which are achieved using a homemade circuit. Through the logarithmic transformation, the optical intensity modulation of the laser, which performs as the source of RAM and distortion, is separated from the absorption-induced power attenuation and further balanced during the differential detection. The first harmonic, which is proportional to the first-order derivative of the absorption line profile in the case of a small modulation index, is extracted along with the second harmonic and is integrated for the recovery of the absorption line profile. The experiments are carried out for CH4 at its R(3) absorption line of the 2ν3 overtone for validation of the system, and the derived results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical simulations. These promising results indicate the high potential of the strategy for absorption spectrum-based determination of gas properties.

  5. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  6. Line position and line intensity analyses of the high-resolution spectrum of H218O up to the First Triad and J = 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.; Chelin, P.

    2016-08-01

    Line position and line intensity analyses of the high-resolution spectrum of the H218O isotopic species of the water molecule are performed with the Bending-Rotation approach up to J = 17 and the First Triad of interacting states, (0 2 0), (1 0 0), and (0 0 1). The line position analysis involves microwave and terahertz transitions, ground state combination differences, far infrared and infrared lines, and experimental energy levels which were reproduced with a 1.2 unitless standard deviation. The data set considered in the line intensity analysis consists of 3707 infrared transitions recorded using absorption spectroscopy at room temperature which were fitted with a 1.4 unitless standard deviation. The results of both analyses are compared with previous investigations and are used to build a line position and line intensity database to update the HITRAN and GEISA databases. A comparison with the HITRAN 2012 database reveals that the new database yields intensity values closer to the experimental ones.

  7. Is there a connection between broad absorption line quasars and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Grupe, Dirk; Nousek, John A.

    2015-02-01

    We consider whether broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) and narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt and Gallagher and Boroson. For this purpose, we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/L{sub Edd}, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/L{sub Edd}. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high Fe ii/Hβ and low [O iii]/Hβ ratios following the classic “Boroson and Green” eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates M-dot of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M−σ plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fully developed black holes. Applying a principal component analysis to our sample, we find eigenvector 1 to correspond to the Eddington ratio L/L{sub Edd}, and eigenvector 2 to black hole mass.

  8. A Group Increment Scheme for Infrared Absorption Intensities of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokkila, Sara I.; Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    A molecule's absorption in the atmospheric infrared (IR) window (IRW) is an indicator of its efficiency as a greenhouse gas. A model for estimating the absorption of a fluorinated molecule within the IRW was developed to assess its radiative impact. This model will be useful in comparing different hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers contribution to global warming. The absorption of radiation by greenhouse gases, in particular hydrofluoroethers and hydrofluorocarbons, was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Least squares regression techniques were used to create a model based on this data. The placement and number of fluorines in the molecule were found to affect the absorption in the IR window and were incorporated into the model. Several group increment models are discussed. An additive model based on one-carbon groups is found to work satisfactorily in predicting the ab initio calculated vibrational intensities.

  9. Foreign-gas broadening of nitrous oxide absorption lines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    We have measured the foreign-gas broadening coefficients for collisional broadening of lines in the nu-3 fundamental of N2O by He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2, D2, and CH4. These coefficients, which give the ratio of the line-broadening ability of these gases to the line-broadening ability of N2, can be used with recent measurements and calculations of N2 broadening to obtain optical collision cross sections.

  10. [Line intensities of upsilon2 perpendicular band and the change of intensities with temperature for H12C14N].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Shu; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Li, De-Hua; Ge, Su-Hong

    2008-04-01

    The total internal partition sums (TIPS) were calculated for H12C14N with the product approximation. For rotational partition sums Q(rot), the centrifugal distortion corrections were taken into account. The calculation method for the vibrational partition sums Q(vib) is the harmonic oscillator approximation. The line intensities of upsilon2 perpendicular band (0110-0000 transition) of H12C14N were calculated at normal temperatures and several high temperatures by using the calculated partition functions and experimental transition moment squared and Herman-Waills factor coefficients. Results showed that our line intensities data at 296 and 3 000 K are in excellent agreement with the data in HITRAN, which provide a strong support for the calculations of partition function and line intensity at high temperature. Thereby, the line intensities and spectral simulations of upsilon2 perpendicular band at the higher temperatures 4 000 and 5 000 K were presented and the chang in line intensities with the temperature was discussed. For those transitions corresponding to rotational quantum number J > or = 32 (including P, Q and R branch), the line intensities increase when temperature gradually increase from 296 K. The line intensities are up to the largest at around 1000 K and then weaken rapidly. For J < 32 (also including P, Q and R branch), the line intensities are the largest at 296 K and then weaken rapidly as temperature gradually increase. PMID:18619284

  11. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ni XXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XXI. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4), 2s2p(sup 5), 2p(sup 6), 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3s, and 2s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d giving rise to 58 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 85, 170, 255, 340, and 425 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=6.9, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ni XXI. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) per cubic centimeter. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted intensity ratios are compared with available observations.

  12. In-line absorption sensor based on coiled optical microfiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Roberto; Jung, Yongmin; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2011-04-01

    We fabricated and tested an evanescent-wave absorption sensor consisting of an optical microfiber coil resonator embedded in fluidic channel walls. Low concentrations of flowing analyte show optical losses in agreement with a modified Beer-Lambert law. Higher concentration causes a limit value of the measured optical losses arising from adsorption mechanisms.

  13. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  14. Radio line and continuum observations of quasar-galaxy pairs and the origin of low reshift quasar absorption line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carilli, C. L.; Vangorkom, J. H.; Hauxthausen, E. M.; Stocke, J. T.; Salzer, J.

    1990-01-01

    There are a number of known quasars for which our line of sight to the high redshift quasar passes within a few Holmberg radii of a low redshift galaxy. In a few of these cases, spectra of the quasar reveal absorption by gas associated with the low redshift galaxy. A number of these pairs imply absorption by gas which lies well outside the optical disk of the associated galaxy, leading to models of galaxies with 'halos' or 'disks' of gas extending to large radii. The authors present observations of 4 such pairs. In three of the four cases, they find that the associated galaxy is highly disturbed, typically due to a gravitational interaction with a companion galaxy, while in the fourth case the absorption can be explained by clouds in the optical disk of the associated galaxy. They are led to an alternative hypothesis concerning the origin of the low redshift absorption line systems: the absorption is by gas clouds which have been gravitationally stripped from the associated galaxy. These galaxies are rapidly evolving, and should not be used as examples of absorption by clouds in halos of field spirals. The authors conclude by considering the role extended gas in interacting systems plays in the origin of higher redshift quasar absorption line systems.

  15. Coherent manipulation of absorption by intense fields in four level ladder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Dasgupta, Shubhrangshu

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical processes attributed to the dependence of the susceptibility of the medium on the input fluence can be remarkably manipulated by the quantum interference and coherence. One of these processes, the optical bistability (OB), that refers to the possibilities of two stable outputs for the same input fields, can also be modified by quantum coherence. Further, the nonlinear dependence of the absorption on the power of the input light gives rise to interesting processes like saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA). While the SA corresponds to the decrease in the absorption coefficient with the increase of intensity of input light, the RSA corresponds to otherwise, that finds applications in optical limiting. We show, using a four-level Ladder system, how a control field manipulates these processes for an intense probe field applied in the excited state transition. The nonlinear absorption increases whereas the threshold of OB decreases in presence of a control field. We further delineates how the control field and the decay rates modifies SA and RSA. The control of these processes find applications in optical switching, optical limiting and optical communications.

  16. a Nonhydrostatic Modeling Analysis of AN Intense Midlatitude Squall Line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-Jen

    1995-01-01

    Nonhydrostatic modeling shows that the convective cells of a squall line, which occurred over Kansas and Oklahoma on 10-11 June 1985, behaves as gravity waves. In the simulation, the gust front generates a continuous low -level updraft. Updraft cells periodically break away from the gust-front updraft and move at their associated gravity -wave phase speeds. Linear theory shows that waves are trapped in the troposphere because of the strong decrease of Scorer parameter with height. Linear theory predicts the gravity-wave amplitudes, quadrature relations, and the gravity-wave periods. The stronger front-to-rear propagation mode dominates in the mature stage of the storm. The decrease of Scorer parameter with height encountered by the rearward propagating waves is a product of the storm circulation. The drop-off in Scorer parameter with height is a manifestation of the shear between ascending front-to-rear and descending rear-to-front flows of the squall-line system. The squall line produces an environment conducive to trapping rearward propagating gravity waves generated at the gust front. Numerical experiments show that the rear inflow and related aspects of storm structure are sensitive to hydrometer types, ice-phase microphysics, and the midlevel environmental humidity. Ice-phase microphysics is important for the model to produce realistic air motions and precipitation in the stratiform region. With the occurrence of heavy hailstones, there is no enhanced rear-to-front flow at the back edge of the storm. Evaporation is the most important latent cooling process determining the structure and strength of the descending rear inflow and the mesoscale downdraft. Latent cooling by melting snow enhances the strength of the rear -to-front flow at the back edge of storm and the intensity of mesoscale downdraft. Mesoscale downdraft is initiated above the rm 0^circC level by sublimational cooling. With the environmental midlevel moisture reduced by half, mesoscale downdrafts

  17. Line Positions and Intensities of (73)C(189)CH(6) in the 12.2 µm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Sung, K.; Crawford, T. J.; Mantz, A. W.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of mono-substituted 13C-ethane (13C12CH6) in the 12.2 µm region have been recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer. Four of these spectra were recorded at three different temperatures between 130 and 208 K using a 99% 13C-enriched ethane sample contained in a 20.38-cm long coolable absorption cell1. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique2 was used to fit the same intervals in these four spectra simultaneously to determine line positions and intensities. Similar to our previous analyses of 12C2H6 spectra in this same region3, constraints were applied to accurately fit each pair of doublet components arising from torsional Coriolis interaction of the excited ν12 = 1 state with the nearby torsional ν6 = 3 state. Line intensities are reported for 1660 ν12 absorption lines for which the assignments are known, and integrated intensities are estimated as the summation of the measured values. The measured line positions and intensities are compared with values in recent editions of spectroscopic databases.4

  18. Line Positions, Intensities And Line Shape Parameters Of PH3 Near 4.4 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy; Benner, D. C.; Kleiner, I.; Brown, L. R.; Sams, R. L.; Fletcher, L. N.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of spectral line parameters in the 2000 to 2400 cm-1 region of PH3 is important for the CASSINI/VIMS exploration of dynamics and chemistry of Saturn and for the correct interpretation of future Jovian observations by JUNO and ESA’s newly-selected mission JUICE. Since the available intensity information for phosphine is inconsistent, we measured line positions and intensities for over 4000 individual transitions in the 2ν2, ν2+ν4, 2ν4, ν1 and the ν3 bands from analyzing high-resolution, high S/N spectra recorded at room temperature using two Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS); the Bruker IFS 125 HR FTS at PNNL and the Kitt Peak FTS at the National Solar Observatory in Arizona. In addition to line positions and intensities, self-broadened half width and self-induced pressure-shift coefficients were also measured for about 800 transitions for the various bands. The strong Coriolis and other types of interactions occurring among the various vibrational levels result in a large number of forbidden transitions as well as cause A+A- splittings in transitions with K″ that are multiples of 3. Line mixing was detected between several A+A- pairs of transitions; and self- line mixing coefficients were measured for several such pairs of transitions by applying the off-diagonal relaxation matrix formalism of Levy et al.1 A multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique2 employing a non-Voigt line shape including line mixing and speed dependence was used in fitting all the spectra simultaneously. Present results are compared with other reported values. This research is supported by NASA’s Outer Planets Research Program. References [1] A. Lévy et al., In “Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium”, Ed. K, Narahari Rao and A. Weber, Boston, Academic Press; p, 261-337 (1992). [2] D. C. Benner et al., J Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 705, 1995.

  19. Sub- and Superluminal Propagation of Intense Pulses in Media with Saturated and Reverse Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dey, Tarak Nath

    2004-05-01

    We develop models for the propagation of intense pulses in solid state media which can have either saturated absorption or reverse absorption. We model subluminal propagation in ruby and superluminal propagation in alexandrite as three and four level systems, respectively, coupled to Maxwell's equations. We present results well beyond the traditional pump-probe approach and explain the experiments of Bigelow et al. [

    Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 90, 113903 (2003); 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.113903
    ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 301, 200 (2003)
    ] on solid state materials.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN data and absorption-line measurements (Richter+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Wakker, B. P.; Fechner, C.; Herenz, P.; Tepper-Garcia, T.; Fox, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Names, positions and emission redshifts for 303 QSOs are provided in Table A.1. Table A.2 summarizes the absorption-line measurements for 59 intervening SiIII absorbers including absorption redshifts, equivalent-widths, and column densities for various different ions. (2 data files).

  1. Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.

  2. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS 1830-211. Analysis of the absorption profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, S.; Combes, F.; Guélin, M.; Gérin, M.; Aalto, S.; Beelen, A.; Black, J. H.; Curran, S. J.; Darling, J.; V-Trung, Dinh; García-Burillo, S.; Henkel, C.; Horellou, C.; Martín, S.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Menten, K. M.; Murphy, M. T.; Ott, J.; Wiklind, T.; Zwaan, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z = 0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS 1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (≳100 km s-1) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the Galactic diffuse medium. Of all the lines detected so far toward PKS 1830-211, the ground-state line of ortho-water has the deepest absorption. We argue that ground-state lines of water have the best potential for detecting diffuse molecular gas in absorption at high redshift. Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectrum (FITS format) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A112

  3. A variable P v broad absorption line and quasar outflow energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Hamann, F.; Barlow, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift ze = 2.56), aided by the first detection of P V λλ1118, 1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, P V absorption at velocities where the C IV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the C IV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size <0.01 pc). With the assumption of solar abundances, we estimate that the total column density in the BAL outflow is log NH ≳ 22.3 cm-2. Variability in the P V and saturated C IV BALs strongly disfavours changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of 1.6 yr in the quasar rest frame indicates crossing speeds >750 km s-1 and a radial distance from the central black hole of ≲ 3.5 pc, if the crossing speeds are Keplerian. The total outflow mass is ˜4100 M⊙, the kinetic energy ˜4 × 1054 erg, and the ratio of the outflow kinetic energy luminosity to the quasar bolometric luminosity is ˜0.02 (at the minimum column density and maximum distance), which might be sufficient for important feedback to the quasar's host galaxy.

  4. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for NI XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XVII. We include in the calculations the 23 lowest configurations, corresponding to 159 fine-structure levels: 3l3l', 3l4l0'' , and 3s5l0''' , with l,l' = s,p,d, l'' = s,p,d, f, and l''' = s,p,d. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions at varying energies above the threshold of each transition. One additional energy, very close to the threshold of each transition, has also been included. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code in the distorted wave approximation. Additional calculations have been performed with the University College London suite of codes for comparison. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 14) / cubic cm and at an electron temperature of logT(sub e)e(K) = 6.5, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XVII. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database

  5. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ca IX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n = 3, 4, 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine structure levels in the 3l3l ', 3l4l'' and 3l4l''' configurations, where l,l' = s, p, d, l '' = s, p, d, f and l''' = s, p, d, f, g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6 and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cubic cm range and at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  6. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ni XV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XV.Weinclude in the calculations the 9 lowest configurations, corresponding to 126 fine structure levels: 3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3s23p3d, 3p4, 3s3p23d, and 3s2 3p4l with l =, s, p, d, f. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 7.8, 18.5, 33.5, 53.5, and 80.2 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.004 and 0.28 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted-wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cu cm range and at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K) = 6.4, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XV. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

  7. Short Pulse Laser Absorption and Energy Partition at Relativistic Laser Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Ping, Y; Dyer, G; Wilks, S; Chung, H; Kemp, A; Hanson, S; Widmann, K; Fournier, K; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Niles, A; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-02-27

    We have performed experiments at the COMET and Calisto short pulse laser facilities to make the first comprehensive measurements of the laser absorption and energy partition in solid targets heated with an ultrashort laser pulse focused to relativistic laser intensities (>10 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}). The measurements show an exceedingly high absorption for P polarized laser-target interactions above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, the hot electron population is observed to markedly increase at the same intensity range. An investigation of the relaxation process was initiated u using time sing time-resolved K{sub {alpha}} spectroscopy. Measurements of the time time-resolved K{sub {alpha}} radiation suggest a 10-20 ps relativistic electron relaxation time. However modeling difficulties of these data are apparent and a more detailed investigation on this subject matter is warranted.

  8. Intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The intraband optical absorption in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As two-dimensional single quantum ring is investigated. Considering the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field the energy of the ground and few excited states has been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intraband optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure for the different values of the laser field parameter. We also investigated the dependencies of the intraband optical absorption coefficient as a function of incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure and laser field parameter. It is found that the effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field lead to redshift and blueshift of the intraband optical spectrum respectively.

  9. Absorption intensity tunability in the near infrared region using phase-change nanostructure (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Abdurrahman; Saraydemir, Safak; Barut, Bilal; Kocer, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured thin film absorbers embedded with phase-change material (PCM) can provide large level of absorption intensity tunability in the near-infrared region. Germanium Antimonide Tellurite (Ge2Sb1Te4-GST) was employed as the phase-change material in the designed structures. The structure is composed of a periodic grating-type array of 200 nm thick Au buried with 100 nm-thick GST layer from the top of the Au layer. The period of the gratings is 2 μm and in each period, GST width is 0.5 μm. GST was selected as the active PCM because its optical properties undergo a substantial change during a structural transition from the amorphous to the crystalline phase. The optical absorption properties of the designed structures with respect to the geometric and material parameters were systematically investigated using finite-difference time-domain computations. It was shown that absorption intensity in the near-infrared region was tuned from the near-perfect to the near-zero level by switching the PCM from its amorphous to crystalline states. The distributions of the electric field and absorbed power at the resonant wavelengths with respect to different phases of the GST were investigated to further explain the physical origin of the absorption tuning. This study provides a path toward the realization of tunable infrared absorbers for the applications, such as selective infrared emitters, infrared camouflage, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  10. Infrared line intensity measurements in the v = 0-1 band of the ClO radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Howard, Carleton J.; Hammer, Philip D.; Goldman, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Integrated line intensity measurements in the ClO-radical fundamental vibrational v = 0-1 band were carried out using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to a long-path-length absorption cell. The results of a series of measurements designed to minimize systematic errors, yielded a value of the fundamental IR band intensity of the ClO-radical equal to 9.68 + or - 1.45/sq cm per atm at 296 K. This result is consistent with all the earlier published results, with the exception of measurements reported by Kostiuk et al. (1986) and Lang et al. (1988).

  11. Detectability of cold streams into high-redshift galaxies by absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Sternberg, Amiel; Gnat, Orly; Ceverino, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major source of fuel for disc buildup, violent disc instability and star formation in massive galaxies at high redshift. We investigate to what extent such cold gas is detectable in the extended circumgalactic environment of galaxies via Lyα absorption and selected low-ionization metal absorption lines. We model the expected absorption signatures using high-resolution zoom-in adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations. In the post-processing, we distinguish between self-shielded gas and unshielded gas. In the self-shielded gas, which is optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation, we assume pure collisional ionization for species with an ionization potential greater than 13.6 eV. In the optically-thin, unshielded gas, these species are also photoionized by the metagalactic radiation. In addition to absorption of radiation from background quasars, we compute the absorption line profiles of radiation emitted by the galaxy at the centre of the same halo. We predict the strength of the absorption signal for individual galaxies without stacking. We find that the Lyα absorption profiles produced by the streams are consistent with observations of absorption and emission Lyα profiles in high-redshift galaxies. Due to the low metallicities in the streams, and their low covering factors, the metal absorption features are weak and difficult to detect.

  12. Discovery of Extremely Broad Balmer Absorption Lines in SDSS J152350.42+391405.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Liu, Wenjuan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Luming; Zhou, Junyan; Pan, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    We present the discovery of Balmer line absorption from Hα to Hγ in an iron low-ionization broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) quasar SDSS J152350.42+391405.2 (hereafter SDSS J1523+3914), by the quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The Balmer line absorption is at {z}{absor}=0.6039+/- 0.0021 and blueshifted by v = 10,353 km s-1 with respect to the Balmer emission lines. All Balmer BALs have a uniform absorption profile with the widths of {{Δ }}v˜ 12,000 km s-1. We also found the absorption trough in He i* λ10830 with the same velocity and width in the H-band TripleSpec spectrum of SDSS J1523+3914. This object is only the 10th active galactic nucleus known to exhibit nonstellar Balmer absorption, as well as the case with the highest velocity and broadest Balmer absorption lines that have ever been found. A CLOUDY analysis shows that the absorbers require a gas density of {{log}}10 {n}{{e}} ({{cm}}-3)=9 and an ionization parameter of {{log}}10 U=-1.0. They are located at a distance of ˜0.2 pc from the central ionizing source, which is slightly farther than that of broad emission line regions. Furthermore, SDSS J1523+3914 is one of the brightest Balmer BAL quasars ever reported, with unique iron absorption variations, making it the most promising candidate for follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy, multiband observations, and long-term monitoring.

  13. Line intensities and temperature-dependent line broadening coefficients of Q-branch transitions in the v2 band of ammonia near 10.4 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Spearrin, R. Mitchell; Peng, Wen Y.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2016-05-01

    We report measured line intensities and temperature-dependent broadening coefficients of NH3 with Ar, N2, O2, CO2, H2O, and NH3 for nine sQ(J,K) transitions in the ν2 fundamental band in the frequency range 961.5-967.5 cm-1. This spectral region was chosen due to the strong NH3 absorption strength and lack of spectral interference from H2O and CO2 for laser-based sensing applications. Spectroscopic parameters were determined by multi-line fitting using Voigt lineshapes of absorption spectra measured with two quantum cascade lasers in thermodynamically-controlled optical cells. The temperature dependence of broadening was measured over a range of temperatures between 300 and 600 K. These measurements aid the development of mid-infrared NH3 sensors for a broad range of gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures.

  14. The Milky Way's Hot Gas Kinematics: Signatures in Current and Future OVII Absorption Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-02-01

    Detections of z ≈ 0 oxygen absorption and emission lines indicate the Milky Way hosts a hot (˜ {10}6 K), low-density plasma extending ≳ 50 {{kpc}} into the Mily Way’s halo. Current X-ray telescopes cannot resolve the line profiles, but the variation of their strengths on the sky constrains the radial gas distribution. Interpreting the O vii Kα absorption line strengths has several complications, including optical depth and line of sight velocity effects. Here, we present model absorption line profiles accounting for both of these effects to show the lines can exhibit asymmetric structures and be broader than the intrinsic Doppler width. The line profiles encode the hot gas rotation curve, the net inflow or outflow of hot gas, and the hot gas angular momentum profile. We show how line of sight velocity effects impact the conversion between equivalent width and the column density, and provide modified curves of growth accounting for these effects. As an example, we analyze the LMC sight line pulsar dispersion measure and O vii equivalent width to show the average gas metallicity is ≳ 0.6{Z}⊙ and b ≳ 100 km s-1. Determining these properties offers valuable insights into the dynamical state of the Milky Way’s hot gas, and improves the line strength interpretation. We discuss future strategies to observe these effects with an instrument that has a spectral resolution of about 3000, a goal that is technically possible today.

  15. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ca IX

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A.K.

    2014-11-15

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n=3,4, and 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine-structure levels in the 3l3l{sup ′}, 3l4l{sup ″}, and 3l5l{sup ‴} configurations, where l,l{sup ′}=s,p,d, l{sup ″}=s,p,d,f and l{sup ‴}=s,p,d,f,g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6, and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 14}  cm{sup −3} and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  16. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ni XI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XI. We include in the calculations the 10 lowest configurations, corresponding to 164 fine structure levels: 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 6), 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 5)3d, 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 4)3d(sup 2), 3s3p(sup 6)3d, 3s(sup 2)3p(sup 5)4l and 3s3p6 4l with l =.s, p, d. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 7.1, 16.8, 30.2, 48.7 and 74.1 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.06 Ry and 0.25 Ry depending on the lower level. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates of the present work, combined with Close Coupling collision excitation rate coefficient available in the literature for the lowest 17 levels, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) cu cm range and at an electron temperature of logT(sub c)(K)=6.1, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ni XI. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed. This dataset will be made available in the next version of the CHIANTI database.

  17. Extended line positions, intensities, empirical lower state energies and quantum assignments of NH3 from 6300 to 7000 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.; Coy, Stephen L.; Lehmann, Kevin K.

    2012-07-01

    Nearly 4800 features of ammonia between 6300 and 7000 cm-1 with intensities ≥4×10-24 cm-1/(molecule·cm-2) at 296 K were measured using 16 pure NH3 spectra recorded at various temperatures (296-185 K) with the McMath-Pierce Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory, AZ. The line positions and intensities were retrieved by fitting individual spectra based on a Voigt line shape profile and then averaging the values to form the experimental linelist. The integrated intensity of the region was 4.68×10-19 cm-1/(molecule·cm-2) at 296 K. Empirical lower state energies were also estimated for 3567 absorption line features using line intensities retrieved from 10 spectra recorded at gas temperature between 185 and 233 K. Finally, using Ground State Combination Differences (GSCDs) and the empirical lower state energy estimates, the quantum assignments were determined for 1096 transitions in the room temperature linelist, along with empirical upper state energies for 434 levels. The assignments correspond to seven vibrational states, as confirmed from recent ab initio calculations. The resulting composite database of 14NH3 line parameters will provide experimental constraints to ab initio calculations and support remote sensing of gaseous bodies including the atmospheres of Earth, (exo)planets, brown dwarfs, and other astrophysical environments.

  18. Line shape of 57Co sources exhibiting self absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiering, H.; Ksenofontov, V.; Leupold, O.; Kusz, J.; Deák, L.; Németh, Z.; Bogdán, C.; Bottyán, L.; Nagy, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of selfabsorption in Mössbauer sources is studied in detail. Spectra were measured using an old 57 C o/ R h source of 74 M B q activity with an original activity of ca. 3.7 G B q and a 0.15 G B q 57 C o/ α - F e source magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field of 0.2 T. The 57 C o/ α - F e source of a thickness of 25 μ was used both from the active and the inactive side giving cause to very different selfabsorption effects. The absorber was a single crystal of ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate (FAS). Its absorption properties were taken over from a detailed study (Bull et al., Hyperfine Interact. 94(1-3), 1; Spiering et al. 2). FAS (space group P21/c) crystallizes as flat plates containing the (overline {2}01) plane. The γ-direction was orthogonal to the crystal plate. The 57 C o atoms of the 57 C o/ R h source were assumed to be homogeneously distributed over a 6 μ thick Rh foil and to follow a one dimensional diffusion profile in the 25 μ Fe-foil. The diffusion length was fitted to 10 μ. The theory follows the Blume-Kistner equations for forward scattering (Blume and Kistner, Phys. Rev. 171, 417, 3) by integrating over the source sampled up to 128 layers.

  19. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Nardini, E.; Behar, E.; O’Brien, P. T.; Tombesi, F.; Turner, T. J.; Costa, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometer spectra are analyzed from the large 2013–2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of five observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level, and broad absorption line (BAL) profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of {σ }{{v}}˜ {{10,000}} km s‑1. During a period of higher flux in the third and fourth observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range ˜ 0.1{--}0.2c. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. A comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals a similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 2001, and generally the absorption lines appear most apparent when the spectrum is more absorbed overall. The presence of the soft X-ray BALs is also independently confirmed by an analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC spectra below 2 keV. We suggest that the soft X-ray absorption profiles could be associated with a lower ionization and possibly clumpy phase of the accretion disk wind, where the latter is known to be present in this quasar from its well-studied iron K absorption profile and where the wind velocity reaches a typical value of 0.3c.

  20. Discovery of carbon radio recombination lines in absorption towards Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Salgado, F.; Morabito, L. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Asgekar, A.; White, G. J.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Brentjens, M.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; de Vos, M.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; van Enst, J.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jackson, N. J.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Mol, J. D.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.; Zensus, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detection of carbon radio recombination line absorption along the line of sight to Cygnus A. The observations were carried out with the Low Frequency Array in the 33-57 MHz range. These low-frequency radio observations provide us with a new line of sight to study the diffuse, neutral gas in our Galaxy. To our knowledge this is the first time that foreground Milky Way recombination line absorption has been observed against a bright extragalactic background source. By stacking 48 carbon α lines in the observed frequency range we detect carbon absorption with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 5. The average carbon absorption has a peak optical depth of 2 × 10-4, a line width of 10 km s-1 and a velocity of +4 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest. The associated gas is found to have an electron temperature Te ˜ 110 K and density ne ˜ 0.06 cm-3. These properties imply that the observed carbon α absorption likely arises in the cold neutral medium of the Orion arm of the Milky Way. Hydrogen and helium lines were not detected to a 3σ peak optical depth limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for a 4 km s-1 channel width. Radio recombination lines associated with Cygnus A itself were also searched for, but are not detected. We set a 3σ upper limit of 1.5 × 10-4 for the peak optical depth of these lines for a 4 km s-1 channel width.

  1. DISENTANGLING THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONS OF CENTAURUS A. II. ON THE NATURE OF THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Espada, D.; Matsushita, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Peck, A. B.; Henkel, C.; Iono, D.; Israel, F. P.; Muller, S.; Petitpas, G.; Pihlstroem, Y.; Taylor, G. B.; Trung, D. V.

    2010-09-01

    We report on atomic gas (H I) and molecular gas (as traced by CO(2-1)) redshifted absorption features toward the nuclear regions of the closest powerful radio galaxy, Centaurus A (NGC 5128). Our H I observations using the Very Long Baseline Array allow us to discern with unprecedented sub-parsec resolution H I absorption profiles toward different positions along the 21 cm continuum jet in the inner 0.''3 (or 5.4 pc). In addition, our CO(2-1) data obtained with the Submillimeter Array probe the bulk of the absorbing molecular gas with little contamination by emission, which was not possible with previous CO single-dish observations. We shed light on the physical properties of the gas in the line of sight with these data, emphasizing the still open debate about the nature of the gas that produces the broad absorption line ({approx}55 km s{sup -1}). First, the broad H I line is more prominent toward the central and brightest 21 cm continuum component than toward a region along the jet at a distance {approx}20 mas (or 0.4 pc) further from the nucleus. This indicates that the broad absorption line arises from gas located close to the nucleus, rather than from diffuse and more distant gas. Second, the different velocity components detected in the CO(2-1) absorption spectrum match well with other molecular lines, such as those of HCO{sup +}(1-0), except the broad absorption line that is detected in HCO{sup +}(1-0) (and most likely related to that of the H I). Dissociation of molecular hydrogen due to the active galactic nucleus seems to be efficient at distances r {approx}< 10 pc, which might contribute to the depth of the broad H I and molecular lines.

  2. Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Intensity of the Spectral Lines of Elements During ARC Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunina, N. N.; Baisova, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the carrier (NaCl) during arc discharge on the intensity of the lines for elements with various ionization potentials (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Zn) was investigated. It was found that the intensity of the spectral lines of the elements increases with increase in the concentration of the carrier. The relative roles of the factors responsible for the increase in the intensity of the spectral lines (the plasma temperature, the intensity of the spectral lines of the elements, and the degree of ionization of the elements, the fl ow rate and residence time of the atoms in the plasma) were analyzed.

  3. Laboratory verification of on-line lithium analysis using ultraviolet absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beemster, B.J.; Schlager, K.J.; Schloegel, K.M.; Kahle, S.J.; Fredrichs, T.L.

    1992-12-31

    Several laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the capability of absorption spectrometry in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range with the objective of developing methods for on-line analysis of lithium directly in the primary coolant of Pressurized Water Reactors using optical probes. Although initial laboratory tests seemed to indicate that lithium could be detected using primary absorption (detection of natural spectra unassisted by reagents), subsequent field tests demonstrated that no primary absorption spectra existed for lithium in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range. A second series of tests that were recently conducted did, however, confirm results reported in the literature to the effect that reagents were available that will react with lithium to form chelates that possess detectable absorption and fluorescent signatures. These results point to the possible use of secondary techniques for on-line analysis of lithium.

  4. EMPIRICAL LINE LISTS AND ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR METHANE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M.; Bailey, J.

    2015-11-01

    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  5. Low-redshift Lyman-alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the low-redshift quasar 3C 273 using the Hubble Space Telescope have revealed many more Lyman-alpha absorption lines than would be expected from extrapolation of the absorption systems seen toward QSOs at z about 2. It is shown here that these absorption lines can plausibly be produced by gas at large radii in the disks of spiral and irregular galaxies; the gas is confined by the dark matter halos and ionized and heated by the extragalactic radiation field. This scenario does not require the extragalactic ionizing radiation field to decline as rapidly with decreasing z as the QSO emissivity. Observations of Ly-alpha absorption through the halos of known galaxies at low redshift will constrain both the extragalactic background and the properties of galactic halos.

  6. Line Intensities of Isotopic Carbonyl Sulfide (ocs) at 2.5 Micrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Robert A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Crawford, Timothy J.

    2009-06-01

    We have measured line intensities of ^{16}O^{12}C^{32}S, ^{16}O^{13}C^{32}S, ^{16}O^{12}C^{33}S, ^{16}O^{12}C^{34}S, and ^{18}O^{12}C^{32}S in the 2.5 μm region for the first time to support planetary studies of the Venus atmosphere. Laboratory absorption spectra of OCS were recorded at 0.0033 cm^{-1} resolution at room temperature using a Bruker IFS 125-HR Fourier transform spectrometer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Normal samples of OCS were used in this study, and sample impurities and isotopic abundances were determined from mass spectrum analysis. Optical densities sufficient to observe isotopic bands and weaker hot bands were achieved by using a multi-pass White cell and single pass gas cells in various path lengths, which were validated by analyzing near-IR CO_2 spectra. We present line intensities for almost 30 bands of the OCS isotopes excluding ground state bands of ^{16}O^{12}C^{32}S, which we have reported recently. We have Herman-Wallis factors determined for the individual bands. In some cases, it has been observed that band intensities normalized to 100% isotopic species show a significant deviation from that of the primary isotopic species (up to by 12.5%). No earlier measurements have been reported for these bands. Measurement precision and accuracies will be discussed. Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank Drs. Stojan Madzunkov, John A. MacAskill, and Murray R. Darrach from the Atomic and Molecular Collision Group at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for recording mass spectrum of the OCS sample used in this work.

  7. Cm and mm Survey of Molecular Absorption Lines in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Juergen; Muller, S.; Meier, D.; Peck, A.; Impellizzeri, V.; Walter, F.; Henkel, C.; Martin, S.; Aalto, S.; van der Werf, P.; Feain, I.; Anderson, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present Australia Telescope Array data of molecular absorption lines toward the bright central core of Centaurus A. The line of sight crosses the prominent dust lane and continues through the disk and eventually through gas that may be very close to the central supermassive black hole. The goal of our the survey is to determine the physical conditions of the gas via analyses of molecular line tracers including molecular abundances and excitation that is sensitive to changes in temperature, density, ionization, and shocks. This study allows us to derive the physical conditions of every absorption line complex and finally let us assign the most likely environments. We present ATCA data in the 20-50GHz range at medium resolution of a few km/s and possibly ALMA data at 3mm and 1mm wavelengths. The project continues with sub-km/s higher spectral resolution for the most important lines in 2012.

  8. PG 1700 + 518 - a low-redshift, broad absorption line QSO

    SciTech Connect

    Pettini, M.; Boksenberg, A.

    1985-07-01

    The first high-resolution optical spectra and lower resolution UV spectra of PG 1700 + 518, the only known broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSO at low emission redshift (0.288) are presented. The optical data were obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma and the UV data with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The outstanding feature of the optical spectrum is a strong, broad Mg II absorption trough, detached from the Mg II emission line and indicative of ejection velocities of between 7000 and 18,000 km/s. Also detected were narrow (FWHM = 350 km/s) Mg II absorption lines at absolute z = 0.2698, which are probably related to the mass ejection phenomenon. It is concluded that the emission-line spectrum is similar to that of other low-redshift QSOs although there are some obvious differences from typical BAL QSOs, most notably in the unusually low level of ionization of both emission-line and broad absorption line gas. 21 references.

  9. Investigation of effective line intensities of trans-HONO near 1255 cm-1 using continuous-wave quantum cascade laser spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaojuan; Dong, Fengzhong; Sigrist, Markus W.; Zhang, Zhirong; Wu, Bian; Xia, Hua; Pang, Tao; Sun, Pengshuai; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong

    2016-10-01

    Effective line intensities of P branch transitions of trans-nitrous acid (HONO) in the ν3 H-O-N bending mode near 1255 cm-1 have been determined by scaling measured HONO absorption intensities by continuous-wave quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy to reference values. Gaseous HONO samples were synthetized in the laboratory using the reaction of H2SO4 and NaNO2 solutions and the heterogeneous formation on surfaces in the presence of ambient water vapor and NO2 gas in a sealed gas sampling bag. The quantification of HONO was performed using a denuder associated with a NOx analyzer. Observed absorption line strengths for the trans conformer are found to be by a factor of approximately 1.17 higher than previously reported line strengths.

  10. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  11. Efficient energy absorption of intense ps-laser pulse into nanowire target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habara, H.; Honda, S.; Katayama, M.; Sakagami, H.; Nagai, K.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between ultra-intense laser light and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes is investigated to demonstrate efficient laser-energy absorption in the ps laser-pulse regime. Results indicate a clear enhancement of the energy conversion from laser to energetic electrons and a simultaneously small plasma expansion on the surface of the target. A two-dimensional plasma particle calculation exhibits a high absorption through laser propagation deep into the nanotube array, even for a dense array whose structure is much smaller than the laser wavelength. The propagation leads to the radial expansion of plasma perpendicular to the nanotubes rather than to the front side. These features may contribute to fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion and laser particle acceleration, both of which require high current and small surface plasma simultaneously.

  12. Radiatively driven winds for different power law spectra. [for explaining narrow and broad quasar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltrametti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The analytic solutions for radiatively driven winds are given for the case in which the winds are driven by absorption of line and continuum radiation. The wind solutions are analytically estimated for different parameters of the central source and for different power law spectra. For flat spectra, three sonic points can exist; it is shown, however, that only one of these sonic points is physically realistic. Parameters of the central source are given which generate winds of further interest for explaining the narrow and broad absorption lines in quasars. For the quasar model presented here, winds which could give rise to the narrow absorption lines are generated by central sources with parameters which are not realistic for quasars.

  13. Modelling of the X-ray broad absorption features in Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, Delphine; Mouchet, Martine; Dumont Anne-Marie

    2000-09-01

    We investigate the origin of the broad absorption features detected near 1-1.4 keV in several Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies, by modelling the absorbing medium with various physical parameters, using the ionization code PEGAS. The observed properties of the X-ray absorption features can be reproduced by taking into account the peculiar soft X-ray excess which is well fitted by a blackbody plus an underlying power law. We equally stress that the emission coming from the absorbing medium (related to the covering factor) has a strong influence on the resulting X-ray spectrum, in particular on the apparent position and depth of the absorption features. A non-solar iron abundance may be required to explain the observed deep absorption. We also investigate the influence of an additional collisional ionization process ("hybrid case") on the predicted absorption features.

  14. The η Car Campaign with UVES at the ESO VLT II. Interstellar and circumstellar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Stahl, O.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.; Gull, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    We monitored η Car and the Homunculus using the ESO VLT UVES spectrograph between 2002 and 2004 (see Weis et al., this proceedings). In these high dispersion spectra practically all interstellar absorption features known in the 3000 Å to 10000 Å regime are present (e.g. 4 Ti II lines, 3 Fe I lines, the Ca I line, both Na I doublets, the two K I doublets, and the Ca II doublets, several molecular lines, and a number of diffuse interstellar bands). Near-UV STIS spectra show many low ionization absorption lines (e.g. Gull et al., this proceedings), but there are several differences in the velocity structure and line strengths between these lines of sight, e.g. we do not detect multiple absorption components between -350 to -550 km s-1 in the UVES spectra. Changes over time are present in e.g. the Ca II lines, with small column density changes in the (probably interstellar) +80 km s-1 component and large changes in the -510 km s-1 component, which is most probably located in the outer shell of the Homunculus (see e.g. Nielsen et al., this proceedings). Similar changes in the Ti II 3384 Å component at -147 km s-1 are present, too. With the data set, we not only follow the temporal evolution of the circumstellar absorption components (presumably originating near η Car and in the Homunculus) before, during and after the event, but also search for changes along our long-slits centered on the star and on FOS4. Indeed, the -147 km s-1 component of the Ti II 3384 Å lines shows line strength variations over the southeast lobe of the Homunculus. A preliminary search for very high velocity absorption lines from the outer ejected using only one of our spectra already yielded a possible detection at -1500 km s-1. Clearly a detailed analysis of the absorption lines in the UVES data will provide many new insights into the structure and physics of η Car's ejecta.

  15. Narrow absorption lines with two observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of the narrow C IV λ λ 1548,1551 and Mg II λ λ 2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Å in the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150-2643 d in the quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with zabs = 1.5188-3.5212 and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with zabs = 0.3948-1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (β) distribution in the quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with β < 0.06, which might be connected to absorption of quasar outflows. The outflow absorption peaks at υ ≈ 2000 km s^{-1} and drops rapidly below this peak value. Among 3580 C IV absorption systems, 52 systems (˜1.5 per cent) show obvious variations in equivalent widths in the absorber rest frame (Wr): 16 enhanced, 16 emerged, 12 weakened and 8 disappeared systems, respectively. We find that changes in Wrλ1548 are related neither to the time-scales of the two SDSS observations nor to absorber velocities in the quasar rest frame. Variable absorption in low-ionization species is important to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbing gas. There are two variable Mg II absorption systems measured from SDSS spectra detected by Hacker et al. However, in our Mg II absorption sample, we find that neither shows variable absorption with confident levels of >4σ for λ2796 lines and >3σ for λ2803 lines.

  16. HI Absorption Lines Detected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-zu, Wu; Martha P, Haynes; Riccardo, Giovanelli; Ming, Zhu; Ru-rong, Chen

    2015-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of HI 21-cm absorption lines based on the 40% survey data released by the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). (1) Ten HI candidate absorbers have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. (2) For those sources with no detected absorptions, we have calculated the upper limit of their foreground HI column density NHI. The statistical result of the NHI distribution indicates that the ratio Ts/f between the averaged spin temperature and coverage factor for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. The radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing wave are the main factors affecting the detection of HI absorption lines, which have been analyzed and discussed as well in order to find a method of solution. Our study can serve as a pathfinder for the future large-scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China with greatly increased sensitivity, bandwidth, and observational sky area. As prospects, we have discussed two types of observational studies of HI absorption lines toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  17. Note: Measurement of saturable absorption by intense vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser using fluorescent material

    SciTech Connect

    Inubushi, Y.; Kumagai, T.; Morimoto, S.; Tanaka, T.; Kodama, R.; Yoneda, H.; Higashiya, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagasono, M.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.; Togashi, T.; Sato, F.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2010-03-15

    Advances in free electron lasers (FELs) which generate high energy photons are expected to open novel nonlinear optics in the x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions. In this paper, we report a new method for performing VUV-FEL focusing experiments. A VUV-FEL was focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics on a multilayer target, which contains fused silica as a fluorescent material. By measuring the fluorescence, a 5.6x4.9 {mu}m{sup 2} focal spot was observed in situ. Fluorescence was used to measure the saturable absorption of VUV pulses in the tin layer. The transmission increases nonlinearly higher with increasing laser intensity.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSOs narrow absorption line variability (Hacker+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, T. L.; Brunner, R. J.; Lundgren, B. F.; York, D. G.

    2013-06-01

    Catalogues of 2,522 QAL systems and 33 variable NAL systems detected in SDSS DR7 quasars with repeat observations. The object identifiers, position coordinates, and plate-MJD-fibre designations are taken from the SpecObjAll table in the SDSS Catalogue Archive Server (CAS) while the quasar redshifts (zqso) are from Hewett & Wild (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/405/2302). The absorption system redshift (zabs), system grade, and detected lines are outputs of the York et al. (2013, in. prep.) QAL detection pipeline. Some absorption lines are flagged based on alternate identifications (a), proximity of masked pixels (b), or questionable continuum fits (c). (3 data files).

  19. Absorption lines in the spectrum of Q0248 + 4302 due to a foreground tidal tail

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, W.L.W.; Steidel, C.C. California Univ., Berkeley )

    1990-08-01

    The strong absorption lines in the spectrum of the quasar Q0248 + 4302 are discussed. The absorption has been shown to be produced in a sinuous tidal tail which emanates from the nearby galaxy pair G0248 + 4302A,B. There is a velocity difference of about 260 km/s between the systemic redshift of the interacting galaxies and the redshift of the tidal tail at a galactocentric distance of about 11/h kpc. The large velocity spread observed in the tail gas is probably responsible for the unusual strength of the interstellar lines. 18 refs.

  20. Residual compressive stress and intensity of infrared absorption of cubic BN films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hang-Sheng; Jin, Pan-Pan; Xu, Ya-Bo; Li, Hai-Yang

    2014-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the dependence of the intensity of infrared (IR) absorption of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride thin films under the residual compressive stress conditions have been performed. Our results indicate that the intensity of the IR absorption is proportional to the total degree of freedom of all the ions in the ordered regions. The reduction of interstitial Ar atom concentration, which causes the increase in the ordered regions of cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystallites, could be one cause for the increase in the intensity of IR absorption after residual compressive stress relaxation. Theoretical derivation is in good agreement with the experimental results concerning the IR absorption intensity and the Ar interstitial atom concentration in cubic boron nitride films measured by energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Our results also suggest that the interstitial Ar is the origin of residual compressive stress accumulation in plasma enhanced cBN film deposition.

  1. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  2. Theoretical study of firefly luciferin pKa values--relative absorption intensity in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state vibrational analyses of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases are performed. The Gibbs free energies obtained from these analyses are used to estimate pKa values for phenolic hydroxy and carboxy groups and the N-H(+) bond in the N-protonated thiazoline or benzothiazole ring of firefly luciferin. The theoretical pKa values are corrected using the experimental values. The concentrations of these chemical species in solutions with different pH values are estimated from their corrected pKa values, and the pH dependence of their relative absorption intensities is elucidated. With the results obtained we assign the experimental spectra unequivocally. Especially, the small peak near 400 nm at pH 1-2 in experimental absorption spectra is clarified to be due to the excitation of carboxylate anion with N-protonated thiazoline ring of firefly luciferin. Our results show that the pKa values of chemical species, which are contained in the aqueous solutions, are effective to assign experimental absorption spectra. PMID:23360188

  3. Theoretical study of firefly luciferin pKa values--relative absorption intensity in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kenta; Koga, Nobuaki

    2013-01-01

    Ground-state vibrational analyses of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases are performed. The Gibbs free energies obtained from these analyses are used to estimate pKa values for phenolic hydroxy and carboxy groups and the N-H(+) bond in the N-protonated thiazoline or benzothiazole ring of firefly luciferin. The theoretical pKa values are corrected using the experimental values. The concentrations of these chemical species in solutions with different pH values are estimated from their corrected pKa values, and the pH dependence of their relative absorption intensities is elucidated. With the results obtained we assign the experimental spectra unequivocally. Especially, the small peak near 400 nm at pH 1-2 in experimental absorption spectra is clarified to be due to the excitation of carboxylate anion with N-protonated thiazoline ring of firefly luciferin. Our results show that the pKa values of chemical species, which are contained in the aqueous solutions, are effective to assign experimental absorption spectra.

  4. Quantitative comparisons of absorption cross-section spectra and integrated intensities of HFC-143a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Graham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) differ substantially in the literature. This leads to an important uncertainty on the value of the radiative efficiency of this molecule. The ambiguity on the absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a is highlighted by the existence of two significantly different datasets in the HITRAN database. To solve the issue, we performed high-resolution Fourier transform infrared laboratory measurements of HFC-13a and compared the spectra with the two HITRAN datasets and with the data from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The experimental methods and data analysis techniques are examined and typical sources of errors are discussed. The integrated intensities of the main bands are compared to other literature values. It was found that the integrated absorption cross-section values in the highest range - around 13.8 ×10-17 cm .molecule-1 in the 570-1500 cm-1 spectral band - show the most consistency between authors.

  5. Observation of saturable absorption of Sn metal film with intense EUV laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, H.; Inubushi, Y.; Sato, F.; Morimoto, S.; Kumagaya, T.; Nagasono, M.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohashi, H.; Kimura, H.; Togashi, T.; Kodama, R.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we report observation of ultra-fast switching of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light caused by saturable absorption by a solid metal foil. A sub-picosecond VUV pulse from a free-electron laser located in SPring-8 is focused on a metal target and transmission is measured as a function of input energy, thickness of the absorbing layer, and VUV laser wavelength. As is well known, metals have a strong linear free electron response associated with the plasma oscillation and collisional absorption (high-frequency resistivity). Due to the plasma screening and strong absorption, it is difficult to use bulk metals for optical components. However, above the plasma frequency as in our experiments, a metal can transmit light and shows phenomena related to the band gap structure, similar to the optical properties observed in transparent materials for visible and infrared light. We observe a strong gating of Sn transmission at energy fluences above 6J/cm2 at wavelength of 51nm. The ratio of the transmission at high intensity to low intensity is typically greater than 100:1. The estimated saturated transmittance is about 0.25. The mechanism of the switching phenomena is partially explained by the shift of Sn N shell band edge, however, more details should be investigated with more exact physical models and precise measurements. We think this is the first observation of such a strong nonlinear phenomena for VUV light and this result will promote the development of new nonlinear photonic devices such as auto-correlator and pulse slicer for the VUV region.

  6. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  7. A summary of transition probabilities for atomic absorption lines formed in low-density clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Smith, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A table of wavelengths, statistical weights, and excitation energies is given for 944 atomic spectral lines in 221 multiplets whose lower energy levels lie below 0.275 eV. Oscillator strengths were adopted for 635 lines in 155 multiplets from the available experimental and theoretical determinations. Radiation damping constants also were derived for most of these lines. This table contains the lines most likely to be observed in absorption in interstellar clouds, circumstellar shells, and the clouds in the direction of quasars where neither the particle density nor the radiation density is high enough to populate the higher levels. All ions of all elements from hydrogen to zinc are included which have resonance lines longward of 912 A, although a number of weaker lines of neutrals and first ions have been omitted.

  8. Atlas of absorption lines from 0 to 17 900 cm(-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Rothman, L. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Richardson, D. J.; Larsen, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Plots of absorption line strength versus line position for wavenumbers from 0 to 17,900 cm(-1) are shown for 20 atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NO, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO3, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H2CO). Also shown are similar plots of lower-state energy values for adsorption lines for the strongly adsorbing atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, and CH4) for wavenumbers from 0 to 5000 cm(-1).

  9. Probing the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with CO Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Schindhelm, Eric; Brown, Joanna M.; Brown, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most commonly used tracer of molecular gas in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. CO can be used to constrain the excitation and structure of the circumstellar environment. Absorption line spectroscopy provides an accurate assessment of a single line of sight through the protoplanetary disk system, giving more straightforward estimates of column densities and temperatures than CO and molecular hydrogen (H2) emission line studies. We analyze new observations of ultraviolet CO absorption from the Hubble Space Telescope along the sightlines to six classical T Tauri stars. Gas velocities consistent with the stellar velocities, combined with the moderate-to-high disk inclinations, argue against the absorbing CO gas originating in a fast-moving disk wind. We conclude that the far-ultraviolet observations provide a direct measure of the disk atmosphere or possibly a slow disk wind. The CO absorption lines are reproduced by model spectra with column densities in the range N(12CO) ~ 1016-1018 cm-2 and N(13CO) ~ 1015-1017 cm-2, rotational temperatures T rot(CO) ~ 300-700 K, and Doppler b-values, b ~ 0.5-1.5 km s-1. We use these results to constrain the line-of-sight density of the warm molecular gas (n CO ~ 70-4000 cm-3) and put these observations in context with protoplanetary disk models.

  10. Collisionless absorption, hot electron generation, and energy scaling in intense laser-target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liseykina, T.; Mulser, P.; Murakami, M.

    2015-03-15

    Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense and superintense ultrashort laser pulses, a whole variety of models and hypotheses has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics, collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced by it in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target, therefore frequently addressed by the vague term “vacuum heating.” The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our investigations are the Brunel like spectral hot electron distribution at the relativistic threshold, the minimum of absorption at Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.3−1.2)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2} in the plasma target with the electron density of n{sub e}λ{sup 2}∼10{sup 23}cm{sup −3}μm{sup 2}, the drastic reduction of the number of hot electrons in this domain and their reappearance in the highly relativistic domain, and strong coupling, beyond expectation, of the fast electron jets with the return current through Cherenkov emission of plasmons. The hot electron energy scaling shows a strong dependence on intensity in the moderately relativistic domain Iλ{sup 2}≅(10{sup 18}−10{sup 20}) Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}, a scaling in vague accordance with current published estimates in the range Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.14−3.5)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}

  11. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  12. Fraunhofer-type absorption lines in double-pulse laser-induced plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Gornushkin, Igor

    2012-03-01

    We studied the confocal double-pulse laser-induced plasma in the very beginning of its life. It was found that the second laser pulse fired 0.7 to 5 µs after the first pulse produces plasma which, during the first 0 to 20 ns, resembles solar configuration. There is a very hot and compact plasma core that radiates a broad continuum spectrum and a much larger and cooler outer shell. The light from the hot core passes through the cold outer shell and is partly absorbed by atoms and ions that are in ground (or close to ground) states. This produces absorption lines that are similar to Fraunhofer lines observed in the sun spectrum. The possibility to use these absorption lines for new direct and calibration free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analytical applications, both in laboratory and industrial conditions, is proved.

  13. The Redshift Dependence of Gamma-Ray Absorption in the Environments of Strong-Line AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-12

    The case of {gamma}-ray absorption due to photon-photon pair production of jet photons in the external photon environments, such as the accretion disk and the broad-line region radiation fields, of {gamma}-ray--loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that exhibit strong emission lines is considered. I demonstrate that this 'local opacity,' if detected, will almost unavoidably be redshift-dependent in the sub-TeV range. This introduces nonnegligible biases and complicates approaches for studying the evolution of the extragalactic background light with contemporary GeV instruments such as the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST ), where the {gamma}-ray horizon is probed by means of statistical analysis of absorption features (e.g., the Fazio-Stecker relation) in AGN spectra at various redshifts. It particularly applies to strong-line quasars, where external photon fields are potentially involved in {gamma}-ray production.

  14. Absorption-line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass-losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10 (exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  15. Spectrum line intensity as a surrogate for solar irradiance variations.

    PubMed

    Livingston, W C; Wallace, L; White, O R

    1988-06-24

    Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) solar constant measurements from 1980 to 1986 are compared with ground-based, irradiance spectrophotometry of selected Fraunhofer lines. Both data sets were identically sampled and smoothed with an 85-day running mean, and the ACRIM total solar irradiance (S) values were corrected for sunspot blocking (S(c)). The strength of the mid-photospheric manganese 539.4-nanometer line tracks almost perfectly with ACRIM S(e), Other spectral features formed high in the photosphere and chromosphere also track well. These comparisons independently confirm the variability in the ACRIM S(e), signal, indicate that the source of irradiance is faculae, and indicate that ACRIM S(e), follows the 11-year activity cycle. PMID:17842428

  16. Relative f-values from interstellar absorption lines: advantages and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    2009-05-01

    Interstellar absorption features seen in the ultraviolet and visible spectra of stars provide opportunities for comparing the strengths of different transitions out of the ground electronic states of atoms, ions and simple molecules. In principle, such measurements are straightforward since the radiative transfer is manifested as a simple exponential absorption law at any given radial velocity. Complications arise when the velocity structures of the lines are not completely resolved, or when the lines are either very strongly saturated or too weak to observe. Dynamic range limitations can compromise the comparisons of two transitions that have very different absorption f-values, but they can be mitigated if there are examples with very different column densities and transitions of intermediate strength that can help to bridge the large gap in line strengths. Attempts to unravel the effects of saturation include the use of a curve of growth when only equivalent widths are available, or the measurements of the 'apparent optical depth' when the line is mostly resolved by the instrument. Unfortunately, the application of the curve of growth for one constituent to that of another can sometimes create systematic errors, since the two may have different velocity structures. Likewise, unresolved fine velocity structures in features that have large optical depths can make the apparent optical depths misrepresent the smoothed versions of the true optical depths. One method to compare the strength of a very weak line to that of a very strong one is to measure the total absorption of the former and compare it with the strength of the damping wings of the latter. However in many circumstances, small amounts of gas at velocities well displaced from the line center can masquerade as damping wings. For this reason, it is important to check that these wings have the proper shape.

  17. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2005-10-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here two-dimensional atomic dysprosium density profiles are measured by means of laser absorption spectroscopy; the order of magnitude of the density is 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}. The radially resolved atomic density measurements show a hollow density profile. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate, while the center is depleted of dysprosium atoms due to ionization. From the axial profiles the segregation parameter is determined. It is shown that the lamp operates on the right-hand side of the Fischer curve [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2954 (1976)], i.e., a larger convection leads to less segregation.

  18. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ne III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Thomas, R. J.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of satellites and rockets have been launched to observe radiation from the Sun and other astrophysical objects. Line radiation is emitted when the electron impact excited levels decay to the lower levels by photon emission. From this radiation, the physical parameters such as electron temperature and density of the astrophysical plasma, elemental abundance, and opacity can be inferred. Ne III lines have been observed in H II regions, Ne-rich filaments in supernovae, and planetary nebulae. The allowed line at 489.50 Angstroms due to the transition 2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 5) (sup 3) P2 (goes to) 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4)(sup 3)P2 has been identified in the solar spectrum by Vernazza and Reeves using Skylab observations. Other Ne III lines in the solar EUV spectrum have been reported by Thomas and Neupert based on observations from the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) instrument. Atomic data for Ne III have been calculated by using a set of programs developed at, University College, London. The Superstructure and Distorted Wave (DW) programs have been updated over the years. In the Superstructure program, configuration interaction can be taken into account and radial functions are calculated in a modified Thomas-Fermi-Amaldi potential. This is a statistical potential and depends on parameters lambda 1 which are determined by optimizing the weighted sum of term energies. They are found to be lambda(sub 0)=1.2467, lambda(sub 1)=1.1617, and lambda(sub 2)=1.0663. The relativistic corrections are included by using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian as a perturbation to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The same potential is used to calculate reactance matrices in the DW approximation in LS coupling. Collision strengths in intermediate coupling are obtained by using term coupling coefficients obtained from the Superstructure program. In this calculation, the configurations used are 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4), 2s2p(sup 5), 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3s, 2s(sup 2)p(sup 3)3d giving rise

  19. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissé, P.; Bergeron, J.; Prochaska, J. X.; Péroux, C.; York, D. G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of five distant sources were assembled, for which two spectra are available, either VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES, which were taken several years apart. Methods: We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behaviour of a broad variety of absorption line systems by sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lyα systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results: Intervening absorption lines from Mg ii, Fe ii, or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of (moderately ionised) gas appear in general to be remarkably stable (1σ upper limits as low as 10% for some components on scales in the range 10-100 au), even for systems at zabs ≈ ze. Marginal variations are observed for Mg ii lines towards PKS 1229-021 at zabs = 0.83032; however, we detect no systems that display any change as large as those reported in low resolution SDSS spectra. The lack of clear variations for low β Mg ii systems does not support the existence of a specific population of absorbers made of swept-up gas towards blazars. In neutral or diffuse molecular media, clear changes are seen for Galactic Na i lines towards PKS 1229-02 (decrease in N by a factor of four for one of the five components over 9.7 yr), corresponding to structure on a scale of about 35 au, in good agreement with known properties of the Galactic interstellar medium. Tentative variations are detected for H2J = 3 lines towards FBQS J2340-0053 at zabs = 2.05454 (≃35% change in column density, N, over 0.7 yr in the rest frame), suggesting

  20. LOW-z Mg II BROAD ABSORPTION-LINE QUASARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shaohua; Wang Tingi; Wang Huiyuan; Zhou Hongyan; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Jianguo E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.c

    2010-05-01

    We present a sample of 68 low-z Mg II low-ionization broad absorption-line (loBAL) quasars. The sample is uniformly selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 according to the following criteria: (1) redshift 0.4 < z {<=} 0.8, (2) median spectral S/N>7 pixel{sup -1}, and (3) Mg II absorption-line width {Delta}v{sub c} {>=} 1600 km s{sup -1}. The last criterion is a trade-off between the completeness and consistency with respect to the canonical definition of BAL quasars that have the 'balnicity index' BI>0 in C IV BAL. We adopted such a criterion to ensure that {approx}90% of our sample are classical BAL quasars and the completeness is {approx}80%, based on extensive tests using high-z quasar samples with measurements of both C IV and Mg II BALs. We found (1) Mg II BAL is more frequently detected in quasars with narrower H{beta} emission line, weaker [O III] emission line, stronger optical Fe II multiplets, and higher luminosity. In term of fundamental physical parameters of a black hole accretion system, loBAL fraction is significantly higher in quasars with a higher Eddington ratio than those with a lower Eddington ratio. The fraction is not dependent on the black hole mass in the range concerned. The overall fraction distribution is broad, suggesting a large range of covering factor of the absorption material. (2) [O III]-weak loBAL quasars averagely show undetected [Ne V] emission line and a very small line ratio of [Ne V] to [O III]. However, the line ratio in non-BAL quasars, which is much larger than that in [O III]-weak loBAL quasars, is independent of the strength of the [O III] line. (3) loBAL and non-loBAL quasars have similar colors in near-infrared to optical band but different colors in ultraviolet. (4) Quasars with Mg II absorption lines of intermediate width are indistinguishable from the non-loBAL quasars in optical emission line properties but their colors are similar to loBAL quasars, redder than non-BAL quasars. We also discuss

  1. Dust depletion of Ca and Ti in QSO absorption-line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, C. R.; Richter, P.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: To explore the role of titanium- and calcium-dust depletion in gas in and around galaxies, we systematically study Ti/Ca abundance ratios in intervening absorption-line systems at low and high redshift. Methods: We investigate high-resolution optical spectra obtained by the UVES instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and spectroscopically analyze 34 absorption-line systems at z ≤ 0.5 to measure column densities (or limits) for Ca ii and Ti ii. We complement our UVES data set with previously published absorption-line data on Ti/Ca for redshifts up to z ~ 3.8. Our absorber sample contains 110 absorbers including damped Lyman α systems (DLAs), sub-DLAs, and Lyman-Limit systems (LLS). We compare our Ti/Ca findings with results from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds and discuss the properties of Ti/Ca absorbers in the general context of quasar absorption-line systems. Results: Our analysis indicates that there are two distinct populations of absorbers with either high or low Ti/Ca ratios with a separation at [Ti/Ca] ≈ 1. While the calcium-dust depletion in most of the absorbers appears to be severe, the titanium depletions are mild in systems with high Ti/Ca ratios. The derived trend indicates that absorbers with high Ti/Ca ratios have dust-to-gas ratios that are substantially lower than in the Milky Way. We characterize the overall nature of the absorbers by correlating Ti/Ca with other observables (e.g., metallicity, velocity-component structure) and by modeling the ionization properties of singly-ionized Ca and Ti in different environments. Conclusions: We conclude that Ca ii and Ti ii bearing absorption-line systems trace predominantly neutral gas in the disks and inner halo regions of galaxies, where the abundance of Ca and Ti reflects the local metal and dust content of the gas. Our study suggests that the Ti/Ca ratio represents a useful measure for the gas-to-dust ratio and overall metallicity in intervening absorption-line systems.

  2. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE INTRINSIC N V NARROW ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEMS OF THREE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jian; Charlton, Jane C.; Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Ganguly, Rajib E-mail: misawatr@shinshu-u.ac.j

    2010-10-20

    We employ detailed photoionization models to infer the physical conditions of intrinsic narrow absorption line systems found in high-resolution spectra of three quasars at z = 2.6-3.0. We focus on a family of intrinsic absorbers characterized by N V lines that are strong relative to the Ly{alpha} lines. The inferred physical conditions are similar for the three intrinsic N V absorbers, with metallicities greater than 10 times the solar value (assuming a solar abundance pattern), and with high ionization parameters (log U {approx} 0). Thus, we conclude that the unusual strength of the N V lines results from a combination of partial coverage, a high ionization state, and high metallicity. We consider whether dilution of the absorption lines by flux from the broad emission line region can lead us to overestimate the metallicities and we find that this is an unlikely possibility. The high abundances that we infer are not surprising in the context of scenarios in which metal enrichment takes place very early on in massive galaxies. We estimate that the mass outflow rate in the absorbing gas (which is likely to have a filamentary structure) is less than a few M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} under the most optimistic assumptions, although it may be embedded in a much hotter, more massive outflow.

  3. The Suzaku Observation of NGC 3516: Complex Absorption and the Broad and Narrow Fe K Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, Alex; Reeves, James N.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Serlemitsos, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Taqoob, Tahir; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Gallo, Luigi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Griffiths, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a 150 ksec Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1 NGC 3516 in October 2005. The source was in a relatively highly absorbed state. Our best-fit model is consistent with partial covering by a lowly-ionized absorber with a column density near 5x10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and with a covering fraction 96-100 percent. Narrow K-shell absorption features due to He- and H-like Fe confirm the presence of a high-ionization absorbing component as well. A broad Fe K(alpha) diskline is required in all fits, even after the complex absorption is taken into account; an additional partial-covering component is an inadequate substitute for the continuum curvature associated with the broad line. The narrow Fe Ka line at 6.4 keV is resolved, yielding a velocity width commensurate with the optical Broad Line Region. The strength of the Compton reflection hump suggests a contribution mainly from the broad Fe line origin. We include in our model soft band emission lines from He- and H-like ions and radiative recombination lines, consistent with photo-ionization, though a small contribution from collisional ionization is possible.

  4. The 13CH4 absorption spectrum in the Icosad range (6600-7692 cm-1) at 80 K and 296 K: Empirical line lists and temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campargue, A.; Béguier, S.; Zbiri, Y.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Karlovets, E. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Starikova, E. N.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 13CH4 absorption spectrum has been recorded at 296 K and 80 K in the Icosad range between 6600 and 7700 cm-1. The achieved noise equivalent absorption of the spectra recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is about αmin ≈ 1.5 × 10-7 cm-1. Two empirical line lists were constructed including 17,792 and 24,139 lines at 80 K and 296 K, respectively. For comparison, the HITRAN database provides only 1040 13CH4 lines in the region determined from methane spectra with natural isotopic abundance. Empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were systematically derived from the intensity ratios of the lines measured at 80 K and 296 K. Overall 10,792 Eemp values were determined providing accurate temperature dependence for most of the 13CH4 absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80 K and 296 K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values of the lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, is illustrated by their clear propensity to be close to an integer. A good agreement is achieved between our small Jemp values, with previous accurate determinations obtained by applying the 2T method to jet and 80 K spectra. The line lists at 296 K and 80 K which are provided as Supplementary material will be used for future rovibrational assignments based on accurate variational calculations.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  6. Room Temperature Line Lists for CO_2 Isotopologues with AB Initio Computed Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Emil; Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg; Lodi, Lorenzo; Zobov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Tashkun, Sergey; Perevalov, Valery

    2016-06-01

    We report 13 room temperature line lists for all major CO_2 isotopologues, covering 0-8000 wn. These line lists are a response to the need for line intensities of high, preferably sub-percent, accuracy by remote sensing experiments. Our scheme encompasses nuclear motion calculations supported by critical reliability analysis of the generated line intensities. Rotation-vibration wavefunctions and energy levels are computed using DVR3D and a high quality semi-empirical potential energy surface (PES) [1], followed by computation of intensities using a fully ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS). Cross comparison of line lists calculated using pairs of high-quality PES's and DMS's is used to assess imperfections in the PES, which lead to unreliable transition intensities between levels involved in resonance interactions. Four line lists are computed for each isotopologue to quantify sensitivity to minor distortions of the PES/DMS. This provides an estimate of the contribution to the overall line intensity error introduced by the underlying PES. Reliable lines are benchmarked against recent state-of-the-art measurements [2] and HITRAN-2012 supporting the claim that the majority of line intensities for strong bands are predicted with sub-percent accuracy [3]. Accurate line positions are generated using an effective Hamiltonian [4]. We recommend use of these line lists for future remote sensing studies and inclusions in databases. X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, S. A. Tashkun, T. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124311, 2012. O. L. Polyansky, K. Bielska, M. Ghysels, L. Lodi, N. F. Zobov, J. T. Hodges, J. Tennyson, PRL, 114, 243001, 2015. E. Zak, J. Tennyson, O. L. Polyansky, L. Lodi, S. A. Tashkun, V. I. Perevalov, JQSRT, in press and to be submitted. S. A. Tashkun, V. I. Perevalov, R. R. Gamache, J. Lamouroux, JQSRT, 152, 45-73, 2015.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. XIV. The Evolution of Lyα Absorption Lines in the Redshift Interval z = 0-1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1998-10-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the rate of evolution of the Lyα absorption lines in the redshift interval 0.0 to ~1.5 based upon a sample of 987 Lyα absorption lines identified in the spectra of 63 QSOs obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra were obtained as part of the QSO Absorption Line Survey, an HST Key Project during the first four years of observations with the telescope. Fits to the evolution of the number of absorbers per unit redshift (dN/dz) of the form dN/dz = A × (1 + z)γ continue to yield values of γ in the range 0.1-0.3, decidedly flatter than results from ground-based data pertaining to the redshift range z > 1.7. These results are consistent with our previous results based on a much smaller sample of lines, but the uncertainties in the fit have been greatly reduced. The combination of the HST and ground-based data suggest a marked transition in the rate of evolution of the Lyα lines at a redshift of about 1.7. The 19 Lyα lines from an additional higher redshift QSO from our sample for which tentative line identifications are available (UM 18; zem = 1.89) support the suggestion of a rapid increase at around this redshift. We derive the cumulative distribution of the full sample of Lyα lines and show that the distribution in redshift can indeed be well represented by a power law of the form (1 + z)γ. For this same sample, the distribution of equivalent widths of the Lyα absorbers above a rest equivalent width of 0.1 Å is fit quite well by an exponential. Comparing samples of Lyα lines, one set of which has redshifts the same as, or very near to, the redshifts of ions from heavy elements and another set in which no ions from heavy elements have been identified, we find that the Lyα systems with heavy element detections have a much steeper slope than the high rest equivalent width portion of the Lyman-only sample. We argue that this result is not likely to be due to

  8. Discovery of an X-ray Violently Variable Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Punsly, Brian; Chevallier, Loic; Goncalves, Anabela C.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we report on a quasar that is violently variable in the X-rays, XVV. It is also a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) that exhibits both high ionization and low ionization UV absorption lines (LoBALQSO). It is very luminous in the X-rays (approximately 10(exp 46) ergs s(sup -l) over the entire X-ray band). Surprisingly, this does not over ionize the LoBAL outflow. The X-rays vary by a factor of two within minutes in the quasar rest frame, which is shorter than 1/30 of the light travel time across a scale length equal to the black hole radius. We concluded that the X-rays are produced in a relativistic jet beamed toward earth in which variations in the Doppler enhancement produce the XVV behavior.

  9. A room temperature CO2 line list with ab initio computed intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Emil; Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Zobov, Nikolay F.; Tashkun, Sergey A.; Perevalov, Valery I.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are being closely monitored by remote sensing experiments which rely on knowing line intensities with an uncertainty of 0.5% or better. We report a theoretical study providing rotation-vibration line intensities substantially within the required accuracy based on the use of a highly accurate ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS). The theoretical model developed is used to compute CO2 intensities with uncertainty estimates informed by cross comparing line lists calculated using pairs of potential energy surfaces (PES) and DMS's of similar high quality. This yields lines sensitivities which are utilized in reliability analysis of our results. The final outcome is compared to recent accurate measurements as well as the HITRAN2012 database. Transition frequencies are obtained from effective Hamiltonian calculations to produce a comprehensive line list covering all 12C16O2 transitions below 8000cm-1 and stronger than 10-30 cm/molecule at T = 296 K.

  10. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-07-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  11. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  12. The VLBI structure of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.

    2016-02-01

    The nature and origin of Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars and their relationship to non-BAL quasars are an open question. The BAL quasars are probably normal quasars seen along a particular line of sight. Alternatively, they are young or recently refueled. The high resolution radio morphology of BAL quasars is very important to understand the radio properties of BAL quasars. We present VLBA observations at L and C bands for a sample of BAL quasars. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties, and distinguish the present models of explaining BAL phenomena.

  13. The spatial and kinematic structure of QSO metal-line absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent attempts to infer the spatial and kinematic distributions of the material responsible for absorption lines observed in the spectra of background QSOs are presented. Current models of the absorbing regions are compared, and initial observational results are described. This research is expected to lead eventually to a detailed picture of the extended gaseous halo regions of galaxies at early evolutionary stages and to an understanding of the physical processes at work in these halos.

  14. What Quasars Really Look Like: Unification of the Emission and Absorption Line Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We propose a simple unifying structure for the inner regions of quasars and AGN. This empirically derived model links together the broad absorption line (BALS), the narrow UV/X-ray ionized absorbers, the BELR, and the 5 Compton scattering/fluorescing regions into a single structure. The model also suggests an alternative origin for the large-scale bi-conical outflows. Some other potential implications of this structure are discussed.

  15. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  16. Observations of absorption lines from highly ionized atoms. [of interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    1987-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. few x 0.001/cu cm) existing at coronal temperatures log T = 5.3 or 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity (v = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic UV radiation from very hot, dwarf stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  17. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  18. C IV Broad Absorption Line Variability in QSO spectra from SDSS I-III Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, D.; Brandt, W. N.; Paolillo, M.; Grier, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our study of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability in the spectra of more than 1500 QSO's from several SDSS I-III surveys. Absorption lines in QSO spectra are due to outflowing winds which originate from the accretion disk, at a distance on the order of 1/100 - 1/10 pc from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). Winds trigger the accretion mechanism onto the SMBH removing angular momentum from the disk and, since they evacuate gas from the host galaxy, they are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Absorption lines can be classified on the basis of their width and of the observed transitions, and their equivalent width can change on timescales from months to years, due to variations in the covering factor and/or in the ionization level. We analyzed the largest sample ever used for such kind of studies. We find that the fraction of disappearing BALs is three times larger than the one found in previous works. Strong evidence is found for a coordinated variability in spectra with multiple BAL troughs which may be interpreted in terms of disk-wind rotation, and/or variations in the physical status of the shielding gas. We also find that, in spectra with multiple BAL troughs, the disappearing ones are generally those with the highest central velocity.

  19. Measurability of Kinetic Temperature from Metal Absorption-Line Spectra Formed in Chaotic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Agafonova, Irina I.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new method for recovering the kinetic temperature of the intervening diffuse gas to an accuracy of 10%. The method is based on the comparison of unsaturated absorption-line profiles of two species with different atomic weights. The species are assumed to have the same temperature and bulk motion within the absorbing region. The computational technique involves the Fourier transform of the absorption profiles and the consequent entropy-regularized χ2-minimization (ERM) to estimate the model parameters. The procedure is tested using synthetic spectra of C+, Si+, and Fe+ ions. The comparison with the standard Voigt fitting analysis is performed, and it is shown that the Voigt deconvolution of the complex absorption-line profiles may result in estimated temperatures that are not physical. We also successfully analyze Keck telescope spectra of C II λ1334 and Si II λ1260 lines observed at the redshift z=3.572 toward the quasar Q1937-1009 by Tytler et al. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is jointly operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology.

  20. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; King, Julian A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Flambaum, Victor V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.3 observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of Δα/α = (0.22 ± 0.23) × 10-5, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular, we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of Δα/α measurements, thus unnecessarily reducing the overall precision. We further show that fitting absorption systems with too few velocity components also results in a significant increase in the scatter of Δα/α measurements, and in addition causes Δα/α error estimates to be systematically underestimated. These results thus identify some of the potential pitfalls in analysis techniques and provide a guide for future analyses.

  1. Simulation studies of multi-line line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy performance in measuring temperature probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Le; Liu, Jian-Guo; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS) with multiple absorption lines is introduced for non-uniform temperature measurement. Temperature binning method combined with Gauss—Seidel iteration method is used to measure temperature probability distribution function (PDF) along the line-of-sight (LOS). Through 100 simulated measurements, the variation of measurement accuracy is investigated with the number of absorption lines, the number of temperature bins and the magnitude of temperature non-uniformity. A field model with 2-T temperature distribution and 15 well-selected absorption lines are used for the simulation study. The Gauss—Seidel iteration method is discussed for its reliability. The investigation result about the variation of measurement accuracy with the number of temperature bins is different from the previous research results.

  2. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  3. Constraining the variation of the fine-structure constant with observations of narrow quasar absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure in even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10{sup –5}, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (– 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10{sup –5} in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10{sup –5}, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (– 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10{sup –5}. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (– 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10{sup –5}. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements of

  4. WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF K TRANSITIONS OF OXYGEN, NEON, AND MAGNESIUM WITH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Jinyuan; Zhang Shuangnan; Yao Yangsen

    2013-09-10

    Accurate atomic transition data are important in many astronomical research areas, especially for studies of line spectroscopy. Whereas transition data of He-like and H-like ions (i.e., ions in high-charge states) have been accurately calculated, the corresponding data of K transitions of neutral or low-ionized metal elements are still very uncertain. Spectroscopy of absorption lines produced in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been proven to be an effective way to measure the central wavelengths of these atomic transitions. In this work, we analyze 36 Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observations to search for and measure the ISM absorption lines along sight lines to 11 low-mass X-ray binaries. We correct the Galactic rotation velocity to the rest frame for every observation and then use two different methods to merge all the corrected spectra to a co-added spectrum. However, the co-added spectra obtained by this method exhibit biases, toward to either observations with high counts or lines with high signal-to-noise ratios. We do a Bayesian analysis of several significantly detected lines to obtain the systematic uncertainty and the bias correction for other lines. Compared to previous studies, our results improve the wavelength accuracy by a factor of two to five and significantly reduce the systematic uncertainties and biases. Several weak transitions (e.g., 1s-2p of Mg IV and Mg V; 1s-3p of Mg III and Mg V) are also detected for the first time, albeit with low significance; future observations with improved accuracy are required to confirm these detections.

  5. Absorption Line Analysis to Interprete and Constrain Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Evolution with Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos

  6. Integrative fitting of absorption line profiles with high accuracy, robustness, and speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Julian; Habig, Jan Christoph; Ebert, Volker

    2014-08-01

    The principle of the integrative evaluation of absorption line profiles relies on the numeric integration of absorption line signals to retrieve absorber concentrations, e.g., of trace gases. Thus, it is a fast and robust technique. However, previous implementations of the integrative evaluation principle showed shortcomings in terms of accuracy and the lack of a fit quality indicator. This has motivated the development of an advanced integrative (AI) fitting algorithm. The AI fitting algorithm retains the advantages of previous integrative implementations—robustness and speed—and is able to achieve high accuracy by introduction of a novel iterative fitting process. A comparison of the AI fitting algorithm with the widely used Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) fitting algorithm indicates that the AI algorithm has advantages in terms of robustness due to its independence from appropriately chosen start values for the initialization of the fitting process. In addition, the AI fitting algorithm shows speed advantages typically resulting in a factor of three to four shorter computational times on a standard personal computer. The LM algorithm on the other hand retains advantages in terms of a much higher flexibility, as the AI fitting algorithm is restricted to the evaluation of single absorption lines with precomputed line width. Comparing both fitting algorithms for the specific application of in situ laser hygrometry at 1,370 nm using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) suggests that the accuracy of the AI algorithm is equivalent to that of the LM algorithm. For example, a signal-to-noise ratio of 80 and better typically yields a deviation of <1 % between both fitting algorithms. The properties of the AI fitting algorithm make it an interesting alternative if robustness and speed are crucial in an application and if the restriction to a single absorption line is possible. These conditions are fulfilled for the 1,370 nm TDLAS hygrometry at the

  7. UNSHIFTED METASTABLE He I* MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEM IN THE NARROW-LINE TYPE 1 QUASAR SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Chenwei; Ge, Jian; Hamann, Fred; Komossa, S.; Yuan, Weimin; Zuther, Jens; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen

    2015-02-10

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1} centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n {sub H} ∼ (1.0-2.5) × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and a column density of N {sub H} ∼ (1.0-3.2) × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} and is located at R ∼100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  8. Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow-line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S.; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ~ 1500 km s-1 centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n H ~ (1.0-2.5) × 105 cm-3 and a column density of N H ~ (1.0-3.2) × 1021 cm-2 and is located at R ~100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  9. Measurements of absolute line intensities in carbon dioxide bands near 5.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure has been used to derive experimental absolute intensities for over 300 unblended lines belonging to twelve CO2 bands in the 5.2-micron region. The spectral data were recorded at 0.01/cm resolution and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak and have a signal-to-rms noise ratio of 2000-4000. A natural sample of carbon dioxide was used as the sample gas. For each band, the measured line intensities have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and coefficients of the F factor. The results are compared to the values used to calculate the intensities in the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation.

  10. Measurements of the absorption line strength of hydroperoxyl radical in the ν3 band using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-01-12

    Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of the hydroperoxyl (HO(2)) radical in pulsed laser photolysis combined with a laser absorption kinetics reactor. Transitions of the ν(3) vibrational band assigned to the O-O stretch mode were probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL). The HO(2) radicals were generated with the photolysis of Cl(2)/CH(3)OH/O(2) mixtures at 355 nm. The absorption cross section at each pressure was determined by three methods at 1065.203 cm(-1) for the F(1), 13(1,13) ← 14(1,14) transition in the ν(3) band. From these values, the absolute absorption cross section at zero pressure was estimated. The relative line strengths of other absorptions in the feasible emitting frequency range of the QCL from 1061.17 to 1065.28 cm(-1) were also measured, and agreed with values reproduced from the HITRAN database. The ν(3) band absorption strength was estimated from the analytically obtained absolute absorption cross section and the calculated relative intensity by spectrum simulation, to be 21.4 ± 4.2 km mol(-1), which shows an agreement with results of quantum chemical calculations. PMID:22148191

  11. Measurements of the absorption line strength of hydroperoxyl radical in the ν3 band using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-01-12

    Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of the hydroperoxyl (HO(2)) radical in pulsed laser photolysis combined with a laser absorption kinetics reactor. Transitions of the ν(3) vibrational band assigned to the O-O stretch mode were probed with a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL). The HO(2) radicals were generated with the photolysis of Cl(2)/CH(3)OH/O(2) mixtures at 355 nm. The absorption cross section at each pressure was determined by three methods at 1065.203 cm(-1) for the F(1), 13(1,13) ← 14(1,14) transition in the ν(3) band. From these values, the absolute absorption cross section at zero pressure was estimated. The relative line strengths of other absorptions in the feasible emitting frequency range of the QCL from 1061.17 to 1065.28 cm(-1) were also measured, and agreed with values reproduced from the HITRAN database. The ν(3) band absorption strength was estimated from the analytically obtained absolute absorption cross section and the calculated relative intensity by spectrum simulation, to be 21.4 ± 4.2 km mol(-1), which shows an agreement with results of quantum chemical calculations.

  12. The Discovery of the First He Iλ10830 Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Barber, Sara

    2011-02-01

    We report the discovery of the first He I*λ10830 broad absorption line quasar FBQS J1151+3822. Using new infrared and optical spectra, as well as the SDSS spectrum, we extracted the apparent optical depth profiles as a function of velocity of the 3889 Å and 10830 Å He I* absorption lines. Since these lines have the same lower levels, inhomogeneous absorption models could be used to extract the average true He I* column density; the log of that number was 14.9. The total hydrogen column density was obtained using Cloudy models. A range of ionization parameters and densities were allowed, with the lower limit on the ionization parameter of log U = -1.4 determined by the requirement that there be sufficient He I*, and the upper limit on the density of log n = 8 determined by the lack of Balmer absorption. Simulated UV spectra showed that the ionization parameter could be further constrained in principle using a combination of low- and high-ionization lines (such as Mg II and P V), but the only density-sensitive line predicted to be observable and not significantly blended was C IIIλ1176. We estimated the outflow rate and kinetic energy, finding them to be consistent but on the high side compared with analyses of other objects. Assuming that radiative line driving is the responsible acceleration mechanism, a force multiplier model was constructed. A dynamical argument using the model results strongly constrained the density to be log n >= ~7. Consequently, the log hydrogen column density is constrained to be between 21.7 and 22.9, the mass outflow rate to be between 11 and 56 solar masses per year, the ratio of the mass outflow rate to the accretion rate to be between 1.2 and 5.8, and the kinetic energy to be between 1 and 5 × 1044 erg s-1. We discuss the advantages of using He I* to detect high column density BALQSOs and measure their properties. We find that the large λfik ratio of 23.3 between the 10830 Å and 3889 Å components makes He I* analysis sensitive

  13. An absorption line in the ultraviolet spectrum of 40 Eridani B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstein, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two excellent low-resolution spectra show an absorption line of equivalent width 3 A, near 1391 A, in the typical DA (hydrogen atmosphere) white dwarf 40 Eri B. The line is confirmed by a high-resolution spectrum and is the first seen in any DA star. Ultraviolet fluxes and the profile of Lyman-alpha confirm an effective temperature near 17,000 K. If the line is Si IV, it requires a temperature near 40,000 K. Unattractive possibilities are a hot circumstellar absorbing envelope dependent on accretion from companions, or formation at large optical depth in a transparent atmosphere with high Si/H. A suggestion that H2 should be considered leads to the possible interpretation as the (0, 5) transition of the Lyman band, formed at small optical depth. The band should be stronger in cooler DAs.

  14. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C.

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ∼100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  15. Radiation Pressure-Driven Magnetic Disk Winds in Broad Absorption Line Quasi-Stellar Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKool, Martin; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1995-01-01

    We explore a model in which QSO broad absorption lines (BALS) are formed in a radiation pressure-driven wind emerging from a magnetized accretion disk. The magnetic field threading the disk material is dragged by the flow and is compressed by the radiation pressure until it is dynamically important and strong enough to contribute to the confinement of the BAL clouds. We construct a simple self-similar model for such radiatively driven magnetized disk winds, in order to explore their properties. It is found that solutions exist for which the entire magnetized flow is confined to a thin wedge over the surface of the disk. For reasonable values of the mass-loss rate, a typical magnetic field strength such that the magnetic pressure is comparable to the inferred gas pressure in BAL clouds, and a moderate amount of internal soft X-ray absorption, we find that the opening angle of the flow is approximately 0.1 rad, in good agreement with the observed covering factor of the broad absorption line region.

  16. Atlas of Absorption Lines from 0 to 17900 Cm (sup)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Rothman, L. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Pickett, H. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Namkung, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Plots of logarithm (base 10) of absorption line strength versus wavenumber from 0 to 17900/cm(sup)-1 are shown for the 28 atmospheric gases (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, O2, NO, SO2, NO2, NH3, HNO3, OH, HF, HCl, HBr, HI, ClO, OCS, H2CO, HOCl, N2, HCN, CH3Cl, H2O2, C2H2, C2H6, PH3), which appear in the 1986 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory high-resolution transmission molecular absorption data base (HITRAN) compilation, and for O(P-3), O-18 isotopic ozone, and HO2 from the 1984 JPL compilation in the 0- to 200/cm(sup)-1 region, and infrared solar CO lines at 4500 K. Also shown are plots of logarithm (base 10) of approximate infrared absorption cross sections of 11 heavy molecules versus wavenumber. The cross-section data cover 700 to 1800/cm(sup)-1 and are included as a separate data file in the 1986 HITRAN database.

  17. Levothyroxine absorption and difficult management of hypothyroid patients in the intensive care unit: two case reports and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Ana Lúcia Marinho; Souza, Marcus Vinícius Leitão de

    2011-06-01

    Levothyroxine absorption in hypothyroid patients can be influenced by several factors, particularly medications and concomitant food administration. This is especially evident in intensive care unit patients, where a continual enteral diet and the administration of multiple medications changes its absorption. Changes or adaptations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, in conjunction with clinical abnormalities possibly related to under-treatment of hypothyroidism, render levothyroxine replacement therapy very challenging. Here, we report two intensive care hypothyroidism patients and their respective levothyroxine replacement management issues, focusing on a number of controversial issues, such as the optimal replacement dose, how fast the levothyroxine doses should be increased, triiodothyronine requirements, the interference of an enteral diet with absorption, and finally, the possible consequences of undertreated hypothyroidism and levothyroxine replacement monitoring useful clinical/laboratory parameters. PMID:25299727

  18. Effect of line, soaking and cooking time on water absorption, texture and splitting of red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Baghekhandan, Mohamad Shahedi; Nasirpour, Ali; Sheikhzeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p < 0.05). Akhtar and Sayyad had the highest level of splitting while KS31164 had the lowest level of splitting (p < 0.05). Soaking of Akhtar line for 24 h caused the highest level of water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p < 0.01).

  19. Effect of line, soaking and cooking time on water absorption, texture and splitting of red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Baghekhandan, Mohamad Shahedi; Nasirpour, Ali; Sheikhzeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p < 0.05). Akhtar and Sayyad had the highest level of splitting while KS31164 had the lowest level of splitting (p < 0.05). Soaking of Akhtar line for 24 h caused the highest level of water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p < 0.01). PMID:24425894

  20. A comparison of neutral hydrogen 21 cm observations with UV and optical absorption-line measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanelli, R.; York, D. G.; Shull, J. M.; Haynes, M. P.

    1978-01-01

    Several absorption components detected in visible or UV lines have been identified with emission features in new high-resolution, high signal-to-noise 21 cm observations. Stars for which direct overlap is obtained are HD 28497, lambda Ori, mu Col, HD 50896, rho Leo, HD 93521, and HD 219881. With the use of the inferred H I column densities from 21 cm profiles, rather than the integrated column densities obtained from L-alpha, more reliable densities can be derived from the existence of molecular hydrogen. Hence the cloud thicknesses are better determined; and 21 cm emission maps near these stars can be used to obtain dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is now feasible to derive detailed geometries for isolated clumps of gas which produce visual absorption features.

  1. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  2. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  3. On the cosmic evolution of Fe/Mg in QSO absorption line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Arjun; Torrey, Paul; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Suresh, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the variation of the ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe II λ2600 line to the Mg II λλ2796, 2803 doublet as a function of redshift in a large sample of absorption lines drawn from the Johns Hopkins University - Sloan Digital Sky Survey Absorption Line Catalog. We find that despite large scatter, the observed ratio shows a trend where the equivalent width ratio R≡ W_{Fe II}/W_{Mg II} decreases monotonically with increasing redshift z over the range 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.90. Selecting the subset of absorbers where the signal-to-noise ratio of the Mg II equivalent width W_{Mg II} is ≥ 3 and modelling the equivalent width ratio distribution as a Gaussian, we find that the mean of the Gaussian distribution varies as R∝ (-0.045± 0.005)z. We discuss various possible reasons for the trend. A monotonic trend in the Fe/Mg abundance ratio is predicted by a simple model where the abundances of Mg and Fe in the absorbing clouds are assumed to be the result of supernova (SN) ejecta and where the cosmic evolution in the SNIa and core-collapse SN rates is related to the cosmic star formation rate. If the trend in R reflects the evolution in the abundances, then it is consistent with the predictions of the simple model.

  4. The Physical Nature of Weak MgII Quasar Absorption Line Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Anand

    2007-12-01

    In a span of four decades, quasar absorption line spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most efficient methods for probing HI gas and associated metals in a wide range of environments, from redshifts corresponding to the most distant quasars up to the present. The connection between strong MgII quasar absorption systems and the disks/halos of galaxies of various morphologies is fairly well established. In contrast, the physical nature of weak MgII absorbers is not sufficiently understood. In this talk, I will present results from my dissertation work, which is a study of weak MgII quasar absorption line systems at 01), could be gas clouds in the extended halos of galaxies, analogous to the Milky Way high velocity clouds. The gas might correspond to material expelled from rapidly star-forming galaxies in correlated supernova events. Some fraction of the population of weak MgII clouds can also arise along sight lines that intercept tidally stripped interstellar gas, residing in circumgalactic environments. The `iron-rich’ weak MgII clouds, which are prevalent at lower redshifts (z<1), must be tracing Type Ia enriched gas in sites that have been previously enriched by star formation, most likely in dwarf galaxies. These scenarios will be reviewed in my presentation. This work is supported by NSF. I thankfully acknowledge the Zaccheus Daniel Foundation and Sigma Xi for providing generous travel support.

  5. Laser line illumination scheme allowing the reduction of background signal and the correction of absorption heterogeneities effects for fluorescence reflectance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Frédéric; Hervé, Lionel; Poher, Vincent; Gioux, Sylvain; Mars, Jérôme I; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence imaging in reflectance geometry is an attractive imaging modality as it allows to noninvasively monitor the fluorescence targeted tumors located below the tissue surface. Some drawbacks of this technique are the background fluorescence decreasing the contrast and absorption heterogeneities leading to misinterpretations concerning fluorescence concentrations. We propose a correction technique based on a laser line scanning illumination scheme. We scan the medium with the laser line and acquire, at each position of the line, both fluorescence and excitation images. We then use the finding that there is a relationship between the excitation intensity profile and the background fluorescence one to predict the amount of signal to subtract from the fluorescence images to get a better contrast. As the light absorption information is contained both in fluorescence and excitation images, this method also permits us to correct the effects of absorption heterogeneities. This technique has been validated on simulations and experimentally. Fluorescent inclusions are observed in several configurations at depths ranging from 1 mm to 1 cm. Results obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with a classical wide-field detection scheme for contrast enhancement and with the fluorescence by an excitation ratio approach for absorption correction. PMID:26442963

  6. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  7. Enhancement of Ion Line Intensity in the Analytical Zone of an Arc Dual-Jet Plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, E. V.; Chumakova, N. L.

    2015-07-01

    We show that the effect of enhancement of the intensity (Ii) of ion lines, observed in atomic emission analysis when using an arc dual-jet plasmatron, is not an anomalous phenomenon compared with an arc plasma. For total ion energy <15 eV, it corresponds to a thermal mechanism for excitation of the spectra. At higher energy, we observe an increase in the intensity Ii relative to the equilibrium values that is due to the phenomenon of nonresonant charge exchange.

  8. Absolute line intensities in CO2 bands near 4.8 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute intensities for 726 unblended lines in 20 bands of C-12(O-16)2, C-13(O-16)2, O-16C-12O-18, and O-16C-12O-17 in the 4.8-micron spectral region have been determined using a natural sample of ultrahigh-purity CO2. Spectral data were recorded at low pressure (less than 10 torr) and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex on Kitt Peak. Derived vibrational band intensities and coefficients of the F factor for each band were compared to values of the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation. The present work fills out the CO2 lines in the 5-micron band systems. Lines in the strongest of these measured bands are being used to infer atmospheric pressure from high-resolution stratospheric spectra recorded during the Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment.

  9. Global fitting of line intensities of acetylene molecule in the infrared using the effective operator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevalov, V. I.; Lyulin, O. M.; Jacquemart, D.; Claveau, C.; Teffo, J.-L.; Dana, V.; Mandin, J.-Y.; Valentin, A.

    2003-04-01

    The method of effective operators has been applied to the global fitting of line intensities of the acetylene molecule in the middle infrared. Simultaneous fittings of recently observed line intensities in the cold and hot bands lying in the 13.6, 7.8, and 5 μm regions have been performed. The eigenfunctions of the effective Hamiltonian developed for the global treatment of the vibration-rotation line positions of acetylene [O.M. Lyulin, V.I. Perevalov, S.A. Tashkun, J.-L. Teffo, in: Leonid N. Sinitsa (Ed.), 13th Symposium and School on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4063, 2000, pp. 126-133] have been used in the calculations. The sets of effective dipole moment parameters obtained reproduce the observed line intensities within the experimental accuracy. The importance of l-type resonance, responsible for some large differences between intensities of the same lines in subbands having opposite parities, is exhibited and discussed.

  10. Intensity increases of actin layer-lines on activation of the Limulus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Maéda, Y; Boulin, C; Gabriel, A; Sumner, I; Koch, M H

    1986-01-01

    Small angle x-ray diffraction patterns were recorded from isometrically contracting Limulus (horseshoe crab) telson levator muscle using a multiwire proportional-area detector on the storage ring DORIS. In the pattern a substantial increase in intensity is observed on the thin-filament-associated layer-line at 1/38 nm-1 (the first actin layer-line) with a maximum increase at a radial spacing of R = 0.07 nm-1 but there is a much smaller change in the intensity of the 5.9-nm layer-line, which also arises from the thin filament structure. The results suggest that during contraction the myosin heads, presumably being attached to the thin filaments, are arranged along the long-stranded helical tracks of the thin filaments but that the spatial relationship between the heads and the actin monomers varies. Intensity increases have also been observed (Maéda et al., manuscript in preparation) in the part of the patterns from frog muscle and barnacle muscle, which are attributable to the first actin layer-line. It is thus likely that the intensity increase of the first actin layer-line on the Limulus pattern is associated not with structural features which are special to Limulus muscle, but with the tension generating processes that are shared by muscles in general. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:3801566

  11. Analysis of the plasma radiation spectra with lines of significantly varying intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrin, D. K.; Lisenkov, A. A.; Uhov, A. A.; Ramazanov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Range of charge accumulation times for the charge-coupled device photodetector, in which there is linearity of its signal characteristics, is demonstrated. The influence of the blooming effect during the saturation of a signal on the form of spectral lines is shown. Method of simultaneous analysis of lines of significantly different intensity using multiple summations of the emission spectra, obtained with a small time of charge accumulation, is proposed.

  12. Ratios of molecular hydrogen line intensities in shocked gas - Evidence for cooling zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, P. W. J. L.; Moorhouse, A.; Bird, M.; Burton, M. G.; Geballe, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    Column densities of molecular hydrogen have been calculated from 19 infrared vibration-rotation and pure rotational line intensities measured at peak 1 of the Orion molecular outflow. The run of column density with energy level is similar to a simple coolng zone model of the line-emitting region, but is not well fitted by predictions of C-shock models current in the literature.

  13. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  14. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the X-ray Detected Broad Absorption Line QSO CSO 755

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Niel

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from XMM-Newton observations of the highly optically polarized broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) CSO 755. By analyzing its X-ray spectrum with a total of approximately 3000 photons we find that this source has an X-ray continuum of "typical" radio-quiet quasars, with a photon index of Gamma=1.83, and a rather flat (X-ray bright) intrinsic optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of alpha_ox=- 1.51. The source shows evidence for intrinsic absorption, and fitting the spectrum with a neutral-absorption model gives a column density of N_H approximately 1.2x10^22 cm^{-2}; this is among the lowest X-ray columns measured for BALQSOs. We do not detect, with high significance, any other absorption features in the X-ray spectrum. Upper limits we place on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral (ionized) Fe K-alpha line, less than =180 eV (less than =120 eV), and on the Compton-reflection component parameter, R less than =0.2, suggest that most of the X-rays from the source are directly observed rather than being scattered or reflected; this is also supported by the relatively flat intrinsic alpha ox we measure. The possibility that most of the X-ray flux is scattered due to the high level of UV-optical polarization is ruled out. Considering data for 46 BALQSOs from the literature, including CSO 755, we have found that the UV-optical continuum polarization level of BALQSOs is not correlated with any of their X-ray properties. A lack of significant short-term and long-term X-ray flux variations in the source may be attributed to a large black-hole mass in CSO 755. We note that another luminous BALQSO, PG 2112+059, has both similar shallow C IV BALs and moderate X-ray absorption.

  15. THE JHU-SDSS METAL ABSORPTION LINE CATALOG: REDSHIFT EVOLUTION AND PROPERTIES OF Mg II ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guangtun; Menard, Brice

    2013-06-20

    We present a generic and fully automatic method aimed at detecting absorption lines in the spectra of astronomical objects. The algorithm estimates the source continuum flux using a dimensionality reduction technique and nonnegative matrix factorization, and then detects and identifies metal absorption lines. We apply it to a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and compile a sample of {approx}40,000 Mg II- and Fe II-absorber systems, spanning the redshift range 0.4 < z < 2.3. The corresponding catalog is publicly available. We study the statistical properties of these absorber systems and find that the rest equivalent width distribution of strong Mg II absorbers follows an exponential distribution at all redshifts, confirming previous studies. Combining our results with recent near-infrared observations of Mg II absorbers, we introduce a new parameterization that fully describes the incidence rate of these systems up to z {approx} 5. We find the redshift evolution of strong Mg II absorbers to be remarkably similar to the cosmic star formation history over 0.4 < z < 5.5 (the entire redshift range covered by observations), suggesting a physical link between these two quantities.

  16. A measurement of the 362 GHz absorption line of Mars atmospheric H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    2004-03-01

    The 362.156 GHz absorption spectrum of H 2O 2 in the Mars atmosphere was observed on September 4 of 2003, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) sub-millimeter facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Radiative transfer analysis of this line absorption yields an average volume mixing ratio of 18±0.4 ppbv within the lower (0-30 km) Mars atmosphere, in general accordance with standard photochemical models (e.g., Nair et al., 1994, Icarus 111, 124-150). Our derived H 2O 2 abundance is roughly three times greater than the upper limit retrieved by Encrenaz et al. (2002, Astron. Astrophys. 396, 1037-1044) from infrared spectroscopy, although part of this discrepancy may result from the different solar longitudes ( Ls) of observation. Aphelion-to-perihelion thermal forcing of the global Mars hygropause generates substantial (>200%) increases in HO x abundances above ˜10 km altitudes between the Ls=112° period of the Encrenaz et al. upper limit measurement and the current Ls=250° period of detection (Clancy and Nair, 1996, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 12785-12590). The observed H 2O 2 line absorption weakens arguments for non-standard homogeneous (Encrenaz et al., 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 396, 1037-1044) or heterogeneous (Krasnopolsky, 2003a, J. Geophys. Res. 108; 2003b, Icarus 165, 315-325) chemistry, which have been advocated partly on the basis of infrared (8 μm) non-detections for Mars H 2O 2. Observation of Mars H 2O 2 also represents the first measurement of a key catalytic specie in a planetary atmosphere other than our own.

  17. Absorption-line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (? cm-2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z > 3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is <25 per cent (10 per cent) for LLSs and <5 per cent (1 per cent) for DLAs, slowly declining with time following the universal expansion. Nevertheless, galaxies and their cold streams in the studied mass range, Mvir= 1010-1012 M⊙, account for >30 per cent of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the intergalactic medium. The mean metallicity in the streams is ˜1 per cent solar, much lower than in the galaxies. The simulated galaxies reproduce the Lyα-absorption equivalent widths observed around Lyman-break galaxies, but they severely underpredict the equivalent widths in metal lines, suggesting that the latter may arise from outflows. We conclude that the observed metal-poor LLSs are likely detections of the predicted cold streams. Revised analysis of the observed LLSs kinematics and simulations with more massive outflows in conjunction with the inflows may enable a clearer distinction between the signatures of the various gas modes.

  18. VARIABLE REDDENING AND BROAD ABSORPTION LINES IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007: AN ORIGIN IN THE TORUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leighly, Karen M.; Cooper, Erin; Grupe, Dirk; Terndrup, Donald M.; Komossa, S.

    2015-08-10

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ∼2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director’s Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the C iv emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variable scale height, and the BAL gas is blown from the torus material like spray from the crest of a wave. As the obscuring material passes into our line of sight, we alternately see high-velocity broad absorption lines and a clear view to the central engine, or low-velocity broad absorption lines and strong reddening. WPVS 007 has a small black hole mass, and correspondingly short timescales, and so we may be observing behavior that is common in BALQSOs, but is not typically observable.

  19. Long-term variations of the oxygen red 630 nm line nightglow intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudadze, N. B.; Didebulidze, G. G.; Javakhishvili, G. Sh.; Shepherd, M. G.; Vardosanidze, M. V.

    2007-02-01

    The long-term data set of total nightglow intensity of the oxygen red 630.0 nm line observed at Abastumani (41.8 degrees N, 42.8 degrees E) between 1957-1993 is investigated. The long-term trend and characteristic variations in solar radiation during an 11 year cycle of the red-line intensity are different after astronomical twilight (premidnight) and at midnight. The amplitude of deviation of the red-line intensity from its mean value at solar maximum and (or) minimum phase is greatest after astronomical twilight and decreases toward midnight. The long-term trend of these variations changes from its value about 0.74 R/year premidnight to its minimum negative value of about -1.92 R/year at and after midnight. This behavior of the long-term trend is considered as a possible result of an increase in electron density below the peak height (h(m)F2) of the ionospheric F2 layer and lowering of the height h(m)F2 after midnight predicted by the TIME-GCM model on the assumption of an increase in density of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The third-order regression equation (with different solar activity indices) is considered to be convenient for describing long-term variations in the mean annual red-line intensity.

  20. {ital Hubble Space Telescope} Observations of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 0946+301

    SciTech Connect

    Arav, N.; Korista, K.T. |; de Kool, M. |; Junkkarinen, V.T.; Begelman, M.C.

    1999-05-01

    We analyze {ital Hubble Space Telescope} ({ital HST}) and ground-based spectra of the brightest broad absorption line (BAL) quasar in the UV: PG 0946+301. A detailed study of the absorption troughs as a function of velocity is presented, facilitated by the use of a new algorithm to solve for the optical depth as a function of velocity for multiplet lines. We find convincing evidence for saturation in parts of the troughs. This supports our previous assertion that saturation is common in BALs and therefore cast doubts on claims for very high metallicity in BAL flows. Because of the importance of BAL saturation we also discuss its evidence in other objects. In PG 0946+301 large differences in ionization as a function of velocity are detected, and our findings support the hypothesis that the line of sight intersects a number of flow components that combine to give the appearance of the whole trough. Based on the optical depth profiles, we develop a geometrical-kinematical model for the flow. We have positively identified 16 ions of eight elements (H i, C iii, C iv, N iii, N iv, N v, O iii, O iv, O v, O vi, Ne v, Ne viii, P v, Si iv, S v, S vi) and have probable identifications of Mg x and S iv. Unlike earlier analysis of {ital IUE} data, we find no evidence for BALs arising from excited ionic states in the {ital HST} spectrum of PG 0946+301. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  1. Multi-Sightline Observation of Narrow Absorption Lines in Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Saez, Cristian; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Chartas, George; Bauer, Franz E.; Inada, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-07-01

    We exploit the widely separated images of the lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 ({z}{em} = 2.197, θ = 22.″5) to observe its outflowing wind through two different sightlines. We present an analysis of three observations, including two with the Subaru telescope in 2010 February and 2014 April, separated by four years, and one with the Very Large Telescope, separated from the second Subaru observation by ˜2 months. We detect 66 narrow absorption lines (NALs), of which 24 are classified as intrinsic NALs that are physically associated with the quasar based on partial coverage analysis. The velocities of intrinsic NALs appear to cluster around values of {v}{ej} ˜ 59,000, 43,000, and 29,000 km s‑1, which is reminiscent of filamentary structures obtained by numerical simulations. There are no common intrinsic NALs at the same redshift along the two sightlines, implying that the transverse size of the NAL absorbers should be smaller than the sightline distance between two lensed images. In addition to the NALs with large ejection velocities of {v}{ej} > 1000 km s‑1, we also detect broader proximity absorption lines (PALs) at {z}{abs} ˜ {z}{em}. The PALs are likely to arise in outflowing gas at a distance of r ≤ 620 pc from the central black hole with an electron density of n e ≥8.7 × 103 cm‑3. These limits are based on the assumption that the variability of the lines is due to recombination. We discuss the implications of these results on the three-dimensional structure of the outflow.

  2. Line intensities and self-broadening coefficients for the ν2 band of methyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.

    2016-08-01

    The present report concerns measurements of lines intensities and self-broadening coefficients for 170 transitions of the ν2 band of both 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl isotopologues between 1291 and 1403 cm-1. This work is the continuation of a previous effort on the ν5 band (Barbouchi Ramchani et al., 2013). For these studies, spectra of CH3Cl have been recorded at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS120 HR interferometer. The line parameters have been retrieved using a Voigt profile and a multispectrum fitting procedure. The average accuracy of the line parameters obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 2% and 5% for line intensities and between 5% and 10% for self-broadening coefficients depending on the transitions. A global comparison with the experimental values existing in the literature has been performed. The measurements of line intensities have also been compared to calculated values from HITRAN and GEISA databases.

  3. Experimental evidence and theoretical modeling of two-photon absorption dynamics in the reduction of intensity noise of solid-state Er:Yb lasers.

    PubMed

    El Amili, Abdelkrim; Kervella, Gaël; Alouini, Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity noise reduction induced by two-photon absorption in a Er,Yb:Glass laser is reported. The time response of the two-photon absorption mechanism is shown to play an important role on the behavior of the intensity noise spectrum of the laser. A model including an additional rate equation for the two-photon-absorption losses is developed and allows the experimental observations to be predicted.

  4. Spectral aspects of the determination of Si in organic and aqueous solutions using high-resolution continuum source or line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Pilarczyk, Janusz; Gościniak, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) was applied to reveal and investigate spectral interference in the determination of Si. An intensive structured background was observed in the analysis of both aqueous and xylene solutions containing S compounds. This background was attributed to absorption by the CS molecule formed in the N2O-C2H2 flame. The lines of the CS spectrum at least partially overlap all five of the most sensitive Si lines investigated. The 251.611 nm Si line was demonstrated to be the most advantageous. The intensity of the structured background caused by the CS molecule significantly depends on the chemical form of S in the solution and is the highest for the most-volatile CS2. The presence of O atoms in an initial S molecule can diminish the formation of CS. To overcome this S effect, various modes of baseline fitting and background correction were evaluated, including iterative background correction (IBC) and utilization of correction pixels (WRC). These modes were used either independently or in conjunction with least squares background correction (LSBC). The IBC + LSBC mode can correct the extremely strong interference caused by CS2 at an S concentration of 5% w:w in the investigated solution. However, the efficiency of this mode depends on the similarity of the processed spectra and the correction spectra in terms of intensity and in additional effects, such as a sloping baseline. In the vicinity of the Si line, three lines of V were recorded. These lines are well-separated in the HR-CS FAAS spectrum, but they could be a potential source of overcorrection when using line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS). The expected signal for the 251.625 nm Fe line was not registered at 200 mg L- 1 Fe concentration in the solution, probably due to the diminished population of Fe atoms in the high-temperature flame used. The observations made using HR-CS FAAS helped to establish a "safe" level

  5. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  6. Modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced absorption from conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yukio

    2000-03-01

    The modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced infrared absorption from poly(p-phenylene) have been observed and simulated numerically on the basis of a model based on second-order kinetics involving a neutralization recombination process between the positive and negative charge carriers (polarons) that are formed from a photogenerated polaron pair (interchain charge-transfer exciton). The rate constant of the bimolecular recombination has been obtained.

  7. Energy absorption of free rare gas clusters irradiated by intense VUV pulses of a free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, J.; Wabnitz, H.; Laarmann, T.; Gürtler, P.; Laasch, W.; Swiderski, A.; Möller, Th.; de Castro, A. R. B.

    2003-07-01

    As one of the first experiments at the free electron laser of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) the Coulomb explosion of Xenon clusters irradiated with high intensity pulses at a wavelength of 98 nm has been observed. Classical trajectory calculations have been performed in order to illuminate the energy absorption process. Comparison with typical parameters in the infrared regime shows that above barrier ionization is suppressed due to the fast oscillating field and thermionic ionization prevails.

  8. Time-Variable Complex Metal Absorption Lines in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Tajitsu, Akito

    2005-08-01

    We present a new spectrum of the quasar HS 1603+3820 taken 1.28 yr (0.36 yr in the quasar rest frame) after a previous observation with Subaru+HDS. The new spectrum enables us to search for time variability as an identifier of intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs). This quasar shows a rich complex of C IV NALs within 60,000 km s-1 of the emission redshift. On the basis of covering factor analysis, Misawa et al. found that the C IV NAL system at zabs=2.42-2.45 (system A, at a shift velocity of vsh=8300-10,600 km s-1 relative to the quasar) was intrinsic to the quasar. With our new spectrum, we perform time variability analysis, as well as covering factor analysis, to separate intrinsic NALs from intervening NALs for eight C IV systems. Only system A, which was identified as an intrinsic system in the earlier paper by Misawa et al., shows a strong variation in line strength (Wobs~10.4-->19.1 Å). We speculate that a broad absorption line (BAL) could be forming in this quasar (i.e., many narrower lines will blend together to make a BAL profile). We illustrate the plausibility of this suggestion with the help of a simulation in which we vary the column densities and covering factors of the NAL complex. Under the assumption that a change of ionization state causes the variability, a lower limit can be placed on the electron density (ne>~3×104cm-3) and an upper limit on the distance from the continuum source (r<=6 kpc). On the other hand, if the motion of clumpy gas causes the variability (a more likely scenario), the crossing velocity and the distance from the continuum source are estimated to be vcross>8000 km s-1 and r<3 pc. In this case, the absorber does not intercept any flux from the broad emission line region, but only flux from the UV continuum source. If we adopt the dynamical model of Murray et al., we can obtain a much more strict constraint on the distance of the gas parcel from the continuum source, r<0.2 pc. Based on data collected at the Subaru

  9. Rest-frame optical properties of luminous, radio-selected broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Ganguly, R.; Brotherton, M. S.; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z = 0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R* ≈ 0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R* ≲ 1) BAL quasars at similar redshifts and to low-redshift quasars from the Palomar-Green catalogue. As with previous studies of BAL quasars, we find that [O III] λ5007 is weak, and optical Fe II emission is strong, a rare combination in canonically radio-loud (log R* ≳ 1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission-line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios. These lie in the range (0.4-2.6) × 109 M⊙ and 0.1-0.9, respectively. Despite their comparatively extreme radio properties relative to most BAL quasars, their optical properties are quite consistent with those of radio-quiet BAL quasars and dissimilar to those of radio-loud non-BAL quasars. While BAL quasars generally appear to have low values of [O III] λ5007/Fe II an extreme of `Eigenvector 1', the Balmer line widths and Eddington ratios do not appear to significantly differ from those of unabsorbed quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities.

  10. The velocity distribution of interstellar gas observed in strong UV absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity distribution function for the interstellar gas. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential distribution functions. The expected distribution of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.

  11. Recombination line intensities for hydrogenic ions. III - Effects of finite optical depth and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Storey, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on the recombination spectrum of hydrogen arising from: (1) finite optical thickness in the Lyman lines; (2) the overlapping of Lyman lines near the series limit; (3) the absorption of Lyman lines by dust or photoionization, and (4) the long-wave radiation emitted by dust is examined. Full account is taken of electron and heavy particle collisions in redistributing energy and angular momentum. It is seen that each of these deviations from the classical Case B leads to observable effects, and that dust influences the recombination spectrum in characteristic ways that may make possible new observational constraints on dust properties in nebulosities. On the basis of these calculations it is believed that the uncertainty in the determination of the helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio in the universe may be larger than currently claimed.

  12. Gamma–Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Els, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The expected level of γγ absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of γ-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) is evaluated as a function of the location of the γ-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the γγ opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to γγ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the γ-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the central engine and drops below unity for locations within the BLR. For locations outside the BLR, the BLR radiation energy density required for the production of GeV γ-rays rapidly increases beyond observational constraints, thus making the EC-BLR mechanism implausible. Therefore, in order to avoid significant γγ absorption by the BLR radiation field, the γ-ray emission region must therefore be located near the outer boundary of the BLR.

  13. Examining Helium Line Intensities and Ratios in a Linear Helium Plasma to Identify Te and ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, H.; Biewer, T. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Fehling, D. T.; Isler, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma device dedicated to the understanding of plasma material interaction physics. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) based diagnostic system called a filterscope examines the visible light emission from Proto-MPEX. The filterscope is a non-invasive, high sensitivity, and high temporal resolution compact system with multiple PMT channels. Three PMTs contain He I narrow bandpass filters of wavelengths 667.9, 723.6, and 706.7 nm for line ratio analysis. Helium line intensities and ratios have been widely applied on astrophysical plasmas and machines such as JET and NSTX to determine profiles of electron temperatures, Te, and densities, ne. Ratios of the He I intensities measured by the filterscope are compared to calculated intensity ratios determined through a collisional radiative model (CRM) as follows: An excited He atom in state P will de-excite to a lower energy level Q by emitting a photon of a specific wavelength. A CRM uses the interactions P has with Q and other energy levels to calculate the population density of P. The calculated population density is used to determine the spectral line intensity of the wavelength analyzed. The aforementioned process is performed for each of the He I bandpass filters, and ratios dependent on Te and ne are calculated and compared to the filterscopes measured ratios. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF O VI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 Å)/I(1038 Å) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 Å)/I(1038 Å) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the O VI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  15. X-ray absorption/emission line spectroscopy of the Galactic hot gaseous halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether or not the Milky Way is surrounded by a large-scale, massive corona. Vastly different conclusions as to its extent and mass have been drawn from existing studies based on X-ray absorption and/or emission line spectroscopy. I will discuss my assessment of this issue, focusing on various uncertainties and potential problems in the present data, analyses, results, and interpretations.In particular, I will examine how different assumptions about the temperature distribution of the corona affect the inference of its physical scale. I will also discuss the external perspectives of galactic coronae obtained form observing nearby highly-inclined disk galaxies.

  16. FR-II Broad Absorption Line Quasars and the Life Cycle of Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, M D; Becker, R H; de Vries, W

    2006-01-05

    By combining the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey Third Data Release quasar list with the VLA FIRST survey, we have identified five objects having both broad absorption lines in their optical spectra and FR-II radio morphologies. We identify an additional example of this class from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey, J1408+3054. Including the original FR-II-BAL object, J1016+5209, brings the number of such objects to eight. These quasars are relatively rare; finding this small handful has required the 45,000-large quasar sample of SDSS. The FR-II-BAL quasars exhibit a significant anti-correlation between radio-loudness and the strength of the BAL features. This is easily accounted for by the evolutionary picture in which quasars emerge from cocoons of BAL-producing material which stifle the development of radio jets and lobes. There is no such simple explanation for the observed properties of FR-II-BALs in the unification-by-orientation model of quasars. The rarity of the FR-II-BAL class implies that the two phases do not coexist for very long in a single quasar, perhaps less than 10{sup 5} years, with the combined FR-II, high ionization broad absorption phase being even shorter by another factor of 10 or more.

  17. Absorption Line Studies and the Distribution of Neutral Gas in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Previous published absorption line studies performed at ultraviolet and visual wavelengths are combined with new ultraviolet data in order to map out the distribution of HI within 150 pc of the Sun. Newly presented data for distances less than 50 pc further support the local cloud model as presented by Bruhweiler (1982). The Sun is embedded, near the edge of a diffuse cloud with total column density 2 x 10 to the 19th power/sq cm. Most observed directions within 50 pc away from the cloud body reveal trace amounts of gas (N)HI) approximately 10 to the 18th power/sq cm presumably arising in the outer skin of the local cloud. At greater distances (50 approximately or d approximately or 150 pc) most directions show significant absorption with N(HI) 10(19)/sq cm. Two directions, one toward the northern galactic pole (NGP), the other toward beta CMa exhibit unusually low HI column densities out to distances of 150 to 200 pc. However, substantial amounts of gas N(HI) 10 to the 19th power/sq cm, are seen toward the NGP at greater distances. The implicatons of these results on astronomy at wavelengths shortward of 912A are discussed.

  18. Determination of sulfur in biodiesel microemulsions using the summation of the intensities of multiple emission lines.

    PubMed

    Young, Carl G; Amais, Renata S; Schiavo, Daniela; Garcia, Edivaldo E; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Jones, Bradley T

    2011-05-15

    A method for the determination of sulfur in biodiesel samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry which uses microemulsion for sample preparation and the summation of the intensities of multiple emission lines has been developed. Microemulsions were prepared using 0.5 mL of 20% v/v HNO(3), 0.5 mL of Triton X-100, 2-3 mL of biodiesel sample, and diluted with n-propanol to a final volume of 10 mL. Summation of the emission intensities of multiple sulfur lines allowed for increased accuracy and sensitivity. The amounts of sulfur determined experimentally were between 2 and 7 mg L(-1), well below legislative standards for many countries. Recoveries obtained ranged from 72 to 119%, and recoveries obtained for the 182.562 nm line were slightly lower. This is most likely due to its lower sensitivity. Using microemulsion for sample preparation and the summation of the intensities of multiple emission lines for the successful determination of sulfur in biodiesel has been demonstrated. PMID:21482315

  19. Unusual high-redshift radio broad absorption-line quasar 1624+3758

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, C. R.; Carballo, R.; Holt, J.; Vigotti, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Mack, K.-H.; Perley, R. A.

    2005-07-01

    We present observations of the most radio-luminous broad absorption-line (BAL) quasar known, 1624+3758, at redshift z= 3.377. The quasar has several unusual properties. (1) The FeII UV191 1787-Åemission line is very prominent. (2) The BAL trough (BALnicity index 2990 km s-1) is detached by 21000 km s-1 and extends to velocity v=-29000 km s-1. There are additional intrinsic absorbers at -1900 and -2800 km s-1. (3) The radio rotation measure of the quasar, 18350 rad m-2, is the second highest known. The radio luminosity is P1.4GHz= 4.3 × 1027 W Hz-1 (H0= 50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0= 0.5) and the radio loudness is R*= 260. The radio source is compact and the radio spectrum is GHz-peaked, consistent with it being relatively young. The width of the CIV emission line, in conjunction with the total optical luminosity, implies a black hole mass MBH~ 109Msolar, L/LEddington~ 2. The high Eddington ratio and the radio-loudness place this quasar in one corner of Boroson's two-component scheme for the classification of active galactic nuclei, implying a very high accretion rate, and this may account for some of the unusual observed properties. The v=-1900km s-1 absorber is a possible Lyman-limit system, with N(HI) = 4 × 1018 cm-2, and a covering factor of 0.7. A complex mini-BAL absorber at v=-2200 to -3400 km s-1 is detected in each of CIV, NV and OVI. The blue and red components of the CIV doublet happen to be unblended, allowing both the covering factor and optical depth to be determined as a function of velocity. Variation of the covering factor with velocity dominates the form of the mini-BAL, with the absorption being saturated (e-τ~ 0) over most of the velocity range. The velocity dependence of the covering factor and the large velocity width imply that the mini-BAL is intrinsic to the quasar. There is some evidence of line-locking between velocity components in the CIV mini-BAL, suggesting that radiation pressure plays a role in accelerating the outflow.

  20. Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-Year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Filiz Ak, N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; SDSS-III BAL Variability Team

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening vs. weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability. The good prospects for significantly extending this work will be briefly summarized.

  1. THE INTRINSIC FRACTIONS AND RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-IONIZATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Xinyu; Shankar, Francesco; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-10-01

    Low-ionization (Mg II, Fe II, and Fe III) broad absorption line quasars (LoBALs) probe a relatively obscured quasar population and could be at an early evolutionary stage for quasars. We study the intrinsic fractions of LoBALs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey. We find that the LoBAL fractions of the near-infrared (NIR) and radio samples are approximately 5-7 times higher than those measured in the optical sample. This suggests that the fractions measured in the NIR and radio bands are closer to the intrinsic fractions of the populations, and that the optical fractions are significantly biased due to obscuration effects, similar to high-ionization broad absorption line quasars (HiBALs). Considering a population of obscured quasars that do not enter the SDSS, which could have a much higher LoBAL fraction, we expect that the intrinsic fraction of LoBALs could be even higher. We also find that the LoBAL fractions decrease with increasing radio luminosities, again, similarly to HiBALs. In addition, we find evidence for increasing fractions of LoBALs toward higher NIR luminosities, especially for FeLoBALs with a fraction of {approx}18% at M{sub K{sub s}}< -31 mag. This population of NIR-luminous LoBALs may be at an early evolutionary stage of quasar evolution. To interpret the data, we use a luminosity-dependent model for LoBALs that yields significantly better fits than those from a pure geometric model.

  2. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. II. RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Charlie; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-11-20

    The spectral absorption lines in early-type galaxies contain a wealth of information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, and stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population. Using our new population synthesis model that accounts for the effect of variable abundance ratios of 11 elements, we analyze very high quality absorption line spectra of 38 early-type galaxies and the nuclear bulge of M31. These data extend to 1 {mu}m and they therefore include the IMF-sensitive spectral features Na I, Ca II, and FeH at 0.82 {mu}m, 0.86 {mu}m, and 0.99 {mu}m, respectively. The models fit the data well, with typical rms residuals {approx}< 1%. Strong constraints on the IMF and therefore the stellar mass-to-light ratio, (M/L){sub stars}, are derived for individual galaxies. We find that the IMF becomes increasingly bottom-heavy with increasing velocity dispersion and [Mg/Fe]. At the lowest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF is consistent with the Milky Way (MW) IMF, while at the highest dispersions and [Mg/Fe] values the derived IMF contains more low-mass stars (is more bottom-heavy) than even a Salpeter IMF. Our best-fit (M/L){sub stars} values do not exceed dynamically based M/L values. We also apply our models to stacked spectra of four metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and find an (M/L){sub stars} that implies fewer low-mass stars than a MW IMF, again agreeing with dynamical constraints. We discuss other possible explanations for the observed trends and conclude that variation in the IMF is the simplest and most plausible.

  3. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  4. Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in "shielding gas" may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  5. A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Additional, secondary velocity components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume holding the gas that we identify with the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about - 7.2 km/s with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of an implosive shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  6. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    SciTech Connect

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E.; Keenan, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  7. Communication: Visible line intensities of the triatomic hydrogen ion from experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Berg, Max H.; Grussie, Florian; Wolf, Andreas; Mizus, Irina I.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Pavanello, Michele; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-12-28

    The visible spectrum of H{sub 3}{sup +} is studied using high-sensitivity action spectroscopy in a cryogenic radiofrequency multipole trap. Advances are made to measure the weak ro-vibrational transitions from the lowest rotational states of H{sub 3}{sup +} up to high excitation energies providing visible line intensities and, after normalisation to an infrared calibration line, the corresponding Einstein B coefficients. Ab initio predictions for the Einstein B coefficients are obtained from a highly precise dipole moment surface of H{sub 3}{sup +} and found to be in excellent agreement, even in the region where states have been classified as chaotic.

  8. Sharp R-lines in absorption and emission of Cr3 in stoichiometric (VTE) LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C.; Kapphan, S.; Feng, Xi-Qi; Cheng, Ning

    R-line absorption and luminescence spectra of Cr3+ doped LiNbO3 show a distinct dependence on crystal stoichiometry. In the Cr3+ R-line region around 730 nm, up to five transitions can be observed in absorption and emission. In stoichiometric LiNbO3:Cr crystals the line width (FWHM) in both absorption and emission decreases by about a factor of 2.5 in comparison with the same transitions in congruent samples. The emission line at lowest energy in the R-line spectrum (λ = 734.5 nm) disappears completely in stoichiometric LiNbO3:Cr. This results, discussed together with models dealing with charge compensated Cr3+ pairs on Li and Nb sites and unpaired Cr3+ on Li site, is indicating a vanishing of the unpaired Cr3+Li with increasing [Li]/[Nb] ratio. Luminescence lifetime measurements in stoichiometric LiNbO3:Cr reveal values similar to results for congruent material of τ = 295 μs for the 731 nm line and τ = 268 μs for the 735 nm line, underlining the R-line character of these transitions.

  9. Impact of difference in absorption line parameters in spectroscopic databases on CO2 and CH4 atmospheric content retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, T. Yu.; Chentsov, A. V.; Rokotyan, N. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of uncertainties in CH4 and CO2 absorption line parameters in modern spectroscopic databases on the atmospheric transmission simulation in the near-infrared region is investigated. The atmospheric contents of CH4 and CO2 are retrieved from the absorption solar spectra measured by a ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer. Different spectroscopic databases are used in the forward radiative transfer model and a comparison of the retrieved results is made.

  10. Metal-line absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) from associated galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.; Yee, H. K. C.; Bechtold, Jill; Dobrzycki, Adam

    1994-01-01

    For a preliminary study of whether C IV absorption at Z(sub abs) approximately Z(sub em) is related to associated galaxy companions, we have collected data from a sample of 10 quasars with 0.15 less than z less than 0.65 for which high-resolution optical and UV spectroscopy is available from the literature, and for which we have deep optical images and limited spectroscopy. We also present new optical spectra for two of our samples. Four of these quasars have associated C IV absorption systems. In thes four fields, there are eight galaxies with M(sub r) less than -19.0 mag within 35 kpc of the quasar (projected distance, assuming they are at the quasar redshift), which may be candidates for the associated C IV absorption. This observed density of galaxies near quasars with associated C IV absorption is significantly greater than that for a control sample of quasars chosen from the literature. This result suggests that galaxies near the quasar line of sight may be linked with associated C IV absorption. None of these quasars show associated Mg II absorption, despite the presence of galaxies very near the line of sight, suggesting a Mg II 'proximity effect,' where ionizing flux from the quasar destroys the Mg(+) from at least the outer parts of the galaxies. Three quasars are located in rich galaxy clusters, but none of these quasars are found to have associated C IV absorption. This suggests that galaxies in rich clusters associated with quasars are less likely to be metal-line absorbers. It is plausible that the extended galaxy halos which may be responsible for the absorptions are stripped from galaxies in these dense environments. While it seems that at Z approximately 0.6 rich clusters do not cause them, associated C IV absorption systems at higher redshift may be explained by associated clusters if there has been evolution in the properties of galaxy halos in dense environments.

  11. A novel control system for automatically locking a diode laser frequency to a selected gas absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Ma, Weiguang; Jia, Suotang

    2007-05-01

    A novel control system has been developed for avoiding manual operation during traditional frequency locking. The control system uses a computer with a commercial data acquisition card. This accomplishes the whole operation of frequency locking, including generating ramp, searching locking point, engaging a proportional-integral-differential (PID) regulator at the proper time and outputting PID compensation signal. Moreover, a new method has also been employed to make the novel control system accurately identify the locking points of all absorption lines within the scanning range, so that the laser frequency can be automatically firmly brought onto any selected absorption line centre without any adjusting time. The operation of the system, the ability to identify absorption lines and the performance of the frequency locking were discussed in detail. Successful tests were made with two different lasers: external cavity diode lasers and distributed feedback diode lasers.

  12. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R.; Lundgren, B. F.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen Yue; York, D. G.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E.; Weaver, B. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  13. AN INFRARED EXCESS IDENTIFIED IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Brotherton, M. S.; Myers, A. D.

    2013-01-10

    If broad absorption line (BAL) quasars represent a high-covering-fraction evolutionary state (even if this is not the sole factor governing the presence of BALs), it is expected that they should show an excess of mid-infrared radiation compared to normal quasars. Some previous studies have suggested that this is not the case. We perform the first analysis of the IR properties of radio-loud BAL quasars, using IR data from WISE and optical (rest-frame ultraviolet) data from SDSS, and compare the BAL quasar sample with a well-matched sample of unabsorbed quasars. We find a statistically significant excess in the mid- to near-infrared luminosities of BAL quasars, particularly at rest-frame wavelengths of 1.5 and 4 {mu}m. Our sample was previously used to show that BALs are observed along many lines of sight toward quasars, but with an overabundance of more edge-on sources, suggesting that orientation factors into the appearance of BALs. The evidence here-of a difference in IR luminosities between BAL quasars and unabsorbed quasars-can be ascribed to evolution. This suggests that a merging of the current BAL paradigms is needed to fully describe the class.

  14. Magnetic Turbulence and Line Broadening in Simulations of Lyman-Alpha Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvich, Alex; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Bird, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    We use the Illustris cosmological AREPO simulations to study the effects of gas turbulence and magnetic fields on measurements from the Lyman-Alpha forest. We generate simulated Lyman-Alpha spectra and plot the distributions of Column Density (CDD) and Doppler Width (b) both by adhering to the canonical method of fitting Voigt profiles to absorption lines and by directly measuring the column density and equivalent widths from snapshot data .We investigate the effects of additional unresolved gas turbulence in Illustris by adding an additional broadening term to the line profiles to mimic turbulent broadening. When we do this, we find a measurable effect in the CDD and an offset in the mean of the b distribution corresponding to the additional turbulence. We also compare different MHD runs in AREPO we find that the CDD can measurably differentiate between magnetic seed field at redshifts as low as z=0.1, but we do not find that the b distribution is affected at a detectable level. Our work suggests that the effects of turbulence and magnetic fields from z=2-0.1 can potentially be measured with these diagnostics. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  15. Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines in the X-ray burst spectra of a neutron star.

    PubMed

    Cottam, J; Paerels, F; Mendez, M

    2002-11-01

    The fundamental properties of neutron stars provide a direct test of the equation of state of cold nuclear matter, a relationship between pressure and density that is determined by the physics of the strong interactions between the particles that constitute the star. The most straightforward method of determining these properties is by measuring the gravitational redshift of spectral lines produced in the neutron star photosphere. The equation of state implies a mass-radius relation, while a measurement of the gravitational redshift at the surface of a neutron star provides a direct constraint on the mass-to-radius ratio. Here we report the discovery of significant absorption lines in the spectra of 28 bursts of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO0748-676. We identify the most significant features with the Fe XXVI and XXV n = 2-3 and O VIII n = 1-2 transitions, all with a redshift of z = 0.35, identical within small uncertainties for the respective transitions. For an astrophysically plausible range of masses (M approximately 1.3-2.0 solar masses; refs 2-5), this value is completely consistent with models of neutron stars composed of normal nuclear matter, while it excludes some models in which the neutron stars are made of more exotic matter. PMID:12422210

  16. Does Velocity Redistribution Really Enhance the HE 304 A Line to Observed Intensities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Stuart; Andretta, Vincenzo; Garcia, Adriana; Brosius, Jeffrey; Behring, William

    1999-01-01

    Previous work by this group has demonstrated that small-scale nonthermal velocities probably play a significant role in enhancing the intensity of the He II 304 A line above values predicted by the static atmosphere NLTE theories, and more in conformity with Skylab and SOHO observations. This presentation briefly summarizes the evidence for this conclusion, emphasizing SOHO and correlated groundbased observations, of which examples are presented. However, in contrast to the previous studies, the tact taken here is more critical, asking the question "Can velocity redistribution fully explain the observations of the 304 A line, and what counter-indications and problems remain?" The conclusion reached is that, while velocity redistribution plays a significant role in the intensity enhancement, it may not be the whole story. Some other mechanism, associated with velocity filtration, may be at work.

  17. Study of NH3 Line Intensities in the THz and Far-IR Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shanshan

    Ammonia (NH3) exists in the interstellar medium, late-type stars and giant planets of our solar system. Its temperature and abundance profiles in these environments, which are derived with its line parameters as fixed input , are commonly used to provide constraints on retrieving minor species. Therefore NH3 line parameters are essential for interpreting astrophysical and planetary spectra from Herschel, SOFIA, ALMA and JWST. However, our work under a predecessor grant with the APRA program revealed significant deficiencies in NH3 intensities in the terahertz and FIR region, including some weak Delta(K)=3 forbidden transitions predicted to be 100 times stronger. The Delta(K)=3 transitions are the ones connecting levels with different K values and therefore the only way other than collisions and l-doubled states to excite NH3 to K>0 levels. Their intensities have to be corrected to explain the observed high K excitation, such as the detection of NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2)&(14,14) and (18,18) transitions toward the galactic center star forming region Sgr B2, and to provide insights into the radiative- transfer vs. collision excitation mechanics of interstellar NH3. This proposal will remedy the serious deficiencies in the current databases involving NH3 line parameters in the terahertz and FIR region. We will target transitions with intensities greater than 10^{-23} cm-1/ (molecule/cm2) at 296 K, which will be among new astrophysical detections made by SOFIA, ALMA and JWST, and are 1000 times weaker than the strongest ground state transitions. We will retrieve new positions and intensities from existing laboratory spectra, use them to evaluate the current databases and ab initio calculations, and repair the line positions and intensities by replacing poorly calculated values with our new measurements. The proposed research will result in (1) a validated linelist containing the positions, intensities and lower state energies for the very important Delta(K)=3 NH3 FIR

  18. Effect of deuteron temperature on iron forbidden line intensities in rf-heated tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Suckewer, S.; Wouters, A.

    1987-05-01

    Two line ratios, the forbidden line at 845.5 A (2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) to the allowed line at 135.7 A (2s/sup 2/2p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ - 2s2p/sup 2/ /sup 2/D/sub 3/2/) in Fe XXII and the forbidden line at 592.1 A (2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 1/D/sub 2/) to the forbidden line at 1118.2 A (2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 2/ - 2s/sup 2/2p/sup 4/ /sup 3/P/sub 1/) in Fe XIX, have been measured as the ion temperature-sensitive line ratios during rf heating in the Princeton Large Torus. The results indicate that deuteron collisions in plasmas of high deuteron temperature have a noticeable effect on the intensity of the forbidden lines. Measured relative intensities are compared with values from level population calculations, which include deuteron collisional excitation between the levels of the ground configuration. The agreement between the observed and calculated ratios is within 30%. A method for deuteron (or proton) temperature measurement in tokamak plasmas is discussed. 37 refs.

  19. Line Positions and Intensities of Monodeuterated Methane Between 2.2 and 2.5 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Linda R.; Sung, K.; Nikitin, A. V.; Smith, M. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Rey, M.

    2012-10-01

    A new study of 12CH3D line positions and intensities was performed for the upper portion of the Enneadecad polyad between 4000 and 4550 cm-1. For this, FTIR spectra were recorded with D-enriched methane samples (at 80 K with a Bruker 125 IFS at 0.005 cm-1 resolution and at 291 K with the McMath-Pierce FTS at 0.011 cm-1 resolution, respectively). Line positions and intensities were retrieved by least square curve-fitting procedures and analyzed using the effective Hamiltonian and the effective Dipole moment expressed in terms of irreducible tensors operators adapted to symmetric top molecules. Initially, only the cold spectrum was used to identify quantum assignments and predict 12CH3D relative intensities in this region. Combining the two temperature datasets confirmed the assumed quantum assignments and also demonstrated the relative accuracies to be better than ±0.0002 cm-1 for line positions and at least ±6% for 1160 selected features. Including additional assignments from the room temperature spectra alone permitted 1362 line intensities of 12 bands (involving 23 vibrational symmetry components) to be reproduced with an RMS of 9%. Over 4085 selected positions for 12 bands were modeled to 0.008 cm-1. More work is needed to obtain a complete characterization of this complex polyad. This work is part of the ANR project "CH4@Titan" (ref: BLAN08-2_321467). Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, the NASA Langley Research Center and Connecticut College under contracts and grants with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge the LEFE-CHAT INSU project APOA1 (CNRS, France); the Groupement de Recherche International SAMIA between CNRS (France), RFBR (Russia) and CAS (China).

  20. Generalized in-line digital holographic technique based on intensity measurements at two different planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Guohai; Ryle, James P.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Sheridan, John T.

    2008-02-01

    In-line digital holography based on two-intensity measurements [Zhang et al. Opt. Lett. 29, 1787 (2004)], is modified by introducing a π shifting in the reference phase. Such an improvement avoids the assumption that the object beam must be much weaker than the reference beam in strength and results in a simplified experimental implementation. Computer simulations and optical experiments are carried out to validate the method, which we refer to as position-phase-shifting digital holography.

  1. Line Intensities in the Far-Infrared Spectrum of H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Schermaul, R.; Winnewisser, M.; Mandin, J.-Y.; Dana, V.; Badaoui, M.; Koput, J.

    1996-04-01

    Using high resolution Fourier transform spectra (resolution 0.002 cm -1) recorded at the Instituto Ricerca Onde Electromagnetiche Firenze and at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, it has been possible to measure the relative intensities of lines in the far-infrared spectrum of H 2O 2in the 25-400 cm -1spectral region. These intensities were used as input data in a least-squares fit calculation in order to obtain the expansion parameters of the transition moment operator of the pure torsional-rotational transitions of H 2O 2. For these intensity calculations, the theoretical model takes into account the cos γ-type dependence of the dipole moment due to the large amplitude motion of the H atoms relative to the O-O bond, where 2γ is the torsion angle. The value of the dipole moment obtained from the fit of the observed intensities was then scaled to the value obtained from Stark effect measurements. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the far infrared band of H 2O 2was generated, using the dipole moment expansion determined in this work for the line intensities and the parameters and the Hamiltonian matrix given in a previous analysis (C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. W. C. Johns, and M. Noel, J. Mol. Spectrosc.155,84-104 (1992)) for the line positions. In addition to the (Δ n= ±1, Δ Ka= ∓2) torsional-rotational resonances within the ground vibrational state, which are usually observed for H 2O 2, the Hamiltonian model takes explicitly into account both the vibration-rotation resonances involving the ground state and the v3= 1 vibrational state and the "staggering" effect which is due to the cispotential barrier.

  2. K-line spectra from tungsten heated by an intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Weber, B V; Apruzese, J P; Mosher, D; Schumer, J W; Seely, J F; Szabo, C I; Boyer, C N; Stephanakis, S J; Hudson, L T

    2010-10-01

    The plasma-filled rod-pinch diode (PFRP) is an intense source of x-rays ideal for radiography of dense objects. In the PRFP megavoltage electrons from a pulsed discharge concentrate at the pointed end of a 1 mm diameter tapered tungsten rod. Ionization of this plasma might increase the energy of tungsten's Kα(1) fluorescence line, at 59.3182 keV, enough for the difference to be observed by a high-resolution Cauchois transmission crystal spectrograph. When the PFRP's intense hard bremsstrahlung is suppressed by the proper shielding, such an instrument gives excellent fluorescence spectra, albeit with as yet insufficient resolution to see any effect of tungsten's ionization. Higher resolution is possible with various straightforward upgrades that are feasible thanks to the radiation's high intensity.

  3. K-line spectra from tungsten heated by an intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Weber, B. V.; Apruzese, J. P.; Mosher, D.; Schumer, J. W.; Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Boyer, C. N.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Hudson, L. T.

    2010-10-15

    The plasma-filled rod-pinch diode (PFRP) is an intense source of x-rays ideal for radiography of dense objects. In the PRFP megavoltage electrons from a pulsed discharge concentrate at the pointed end of a 1 mm diameter tapered tungsten rod. Ionization of this plasma might increase the energy of tungsten's K{alpha}{sub 1} fluorescence line, at 59.3182 keV, enough for the difference to be observed by a high-resolution Cauchois transmission crystal spectrograph. When the PFRP's intense hard bremsstrahlung is suppressed by the proper shielding, such an instrument gives excellent fluorescence spectra, albeit with as yet insufficient resolution to see any effect of tungsten's ionization. Higher resolution is possible with various straightforward upgrades that are feasible thanks to the radiation's high intensity.

  4. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. I. Global magnetic field and EUV line intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fludra, A.; Ireland, J.

    2008-05-01

    Context: The relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and either the X-ray or extreme ultraviolet emission from the solar atmosphere have been studied by several authors. Power-law relations have been found between the total magnetic flux and X-ray flux or intensities of the chromospheric, transition region, and coronal emission lines in solar active regions. These relations were then used to infer the mechanism of the coronal heating. Aims: We derive accurate power laws between EUV line intensities and the total magnetic flux in solar active regions and discuss their applications. We examine whether these global power laws are capable of providing the diagnostics of the coronal heating mechanism. Methods: This analysis is based on EUV lines recorded by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO for 48 solar active regions, as they crossed the central meridian in years 1996-1998. Four spectral lines are used: He I 584.3 Å (3×104 K), O V 629.7 Å (2.2×105 K), Mg IX 368.06 Å (9.5×105 K), and Fe XVI 360.76 Å (2.0×106 K). In particular, the Fe XVI 360.76 Å line, seen only in areas of enhanced heating in active regions or bright points, has not been used before for this analysis. Results: Empirical power laws are established between the total active region intensity in the lines listed above and the total magnetic flux. We demonstrate the usefulness of some spatially integrated EUV line intensities, I_T, as a proxy for the total magnetic flux, Φ, in active regions. We point out the approximate, empirical nature of the I_T-Φ relationships and discuss the interpretation of the global power index. Different power index values for transition region and coronal lines are explained by their different dependence on pressure under the assumption of hydrostatic loop models. However, the global power laws are dominated by the size of the active regions, and we demonstrate for the first time the difficulties in uniquely relating the power index in the

  5. The CO2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 μm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (I) Rovibrational lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, S.; Konefal, M.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Čermák, P.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.; Campargue, A.

    2016-11-01

    The absorption of carbon dioxide is very weak near 2.3 μm which makes this transparency window of particular interest for the study of Venus' lower atmosphere. As a consequence of the weakness of the transitions located in this region, previous experimental data are very scarce and spectroscopic databases provide calculated line lists which should be tested and validated by experiment. In this work, we use the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique for a high sensitivity characterization of the CO2 absorption spectrum in two spectral intervals of the 2.3 μm window: 4248-4257 and 4295-4380 cm-1 which were accessed using a Distributed Feed Back (DFB) diode laser and a Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) as light sources, respectively. The achieved sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption, αmin, on the order of 5×10-10 cm-1) allowed detecting numerous new transitions with intensity values down to 5×10-30 cm/molecule. The rovibrational assignments were performed by comparison with available theoretical line lists in particular those obtained at IAO Tomsk using the global effective operator approach. Hot bands of the main isotopologue and 16O12C18O bands were found to be missing in the HITRAN database while they contribute importantly to the absorption in the region. Additional CRDS spectra of a CO2 sample highly enriched in 18O were recorded in order to improve the spectroscopy of this isotopologue. As a result about 700 lines of 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 17O12C18O, 12C18O2 and 13C18O2 were newly measured. The status of the different databases (HITRAN, CDSD, variational calculations) in the important 2.3 μm transparency window is discussed. Possible improvements to correct evidenced deficiencies are suggested.

  6. First detection of ionized helium absorption lines in infrared K band spectra of O-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Block, David L.; Geballe, T. R.; Hanson, Margaret M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained high SNR, moderate-resolution K band spectra of two early O-type main sequence stars, HD 46150 O5 V, and HD 46223 O4 V, in the Rosette Nebula. We report the detection, for the first time, of the 2.189 micron He II line in O-type stars. Also detected is the 2.1661 micron Br-gamma line in absorption. The 2.058 micron He I line appears to be present in absorption in both stars, although its appearance at our resolution is complicated by atmospheric features. These three lines can form the basis for a spectral classification system for hot stars in the K band that may be used at infrared wavelengths to elucidate the nature of those luminous stars in otherwise obscured H II and giant H II regions.

  7. Dependence of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar Fraction on Radio Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Dai, Xinyu; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2008-11-01

    We find that the fraction of classical broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) among the FIRST radio sources in the Sloan Data Release 3, is 20.5+ 7.3-5.9% at the faintest radio powers detected (L1.4 GHz ~ 1032 erg s-1), and rapidly drops to lesssim8% at L1.4 GHz ~ 3 × 1033 erg s-1. Similarly, adopting the broader absorption index (AI) definition of Trump et al., we find the fraction of radio BALQSOs to be 44+ 8.1-7.8%, reducing to 23.1+ 7.3-6.1% at high luminosities. While the high fraction at low radio power is consistent with the recent near-IR estimates by Dai et al., the lower fraction at high radio powers is intriguing and confirms previous claims based on smaller samples. The trend is independent of the redshift range, the optical and radio flux selection limits, or the exact definition of a radio match. We also find that at fixed optical magnitude, the highest bins of radio luminosity are preferentially populated by non-BALQSOs, consistent with the overall trend. We do find, however, that those quasars identified as AI-BALQSOs but not under the classical definition do not show a significant drop in their fraction as a function of radio power, further supporting independent claims that these sources, characterized by lower equivalent width, may represent an independent class from the classical BALQSOs. We find the balnicity index, a measure of the absorption trough in BALQSOs, and the mean maximum wind velocity to be roughly constant at all radio powers. We discuss several plausible physical models which may explain the observed fast drop in the fraction of the classical BALQSOs with increasing radio power, although none is entirely satisfactory. A strictly evolutionary model for the BALQSO and radio emission phases requires a strong fine-tuning to work, while a simple geometric model, although still not capable of explaining polar BALQSOs and the paucity of FRII BALQSOs, is statistically successful in matching the data if part of the apparent radio

  8. One-Sample based Single-Valued Estimation of the Interface Profile from Intersubband Integrated Absorption Intensity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhu Thao, Dinh; Thanh Tien, Nguyen; Toan, Huynh Ngoc; Nhat Quang, Doan

    2016-07-01

    We prove the integrated absorption intensity due to intersubband optical transition in a quantum well (QW) to be a function of the correlation length of the interface roughness profile and independent of the roughness amplitude. We then develop a novel way to perform single-valued estimation of the interface roughness profile of QW from experiments conducted merely on one sample. The new method that we propose in this paper would be replicable and more economical than the traditional counterparts, which usually require at least two samples.

  9. Direct determination of radionuclides in building materials with self-absorption correction for the 63 and 186 keV γ-energy lines.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Ziomek, Martyna

    2015-12-01

    The use of 911 keV and 129 keV γ-line intensity ratio has been applied for self-absorption correction of the 63 keV (234)Th ((238)U) and 186 keV((226)Ra and (235)U) lines in typical building materials and soil samples. Proposed procedure allows to determine (238)U from the (234)Th line (63 keV) and (226)Ra after subtraction of (235)U interference in the 186 keV. It is important in the case of low uranium concentration and weak intensity of (235)U 143 keV γ energy line, when activity of this radionuclide can be apprised on the natural constant (238)U/(235)U ratio, only (excluding accidental anthropogenic depleted uranium deposition in the soil samples). Therefore, by this method a direct and fast determination of the (226)Ra and other important radionuclides, without one month waiting period for (226)Ra-(222)Rn daughter equilibrium, is possible. The accuracy of the method has been confirmed (relative relation deviation <10%) for typical buildings materials such as: tales, bricks, concrete blocks and various type of ceramic materials.

  10. Direct determination of radionuclides in building materials with self-absorption correction for the 63 and 186 keV γ-energy lines.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Ziomek, Martyna

    2015-12-01

    The use of 911 keV and 129 keV γ-line intensity ratio has been applied for self-absorption correction of the 63 keV (234)Th ((238)U) and 186 keV((226)Ra and (235)U) lines in typical building materials and soil samples. Proposed procedure allows to determine (238)U from the (234)Th line (63 keV) and (226)Ra after subtraction of (235)U interference in the 186 keV. It is important in the case of low uranium concentration and weak intensity of (235)U 143 keV γ energy line, when activity of this radionuclide can be apprised on the natural constant (238)U/(235)U ratio, only (excluding accidental anthropogenic depleted uranium deposition in the soil samples). Therefore, by this method a direct and fast determination of the (226)Ra and other important radionuclides, without one month waiting period for (226)Ra-(222)Rn daughter equilibrium, is possible. The accuracy of the method has been confirmed (relative relation deviation <10%) for typical buildings materials such as: tales, bricks, concrete blocks and various type of ceramic materials. PMID:26275363

  11. Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Anguita, T.; Braibant, L.; Riaud, P.

    2015-10-01

    Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques that can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions: a microlensed region, corresponding the compact accretion disc; and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated with the host galaxy, but rather with light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of the compact continuum over the rest-frame wavelength range 1000-7000 Å. Following a Bayesian scheme, we confront our measurements to microlensing simulations of an accretion disc with a temperature varying as T ∝ R-1/ν. We find a most likely source half-light radius of R1/2 = 0.61 × 1016cm (i.e., 0.002 pc) at 0.18 μm, and a most-likely index of ν = 0.4. The standard disc (ν = 4/3) model is not ruled out by our data, and is found within the 95% confidence interval associated with our measurements. We demonstrate that, for H1413+117, the existence of an extended continuum in addition to the disc emission only has a small impact on the inferred disc parameters, and is unlikely to solve the tension between the microlensing source size and standard disc sizes, as previously reported in the literature. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). ESO program ID: 386.B-0337.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form

  12. Spectroscopy of Bright Quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope and Lyman-Alpha Absorption Lines in the Redshift Range 0.5 < Z < 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C. D.; Petry, C. E.; Malkan, M. A.; Webb, W.

    1996-06-01

    the Poisson error to these numbers. The deduced number density is consistent with the number density of Lyman-α absorbers at zero redshift, using published data from the HST Quasar Absorption Line Key Project, indicating little or no evolution over 55% (q_0_ = 0) to 70% (q_0_ = 0.5) of the age of the universe. It is also consistent with an extrapolation to lower redshift of the rapid increase in number density that is seen before z ~ 2, implying an inflection at z = 1-1.5. The rapid decline in dN/dz might be caused by an ionization effect caused by the changing comoving space density of quasars, because the decline follows a similar form to the decline in the integrated UV intensity of quasars at the hydrogen Lyman edge. The evolution in dN/dz over the range 1

  13. Broad absorption line variability on multi-year timescales in a large quasar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiz Ak, Nurten

    Outflows launched near the central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a common and important component of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Outflows in luminous AGNs (i.e., quasars) play a key role in mass accretion onto SMBH as well as in the feedback into host galaxies. The most prominent signature of such outflows appears as broad absorption lines (BALs) that are blueshifted from the emission line with a few thousands km s--1 velocities. In this dissertation, I place further constrains upon the size scale, internal structure, dynamics, and evolution of the outflows investigating profiles, properties, and variation characteristics of BAL troughs. I present observational results on BAL troughs in a large quasar sample utilizing spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spanning on multi-year timescales. The results presented here, for the first time, provide a large and well-defined variability data base capable of discriminating between time-dependent hydrodynamic wind calculations in a statistically powerful manner. In a study of 582 quasars, I present 21 examples of BAL trough disappearance. Approximately 3.3% of BAL quasars show disappearing C IV trough on rest-frame timescales of 1.1--3.9 yr. BAL disappearance appears to occur mainly for shallow and weak or moderate-strength absorption troughs but not the strongest ones. When one BAL trough in a quasar spectrum disappears, the other present troughs usually weaken. Possible causes of such coordinated variations could be disk-wind rotation or variations of shielding gas that lead to variations of ionizing-continuum radiation. I present a detailed study on the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV BAL troughs using a systematically observed sample of 291 BAL quasars. BAL variation distributions indicate that BAL disappearance is an extreme type of general BAL variability, rather than a qualitatively distinct phenomenon. The high observed frequency of BAL variability on multi-year timescales is

  14. Distances to diffuse interstellar clouds from IRAS measurements and observations of optical absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Strom, C. J.; Good, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Distances to diffuse interstellar clouds were determined from the amount of ultraviolet radiation that penetrates into the cloud and that arises from a nearby B star. The environment around 67 Ophiuchi, 20 Aquilae, kappa Aquilae, and 9 Cephei were studied. The intensities at 60 and 100 micron, as measured by IRAS, were used to derive dust temperatures for the clouds. Enhanced dust temperatures would indicate an influence of the star's radiation field on a cloud. Observation of molecular absorption were compared to the results of simplified chemical models in order to search for enhanced photodissociation that is caused by the star. Enhanced dust temperatures were observed for clouds in the vicinities of 20 Aql, kappa Agl, and 9 Cep. The range of the star's influence was found to be typically 1-5 pc. On the other hand, chemical analyses of the molecular data, which pertain to foreground gas, did not reveal the presence of enhanced dissociative flux from the sample of stars. Thus, upper limits were derived for the distances from the sun to the foreground material.

  15. Results of Monitoring the Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Kashikawa, Nobunari

    2007-05-01

    We present six new and two previously published high-resolution spectra of the quasar HS 1603+3820 (zem=2.542) taken over an interval of 4.2 yr (1.2 yr in the quasar rest frame). The observations were made with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope and the Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The purpose was to study the narrow absorption lines (NALs). We use time variability and coverage fraction analysis to separate intrinsic absorption lines, which are physically related to the quasar, from intervening absorption lines. By fitting models to the line profiles, we derive the parameters of the respective absorbers as a function of time. Only the mini-BAL system at zabs~2.43 (vshift~9500 km s-1) shows both partial coverage and time variability, although two NAL systems possibly show evidence of partial coverage. We find that all the troughs of the mini-BAL system vary in concert and its total equivalent width variations resemble those of the coverage fraction. However, no other correlations are seen between the variations of different model parameters. Thus, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state or by motion of a homogeneous parcel of gas across the cylinder of sight. We propose that the observed variations are a result of rapid continuum fluctuations, coupled with coverage fraction fluctuations caused by a clumpy screen of variable optical depth located between the continuum source and the mini-BAL gas. An alternative explanation is that the observed partial coverage signature is the result of scattering of continuum photons around the absorber, thus the equivalent width of the mini-BAL can vary as the intensity of the scattered continuum changes. Based on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  16. Determination of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine in optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch

    SciTech Connect

    Eroshenko, V.A.; Kirillov, G.A.; Mochalov, M.R.; Shemyakin, V.I.; Shurygin, V.K.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical basis is given for the optimization of the parameters of an iodine switch. The results are reported of an experimental study of the pressure dependence of the width of the absorption line of atomic iodine. The broadening coefficient of molecular iodine is 3.2 MHz/Torr in the temperature range 800--1000 /sup 0/C.

  17. Light-induced absorption in BaTiO 3 and KNbO 3 generated with high intensity laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buse, K.; Krätzig, E.

    1992-09-01

    Light-induced absorption generated with nanosecond laser pulses (wavelength 532 nm, intensities up to 500 GWm -2) is investigated in BaTiO 3 and KNbO 3. The measurements strongly support the two-center model for absorption processes in these materials. Comparison with the results of cw experiments clearly indicates that at high light intensities additional shallow traps become active.

  18. A VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY OF RADIO-SELECTED SDSS BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally

    2011-12-10

    We have built a sample of 74 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters, along with a well-matched sample of 74 unabsorbed 'normal' quasars. The sources have been observed with the NRAO Very Large Array/Expanded Very Large Array at 8.4 GHz (3.5 cm) and 4.9 GHz (6 cm). All sources have additional archival 1.4 GHz (21 cm) data. Here we present the measured radio fluxes, spectral indices, and our initial findings. The percentage of BAL quasars with extended structure (on the order of 10%) in our sample is similar to previous studies at similar resolutions, suggesting that BAL quasars are indeed generally compact, at least at arsecond resolutions. The majority of sources do not appear to be significantly variable at 1.4 GHz, but we find two previously unidentified BAL quasars that may fit into the 'polar' BAL category. We also identify a significant favoring of steeper radio spectral index for BAL compared to non-BAL quasars. This difference is apparent for several different measures of the spectral index and persists even when restricting the samples to only include compact objects. Because radio spectral index is a statistical indicator of viewing angle for large samples, these results suggest that BAL quasars do have a range of orientations but are more often observed farther from the jet axis compared to normal quasars.

  19. Application of flow injection on-line electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the determination of rhodium.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Rojas, Fuensanta; Bosch Ojeda, Catalina; Cano Pavón, José Manuel

    2005-06-01

    A fully automated procedure for the determination of rhodium has been developed using flow injection (FI) on-line microcolumn preconcentration coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The proposed FI manifold and its operation make possible the introduction of the total eluate volume into the graphite atomizer, avoiding the necessity for optimisation of subsampling the eluate. Rhodium is adsorbed on a microcolumn packed with 1,5-bis(di-2-pyridyl)methylene thiocarbohydrazide immobilized on silica gel (DPTH-gel). Under the optimum conditions, using a 60 s preconcentration time, a sample flow rate of 3.5 mL min(-1) and an injection volume of eluent of 50 microL, a linear calibration graph was obtained from 1 to at least 40 ng mL(-1) and the detection limit was 1 ng mL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of samples. Its performance was investigated against certified reference catalyst sample SRM-2557 and by recovery measurements on spiked samples (soil, foods and beverages).

  20. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-04-15

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 {<=} z {<=} 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains {approx}17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the {approx}44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  1. MOSFIRE ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF z > 2 QUIESCENT GALAXIES: PROBING A PERIOD OF RAPID SIZE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Newman, Andrew B.

    2014-06-20

    Using the MOSFIRE near-infrared multi-slit spectrograph on the Keck 1 Telescope, we have secured high signal-to-noise ratio absorption line spectra for six massive galaxies with redshift 2 < z < 2.5. Five of these galaxies lie on the red sequence and show signatures of passive stellar populations in their rest-frame optical spectra. By fitting broadened spectral templates we have determined stellar velocity dispersions and, with broad-band Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer photometry and imaging, stellar masses and effective radii. Using this enlarged sample of galaxies, we confirm earlier suggestions that quiescent galaxies at z > 2 have small sizes and large velocity dispersions compared to local galaxies of similar stellar mass. The dynamical masses are in very good agreement with stellar masses (log M {sub *}/M {sub dyn} = –0.02 ± 0.03), although the average stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio is larger than that found at lower redshift (–0.23 ± 0.05). By assuming evolution at fixed velocity dispersion, not only do we confirm a surprisingly rapid rate of size growth but we also consider the necessary evolutionary track on the mass-size plane and find a slope α = dlog R{sub e} /dlog M {sub *} ≳ 2 inconsistent with most numerical simulations of minor mergers. Both results suggest an additional mechanism may be required to explain the size growth of early galaxies.

  2. Fast outflows in broad absorption line quasars and their connection with CSS/GPS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni , G.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Brienza, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Broad absorption line quasars are among the objects presenting the fastest outflows. The launching mechanism itself is not completely understood. Models in which they could be launched from the accretion disk, and then curved and accelerated by the effect of the radiation pressure, have been presented. We conducted an extensive observational campaign, from radio to optical band, to collect information about their nature and test the models present in the literature, the main dichotomy being between a young scenario and an orientation one. We found a variety of possible orientations, morphologies, and radio ages, not converging to a particular explanation for the BAL phenomenon. From our latest observations in the m- and mm-band, we obtained an indication of a lower dust abundance with respect to normal quasars, thus suggesting a possible feedback process on the host galaxy. Also, in the low-frequency regime we confirmed the presence of CSS components, sometime in conjunction with a GPS one already detected at higher frequencies. Following this, about 70 % of our sample turns out to be in a GPS or CSS+GPS phase. We conclude that fast outflows, responsible for the BAL features, can be more easily present among objects going through a restarting or just-started radio phase, where radiation pressure can substantially contribute to their acceleration.

  3. The effect of line roughness on the diffraction intensities in angular resolved scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akiko; Scholze, Frank

    2011-05-01

    Scatterometry is a common technique for the characterization of nano-structured surfaces. It is an indirect measuring method, where a chosen set of parameters describing the scattering object is fitted numerically to the data obtained from a scattering experiment. In order to detect several diffraction orders with an angular resolved measurement, it is necessary to choose the wavelength of the light to be of the same order or smaller than the size of the scattering structure. At PTB, detailed scatterometric investigations of an EUV photomask with periodic absorber line gratings on an EUV multilayer mirror have been performed using EUV and DUV radiation. Multiple propagating diffraction orders could be observed and it was possible to derive information about the line profile by means of rigorous numerical modeling. A comparison with microscopic measurements yields consistent results regarding the line width. The sidewall angle of the line profile, however, as determined in the scatterometry measurements performed in the EUV spectral range as well as in the DUV, was distinctly lower than the angle provided by atomic force microscopy. Analyzing different sources of uncertainty, it could be shown that structure disturbances such as line edge or line width roughness cause significant impact on the angular distribution of the diffraction intensity. This effect can be formulated analytically. On the one hand, this can be used to investigate the consequences of roughness for the structure reconstruction algorithm. For instance, a considerable variation of the reconstructed sidewall angle can be observed as a function of roughness. On the other hand, it is possible to determine a roughness parameter through an appropriate evaluation of the scatterometry experimental data. In this paper we will sum up the sources of uncertainty involved in scatterometry and focus on the line roughness and on how it affects the profile reconstruction.

  4. Data-Model Comparisons of Photoelectron Flux Intensities on the Strong Crustal Field Lines at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael; Trantham, Matthew; Mitchell, David

    2010-05-01

    This study quantifies the factors controlling photoelectron fluxes on strong crustal field lines in the Martian ionosphere. Using data from Mars Global Surveyor's Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instruments, dayside electron populations near the strong crustal fields in the southern hemisphere are analyzed versus various controlling parameters. These parameters include a Mars F10.7 proxy, a solar wind pressure proxy, local solar zenith angle, magnetic elevation angle, magnetic field strength. It was found that solar EUV radiation (corrected for solar zenith angle and the Mars-Sun distance) has the strongest influence on the photoelectron fluxes, and during different time periods this radiation has a stronger influence than at others times. Second, fluxes show a slight enhancement when the magnetic elevation angle is near zero degrees (horizontal field lines). Finally, other parameters, such as pressure and magnetic field strength, seem to have no major influence. These measurement-based results are then compared against numerical modeling flux intensities to quantify the physical mechanisms behind the observed relationships. The numerical code used for this study is our superthermal electron transport model, which solves for the electric distribution function along a magnetic field line. The code includes the influence of a variable magnetic field strength, pitch angle scattering and mirror trapping, and collisional energy cascading. The influence of solar EUV flux, atmospheric composition, solar wind dynamic pressure, and the local magnetic field are systematically investigated with this code to understand why some of these parameters have a strong influence on photoelectron flux intensity while others do not.

  5. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N.; Edwards, S.; Heyer, M.; Rigliaco, E.; Hillenbrand, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2015-11-20

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions.

  6. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  7. Infrared Absorption Intensity Analysis as a New Tool for Investigation of Salt Effect on Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heng; Xu, Yan-yan; Weng, Yu-xiang

    2009-12-01

    The native protein structures in buffer solution are maintained by the electrostatic force as well as the hydrophobic force, salt ions play an important role in maintaining the protein native structures, and their effect on the protein stability has attracted tremendous interests. Infrared spectroscopy has been generally used in molecular structure analysis due to its fingerprint resolution for different species including macromolecules as proteins. However spectral intensities have received much less attention than the vibrational frequencies. Here we report that the spectral intensities of protein amide I band, the finger prints for the protein secondary structures, are very sensitive to the local electric field known as Onsager reaction field caused by salt ions. IR absorbance thermal titrations have been conducted for a series of samples including simple water soluble amino acids, water soluble monomeric protein cytochrome c and dimeric protein DsbC and its single-site mutant G49R. We found that at lower temperature range (10-20 °C), there exists a thermal activated salting-in process, where the IR intensity increases with a rise in the temperature, corresponding to the ions binding of the hydrophobic surface of protein. This process is absent for the amino acids. When further raising the temperature, the IR intensity decreases, this is interpreted as the thermal activated breaking of the ion-protein surface binding. Applying Van't Hoff plot to the thermal titration curves, the thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH and ΔS for salting-in and ion unbinding processes can be derived for various protein secondary structural components, revealing quantitatively the extent of hydrophobic interaction as well as the strength of the ion-protein binding.

  8. Theoretical study of the spectral shift of the absorption line of Rb and Cs in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-07-01

    A combined and sequential use of Monte Carlo simulation and time-dependent density functional theory is made to obtain the excitation line shifts and widths of Rb and Cs embedded in liquid 4He. In each case calculations are made on 100 statistically uncorrelated configurations with Rb (Cs) surrounded by nearly 60 He atoms treated explicitly. Different basis sets and functionals are used for obtaining the blue shifts of the absorption lines 5s → 5p of Rb and 6s → 6p of Cs. Estimate of the line broadening is also made and results for both the shift and broadening are obtained in good agreement with experiment.

  9. Impact of broadened laser line-shape on retrievals of atmospheric species from lidar sounding absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T

    2015-02-01

    We examine the impact of broadened laser line-shape on retrievals of atmospheric species from lidar-sounding absorption spectra. The laser is assumed to be deterministically modulated into a stable, nearly top-hat frequency comb to suppress the stimulated Brillouin scattering, allowing over 10-fold pulse energy increase without adding measurement noise. Our model remains accurate by incorporating the laser line-shape factor into the effective optical depth. Retrieval errors arising from measurement noise and model bias are analyzed parametrically and numerically to provide deeper insight. The stable laser line-shape broadening minimally degrades the column-averaged retrieval, but can significantly degrade the multiple-layer retrievals.

  10. Absolute intensities of CO2 lines in the 3140-3410/cm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Ferry-Leeper, Penelope S.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute intensities for 430 transitions belonging to eleven rotation-vibration bands of (C-12)(O-16)2, (C-13)(O-16)2, and (O-16)(C-18)(O-18) in the 3140-3410/cm spectral region have been determined by analyzing spectra recorded at 0.01/cm resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. The data were recorded at room temperature and low pressures (less than 10 torr) using a natural sample of carbon dioxide. Intensities were derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure, and the values obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity and nonrigid rotor coefficients. An alternative mathematical formulation is shown in the case of bands for which the Coriolis effect is large and the Q-branch line intensities were not determinable either because they were severely blended or absent from the spectra. Comparison are made between the results obtained in this study and other published values.

  11. Absolute intensities of CO(2) lines in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region.

    PubMed

    Benner, D C; Devi, V M; Rinsland, C P; Ferry-Leeper, P S

    1988-04-15

    Absolute intensities for 430 transitions belonging to eleven rotation-vibration bands of (12)C(16)O(2),(13)C(16)O(2) and(16)O(12)C(18)O in the 3140-3410-cm(-1) spectral region have been determined by analyzing spectra recorded at 0.01-cm(-1) resolution with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak. The data were recorded at room temperature and low pressures (<10 Torr) using a natural sample of carbon dioxide. Intensities were derived using a nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure, and the values obtained for each band have been analyzed to determine the vibrational band intensity and nonrigid rotor coefficients. An alternative mathematical formulation is shown in the case of bands for which the Coriolis effect is large and the Q-branch line intensities were not determinate either because they were severely blended or absent from the spectra. Comparisons are made between the results obtained in this study and other published values.

  12. LASER METHODS IN MEDICINE: Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-06-01

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis.

  13. Light absorption in blood during low-intensity laser irradiation of skin

    SciTech Connect

    Barun, V V; Ivanov, A P

    2010-06-23

    An analytical procedure is proposed for describing optical fields in biological tissues inhomogeneous in the depth direction, such as human skin, with allowance for multiple scattering. The procedure is used to investigate the depth distribution of the optical power density in homogeneous and multilayer dermis when the skin is exposed to a laser beam. We calculate the absorbed laser power spectra for oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin at different depths in relation to the absorption selectivity of these haemoglobin derivatives and the spectral dependence of the optical power density and demonstrate that the spectra vary considerably with depth. A simple exponential approximation is proposed for the depth distribution of the power density in the epidermis and dermis. (laser methods in medicine)

  14. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording. PMID:27026651

  15. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  16. Real-time bilinear rotation decoupling in absorptive mode J-spectroscopy: Detecting low-intensity metabolite peak close to high-intensity metabolite peak with convenience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ajay; Baishya, Bikash

    2016-05-01

    "Pure shift" NMR spectra display singlet peak per chemical site. Thus, high resolution is offered at the cost of valuable J-coupling information. In the present work, real-time BIRD (BIlinear Rotation Decoupling) is applied to the absorptive-mode 2D J-spectroscopy to provide pure shift spectrum in the direct dimension and J-coupling information in the indirect dimension. Quite often in metabolomics, proton NMR spectra from complex bio-fluids display tremendous signal overlap. Although conventional J-spectroscopy in principle overcomes this problem by separating the multiplet information from chemical shift information, however, only magnitude mode of the experiment is practical, sacrificing much of the potential high resolution that could be achieved. Few J-spectroscopy methods have been reported so far that produce high-resolution pure shift spectrum along with J-coupling information for crowded spectral regions. In the present work, high-quality J-resolved spectrum from important metabolomic mixture such as tissue extract from rat cortex is demonstrated. Many low-intensity metabolite peaks which are obscured by the broad dispersive tails from high-intensity metabolite peaks in regular magnitude mode J-spectrum can be clearly identified in real-time BIRD J-resolved spectrum. The general practice of removing such spectral overlap is tedious and time-consuming as it involves repeated sample preparation to change the pH of the tissue extract sample and subsequent spectra recording.

  17. Computer program for determining rotational line intensity factors for diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program, that provides a new research tool for determining reliable rotational line intensity factors (also known as Honl-London factors), for most electric and magnetic dipole allowed diatomic transitions, is described in detail. This users manual includes instructions for preparing the input data, a program listing, detailed flow charts, and three sample cases. The program is applicable to spin-allowed dipole transitions with either or both states intermediate between Hund's case (a) and Hund's case (b) coupling and to spin-forbidden dipole transitions with either or both states intermediate between Hund's case (c) and Hund's case (b) coupling.

  18. Remote Interrogation of WDM Fiber-Optic Intensity Sensors Deploying Delay Lines in the Virtual Domain

    PubMed Central

    Montero, David Sánchez; Vázquez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this work a radio-frequency self-referencing WDM intensity-based fiber-optic sensor operating in reflective configuration and using virtual instrumentation is presented. The use of virtual delay lines at the reception stage, along with novel flexible self-referencing techniques, and using a single frequency, avoids all-optical or electrical-based delay lines approaches. This solution preserves the self-referencing and performance characteristics of the proposed WDM-based optical sensing topology, and leads to a more compact solution with higher flexibility for the multiple interrogation of remote sensing points in a sensor network. Results are presented for a displacement sensor demonstrating the concept feasibility. PMID:23653054

  19. The neutral oxygen spectrum. 1: Collisionally excited level populations and line intensities under optically thin conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1995-01-01

    This is the first paper in a projected program to produce quantitative information on the spectrum of the neutral oxygen atom under a variety of excitation conditions. Radiative rates and effective collision strengths are assembled from the recent literature where available, or are calculated for as yet untreated transitions using the University College superstructure/distorted-wave computer package, to produce a complete set of atomic data for a 13 hybrid level model of neutral oxygen. Level populations and relative intensities for 28 allowed, inter-combination, and forbidden oxygen lines are computed, under optically thin conditions, for the electron density range 4.0 less than log N(sub e) less than 12.0 and the electron temperature values T(sub e) = 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, and 100,000 K. Preliminary applications to observed intercombination/allowed and forbidden/allowed line ratios are discussed.

  20. Low intensity noise and narrow line-width diode laser light at 540 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lirong; Tamaki, Ryo; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2015-05-01

    We present a convenient method to generate high quality single-frequency green light at a wavelength of 540 nm. It consists of a noise suppressed external cavity diode laser at a wavelength of 1080 nm by optical filtering and resonant optical feedback, and a frequency doubling of the fundamental light with an a-cut KTP crystal. Highly efficient conversion is realized by type II non-critical phase matching. A stable single-frequency operation with a maximum power of about 20 mW is performed for more than 3 h. Both the intensity noise and line-width reach the level of a monolithic nonplanar ring laser, which is well known for its extraordinarily narrow line-width and extremely low noise among available single-frequency operating lasers.

  1. Highly Ionized Iron Absorption Lines from Outflowing Gases in the X-ray Spectrum of NGC 1365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Baldi, A.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Zezas, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the discovery of four absorption lines in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, at energies between 6.7 and 8.3 keV. The lines are detected with high statistical confidence (from >20 sigma for the strongest to -4 sigma for the weakest) in two XMM-Newton observations 60 ks long. We also detect the same lines, with a lower signal-to-noise ratio (but still >2 sigma for each line), in two previous shorter (-10 ks) XMM-Newton observations. The spectral analysis identifies these features as Fe XXV and Fe XXVI Kalpha and Kbeta lines, outflowing with velocities varying between -1000 and -5000 km/s among the observations. These are the highest quality detections of such lines so far. The high equivalent widths [EW (Kalpha) approximately 100 eV] and the Kalpha/Kbeta ratios imply that the lines are due to absorption of the AGN continuum by a highly ionized gas with column density NH-5?1023 cm(exp -2) at a distance of -(50-100)RS from the continuum source.

  2. Quasars as the formation sites of high-redshift ellipticals: a signature in the `associated' absorption-line systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Gratton, R.

    1997-03-01

    Published data on the average metallicities and abundance ratios for absorption-line systems in high-redshift quasars suggest that a dichotomy may exist between the chemical composition of damped Lyman alpha (Lyalpha) systems (interpreted as intervening galaxies in the QSO line of sight) and the z_abs~=z_em absorption- line systems associated with the quasar. Intervening systems have smaller than solar metallicities, whereas associated absorbers have solar or greater than solar metallicities and small N/C ratios. While these results have to be confirmed by more precise abundance determinations, we argue that they may be explained by an early phase of efficient metal enrichment occurring only in the close environment of high-z QSOs, and characterized by an excess type-II supernova (SNII) activity. This is reminiscent of the SNII phase required to explain the abundance ratios (favouring alpha- over Fe-group elements) observed in the intracluster (IC) medium of local galaxy clusters. We explore the following scenario, to be tested by forthcoming observations of QSO absorption lines using very large optical telescopes. (a) Well-studied damped- Lyalpha, Lyalpha and metal lines in intervening systems trace only part of the history of metal production in the Universe - the one concerning slowly star-forming discs or dwarf irregulars. (b) The complementary class of early-type and bulge-dominated galaxies formed quickly (at z>~4-5) through a huge episode of star formation favouring high-mass stars. (c) The nucleus of the latter is the site of the subsequent formation of a quasar, which partly hides from view the dimmer host galaxy. (d) The products of a galactic wind, following the violent episode of star formation in the host galaxy and metal pollution of the IC medium in the forming cluster, could be directly observable in the z_abs~=z_em associated absorption systems on the QSO line of sight.

  3. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  4. Multiphoton Absorption by Helium, Magnesium and H2 at High Frequencies and Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, K. T.

    We review principally some recent work carried out in Belfast and Heraklion which handles the few-electron dynamics of atomic and molecular systems exposed to high frequency, high intensity laser fields. The design and application of the quantitatively accurate computational methods is discussed. The Belfast work is illustrated by results for double ionization of helium and the hydrogen molecule where in each case the two electrons have been handled in full-dimensionality. The first results for multiphoton, double ionization of a complex atom, namely magnesium demonstrate an important application of the Heraklion approach.

  5. The HST quasar absorption line key project. 9: An emission-line study of PG 2251+113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espey, Brian R.; Turnshek, David A.; Lee, Lincoln; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and quasi-simultaneous ground-based observations of the z = 0.3252 QSO PG 2251+113. We find a correlation between line widths and the critical density for de-excitation of the forbidden emission lines observed in this object. We can show that this correlation also applies to the semiforbidden and possibly also the permitted lines which arise in the broad emission-line region. While this result was predicted from statistical studies, it has never previously been shown to hold in detail in any individual object. This relationship between the narrow and broad emission-line regions may help constrain dynamical models of both regions. We examine the implications of this result for a simple radial infall model of the emitting gas developed to explain the origin of narrow-line profiles.

  6. The relative line strength and intensity of the N II 2143 doublet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Sharp, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The doublet emission from N II at 2139.7 A and 2143.6 A was observed by a 1.4-m scanning spectrometer with 3.1 A resolution in the daytime, high-altitude thermosphere during moderate levels of solar activity. The spectrometer viewed the earth's limb 5 deg below the local horizontal to give a nominal tangent height of 152 km. Both sub band heads of the nitric oxide gamma band system were resolved in the data at the resolution used. The emission features from N II are clearly evident on the short wavelength shoulder of the (1, 0) band. Synthetic profiles of the (1, 0) gamma band and the (0, 3) delta band of nitric oxide were fitted to the data using a chi-square analysis. These contributions were removed from the data leaving a residual emission, considered to be the N II doublet. A chi-square minimization of the data relative to a synthetic intensity profile was done. The minimum was for a line strength ratio between the 2139 A and 2143 A lines of 0.58 + or - 0.08. The mean solar EUV flux deduced from the intensity of the N II emission in this experiment is lower than other reported observations, consistent with a lower solar activity level.

  7. Absorption spectra of two-level atoms interacting with a strong polychromatic pump field and an arbitrarily intense probe field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tai Hyun; Chung, Myung Sai; Lee, Hai-Woong

    1999-09-01

    A numerical method is introduced that solves the optical Bloch equations describing a two-level atom interacting with a strong polychromatic pump field with an equidistant spectrum and an arbitrarily intense monochromatic probe field. The method involves a transformation of the optical Bloch equations into a system of equations with time-independent coefficients at steady state via double harmonic expansion of the density-matrix elements, which is then solved by the method of matrix inversion. The solutions so obtained lead immediately to the determination of the polarization of the atomic medium and of the absorption and dispersion spectra. The method is applied to the case when the pump field is bichromatic and trichromatic, and the physical interpretation of the numerically computed spectra is given.

  8. The Rovibrational Intensities of Five Absorption Bands of (12)C(16)O2 Between 5218 and 5349/cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Brown, Linda R.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Freedman, Richard S.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Absolute line intensities, band intensities, and Herman-Wallis parameters were measured for the (01(sup 1)2)(sub I) from (00(sup 0)0)(sub I) perpendicular band of (12)C(16)O2 centered at 5315/cm, along with the three nearby associated hot bands: (10(sup 0)2)(sub II) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5248/cm, (02(sup 2))(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5291/cm, and (10(sup 0)2)(sub I) from (01(sup 1)0)(sub I) at 5349/cm. The nearby parallel hot band (30(sup 0))(sub I) from (10(sup 0)0)(sub II) at 5218/cm was also included in this study.

  9. Radioprotective Action of Low-Intensity Light into the Red Absorption Band of Endogenous Molecular Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Mashalov, A. A.; Zakharov, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in oncology (radiation therapy) is a widespread way to eliminate malignant tumors. Normal tissues are inevitable included in any radiation field, and their reliable protection is actual till now. All attempts to solve the problem are based on search of effective radioprotectors, i.e. chemical compounds of various classes, which should be entered into the patient. To date about 50,000 compounds with some radioprotection properties had been tested, but the most effective of them have been simultaneously the most toxic. Here the preliminary results of researches devoted to development of an optical technique on basis of the light-oxygen effect for the protection of women with breast cancer from side effects of the radiation therapy are presented. A low intensity emission of the semiconductor laser in a red spectral interval was used to excite a very small quantity of endogenous molecular oxygen in O2(1Δg) state. It is shown, that application of the method at occurrence of earliest signs of radiation injury allows notably reducing dangerous breaks in radiation therapy course.

  10. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Radio Morphologies and Five New H i 21cm Absorption Line Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2016-03-01

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  11. A Straightforward Way to Determine Relative Intensities of Spin-Spin Splitting Lines of Equivalent Nuclei in NMR Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Ronald H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple way of obtaining a set of relative intensities of spin-spin splitting lines using Pascal's triangle rather than calculating binomial coefficients. Provides tables showing Pascal's triangle and the relative intensities of multiplets for a range of nuclear spins. (TW)

  12. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  13. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  14. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  15. Searching for narrow absorption and emission lines in XMM-Newton spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.; Braito, V.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ghirlanda, G.; Melandri, A.; Pescalli, A.; Salafia, O. S.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic search for narrow emission and absorption features in the X-ray spectra of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Using XMM-Newton data, both EPIC and RGS spectra, of six bright (fluence > 10-7 erg cm-2) and relatively nearby (z = 0.54-1.41) GRBs, we performed a blind search for emission or absorption lines that could be related to a high cloud density or metal-rich gas in the environ close to the GRBs. We detected five emission features in four of the six GRBs with an overall statistical significance, assessed through Monte Carlo simulations, of ≲ 3.0σ. Most of the lines are detected around the observed energy of the oxygen edge at ~ 0.5 keV, suggesting that they are not related to the GRB environment but are most likely of Galactic origin. No significant absorption features were detected. A spectral fitting with a free Galactic column density (NH) testing different models for the Galactic absorption confirms this origin because we found an indication of an excess of Galactic NH in these four GRBs with respect to the tabulated values.

  16. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  17. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  18. Broad Balmer Absorption Line Variability: Evidence of Gas Transverse Motion in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiheng; Zhou, Hongyan; Shu, Xinwen; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Pan, Xiang; Sun, Luming; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    We report on the discovery of broad Balmer absorption lines variability in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6, based on the optical and near-infrared spectra taken from the SDSS-I, SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and TripleSpec observations over a timescale of 5.8 years in the QSO's rest-frame. The blueshifted absorption profile of Hβ shows a variation of more than 5σ at a high velocity portion (\\gt 3000 {km} {{{s}}}-1) of the trough. We perform a detailed analysis for the physical conditions of the absorber using Balmer lines as well as metastable He i and optical Fe ii absorptions (λ4233 from b4P5/2 level and λ5169 from a6S5/2) at the same velocity. These Fe ii lines are identified in the QSO spectra for the first time. According to the photoionization simulations, we estimate a gas density of n({{H}})≈ {10}9.1 {{cm}}-3 and a column density of {N}{col}({{H}})≈ {10}23 {{cm}}-2 for the BOSS data, but the model fails to predict the variations of ionic column densities between the SDSS and BOSS observations if changes in ionizing flux are assumed. We thus propose transverse motion of the absorbing gas being the cause of the observed broad Balmer absorption line variability. In fact, we find that the changes in covering factors of the absorber can well-reproduce all of the observed variations. The absorber is estimated ∼0.94 pc away from the central engine, which is where the outflow likely experiences deceleration due to the collision with the surrounding medium. This scheme is consistent with the argument that LoBAL QSOs may represent the transition from obscured star-forming galaxies to classic QSOs.

  19. Hydrogen Balmer beta: The separation between line peaks for plasma electron density diagnostics and self-absorption test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivković, Milivoje; Konjević, Nikola; Pavlović, Zoran

    2015-03-01

    We propose a diagnostic technique for the measurement of plasma electron number density, Ne, based on the wavelength separation between peaks, ΔλPS, of hydrogen Balmer beta line, Hβ. In favor of the proposed diagnostic technique we demonstrate high sensitivity of ΔλPS on Ne and low sensitivity on plasma elementary processes and plasma parameters that may distort the line profile. These properties of ΔλPS enable reliable Ne plasma diagnostics in the presence of considerable self-absorption. On the basis of available theoretical data tables for the Hβ line profiles, simple Ne=f(ΔλPS) formulas are proposed. Their validity is experimentally confirmed in a low initial pressure pulsed discharge for the Ne range of (0.2-7)*1023 m-3. The agreement of the proposed formulas with another diagnostic technique is well within 10%. In addition, the difference in Ne values obtained from peak separation and from the Hβ line width is successfully used as a self-absorption test for line profile.

  20. Advances in the Measurement of CO2 using Swept-Frequency, Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. W.; Ismail, S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Browell, E. V.; McGregor, D.; Kooi, S. A.; Dobler, J. T.; Collins, J. E.; Choi, Y.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the carbon balance in the environment is critical to projections of the future evolution of the Earth's climate. Large uncertainties in the forecast of future atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and carbon sources and sinks persist due to the limited set of observations from the current network of in-situ and surface measurements. Global, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 can reduce these uncertainties. Feasibility studies of space column CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) measurements using laser remote sensing have been initiated by NASA. The XCO2 measurement requires the simultaneous measurement of both CO2 and O2 number density columns weighted to the near surface and that biases from aerosols or clouds be minimized. This paper discusses the latest flight test results from the Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) system under development by Exelis, Inc. in partnership with NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for the ASCENDS mission. The MFLL uses Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave narrow-band lasers operated on and off of a CO2 absorption feature to measure the differential absorption of atmospheric CO2. By simultaneously modulating the laser beam with range-encoded signals, the retrieval of column CO2 concentrations to the Earth's surface, to the top of optically thick clouds, and through optically thin clouds is enabled. In early 2013, MFLL participated in an intensive flight campaign designed to flight test three ASCENDS prototype instruments onboard the NASA DC-8. The campaign consisted of nine flights of the NASA DC-8 over surfaces of varying reflectivity and in atmospheric conditions including clouds. Here we report on the evaluation of MFLL remote measurements of CO2 column concentrations as compared to the CO2 columns derived from contemporaneous airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements. This paper describes the modulation techniques employed by MFLL, presents algorithms for

  1. Absorption lines from magnetically driven winds in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Malzac, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High resolution X-ray spectra of black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) show blueshifted absorption lines suggesting the presence of outflowing winds. Furthermore, observations show that the disk winds are equatorial and they occur in the Softer (disk dominated) states of the outburst and are less prominent or absent in the Harder (power-law dominated) states. Aims: We want to test whether the self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter. This mass loading is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Thus, the physical properties of the outflow depend on and are controlled by the global structure of the disk. Methods: We studied different MHD solutions characterized by different values of the disk aspect ratio (ɛ) and the ejection efficiency (p). We also generate two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. Such heating could be either from dissipation of energy due to MHD turbulence in the disk or from illumination of the disk surface. Warm solutions can have large (>0.1) values of p, which would imply larger wind mass loading at the base of the outflow. We use each of these MHD solutions to predict the physical parameters (distance, density, velocity, magnetic field, etc.) of an outflow. Motivated by observational results, we have put limits on the ionization parameter (ξ), column density, and timescales. Further constraints were derived for the allowed values of ξ from thermodynamic instability considerations, particularly for the Hard SED. These physical constraints were imposed on each of these outflows to select regions within it, which are consistent with the observed winds. Results: The cold MHD solutions are found to be

  2. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  3. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  4. Measurements of electric field intensity under 750 kV over head lines in an orchard zone

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, G.N.; Kashina, V.A.; Lisochkina, T.V.; Podporkin, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    The maximum electric field intensity was found to take place in the middle of the space between the rows of apple trees and did not exceed 3 kV/m. The orchard layout and the intensity both through the orchard and under the lines where no trees grew (max intensity 10 kV/m) are given. Unpleasant sensations were experienced in the place where no trees grew due to discharges on contact with plants; the discharge currents in the orchard were too low to feel. Determining the suitability of using trees to ensure ecological safety of extrahigh and ultrahigh voltage overhead lines passing near cities is discussed.

  5. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H.; Bouché, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup –1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup –1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = –0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = –1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ∼1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  6. New Perspective on Galaxy Outflows from the First Detection of Both Intrinsic and Traverse Metal-line Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Martin, Crystal L.; Bouché, Nicolas; Churchill, Christopher W.; Cooke, Jeff; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Ho, Stephanie H.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V dtb = 45-255 km s-1. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V outflow = 40-80 km s-1 to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V dtb. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = -0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = -1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M ⊙ yr-1 while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M ⊙ yr-1 and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ~1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  7. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  8. Line intensities and collisional-broadening parameters for the nu4 and nu6 bands of carbonyl fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.

    1992-01-01

    Line intensities, air- and self-broadening parameters have been measured for selected lines in the nu4 (1243/cm) and nu6 (774/cm) bands of carbonyl fluoride at 296 and 215 K using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. Measured line intensities are in good agreement +/- 6 percent with recently reported values derived from rotational analyses of the nu4 and nu6 bands. The measured average air-broadening coefficient at 296 K also agrees well (+/- 5 percent) with N2-broadening coefficients determined from microwave studies, while the average self-broadening coefficient reported here is smaller than a previously reported value by 45 percent.

  9. Metal-line absorption around z ≈ 2.4 star-forming galaxies in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison L.

    2014-11-01

    We study metal absorption around 854 z ≈ 2.4 star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey. The galaxies examined in this work lie in the fields of 15 hyperluminous background quasi-stellar objects, with galaxy impact parameters ranging from 35 proper kpc (pkpc) to 2 proper Mpc (pMpc). Using the pixel optical depth technique, we present the first galaxy-centred 2D maps of the median absorption by O VI, N V, C IV, C III, and Si IV, as well as updated results for H I. At small galactocentric radii we detect a strong enhancement of the absorption relative to randomly located regions that extend out to at least 180 pkpc in the transverse direction, and ±240 km s-1 along the line of sight (LOS, ˜1 pMpc in the case of pure Hubble flow) for all ions except N V. For C IV (and H I) we detect a significant enhancement of the absorption signal out to 2 pMpc in the transverse direction, corresponding to the maximum impact parameter in our sample. After normalizing the median absorption profiles to account for variations in line strengths and detection limits, in the transverse direction we find no evidence for a sharp drop-off in metals distinct from that of H I. We argue instead that non-detection of some metal-line species in the extended circumgalactic medium is consistent with differences in the detection sensitivity. Along the LOS, the normalized profiles reveal that the enhancement in the absorption is more extended for O VI, C IV, and Si IV than for H I. We also present measurements of the scatter in the pixel optical depths, covering fractions, and equivalent widths as a function of projected galaxy distance. Limiting the sample to the 340 galaxies with redshifts measured from nebular emission lines does not decrease the extent of the enhancement along the LOS compared to that in the transverse direction. This rules out redshift errors as the source of the observed redshift-space anisotropy and thus implies that we have detected the signature

  10. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  11. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph E-mail: thambye@ulb.ac.be E-mail: christoph.weniger@desy.de

    2010-03-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities.

  12. Fourier transform spectroscopy of CO2 isotopologues at 1.6 μm: Line positions and intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, D.; Borkov, Yu. G.; Lyulin, O. M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The line positions and intensities of carbon dioxide isotopologues have been retrieved between 5900 and 6400 cm-1 region from Fourier transform spectra of 17O- and 18O-enriched carbon dioxide recorded in LADIR (Paris, France) with the Bruker IFS 125-HR. In total 1634 line positions and intensities of 20 bands of the 5 major CO2 isotopologues present in our sample 16O12C17O (39.48%), 17O12C17O (27.73%), 16O12C16O (15.20%), 16O12C18O (7.32%) and 17O12C18O (8.25%) are retrieved. All studied bands belong to the ΔP=8 (only for asymmetric species) and 9 series of transitions, where P = 2V1 +V2 + 3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The accuracy of the line position determination is about 0.3×10-3 cm-1 for the unblended and not very weak lines and the accuracy for the line intensities varies from 4% to 30% depending on the intensity of the line and on the extent of the line overlapping. For the 16O12C17O, 17O12C17O, 16O12C18O and 17O12C18O isotopologues the systematic comparisons have been performed with the recent CRDS measurements.

  13. 1E 0104.2 + 3153 - A broad absorption-line QSO viewed through a giant elliptical galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Schild, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.

    1984-01-01

    The optical identification of the X-ray source 1E 0104.2 + 3153 is complicated by the close projection of a broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO (z = 2.027) 10 arcsec from a giant elliptical galaxy (z = 0.111) at the center of a compact group of galaxies. At only 1.2 de Vaucouleur radii (16 kpc for H sub 0 = 100 km/s Mpc) this QSO-galaxy projection is the closest yet discovered. Based upon current observations, the source of the X-ray emission cannot be conclusively determined. Present in the BAL QSO spectrum are extremely strong Ca II H and K absorption lines due to the intervening galaxy, the first optical detection of the cold interstellar medium in an elliptical galaxy. The strength of these lines (EW = 2 and 1 A) requires observation through several interstellar clouds in the line of sight to the QSO. By its proximity to the central regions of the elliptical galaxy and the relative distances of the galaxy and QSO, this QSO is a particularly good candidate for observing dramatic transient gravitational lensing phenomena due to halo stars in the foreground galaxy.

  14. X-ray absorption lines suggest matter infalling onto the central black-hole of Mrk 509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadina, M.; Cappi, M.; Malaguti, G.; Ponti, G.; de Rosa, A.

    2005-11-01

    Evidence for both red- and blue-shifted absorption lines due to ionized Fe in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509 is reported. These features appear to be transient on time-scales as short as ~20 ks, and have been observed with two different satellites, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton. The red- and blue-shifted lines are found at E˜5.5 keV and ~8.1-8.3 keV (rest-frame), respectively. The first is seen in one out of six BeppoSAX observations, the latter is seen by both satellites. Under the assumption that the absorption is due to either H- or He-like Iron, the implied velocities for the absorbing matter are v˜0.15-0.2 c, in both outward and inward directions. An alternative explanation in terms of gravitational red-shift for the ~5.5 keV line cannot be ruled out with the current data. We argue, however, that the temporal patterns and sporadic nature of the lines are more easily reconciled with models that predict important radial motions close to the central black hole, such as the "aborted jet" model, the "thundercloud" model, or magneto-hydrodynamical models of jets and accretion-disks.

  15. Use of Six Sigma strategies to pull the line on central line-associated bloodstream infections in a neurotrauma intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Kelli; Tilley, Terry; Hoffman, Jason; Bradburn, Eric; Harvey, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The creation of a consistent culture of safety and quality in an intensive care unit is challenging. We applied the Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) model for quality improvement (QI) to develop a long-term solution to improve outcomes in a high-risk neurotrauma intensive care unit. We sought to reduce central line utilization as a cornerstone in preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). This study describes the successful application of the DMAIC model in the creation and implementation of evidence-based quality improvement designed to reduce CLABSIs to below national benchmarks. PMID:25768963

  16. Quantitative extraction of spectral line intensities and widths from x-ray spectra recorded with gated microchannel plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Greg; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Lake, P. W.; Nielsen-Weber, L. B.

    2007-06-15

    Plasma spectroscopy requires determination of spectral line intensities and widths. At Sandia National Laboratories Z facility we use elliptical crystal spectrometers equipped with gated microchannel plate detectors to record time and space resolved spectra. We collect a large volume of data typically consisting of five to six snapshots in time and five to ten spectral lines with 30 spatial elements per frame, totaling to more than 900 measurements per experiment. This large volume of data requires efficiency in processing. We have addressed this challenge by using a line fitting routine to automatically fit each spectrum using assumed line profiles and taking into account photoelectron statistics to efficiently extract line intensities and widths with uncertainties. We verified that the random data noise obeys Poisson statistics. Rescale factors for converting film exposure to effective counts required for understanding the photoelectron statistics are presented. An example of the application of these results to the analysis of spectra recorded in Z experiments is presented.

  17. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  18. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub α} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub α} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub α} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  19. Attosecond transient absorption of argon atoms in the vacuum ultraviolet region: line energy shifts versus coherent population transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Warrick, Erika R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using attosecond transient absorption, the dipole response of an argon atom in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region is studied when an external electromagnetic field is present. An isolated attosecond VUV pulse populates Rydberg states lying 15 eV above the argon ground state. A synchronized few-cycle near infrared (NIR) pulse modifies the oscillating dipoles of argon impulsively, leading to alterations in the VUV absorption spectra. As the NIR pulse is delayed with respect to the VUV pulse, multiple features in the absorption profile emerge simultaneously including line broadening, sideband structure, sub-cycle fast modulations, and 5-10 fs slow modulations. These features indicate the coexistence of two general processes of the light-matter interaction: the energy shift of individual atomic levels and coherent population transfer between atomic eigenstates, revealing coherent superpositions. An intuitive formula is derived to treat both effects in a unifying framework, allowing one to identify and quantify the two processes in a single absorption spectrogram.

  20. Improved constraints on possible variation of physical constants from H i 21-cm and molecular QSO absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Combes, F.; Wiklind, T.

    2001-11-01

    Quasar (QSO) absorption spectra provide an extremely useful probe of possible cosmological variation in various physical constants. Comparison of Hi 21-cm absorption with corresponding molecular (rotational) absorption spectra allows us to constrain variation in [formmu2]y≡α2gp, where α is the fine-structure constant and gp is the proton g-factor. We analyse spectra of two QSOs, PKS 1413+135 and TXS 0218+357, and derive values of [formmu3]Δy/y at absorption redshifts of [formmu4]z=0.2467 and 0.6847 by simultaneous fitting of the Hi 21-cm and molecular lines. We find [formmu5]Δy/y=(-0.20+/-0.44)×10-5 and [formmu6]Δy/y=(-0.16+/-0.54)×10-5 respectively, indicating an insignificantly smaller y in the past. We compare our results with other constraints from the same two QSOs given recently by Drinkwater et al. and Carilli et al., and with our recent optical constraints, which indicated a smaller α at higher redshifts.

  1. Absolute Line Intensities in the ν 3Band of 12CH 3F by Diode-Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepère, Muriel; Blanquet, Ghislain; Walrand, Jacques

    1996-06-01

    Infrared absolute line intensities of the ν 3band of 12CH 3F have been measured around 9.5 μm using a diode-laser spectrometer. These line strengths were obtained from the equivalent width method and, for a few lines, by fitting a Rautian profile to the measured shape of the lines. From these results, we have deduced the vibrational bandstrength ( Sv0= 379.2 ± 5.9 cm -2·atm -1at 296 K) and the first Herman-Wallis factor (α = 0.35 × 10 -3± 0.10 × 10 -3).

  2. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric C02 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a C02 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, 02 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the C02 line and an 02 line region during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the C02 and 02 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the C02 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear 25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across a selected C02 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz and laser pulse widths are I usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during October and December 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin and broken clouds. Atmospheric C02 column measurements using the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm C02 lines. Two flights were made above the DOE SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These nights were coordinated with DOE investigators who Hew an in-situ C02 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The increasing C02 line absorptions with

  3. Origins of optical absorption and emission lines in AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qimin; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-09-15

    To aid the development of AlN-based optoelectronics, it is essential to identify the defects that cause unwanted light absorption and to minimize their impact. Using hybrid functional calculations, we investigate the role of native defects and their complexes with oxygen, a common impurity in AlN. We find that Al vacancies are the source of the absorption peak at 3.4 eV observed in irradiated samples and of the luminescence signals at 2.78 eV. The absorption peak at ∼4.0 eV and higher, and luminescence signals around 3.2 and 3.6 eV observed in AlN samples with high oxygen concentrations are attributed to complexes of Al vacancies and oxygen impurities. We also propose a transition involving Al and N vacancies and oxygen impurities that may be a cause of the absorption band peaked at 2.9 eV.

  4. The absorption spectrum of H2: CRDS measurements of the (2-0) band, review of the literature data and accurate ab initio line list up to 35000 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2012-01-14

    Five very weak transitions-O(2), O(3), O(4), O(5) and Q(5)-of the first overtone band of H(2) are measured by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) between 6900 and 7920 cm(-1). The noise equivalent absorption of the recordings is on the order of α(min)≈ 5 × 10(-11) cm(-1) allowing for the detection of the O(5) transition with an intensity of 1.1 × 10(-30) cm per molecule, the smallest intensity value measured so far for an H(2) absorption line. A Galatry profile was used to reproduce the measured line shape and derive the line strengths. The pressure shift of the O(2) and O(3) lines was accurately determined from a series of recordings with pressure ranging between 10 and 700 Torr. From an exhaustive review of the literature data, the list of H(2) absorption lines detected so far has been constructed. It includes a total of 39 transitions ranging from the S(0) pure rotational line near 354 cm(-1) up to the S(1) transition of the (5-0) band near 18,908 cm(-1). These experimental values are compared to a highly accurate theoretical line list constructed for pure H(2) at 296 K (0-35,000 cm(-1), intensity cut off of 1 × 10(-34) cm per molecule). The energy levels and transition moments were computed from high level quantum mechanics calculations. The overall agreement between the theoretical and experimental values is found to be very good for the line positions. Some deviations for the intensities of the high overtone bands (V > 2) are discussed in relation with possible pressure effects affecting the retrieved intensity values. We conclude that the hydrogen molecule is probably a unique case in rovibrational spectroscopy for which first principles theory can provide accurate spectroscopic parameters at the level of the performances of the state of the art experimental techniques.

  5. First on-line isotopic characterization of N2O emitted from intensively managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, B.; Merbold, L.; Decock, C.; Tuzson, B.; Harris, E.; Six, J.; Emmenegger, L.; Mohn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the four main isotopic N2O species (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, 14N14N18O) and especially the intramolecular distribution of 15N (site preference, SP) has been suggested as a tool to distinguish source processes and to help constrain the global N2O budget. However, current studies suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolution capabilities due to the combination of discrete flask sampling with subsequent laboratory-based mass spectrometric analysis. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) allows selective high-precision analysis of N2O isotopic species at trace levels and is suitable for in situ measurements. Here, we present results from the first field campaign, conducted on an intensively managed grassland in central Switzerland. N2O mole fractions and isotopic composition were determined in the atmospheric surface layer (2 m height) at high temporal resolution with a modified state-of-the-art laser spectrometer connected to an automated N2O preconcentration unit. The analytical performance was determined from repeated measurements of a compressed air tank and resulted in measurement repeatability of 0.20, 0.12 and 0.11‰ for δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O, respectively. Simultaneous eddy-covariance N2O flux measurements were used to determine the flux-averaged isotopic signature of soil-emitted N2O. Our measurements indicate that in general, nitrifier-denitrification and denitrification were the prevalent sources of N2O during the campaign, and that variations in isotopic composition were rather due to alterations in the extent to which N2O was reduced to N2, than other pathways such as hydroxylamine oxidation. Management and rewetting events were characterized by low values of the intra-molecular 15N site preference (SP), δ15Nbulk and δ18O, suggesting nitrifier denitrification and incomplete heterotrophic bacterial denitrification responded most strongly to the induced disturbances. Flux-averaged isotopic composition of N

  6. First on-line isotopic characterization of N2O above intensively managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, B.; Merbold, L.; Decock, C.; Tuzson, B.; Harris, E.; Six, J.; Emmenegger, L.; Mohn, J.

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the four main isotopic N2O species (14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, 14N14N18O) and especially the intramolecular distribution of 15N ("site preference", SP) has been suggested as a tool to distinguish source processes and to help constrain the global N2O budget. However, current studies suffer from limited spatial and temporal resolution capabilities due to the combination of discrete flask sampling with subsequent laboratory-based mass-spectrometric analysis. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) allows the selective high-precision analysis of N2O isotopic species at trace levels and is suitable for in situ measurements. Here, we present results from the first field campaign, conducted on an intensively managed grassland site in central Switzerland. N2O mole fractions and isotopic composition were determined in the atmospheric surface layer (at 2.2 m height) at a high temporal resolution with a modified state-of-the-art laser spectrometer connected to an automated N2O preconcentration unit. The analytical performance was determined from repeated measurements of a compressed air tank and resulted in measurement repeatability of 0.20, 0.12 and 0.11‰ for δ15Nα, δ15Nβ and δ18O, respectively. Simultaneous eddy-covariance N2O flux measurements were used to determine the flux-averaged isotopic signature of soil-emitted N2O. Our measurements indicate that, in general, nitrifier-denitrification and denitrification were the prevalent sources of N2O during the campaign and that variations in isotopic composition were due to alterations in the extent to which N2O was reduced to N2 rather than to other pathways, such as hydroxylamine oxidation. Management and rewetting events were characterized by low values of the intramolecular 15N site preference (SP), δ15Nbulk and δ18O, suggesting that nitrifier-denitrification and incomplete heterotrophic bacterial denitrification responded most strongly to the induced disturbances. The flux

  7. An Extreme, Blueshifted Iron-Line Profile in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261: An Edge-on Accretion Disk or Highly Ionized Absorption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. N.; Porquet, D.; Turner, T. J.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a short XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PG 1402+261. The EPIC X-ray spectrum of PG 1402+261 shows a strong excess of counts between 6 and 9 keV in the rest frame. This feature can be modeled by an unusually strong (equivalent width 2 keV) and very broad (FWHM velocity of 110,000 km s-1) iron K-shell emission line. The line centroid energy at 7.3 keV appears blueshifted with respect to the iron Kα emission band between 6.4 and 6.97 keV, while the blue wing of the line extends to 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. The line profile can be fitted by reflection from the inner accretion disk, but an inclination angle of >60° is required to model the extreme blue wing of the line. Furthermore, the extreme strength of the line requires a geometry whereby the hard X-ray emission from PG 1402+261 above 2 keV is dominated by the pure-reflection component from the disk, while little or none of the direct hard power law is observed. Alternatively, the spectrum above 2 keV may be explained by an ionized absorber, if the column density is sufficiently high (NH>3×1023 cm-2) and if the matter is ionized enough to produce a deep (τ~1) iron K-shell absorption edge at 9 keV. This absorber could originate in a large column density, high-velocity outflow, perhaps similar to those that appear to be observed in several other high accretion rate active galactic nuclei. Further observations, especially at higher spectral resolution, are required to distinguish between the accretion disk reflection and outflow scenarios.

  8. Further constraints on variation of the fine-structure constant from alkali-doublet QSO absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Prochaska, J. X.; Wolfe, A. M.

    2001-11-01

    Comparison of quasar (QSO) absorption-line spectra with laboratory spectra provides a precise probe for variability of the fine-structure constant, α, over cosmological time-scales. We constrain variation in α in 21 Keck/HIRES Siiv absorption systems using the alkali-doublet (AD) method in which changes in α are related to changes in the doublet spacing. The precision obtained with the AD method has been increased by a factor of 3: Δα/α=(-0.5+/-1.3)×10-5. We also analyse potential systematic errors in this result. Finally, we compare the AD method with the many-multiplet method, which has achieved an order of magnitude greater precision, and we discuss the future of the AD method.

  9. Possible evidence for a variable fine-structure constant from QSO absorption lines: motivations, analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Dzuba, V. A.; Churchill, C. W.; Prochaska, J. X.; Barrow, J. D.; Wolfe, A. M.

    2001-11-01

    An experimental search for variation in the fundamental coupling constants is strongly motivated by modern high-energy physics theories. Comparison of quasar (QSO) absorption-line spectra with laboratory spectra provides a sensitive probe for variability of the fine-structure constant, α, over cosmological time-scales. We have previously developed and applied a new method providing an order-of-magnitude gain in precision over previous optical astrophysical constraints. Here we extend that work by including new quasar spectra of damped Lyman-α absorption systems. We also reanalyse our previous lower-redshift data and confirm our initial results. The constraints on α come from simultaneous fitting of absorption lines of subsets of the following species: Mgi, Mgii, Alii, Aliii, Siii, Crii, Feii, Niii and Znii. We present a detailed description of our methods and results based on an analysis of 49 quasar absorption systems (towards 28 QSOs) covering the redshift range [formmu2]0.5

  10. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometer at 1.57 Micrometer for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the earth's carbon cycle is essential for diagnosing current and predicting future climates, which requires precise global measurements of atmospheric CO2 through space missions. The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission will provide accurate global atmospheric CO2 measurements to meet carbon science requirements. The joint team of NASA Langley Research Center and ITT Exelis, Inc. proposes to use the intensity-modulated, continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach for the ASCENDS mission. Prototype LAS instruments have been developed and used to demonstrate the power, signal-to-noise ratio, precision and accuracy, spectral purity, and stability of the measurement and the instrument needed for atmospheric CO2 observations from space. The ranging capability from laser platform to ground surfaces or intermediate backscatter layers is achieved by transmitted range-encoded IM laser signals. Based on the prototype instruments and current lidar technologies, space LAS systems and their CO2 column measurements are analyzed. These studies exhibit a great potential of using IM-CW LAS system for the active space CO2 mission ASCENDS.

  11. Coupling between meridional wind nightly behavior and mid-latitude oxygen red 630.0 nm line intensity predawn enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, Goderdzi; Gudadze, Nikoloz; Lomidze, Levan; Todua, Maya

    The coupling between meridional wind nightly behavior and winter time predawn enhancement (PE) in the mid-latitude oxygen red 630.0 nm line intensity at Abastumani (41.75 N, 42.82 E) is investigated. It is shown that red line intensity PE, which was considered as a result of increase in the photoelectron flux from magnetically conjugate regions, also can be caused by increase in the mid-latitude northward wind (or decrease in the southward one). In this case the observed mean monthly/seasonal nightly behavior of the red line intensity can be verified by the ionosphere F2 layer parameters observed at Tbilisi ionosphere station (41.65 N, 44.75 E -neighboring Abastumani) and the meridional component of the thermosphere wind given by Horizontal Wind Model 93 (HWM93). The estimation shows that the mean monthly/seasonal northward wind for 1957-1993 and the observed F2 layer peak density NmF2 and height hmF2 can be responsible for the PE in the red line intensity (LT 03 h-05 h), which is also noticeable in early spring and later fall. The observed seasonal midnight negative trend in the red line intensity is accompanied by its wintertime positive trend before morning twilight, which includes the PE and can be explained by long-term increase in the northward wind velocity. In these cases, the increase in the mid-latitude northward wind or decrease in the southward one following to the equatorial midnight temperature maximum (MTM) or similar phenomena could be important in the observed mid-latitude PE of the red line intensity.

  12. Detection of High Velocity Absorption Components in the He I Lines of Eta Carinae near the Time of Periastron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Noel D.; St-Jean, Lucas; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Hillier, D. John; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Corcoran, Michael; Damineli, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a total of 58 high spectral resolution (R90,000) spectra of the massive binary star eta Carinae since 2012 in an effort to continue our orbital and long-term echelle monitoring of this extreme binary (Richardson et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1534) with the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO 1.5 m telescope (Tokovinin et al. 2013, PASP, 125, 1336) in the 45507500A region. We have increased our monitoring efforts and observation frequency as the periastron event of 2014 has approached. We note that there were multiple epochs this year where we observe unusual absorption components in the P Cygni troughs of the He I triplet lines. In particular, we note high velocity absorption components related to the following epochs for the following lines: He I 4713: HJD 2456754- 2456795 (velocity -450 to -560 kms) He I 5876: HJD 2456791- 2456819 (velocity -690 to -800 kms) He I 7065: HJD 2456791- 2456810 (velocity -665 to -730 kms) Figures: Note that red indicates a high-velocity component noted above. He I 4713: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson4713.png He I 5876: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson5876.png He I 7065: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson7065.png These absorptions are likely related to the wind-wind collision region and bow shock, as suggested by the high-velocity absorption observed by Groh et al. (2010, AA, 519, 9) in the He I 10830 Atransition. In these cases, we suspect that we look along an arm of the shock cone and that we will see a fast absorption change from the other collision region shortly after periastron. We suspect that this is related to the multiple-components of the He II 4686 line that was noted by Walter (ATel6334), and is confirmed in our data. Further, high spectral resolution data are highly encouraged,especially for resolving powers greater than 50,000.These observations were obtained with the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, operated by the SMARTS Consortium, and were obtained through both SMARTS and NOAO programs 2012A-0216,2012B-0194

  13. Signs of the Biological Effect of ~2 μm Low-Intensity Laser Radiation in Raman and Absorption Spectra of Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batay, L. E.; Khodasevich, I. A.; Khodasevich, M. A.; Gorbunova, N. B.; Manina, E. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Local exposure of experimental animals to low-intensity emission from a thulium laser (λ = 1.96 μm) leads to changes in the Raman and IR absorption spectra of blood. This indicates development of systemic effects caused by direct excitation of water molecules by radiation with wavelength ~2 μm, in particular modifi cation of the hemoglobin molecule.

  14. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm(-1) and 7185.6 cm(-1) by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance. PMID:25554273

  15. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm-1 and 7185.6 cm-1 by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance.

  16. Time resolved metal line profile by near-ultraviolet tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelaru, C.; de Poucques, L.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.

    2011-03-01

    Pulsed systems are extensively used to produce active species such as atoms, radicals, excited states, etc. The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TD-LAS) is successfully used to quantify the density of absorbing species, but especially for stationary or slow changing systems. The time resolved-direct absorption profile (TR-DAP) measurement method by TD-LAS, with time resolution of μs is proposed here as an extension of the regular use of diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The spectral narrowness of laser diodes, especially in the blue range (˜0.01 pm), combined with the nanosecond fast trigger of the magnetron pulsed plasma and long trace recording on the oscilloscope (period of second scale) permit the detection of the sputtered titanium metal evolution in the afterglow (˜ms). TR-DAP method can follow the time-dependence of the temperature (Doppler profile) and the density (deduced from the absorbance) of any medium and heavy species in a pulsed system.

  17. Time-variability of the fine-structure constant expected from the Oklo constraint and the QSO absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    2003-10-01

    The data from the QSO absorption lines indicating a nonzero time-variability of the fine-structure constant has been re-analyzed on the basis of a ``damped-oscillator'' fit, as motivated by the same type of behavior of a scalar field, dilaton, which mimics a cosmological constant to understand the accelerating universe. We find nearly as good fit to the latest data as the simple weighted mean. In this way, we offer a way to fit the more stringent result from the Oklo phenomenon, as well.

  18. A theoretical analysis of the X-ray cyclotron absorption lines of the isolated neutron star 1E1207.4-5209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ai-fang; Liu, Dang-bo; Chen, Lei; Ding, Li; You, Jun-hang

    2006-07-01

    As revealed by recent observations, in the X-ray continuum of the radio quiet isolated neutron star 1E1207.4-5209 there exist several equidistant absorption lines, and their energies are, respectively, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1 keV. According to the theory of quantum cyclotron radiation under the quadrupolar approximation developed in recent years, we have clarified some existing doubts and affirmed that these lines are electron cyclotron absorption lines instead of proton cyclotron lines. Besides, the spatial orientation of the spin axis of this neutron star has been theoretically determined.

  19. Discovery of Time Variation of the Intensity of Molecular Lines in IRC+10216 in The Submillimeter and Far Infrared Domains

    PubMed Central

    Cernicharo, J.; Teyssier, D.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Daniel, F.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Decin, L.; Guélin, M.; Encrenaz, P.; García-Lario, P.; de Beck, E.; Barlow, M.J.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of strong intensity variations in the high rotational lines of abundant molecular species towards the archetypical circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. The observations have been carried out with the HIFI instrument on board Herschel1 and with the IRAM2 30-m telescope. They cover several observing periods spreading over 3 years. The line intensity variations for molecules produced in the external layers of the envelope most probably result from time variations in the infrared pumping rates. We analyze the main implications this discovery has on the interpretation of molecular line emission in the envelopes of Mira-type stars. Radiative transfer calculations have to take into account both the time variability of infrared pumping and the possible variation of the dust and gas temperatures with stellar phase in order to reproduce the observation of molecular lines at different epochs. The effect of gas temperature variations with stellar phase could be particularly important for lines produced in the innermost regions of the envelope. Each layer of the circumstellar envelope sees the stellar light radiation with a different lag time (phase). Our results show that this effect must be included in the models. The sub-mm and FIR lines of AGB stars cannot anymore be considered as safe intensity calibrators. PMID:26722620

  20. HIGHLY IONIZED Fe-K ABSORPTION LINE FROM CYGNUS X-1 IN THE HIGH/SOFT STATE OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Makishima, K.; Torii, S.; Noda, H.; Mineshige, S.; Ueda, Y.; Kubota, A.; Gandhi, P.; Done, C.

    2013-04-20

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K{alpha} absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start to the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for {approx}10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of {approx}3, peaking at an orbital phase of {approx}0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of {approx}10{sup 10-12} cm with a density of {approx}10{sup (-13)-(-11)} g cm{sup -3}, which accretes onto and/or transits the line of sight to the black hole, causing an instant decrease in the observed degree of ionization and/or an increase in density of the accreting matter. Continued monitoring for individual events with future X-ray calorimeter missions such as ASTRO-H and AXSIO will allow us to map out the accretion environment in detail and how it changes between the various accretion states.

  1. Evaluation of intensity and energy interaction parameters for the complexation of Pr(III) with selected nucleoside and nucleotide through absorption spectral studies.

    PubMed

    Bendangsenla, N; Moaienla, T; David Singh, Th; Sumitra, Ch; Rajmuhon Singh, N; Indira Devi, M

    2013-02-15

    The interactions of Pr(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different organic solvents employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The magnitudes of the variations in both energy and intensity interaction parameters were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere co-ordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Various electronic spectral parameters like Slater-Condon (F(k)), Racah (E(k)), Lande parameter (ξ(4f)), Nephelauxatic ratio (β), bonding (b(1/2)), percentage covalency (δ) and intensity parameters like oscillator strength (P) and Judd Ofelt electronic dipole intensity parameter (T(λ), λ=2,4,6) have been evaluated. The variation of these evaluated parameters were employed to interpret the nature of binding of Pr(III) with different ligands i.e. Adenosine/ATP in presence and absence of Ca(2+).

  2. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Jia, Mengyuan; Hou, Jiajuan; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wu, Xuechun; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS) instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN). The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz), followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD) (1σ) of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications. PMID:27657082

  3. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R.; Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  4. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  5. An accelerated line-by-line option for MODTRAN combining on-the-fly generation of line center absorption within 0.1 cm-1 bins and pre-computed line tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander; Conforti, Patrick; Hawes, Fred

    2015-05-01

    A Line-By-Line (LBL) option is being developed for MODTRAN6. The motivation for this development is two-fold. Firstly, when MODTRAN is validated against an independent LBL model, it is difficult to isolate the source of discrepancies. One must verify consistency between pressure, temperature and density profiles, between column density calculations, between continuum and particulate data, between spectral convolution methods, and more. Introducing a LBL option directly within MODTRAN will insure common elements for all calculations other than those used to compute molecular transmittances. The second motivation for the LBL upgrade is that it will enable users to compute high spectral resolution transmittances and radiances for the full range of current MODTRAN applications. In particular, introducing the LBL feature into MODTRAN will enable first-principle calculations of scattered radiances, an option that is often not readily available with LBL models. MODTRAN will compute LBL transmittances within one 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin at a time, marching through the full requested band pass. The LBL algorithm will use the highly accurate, pressure- and temperature-dependent MODTRAN Padé approximant fits of the contribution from line tails to define the absorption from all molecular transitions centered more than 0.05 cm-1 from each 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin. The beauty of this approach is that the on-the-fly computations for each 0.1 cm-1 bin will only require explicit LBL summing of transitions centered within a 0.2 cm-1 spectral region. That is, the contribution from the more distant lines will be pre-computed via the Padé approximants. The status of the LBL effort will be presented. This will include initial thermal and solar radiance calculations, validation calculations, and self-validations of the MODTRAN band model against its own LBL calculations.

  6. Interstellar absorption along the line of sight to Sigma Scorpii using Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. M.; Snow, T. P.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1990-01-01

    From Copernicus observations of Sigma Sco, 57 individual lines of 11 elements plus the molecular species H2 and CO were identified. By using a profile-fitting technique, rather than curves of growth, it was possible to obtain column densities and Doppler b values for up to four separate components along this line of sight. Electron density in the major H I component was derived from the photoionization equilibrium of sulfur, obtaining, n(e) of about 0.3/cu cm. The neutral hydrogen density in the same component was also derived using fine-structure excitation of O I. An H II component is also present in which the electron density was n(e) about 20/cu cm. As a by-product of this analysis, previously undetermined oscillator strengths for two Mn II lines were obtained: for 1162.-017 A, f about 0.023 and for 1164.211 A, f about 0.0086.

  7. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  8. Real Distribution of the Coronal Green Line Intensity and Modelling Study of Galactic Cosmic Ray Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushchina, R. T.; Alania, M. V.; Gil, A.; Iskra, K.; Siluszyk, M.

    2003-07-01

    transport equation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) has been numerically solved for different qA>0 (1996) and qA<0 (1987) epochs assuming that free path of GCR scattering in the interplanetary space is controlled by the Sun's coronal green line intensity (CGLI). We found some distinctions in the distribution of the expected heliolatitudinal gradients of GCR for two and three dimensional interplanetary magnetic field. INTRODUCTION. modulation of GCR in the interplanetary space is generally determined by four processesdiffusion, convection, drift and energy change of GCR particles due to interaction with the solar wind. The joint effect of all above mentioned processes result the 11year variation of GCR. In papers [1-3] are assumed that the general reason of the 11-year variation of GCR in the energy range more than 1 GeV is different structure of the irregularities of the IMF in the maxima and minima epochs of solar activity (SA) caused the radical changes of the dependence of diffusion coefficient on the rigidity of GCR particles. EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION. experimental data of sunspot numbers, sunspots' areas and CGLI (λ = 5303˚) show a considerable changes during the 11-year cycle of SA, while e.g. A the changes of the solar wind velocity are not so noticeable [4, 5]. An attempt to take into account influences of the real distributions of the sunspot's areas and the Sun's CGLI on the modulation of GCR considering delay time of the phenomena in the interplanetary space with respect to the processes on the Sun have been undertaken in papers [6-8]. One of parameters of SA contentiously observed on the Earth is the Sun's CGLI. One can suppose that a modulation of GCR by some means is controlled by the changes of the CGLI; particularly there is assumed that a scattering free path of GCR transport is related with the

  9. The Evolution of Quasar C IV and Si IV Broad Absorption Lines over Multi-year Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert R.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hewett, Paul C.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the variability of C IV λ1549 broad absorption line (BAL) troughs over rest-frame timescales of up to ≈7 yr in 14 quasars at redshifts z >~ 2.1. For nine sources at sufficiently high redshift, we also compare the C IV and Si IV λ1400 absorption variation. We compare shorter and longer term variability using spectra from up to four different epochs per source and find complex patterns of variation in the sample overall. The scatter in the change of absorption equivalent width (EW), ΔEW, increases with the time between observations. BALs do not, in general, strengthen or weaken monotonically, and variation observed over shorter (lsimmonths) timescales is not predictive of multi-year variation. We find no evidence for asymmetry in the distribution of ΔEW that would indicate that BALs form and decay on different timescales, and we constrain the typical BAL lifetime to be gsim30 yr. The BAL absorption for one source, LBQS 0022+0150, has weakened and may now be classified as a mini-BAL. Another source, 1235+1453, shows evidence of variable, blue continuum emission that is relatively unabsorbed by the BAL outflow. C IV and Si IV BAL shape changes are related in at least some sources. Given their high velocities, BAL outflows apparently traverse large spatial regions and may interact with parsec-scale structures such as an obscuring torus. Assuming BAL outflows are launched from a rotating accretion disk, notable azimuthal symmetry is required in the outflow to explain the relatively small changes observed in velocity structure over times up to 7 yr.

  10. Absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonant line from a lead hollow cathode lamp. An absolute number density calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, J.W. ); Oldenborg, R.C.; Baughcum, S.L. )

    1989-10-19

    An accurate absolute number density calibration curve for absorption by gaseous lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonant line from a typical lead hollow cathode lamp is reported. This calibration shows the usual curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot for atomic absorption at moderate to high absorbances that is commonly attributed to self-absorption leading to line reversal in the source and/or preferential absorption at the line center when the absorber temperature is not much greater than the source Doppler temperature. A theoretical calculation utilizing a Doppler-limited Fourier transform spectrum of the 283.3-nm emission from the lamp and a tabulated value of the absorption cross section and accounting for the isotopic and nuclear hyperfine components in both the emission and absorption due to naturally occurring lead quantitatively reproduces the experimental calibration curve without any parameter adjustments. It is found that the curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot has more to do with the fact that the absorbing and emitting atoms are a mixture of isotopes giving several isotopic and nuclear hyperfine transitions at slightly different frequencies than it does with preferential absorption at line centers.

  11. Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features.

    PubMed

    Meroni, Michele; Busetto, Lorenzo; Guanter, Luis; Cogliati, Sergio; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Migliavacca, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol; Colombo, Roberto

    2010-05-20

    The accurate spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers is required for correctly computing, interpreting, and comparing radiance and reflectance spectra acquired at different times or by different instruments. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the spectral characterization of field spectrometer data using sharp atmospheric or solar absorption features present in the measured data. The algorithm retrieves systematic shifts in channel position and actual full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the instrument by comparing data acquired during standard field spectroscopy measurement operations with a reference irradiance spectrum modeled with the MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code. Measurements from four different field spectrometers with spectral resolutions ranging from 0.05 to 3.5nm are processed and the results validated against laboratory calibration. An accurate retrieval of channel position and FWHM has been achieved, with an average error smaller than the instrument spectral sampling interval.

  12. Possible evidence for a variable fine-structure constant from QSO absorption lines: systematic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Churchill, C. W.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2001-11-01

    Comparison of quasar (QSO) absorption spectra with laboratory spectra allows us to probe possible variations in the fundamental constants over cosmological time-scales. In a companion paper we present an analysis of Keck/HIRES spectra and report possible evidence suggesting that the fine-structure constant, α, may have been smaller in the past: [formmu2]Δα/α=(-0.72+/-0.18)×10-5 over the redshift range [formmu3]0.5

  13. Rovibrational Intensities of the (00 03) ← (10 00) Dyad Absorption Bands of 12C 16O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kshirsagar, Rohidas J.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Chackerian, Charles

    2000-02-01

    Absolute line intensities of 12C16O2 are experimentally measured for the first time for the (0003)I ← (1000)II band at 5687.17 cm-1 and the (0003)I ← (1000)I band at 5584.39 cm-1. The spectra were obtained using a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer and a 25-m base-path White cell at NASA-Ames Research Center. The rotationless bandstrengths at a temperature of 296 K and the Herman-Wallis parameters are S0vib = 6.68(30) × 10-25 cm-1/(molecule/cm2); A1 = 1.4(9) × 10-4, and A2 = -1.1(5) × 10-5 for the (0003)I ← (1000)II band and S0vib = 6.07(22) × 10-25 cm-1/(molecule/cm2); A1 = 5.2(1.5) × 10-4 and A2 = -4.0(7) × 10-5 for the (0003)I ← (1000)I band.

  14. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  15. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation. PMID:23493423

  16. The effect of external magnetic field on the bremsstrahlung nonlinear absorption mechanism in the interaction of high intensity short laser pulse with collisional underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sedaghat, M.; Ettehadi-Abari, M.; Shokri, B. Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2015-03-15

    Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range Iλ{sup 2}≃10{sup 14}−10{sup 16}Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The collisional effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10{sup 16}Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. In the current work, the propagation of a high frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisional plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in collisional magnetized plasmas, the increase of laser pulse intensity leads to steepening of the electron density profile and the electron bunches of plasma makes narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic fields oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison with the unmagnetized collisional plasma. Furthermore, the spatial damping rate of laser energy and the nonlinear bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient are obtained in the collisional regime of magnetized plasma. The other remarkable result is that by increasing the external magnetic field in this case, the absorption coefficient increases strongly.

  17. Signal to Noise Ratio in Digital Lock-in Detection for Multiple Intensity-Modulated Signals in CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, S.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Nehrir, A. R.; Campbell, J. F.; Refaat, T.; Abedin, N. M.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometers (LASs) for the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) column mixing ratio from both air- and space-borne platforms. The LAS system uses high-power fiber lasers/amplifiers in the 1.57-um CO2 absorption band and the 1.26-um O2 absorption band in the transmitters and simultaneous digital lock-in detection for the multiple intensity-modulated signals with different modulation waveforms , such as simple sinusoidal waves at different frequencies, associated with different wavelengths in the receivers. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in the system is of interest for the system designs and the performance prediction of airborne and space-borne implementations in the future. This paper will discuss the properties of the signals and various noises in the LAS system, especially for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection with a single detector for the multiple intensity-modulated signals at different frequencies. The numerical simulation of the SNR for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in terms of relative intensity of the multiple modulated signals and the integration time, and an initial experimental verification will be presented.

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. 6: Properties of the metal-rich systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Petitjean, Patrick; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of a sample of 18 metal-rich, low-redshift z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) absorbers seen in low- and medium-resolution spectra obtained for the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project with the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS). For most of the C IV and Lyman-limit systems, observations in the optical wavelength range of the expected associated Mg II absorption are available. As at high redshift (z approximately 2), there are two subclasses of absorbers which are characterized by the presence or absence of MG II absorption. However, some low-redshift Mg II and Fe absorptions originate from regions optically thin to UV ionizing photons and thus, at low redshift, the low-ionization systems do not always trace high opacities, as is the case at high redshift. This implies that the mean ionization state of metal-rich, optically thin absorbing clouds falls with decreasing redshift, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the gas is photoionized by the metagalactic UV background radiation field. Two main constraints are derived from the analysis of the Lyman-limit sample, assuming photoionization models are valid. First, a low opacity to ionizing photons (tau(sub LL) approximately less than 1), as observed for several Mg II-Fe II systems at z approximately 0.5, sets limits on the ionization level of hydrogen, thus on the total hydrogen column density and the heavy element abundances, (Z/H) approximately -0.5 to -0.3. Second, the dimensions of individual Mg II clouds are smaller than at high redshift by a factor 3-10. At z approximately greater than 0.6, the O VI absorption doublet is detected in four of the five z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) systems for which the O VI wavelength range has been observed, whereas the associated N V doublet is detected in only two cases. This suggests that the presence of a high-ionization O VI phase is a general property of z approximately 0.6-1 absorption systems

  19. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line.

  20. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line. PMID:25910116

  1. Study of the Many Fluorescent Lines and the Absorption Variability in GX 301-2 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerst, F.; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Ferrigno, C.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-depth study of the High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) GX 301-2 during its pre-periastron flare using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. The energy spectrum shows a power law continuum absorbed by a large equivalent hydrogen column on the order of 10(exp 24)/ sq cm and a prominent Fe K-alpha fluorescent emission line. Besides the Fe K-alpha line, evidence for Fe K-Beta, Ni K-alpha, Ni K-Beta, S K-alpha, Ar K-alpha, Ca K-alpha, and Cr K-alpha fluorescent lines is found. The observed line strengths are consistent with fluorescence in a cold absorber. This is the first time that Cr K-alpha is seen in emission in the X-ray spectrum of a HMXB. In addition to the modulation by the strong pulse period of approx 685 sec the source is highly variable and shows different states of activity. We perform time-resolved as well as pulse-to-pulse resolved spectroscopy to investigate differences between these states of activity. We find that fluorescent line fluxes are strongly variable and generally follow the overall flux. The N-H value is variable by a factor of 2, but not correlated to continuum normalization. We find an interval of low flux in the light curve in which the pulsations cease almost completely, without any indication of an increasing absorption column. We investigate this dip in detail and argue that it is most likely that during the dip the accretion ceased and the afterglow of the fluorescent iron accounted for the main portion of the X-ray flux. A similar dip was found earlier in RXTE data, and we compare our findings to these results.

  2. The HST quasar absorption line key project. 4: HST faint-object spectrograph and ground-based observations of the unusual low-redshift broad absorption-line quasi-stellar object PG 0043+039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnshek, David A.; Espey, Brian R.; Kopko, Michael, Jr.; Rauch, Michael; Weymann, Ray J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Boksenberg, Alec; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST FOS) observations have shown that the spectrum of the low-redshift (z(sub em) approximately equal to 0.384) QSO PG 0043+039 exhibits weak broad absorption lines (BALs). The BALs were discovered during the course of UV spectrophotometry made for the HST Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. The HST data are analyzed along with ground-based optical and IUE spectrophotometry. The object is found to have a number of atypical properties relative to normal non-BAL QSOs. The observed continuum is atypical in the sense that it is much weaker than that of a normal optically selected QSO at rest wavelengths approximately less than 2200 A. Intrinsic reddening of E(B-V) approximately equal to 0.11 mag by dust similar to that found in the SMC at the redshift of PG 0043+039 conservatively accounts for the observed continuum shape moderately well. These observed characteristics are typical of low-ionization BAL QSOs, but convincing evidence for BALs due to low-ionization transitions of Mg II, Al III, Al II, or C II does not exist. Therefore, this object may be a misaligned BAL QSO having many of the characteristics of low-ionization BAL QSOs with the sight line passing through a putative dusty region, but evidently missing clouds of high enough column density to produce observable low-ionization BALs. If the intrinsic dust-extinction model is correct, the observations suggest that the dust is not confined to the presumably higher density, low-ionization BAL clouds, but that it has drifted to nearby high-ionization BAL regions. We also consider other possible mechanisms for producing the shape of the continuous energy distribution which cannot be ruled out. We compare the Fe II emission in PG 0043+039 with that in another Key Project QSO, NGC 2841-UB 3, which has optical Fe II emission comparable in strength to that in PG 0043+039, but has anomalously weak UV Fe II emission. In addition, from an analysis of UV and optical

  3. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  4. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of absorption spectrum of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex. Influence of anharmonic interactions on the frequency and intensity of the C=O and H-F stretching bands.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, V P; Svishcheva, E A; Tokhadze, K G

    2014-01-01

    IR absorption spectra of mixtures (CH3)2CO/HF and free (CH3)2CO molecules are recorded in the region of 4000-900 cm(-1) with a Bruker IFS-125 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer at room temperature with a resolution up to 0.02 cm(-1). Spectral characteristics of the 2ν(C=O) overtone band of free acetone are reliably measured. The ν1(HF) and ν(C=O) absorption bands of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex are obtained by subtracting the absorption bands of free HF and acetone and absorption lines of atmospheric water from the experimental spectrum of mixtures. The experimental data are compared with theoretical results obtained from variational solutions of 1D-4D vibrational Schrödinger equations. The anharmonic potential energy and dipole moment surfaces used in the calculations were computed in the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) approximation with corrections for the basis set superposition error. Comparison of the data derived from solutions for different combinations of vibrational degrees of freedom shows that taking the inter-mode anharmonic interactions into account has different effects on the transition frequencies and intensities. Particular attention has been given to elucidation of the influence of anharmonic coupling of the H-F and C=O stretches with the low-frequency intermolecular modes on their frequencies and intensities and the strength of resonance between the fundamental H-F and the first overtone C=O transitions.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of absorption spectrum of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex. Influence of anharmonic interactions on the frequency and intensity of the C=O and H-F stretching bands.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, V P; Svishcheva, E A; Tokhadze, K G

    2014-01-01

    IR absorption spectra of mixtures (CH3)2CO/HF and free (CH3)2CO molecules are recorded in the region of 4000-900 cm(-1) with a Bruker IFS-125 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer at room temperature with a resolution up to 0.02 cm(-1). Spectral characteristics of the 2ν(C=O) overtone band of free acetone are reliably measured. The ν1(HF) and ν(C=O) absorption bands of the (CH3)2CO···HF complex are obtained by subtracting the absorption bands of free HF and acetone and absorption lines of atmospheric water from the experimental spectrum of mixtures. The experimental data are compared with theoretical results obtained from variational solutions of 1D-4D vibrational Schrödinger equations. The anharmonic potential energy and dipole moment surfaces used in the calculations were computed in the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) approximation with corrections for the basis set superposition error. Comparison of the data derived from solutions for different combinations of vibrational degrees of freedom shows that taking the inter-mode anharmonic interactions into account has different effects on the transition frequencies and intensities. Particular attention has been given to elucidation of the influence of anharmonic coupling of the H-F and C=O stretches with the low-frequency intermolecular modes on their frequencies and intensities and the strength of resonance between the fundamental H-F and the first overtone C=O transitions. PMID:24128921

  7. In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

  8. X-Ray Weak Broad-Line Quasars: Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    XMM observations of X-ray weak quasars have been performed during 2003. The data for all but the last observation are now available (there has been a delay of several months on the initial schedule, due to high background flares which contaminated the observations: as a consequence, most of them had to be rescheduled). We have reduced and analyzed these data, and obtained interesting preliminary scientific results. Out of the eight sources, 4 are confirmed to be extrimely X-ray weak, in agreement with the results of previous Chandra observations. 3 sources are confirmed to be highly variable both in flux (by factors 20-50) and in spectral properties (dramatic changes in spectral index). For both these groups of objects, an article is in preparation. Preliminary results have been presented at an international workshop on AGN surveys in December 2003, in Cozumel (Mexico). In order to further understand the nature of these X-ray weak quasars, we submitted proposals for spectroscopy at optical and infrared telescopes. We obtained time at the TNG 4 meter telescope for near-IR observations, and at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for optical high-resolution spectroscopy. These observations will be performed in early 2004, and will complement the XMM data, in order to understand whether the X-ray weakness of these sources is an intrinsic property or is due to absorption by circumnuclear material.

  9. Limits on variations in fundamental constants from 21-cm and ultraviolet Quasar absorption lines.

    PubMed

    Tzanavaris, P; Webb, J K; Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Curran, S J

    2005-07-22

    Quasar absorption spectra at 21-cm and UV rest wavelengths are used to estimate the time variation of x [triple-bond] alpha(2)g(p)mu, where alpha is the fine structure constant, g(p) the proton g factor, and m(e)/m(p) [triple-bond] mu the electron/proton mass ratio. Over a redshift range 0.24 < or = zeta(abs) < or = 2.04, (Deltax/x)(weighted)(total) = (1.17 +/- 1.01) x 10(-5). A linear fit gives x/x = (-1.43 +/- 1.27) x 10(-15) yr(-1). Two previous results on varying alpha yield the strong limits Deltamu/mu = (2.31 +/- 1.03) x 10(-5) and Deltamu/mu=(1.29 +/- 1.01) x10(-5). Our sample, 8 x larger than any previous, provides the first direct estimate of the intrinsic 21-cm and UV velocity differences 6 km s(-1).

  10. Studying Absorption Line Feature in the Relativistic Jet Source GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 is among the most interesting objects in our Galaxy. It is subject to erratic accretion instabilities with energization of relativistic jets producing X-ray, optical and radio emission. This source was observed by ASCA on Sept. 27, 1994, April 20, 1995, October 23, 1996 and April 25, 1997 as part of a long timescale investigation. We detected strong variability of the source, and in particular the existence of burst/dip structure in October 1996 and April 1997. Clear evidence of transient absorption features at 6.7, 7.0 and 8.0 keV was obtained for the first time in September 1994 and April 1995. Given the phenomenology of plasmoid energization and ejection, these transient spectral features might be produced by material entrained in the radio jets or in other high-velocity outflows. Our contribution to the interpretation is to incorporate these observations into a overall theoretical picture for GRS 1915+105 also taking into account other observations by XTE and BSAX. The emerging picture is complex. The central source is subject to (most likely) super-Eddington instabilities mediated by magnetic field build-up, reconnection and dissipation in the form of blobs that eventually leads to the formation of transient spectral features from the surrounding of the plasmoid emitting region. A comprehensive theoretical investigation is in progress.

  11. Excitation ahead of shock fronts in krypton measured by single line laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetticher, W.; Kilpin, D.

    1984-12-01

    The absorption of single-mode radiation (from a dye laser tuned to 587.25 and 557.18 nm) by Kr in front of shock waves with Mach numbers 12-21 in a 50-mm-diameter 4.4-m-long free-position driver shock tube at preshock pressures 0.7-2.7 kPa is measured to determine the number densities of the metastable 5s(1 1/2)2 and 5s(1 1/2)1 precursor states (1s5 and 1s4 in Paschen notation, respectively). The measurement technique and calculations follow those of Ernst (1982). The results are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in comparison with previous findings. The time constant of the exponential rise of the precursor is found to be about 8 microsec, and the concentration of 1s5 + 1s4 for Mach 20 is calculated as about 10 ppm, in agreement (to within a factor of 5) with model predictions for Ar and Xe.

  12. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  13. Interstellar absorption along the line of sight to Theta Carinae using Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. M.; Jenkins, E. B.; Snow, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    A profile fitting technique is employed to identify the velocities and Doppler b values for H I and H II clouds along the line of sight to Theta Car. Total abundances and depletions for 12 elements, plus column densities for the J = 0 to J = 5 rotational levels of H2 are obtained. Electron densities for both clouds are calculated from the ratios of the fine-structure levels of C II and N II, obtaining 0.08/cu cm and 1.2/cu cm. The fine-structure levels of C I, which led to 120/cu cm, are used to calculate the neutral hydrogen density for the H I region. D I is also present in the data from the Theta Car line of sight, yielding a D/H ratio of 5 x 10 exp -6. Elemental depletions are calculated for the H I region as well. Comparison of the results for Theta Car and those for Zeta Oph and Alpha Vir shows that the absolute depletions are different; however, the relative depletions are remarkably stable for different physical conditions.

  14. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  15. Pressure Sounding of the Middle Atmosphere from ATMOS Solar Occultation Measurements of Atmospheric CO(sub 2) Absorption Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Gunson, M.; Lowes, L.; Rinsland, C.; Zander, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for retrieving the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the tangent point of an infrared spectrum recorded in the solar occultation mode is described and applied to measurements made by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer. Tangent pressure values are inferred from measurements of isolated CO(sub 2) lines with temperature-insensitive intensities. Tangent pressures are determined with a spectroscopic precision of 1-3%, corresponding to a tangent point height precision, depending on the scale height, of 70-210 meters.

  16. VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY MULTI-FREQUENCY POLARIMETRIC IMAGING OF RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Takayuki J.; Nagai, Hiroshi; Doi, Akihiro

    2013-07-20

    We conducted the first multi-frequency polarimetric imaging of four broad absorption line (BAL) quasars using the Very Long Baseline Array at milliarcsecond resolutions to investigate the inclination of the nonthermal jet and test the hypothesis that radio sources in BAL quasars are still young. Among these four sources, J0928+446, J1018+0530, and J1405+4056 show one-sided structures in parsec scales and polarized emission detected in the core. These characteristics are consistent with those of blazars. We set constraints on viewing angles to <66 Degree-Sign for these jets in the framework of a Doppler beaming effect. J1159+0112 exhibits an unpolarized gigahertz-peaked spectrum component and several discrete blobs with steep spectra on both sides of the central component across {approx}1 kpc. These properties are consistent with those of young radio sources. We discuss the structures of jets and active galactic nucleus wind.

  17. Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Chartas, G.; Kashikawa, N.

    2008-10-01

    We observed the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z_{em} = 2.542, first discovered by Dobrzycki et al. 1996) six times over an interval of 4.2 yrs (1.2 yrs in the quasar rest frame) using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru telescope. The purpose was to study the mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL; FWHM ˜ 1,000 km s^{-1}) that is blue-shifted from the quasar by ˜ 9,500 km s^{-1}. We found significant time variability, which supported the physical association of the mini-BAL gas with an outflow from the quasar. We have narrowed down the cause of the variability to two possible scenarios. We also used archival Chandra x-ray data to study the x-ray properties of this quasar. The results constrain the location of the absorbing gas relative to the overall outflow.

  18. A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K.; Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.; Bignell, C.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of the background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.

  19. Frequency doubling of 1560nm diode laser via PPLN and PPKTP crystals and frequency stabilization to rubidium absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanlong; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Baodong; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-11-01

    In our experiment, a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-pigtailed butterfly-sealed 1560nm distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diode is amplified by a 5-Watt EDFA, then a multiple-period PPLN crystal (1mm×10mm×20mm) and a single-period PPKTP crystal (1mm×2mm×30mm) are utilized to perform SHG via single pass configuration. The second harmonic power of ~ 239 mW@780 nm for PPLN and ~ 210 mW@780 nm for PPKTP are obtained with ~5W@1560 nm laser input, corresponding to SHG efficiency of ~ 5.2% for PPLN and ~ 4.4% for PPKTP, respectively. Finally the 1560 nm laser diode's frequency is locked to rubidium absorption line via SHG and rubidium absorption spectroscopy, the laser frequency drift for free-running case is ~ 56 MHz in 30 s, the residual frequency after being locked drift is ~ +/- 3.5 MHz.

  20. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  1. Side-line tunable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Gibert, Fabien; Barnes, Bruce W.; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Yu, Jirong; Modlin, Edward A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-03-01

    A 2 μm wavelength, 90 mJ, 5 Hz pulsed Ho laser is described with wavelength control to precisely tune and lock the wavelength at a desired offset up to 2.9 GHz from the center of a CO2 absorption line. Once detuned from the line center the laser wavelength is actively locked to keep the wavelength within 1.9 MHz standard deviation about the setpoint. This wavelength control allows optimization of the optical depth for a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The laser transmitter has been coupled with a coherent heterodyne receiver for measurements of CO2 concentration using aerosol backscatter; wind and aerosols are also measured with the same lidar and provide useful additional information on atmospheric structure. Range-resolved CO2 measurements were made with <2.4% standard deviation using 500 m range bins and 6.7 min⁡ (1000 pulse pairs) integration time. Measurement of a horizontal column showed a precision of the CO2 concentration to <0.7% standard deviation using a 30 min⁡ (4500 pulse pairs) integration time, and comparison with a collocated in situ sensor showed the DIAL to measure the same trend of a diurnal variation and to detect shorter time scale CO2 perturbations. For vertical column measurements the lidar was setup at the WLEF tall tower site in Wisconsin to provide meteorological profiles and to compare the DIAL measurements with the in situ sensors distributed on the tower up to 396 m height. Assuming the DIAL column measurement extending from 153 m altitude to 1353 m altitude should agree with the tower in situ sensor at 396 m altitude, there was a 7.9 ppm rms difference between the DIAL and the in situ sensor using a 30 min⁡ rolling average on the DIAL measurement.

  2. Measurement of multiplet intensities and noble gas-broadened line widths in the nu 3 fundamental of methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Pugh, L. A.; Bangaru, B. R. P.

    1974-01-01

    Presented integrated intensity data at 300 K for J multiplets between P(11) and R(11) in the nu-3 fundamental of C-12 methane are shown to be in good agreement with most previously published pertinent values. Also, line widths measured at 100 K, 130 K, 190 K, 250 K, and 300 K for R(0), R(1), and R(2) broadened by He, Ne, and Ar are presented, and the line-width temperature dependence is discussed for the three cases of broadening.

  3. N-annulated perylene-substituted and fused porphyrin dimers with intense near-infrared one-photon and two-photon absorption.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Lee, Sangsu; Son, Minjung; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Qi, Qingbiao; Zeng, Wangdong; Li, Gongqiang; Kim, Dongho; Wu, Jishan

    2015-02-23

    Fusion of two N-annulated perylene (NP) units with a fused porphyrin dimer along the S0-S1 electronic transition moment axis has resulted in new near-infrared (NIR) dyes 1 a/1 b with very intense absorption (ε>1.3×10(5) M(-1) cm(-1)) beyond 1250 nm. Both compounds displayed moderate NIR fluorescence with fluorescence quantum yields of 4.4×10(-6) and 6.0×10(-6) for 1 a and 1 b, respectively. The NP-substituted porphyrin dimers 2 a/2 b have also been obtained by controlled oxidative coupling and cyclodehydrogenation, and they showed superimposed absorptions of the fused porphyrin dimer and the NP chromophore. The excited-state dynamics of all of these compounds have been studied by femtosecond transient absorption measurements, which revealed porphyrin dimer-like behaviour. These new chromophores also exhibited good nonlinear optical susceptibility with large two-photon absorption cross-sections in the NIR region due to extended π-conjugation. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been performed to aid our understanding of their electronic structures and absorption spectra.

  4. Use of emission-line intensities for a self-consistent determination of the particle densities in a transient plasma.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, L; Bernshtam, V A; Kroupp, E; Davara, G; Maron, Y

    2003-01-01

    A method for a self-consistent determination of the time history of the electron density, electron temperature, and ionic charge-state composition in a multicomponent plasma, using time-dependent measurements and calculations of absolute emission-line intensities, is presented. The method is applied for studying the properties of an imploding gas-puff Z-pinch plasma that contains several oxygen ions up to the fifth ionization stage. Furthermore, by using intensity ratios of lines from different ion species, the electron temperature was determined with a much improved accuracy, in comparison to previous spectroscopic studies of the same plasma. The ion-density history obtained, together with the known time-dependent radial boundaries of the plasma shell, allowed for tracking the rise in time of the mass swept by the magnetic field during the implosion. PMID:12636608

  5. Use of emission-line intensities for a self-consistent determination of the particle densities in a transient plasma.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, L; Bernshtam, V A; Kroupp, E; Davara, G; Maron, Y

    2003-01-01

    A method for a self-consistent determination of the time history of the electron density, electron temperature, and ionic charge-state composition in a multicomponent plasma, using time-dependent measurements and calculations of absolute emission-line intensities, is presented. The method is applied for studying the properties of an imploding gas-puff Z-pinch plasma that contains several oxygen ions up to the fifth ionization stage. Furthermore, by using intensity ratios of lines from different ion species, the electron temperature was determined with a much improved accuracy, in comparison to previous spectroscopic studies of the same plasma. The ion-density history obtained, together with the known time-dependent radial boundaries of the plasma shell, allowed for tracking the rise in time of the mass swept by the magnetic field during the implosion.

  6. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284-500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t(ij), related to 'taboo' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t(ij) are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  7. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared absorption intensities of C-I stretching modes of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Hideto; Kato, Minoru; Taniguchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated effects of pressure and solvents on infrared intensities of methyl and ethyl iodides in solutions using a hydrostatic high-pressure cell with synthetic diamond windows. We focused on the absolute intensity of the C-I stretching mode, which was measured in carbon disulfide solvent up to 300MPa and at 293K, and in n-hexane solvent at 298K. For comparison, we investigated the effect of solvents on the absorption intensity. Effects of pressure and solvents on the infrared intensity were analyzed using two electrostatic models, which assume the shape of solute cavity as sphere or spheroid. The latter model is approximately in agreement with both effects on the intensity, particularly, for the pressure effect. This paper demonstrated that the electrostatic model taking the shape of the cavity into account is useful to explain the medium effect on the infrared intensity and also suggests that more improved models could provide information of the solvation structure from the medium effect on the infrared intensity.

  8. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of sigma Sco using Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Since the launch of Copernicus in 1972, studies have been made of the depletion of gas-phase elements onto dust grains. A few stars have been studied in detail, resulting in a standard depletion pattern which has since been used for comparison. Recent developments, however, have suggested that this standard pattern may need to be re-examined. Some weak, semi-forbidden lines were detected recently which may be able to resolve some of the ambiguities. Studies of single elements have shown that depletion of carbon and oxgyen are much smaller than previously determined. The high resolution ultraviolet spectral scans of sigma Sco were originally made in 1973, but have only recently been analyzed. All these stars are bright and moderately reddened. All four stars will be analyzed in detail, but sigma Sco is the first one completed. The data has broad coverage of ions, making these stars excellent candidates for determination of accurate depletions. A profile-fitting analysis was used rather than curves-of-growth in order to determine separate abundances and depletions in components separated by several km/sec.

  9. A computer program for fast non-LTE analysis of interstellar line spectra. With diagnostic plots to interpret observed line intensity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Black, J. H.; Schöier, F. L.; Jansen, D. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The large quantity and high quality of modern radio and infrared line observations require efficient modeling techniques to infer physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, density, and molecular abundances. Methods: We present a computer program to calculate the intensities of atomic and molecular lines produced in a uniform medium, based on statistical equilibrium calculations involving collisional and radiative processes and including radiation from background sources. Optical depth effects are treated with an escape probability method. The program is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.sron.rug.nl/~vdtak/radex/index.shtml. The program makes use of molecular data files maintained in the Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA), which will continue to be improved and expanded. Results: The performance of the program is compared with more approximate and with more sophisticated methods. An Appendix provides diagnostic plots to estimate physical parameters from line intensity ratios of commonly observed molecules. Conclusions: This program should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future radio and infrared telescopes. Appendices A-D, are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Proposed rocket experiments to measure the profile and intensity of the solar He1584A resonance line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disc of the sun was investigated using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve of growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 plus or minus 10m A while the integrated intensity was measured to be (2.6 plus or minus 1.3) x 10 to the 9th power/photons sec sq cm at solar levels of F sub 10.7 = 90.8 x 10 to the minus 22th power/sq m H sub z and R sub z = 27. The measured linewidth is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurement but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of (2.0 plus or minus 1.0) x 10 to the 10th power/photons sec sq cm A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  11. Intensity ratios of H lines: departures from the ideal conditions in the range of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Cruzado, A; Di Rocco, H O

    2007-10-01

    In the present paper we analyze the behavior of H line intensity ratios with electron density and electron temperature in intermediate-density plasmas. We analyze the influence on the line intensity ratios of (1) the departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) of the level population ratios, (2) the plasma opacity, and (3) the lowering of the ionization potential. We look, particularly, at the lines H(alpha), H(beta), H(gamma), and H(delta) and the energy levels involved in the corresponding atomic transitions for their use as diagnostics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiments. One important conclusion is that, for typical values of the plasma dimension and the electron temperature taking place in LIBS, i.e., L = 1 mm and T(e) = 10 000 K, respectively, the intensity ratios H(beta)/H(alpha), H(gamma)/H(alpha), and H(delta)/H(alpha) depart from the ideal values by less than 10% in the interval 0.65 x 10(14) part/cm(3)

  12. Brush border membrane vesicle and Caco-2 cell line: Two experimental models for evaluation of absorption enhancing effects of saponins, bile salts, and some synthetic surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghassem Sajadi; Ramezani, Mohammad; Handali, Somayeh; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of absorption enhancers in the uptake of hydrophilic compounds. The permeation of the two hydrophilic drug models gentamicin and 5 (6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) across the brush border membrane vesicles and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated using total saponins of Acanthophyllum squarrosum, Quillaja saponaria, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium glycocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, and Tween 20 as absorption enhancers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement was utilized to assess the paracellular permeability of cell lines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was performed to obtain images of the distribution of CF in Caco-2 cells. These compounds were able to loosen tight junctions, thus increasing paracellular permeability. CLSM confirmed the effect of these absorption enhancers on CF transport across Caco-2 lines and increased the Caco-2 permeability via transcellular route. It was also confirmed that the decrease in TEER was transient and reversible after removal of permeation enhancers. PMID:27429925

  13. Brush border membrane vesicle and Caco-2 cell line: Two experimental models for evaluation of absorption enhancing effects of saponins, bile salts, and some synthetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghassem Sajadi; Ramezani, Mohammad; Handali, Somayeh; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of absorption enhancers in the uptake of hydrophilic compounds. The permeation of the two hydrophilic drug models gentamicin and 5 (6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) across the brush border membrane vesicles and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated using total saponins of Acanthophyllum squarrosum, Quillaja saponaria, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium glycocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, and Tween 20 as absorption enhancers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement was utilized to assess the paracellular permeability of cell lines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was performed to obtain images of the distribution of CF in Caco-2 cells. These compounds were able to loosen tight junctions, thus increasing paracellular permeability. CLSM confirmed the effect of these absorption enhancers on CF transport across Caco-2 lines and increased the Caco-2 permeability via transcellular route. It was also confirmed that the decrease in TEER was transient and reversible after removal of permeation enhancers. PMID:27429925

  14. An STIS Atlas of Ca II Triplet Absorption Line Kinematics in Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Mandalou, J.; Merritt, D.

    2013-09-01

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M •) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M • estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M • estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M •. However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  15. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-11-10

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  16. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-01-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  17. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  18. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5μm

    SciTech Connect

    Malathy Devi, V.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. Chris; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2ν2, ν2 + ν4, 2ν4, ν1 and ν3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm-1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm-1), high signal-to-noise (~1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm-1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (~700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800–5200 cm-1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm-1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938–2168 cm-1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A- split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration–rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ν3 and ν1 fundamental bands) for K" = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0

  19. Line positions and intensities of the phosphine (PH3) Pentad near 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Sams, Robert L.; Brown, Linda R.; Benner, D. Chris; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    In order to improve the spectroscopic database for remote sensing of the giant planets, line positions and intensities are determined for the five bands (2ν2, ν2 + ν4, 2ν4, ν1 and ν3) that comprise the Pentad of PH3 between 1950 and 2450 cm-1. Knowledge of PH3 spectral line parameters in this region is important for the exploration of dynamics and chemistry on Saturn, (using existing Cassini/VIMS observations) and future near-IR data of Jupiter from Juno and ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). For this study, spectra of pure PH3 from two Fourier transform spectrometers were obtained: (a) five high-resolution (0.00223 cm-1), high signal-to-noise (∼1800) spectra recorded at room temperature (298.2 K) with the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, Washington and (b) four high-resolution (at 0.0115 cm-1 resolution), high signal-to-noise (∼700) spectra recorded at room temperature in the region 1800-5200 cm-1 using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak. Individual line parameters above 2150 cm-1 were retrieved by simultaneous multispectrum fittings of all five Bruker spectra, while retrievals with the four Kitt Peak spectra were done in the 1938-2168 cm-1 range spectrum by spectrum and averaged. In all, positions and intensities were obtained for more than 4400 lines. These included 53 A+A- split pairs of transitions (arising due to vibration-rotation interactions (Coriolis-type interaction) between the ν3 and ν1 fundamental bands) for K″ = 3, 6, and 9. Over 3400 positions and 1750 intensities of these lines were ultimately identified as relatively unblended and modeled up to J = 14 and K = 12 with rms values of 0.00133 cm-1 and 7.7%, respectively. The PH3 line parameters (observed positions and measured intensities with known quantum assignments) and Hamiltonian constants are reported. Comparisons

  20. Formaldehyde Emission in Comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) at Infrared Wavelengths: Line-by-Line Validation of Modeled Fluorescent Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Bonev, B. P.; Dello Russo, N.; Magee-Sauer, K.; Mumma, M. J.; Reuter, D. C.; Villanueva, G. L.; Anderson, W. M.; Gibb, E. L.

    2006-09-01

    Cometary nuclei are the most primitive remnants of the early Solar System, so measuring abundances of their ices allows a glimpse into the conditions in which icy bodies formed. Only in the last several years has it become possible to routinely study native cometary volatiles at infrared wavelengths. In spring 2004, we observed comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR, hereafter C/T7) using the CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA-IRTF 3-m telescope. CSHELL offers sufficiently high spectral resolving power (λ/δλ 2.5 x 104) to permit line-by-line intensities to be measured. Emission lines from multiple molecular species were targeted in the 2.9 - 5.0 micron spectral region, and our observations revealed an extremely rich chemistry in C/T7, including formaldehyde (H2CO). H2CO is ubiquitous in dense interstellar clouds, so its presence is expected in comets if they contain interstellar material. These bodies delivered enormous quantities of pre-biotic chemicals to the young Earth, thus the abundance of H2CO in comets is of keen astrobiological interest. C/T7 provided the best opportunity to date to compare H2CO line intensities predicted by an existing fluorescence model1 with high-resolution comet spectra. We present results2 showing a high degree of correlation between model and data. This work validates the model and permits highly reliable measures of rotational temperature and production rate of H2CO, for comparison with chemically related molecules (CO, methyl alcohol) in C/T7 and other comets in our database. This research was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres (RTOP 344-33-55), Astrobiology (RTOP 344-53-51), and Planetary Astronomy (RTOP 344-32-98) Programs. References: 1Reuter, D. C., et al. 1989 Ap J 341:1045-1058; 2DiSanti, M. A., et al. 2006 Ap J (in press)

  1. Absorption of Light by Free Charge Carriers in the Crystalline CdS Under Intense Electron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, V. D.; Yakovlev, V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    The process of light absorption by free electrons in the crystalline cadmium sulfide under irradiation by a nanosecond electron beam with the current density of 8-100 A/cm2 is studied. A superlinear increase in optical absorption is observed if the beam current density is increased from ~8 to 12 A/cm2. The nature of light absorption by thermalized electrons corresponds to the scattering on lattice defects. An increase in the exponent of the power dependence of light absorption on the wavelength with increasing beam current density is associated with the single and double ionization of donors and acceptors. It is concluded that accumulation of charge carriers occurs without capture by traps due to their impact ionization by secondary electrons, whose energy in the thermalization stage is comparable with the band gap of the crystal. According to the results of calculations, the capture cross section of electrons by holes at quadratic recombination is ~10-20 cm2, the Auger recombination coefficient is ~10-31 cm6•s-1, and the charge carrier concentration is ~1.3•1018-1.5•1019 cm-3.

  2. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs. I. Detection and statistical incidence of Fe K-shell absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Yaqoob, T.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines have been detected in recent years between 7 and 10 keV in the X-ray spectra of several radio-quiet AGNs. The derived blue-shifted velocities of the lines can often reach mildly relativistic values, up to 0.2-0.4c. These findings are important because they suggest the presence of a previously unknown massive and highly ionized absorbing material outflowing from their nuclei, possibly connected with accretion disk winds/outflows. Aims: The scope of the present work is to statistically quantify the parameters and incidence of the blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines through a uniform analysis on a large sample of radio-quiet AGNs. This allows us to assess their global detection significance and to overcome any possible publication bias. Methods: We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. A simple uniform model composed by an absorbed power-law plus Gaussian emission and absorption lines provided a good fit for all the data sets. We derived the absorption lines parameters and calculated their detailed detection significance making use of the classical F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Results: We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies higher than 7 keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3 × 10-8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS data, with associated random probability <10-7. We identify the lines as Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonant absorption. They are systematically blue-shifted, with a velocity distribution ranging from zero up to ~0.3c, with a peak and mean value at ~0.1c. We detect variability of the lines on both EWs and blue-shifted velocities among different XMM-Newton observations

  3. Unveiling the intrinsic X-ray properties of broad absorption line quasars with a relatively unbiased sample

    SciTech Connect

    Morabito, Leah K.; Dai, Xinyu; Leighly, Karen M.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Shankar, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at z ∼ 2, selected from a near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically faint (i – K{sub s} ≥ 2.3 mag) and optically bright (i – K{sub s} < 2.3 mag) samples to be Γ ≅ 1.5-2.1. We constrain their intrinsic column density by modeling the X-ray fractional hardness ratio, finding a mean column density of 3.5 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} assuming neutral absorption. We incorporate Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical measurements (rest frame UV) to study the broadband spectral index between the X-ray and UV bands, and compare this to a large sample of normal quasars. We estimate that the optically faint BALQSOs are X-ray weaker than the optically bright ones, and the entire sample of BALQSOs are intrinsically X-ray weak when compared to normal active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Correcting for magnification of X-ray emission via gravitational lensing by the central black hole viewed at large inclination angles makes these BALQSOs even more intrinsically X-ray weak. Finally, we estimate AGN kinetic feedback efficiencies of a few percent for an X-ray wind of 0.3c in high-ionization BALQSOs. Combined with energy carried by low-ionization BALQSOs and UV winds, the total kinetic energy in BALQSOs can be sufficient to provide AGN kinetic feedback required to explain the co-evolution between black holes and host galaxies.

  4. Measurements of mesospheric water vapour, aerosols and temperatures with the Spectral Absorption Line Imager (SALI-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M. G.; Mullins, M.; Brown, S.; Sargoytchev, S. I.

    2001-08-01

    Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, mesospheric clouds (MC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of MC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recently evidence has been provided which suggests that they are a critical indicator of atmospheric change. The aim of the SALI-AT experiment is to make simultaneous (although not strictly collocated) measurements of water vapour, aerosols and temperature in the mesosphere and the mesopause region under twilight condition in the presence of mesospheric clouds. The water vapour will be measured in the regime of solar occultation utilizing a water vapour absorption band at 936 nm wavelength employing the SALI (Spectral Absorption Line Imager) instrument concept. A three-channel zenith photometer, AT-3, with wavelengths of 385 nm, 525 nm, and 1040 nm will measure Mie and Rayleigh scattering giving both mesospheric temperature profiles and the particle size distribution. Both instruments are small, low cost and low mass. It is envisioned that the SALI-AT experiment be flown on a small rocket - the Improved Orion/Hotel payload configuration, from the Andoya Rocket range, Norway. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height.

  5. The absorption spectrum of D2: ultrasensitive cavity ring down spectroscopy of the (2-0) band near 1.7 μm and accurate ab initio line list up to 24,000 cm(-1).

    PubMed

    Kassi, Samir; Campargue, Alain; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Komasa, Jacek

    2012-05-14

    Eleven very weak electric quadrupole transitions Q(2), Q(1), S(0)-S(8) of the first overtone band of D(2) have been measured by very high sensitivity CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) between 5850 and 6720 cm(-1). The noise equivalent absorption of the recordings is on the order of α(min) ≈ 3 × 10(-11) cm(-1). By averaging a high number of spectra, the noise level was lowered to α(min) ≈ 4 × 10(-12) cm(-1) in order to detect the S(8) transition which is among the weakest transitions ever detected in laboratory experiments (line intensity on the order of 1.8 × 10(-31) cm/molecule at 296 K). A Galatry profile was used to reproduce the measured line shape and derive the line strengths. The pressure shift and position at zero pressure limit were determined from recordings with pressures ranging between 10 and 750 Torr. A highly accurate theoretical line list was constructed for pure D(2) at 296 K. The intensity threshold was fixed to a value of 1 × 10(-34) cm/molecule at 296 K. The obtained line list is provided as supplementary material. It extends up to 24,000 cm(-1) and includes 201 transitions belonging to ten v-0 cold bands (v = 0-9) and three v-1 hot bands (v = 1-3). The energy levels include the relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections as well as the effects of the finite nuclear mass. The quadrupole transition moments are calculated using highly accurate adiabatic wave functions. The CRDS line positions and intensities of the first overtone band are compared to the corresponding calculated values and to previous measurements of the S(0)-S(3) lines. The agreement between the CRDS and theoretical results is found within the claimed experimental uncertainties (on the order of 1 × 10(-3) cm(-1) and 2% for the positions and intensities, respectively) while the previous S(0)-S(3) measurements showed important deviations for the line intensities.

  6. Ft-Ir Measurements of NH_3 Line Intensities in the 60 - 550 CM-1 Using Soleil/ailes Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John; Manceron, Laurent; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Pirali, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia (NH_3) has been found ubiquitous, e.g., in the interstellar medium, low-mass stars, Jovian planets of our solar system, and possibly in the low temperature exoplanets. Their spectroscopic line parameters are essential in the accurate interpretation of the planetary and astrophysical spectra observed with Herschel, SOFIA, ALMA, and JWST. In our previous paper, the NH_3 line positions in the far-IR region were studied for the ground state and ν_2 in an unprecedented accuracy, which revealed significant deficiencies in the NH_3 intensities, for instance, some weak ΔK = 3 lines were predicted to be ~100 times stronger. Measurement of line intensity for these lines in a consistent manner is demanded because the ΔK = 3 forbidden lines are only way other than collisions and l-doubled states to excite NH_3 to K > 0 levels. Recalling that NH_3 transition lines in the high J and K up to 18 were detected toward the galactic center in the star forming region of Sgr B_2, their accurate intensity measurements are critical in explaining the observed high K excitation, which will provide insights into radiative-transfer vs.levels. The interaction between a large amplitude torsional motion and the hyperfine coupling may also lead to a less known hyperfine effect, the so-called magnetic spin-torsion coupling, which was first studied by Heuvel and Dymanus and which has not yet been conclusively evidenced. In this talk, the magnetic hyperfine structure of the non-rigid methanol molecule will be investigated experimentally and theoretically. 13 hyperfine patterns were recorded using two molecular beam microwave spectrometers. These patterns, along with previously recorded ones,^c were analyzed in an attempt to evidence the effects of the magnetic spin-torsion coupling. The theoretical approach setup to analyze the observed data accounts for the spin-torsion coupling, in addition to the familiar magnetic spin-rotation and spin-spin couplings, and relies on symmetry

  7. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  8. Environmental sensitivity differs between rabbit lines selected for reproductive intensity and longevity.

    PubMed

    Savietto, D; Cervera, C; Blas, E; Baselga, M; Larsen, T; Friggens, N C; Pascual, J J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the mechanisms that allow some animals to sustain their productive effort in harsh environmental conditions, rabbit does from two selection lines (LP and V) were housed in normal (NC), nutritional (NF) or heat (HC) challenging environmental conditions from first to third partum. The LP line (n=85) was founded on reproductive longevity criteria by selecting does from commercial farms that had a minimum of 25 partum with more than 7.5 kits born alive per parity. Line V (n=79) was constituted from four specialised maternal lines into a composite synthetic line and then selected by litter size at weaning for 36 generations. Female rabbits in NC and NF environments were housed at normal room temperature (18°C to 24°C) and fed with control [11.6 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg dry matter (DM)] or low-energy diets (9.1 MJ DE/kg DM). HC does were housed at high room temperatures (25°C to 35°C) and fed the control diet. Female rabbits in the HC and NF environments ingested 11.5% and 6% less DE than NC does, respectively (P<0.05). These differences between environments occurred in both lines, with the differences being higher for LP than for V does (+6%; P<0.05). Milk yield responses followed those of energy intake also being higher for LP does (+21.3 g/day; P<0.05). The environmental conditions did not affect the perirenal fat thickness (PFT), but a genotype by environment interaction was observed. In NC and HC, the PFT was higher for line V (+0.23 and +0.35 mm, respectively; P<0.05) than for LP does, but this was not the case at NF (-0.01 mm). Moreover, the PFT evolution was different between them. In the NC environment, LP does used the accreted PFT in late lactation (-0.29 mm), whereas V does did not (-0.08 mm). Conversely, in the HC environment, LP does showed a flat PFT evolution in late lactation, whereas V does accumulated PFT. In the NF environment, LP and V does had a similar PFT evolution. There was also a litter size reduction for V does of

  9. Monitoring the Intensity of Ice Formation on Overhead Electric Power Lines and Contact Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, D. E.; Ugarov, G. G.; Soshinov, A. G.

    2015-05-15

    The conditions for ice to form on a conductor are explained. A hypothesis on the existence of a functional relation between the rate of growth of a mass deposited on a non-live conductor, the dew and desublimation points, and the temperature of the wire surface when there is no wind is suggested and proved. Equations for determining the density, maximum possible mass of the coating and the intensity with which they are formed are proposed, which take into account the temperature of the conductor, the temperature and humidity of the air, the direction and velocity of the wind and the electric field strength of the conductor. The equations are the basis of a proposed thermodynamic method of monitoring the intensity of ice formation. Versions of a technical method and algorithms of the functioning of ice-formation monitoring are proposed.

  10. A brief review of the intensity of lines 3C and 3D in neon-like Fe XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V

    2007-06-13

    X-ray emission from neon-like Fe XVII has been measured with high-resolution spectrometers from laboratory or celestial sources for nearly seven decades. Two of the strongest lines regularly identified in these spectra are the {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} resonance, and {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} intercombination line, known as 3C and 3D, respectively. This paper gives a brief overview of measurements of the intensities of the lines 3C and 3D from laboratory and celestial sources, and their comparison to model calculations, with an emphasis on measurements completed using an electron beam ion trap. It includes a discussion of the measured absolute cross sections compared to results from modern atomic theory calculations, as well as the diagnostic utility of the relative intensity, R = I{sub 3C}/I{sub 3D}, as it applies to the interpretation of spectra measured from the Sun and extra-Solar sources.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. 10: Galactic H I 21 centimeter emission toward 143 quasars and active Galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, Felix J.; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Sensitive H I 21 cm emission line spectra have been measured for the directions to 143 quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) chosen from the observing lists for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Narrow-band and wide-band data were obtained with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 43 m radio telescope for each object. The narrow-band data have a velocity resolution of 1 km/s, extend from -220 to +170 km/s, and are corrected for stray 21 cm radiation. The wide-band data have a resolution of 4 km/s and extend from -1000 to +1000 km/s. The data are important for the interpretation of ultraviolet absorption lines near zero redshift in Key Project spectra. Twenty-two percent of the quasars lie behind Galactic high-velocity H I clouds with absolute value of V(sub LSR) greater than 100 km/s whose presence can increase the equivalent width of interstellar absorption lines significantly. This paper contains the emission spectra and measures of the H I velocities and column densities along the sight line to each quasar. We discuss how the measurements can be used to estimate the visual and ultraviolet extinction toward each quasar and to predict the approximate strength of the strong ultraviolet resonance lines of neutral gas species in the HST Key Project spectra.

  12. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Madsen, K. K.; Ptak, A. F.; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Risaliti, G.; Saz, C.; Stern, D.; Veilleux, S.; Walton, D. J.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  13. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Be-like Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand; Landi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic data and collision rates are needed to model the spectrum of optically thin astrophysical sources. Recent observations from solar instrumentation such as SOH0 and Hinode have revealed the presence of hosts of lines emitted by high-energy configurations from ions belonging to the Be-like to the 0-like isoelectronic sequences. Data for such configurations are often unavailable in the literature. We have started a program to calculate the atomic parameters and rates for the high-energy configurations of Be-like ions of the type ls2.21.nl' where n=3,4,5. We report on the results of this project and on the diagnostic application of the predicted spectral lines.

  14. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-26

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  15. On-line preconcentration and determination of chromium in parenteral solutions by flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wuilloud, Gustavo M; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C A; Olsina, Roberto A; Martinez, Luis D

    2003-02-01

    An on-line chromium preconcentration and determination system implemented with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) associated to flow injection (FI) was studied. For the retention of chromium, 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)-resorcinol (TAR) and Amberlite XAD-16 were used, at pH 5.0. The Cr-TAR complex was removed from the micro-column with ethanol. An enrichment factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 ml of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 ml of aqueous solution of Cr was 20 ng l(-1). The precision for ten replicate determinations at the 5 microg l(-1) Cr levels was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for chromium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 microg l(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of chromium in parenteral solution samples.

  16. An automated on-line minicolumn preconcentration cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometer: application to determination of cadmium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Sahan, Serkan; Sahin, Uğur

    2012-01-15

    A method was developed for on-line solid phase preconcentration and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Cd(II) in aqueous samples. Lewatit Monoplus TP207 iminodiacetate chelating resin was used for the separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) ions at pH 4.0. The whole system was labmade. The influence of analytical parameters such as concentration of eluent and sodium tetrahydroborate solution, flow rate of eluent, sample, and Ar, and matrix ions were investigated. A preconcentration factor of 20 and a detection limit (3s(b)) of 2.1ngL(-1), along with a sampling frequency of 28h(-1) were achieved with 1.4min of sample loading time and with 2.8mL sample consumption. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.5% for 0.05μgL(-1) Cd(II) level. The developed method was used for Cd(II) analysis in water samples. The certified reference material (LGC6019) experimental results are in good agreement with the certified value.

  17. Absorption intensities and complex refractive indices of crystalline HCN, HC3N, and C4N2 in the infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    IR absorption intensities are presented for thin crystalline films of HCN, HC3N, and C4N2, together with n and k complex refractive indices determined on the basis of an iterative program for the Kramers-Konig integral via a least-squares, point-by-point fitting of the experimental transmission data. It is established that the transmission spectra generated by means of these n and k values can reproduce the experimental transmission observation values to within + or - 2 percent.

  18. Determination of cobalt in biological samples by line-source and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using solid sampling or alkaline treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; da Silva, Alessandra Furtado; Borges, Daniel L. Gallindo; Welz, Bernhard; Heitmann, Uwe; Curtius, Adilson José

    2005-06-01

    Two procedures for the determination of Co in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were compared: solid sampling (SS) and alkaline treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using two different instruments for the investigation: a conventional line-source (LS) atomic absorption spectrometer and a prototype high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. For the direct introduction of the solid samples, certified reference materials (CRM) were ground to a particle size ≤50 μm. Alkaline treatment was carried out by placing about 250 mg of the sample in polypropylene flasks, adding 2 mL of 25% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide and de-ionized water. Due to its unique capacity of providing a 3-D spectral plot, a high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a tool to evaluate potential spectral interferences, including background absorption for both sample introduction procedures, revealing that a continuous background preceded the atomic signal for pyrolysis temperatures lower than 700 °C. Molecular absorption bands with pronounced rotational fine structure appeared for atomization temperatures >1800 °C probably as a consequence of the formation of PO. After optimization had been carried out using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimized conditions were adopted also for line-source atomic absorption spectrometry. Six biological certified reference materials were analyzed, with calibration against aqueous standards, resulting in agreement with the certified values (according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level) and in detection limits as low as 5 ng g -1.

  19. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  20. Aerodynamic Mixing Downstream from Line Source of Heat in High-intensity Sound Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelson, William R; Baldwin, Lionel V

    1956-01-01

    Theory and measurement showed that the heat wake downstream from a line source is displaced by a transverse standing sound wave in a manner similar to a flag waving in a harmonic mode. With a 147 db, 104 cps standing wave, time-mean temperatures were reduced by an order of magnitude except near the displacement-pattern nodal points. The theory showed that a 161 db, 520 cps standing wave considerably increased the mixing in both the time-mean and instantaneous senses.

  1. Quantitative Kα line spectroscopy for energy transport in ultra-intense laser plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Chen, H.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Ozaki, T.; Shiraga, H.; Kojima, S.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Miyanaga, N.; Kawanaka, J.; Nakata, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    Absolute Ka line spectroscopy is proposed for studying laser-plasma interactions taking place in the cone-guided fast ignition targets. X-ray spectra ranging from 20 to 100 keV were quantitatively measured with a Laue spectrometer. The absolute sensitivities of the Laue spectrometer system were calibrated using pre-characterized laser-produced x-ray sources and radioisotopes. The integrated reflectivity for the crystal is in good agreement with predictions by an open code for x-ray diffraction. The energy transfer efficiency from incident laser beams to hot electrons, as the energy transfer agency, is derived as a consequence of this work. The absolute yield of Au and Ta Ka lines were measured in the fast ignition experimental campaign performed at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. Applying the hot electron spectrum information from the electron spectrometer, an energy transfer efficiency of the incident LFEX [1], a kJ-class PW laser, to hot electrons was derived for a planar and cone-guided geometry.

  2. Abundances of O, Mg, S, Cr, Mn, Ti, Ni and Zn from absorption lines of neutral gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud in front of R136

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Savage, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    Weak absorption lines of C I, O I, Mg I, Mg II, Si I, Si II, P I, Cl I, Cr II, Mn II, Fe I, Ni II, Zn II, CO and C2 are detected in neutral gas in front of the 30 Doradus H II region by IUE spectra of R 136. The Large Magellanic Cloud abundances from the absorption lines are a factor of 2 or 3 below those of the Milky Way, in agreement with emission line study results. Neutral gas density and temperature are estimated from the observed excitation and ionization to be about 300/cu cm and 100 K, respectively; this implies a gas pressure of 30,000/cu cm K.

  3. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B.

    2016-08-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time.

  4. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B

    2016-08-31

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time.

  5. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B

    2016-01-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time. PMID:27577969

  6. Tracking objects outside the line of sight using 2D intensity images

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathan; Peters, Christoph; Martín, Jaime; Laurenzis, Martin; Hullin, Matthias B.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of objects located in inaccessible regions is a recurring challenge in a wide variety of important applications. Recent work has shown that using rare and expensive optical setups, indirect diffuse light reflections can be used to reconstruct objects and two-dimensional (2D) patterns around a corner. Here we show that occluded objects can be tracked in real time using much simpler means, namely a standard 2D camera and a laser pointer. Our method fundamentally differs from previous solutions by approaching the problem in an analysis-by-synthesis sense. By repeatedly simulating light transport through the scene, we determine the set of object parameters that most closely fits the measured intensity distribution. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach is capable of following the translation of unknown objects, and translation and orientation of a known object, in real time. PMID:27577969

  7. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  8. CHANDRA VIEW OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM TOWARD 1ES 1553+113: ABSORPTION-LINE DETECTIONS AND IDENTIFICATIONS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Nicastro, F.; Zappacosta, L.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Shull, J. M.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Dave, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Takei, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z {approx}> 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2{sigma} and 4.1{sigma}. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 {<=} {sigma} {<=} 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z {approx_equal} 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1{sigma}, 4.1{sigma}, 3.9{sigma}, 3.8{sigma}, and 2.7{sigma}), are identified as C V and C VI K{alpha} absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at z{sub X} = 0.312, z{sub X} = 0.237, and (z{sub X} ) = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the z{sub X} = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (z{sub X} = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.312; 6.3{sigma} if the low-significance O V and C V K{beta} associations are considered), 3.9{sigma} (z

  9. Theoretical investigation of the broad one-photon absorption line-shape of a flexible symmetric carbazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio; Rizzo, Antonio; Lin, Na; Zhao, Xian

    2016-08-17

    The one-photon absorption spectrum of a carbazole derivative has been studied by employing density functional response theory combined with a mixed quantum/classical (QC) approach to simulate the spectral shape. In a first step of our analysis we employed the vertical gradient (VG) vibronic model to investigate the role of Franck-Condon (FC) profiles of the first ten electronic excited states of the system, underlying most of the range of the experimental spectrum. We then focussed on the first six excited states covering the low-energy region of the spectrum, and investigated the effect of inter-state electronic couplings on the spectral shapes within Herzberg-Teller (HT) theory. Furthermore, in order to introduce the broadening effects due to the two inter-ring torsions, we employed a QC approach, adopting VG vibronic models for high-frequency modes and computing the contribution of the torsions to the spectrum from the distribution of the excitation energies along a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy. Finally, we estimated the solvent inhomogeneous broadening by computing the solvent reorganization energy using a polarizable continuum model. Our calculations allow us to obtain a non-phenomenological description of the low-energy part of the spectrum in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and to dissect the relative importance of solvent, torsional flexibility, FC vibronic progressions, and inter-state couplings in determining its broad spectral shapes and the modulation of its intensity. Our analysis also clearly highlights that the investigated carbazole represents a big challenge for available methodologies due to the existence of many close-lying excited electronic states coupled by internal low-frequency and high-frequency motions and by solvent fluctuations. The study of their impact on the spectra at the HT level is only approximate and more refined treatments would require a fully quantum-dynamical calculation on the manifold of the coupled

  10. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  11. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  12. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-20

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 {mu}m and 0.72-1.03 {mu}m for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}> 200 A{sup -1} out to 1 {mu}m, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I {lambda}8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH {lambda}9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II {lambda}8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  13. THE DIAGNOSTIC O VI ABSORPTION LINE IN DIFFUSE PLASMAS: COMPARISON OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS TO FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2012-12-20

    The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} cm{sup -3}. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (10{sup 3.9} K < T {<=} 10{sup 4.2} K; 20%) and unstable (10{sup 4.2} K < T < 10{sup 5} K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

  14. Effects of low intensity static electromagnetic radiofrequency fields on leiomyosarcoma and smooth muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, Spyridon; Havelas, Konstantinos; Kostoula, Olga K; Vezyraki, Patra; Avdikos, Antonios; Binolis, Jayne; Hatziavazis, George; Metsios, Apostolos; Verginadis, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of low intensity static radiofrequency electromagnetic field (EMF) causing no thermal effects, on leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC), isolated from tumors of fifteen Wistar rats induced via a 3,4-benzopyrene injection. Electromagnetic resonance frequencies measurements and exposure of cells to static EMF were performed by a device called multi channel dynamic exciter 100 V1 (MCDE). The LSC were exposed to electromagnetic resonance radiofrequencies (ERF) between 10 kHz to 120 kHz, for 45 min. During a 24h period, after the exposure of the LSC to ERF, there was no inhibition of cells proliferation. In contrast, at the end of a 48 h incubation period, LSC proliferation dramatically decreased by more than 98% (P<0.001). At that time, the survived LSC were only 2% of the total cell population exposed to ERF, and under the same culture conditions showed significant decrease of proliferation. These cells were exposed once again to ERF for 45 min (totally 4 sessions of exposure, of 45 min duration each) and tested using a flow cytometer. Experiments as above were repeated five times. It was found that 45% of these double exposed to ERF, LSC (EMF cells) were apoptotic and only a small percentage 2%, underwent mitosis. In order to determinate their metastatic potential, these EMF cells were also counted and tested by an aggregometer for their ability to aggregate platelets and found to maintain this ability., since they showed no difference in platelet aggregation ability compared to the LSC not exposed to ERF (control cells). In conclusion, exposure of LSC to specific ERF, decreases their proliferation rate and induces cell apoptosis. Also, the LSC that survived after exposed to ERF, had a lower proliferation rate compared to the LSC controls (P<0.05) but did not loose their potential for metastases (platelet aggregation ability). The non-malignant SMC were not affected by the EMF exposure (P<0.4). The specific ERF generated from the MCDE

  15. Optical transitions, absorption intensities, and intermanifold emission cross sections of Pr3+(4f2) in Ca5(PO4)3F crystal host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Russell, Charles C.

    2004-05-01

    A spectroscopic Judd-Ofelt investigation has been performed on Pr3+ ions doped in calcium fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, belonging to the apatite structure family. The standard Judd-Ofelt analysis was applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Pr3+ transitions to determine the phenomenological intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6. Values of the intensity parameters were subsequently used to determine the decay rates (emission probabilities), radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios of the principal intermanifold transitions of Pr3+ from the 3P2, 1D2, and 3P0 manifold states to the lower-lying manifolds. In addition, the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes and emission cross sections of the 3P2→3H5, 1D2→3H4, and 3P0→3F2 transitions were measured; these values were compared with those of Nd3+:yttritium-aluminum-garnet and Pr3+:Sr5(PO4)3 (known as S-FAP).

  16. Some features of the radial-velocity variations of lines of different intensity in the spectrum of HD 93521. Variability of the stellar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.

    2007-12-01

    CCD spectra taken with the PFES echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used to perform a detailed study of the variability of the profiles of Hell, H β, and H α lines in the spectrum of HD 93521. The pattern and nature of the variability of the Hell lines are similar to those of weak HeI lines and are due to nonradial pulsations. The period and amplitude of the radial-velocity variations are the same for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile but their phases are opposite. The behavior of the variations of H β and H α hydrogen lines relative to their mean profiles is the same as that of strong HeI line and is due to nonradial pulsations. The period and phase of the radial-velocity oscillations are the same for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile but their amplitude are different. The behavior of the radial-velocity variations of the absorption and emission components of the H α line indicates that the latter also are caused by nonradial pulsations. All this is indicative of the complex structure of the stellar wind in the region of its origin. The behavior of variability and wind kinematics differ in different directions and for different regions of the atmosphere and/or envelope.

  17. Investigation of SO3 absorption line for in situ gas detection inside combustion plants using a 4-μm-band laser source.

    PubMed

    Tokura, A; Tadanaga, O; Nishimiya, T; Muta, K; Kamiyama, N; Yonemura, M; Fujii, S; Tsumura, Y; Abe, M; Takenouchi, H; Kenmotsu, K; Sakai, Y

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated 4-μm-band SO3 absorption lines for in situSO3 detection using a mid-infrared laser source based on difference frequency generation in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide. In the wavelength range of 4.09400-4.10600 μm, there were strong SO3 absorption lines. The maximum absorption coefficient at a concentration of 170 ppmv was estimated to be about 3.2×10-5  cm-1 at a gas temperature of 190°C. In coexistence with H2O, the reduction of the SO3 absorption peak height was observed, which was caused by sulfuric acid formation. We discuss a method of using an SO3 equilibrium curve to derive the total SO3 molecule concentration. PMID:27607263

  18. INFRARED ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD NGC 7538 IRS 1: ABUNDANCES OF H{sub 2}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, AND CO

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Miwa; Geballe, T. R.; Usuda, Tomonori E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu

    2015-06-10

    We report high-resolution near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of H{sub 2}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, and CO toward the young high mass object NGC 7538 IRS 1. The v = 1–0 H{sub 2} S(0) line and lines in the CO v = 2–0 band were detected; the v = 1–0 H{sub 2} S(1) line and the v = 1–0 H{sub 3}{sup +} lines [R(1, 1){sup l}, R(1, 0), R(1, 1){sup u}] were not detected. The line of sight traverses two clouds, with temperatures 45 and 259 K and with roughly equal column densities of CO. Assuming that H{sub 2} is at the same temperature as CO and that the two species are uniformly mixed, [H{sub 2}]/[CO] = 3600 ± 1200. NGC 7538 is the most distant object from the Galactic center for which [H{sub 2}]/[CO] has been directly measured using infrared absorption spectroscopy.

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. I - First observational results, including Lyman-alpha and Lyman-limit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Sargent, W. L. W.; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Turnshek, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra are presented for 37 quasars with small and moderate redshifts; the quasars were observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the HST. New higher resolution measurements of the absorption lines in the UV spectra of 11 quasars with emission-line redshifts that lie between 0.3 and 1.0 are reported. Calibrated spectra and continuum fits are shown for each object. A total of 104 extragalactic Ly-alpha systems are identified, nine of which are found at the same redshifts as metal-line systems. The local number density of Ly-alpha systems with rest equivalent widths larger than 0.32 A and without detected metal lines is about 15.1 +/- 4.3 Ly-alpha systems per unit redshift with gamma = 0.30 +/- 0.62 and W* = 0.22 +/- 0.02 A. A total of 10 Lyman-limit systems with an optical depth greater than 0.4 are identified. The paucity of damped Ly-alpha lines at small and moderate redshifts shows that the number density of damped absorption systems decreases with decreasing redshift.

  20. RHESSI Observations of Particle Acceleration and Energy Release in an Intense Solar Gamma-Ray Line Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. P.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Smith, D. M.; Hudson, H. S.; Holman, G. D.; Schwartz, R. A.; Dennis, B. R.; Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Emslie, A. G.; Johns-Krull, C.; Vilmer, N.

    2003-10-01

    We summarize Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray imaging and spectroscopy observations of the intense (X4.8) γ-ray line flare of 2002 July 23. In the initial rise, a new type of coronal HXR source dominates that has a steep double-power-law X-ray spectrum and no evidence of thermal emission above 10 keV, indicating substantial electron acceleration to tens of keV early in the flare. In the subsequent impulsive phase, three footpoint sources with much flatter double-power-law HXR spectra appear, together with a coronal superhot (T~40 MK) thermal source. The north footpoint and the coronal source both move systematically to the north-northeast at speeds up to ~50 km s-1. This footpoint's HXR flux varies approximately with its speed, consistent with magnetic reconnection models, provided the rate of electron acceleration varies with the reconnection rate. The other footpoints show similar temporal variations but do not move systematically, contrary to simple reconnection models. The γ-ray line and continuum emissions show that ions and electrons are accelerated to tens of MeV during the impulsive phase. The prompt de-excitation γ-ray lines of Fe, Mg, Si, Ne, C, and O-resolved here for the first time-show mass-dependent redshifts of 0.1%-0.8%, implying a downward motion of accelerated protons and α-particles along magnetic field lines that are tilted toward the Earth by ~40°. For the first time, the positron annihilation line is resolved, and the detailed high-resolution measurements are obtained for the neutron-capture line. The first ever solar γ-ray line and continuum imaging shows that the source locations for the relativistic electron bremsstrahlung overlap the 50-100 keV HXR sources, implying that electrons of all energies are accelerated in the same region. The centroid of the ion-produced 2.223 MeV neutron-capture line emission, however, is located ~20''+/-6'' away, implying that the acceleration and

  1. Is it Possible to Use the Green Coronal Line Instead of X rays to Cancel an Effect of the Coronal Emissivity Deficit in Estimation of the Prominence Total Mass from Decrease of the EUV-corona Intensities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.; Jejčič, S.; Rybák, J.; Kotrč, P.; Fárník, F.; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Deluca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Jibben, P. R.; Anzer, U.; Tlatov, A. G..; Guseva, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Total masses of six quiescent prominences observed from April through June 2011 were estimated using multi-spectral observations (in EUV, X-rays, Hα, and Ca II H). The method for the total mass estimation is based on the fact that the intensity of the EUV solar corona at wavelengths below 912 Å is reduced at a prominence by the absorption in resonance continua (photoionisation) of hydrogen and possibly by helium and subsequently an amount of absorbed radiation is proportional to the column density of hydrogen and helium plasma. Moreover, the deficit of the coronal emissivity in volume occupied by the cool prominence plasma also contributes to the intensity decrease. The observations in X-rays which are not absorbed by the prominence plasma, allow us to separate these two mechanisms from each other. The X-ray observations of XRT onboard the Hinode satellite made with the Al-mesh focal filter were used because the X-ray coronal radiation formed in plasma of temperatures of the order of 106 K was registered and EUV spectral lines occurring in the 193, 211 and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite are also formed at such temperatures. Unfortunately, the Al-mesh filter has a secondary peak of the transmittance at around 171 Å which causes a contribution from the EUV corona to the measured data of up to 11 % in the quiet corona. Thus, absorption in prominence plasma influences XRT X-ray data when using the Al-mesh filter. On the other hand, other X-ray XRT filters are more sensitive to plasma of much higher temperatures (log T of the order of 7), thus observations using these filters cannot be used together with the AIA observations in the method for mass estimations. This problem could be solved using observations in the green coronal line instead of X-rays. Absorption of the green coronal line by a prominence plasma is negligible and this line is formed at temperatures of the order of 106 K. We

  2. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}ȯ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}ȯ yr‑1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm‑3, ionization parameter 10‑1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10‑0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm‑2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48–65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044–1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy

  3. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}⊙ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}⊙ yr-1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm-3, ionization parameter 10-1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10-0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm-2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48-65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044-1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy merger (or

  4. Absorption Line Survey of H3+ toward the Galactic Center Sources. II. Eight Infrared Sources within 30 pc of the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Miwa; Usuda, Tomonori; Nagata, Tetsuya; Geballe, T. R.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Indriolo, Nick; Suto, Hiroshi; Henning, Thomas; Morong, Christopher P.; Oka, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Infrared absorption lines of H+3, including the metastable R(3,3)l line, have been observed toward eight bright infrared sources associated with hot and massive stars located in and between the Galactic center cluster and the Quintuplet cluster 30 pc to the east. The absorption lines with high-velocity dispersion arise in the Galaxy's central molecular zone (CMZ) as well as in foreground spiral arms. The temperature and density of the gas in the CMZ, as determined from the relative strengths of the H3+ lines, are T = 200-300 K and n <= 50-200 cm-3. The detection of high column densities of H3+ toward all eight stars implies that this warm and diffuse gaseous environment is widespread in the CMZ. The products of the ionization rate and path length for these sight lines are 1000 and 10 times higher than in dense and diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk, respectively, indicating that the ionization rate, ζ, is not less than 10-15 s-1 and that L is at least on the order of 50 pc. The warm and diffuse gas is an important component of the CMZ, in addition to the three previously known gaseous environments: (1) cold molecular clouds observed by radio emission of CO and other molecules; (2) hot (T = 104-106 K) and highly ionized diffuse gas (ne = 10-100 cm-3) seen in radio recombination lines, far infrared atomic lines, and radio-wave scattering; and (3) ultrahot (T = 107-108 K) X-ray emitting plasma. Its prevalence significantly changes the understanding of the environment of the CMZ. The sight line toward GC IRS 3 is unique in showing an additional H3+ absorption component, which is interpreted as being due to either a cloud associated with circumnuclear disk or the "50 km s-1 cloud" known from radio observations. An infrared pumping scheme is examined as a mechanism to populate the (3,3) metastable level in this cloud. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. v. redshift evolution of lyman limit absorption in the spectra of a large sample of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik A.; Boksenberg, Alec; Steidel, Charles, C.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bacall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Using a sample of 119 QSOs, containing objects we have selected having previously available high quality ground-based and IUE spectral observations, together with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 26 QSOs from Bahcall et al. (1993, 1995) and Impey et al. (1995) and new optical observations of 41 objects by Steidel & Sargent (1995), we study the redshift evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs; tau greater than 1.0) over the reshift range 0.32 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 4.11. The HST observations significantly improve the determination of the low redshift (0.4 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 1.4) distribution. We find the effect which may have been responsible for the apparent strong evolution at a(sub LLS) greater than or equal to 2.5 found by Lanzetta (1991), which led him to consider a broken, not single power law as a better description of the redshift distribution of LLSs. After removing objects which may bias our sample, leaving a total of 169 QSOs, we find the distribution is well described by a single power law, and obtain for the number density as a function of redshift the form N(z) = N(sub 0)(1 + z)(exp gamma) with gamma = 1.50 =/- 0.39 and N(sub 0) = 0.25(sup -0.10)(sub +0.17), consistent with a constant comoving density of absorbers in a Firedmann universe with q(sub 0) = 0 but indicating evolution if q(sub 0) = 1/2.

  6. Discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 observed by Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.; Woo, Jonathan W.; Nagase, Fumiaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakao, Taro

    1990-01-01

    A cyclotron absorption line near 20 keV has been found in the spectrum of the massive eclipsing binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 in observations with the Ginga observatory. The line is detected throughout the 529 s pulse cycle with a variable equivalent width that has its maximum value during the smaller peak of the two-peak pulse profile. It is found that the profile of the pulse and the phase-dependence of the cyclotron line can be explained qualitatively by a pulsar model based on recent theoretical results on the properties of pencil beams emitted by accretion-heated slabs of magnetized plasma at the magnetic poles of a neutron star. The indicated field at the surface of the neutron star is 1.7 (1 + z) x 10 to the 12th G, where z is the gravitational redshift.

  7. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.

    1989-01-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data.

  8. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35. 1 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, W.A.; Bruhweiler, F.C. Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC )

    1989-12-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data. 18 refs.

  9. Flow injection on-line dilution for zinc determination in human saliva with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Burguera-Pascu, Margarita; Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Burguera, José Luis; Burguera, Marcela; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo

    2007-09-26

    An automated method is described for the determination of zinc in human saliva by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) after on-line dilution of samples with a significant reduction of sample consumption per analysis (<0.4 mL including the dead volume of the system). In order to fulfill this aim without changing the sample transport conduits during the experiments, a flow injection (FI) dilution system was constructed. Its principal parts are: one propulsion device (peristaltic pump, PP) for either samples, standards or washing solution all located in an autosampler tray and for the surfactant solution (Triton X-100) used as diluent, and a two-position time based solenoid injector (TBSI(1)) which allowed the introduction of 10 microL of either solution in the diluent stream. To avoid unnecessary waste of samples, the TBSI(1) also permitted the recirculation of the solutions to their respective autosampler cups. The downstream diluted solution fills a home made sampling arm assembly. The sequential deposition of 20 microL aliquots of samples or standards on the graphite tube platform was carried out by air displacement with a similar time based solenoid injector (TBSI(2)). The dilution procedure and the injection of solutions into the atomizer are computer controlled and synchronized with the operation of the temperature program. Samples or standards solutions were submitted to two drying steps (at 90 and 130 degrees C), followed by pyrolysis and atomization at 700 and 1700 degrees C, respectively. The aqueous calibration was linear up to 120.0 microgL(-1) for diluted standard solutions/samples and its slope was similar (p>0.05) to the standard addition curve, indicating lack of matrix effect. The precision tested by repeated analysis of real saliva samples was less than 3% and the detection limit (3sigma) was of 0.35 microgL(-1). To test the accuracy of the proposed procedure, recovery tests were performed, obtaining mean recovery of added zinc of

  10. Simultaneous assessment of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans using on-line gas chromatography/ combustion and gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gremaud, G; Piguet, C; Baumgartner, M; Pouteau, E; Decarli, B; Berger, A; Fay, L B

    2001-01-01

    A number of dietary components and drugs are known to inhibit the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol, but at the same time can compensate by increasing cholesterol synthesis. It is, therefore, necessary to have a convenient and accurate method to assess both parameters simultaneously. Hence, we validated such a method in humans using on-line gas chromatography(GC)/combustion and GC/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Cholesterol absorption was measured using the ratio of [(13)C]cholesterol (injected intravenously) to [(18)O]cholesterol (administered orally). Simultaneously, cholesterol synthesis was measured using the deuterium incorporation method. Our methodology was applied to 12 mildly hypercholesterolemic men that were given a diet providing 2685 +/- 178 Kcal/day (mean +/- SD) and 255 +/- 8 mg cholesterol per day. Cholesterol fractional synthesis rates ranged from 5.0 to 10.5% pool/day and averaged 7.36% +/- 1.78% pool/day (668 +/- 133 mg/day). Cholesterol absorption ranged from 36.5-79.9% with an average value of 50.8 +/- 15.4%. These values are in agreement with already known data obtained with mildly hypercholesterolemic Caucasian males placed on a diet similar to the one used for this study. However, our combined IRMS method has the advantage over existing methods that it enables simultaneous measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans, and is therefore an important research tool for studying the impact of dietary treatments on cholesterol parameters.

  11. H2O and O2 Absorption-Line Abundances in the Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Measured by the R-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeney, Brian A.; Stern, S. Alan; Schindhelm, Eric; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bieler, Andre; Feaga, Lori M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Parker, Joel Wm; Steffl, Andrew Joseph; Weaver, Harold A.

    2016-10-01

    The Alice far-UV spectrograph, aboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, has observed emissions in the wavelength range 800-2000 Å from the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since before orbital insertion in September 2014. We present novel observations of the cometary coma in absorption against the stellar continuum of UV-bright stars that were targeted or serendipitously observed near the comet's nucleus between April 2015 and February 2016 at heliocentric radii ranging from 1.2 to 2.4 AU. These spectra show clear signatures of absorption from gaseous H2O and O2. The observed H2O column densities agree well with values found by Rosetta's VIRTIS instrument (Bockelée-Morvan et al. 2015, A&A, 583, A6) and can be reasonably described by a simple Haser model. However, the absorption-derived O2/H2O ratio is somewhat larger than the 1-10% range reported by Rosetta's ROSINA mass spectrometer (Bieler et al. 2015, Nature, 526, 678) from September 2014 through March 2015 at heliocentric radii of 2.1-3.2 AU. We explore potential causes for this discrepancy, including systematic biases in the absorption-line measurements and seasonal variations in O2/H2O as the comet approaches perihelion.

  12. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin-Bing; Liu, Jin-Liang; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Feng, Jia-Huai; Qian, Bao-Liang

    2010-07-01

    The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL) consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL) and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA). The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of 17O- and 18O-enriched carbon dioxide: Line positions and intensities in the 4681-5337 cm-1 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkov, Yu. G.; Jacquemart, D.; Lyulin, O. M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The line positions and intensities of carbon dioxide isotopologues have been retrieved in the 4681-5337 cm-1 spectral range from Fourier transform spectra of carbon dioxide recorded in LADIR (Paris, France) with the Bruker IFS 125-HR [Jacquemart D, et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2012;113:961-975]. In total 6386 line positions and intensities of 89 bands of 12 isotopologues 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 18O12C18O, 17O12C18O, 17O12C17O, 18O13C18O, 17O13C18O, and 17O13C17O have been retrieved. 23 bands were newly assigned. All studied bands belong to the ΔP=7 series of transitions, where P = 2V1 +V2 + 3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The accuracy of the line position measurement is about 0.3×10-3 cm-1 for the unblended and not very weak lines. The accuracy of the line intensities varies from 4% to 15% depending on the isotopologue, on the intensity of the line and on the extent of the line overlapping. The observed intensities were used to fit the effective dipole moment parameters for the ΔP=7 series of transitions in 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 12C17O2, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O, 13C17O2 and 17O13C18O isotopologues of carbon dioxide.

  14. Relative coronal abundances derived from X-ray observations 3: The effect of cascades on the relative intensity of Fe (XVII) line fluxes, and a revised iron abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Rugge, H. R.; Weiss, K.

    1974-01-01

    Permitted lines in the optically thin coronal X-ray spectrum were analyzed to find the distribution of coronal material, as a function of temperature, without special assumptions concerning coronal conditions. The resonance lines of N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Ar which dominate the quiet coronal spectrum below 25A were observed. Coronal models were constructed and the relative abundances of these elements were determined. The intensity in the lines of the 2p-3d transitions near 15A was used in conjunction with these coronal models, with the assumption of coronal excitation, to determine the Fe XVII abundance. The relative intensities of the 2p-3d Fe XVII lines observed in the corona agreed with theoretical prediction. Using a more complete theoretical model, and higher resolution observations, a revised calculation of iron abundance relative to hydrogen of 0.000026 was made.

  15. MISALIGNMENT OF THE JET AND THE NORMAL TO THE DUSTY TORUS IN THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSO FIRST J155633.8+351758

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Cormac; Punsly, Brian; O'Dea, Christopher P. E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-08-10

    We performed Very Long Baseline Array observations of the broad absorption line quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758, ''the first radio loud BALQSO''. Our observations at 15.3 GHz partially resolved a secondary component at position angle (P.A.) Almost-Equal-To 35 Degree-Sign . We combine this determination of the radio jet projection on the sky plane, with the constraint that the jet is viewed within 14. Degree-Sign 3 of the line of sight (as implied by the high variability brightness temperature) and with the P.A. of the optical/UV continuum polarization in order to study the quasar geometry. Within the context of the standard model, the data indicates a ''dusty torus'' (scattering surface) with a symmetry axis tilted relative to the accretion disk normal and a polar broad absorption line outflow aligned with the accretion disk normal. We compare this geometry to that indicated by the higher resolution radio data, brightness temperature, and optical/UV continuum polarization P.A. of a similar high optical polarization BALQSO, Mrk 231. A qualitatively similar geometry is found in these two polar BALQSOs; the continuum polarization is determined primarily by the tilt of the dusty torus.

  16. Implementing a multifaceted intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in SEHA (Abu Dhabi Health Services Company) intensive care units: the Abu Dhabi experience.

    PubMed

    Latif, Asad; Kelly, Bernadette; Edrees, Hanan; Kent, Paula S; Weaver, Sallie J; Jovanovic, Branislava; Attallah, Hadeel; de Grouchy, Kristin K; Al-Obaidli, Ali; Goeschel, Christine A; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether implementation of a multifaceted intervention would significantly reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort collaborative. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Intensive care units of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. INTERVENTIONS A bundled intervention consisting of 3 components was implemented as part of the program. It consisted of a multifaceted approach that targeted clinician use of evidence-based infection prevention recommendations, tools that supported the identification of local barriers to these practices, and implementation ideas to help ensure patients received the practices. Comprehensive unit-based safety teams were created to improve safety culture and teamwork. Finally, the measurement and feedback of monthly infection rate data to safety teams, senior leaders, and staff in participating intensive care units was encouraged. The main outcome measure was the quarterly rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections. RESULTS Eighteen intensive care units from 7 hospitals in Abu Dhabi implemented the program and achieved an overall 38% reduction in their central line-associated bloodstream infection rate, adjusted at the hospital and unit level. The number of units with a quarterly central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of less than 1 infection per 1,000 catheter-days increased by almost 40% between the baseline and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION A significant reduction in the global morbidity and mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections is possible across intensive care units in disparate settings using a multifaceted intervention.

  17. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  18. Broadening of the infrared absorption lines at reduced temperatures. II - Carbon monoxide in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, L. D.; Williams, D.

    1972-01-01

    The strengths of the rotational lines in the R branch of the CO fundamental have been determined at temperatures of 298, 202, and 132 K by means of a high-resolution spectrograph. The results can be used to determine line strengths at other temperatures by means of the Herman-Wallis relation or by considerations of the populations of the rotational levels in the ground vibrational state. Parameters describing the self-broadening and carbon dioxide broadening of CO lines have been determined at 298 and 202 K. The results are compared with other recent experimental and theoretical studies.

  19. Strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride: Herschel/HIFI observations of the sight-line to G10.6-0.4 (W31C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, D. A.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C.; de Luca, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.; Gerin, M.; Bell, T.; Boulanger, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Kazmierczak, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Geballe, T. R.; Giesen, T.; Godard, B.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gry, C.; Gupta, H.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Menten, K. M.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Pearson, J.; Perault, M.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmidt, M.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Cais, P.; Caux, E.; Liseau, R.; Morris, P.; Planesas, P.

    2010-07-01

    We report the detection of strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride along the sight-line to the submillimeter continuum source G10.6-0.4 (W31C). We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1232.4763 GHz J = 1-0 HF transition in the upper sideband of the Band 5a receiver. The resultant spectrum shows weak HF emission from G10.6-0.4 at LSR velocities in the range -10 to -3 km s-1, accompanied by strong absorption by foreground material at LSR velocities in the range 15 to 50 km s-1. The spectrum is similar to that of the 1113.3430 GHz 111-000 transition of para-water, although at some frequencies the HF (hydrogen fluoride) optical depth clearly exceeds that of para-H2O. The optically-thick HF absorption that we have observed places a conservative lower limit of 1.6×1014 cm-2 on the HF column density along the sight-line to G10.6-0.4. Our lower limit on the HF abundance, 6×10-9 relative to hydrogen nuclei, implies that hydrogen fluoride accounts for between ~30% and 100% of the fluorine nuclei in the gas phase along this sight-line. This observation corroborates theoretical predictions that - because the unique thermochemistry of fluorine permits the exothermic reaction of F atoms with molecular hydrogen - HF will be the dominant reservoir of interstellar fluorine under a wide range of conditions. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Amplified spontaneous emission measurement of a line-narrowed, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 amplifier using rubidium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission, ASE, generated by a Ti:Al2O3 laser amplifier has been measured as a function of pump energy, and thus gain, using the atomic absorption of rubidium, Rb, gas at 0.780 micron. By tuning the Ti:Al2O3 laser, the Rb cell could selectively absorb the narrow spectral bandwidth laser radiation while transmitting the wide spectral bandwidth ASE. Transmission of laser amplifier pulses through a Rb absorption cell, measured at various temperatures, thus allows the measurement of the weak ASE in the vicinity of the strong laser pulse. A model for the transmission of Rb as a function of temperature and wavelength has been developed. The measured transmissions are in good agreement with the transmission model predictions.

  1. DISCOVERY OF TIME VARIATION OF THE INTENSITY OF MOLECULAR LINES IN IRC+10216 IN THE SUBMILLIMETER AND FAR-INFRARED DOMAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla-Prieto, L.; Daniel, F.; Decin, L.; Guélin, M.; Encrenaz, P.; De Beck, E.; Barlow, M. J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.

    2014-11-20

    We report on the discovery of strong intensity variations in the high rotational lines of abundant molecular species toward the archetypical circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. The observations have been carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on board Herschel and with the IRAM30 m telescope. They cover several observing periods spreading over three years. The line intensity variations for molecules produced in the external layers of the envelope most likely result from time variations in the infrared pumping rates. We analyze the main implications this discovery has on the interpretation of molecular line emission in the envelopes of Mira-type stars. Radiative transfer calculations must take into account both the time variability of infrared pumping and the possible variation of the dust and gas temperatures with stellar phase in order to reproduce the observation of molecular lines at different epochs. The effect of gas temperature variations with stellar phase could be particularly important for lines produced in the innermost regions of the envelope. Each layer of the circumstellar envelope sees the stellar light radiation with a different lag time (phase). Our results show that this effect must be included in the models. The submillimeter and far infrared lines of asymptotic giant branch stars can no longer be considered as safe intensity calibrators.

  2. Carbon lines at limitedly low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valtts, I. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Detection of several absorption recombination radio lines of carbon at 26 MHz in Cas A direction resulted in an attempt to select similar situations (a gas cloud projection on the intense source of the nonthermal radio emission) that are promising for detecting lines of such a kind. Recommendations are given for observations to be made.

  3. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of AGN winds using Broad and mini-Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.

    2015-07-01

    BAL/mini-BALs are observed in the UV spectra of ˜ 20-30% of optically selected AGN as broad absorption troughs blueshifted by several thousands km/s, indicative of powerful nuclear winds. They could be representative of the average AGN if their winds cover only 20-30% of the continuum source, and/or represent an evolutionary state analogous to the high-soft state of BHB, when the jet emission is quenched and strong X-ray absorbing equatorial disk winds are virtually ubiquitous. High-quality, possibly time-resolved X-ray/UV studies are crucial to assess the global amount and 'character' of absorption in BAL/mini-BAL QSOs and to constrain the physical mechanism responsible for the launch and acceleration of their winds, therefore placing them in the broader context of AGN geometry and evolution. I will review here the known X-ray properties of BAL/mini-BAL QSOs, and present new results from a comprehensive X-ray spectral analysis of all the Palomar-Green BAL/mini-BAL QSOs with available XMM-Newton observations, for a total of 51 pointings of 14 different sources. These will include the most recent results from a high-quality simultaneous XMM/HST observational campaign on the mini-BAL QSO PG 1126-041, that unveiled with stunning details the X-ray/UV connection in action in an AGN disk wind through correlated X-ray/UV absorption variability.

  4. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  5. Investigation of broadening and shift of vapour absorption lines of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O in the frequency range 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Pereslavtseva, A A; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2014-10-31

    We present the results of investigation of water vapour absorption spectra in the 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1} range that is of particular interest from the viewpoint of possible application of the data obtained for monitoring water vapour in the Earth's stratosphere. The doublet of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O near ν = 7185.596 cm{sup -1} is analysed. The coefficients of broadening and shift of water vapour lines are found in the selected range in mixtures with buffer gases and compared to those obtained by other authors. (laser spectroscopy)

  6. Prospects for determining the cosmological helium-3 to helium-4 ratio via absorption-line studies of the local interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1985-01-01

    The prospects for determining the interstellar (He-3)/(He-4) ratio via absorption-line studies in the extreme ultraviolet are considered. A high-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectrometer fed by a 1-meter-class telescope similar to that discussed in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Report (1983) is assumed, and it is found that detection of He-3 may be possible with less than three days of observing time. To measure the (He-3)/(He-4) ratio with sufficient precision to determine the number of light neutrino species will require over 50 days of integration time for each object studied.

  7. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings and the Voigt line shapes in the phase-resolved and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Li; Fu, Li; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-01-21

    In this report, we show that the ability to measure the sub-1 cm(-1) resolution phase-resolved and intensity high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectra of the -CN stretch vibration of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) on the z-cut α-quartz surface allows the direct comparison and understanding of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in the imaginary and intensity SFG vibrational spectral line shapes in detail. The difference of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the imaginary and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy spectra of the same vibrational mode is the signature of the Voigt line shape and it measures the relative contribution to the overall line shape from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in SFG vibrational spectra. From the phase-resolved and intensity spectra, we found that the FWHM of the 2238.00 ± 0.02 cm(-1) peak in the phase-resolved imaginary and intensity spectra is 19.2 ± 0.2 cm(-1) and 21.6 ± 0.4 cm(-1), respectively, for the -CN group of the 8CB LB monolayer on the z-cut α-quartz crystal surface. The FWHM width difference of 2.4 cm(-1) agrees quantitatively with a Voigt line shape with a homogeneous broadening half width of Γ = 5.29 ± 0.08 cm(-1) and an inhomogeneous standard derivation width Δω = 5.42 ± 0.07 cm(-1). These results shed new lights on the understanding and interpretation of the line shapes of both the phase-resolved and the intensity SFG vibrational spectra, as well as other incoherent and coherent spectroscopic techniques in general. PMID:26801040

  8. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings and the Voigt line shapes in the phase-resolved and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Li; Fu, Li; Gan, Wei; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we show that the ability to measure the sub-1 cm-1 resolution phase-resolved and intensity high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectra of the -CN stretch vibration of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) on the z-cut α-quartz surface allows the direct comparison and understanding of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in the imaginary and intensity SFG vibrational spectral line shapes in detail. The difference of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the imaginary and intensity sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy spectra of the same vibrational mode is the signature of the Voigt line shape and it measures the relative contribution to the overall line shape from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings in SFG vibrational spectra. From the phase-resolved and intensity spectra, we found that the FWHM of the 2238.00 ± 0.02 cm-1 peak in the phase-resolved imaginary and intensity spectra is 19.2 ± 0.2 cm-1 and 21.6 ± 0.4 cm-1, respectively, for the -CN group of the 8CB LB monolayer on the z-cut α-quartz crystal surface. The FWHM width difference of 2.4 cm-1 agrees quantitatively with a Voigt line shape with a homogeneous broadening half width of Γ = 5.29 ± 0.08 cm-1 and an inhomogeneous standard derivation width Δω = 5.42 ± 0.07 cm-1. These results shed new lights on the understanding and interpretation of the line shapes of both the phase-resolved and the intensity SFG vibrational spectra, as well as other incoherent and coherent spectroscopic techniques in general.

  9. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  10. An Amphiphilic BODIPY-Porphyrin Conjugate: Intense Two-Photon Absorption and Rapid Cellular Uptake for Two-Photon-Induced Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Lan, Rongfeng; Gong, Longlong; Wu, Baoyan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kwong, Daniel W J; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung; Xing, Da

    2015-11-01

    The new amphiphilic BODPY-porphyrin conjugate BZnPP and its precursor BZnPH were synthesised, and their linear and two-photon photophysical properties, together with their cellular uptake and photo-cytotoxicity, were studied. This amphiphilic conjugate consists of a hydrophobic BODIPY moiety and a hydrophilic tetra(ethylene glycol) chain bridging a cationic triphenylphosphonium group to an amphiphilic porphyrin ZnP through acetylide linkers at its meso positions. A large two-photon absorption cross-section (σ=1725 GM) and a high singlet oxygen quantum yield (0.52) were recorded. Intense linear- and two-photon-induced red emissions were also observed for both BZnPP and BZnPH. Further in vitro studies showed that BZnPP exhibited very efficient cellular uptake and strong photocytotoxic but weak dark cytotoxic properties towards human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. In summary, the two-photon-induced emission and the potent photo-cytotoxicity of BZnPP make it an efficacious dual-purpose tumour-imaging and photodynamic therapeutic agent in the tissue-transparent spectral windows.

  11. Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption Lines in the Burst Spectra of the Neutron Star in the X-Ray Binary EXO 0748-676

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottoam, J.; Paerels, F.; Mendez, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The most straightforward manner of determining masses and radii of neutron stars is by measuring the gravitational redshift of spectral lines produced in the neutron star photosphere; such a measurement would provide direct constraints on the mass-to-radius ratio of the neutron star, and therefore on the equation of state for neutron star matter. Using data taken with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on board the XMM-Newton observatory we identify, for the first time, significant absorption lines in the spectra of 28 bursts of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676. The most significant features are consistent with the Fe XXVI and XXV n=2-3 and O VIII n=1-2 transitions, with a redshift of z=0.35, identical within small uncertainties for the different transitions. This constitutes the first direct and unambiguous measurement of the gravitational redshift in a neutron star.

  12. The effects of the electric and intense laser field on the binding energies of donor impurity states (1s and 2p±) and optical absorption between the related states in an asymmetric parabolic quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Sökmen, I.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    We have calculated the effects of electric and intense laser fields on the binding energies of the ground and some excited states of conduction electrons coupled to shallow donor impurities as well as the total optical absorption coefficient for transitions between 1s and 2p± electron-impurity states in a asymmetric parabolic GaAs/Ga1-x AlxAs quantum well. The binding energies were obtained using the effective-mass approximation within a variational scheme. Total absorption coefficient (linear and nonlinear absorption coefficient) for the transitions between any two impurity states were calculated from first- and third-order dielectric susceptibilities derived within a perturbation expansion for the density matrix formalism. Our results show that the effects of the electric field, intense laser field, and the impurity location on the binding energy of 1s-impurity state are more pronounced compared with other impurity states. If the well center is changed to be Lc<0 (Lc>0), the effective well width decreases (increases), and thus we can obtain the red or blue shift in the resonant peak position of the absorption coefficient by changing the intensities of the electric and non-resonant intense laser field as well as dimensions of the well and impurity positions.

  13. Filling in of Fraunhofer and gas-absorption lines in sky spectra as caused by rotational Raman scattering.

    PubMed