Science.gov

Sample records for absorption optical depth

  1. Studying Velocity Turbulence from Doppler-broadened Absorption Lines: Statistics of Optical Depth Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D.

    2008-10-10

    We continue our work on developing techniques for studying turbulence with spectroscopic data. We show that Doppler-broadened absorption spectral lines, in particular, saturated absorption lines, can be used within the framework of the previously introduced technique termed the velocity coordinate spectrum (VCS). The VCS relates the statistics of fluctuations along the velocity coordinate to the statistics of turbulence; thus, it does not require spatial coverage by sampling directions in the plane of the sky. We consider lines with different degree of absorption and show that for lines of optical depth less than one, our earlier treatment of the VCS developed for spectral emission lines is applicable, if the optical depth is used instead of intensity. This amounts to correlating the logarithms of absorbed intensities. For larger optical depths and saturated absorption lines, we show that only wings of the line are available for the analysis. In terms of the VCS formalism, this results in introducing an additional window, whose size decreases with the increase of the optical depth. As a result, strongly saturated absorption lines only carry the information about the small-scale turbulence. Nevertheless, the contrast of the fluctuations corresponding to the small-scale turbulence increases with the increase of the optical depth, which provides advantages for studying turbulence by combining lines with different optical depths. By combining different absorption lines one can develop a tomography of the turbulence in the interstellar gas in all its complexity.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Smoke Particle Absorption on Passive Satellite Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Contreras, R.; Zhang, J.; Reid, J. S.; Campbell, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Absorbing aerosol particles, when lifted above clouds, can perturb top-of-atmosphere radiation radiances measured by passive satellite sensors through the absorption of reflected solar energy. This scenario, if not properly screened, impacts cloud physical retrievals, like cloud optical depth (COD), conducted using radiances/channels in the visible spectrum. We describe observations of smoke particle presence above cloud off the southwest coast of Africa, using spatially and temporally collocated Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (AQUA MODIS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements. Results from this study indicate that above cloud aerosol episodes happen rather frequent in the smoke outflow region during the Northern Hemisphere summer where above cloud aerosol plumes introduce a significant bias to MODIS COD retrievals in the visible spectrum. This suggests that individual COD retrievals as well as COD climatology from MODIS can be affected over the smoke outflow region by above cloud aerosol contamination and thus showing the need to account for the presence of above cloud absorbing aerosols in the MODIS visible COD retrievals.

  3. Case study of absorption aerosol optical depth closure of black carbon over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Moteki, N.; Khatri, P.; Takamura, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Hashioka, H.; Matsui, H.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.

    2014-01-01

    aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements made by sun-sky photometers are currently the only constraint available for estimates of the global radiative forcing of black carbon (BC), but their validation studies are limited. In this paper, we report the first attempt to compare AAODs derived from single-particle soot photometer (SP2) and ground-based sun-sky photometer (sky radiometer, SKYNET) measurements. During the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) experiments, BC size distribution and mixing state vertical profiles were measured using an SP2 on board a research aircraft near the Fukue Observatory (32.8°N, 128.7°E) over the East China Sea in spring 2009 and late winter 2013. The aerosol extinction coefficients (bext) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm were calculated based on aerosol size distribution and detailed BC mixing state information. The calculated aerosol optical depth (AOD) agreed well with the sky radiometer measurements (2 ± 6%) when dust loadings were low (lidar-derived nonspherical particle contribution to AOD less than 20%). However, under these low-dust conditions, the AAODs obtained from sky radiometer measurements were only half of the in situ estimates. When dust loadings were high, the sky radiometer measurements showed systematically higher AAODs even when all coarse particles were assumed to be dust for in situ measurements. These results indicate that there are considerable uncertainties in AAOD measurements. Uncertainties in the BC refractive index, optical calculations from in situ data, and sky radiometer retrieval analyses are discussed.

  4. Depth profiling the optical absorption and thermal reflection coefficient via an analysis based on the method of images (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of depth profiling optical absorption in a thermally depth variable solid is a problem of direct interest for the analysis of complex structured materials. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm to solve this problem in a planar layered sample which is impulse irradiated. The sample is comprised of "N" model layers of thickness Δx, of constant diffusivity α, where the conductivity varies depth wise with each layer. This derivation extends to the general case of a depth variable thermal reflection coefficient with depth variable optical source density. In such a sample, at finite time, t, past excitation, thermal energy can only significantly penetrate NL model layers NL≈√4αt[-ln(ɛ)] /2Δx, where ɛ is a small error (ɛ⩽10-6) and a double transit through each layer is assumed. The depth profile of optical absorption in each layer, i, is approximated by δ(x-iΔx), weighted by the optical source density Si. The temperature at x=0- just inside a front medium contacting the sample is given by T(x=0,t)= ∑ i=12NL SiṡGR(x,x0=iΔx,t)]x=0, where GR(x,x0,t) represents an effective Green's function for optical absorption at the depth x0=iΔx in the sample. The method of images1 gives GR(x,x0=iΔx,t) in the following form: [GR(x,0Δx,t)GR(x,2Δx,t)…GR(x,2NLΔx,t)]=[A10A12 A14 A16 …..A1,2NL0A32A34 A36 …..A3,2NL….0……A2NL-1,2NL][G(x-0Δx,t)G(x-2Δx,t)……G(x-2NLΔx,t)]. The G(x-nΔx,t) are shifted image fields obtained from the infinite domain Green's function for one-dimensional heat conduction. They account for thermal wave reflection/transmission over the path length nΔx from the source (at interface i) to the surface (x=0). The Ain are lumped coefficients giving the efficiency of heat transmission from the ith source to the surface for each path order n. They are determined by a mapping procedure that identifies all propagation paths of each order, n, and computes the individual and lumped reflection coefficients. Equation (2) is

  5. Using the OMI aerosol index and absorption aerosol optical depth to evaluate the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Randles, C. A.; Govindaraju, R.; Torres, O.; Campbell, J.; Spurr, R.

    2015-05-01

    A radiative transfer interface has been developed to simulate the UV aerosol index (AI) from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) aerosol assimilated fields. The purpose of this work is to use the AI and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements as independent validation for the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). MERRAero is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model that is radiatively coupled to the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) aerosol module and includes assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Since AI is dependent on aerosol concentration, optical properties and altitude of the aerosol layer, we make use of complementary observations to fully diagnose the model, including AOD from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), aerosol retrievals from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and attenuated backscatter coefficients from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission to ascertain potential misplacement of plume height by the model. By sampling dust, biomass burning and pollution events in 2007 we have compared model-produced AI and AAOD with the corresponding OMI products, identifying regions where the model representation of absorbing aerosols was deficient. As a result of this study over the Saharan dust region, we have obtained a new set of dust aerosol optical properties that retains consistency with the MODIS AOD data that were assimilated, while resulting in better agreement with aerosol absorption measurements from OMI. The analysis conducted over the southern African and South American biomass burning regions indicates that revising the spectrally dependent aerosol absorption properties in the near-UV region improves the modeled-observed AI comparisons

  6. Simulations of the Aerosol Index and the Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth and Comparisons with OMI Retrievals During ARCTAS-2008 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    We have computed the Aerosol Index (AI) at 354 nm, useful for observing the presence of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere, from aerosol simulations conducted with the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running online the GEOS-5 Atmospheric GCM. The model simulates five aerosol types: dust, sea salt, black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate aerosol and can be run in replay or data assimilation modes. In the assimilation mode, information's provided by the space-based MODIS and MISR sensors constrains the model aerosol state. Aerosol optical properties are then derived from the simulated mass concentration and the Al is determined at the OMI footprint using the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. In parallel, model derived Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AAOD) is compared with OMI retrievals. We have focused our study during ARCTAS (June - July 2008), a period with a good sampling of dust and biomass burning events. Our ultimate goal is to use OMI measurements as independent validation for our MODIS/MISR assimilation. Towards this goal we document the limitation of OMI aerosol absorption measurements on a global scale, in particular sensitivity to aerosol vertical profile and cloud contamination effects, deriving the appropriate averaging kernels. More specifically, model simulated (full) column integrated AAOD is compared with model derived Al, this way identifying those regions and conditions under which OMI cannot detect absorbing aerosols. Making use of ATrain cloud measurements from MODIS, C1oudSat and CALIPSO we also investigate the global impact on clouds on OMI derived Al, and the extent to which GEOS-5 clouds can offer a first order representation of these effects.

  7. Constraining Black Carbon Aerosol over Asia using OMI Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth and the Adjoint of GEOS-Chem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Li; Henze, David K.; Grell, Georg A.; Carmichael. Gregory R.; Bousserez, Nicolas; Zhang, Qiang; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo; Lu, Zifeng; Cao, Junji; Mao, Yuhao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the emissions and distribution of black carbon (BC) in the region referred to here as Southeastern Asia (70degE-l50degE, 11degS-55degN) are critical to studies of the atmospheric environment and climate change. Analysis of modeled BC concentrations compared to in situ observations indicates levels are underestimated over most of Southeast Asia when using any of four different emission inventories. We thus attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Overwhelming enhancements, up to 500%, in anthropogenic BC emissions are shown after optimization over broad areas of Southeast Asia in April. In October, the optimization of anthropogenic emissions yields a slight reduction (1-5%) over India and parts of southern China, while emissions increase by 10-50% over eastern China. Observational data from in situ measurements and AERONET observations are used to evaluate the BC inversions and assess the bias between OMI and AERONET AAOD. Low biases in BC concentrations are improved or corrected in most eastern and central sites over China after optimization, while the constrained model still underestimates concentrations in Indian sites in both April and October, possibly as a. consequence of low prior emissions. Model resolution errors may contribute up to a factor of 2.5 to the underestimate of surface BC concentrations over northern India. We also compare the optimized results using different anthropogenic emission inventories and discuss the sensitivity of top-down constraints on anthropogenic emissions with respect to biomass burning emissions. In addition, the impacts of brown carbon, the formulation of the observation operator, and different a priori constraints on the optimization are

  8. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  9. Optical depth ratios and metal-line absorption around z≈2.3 star-forming galaxies: insights from observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Monica; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison

    2015-01-01

    We study metal-line absorption around 854 z≈2.3 star-forming galaxies taken from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey. The galaxies in this survey lie in the fields of 15 hyper-luminous background QSOs, with galaxy impact parameters ranging from 35 proper kpc (pkpc) to 2 proper Mpc (pMpc). Using the pixel optical depth technique, we present the first galaxy-centered 2-D maps of the median absorption by OVI, NV, CIV, CIII, and SiIV, as well as updated results for HI. At small galactocentric radii we detect a strong enhancement of the absorption relative to randomly located regions that extend out to at least 180 pkpc in the transverse direction, and ±240 km s-1 along the line-of-sight (LOS, ˜1 pMpc in the case of pure Hubble flow) for all ions except NV. Limiting the sample to the 340 galaxies with redshifts measured from nebular emission lines does not decrease the extent of the enhancement along the LOS compared to that in the transverse direction, which rules out redshift errors as the source of the observed redshift-space anisotropy and implies that we have detected the signature of gas peculiar velocities from infall, outflows, or virial motions. Looking next at optical depth ratios, we isolate pixel pairs at small galactocentric distances (within 180 pkpc in the transverse direction and 170 km s-1 along the LOS) and find that the optical depth of OVI at fixed HI is enhanced with respect to the full sample. Comparison with CLOUDY models, and assuming photoionisation, results in nearly solar metallicities at intergalactic overdensities, which we consider to be unphysical. Invoking collisional ionisation, we are able to place a lower limit on [O/H] of ˜1/100th solar, and conclude that we are likely probing collisionally ionised gas near galaxies. Finally, we turn to the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to interpret our results, and furthermore to study the evolution of the column density profiles as a function of impact parameter for different

  10. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  11. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  12. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  13. Vertical Profiles of Light Scattering, Light Absorption, and Single Scattering Albedo during the Dry, Biomass Burning Season in Southern Africa and Comparisons of In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, Brian I.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Schmid, Beat; Redermann, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol light scattering, light absorption, and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0)) are presented for a number of locations in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season. Features of the profiles include haze layers, clean air slots, and marked decreases in light scattering in passing from the boundary layer into the free troposphere. Frequency distributions of omega (sub 0) reflect the strong influence of smoke from biomass burning. For example, during a period when heavy smoke was advected into the region from the north, the mean value of omega (sub 0) in the boundary layer was 0.81 +/- 0.02 compared to 0.89 +/- 0.03 prior to this intrusion. Comparisons of layer aerosol optical depths derived from the in situ measurements with those measured by a Sun photometer aboard the aircraft show excellent agreement.

  14. Evaluation of Air Pollution Applications of AERONET and MODIS Aerosol Column Optical Depth by Comparison with In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Colucci, D.

    2012-12-01

    Reno, Nevada, USA is subject to typical urban aerosol, wind-blown dust, and occasional biomass burning smoke from anthropogenic and natural fires. Reno has complex air flow at levels relevant for aerosol transport. At times recirculating mountain and urban flow arrives from the Sierra Nevada, San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA. The urban plumes are further modified by biogenic forest emissions and secondary aerosol formation during transport over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Reno. This complicates the use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) for air quality measurements in Reno. Our laboratory at the University of Nevada Reno has collocated multispectral photoacoustic instruments and reciprocal nephelometers to measure light absorption and light scattering coefficients as well as an AERONET operated CIMEL CE-318 ground-based sunphotometer. Preliminary measurements from August 2011 indicate substantially larger Cimel AOD than could be accounted for by use of the in situ aerosol extinction measurements combined with mixing height estimate. This poster presents new results comparing AERONET AOD and single scattering albedo and MODIS AOD with in situ measurements for summer and fall 2012, along with extensive back trajectory analysis, to evaluate conditions when satellite measurement may be useful for air pollution applications in Reno.

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth Determinations for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Guzman, R. P.; Ried, D.; Lobitz, B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Automated tracking sun photometers were deployed by NASA/Ames Research Center aboard the NASA C-130 aircraft and at a ground site for all three Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in central Saskatchewan, Canada during the summer of 1994. The sun photometer data were used to derive aerosol optical depths for the total atmospheric column above each instrument. The airborne tracking sun photometer obtained data in both the southern and northern study areas at the surface prior to takeoff, along low altitude runs near the ground tracking sun photometer, during ascents to 6-8 km msl, along remote sensing flightlines at altitude, during descents to the surface, and at the surface after landing. The ground sun photometer obtained data from the shore of Candle Lake in the southern area for all cloud-free times. During the first IFC in May-June ascents and descents of the airborne tracking sun photometer indicated the aerosol optical depths decreased steadily from the surface to 3.5 kni where they leveled out at approximately 0.05 (at 525 nm), well below levels caused by the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. On a very clear day, May 31st, surface optical depths measured by either the airborne or ground sun photometers approached those levels (0.06-0.08 at 525 nm), but surface optical depths were often several times higher. On June 4th they increased from 0.12 in the morning to 0.20 in the afternoon with some evidence of brief episodes of pollen bursts. During the second IFC surface aerosol optical depths were variable in the extreme due to smoke from western forest fires. On July 20th the aerosol optical depth at 525 nm decreased from 0.5 in the morning to 0.2 in the afternoon; they decreased still further the next day to 0.05 and remained consistently low throughout the day to provide excellent conditions for several remote sensing missions flown that day. Smoke was heavy for the early morning of July 24th but cleared partially by 10

  16. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  17. Depth selective acousto-optic flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Tsalach, Adi; Schiffer, Zeev; Ratner, Eliahu; Breskin, Ilan; Zeitak, Reuven; Shechter, Revital; Balberg, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Optical based methods for non-invasive measurement of regional blood flow tend to incorrectly assess cerebral blood flow, due to contribution of extra-cerebral tissues to the obtained signal. We demonstrate that spectral analysis of phase-coded light signals, tagged by specific ultrasound patterns, enables differentiation of flow patterns at different depths. Validation of the model is conducted by Monte Carlo simulation. In-vitro experiments demonstrate good agreement with the simulations' results and provide a solid validation to depth discrimination ability. These results suggest that signal contamination originating from extra-cerebral tissue may be eliminated using spectral analysis of ultrasonically tagged light. PMID:26713201

  18. Random Walks and Effective Optical Depth in Relativistic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Sanshiro; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the random walk process in relativistic flow. In the relativistic flow, photon propagation is concentrated in the direction of the flow velocity due to the relativistic beaming effect. We show that in the pure scattering case, the number of scatterings is proportional to the size parameter ξ ≡ L/l 0 if the flow velocity β ≡ v/c satisfies β/Γ Gt ξ-1, while it is proportional to ξ2 if β/Γ Lt ξ-1, where L and l 0 are the size of the system in the observer frame and the mean free path in the comoving frame, respectively. We also examine the photon propagation in the scattering and absorptive medium. We find that if the optical depth for absorption τa is considerably smaller than the optical depth for scattering τs (τa/τs Lt 1) and the flow velocity satisfies \\beta \\gg \\sqrt{2\\tau _a/\\tau _s}, then the effective optical depth is approximated by τ* ~= τa(1 + β)/β. Furthermore, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer and compare the results with the analytic expression for the number of scatterings. The analytic expression is consistent with the results of the numerical simulations. The expression derived in this study can be used to estimate the photon production site in relativistic phenomena, e.g., gamma-ray burst and active galactic nuclei.

  19. Modeling optical absorption for thermoreflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Ziade, Elbara; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical pump-probe techniques based on thermoreflectance, such as time domain thermoreflectance and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), have been widely used to characterize the thermal conductivity of thin films and the thermal conductance across interfaces. These techniques typically use a transducer layer to absorb the pump light and improve the thermoreflectance signal. The transducer, however, complicates the interpretation of the measured signal because the approximation that all the energy from the pump beam is deposited at the transducer surface is not always accurate. In this paper, we consider the effect of laser absorption in the top layer of a multilayer sample, and derive an analytical solution for the thermoreflectance signal in the diffusion regime based on volumetric heating. We analyze the measurement sensitivity to the pump absorption depth for transducers with different thermal conductivities, and investigate the additional effect of probe laser penetration depth on the measured signal. We validate our model using FDTR measurements on 490 nm thick amorphous silicon films deposited on fused silica and silicon substrates.

  20. Diurnal variations in optical depth at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, D. S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Viking lander camera images of the Sun were used to compute atmospheric optical depth at two sites over a period of 1 to 1/3 martian years. The complete set of 1044 optical depth determinations is presented in graphical and tabular form. Error estimates are presented in detail. Otpical depths in the morning (AM) are generally larger than in the afternoon (PM). The AM-PM differences are ascribed to condensation of water vapor into atmospheric ice aerosols at night and their evaporation in midday. A smoothed time series of these differences shows several seasonal peaks. These are simulated using a one-dimensional radiative convective model which predicts martial atmospheric temperature profiles. A calculation combinig these profiles with water vapor measurements from the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector is used to predict when the diurnal variations of water condensation should occur. The model reproduces a majority of the observed peaks and shows the factors influencing the process. Diurnal variation of condensation is shown to peak when the latitude and season combine to warm the atmosphere to the optimum temperature, cool enough to condense vapor at night and warm enough to cause evaporation at midday.

  1. Absorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  2. THEMIS Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft entered into Martian orbit in October 2001 and after successful aerobraking began mapping in February 2002 (approximately Ls=330 deg.). Images taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on-board the Odyssey spacecraft allow the quantitative retrieval of atmospheric dust and water-ice aerosol optical depth. Atmospheric quantities retrieved from THEMIS build upon existing datasets returned by Mariner 9, Viking, and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Data from THEMIS complements the concurrent MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data by offering a later local time (approx. 2:00 for TES vs. approx. 4:00 - 5:30 for THEMIS) and much higher spatial resolution.

  3. What Controls Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. E.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.; Turner, D.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the controls on cirrus cloud optical depth distributions [P(σ)] is critical for calculating cirrus cloud radiative impacts. Using an adiabatic parcel model with binned ice microphysics, we assess the influence of microphysical (nucleation, growth and fallout) and dynamical (constant updraft, idealized waves) processes on P(σ). For various sets of model initial conditions, we find P(σ) shape depends primarily on the ice crystal fallout timescale. At small updraft velocities, short fallout timescales allow ice crystals to fall out before depleting the ice super-saturation (Si). Thus, regardless of the ice nuclei (IN) concentration, high Si persists and multiple homogeneous nucleation events occur. In this fallout-dominated regime, P(σ) has a monotonically decreasing shape. In contrast, at large updraft velocities, long fallout timescales resulting from large homogeneous nucleation rates allow complete depletion of the Si and limited ice crystal fallout. In this limited-fallout regime, P(σ) has a skewed peak at high optical depth values. When glaciated IN are added to the limited-fallout regime evolution, they do not inhibit homogeneous nucleation, but they can reduce the maximum Si and number concentration of ice crystals. The limited-fallout P(σ) with glaciated IN has an additional monotonically decreasing tail at low optical depth values. Superimposed oscillations in vertical velocity can broaden P(σ) for limited-fallout regime cirrus. With large temperature displacements, vertical velocity waves can also generate the high Si required for new homogeneous nucleation events that influence P(σ). To complement our parcel model results, we calculate cirrus timescales, thicknesses, and P(σ) using 4000+ hours of raman lidar depolarization and optical depth observations from Lamont, OK (USA). Preliminary results indicate modeled P(σ) resemble P(σ) observations, suggesting P(σ) shapes can be explained in terms of microphysical and dynamical

  4. Electric modulation of optical absorption in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, M. R.

    2016-11-01

    We have calculated the effect of an external electric field on the intersubband optical absorption of a nanowire subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field and Rashba effect. The absorption peaks due to optical transitions that are forbidden in the absence of the intersubband coupling experience strong amplitude modulation. This effect is quadratic in electric fields applied along the direction of quantum confinement or perpendicularly to tune the Rashba parameter. The electric field also induces frequency modulation in the associated spectrum. On the other hand, transitions that are normally allowed show, to a large extent, a parallel band effect, and accordingly they are responsible for strong optical absorption.

  5. Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Markham, Brian; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The aerosol optical depth over the Konza Prairie, near Manhattan, Kansas, was recorded at various locations by five separate teams. These measurements were made in support of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) and used to correct imagery from a variety of satellite and aircraft sensors for the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption. The results from one instrument are reported here for 26 days in 1987 and for 7 in 1989. Daily averages span a range of 0.05 to 0.28 in the midvisible wavelengths. In addition, diurnal variations are noted in which the afternoon optical depths are greater than those of the morning by as much as 0.07. A comparison between instruments and processing techniques used to determine these aerosol optical depths is provided. The first comparisons are made using summer 1987 data. Differences of as much as 0.05 (midvisible) are observed. Although these data allow reasonable surface reflectance retrievals, they do not agree to within the performance limits typically associated with these types of instruments. With an accuracy goal of 0.02 a preseason calibration/comparison experiment was conducted at a mountain site prior to the final field campaign in 1989. Good calibration data were obtained, and good agreement (0.01, midvisible) was observed in the retrieved optical depth acquired over the Konza. By comparing data from the surface instruments at different locations, spatial inhomogeneities are determined. Then, data from the airborne tracking sunphotometer allow one to determine variations as a function of altitude. Finally, a technique is proposed for using the in situ data to establish an instrument calibration.

  6. RANDOM WALKS AND EFFECTIVE OPTICAL DEPTH IN RELATIVISTIC FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Sanshiro; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the random walk process in relativistic flow. In the relativistic flow, photon propagation is concentrated in the direction of the flow velocity due to the relativistic beaming effect. We show that in the pure scattering case, the number of scatterings is proportional to the size parameter ξ ≡ L/l {sub 0} if the flow velocity β ≡ v/c satisfies β/Γ >> ξ{sup –1}, while it is proportional to ξ{sup 2} if β/Γ << ξ{sup –1}, where L and l {sub 0} are the size of the system in the observer frame and the mean free path in the comoving frame, respectively. We also examine the photon propagation in the scattering and absorptive medium. We find that if the optical depth for absorption τ{sub a} is considerably smaller than the optical depth for scattering τ{sub s} (τ{sub a}/τ{sub s} << 1) and the flow velocity satisfies β≫√(2τ{sub a}/τ{sub s}), then the effective optical depth is approximated by τ{sub *} ≅ τ{sub a}(1 + β)/β. Furthermore, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer and compare the results with the analytic expression for the number of scatterings. The analytic expression is consistent with the results of the numerical simulations. The expression derived in this study can be used to estimate the photon production site in relativistic phenomena, e.g., gamma-ray burst and active galactic nuclei.

  7. Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhao, Chujun; Lu, Shunbin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2012-10-01

    We report on the first experiments on saturable absorption in graphene at microwave frequency band. Almost independent of the incident frequency, microwave absorbance of graphene always decreases with increasing the power and reaches at a constant level for power larger than 80 µW, evidencing the microwave saturable absorption property of graphene. Optical saturable absorption of the same graphene sample was also experimentally confirmed by an open-aperture Z-scan technique by one laser at telecommunication band and another pico-second laser at 1053 nm, respectively. Herein, we are able to conclude that graphene is indeed a broadband saturable absorber that can operate at both microwave and optical band.

  8. Extraordinary Optical Absorption through Plasmonic Subwavelength Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Justin; Veronis, Georgios; Yu, Zongfu; Barnard, Edward; Chandran, Anu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark

    2009-03-01

    We report on the ability of resonant plasmonic slits to efficiently concentrate electromagnetic energy into a nanoscale volume of absorbing material placed inside or right behind the slit. This gives rise to extraordinary optical absorption (EOA) characterized by an absorption enhancement factor that well-exceeds the enhancements seen for extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through slits. A semi-analytic Fabry-Perot model for the resonant absorption is developed and shown to quantitatively agree with full-field simulations. We show that absorption enhancements of nearly 1000% can be realized at 633nm for slits in aluminum films filled with silicon. This effect can be utilized in a wide range of applications, including high speed photodetectors, optical lithography and recording, and biosensors.

  9. Sensitivity of depth of maximum and absorption depth of EAS to hadron production mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Galkin, V. I.; Hein, L. A.; Ivanenko, I. P.; Kanevsky, B. L.; Kuzmin, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of experimental data on depth of extensive air showers (EAS) development maximum in the atmosphere, T sub M and path of absorption, lambda, in the lower atmosphere of EAS with fixed particle number in the energy region eV with the results of calculation show that these parameters are sensitive mainly to the inelastic interaction cross section and scaling violation in the fragmentation and pionization region. The data are explained in a unified manner within the framework of a model in which scaling is violated slightly in the fragmentation region and strongly in the pionization region at primary cosmic rays composition close to the normal one and a permanent increase of inelastic interaction cross section. It is shown that, while interpreting the experimental data, disregard of two methodical points causes a systematic shift in T sub M: (1) shower selection system; and (2) EAS electron lateral distribution when performing the calculations on basis of which the transfer is made from the Cerenkov pulse FWHM to the depth of shower maximum, T sub M.

  10. Further advancement of differential optical absorption spectroscopy: theory of orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liudchik, Alexander M

    2014-08-10

    A modified version of the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is presented. The technique is called orthogonal optical absorption spectroscopy (OOAS). A widespread variant of DOAS with smoothing of the registered spectrum and absorption cross sections being made employing a polynomial regression is a particular case of OOAS. The concept of OOAS provides a variety of new possibilities for constructing computational schemes and analyzing the influence of different error sources on calculated concentrations. PMID:25320931

  11. Smoke optical depths - Magnitude, variability, and wavelength dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Russell, P. B.; Colburn, D. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Allen, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne autotracking sun-photometer has been used to measure magnitudes, temporal/spatial variabilities, and the wavelength dependence of optical depths in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared spectrum of smoke from two forest fires and one jet fuel fire and of background air. Jet fuel smoke optical depths were found to be generally less wavelength dependent than background aerosol optical depths. Forest fire smoke optical depths, however, showed a wide range of wavelength depedences, such as incidents of wavelength-independent extinction.

  12. Improved evaluation of optical depth components from Langley plot data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Gellman, D. I.; Slater, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    A simple, iterative procedure to determine the optical depth components of the extinction optical depth measured by a solar radiometer is presented. Simulated data show that the iterative procedure improves the determination of the exponent of a Junge law particle size distribution. The determination of the optical depth due to aerosol scattering is improved as compared to a method which uses only two points from the extinction data. The iterative method was used to determine spectral optical depth components for June 11-13, 1988 during the MAC III experiment.

  13. All-optical depth coloring based on directional gating.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungjin; Kim, Mugeon; Hahn, Joonku

    2016-09-19

    In non-contacting depth extraction there are several issues, such as the accuracy and the measurement speed. In the issue of the measurement speed, the computation cost for image processing is significant. We present an all-optical depth extraction method by coloring objects according to their depth. Our system is operated fully optically and both encoding and decoding processes are optically performed. Therefore, all-optical depth coloring has a distinct advantage to extract the depth information in real time without any computation cost. We invent a directional gating method to extract the points from the object which are positioned at the same distance. Based on this method, the objects look painted by different colors according to the distance when the objects are observed through our system. In this paper, we demonstrate the all-optical depth coloring system and verify the feasibility of our method. PMID:27661875

  14. Single-molecule imaging by optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebrano, Michele; Kukura, Philipp; Renn, Alois; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2011-02-01

    To date, optical studies of single molecules at room temperature have relied on the use of materials with high fluorescence quantum yield combined with efficient spectral rejection of background light. To extend single-molecule studies to a much larger pallet of substances that absorb but do not fluoresce, scientists have explored the photothermal effect, interferometry, direct attenuation and stimulated emission. Indeed, very recently, three groups have succeeded in achieving single-molecule sensitivity in absorption. Here, we apply modulation-free transmission measurements known from absorption spectrometers to image single molecules under ambient conditions both in the emissive and strongly quenched states. We arrive at quantitative values for the absorption cross-section of single molecules at different wavelengths and thereby set the ground for single-molecule absorption spectroscopy. Our work has important implications for research ranging from absorption and infrared spectroscopy to sensing of unlabelled proteins at the single-molecule level.

  15. Optical and thermal depth profile reconstructions of inhomogeneous photopolymerization in dental resins using photothermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Torres, P.; Mandelis, A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2010-09-01

    Photopolymerization is a process that depends, among other factors, on the optical properties of polymerized materials. In turn, this process affects longitudinal light transport in these materials, thereby altering their optical absorption coefficient which is thus expected to exhibit depth dependence. Furthermore, polymerization affects the thermal properties of these materials. A robust theoretical approach to the study of the depth-dependent optical absorption coefficient, β(x ), and thermal diffusivity, α(x ), in materials exhibiting depth profiles of these parameters has been developed through the photothermal inverse problem based on the concept of the thermal-harmonic oscillator. Using this concept in the frequency-domain nonhomogeneous photothermal-wave boundary-value problem, the simultaneous reconstruction of arbitrary simultaneous optical and thermal depth profiles was achieved using a multiparameter fitting method to the experimental amplitude and phase. As a first application of the theory to partially polymerized Alert Composite (shade A3) dental resin, with curing induced by a blue light-emitting diode, the β(x ) and α(x ) depth profiles were reconstructed from photothermal radiometric frequency-scanned data. A strong anticorrelation of these two depth profiles was observed and was interpreted in terms of photochemical processes occurring during the optical (photocuring) creation of long polymeric chains in the resin. The photothermally reconstructed depth profiles may have implications for the optimization of blue light curing methods using such resins in dental clinical practice.

  16. Optical Depth from Realistic Microlensing Models of M31

    SciTech Connect

    Gyuk, Geza; Crotts, Arlin

    2000-06-01

    We provide a set of microlensing optical depth maps for M31. Optical depths toward Andromeda were calculated on the basis of a four-component model of the lens and source populations: disk and bulge sources lensed by bulge, M31 halo, and Galactic halo lenses. We confirm the high optical depth and the strong optical depth gradient along the M31 minor axis due to a dark halo of lenses and also discuss the magnitude of the self-lensing due to the bulge. We explore how the shape of the optical depth maps to M31 vary with the halo parameters core radius and flattening. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  17. Optical absorption coefficients of pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng; Zhao, Xianzhen; Fry, Edward S.

    2002-10-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter(ICAM), which is independent of scattering effect, is used to measure the absolute values of small optical absorption coefficients of liquid. A modified ICAM is being used to measure the absorption of water in the wavelength range 300 to 700 nm. The ultrapure water produced by a two-stages water purification system reaches Type I quality. This is equal to or better than ASTM,CAP and NCCLS water quality standards. To avoid the fact that dissolved oxygen absorbs ultraviolet light due to the photochemical effect, the water sample is delivered through a nitrogen sealed system which will prevent the sample from contacting with oxygen. A compassion of our absorption spectrum with other existing data is given.

  18. Spectral Absorption Depth Profile: A Step Forward to Plasmonic Solar Cell Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad K.; Mukhaimer, Ayman W.; Drmosh, Qasem A.

    2016-11-01

    Absorption depth profile, a deterministic and key factor that defines the quality of excitons generation rate in optoelectronic devices, is numerically predicted using finite different time domain analysis. A typical model, nanoparticles array on silicon slab, was devised considering the concept of plasmonic solar cell design. The trend of spectral absorption depth profile distributions at various wavelengths of the solar spectrum, 460 nm, 540 nm, 650 nm, 815 nm, and 1100 nm, was obtained. A stronger and well-distributed absorption profile was obtained at ˜650 nm of the solar spectrum (i.e. ˜1.85 eV, c-Si bandgap), although the absorbing layer was affected more than a half micron depth at shorter wavelengths. Considering the observations obtained from this simulation, we have shown a simple two-step method in fabricating ultra-pure silver (Ag) nanoparticles that can be used as plasmonic nanoscatterers in a thin film solar cell. The morphology and elemental analysis of as-fabricated Ag nanoparticles was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and FESEM-coupled electron diffraction spectroscopy. The size of the as-fabricated Ag nanoparticles was found to range from 50 nm to 150 nm in diameter. Further investigations on structural and optical properties of the as-fabricated specimen were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, photoluminesce, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Preferential growth of ZnO along {002} was confirmed by XRD pattern that was more intense and broadened at increasing annealing temperatures. The lattice parameter c was found to increase, whereas grain size increased with increasing annealing temperature. The optical bandgap was also observed to decrease from 3.31 eV to 3.25 eV at increasing annealing temperatures through UV-Vis measurements. This parallel investigation on optical properties by simulation is in line with experimental studies and, in fact, facilitates devising optimum process cost for

  19. Spectral Absorption Depth Profile: A Step Forward to Plasmonic Solar Cell Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad K.; Mukhaimer, Ayman W.; Drmosh, Qasem A.

    2016-07-01

    Absorption depth profile, a deterministic and key factor that defines the quality of excitons generation rate in optoelectronic devices, is numerically predicted using finite different time domain analysis. A typical model, nanoparticles array on silicon slab, was devised considering the concept of plasmonic solar cell design. The trend of spectral absorption depth profile distributions at various wavelengths of the solar spectrum, 460 nm, 540 nm, 650 nm, 815 nm, and 1100 nm, was obtained. A stronger and well-distributed absorption profile was obtained at ˜650 nm of the solar spectrum (i.e. ˜1.85 eV, c-Si bandgap), although the absorbing layer was affected more than a half micron depth at shorter wavelengths. Considering the observations obtained from this simulation, we have shown a simple two-step method in fabricating ultra-pure silver (Ag) nanoparticles that can be used as plasmonic nanoscatterers in a thin film solar cell. The morphology and elemental analysis of as-fabricated Ag nanoparticles was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and FESEM-coupled electron diffraction spectroscopy. The size of the as-fabricated Ag nanoparticles was found to range from 50 nm to 150 nm in diameter. Further investigations on structural and optical properties of the as-fabricated specimen were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, photoluminesce, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Preferential growth of ZnO along {002} was confirmed by XRD pattern that was more intense and broadened at increasing annealing temperatures. The lattice parameter c was found to increase, whereas grain size increased with increasing annealing temperature. The optical bandgap was also observed to decrease from 3.31 eV to 3.25 eV at increasing annealing temperatures through UV-Vis measurements. This parallel investigation on optical properties by simulation is in line with experimental studies and, in fact, facilitates devising optimum process cost for

  20. Calculation of optical depths from an integral of the Voigt function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The optical depth along a vertical path in an atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium can be calculated from an integral of the Voigt function for the case where the absorption is due to spectral lines. Series expansions are presented that allow rapid evaluation of this integral over all values of the independent variables, frequency and pressure.

  1. LINKING Lyα AND LOW-IONIZATION TRANSITIONS AT LOW OPTICAL DEPTH

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-08-20

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters.

  2. Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).

  3. Black Hole Advective Accretion Disks with Optical Depth Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Artemove, Y.V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Novikov, I.D.

    2006-02-01

    We have constructed numerically global solutions of advective accretion disks around black holes that describe a continuous transition between the effectively optically thick outer and optically thin inner disk regions. We have concentrated on models of accretion flows with large mass accretion rates, and we have employed a bridging formula for radiative losses at high and low effective optical depths.

  4. Microphysical and Dynamical Influences on Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.

    2005-03-18

    Cirrus cloud inhomogeneity occurs at scales greater than the cirrus radiative smoothing scale ({approx}100 m), but less than typical global climate model (GCM) resolutions ({approx}300 km). Therefore, calculating cirrus radiative impacts in GCMs requires an optical depth distribution parameterization. Radiative transfer calculations are sensitive to optical depth distribution assumptions (Fu et al. 2000; Carlin et al. 2002). Using raman lidar observations, we quantify cirrus timescales and optical depth distributions at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, OK (USA). We demonstrate the sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) calculations to assumed optical depth distributions and to the temporal resolution of optical depth measurements. Recent work has highlighted the importance of dynamics and nucleation for cirrus evolution (Haag and Karcher 2004; Karcher and Strom 2003). We need to understand the main controls on cirrus optical depth distributions to incorporate cirrus variability into model radiative transfer calculations. With an explicit ice microphysics parcel model, we aim to understand the influence of ice nucleation mechanism and imposed dynamics on cirrus optical depth distributions.

  5. Towards Depth-Resolved Optical Imaging of Cardiac Electrical Activity.

    PubMed

    Walton, Richard D; Bernus, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of arrhythmias are likely to be complex three-dimensional phenomena. Yet, the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging techniques, both in the clinic and the experimental lab, limits our ability to better understand the mechanisms of such arrhythmias. Optical mapping using voltage-sensitive dyes is a widely used tool in experimental electrophysiology. It has been known for decades that even in its most basic application, epi-fluorescence, the optical signal contains information from within a certain intramural volume. Understanding of this fundamental property of optical signals has paved the way towards novel three-dimensional optical imaging techniques. Here, we review our current understanding of the three-dimensional nature of optical signals; how penetration depths of cardiac optical imaging can be improved by using novel imaging modalities and finally, we highlight new techniques inspired from optical tomography and aiming at full depth-resolved optical mapping of cardiac electrical activity. PMID:26238062

  6. Depth-resolved photothermal optical coherence tomography by local optical path length change measurement (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Shuichi; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Photothermal OCT has been emerged to contrast absorbers in biological tissues. The tissues response to photothermal excitation as change of thermal strain and refractive index. To resolve the depth of absorption agents, the measurements of the local thermal strain change and local refractive index change due to photothermal effect is required. In this study, we developed photothermal OCT for depth-resolved absorption contrast imaging. The phase-resolved OCT can measure the axial strain change and local refractive index change as local optical path length change. A swept-source OCT system is used with a wavelength swept laser at 1310 nm with a scanning rate of 50 kHz. The sensitivity of 110 dB is achieved. At the sample arm, the excitation beam from a fiber-coupled laser diode of 406 nm wavelength is combined with the OCT probe beam co-linearly. The slowly modulated excitation beam around 300 Hz illuminate biological tissues. M-mode scan is applied during one-period modulation duration. The local optical path length change is measured by temporal and axial phase difference. The theoretical prediction of the photothermal response is derived and in good agreement with experimental results. In the case of slow modulation, the delay of photothermal response can be neglected. The local path length changes are averaged over the half period of the excitation modulation, and then demodulated. This method exhibits 3-dB gain in the sensitivity of the local optical path length change measurement over the direct Fourier transform method. In vivo human skin imaging of endogenous absorption agent will be demonstrated.

  7. Towards Improved Cirrus Cloud Optical Depths from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Anne; Vaughan, Mark; Pelon, Jacques; Winker, David; Trepte, Chip; Young, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews recent advances regarding the retrieval of optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds using synergetic analyses of perfectly collocated observations from the CALIOP lidar and the IIR infrared radiometer aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

  8. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  9. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  10. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  11. Depth-correction algorithm that improves optical quantification of large breast lesions imaged by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zhu, Quing

    2011-05-01

    Optical quantification of large lesions imaged with diffuse optical tomography in reflection geometry is depth dependence due to the exponential decay of photon density waves. We introduce a depth-correction method that incorporates the target depth information provided by coregistered ultrasound. It is based on balancing the weight matrix, using the maximum singular values of the target layers in depth without changing the forward model. The performance of the method is evaluated using phantom targets and 10 clinical cases of larger malignant and benign lesions. The results for the homogenous targets demonstrate that the location error of the reconstructed maximum absorption coefficient is reduced to the range of the reconstruction mesh size for phantom targets. Furthermore, the uniformity of absorption distribution inside the lesions improve about two times and the median of the absorption increases from 60 to 85% of its maximum compared to no depth correction. In addition, nonhomogenous phantoms are characterized more accurately. Clinical examples show a similar trend as the phantom results and demonstrate the utility of the correction method for improving lesion quantification.

  12. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Depth-encoded synthetic aperture optical coherence tomography of biological tissues with extended focal depth.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-02-23

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be able to provide three-dimensional (3D) volumetric images of scattering biological tissues for in vivo medical diagnostics. Unlike conventional optical microscopy, its depth-resolving ability (axial resolution) is exclusively determined by the laser source and therefore invariant over the full imaging depth. In contrast, its transverse resolution is determined by the objective's numerical aperture and the wavelength which is only approximately maintained over twice the Rayleigh range. However, the prevailing laser sources for OCT allow image depths of more than 5 mm which is considerably longer than the Rayleigh range. This limits high transverse resolution imaging with OCT. Previously, we reported a novel method to extend the depth-of-focus (DOF) of OCT imaging in Mo et al.Opt. Express 21, 10048 (2013)]. The approach is to create three different optical apertures via pupil segmentation with an annular phase plate. These three optical apertures produce three OCT images from the same sample, which are encoded to different depth positions in a single OCT B-scan. This allows for correcting the defocus-induced curvature of wave front in the pupil so as to improve the focus. As a consequence, the three images originating from those three optical apertures can be used to reconstruct a new image with an extended DOF. In this study, we successfully applied this method for the first time to both an artificial phantom and biological tissues over a four times larger depth range. The results demonstrate a significant DOF improvement, paving the way for 3D high resolution OCT imaging beyond the conventional Rayleigh range. PMID:25836528

  14. Depth profilometry via multiplexed optical high-coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B; Hajian, Arsen R

    2015-01-01

    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry. PMID:25803289

  15. Depth Profilometry via Multiplexed Optical High-Coherence Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander; Behr, Bradford B.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2015-01-01

    Depth Profilometry involves the measurement of the depth profile of objects, and has significant potential for various industrial applications that benefit from non-destructive sub-surface profiling such as defect detection, corrosion assessment, and dental assessment to name a few. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of depth profilometry using an Multiplexed Optical High-coherence Interferometry MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument utilizes the spatial coherence of a laser and the interferometric properties of light to probe the reflectivity as a function of depth of a sample. The axial and lateral resolutions, as well as imaging depth, are decoupled in the MOHI instrument. The MOHI instrument is capable of multiplexing interferometric measurements into 480 one-dimensional interferograms at a location on the sample and is built with axial and lateral resolutions of 40 μm at a maximum imaging depth of 700 μm. Preliminary results, where a piece of sand-blasted aluminum, an NBK7 glass piece, and an optical phantom were successfully probed using the MOHI instrument to produce depth profiles, demonstrate the feasibility of such an instrument for performing depth profilometry. PMID:25803289

  16. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Remer, L. A.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerosol optical depths are derived operationally for the first time over land in the visible wavelengths by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) onboard the EOSTerra spacecraft. More than 300 Sun photometer data points from more than 30 AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites globally were used in validating the aerosol optical depths obtained during July - September 2000. Excellent agreement is found with retrieval errors within (Delta)tau=+/- 0.05 +/- 0.20 tau, as predicted, over (partially) vegetated surfaces, consistent with pre-launch theoretical analysis and aircraft field experiments. In coastal and semi-arid regions larger errors are caused predominantly by the uncertainty in evaluating the surface reflectance. The excellent fit was achieved despite the ongoing improvements in instrument characterization and calibration. This results show that MODIS-derived aerosol optical depths can be used quantitatively in many applications with cautions for residual clouds, snow/ice, and water contamination.

  17. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  18. Linking Lyα and Low-ionization Transitions at Low Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-13293 and GO-12928.

  19. A comparison of hydrographically and optically derived mixed layer depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.; Zaneveld, J.R.V.; Boss, E.; Gardner, W.D.; Richardson, M.J.; Mishonov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to understand and model the dynamics of the upper ocean would be significantly advanced given the ability to rapidly determine mixed layer depths (MLDs) over large regions. Remote sensing technologies are an ideal choice for achieving this goal. This study addresses the feasibility of estimating MLDs from optical properties. These properties are strongly influenced by suspended particle concentrations, which generally reach a maximum at pycnoclines. The premise therefore is to use a gradient in beam attenuation at 660 nm (c660) as a proxy for the depth of a particle-scattering layer. Using a global data set collected during World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises from 1988-1997, six algorithms were employed to compute MLDs from either density or temperature profiles. Given the absence of published optically based MLD algorithms, two new methods were developed that use c660 profiles to estimate the MLD. Intercomparison of the six hydrographically based algorithms revealed some significant disparities among the resulting MLD values. Comparisons between the hydrographical and optical approaches indicated a first-order agreement between the MLDs based on the depths of gradient maxima for density and c660. When comparing various hydrographically based algorithms, other investigators reported that inherent fluctuations of the mixed layer depth limit the accuracy of its determination to 20 m. Using this benchmark, we found a ???70% agreement between the best hydrographical-optical algorithm pairings. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Eddington limit for a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The Eddington luminosity of a spherical source is usually defined for a uniformly extending normal plasma. We usually suppose that the gas can accrete to the central object at the sub-Eddington luminosity, while it would be blown off from the central luminous source in the super-Eddington case. We reconsider this central dogma of the Eddington limit under the radiative transfer effect for the purely scattering case, using analytical and numerical methods. For the translucent isolated gas cloud (stratus) with finite optical depth, the concept of the Eddington luminosity is drastically changed. In an heuristic way, we find that the critical condition is approximately expressed as Γ = (1 + μ* + τc)/2, where Γ (=L/LE) is the central luminosity L normalized by the Eddington luminosity LE, τc is the optical depth of the stratus, and μ* (=√{1-R_*^2/R^2}) is the direction cosine of the central object, R* being the radius of the central object, and R the distance from the central object. When the optical depth of the stratus is around unity, the classical Eddington limit roughly holds for the stratus; Γ ˜ 1. However, when the optical depth is greater than unity, the critical condition becomes roughly Γ ˜ τc/2, and the stratus would infall on to the central source even at the highly super-Eddington luminosity. When the optical depth is less than unity, on the other hand, the critical condition reduces to Γ ≳ (1 + μ*)/2, and the stratus could be blown off in some limited ranges, depending on μ*. This new concept of the Eddington limit for the isolated stratus could drastically change the accretion and outflow physics of highly inhomegeneous plasmas, with relevance for astrophysical jets and winds and supermassive black hole formation.

  1. Structured illumination assisted microdeflectometry with optical depth scanning capability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng-Huei; Hua, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microdeflectometry is a powerful noncontact tool for measuring nanometer defects on a freeform surface. However, it requires a time-consuming process to take measurements at different depths for an extended depth of field (EDOF) and lacks surface information for integrating the measured gradient data to height. We propose an optical depth scanning technique to speed up the measurement process and introduce the structured illumination technique to efficiently determine the focused data among 3D observation and provide surface orientations for reconstructing an unknown surface shape. We demonstrated 3D measurements with an equivalent surface height sensitivity of 7.21 nm and an EDOF of at least 250 μm, which is 15 times that of the diffraction limited depth range. PMID:27607986

  2. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  3. Contrails of Small and Very Large Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, David; Wang, Zhien

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with two kinds of contrails. The first comprises a large number of optically thin contrails near the tropopause. They are mapped geographically using a lidar to obtain their height and a camera to obtain azimuth and elevation. These high-resolution maps provide the local contrail geometry and the amount of optically clear atmosphere. The second kind is a single trail of unprecedentedly large optical thickness that occurs at a lower height. The latter was observed fortuitously when an aircraft moving along the wind direction passed over the lidar, thus providing measurements for more than 3 h and an equivalent distance of 620 km. It was also observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sensors. The lidar measured an optical depth of 2.3. The corresponding extinction coefficient of 0.023 per kilometer and ice water content of 0.063 grams per cubic meter are close to the maximum values found for midlatitude cirrus. The associated large radar reflectivity compares to that measured by ultrasensitive radar, thus providing support for the reality of the large optical depth.

  4. Radial widths, optical depths, and eccentricities of the Uranian rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Matthews, K.; Goldreich, P.

    1982-02-01

    Observations of the stellar occultation by the Uranian rings of 15/16 August 1980 are used to estimate radial widths and normal optical depths for segments of rings 6, 5, 4, alpha, beta, eta, gamma, and delta. Synthetic occultation profiles are generated to match the observed light curves. A review of published data confirms the existence of width-radius relations for rings alpha and beta, and indicates that the optical depths of these two rings vary inversely with their radial widths. Masses are obtained for rings alpha and beta, on the assumption that differential precession is prevented by their self-gravity. A quantitative comparison of seven epsilon-ring occultation profiles obtained over a period of 3.4 yr reveals a consistent structure, which may reflect the presence of unresolved gaps and subrings.

  5. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids. PMID:26576666

  6. High-resolution in-depth imaging of optically cleared thick samples using an adaptive SPIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Aurore; Escande, Paul; Frongia, Céline; Clouvel, Grégory; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2015-11-01

    Today, Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) makes it possible to image fluorescent samples through depths of several hundreds of microns. However, LSFM also suffers from scattering, absorption and optical aberrations. Spatial variations in the refractive index inside the samples cause major changes to the light path resulting in loss of signal and contrast in the deepest regions, thus impairing in-depth imaging capability. These effects are particularly marked when inhomogeneous, complex biological samples are under study. Recently, chemical treatments have been developed to render a sample transparent by homogenizing its refractive index (RI), consequently enabling a reduction of scattering phenomena and a simplification of optical aberration patterns. One drawback of these methods is that the resulting RI of cleared samples does not match the working RI medium generally used for LSFM lenses. This RI mismatch leads to the presence of low-order aberrations and therefore to a significant degradation of image quality. In this paper, we introduce an original optical-chemical combined method based on an adaptive SPIM and a water-based clearing protocol enabling compensation for aberrations arising from RI mismatches induced by optical clearing methods and acquisition of high-resolution in-depth images of optically cleared complex thick samples such as Multi-Cellular Tumour Spheroids.

  7. Nighttime Aerosol Optical Depth Variability From Astronomical Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, I. C.; Ellingson, R. G.

    2006-12-01

    A technique for determination of the short-term (6 minutes intervals) variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during nighttime from broadband visible measurements of star irradiances during clear nights was developed for the instrument called the Whole Sky Imager (WSI), placed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observation site in Oklahoma. The AOD is inferred indirectly from simultaneous observations of extinction of stars having different colors (spectra) and different elevations above the horizon, and takes into account the other sources for starlight attenuation in the atmosphere which might be present and which are measured by other instruments at the site at compatible timescales (e.g., precipitable water vapor content, columnar ozone amount, observed atmospheric stratification). The total error of the new method is a combination of the absolute star flux measurement error with the WSI and a systematic error in the models assumed for the other atmospheric components causing the starlight extinction. The relative error in the aerosol optical depth determined through this method is found to be below 4%. For the validation of the results, the comparison of the aerosol optical depth measured with the Lidar at 10 minutes intervals (at 355nm) with the AOD determined from WSI (in visible) shows a good agreement for the data in the interval studied (1999-2003).

  8. Evaluating UVA aerosol optical depth using a smartphone camera.

    PubMed

    Igoe, Damien P; Parisi, Alfio V; Carter, Brad

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates a smartphone complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor's ability to detect and quantify incident solar UVA radiation and subsequently, aerosol optical depth at 340 and 380 nm. Earlier studies revealed that the consumer grade CMOS sensor has inherent UVA sensitivities, despite attenuating effects of the lens. Narrow bandpass and neutral density filters were used to protect the image sensor and to not allow saturation of the solar images produced. Observations were made on clear days, free from clouds. The results of this research demonstrate that there is a definable response to changing solar irradiance and aerosol optical depth can be measured within 5% and 10% error margins at 380 and 340 nm respectively. The greater relative error occurs at lower wavelengths (340 nm) due to increased atmospheric scattering effects, particularly at higher air masses and due to lower signal to noise ratio in the image sensor. The relative error for solar irradiance was under 1% for observations made at 380 nm. The results indicate that the smartphone image sensor, with additional external narrow bandpass and neutral density filters can be used as a field sensor to evaluate solar UVA irradiance and aerosol optical depth.

  9. Diurnal variations in optical depth at Mars: Observations and interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, D. S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Viking lander camera images of the Sun were used to compute atmospheric optical depth at two sites over a period of 1 to 1/3 martian years. The complete set of 1044 optical depth determinations is presented in graphical and tabular form. Error estimates are presented in detail. Optical depths in the morning (AM) are generally larger than in the afternoon (PM). The AM-PM differences are ascribed to condensation of water vapor into atmospheric ice aerosols at night and their evaporation in midday. A smoothed time series of these differences shows several seasonal peaks. These are simulated using a one-dimensional radiative convective model which predicts martial atmospheric temperature profiles. A calculation combining these profiles with water vapor measurements from the Mars Atmospheric Water Detector is used to predict when the diurnal variations of water condensation should occur. The model reproduces a majority of the observed peaks and shows the factors influencing the process. Diurnal variation of condensation is shown to peak when the latitude and season combine to warm the atmosphere to the optimum temperature, cool enough to condense vapor at night and warm enough to cause evaporation at midday.

  10. Thermally detected optical absorption in sophisticated nitride structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasson, A.; Shubina, T. V.; Leymarie, J.

    2005-02-01

    The thermally detected optical absorption (TDOA) is applied to elucidate peculiarities of absorption in nitride structures of unusual morphology like GaN nanocolumns or InN layers with various imperfections. A study of GaN structures permits us to establish position of an absorption edge in TDOA spectra. We demonstrate that the absorption edge is different in GaN regions of opposite polarities. In InN with metallic In inclusions, this technique enable separation of InN interband absorption and extinction related to the Mie resonances, if the latter are below the principal absorption edge.

  11. Satellite Estimates of Single Scattering Albedo and Optical Depth of Biomass Burning Carbonaceous Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Herman, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Hsu, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite based estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (ssa), over both land and water surfaces, have been obtained for the first time using measurements of backscattered radiation in the near ultraviolet by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). The retrieval of ssa and aerosol optical depth is based on the strong spectral contrast in the near-UV resulting from the interaction between the particle absorption and scattering (both Rayleigh and Mie) processes. We use the multi-year data set on backscattered radiances by the TOMS family of instruments to analyze the time and space variability of biomass burning generated carbonaceous aerosols. Results of a comparative analysis of satellite derived optical depth and available sunphotometer measurements will also be presented.

  12. In-line absorption sensor based on coiled optical microfiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Roberto; Jung, Yongmin; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2011-04-01

    We fabricated and tested an evanescent-wave absorption sensor consisting of an optical microfiber coil resonator embedded in fluidic channel walls. Low concentrations of flowing analyte show optical losses in agreement with a modified Beer-Lambert law. Higher concentration causes a limit value of the measured optical losses arising from adsorption mechanisms.

  13. Synthesis and nonlinear optical absorption of novel chalcone derivative compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahulan, K. Mani; Balamurugan, S.; Meena, K. S.; Yeap, G.-Y.; Kanakam, Charles C.

    2014-03-01

    3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-1-(4-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was synthesized and its third order nonlinear optical properties have been investigated using a z-scan technique with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The nonlinear absorption behavior of the compound in chloroform presents a distinct difference at different laser intensity. Interestingly, the compound showed a switchover from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) with the increase of excitation intensity. Our studies suggest that compound could be used as a potential candidate for optical device applications such as optical limiters.

  14. Measurement of aerosol optical depth and sub-visual cloud detection using the optical depth sensor (ODS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2015-09-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in the atmosphere of Earth and Mars. The instrument measures alternatively the diffuse radiation from the sky and the attenuated direct radiation from the sun on the surface. The principal goals of ODS are to retrieve the daily mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and to detect very high and optically thin clouds, crucial parameters in understanding the Martian and Earth meteorology and climatology. The detection of clouds is undertaken at twilight, allowing the detection and characterization of clouds with opacities below 0.03 (sub-visual clouds). In addition, ODS is capable to retrieve the aerosol optical depth during night-time from moonlight measurements. In order to study the performance of ODS under Mars-like conditions as well as to evaluate the retrieval algorithms for terrestrial measurements, ODS was deployed in Ouagadougou (Africa) between November 2004 and October 2005, a sahelian region characterized by its high dust aerosol load and the frequent occurrence of Saharan dust storms. The daily average AOD values retrieved by ODS were compared with those provided by a CIMEL Sun-photometer of the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic NETwork) network localized at the same location. Results represent a good agreement between both ground-based instruments, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 for the whole data set and 0.96 considering only the cloud-free days. From the whole dataset, a total of 71 sub-visual cirrus (SVC) were detected at twilight with opacities as thin as 1.10-3 and with a maximum of occurrence at altitudes between 14 and 20 km. Although further analysis and comparisons are required, results indicate the potential of ODS measurements to detect sub-visual clouds.

  15. Measurement of aerosol optical depth and sub-visual cloud detection using the optical depth sensor (ODS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2016-02-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in the atmosphere of Mars. The instrument measures alternatively the diffuse radiation from the sky and the attenuated direct radiation from the Sun on the surface. The principal goals of ODS are to retrieve the daily mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and to detect very high and optically thin clouds, crucial parameters in understanding the Martian meteorology and climatology. The detection of clouds is undertaken at twilight, allowing the detection and characterization of clouds with opacities below 0.03 (sub-visual clouds). In addition, ODS is capable to retrieve the aerosol optical depth during nighttime from moonlight measurements. Recently, ODS has been selected at the METEO meteorological station on board the ExoMars 2018 Lander. In order to study the performance of ODS under Mars-like conditions as well as to evaluate the retrieval algorithms for terrestrial measurements, ODS was deployed in Ouagadougou (Africa) between November 2004 and October 2005, a Sahelian region characterized by its high dust aerosol load and the frequent occurrence of Saharan dust storms. The daily average AOD values retrieved by ODS were compared with those provided by a CIMEL sunphotometer of the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic NETwork) network localized at the same location. Results represent a good agreement between both ground-based instruments, with a correlation coefficient of 0.77 for the whole data set and 0.94 considering only the cloud-free days. From the whole data set, a total of 71 sub-visual cirrus (SVC) were detected at twilight with opacities as thin as 1.10-3 and with a maximum of occurrence at altitudes between 14 and 20 km. Although further optimizations and comparisons of ODS terrestrial measurements are required, results indicate the potential of these measurements to retrieve the AOD and detect sub-visual clouds.

  16. Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christine P.; Eckert, Jocelyn; Halpern, Elkan F.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) can identify key components related to plaque vulnerability but can suffer from artifacts that could prevent accurate identification of lipid rich regions. In this paper, we present a model of depth resolved spectral analysis of OFDI data for improved detection of lipid. A quadratic Discriminant analysis model was developed based on phantom compositions known chemical mixtures and applied to a tissue phantom of a lipid-rich plaque. We demonstrate that a combined spectral and attenuation model can be used to predict the presence of lipid in OFDI images. PMID:24009991

  17. Effect of idler absorption in pulsed optical parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Rustad, Gunnar; Arisholm, Gunnar; Farsund, Øystein

    2011-01-31

    Absorption at the idler wavelength in an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is often considered detrimental. We show through simulations that pulsed OPOs with significant idler absorption can perform better than OPOs with low idler absorption both in terms of conversion efficiency and beam quality. The main reason for this is reduced back conversion. We also show how the beam quality depends on the beam width and pump pulse length, and present scaling relations to use the example simulations for other pulsed nanosecond OPOs.

  18. Optical absorption spectra of pairs of small metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinten, M.; Kreibig, U.; Schönauer, D.; Genzel, L.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of plasma resonance coupling in small Au particle pairs on their optical properties was calculated including retardation effects. The latter prove to be important for sizes above 15 nm. For pairs of smaller particles a Maxwell-Garnett formula is derived and absorption spectra are calculated explicitly. Comparison with optical absorption spectra measured on aggregated Au particle hydrosols, gives good agreement concerning the splitting up of the dipolar single-particle plasma resonance band.

  19. Seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth over Indian subcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prasad, A.K.; Singh, R.P.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ganga basin extends 2000 km E-W and about 400 km N-S and is bounded by Himalayas in the north. This basin is unequivocally found to be affected by high aerosols optical depth (AOD) (>0.6) throughout the year. Himalayas restricts movement of aerosols toward north and as a result dynamic nature of aerosol is seen over the Ganga basin. High AOD in this region has detrimental effects on health of more than 460 million people living in this part of India besides adversely affecting clouds formation, monsoonal rainfall pattern and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Severe drought events (year 2002) in Ganga basin and unexpected failure of monsoon several times, occurred in different parts of Indian subcontinent. Significant rise in AOD (18.7%) over the central part of basin (Kanpur region) have been found to cause substantial decrease in NDVI (8.1%) since 2000. A negative relationship is observed between AOD and NDVI, magnitude of which differs from region to region. Efforts have been made to determine general distribution of AOD and its dominant departure in recent years spatially using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The seasonal changes in aerosol optical depth over the Indo-Gangetic basin is found to very significant as a result of the increasing dust storm events in recent years. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  20. Broadband optical limiting and nonlinear optical absorption properties of a novel hyperbranched conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Chunling; Li, Quanshui; Gong, Qihuang

    2004-12-01

    The nonlinear transmittance of a novel hyperbranched conjugated polymer named DMA-HPV has been measured in CHCl 3 solution using a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. DMA-HPV shows excellent optical limiting performance in the visible region from 490 to 610 nm. An explanation based on the combination of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption was proposed for its huge and broadband nonlinear optical absorption.

  1. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm.

    PubMed

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark; Abshire, James

    2013-09-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an IPDA lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled erbium-doped fiber amplifier and single photon-counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km.

  2. On optical depth profiling using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Freebody, N A; Vaughan, A S; Macdonald, A M

    2010-04-01

    Until 2006 the performance of confocal Raman spectroscopy depth profiling was typically described and modeled through the application of geometrical optics, including refraction at the surface, to explain the degree of resolution and the precise form of the depth profile obtained from transparent and semicrystalline materials. Consequently a range of techniques, physical and analytical, was suggested to avoid the errors thus encountered in order to improve the practice of Raman spectroscopy, if not the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. These approaches were completely unsuccessful in accounting for the precise form of the depth profile, the fact that spectra obtained from laminated samples always contain characteristic peaks from all materials present both well above and below the focal point and that spectra can be obtained when focused some 40 mum above the sample surface. This paper provides further evidence that the physical processes underlying Raman spectroscopy are better modeled and explained through the concept of an extended illuminated volume contributing to the final Raman spectrum and modeled through a photon scattering approach rather than a point focus ray optics approach. The power of this numerical model lies in its ability to incorporate, simultaneously, the effects of degree of refraction at the surface (whether using a dry or oil objective lens), the degree of attenuation due to scatter by the bulk of the material, the Raman scattering efficiency of the material, and surface roughness effects. Through this we are now able to explain why even removing surface aberration and refraction effects through the use of oil immersion objective lenses cannot reliably ensure that the material sampled is only that at or close to the point of focus of the laser. Furthermore we show that the precise form of the depth profile is affected by the degree of flatness of the surface of the sample. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that the degree of flatness

  3. Measurements of aerosol optical depth and diffuse-to-direct irradiance ratios in the Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.; Larson, N.; Michalsky, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Simultaneous observations of total and diffuse irradiance on a horizontal surface in six narrowband filtered detectors and one broadband shortwave detector have been made since late 1991 at a nine-site network of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers. From these measurements, the direct normal irradiance values are calculated. These data are then used to calculate the outside-the-atmosphere direct irradiance (lo) and total optical depth using the Langley method of regressing the natural logarithm of the direct irradiance against air mass for cloud-free conditions. Frequent determinations of lo allow tracking of changes in lo caused by soiling and filter degradation. The daily average total optical depth is calculated in two ways: (1) from the slope of the Langley regression line and (2) from 30-minute averages calculated from the Beer-Lambert-Bougeur law using the median lo for that day. Finally, aerosol optical depths for five wavelengths (the other narrowband wavelength is used to estimate water vapor) are obtained by subtracting Rayleigh scattering and Chappuis ozone absorption optical depths from the total optical depths. The aerosol pattern at each site is consistent with an annual cycle superimposed on a decaying aerosol loading associated with the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Moreover, the wavelength dependence of the aerosol pattern shows seasonal changes in the aerosol size distribution. The irradiance data are also used to calculate the diffuse-to-direct irradiance ratio, a quantity which in theory is related to the aerosol optical depth and surface albedo. A radiative transfer model based on the adjoint method, combined with a nonlinear least squares method. is used to estimate aerosol optical depth and surface albedo from the observed diffuse-to-direct ratios. The aerosol optical depths are in good agreement with those calculated from the direct beam data and the surface albedos are in accord with other observations.

  4. Distance redshift from an optical metric that includes absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.; Kantowski, R.

    2009-08-15

    We show that it is possible to equate the intensity reduction of a light wave caused by weak absorption with a geometrical reduction in intensity caused by a 'transverse' conformal transformation of the spacetime metric in which the wave travels. We are consequently able to modify Gordon's optical metric to account for electromagnetic properties of ponderable material whose properties include both refraction and absorption. Unlike refraction alone, however, including absorption requires a modification of the optical metric that depends on the eikonal of the wave itself. We derive the distance-redshift relation from the modified optical metric for Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetimes whose cosmic fluid has associated refraction and absorption coefficients. We then fit the current supernovae data and provide an alternate explanation (other than dark energy) of the apparent acceleration of the Universe.

  5. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers.

    PubMed

    Vezie, Michelle S; Few, Sheridan; Meager, Iain; Pieridou, Galatia; Dörling, Bernhard; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Goñi, Alejandro R; Bronstein, Hugo; McCulloch, Iain; Hayes, Sophia C; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Nelson, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure. PMID:27183327

  6. Impact of Using Assimilated Data for Evaluating Performance of Active CO2 Optical Depth Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E. V.; Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    NASA has recently conducted multiple DC-8 flight campaigns of candidate instruments for the future Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. For each campaign, the precision and accuracy of the remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 differential absorption optical depths from the candidate instruments were evaluated with respect to corresponding CO2 optical depths derived from in situ profiles of atmospheric state variables including atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios, temperature (T), pressure (p), and humidity (q) and radiative transfer calculations using the HITRAN spectroscopic database in combination with recent measurements of spectral line parameters. To enable this evaluation, the DC-8 flights were designed to include multiple overpasses of a comparison location where the aircraft performed a spiral ascent or descent and captured the in situ profiles using a suite of onboard instruments. However large segments of some flights took place far from spiral locations and therefore had no coincident in situ measurements of the atmospheric state (CO2, T, p, q). For these situations meterological analysis data from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS-5 gridded data have been used to assimilate atmospheric state profiles for use in the CO2 optical depth derivation. We use the location of the DC-8 spirals to identify all of the GMAO GEOS-5 gridded profiles that would compare with each spiral and report their differences with respect to the DC-8 in situ profiles. We show how these differences affect the in situ derived CO2 optical depth for the three campaigns and the impacts of these differences on the precision and accuracy evaluations of the remote CO2 measurements.

  7. In-depth quantification by using multispectral time-resolved diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaoui, Judy; Hervé, Lionel; Di Sieno, Laura; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Berger, Michel; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Derouard, Jacques; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a medical imaging which gives the distribution of the optical properties of biological tissues. To obtain endogenous chromophore features in the depth of a scattering medium, a multiwavelength/time-resolved (MW/TR) DOT setup was used. Reconstructions of the three-dimensional maps of chromophore concentrations of probed media were obtained by using a data processing technique which manages Mellin-Laplace Transforms of their MW/TR optical signals and those of a known reference medium. The point was to put a constraint on the medium absorption coefficient by using a material basis composed of a given set of chromophores of known absorption spectra. Experimental measurements were conducted by injecting the light of a picosecond near- infrared laser in the medium of interest and by collecting, for several wavelengths and multiple positions, the backscattered light via two fibers (with a source-detector separation of 15 mm) connected to fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) and coupled to a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) system. Validations of the method were performed in simulation in the same configuration as the experiments for different combination of chromophores. Evaluation of the technique in real conditions was investigated on liquid phantoms composed of an homogenous background and a 10 mm depth inclusion formed of combination of intralipid and inks scanned at 30 positions and at three wavelengths. Both numerical and preliminary phantom experiments confirm the potential of this method to determine chromophore concentrations in the depth of biological tissues.

  8. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  9. Stochastic Approach to Phonon-Assisted Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Marios; Patrick, Christopher E.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-10-01

    We develop a first-principles theory of phonon-assisted optical absorption in semiconductors and insulators which incorporates the temperature dependence of the electronic structure. We show that the Hall-Bardeen-Blatt theory of indirect optical absorption and the Allen-Heine theory of temperature-dependent band structures can be derived from the present formalism by retaining only one-phonon processes. We demonstrate this method by calculating the optical absorption coefficient of silicon using an importance sampling Monte Carlo scheme, and we obtain temperature-dependent line shapes and band gaps in good agreement with experiment. The present approach opens the way to predictive calculations of the optical properties of solids at finite temperature.

  10. Depth-resolved water column spectral absorption of sunlight by phytoplankon during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange (SOGasEx) Lagrangian tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Optical measurements made during gas exchange tracer experiments in the Southern Ocean, Atlantic sector near 51°S, 38°W from March-April 2008 (SOGasEx) were used to develop daily integrated depth- resolved PAR absorbed by phytoplankton. Particulate and phytoplankton pigment spectral absorption coefficients (ap and aph), and methanol-extracted chlorophyll-a concentrations (chl-a) from discrete samples within and below the upper mixed layer (40 stations) were combined with data from optical casts where chlorophyll-a and cdom fluorescence and PAR scalar irradiance were measured (11 stations), PAR Kd was measured from a buoy free of ship shadow for 0-5m (11 stations), and Wetlabs AC-9 whole water absorption coefficients to 150m were measured (14 stations, with 3 in common with fluorescence data) to estimate depth-resolved values for both total spectral absorption and spectral PAR irradiance. By combining depth-adjusted spectral absorption of phytoplankton pigments (aph) with depth-adjusted PAR spectral irradiance we estimated depth-resolved daily PAR irradiance absorbed by photosynthetic pigments. These data can be compared with time-integrated primary production measurements conducted on deck where solar exposure or lamp exposure was modified to simulate a range of depths. Such a synthesis should improve our estimates of depth-integrated daily primary production, and ultimately contribute to refining estimates of carbon export rates to be incorporated into a carbon budget and CO2 air-sea flux models for the SOGasEx experiments.

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth: A study using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumridh; Hanprasert, Kesrin

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was retrieved from the direct-sun Brewer observation by the application of the Beer's law for the years 1997-2011 at two monitoring sites in Thailand (Bangkok and Songkhla). AOD values measured in Bangkok exhibited higher values than Songkhla. In addition, AOD values were higher in the morning and evening in Bangkok. In contrast, the AOD values in Songkhla were slightly lower during the mornings and late afternoons. The variation of AOD was seasonal in Bangkok, with the higher values found in summer (from Mid-February to Mid-May) compared with rainy season (Mid-May to Mid-October), whilst there was no clear seasonal pattern of AOD in Songkhla.

  12. Underwater optical wireless communications: depth-dependent beam refraction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura J; Green, Roger J; Leeson, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Global refractive gradients in seawater cause pointing problems for optical wireless communications. A refractive index depth profile of the Pacific Ocean was calculated from measured salinity, temperature, and pressure, determining the end points of a refracted and nonrefracted 200 m communication link. Numerical ray tracing was used with a point source for angles between 10° and 80° and transmission wavelengths of 500-650 nm; the maximum end-point difference found was 0.23 m. A 500 nm laser with a 0.57° full-angle FOV was traced; the nonrefracted receiver location was outside the FOV for all links angled >15° to the vertical. However, most pointing issues underwater are unlikely to be significant with suitable FOV choice and natural scattering of the source.

  13. Parameterization of cirrus optical depth and cloud fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, B.

    1995-09-01

    This research illustrates the utility of combining satellite observations and operational analysis for the evaluation of parameterizations. A parameterization based on ice water path (IWP) captures the observed spatial patterns of tropical cirrus optical depth. The strong temperature dependence of cirrus ice water path in both the observations and the parameterization is probably responsible for the good correlation where it exists. Poorer agreement is found in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes where the temperature dependence breaks down. Uncertainties in effective radius limit quantitative validation of the parameterization (and its inclusion into GCMs). Also, it is found that monthly mean cloud cover can be predicted within an RMS error of 10% using ECMWF relative humidity corrected by TOVS Upper Troposphere Humidity. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  14. Bulge microlensing optical depth from EROS 2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, C.; Albert, J. N.; Alard, C.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, É.; Bareyre, P.; Bauer, F.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Blanc, G.; Bouquet, A.; Char, S.; Charlot, X.; Couchot, F.; Coutures, C.; Derue, F.; Ferlet, R.; Fouqué, P.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Goldman, B.; Gould, A.; Graff, D.; Gros, M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hardin, D.; de Kat, J.; Kim, A.; Lasserre, T.; LeGuillou, L.; Lesquoy, É.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Mansoux, B.; Marquette, J. B.; Maurice, É.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prévot, L.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.

    2003-06-01

    We present a measurement of the microlensing optical depth toward the Galactic bulge based on the analysis of 15 contiguous 1 deg2 fields centered on (l=2.5o, b=-4.0o) and containing N_*=1.42x 106 clump-giant stars (belonging to the extended clump area) monitored during almost three bulge seasons by EROS (Expérience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres). We find tau_bulge =0.94+/- 0.29x 10-6 averaged over all fields, based on 16 microlensing events with clump giants as sources. This value is substantially below several other determinations by the MACHO and OGLE groups and is more in agreement with what is expected from axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric bulge models. Based on observations made with the MARLY telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  15. Peripheral Processing Facilitates Optic Flow-Based Depth Perception

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinglin; Lindemann, Jens P.; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Flying insects, such as flies or bees, rely on consistent information regarding the depth structure of the environment when performing their flight maneuvers in cluttered natural environments. These behaviors include avoiding collisions, approaching targets or spatial navigation. Insects are thought to obtain depth information visually from the retinal image displacements (“optic flow”) during translational ego-motion. Optic flow in the insect visual system is processed by a mechanism that can be modeled by correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). However, it is still an open question how spatial information can be extracted reliably from the responses of the highly contrast- and pattern-dependent EMD responses, especially if the vast range of light intensities encountered in natural environments is taken into account. This question will be addressed here by systematically modeling the peripheral visual system of flies, including various adaptive mechanisms. Different model variants of the peripheral visual system were stimulated with image sequences that mimic the panoramic visual input during translational ego-motion in various natural environments, and the resulting peripheral signals were fed into an array of EMDs. We characterized the influence of each peripheral computational unit on the representation of spatial information in the EMD responses. Our model simulations reveal that information about the overall light level needs to be eliminated from the EMD input as is accomplished under light-adapted conditions in the insect peripheral visual system. The response characteristics of large monopolar cells (LMCs) resemble that of a band-pass filter, which reduces the contrast dependency of EMDs strongly, effectively enhancing the representation of the nearness of objects and, especially, of their contours. We furthermore show that local brightness adaptation of photoreceptors allows for spatial vision under a wide range of dynamic light

  16. Eight-year climatology of dust optical depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, L.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Wilson, R. J.; Lewis, S. R.; Cantor, B.; Kass, D.; Kleinböhl, A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from martian year 24-31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure that is weighted in space, time, and retrieval quality. The lack of observations at certain times and locations introduces missing grid points in the maps, which therefore may result in irregularly gridded (i.e. incomplete) fields. In order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we compare with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. We have statistically analyzed the irregularly gridded maps to provide an overview of the dust climatology on Mars over eight years, specifically in relation to its interseasonal and interannual variability, in addition to provide a basis for instrument intercomparison. Finally, we have produced regularly gridded maps of CDOD by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These complete maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modeling

  17. [Study of retrieving formaldehyde with differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jin; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Qu, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper introduces the method of retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The authors measured ambient HCHO in Beijing region with the help of differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument made by ourself, and discussed numerous factors in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), especially, the choice of HCHO wave band, how to avoid absorption of ambient SO2, NO2 and O3, and the influence of the Xenon lamp spectrum structure on the absorption of ambient HCHO. The authors achieved the HCHO concentration by simultaneously retrieving the concentrations of HCHO, SO2, NO2 and O3 with non-linear least square fitting method, avoiding the effect of choosing narrow wave of HCHO and the residual of SO2, NO2, O3 and the Xenon lamp spectrum structure in retrieving process to attain the concentration of HCHO, Finally the authors analyzed the origin of error in retrieving the concentration of HCHO with differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and the total error is within 13.7% in this method. PMID:19385238

  18. The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2015-10-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in both Martian and Earth environments. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds properties, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

  19. Optical-induced absorption tunability of Barium Strontium Titanate film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunya; Ji, Jie; Yue, Jin; Rao, Yunkun; Yao, Gang; Li, Dan; Zeng, Ying; Li, Renkui; Xiao, Longsheng; Liu, Xinxing; Yao, Jianquan; Ling, Furi

    2016-10-01

    The absorption tunability of 100 nm thickness of ferroelectric Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) thin films with different densities of pumped optical field is measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz at 19 °C. Experimental results show that the absorption coefficient of BST film is approximately at 5000 cm-1-20000 cm-1 in the range of 0.2 THz - 1.2 THz and the absorption coefficient reached up to 16% when we applied the optical field up to 600 mW. The theoretical calculations reveal that increasing photoexcitation fluences is responsible for the increasing of transmission change in the conduction current density cause the absorption coefficient varied.

  20. Electronic structure and optic absorption of phosphorene under strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Houjian; Yang, Mou; Wang, Ruiqiang

    2016-07-01

    We studied the electronic structure and optic absorption of phosphorene (monolayer of black phosphorus) under strain. Strain was found to be a powerful tool for the band structure engineering. The in-plane strain in armchair or zigzag direction changes the effective mass components along both directions, while the vertical strain only has significant effect on the effective mass in the armchair direction. The band gap is narrowed by compressive in-plane strain and tensile vertical strain. Under certain strain configurations, the gap is closed and the energy band evolves to the semi-Dirac type: the dispersion is linear in the armchair direction and is gapless quadratic in the zigzag direction. The band-edge optic absorption is completely polarized along the armchair direction, and the polarization rate is reduced when the photon energy increases. Strain not only changes the absorption edge (the smallest photon energy for electron transition), but also the absorption polarization.

  1. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  2. [Spectral calibration for space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Jin; Liu, Wen-Qing; Si, Fu-Qi; Zhao, Min-Jie; Jiang, Yu; Xue, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer is used for remote sensing of atmospheric trace gas global distribution. This instrument acquires high accuracy UV/Vis radiation scattered or reflected by air or earth surface, and can monitor distribution and variation of trace gases based on differential optical absorption spectrum algorithm. Spectral calibration is the premise and base of quantification of remote sensing data of the instrument, and the precision of calibration directly decides the level of development and application of the instrument. Considering the characteristic of large field, wide wavelength range, high spatial and spectral resolution of the space-borne differential optical absorption spectrometer, a spectral calibration method is presented, a calibration device was built, the equation of spectral calibration was calculated through peak searching and regression analysis, and finally the full field spectral calibration of the instrument was realized. The precision of spectral calibration was verified with Fraunhofer lines of solar light.

  3. Optical absorption spectra of palladium doped gold cluster cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydashev, Vladimir E.; Janssens, Ewald Lievens, Peter

    2015-01-21

    Photoabsorption spectra of gas phase Au{sub n}{sup +} and Au{sub n−1}Pd{sup +} (13 ≤ n ≤ 20) clusters were measured using mass spectrometric recording of wavelength dependent Xe messenger atom photodetachment in the 1.9–3.4 eV photon energy range. Pure cationic gold clusters consisting of 15, 17, and 20 atoms have a higher integrated optical absorption cross section than the neighboring sizes. It is shown that the total optical absorption cross section increases with size and that palladium doping strongly reduces this cross section for all investigated sizes and in particular for n = 14–17 and 20. The largest reduction of optical absorption upon Pd doping is observed for n = 15.

  4. Metal nanoparticles enhanced optical absorption in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wanlu; Liu, Fang; Qu, Di; Xu, Qi; Huang, Yidong

    2011-12-01

    The plasmonic enhanced absorption for thin film solar cells with silver nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on top of the amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H) solar cells and embedded inside the active layer of organic solar cells (OSCs) has been simulated and analyzed. Obvious optical absorption enhancement is obtained not only at vertical incidence but also at oblique incidence. By properly adjusting the period and size of NPs, an increased absorption enhancement of about 120% and 140% is obtained for a-Si:H solar cells and OSCs, respectively.

  5. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Baroncelli, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.

    1995-05-01

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, and HNO2 averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  6. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmueller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. By relating the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface wind, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle, we identify regions where these attributes are significantly correlated to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The Fertile Crescent turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD trend over these countries. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trend and interannual variability can be attributed to the above mentioned dust cycle parameters, confirming that the AOD increase is predominantly driven by dust. In particular, the positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. This suggests that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change. Based on simulations using the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry-climate model (EMAC), we interpret the correlations identified in the observational data in terms of causal relationships.

  7. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Above Clouds from OMI Observations: Sensitivity Analysis, Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Jethva, H.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol load reaching the free troposphere is frequently located above low clouds. Most commonly observed aerosols above clouds are carbonaceous particles generally associated with biomass burning and boreal forest fires, and mineral aerosols originated in arid and semi-arid regions and transported across large distances, often above clouds. Because these aerosols absorb solar radiation, their role in the radiative transfer balance of the earth atmosphere system is especially important. The generally negative (cooling) top of the atmosphere direct effect of absorbing aerosols, may turn into warming when the light-absorbing particles are located above clouds. The actual effect depends on the aerosol load and the single scattering albedo, and on the geometric cloud fraction. In spite of its potential significance, the role of aerosols above clouds is not adequately accounted for in the assessment of aerosol radiative forcing effects due to the lack of measurements. In this paper we discuss the basis of a simple technique that uses near-UV observations to simultaneously derive the optical depth of both the aerosol layer and the underlying cloud for overcast conditions. The two-parameter retrieval method described here makes use of the UV aerosol index and reflectance measurements at 388 nm. A detailed sensitivity analysis indicates that the measured radiances depend mainly on the aerosol absorption exponent and aerosol-cloud separation. The technique was applied to above-cloud aerosol events over the Southern Atlantic Ocean yielding realistic results as indicated by indirect evaluation methods. An error analysis indicates that for typical overcast cloudy conditions and aerosol loads, the aerosol optical depth can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 54% whereas the cloud optical depth can be derived within 17% of the true value.

  8. Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, R.C.

    1995-09-22

    Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

  9. An optical absorption cell with vapor cross flow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, P. E.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a water vapor cross flow system that simulates meteorological conditions and effectively curbs any disturbing effects of walls and vacuum connections in an optical absorption cell. Vapor equilibrium is established within 30 min. A 6.3 micron infrared beam traverses the pressure, temperature, and humidity controlled vapor column. The effect of these thermodynamic parameters can be examined.

  10. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  11. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  12. An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when τ approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

  13. Depth-resolved ballistic imaging in a low-depth-of-field optical Kerr gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yipeng; Tan, Wenjiang; Si, Jinhai; Ren, YuHu; Xu, Shichao; Tong, Junyi; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate depth-resolved imaging in a ballistic imaging system, in which a heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate is introduced to extract useful imaging photons for detecting an object hidden in turbid media and a compound lens is proposed to ensure both the depth-resolved imaging capability and the long working distance. Two objects of about 15-μm widths hidden in a polystyrene-sphere suspension have been successfully imaged with approximately 600-μm depth resolution. Modulation-transfer-function curves with the object in and away from the object plane have also been measured to confirm the depth-resolved imaging capability of the low-depth-of-field (low-DOF) ballistic imaging system. This imaging approach shows potential for application in research of the internal structure of highly scattering fuel spray.

  14. Ice Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from CRISM Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, David R.

    2014-11-01

    cubes.Presented here are the results of this PCA/TT work to find the singular set of spectral endmembers and their use in recovering ice cloud optical depth from the MRO-CRISM multispectral image cubes.

  15. Programmable diffractive optical elements for extending the depth of focus in ophthalmic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Lenny A.; Millán, María. S.; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Kołodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The depth of focus (DOF) defines the axial range of high lateral resolution in the image space for object position. Optical devices with a traditional lens system typically have a limited DOF. However, there are applications such as in ophthalmology, which require a large DOF in comparison to a traditional optical system, this is commonly known as extended DOF (EDOF). In this paper we explore Programmable Diffractive Optical Elements (PDOEs), with EDOF, as an alternative solution to visual impairments, especially presbyopia. These DOEs were written onto a reflective liquid cystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM). Several designs of the elements are analyzed: the Forward Logarithmic Axicon (FLAX), the Axilens (AXL), the Light sword Optical Element (LSOE), the Peacock Eye Optical Element (PE) and Double Peacock Eye Optical Element (DPE). These elements focus an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis. The performances of the PDOEs are compared with those of multifocal lenses. In all cases, we obtained the point spread function and the image of an extended object. The results are presented and discussed.

  16. Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Duli; Wood, R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Rasch, Philip J.; Miller, Steven D.; Schichtel, Bret; Moore, Tom

    2012-09-14

    Remote sensing observations of aerosol from surface and satellite instruments are extensively used for atmospheric and climate research. From passive sensors, the apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds often appears to be brighter then further away from the clouds, leading to an enhancement in the retrieved aerosol optical depth. Mechanisms contributing to this enhancement, including contamination by undetected clouds, hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles, and meteorological conditions, have been debated in recent literature, but an extent to which each of these factors influence the observed enhancement is poorly known. Here we used 11 years of daily global observations at 10x10 km2 resolution from the MODIS on the NASA Terra satellite to quantify as a function of cloud fraction (CF). Our analysis reveals that, averaged over the globe, the clear sky is enhanced by ? = 0.05 which corresponds to relative enhancements of 25% in cloudy conditions (CF=0.8-0.9) compared with relatively clear conditions (CF=0.1-0.2). Unlike the absolute enhancement ?, the relative increase in ? is rather consistent in all seasons and is 25-35% in the subtropics and 15-25% at mid and higher latitudes. Using a simple Gaussian probability density function model to connect cloud cover and the distribution of relative humidity, we argue that much of the enhancement is consistent with aerosol hygroscopic growth in the humid environment surrounding clouds. Consideration of these cloud-dependent effects will facilitate understanding aerosol-cloud interactions and reduce the uncertainty in estimates of aerosol radiative forcing by global climate models.

  17. Deriving atmospheric visibility from satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffler, M.; Schneider, Ch.; Popp, Ch.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric visibility is a measure that reflects different physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. In general, poor visibility conditions come along with risks for transportation (e.g. road traffic, aviation) and can negatively impact human health since visibility impairment often implies the presence of atmospheric pollution. Ambient pollutants, particulate matter, and few gaseous species decrease the perceptibility of distant objects. Common estimations of this parameter are usually based on human observations or devices that measure the transmittance of light from an artificial light source over a short distance. Such measurements are mainly performed at airports and some meteorological stations. A major disadvantage of these observations is the gap between the measurements, leaving large areas without any information. As aerosols are one of the most important factors influencing atmospheric visibility in the visible range, the knowledge of their spatial distribution can be used to infer visibility with the so called Koschmieder equation, which relates visibility and atmospheric extinction. In this study, we evaluate the applicability of satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to infer atmospheric visibility on large spatial scale. First results applying AOD values scaled with the planetary boundary layer height are promising. For the comparison we use a full automated and objective procedure for the estimation of atmospheric visibility with the help of a digital panorama camera serving as ground truth. To further investigate the relation between the vertical measure of AOD and the horizontal visibility data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site Laegeren (Switzerland), where the digital camera is mounted, are included as well. Finally, the derived visibility maps are compared with synoptical observations in central

  18. Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Optical Depth with Imperfect Event Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, David P.

    2005-11-01

    I present a new analysis of the MACHO Project 5.7 yr Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing data set that incorporates the effects of contamination of the microlensing event sample by variable stars. Photometric monitoring of MACHO LMC microlensing event candidates by the EROS and OGLE groups has revealed that one of these events is likely to be a variable star, while additional data have confirmed that many of the other events are very likely to be microlensing. These additional data on the nature of the MACHO microlensing candidates are incorporated into a simple likelihood analysis to derive a probability distribution for the number of MACHO microlens candidates that are true microlensing events. This analysis shows that 10-12 of the 13 events that passed the MACHO selection criteria are likely to be microlensing events, with the other 1-3 being variable stars. This likelihood analysis is also used to show that the main conclusions of the MACHO LMC analysis are unchanged by the variable star contamination. The microlensing optical depth toward the LMC is τ=(1.0+/-0.3)×10-7. If this is due to microlensing by known stellar populations plus an additional population of lens objects in the Galactic halo, then the new halo population would account for 16% of the mass of a standard Galactic halo. The MACHO detection exceeds the expected background of two events expected from ordinary stars in standard models of the Milky Way and LMC at the 99.98% confidence level. The background prediction is increased to three events if maximal disk models are assumed for both the Milky Way and LMC, but this model fails to account for the full signal seen by MACHO at the 99.8% confidence level.

  19. Intercomparison of Desert Dust Optical Depth from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; Brindley, H.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Deuze, J. L.; Diner, D.; Ducos, F.; Grey, W.; Hsu, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Kahn, R.; North, P. R. J.; Salustro, C.; Smith, A.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Veihelmann, B,

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify the differences between current datasets. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, it is important to note that differences in sampling, related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset can be an important issue.

  20. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  1. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  2. Depth-selective fiber-optic probe for characterization of superficial tissue at a constant physical depth

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Can; Brokl, David; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo assessment of superficial tissue has shown great promise in many biomedical applications. Significant efforts have been expended in designing compact fiber-optic probes with short tissue penetration depth targeting the superficial epithelium. In this paper, we present a compact and simple two-channel fiber-optic probe with superior depth selectivity for the superficial tissue. This probe employs a high-index ball-lens with an optimized illumination area and the maximal overlap between light illumination and collection spots, while maintaining sufficient light collection efficiency with minimized specular reflection. Importantly, we show that this probe allows the selection of a constant and shallow physical penetration depth, insensitive to a wide range of tissue-relevant scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors. We demonstrate the capability of this depth-selective fiber-optic probe to accurately quantify the absorber concentration in superficial tissue without the distortion of tissue scattering properties; and characterize the optical properties of superficial skin tissue. PMID:21483607

  3. Two-Photon-Absorption Scheme for Optical Beam Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Farr, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A new optical beam tracking approach for free-space optical communication links using two-photon absorption (TPA) in a high-bandgap detector material was demonstrated. This tracking scheme is part of the canonical architecture described in the preceding article. TPA is used to track a long-wavelength transmit laser while direct absorption on the same sensor simultaneously tracks a shorter-wavelength beacon. The TPA responsivity was measured for silicon using a PIN photodiode at a laser beacon wavelength of 1,550 nm. As expected, the responsivity shows a linear dependence with incident power level. The responsivity slope is 4.5 x 10(exp -7) A/W2. Also, optical beam spots from the 1,550-nm laser beacon were characterized on commercial charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imagers with as little as 13.7 microWatts of optical power (see figure). This new tracker technology offers an innovative solution to reduce system complexity, improve transmit/receive isolation, improve optical efficiency, improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reduce cost for free-space optical communications transceivers.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal radiometry. II Multilayered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.

  5. Manifestation of the Kondo effect in nonlinear optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazyan, T. V.; Perakis, I. E.; Raikh, M. E.

    2000-03-01

    We study the nonlinear optical absorption due to transitions from a deep impurity to states above a Fermi sea. Previous calculations(See, e.g., S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy), (Oxford University Press, 1995). of \\chi^(3) included contributions from virtual processes involving doubly occupied impurity state. This indicates the necessity of incorporating the Hubbard repulsion of electrons at the impurity in calculation of nonlinear optical properties. Detailed calculations are performed for pump-probe spectrum. We demonstrate that Hubbard-repulsion-induced suppression of two-electron states leads to the divergency in \\chi^(3) near the absorption threshold. The origin of this divergency lies in the Kondo-physics;(See, e.g., A. C. Hewson, The Kondo Problem to Heavy Fermions), (Cambridge University Press, 1993). a monochromatic optical field induces the coupling between the impurity and conduction band states that is similar to the hybridization terms in the Anderson model.^3 Remarkably, for light-induced Kondo-absorption, the Kondo temperature can be tuned by the intensity and frequency of the pump field.

  6. Optical absorption analysis and optimization of gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Tuersun, Paerhatijiang; Han, Xiang'e

    2013-02-20

    Gold nanoshells, consisting of a nanoscale dielectric core coated with an ultrathin gold shell, have wide biomedical applications due to their strong optical absorption properties. Gold nanoshells with high absorption efficiencies can help to improve these applications. We investigate the effects of the core material, surrounding medium, core radius, and shell thickness on the absorption spectra of gold nanoshells by using the light-scattering theory of a coated sphere. Our results show that the position and intensity of the absorption peak can be tuned over a wide range by manipulating the above-mentioned parameters. We also obtain the optimal absorption efficiencies and structures of hollow gold nanoshells and gold-coated SiO(2) nanoshells embedded in water at wavelengths of 800, 820, and 1064 nm. The results show that hollow gold nanoshells possess the maximum absorption efficiency (5.42) at a wavelength of 800 nm; the corresponding shell thickness and core radius are 4.8 and 38.9 nm, respectively. They can be used as the ideal photothermal conversation particles for biomedical applications. PMID:23435006

  7. Optical absorption analysis and optimization of gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Tuersun, Paerhatijiang; Han, Xiang'e

    2013-02-20

    Gold nanoshells, consisting of a nanoscale dielectric core coated with an ultrathin gold shell, have wide biomedical applications due to their strong optical absorption properties. Gold nanoshells with high absorption efficiencies can help to improve these applications. We investigate the effects of the core material, surrounding medium, core radius, and shell thickness on the absorption spectra of gold nanoshells by using the light-scattering theory of a coated sphere. Our results show that the position and intensity of the absorption peak can be tuned over a wide range by manipulating the above-mentioned parameters. We also obtain the optimal absorption efficiencies and structures of hollow gold nanoshells and gold-coated SiO(2) nanoshells embedded in water at wavelengths of 800, 820, and 1064 nm. The results show that hollow gold nanoshells possess the maximum absorption efficiency (5.42) at a wavelength of 800 nm; the corresponding shell thickness and core radius are 4.8 and 38.9 nm, respectively. They can be used as the ideal photothermal conversation particles for biomedical applications.

  8. Characteristics of spectral aerosol optical depths over India during ICARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna; Gopal, K. Rama; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Niranjan, K.; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Behera, M.; Jeyaram, A.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Gogoi, M. M.; Singh, Sacchidanand; Pant, P.; Dumka, U. C.; Kant, Yogesh; Kuniyal, J. C.; Singh, Darshan

    2008-07-01

    Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, carried out regularly from a network of observatories spread over the Indian mainland and adjoining islands in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, are used to examine the spatio-temporal and spectral variations during the period of ICARB (March to May 2006). The AODs and the derived Ångström parameters showed considerable variations across India during the above period. While at the southern peninsular stations the AODs decreased towards May after a peak in April, in the north Indian regions they increased continuously from March to May. The Ångström coefficients suggested enhanced coarse mode loading in the north Indian regions, compared to southern India. Nevertheless, as months progressed from March to May, the dominance of coarse mode aerosols increased in the columnar aerosol size spectrum over the entire Indian mainland, maintaining the regional distinctiveness. Compared to the above, the island stations showed considerably low AODs, so too the northeastern station Dibrugarh, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment. Long-range transport of aerosols from tshe adjoining regions leads to remarkable changes in the magnitude of the AODs and their wavelength dependencies during March to May. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows that enhanced long-range transport of aerosols, particularly from the west Asia and northwest coastal India, contributed significantly to the enhancement of AOD and in the flattening of the spectra over entire regions; if it is the peninsular regions and the island Minicoy are more impacted in April, the north Indian regions including the Indo Gangetic Plain get affected the most during May, with the AODs soaring as high as 1.0 at 500 nm. Over the islands, the Ångström exponent ( α) remained significantly lower (˜1) over the Arabian Sea compared to Bay of Bengal (BoB) (˜1.4) as revealed by the data respectively from Minicoy and Port Blair. Occurrences of higher values of

  9. VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Products for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, A. K.; Zhang, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2014-12-01

    The air quality community uses satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) for a variety of applications, including daily air quality forecasting, retrospective event analysis, and justification for Exceptional Events. AOD is suitable for ambient air quality applications because is related to particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5) concentrations in the atmosphere; higher values of AOD correspond to higher concentrations of particulate matter. AOD is useful for identifying and tracking areas of high PM2.5 concentrations that correspond to air quality events, such as wildfires, dust storms, or haze episodes. Currently, the air quality community utilizes AOD from the MODIS instrument on NASA's polar-orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites and from NOAA's GOES geostationary satellites (e.g, GASP). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi-NPP satellite is making AOD measurements that are similar to MODIS AOD, but with higher spatial resolution. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750 m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6 km resolution Environmental Data Record (EDR) product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. These VIIRS AOD products offer a substantial increase in spatial resolution compared to the MODIS AOD 3 km and 10 km AOD products, respectively. True color (RGB) imagery is also available from VIIRS as a decision aid for air quality applications. It serves as a complement to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke, haze, and blowing dust in the atmosphere. Case studies of VIIRS AOD and RGB data for recent air quality events will be presented, with a focus on wildfires, and the relative pros and cons of the VIIRS AOD IP and EDR for air quality applications will be discussed in comparison to MODIS AOD products. Improvements to VIIRS aerosol products based on user feedback as part of the NOAA Satellite Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG) will be outlined, and an overview of future

  10. Optical absorption and scattering properties in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; He, Xian-qiang; Chen, Xiao-yan; Hao, Zeng-zhou; Huang, Haiqing; Zhu, Qiankun

    2011-11-01

    The absorption and particulate backscattering coefficients are the basic parameters of the water inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are also the basic parameters for the development and validation of the semi-analysis models of the ocean color remote sensing. In this work, the absorption and backscattering coefficients in the East China Sea (ECS) were measured in the summer and winter of 2009 using the three in-situ optical instruments, including the WET Labs acs, and the HOBI Labs HydroScat-6. Based on the in-situ measured data, the distribution of the absorption and backscattering coefficients in the ECS are analyzed. The results show that in the summer the water absorption coefficient at 440nm (a(440nm),excluding the absorption of the pure sea water) in the surface layer is ranged from 0.022 to 0.067 m-1, and the particulate backscattering coefficient at 442nm(bbp(442nm), is between 0.00064 and 0.03274 m-1. As a whole, both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients decrease with the offshore direction, and the high values located at the mouth of Changjiang River. In the winter, a(440nm) is between 0.051 and 0.887 m-1, and bbp(442nm) is ranged from 0.000639 to 0.14614 m-1 at the surface layer. The spatial distributions in winter are similar as the summer, with the high value in the coast and low value in the offshore. The absorption and backscattering coefficients in winter are significantly larger than the summer's, especially in coastal area near the mouth of Changjiang River, which maybe caused by the southward Fujian-Zhejiang coastal current occurring in winter. As the vertical profile distributions, we find that both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients present a layer structure, which caused by the stratification of the sea water in the summer; while in the winter, affected by the strong wind disturbing, both of the absorption and backscattering coefficients are thoroughly vertical mixing. To our knowledge, it is the first time

  11. Anomalous nonlinear absorption in epsilon-near-zero materials: optical limiting and all-optical control.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, M A; de Ceglia, D; Scalora, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We investigate nonlinear absorption in films of epsilon-near-zero materials. The combination of large local electric fields at the fundamental frequency and material losses at the harmonic frequencies induce unusual intensity-dependent phenomena. We predict that the second-order nonlinearity of a low-damping, epsilon-near-zero slab produces an optical limiting effect that mimics a two-photon absorption process. Anomalous absorption profiles that depend on low permittivity values at the pump frequency are also predicted for third-order nonlinearities. These findings suggest new opportunities for all-optical light control and novel ways to design reconfigurable and tunable nonlinear devices.

  12. Effect of probe geometry and optical properties on the sampling depth for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Ricky; Goth, Will; Sharma, Manu; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The sampling depth of light for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is analyzed both experimentally and computationally. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was used to investigate the effect of optical properties and probe geometry on sampling depth. MC model estimates of sampling depth show an excellent agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of optical properties and probe geometries. The MC data are used to define a mathematical expression for sampling depth that is expressed in terms of optical properties and probe geometry parameters. PMID:25349033

  13. Effect of probe geometry and optical properties on the sampling depth for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Ricky; Goth, Will; Sharma, Manu; Markey, Mia K; Tunnell, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sampling depth of light for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is analyzed both experimentally and computationally. A Monte Carlo (MC) model was used to investigate the effect of optical properties and probe geometry on sampling depth. MC model estimates of sampling depth show an excellent agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of optical properties and probe geometries. The MC data are used to define a mathematical expression for sampling depth that is expressed in terms of optical properties and probe geometry parameters. PMID:25349033

  14. Research development of designing flow cells for optical absorption detectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sandong; Tang, Tao; Li, Tong; Wang, Fengyun; Hao, Qingli

    2016-02-01

    The optical absorption detector is one of the most commonly used detectors for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As a core part of this kind of detector, the designs of flow cells, where light passes through samples for acquiring samples information, will affect the performance of a detector. In order to enhance the signal to noise ratio of detectors and reduce the bands broadening that come from flow cells, it is necessary to design a flow cell with a longer optical path length and a less cell volume while maintaining the luminous flux. However the limitations of the machining capacity make it difficult to increase the optical path length, reduce the cell volume and keep or increase the luminous flux simultaneously. It is a challenge to optimize the designing and machining of flow cells so as to improve the performance of detectors. This review discusses the development of designing flow cells based on the detection principle in some aspects of increasing the optical path length, reducing the cell volume, taking the advantages of total reflection and so on. At the same time, some of the designs are illustrated in detail. These various ideas and structures are significant references for designing flow cells and developing optical absorption detectors. PMID:27382716

  15. Remark on: the neutron spherical optical-model absorption.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    The energy-dependent behavior of the absorption term of the spherical neutron optical potential for doubly magic {sup 208}Pb and the neighboring {sup 209}Bi is examined. These considerations suggest a phenomenological model that results in an intuitively attractive energy dependence of the imaginary potential that provides a good description of the observed neutron cross sections and that is qualitatively consistent with theoretical concepts. At the same time it provides an alternative to some of the arbitrary assumptions involved in many conventional optical-model interpretations reported in the literature and reduces the number of the parameters of the model.

  16. Ultraviolet optical absorptions of semiconducting copper phosphate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of a quantitative investigation of the change in UV optical absorption in semiconducting copper phosphate glasses with batch compositions of 40, 50, and 55 percent CuO, as a function of the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glasses for each glass composition. It was found that optical energy gap, E(opt), of copper phosphate glass is a function of both glass composition and Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio in the glass. E(opt) increases as the CuO content for fixed Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio and the Cu(2+)/Cu(total) ratio for fixed glass composition are reduced.

  17. Neuron absorption study and mid-IR optical excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Vadala, Shilpa; Leach, Jennie; Kostov, Yordan; Bewley, William W.; Kim, Chul-Soo; Kim, Mijin; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Merritt, Charles D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2012-02-01

    Neuronal optical excitation can provide non-contacting tools to explore brain circuitry and a durable stimulation interface for cardiac pacing and visual as well as auditory sensory neuronal stimulation. To obtain accurate absorption spectra, we scan the transmission of neurons in cell culture medium, and normalize it by subtracting out the absorption spectrum of the medium alone. The resulting spectra show that the main neuronal absorption peaks are in the 3000- 6000nm band, although there is a smaller peak near 1450nm. By coupling the output of a 3μm interband cascade laser (ICL) into a mid-IR fluorozirconate fiber, we can effectively deliver more than 1J/cm2 photon intensity to the excitation site for neuronal stimulation.

  18. Birefringence and anisotropic optical absorption in porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Efimova, A. I. Krutkova, E. Yu.; Golovan', L. A.; Fomenko, M. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2007-10-15

    The refractive indices and the coefficients of optical absorption by free charge carriers and local vibrations in porous silicon (por-Si) films, comprising nanometer-sized silicon residues (nanocrystals) separated by nanometer-sized pores (nanopores) formed in the course of electrochemical etching of the initial single crystal silicon, have been studied by polarization-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy techniques. It is shown that the birefringence observed in por-Si is related to the anisotropic shapes of nanocrystals and nanopores, while the anisotropy (dichroism) of absorption by the local vibrational modes is determined predominantly by the microrelief of the surface of nanocrystals. It is demonstrated that silicon-hydrogen surface bonds in nanocrystals can be restored by means of selective hydrogen thermodesorption with the formation of a considerable number of H-terminated surface Si-Si dimers.

  19. Differential optical spectroscopy for absorption characterization of scattering media.

    PubMed

    Billet, Cyril; Sablong, Raphaël

    2007-11-15

    Reflectance techniques are commonly used to characterize the optical properties of tissues. However, the precise determination of local chromophore concentrations in turbid media is usually difficult because of the nonlinear dependence of light intensity as a function of scattering and absorption coefficients. A technique is presented to easily determine absorbent compound concentration ratios in a turbid media from three optical reflectance spectra, in the visible range, measured for source-detector distances less than 1cm. The validity of the method is experimentally established, in cases of sets of diluted milk containing absorbent inks, over a relatively wide range of absorption (0.05-0.5 cm(-1)) and reduced scattering (10-20 cm(-1)) coefficients.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectral studies on chalcocite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md.; Frost, Ray L.; Endo, Tamio

    2007-11-01

    A chalcocite mineral sample of Shaha, Congo is used in the present study. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. Mid-infrared results are due to water and sulphate fundamentals.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption spectral studies on chalcocite.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md; Frost, Ray L; Endo, Tamio

    2007-11-01

    A chalcocite mineral sample of Shaha, Congo is used in the present study. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Mn(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. Mid-infrared results are due to water and sulphate fundamentals. PMID:17324611

  2. Simultaneous multiple-depths en-face optical coherence tomography using multiple signal excitation of acousto-optic deflectors.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Rogers, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2013-01-28

    We present a novel low-coherence interferometer configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire up to eight time domain optical coherence tomography en-face images. The capabilities of the configuration are evaluated in terms of depth resolution, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography imaging at five different depths in a specimen of armadillidium vulgare. PMID:23389175

  3. Contribution of a visual pigment absorption spectrum to a visual function: depth perception in a jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Terakita, Akihisa

    2013-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual pigments are adaptively tuned to optimize informational capacity in most visual systems. Our recent investigation of the eyes of the jumping spider reveals an apparent exception: the absorption characteristics of a visual pigment cause defocusing of the image, reducing visual acuity generally in a part of the retina. However, the amount of defocus can theoretically provide a quantitative indication of the distance of an object. Therefore, we proposed a novel mechanism for depth perception in jumping spiders based on image defocus. Behavioral experiments revealed that the depth perception of the spider depended on the wavelength of the ambient light, which affects the amount of defocus because of chromatic aberration of the lens. This wavelength effect on depth perception was in close agreement with theoretical predictions based on our hypothesis. These data strongly support the hypothesis that the depth perception mechanism of jumping spiders is based on image defocus.

  4. Contribution of a visual pigment absorption spectrum to a visual function: depth perception in a jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Terakita, Akihisa

    2013-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual pigments are adaptively tuned to optimize informational capacity in most visual systems. Our recent investigation of the eyes of the jumping spider reveals an apparent exception: the absorption characteristics of a visual pigment cause defocusing of the image, reducing visual acuity generally in a part of the retina. However, the amount of defocus can theoretically provide a quantitative indication of the distance of an object. Therefore, we proposed a novel mechanism for depth perception in jumping spiders based on image defocus. Behavioral experiments revealed that the depth perception of the spider depended on the wavelength of the ambient light, which affects the amount of defocus because of chromatic aberration of the lens. This wavelength effect on depth perception was in close agreement with theoretical predictions based on our hypothesis. These data strongly support the hypothesis that the depth perception mechanism of jumping spiders is based on image defocus. PMID:27493545

  5. Underwater optical wireless communications: depth dependent variations in attenuation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura J; Green, Roger J; Leeson, Mark S

    2013-11-20

    Depth variations in the attenuation coefficient for light in the ocean were calculated using a one-parameter model based on the chlorophyll-a concentration C(c) and experimentally-determined Gaussian chlorophyll-depth profiles. The depth profiles were related to surface chlorophyll levels for the range 0-4  mg/m², representing clear, open ocean. The depth where C(c) became negligible was calculated to be shallower for places of high surface chlorophyll; 111.5 m for surface chlorophyll 0.8depth is the absolute minimum attenuation for underwater ocean communication links, calculated to be 0.0092  m⁻¹ at a wavelength of 430 nm. By combining this with satellite surface-chlorophyll data, it is possible to quantify the attenuation between any two locations in the ocean, with applications for low-noise or secure underwater communications and vertical links from the ocean surface.

  6. Axial resolution improvement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a depth-adaptive maximum-a-posterior framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Tan, Bingyao; Wong, Alexander; Bizheva, Kostadinka

    2015-03-01

    The axial resolution of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) images degrades with scanning depth due to the limited number of pixels and the pixel size of the camera, any aberrations in the spectrometer optics and wavelength dependent scattering and absorption in the imaged object [1]. Here we propose a novel algorithm which compensates for the blurring effect of these factors of the depth-dependent axial Point Spread Function (PSF) in SDOCT images. The proposed method is based on a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) reconstruction framework which takes advantage of a Stochastic Fully Connected Conditional Random Field (SFCRF) model. The aim is to compensate for the depth-dependent axial blur in SD-OCT images and simultaneously suppress the speckle noise which is inherent to all OCT images. Applying the proposed depth-dependent axial resolution enhancement technique to an OCT image of cucumber considerably improved the axial resolution of the image especially at higher imaging depths and allowed for better visualization of cellular membrane and nuclei. Comparing the result of our proposed method with the conventional Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm clearly demonstrates the efficiency of our proposed technique in better visualization and preservation of fine details and structures in the imaged sample, as well as better speckle noise suppression. This illustrates the potential usefulness of our proposed technique as a suitable replacement for the hardware approaches which are often very costly and complicated.

  7. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Under Thin Cirrus from MODIS: Application to an Ocean Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Sayer, Andrew Mark; Bettenhausen, Corey

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) under conditions of thin cirrus coverage from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. We adopt an empirical method that derives the cirrus contribution to measured reflectance in seven bands from the visible to shortwave infrared (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 µm, commonly used for AOD retrievals) by using the correlations between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 1.38 micron and these bands. The 1.38 micron band is used due to its strong absorption by water vapor and allows us to extract the contribution of cirrus clouds to TOA reflectance and create cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances in the seven bands of interest. These cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances are then used in the aerosol retrieval algorithm to determine cirrus-corrected AOD. The cirrus correction algorithm reduces the cirrus contamination in the AOD data as shown by a decrease in both magnitude and spatial variability of AOD over areas contaminated by thin cirrus. Comparisons of retrieved AOD against Aerosol Robotic Network observations at Nauru in the equatorial Pacific reveal that the cirrus correction procedure improves the data quality: the percentage of data within the expected error +/-(0.03 + 0.05 ×AOD) increases from 40% to 80% for cirrus-corrected points only and from 80% to 86% for all points (i.e., both corrected and uncorrected retrievals). Statistical comparisons with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) retrievals are also carried out. A high correlation (R = 0.89) between the CALIOP cirrus optical depth and AOD correction magnitude suggests potential applicability of the cirrus correction procedure to other MODIS-like sensors.

  8. Optical absorption and transmission in a molybdenum disulfide monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukelj, Zoran; Štrkalj, Antonio; Despoja, Vito

    2016-09-01

    Our recently proposed theoretical formulation [presented in D. Novko et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125413 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125413] is used to study optical absorption and transmission in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer as a function of incident photon energy and angle. The investigation is not focused on exploration of well-documented spin-orbit split excitons around optical absorption onset, but rather on the most intensive features in absorption spectrum in the visible and near-ultraviolet photon energy range (1.7 -4 eV ). It is shown that three most intensive peaks, at 2.7, 3.1, and 3.7 eV, result from transitions between Mo(d ) and S(p ) valence and conduction bands and that the character of their charge/current density fluctuations is intrinsically in plane, located in the molybdenum plane. This also implies that MoS2 monolayer is completely transparent when illuminated by grazing incidence p -polarized light. The validity of the presented results is supported by our effective two-band tight-binding model and finally by good agreement with some recent experimental results.

  9. Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichselbaum, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Absorption spectra of individual semiconductor quantum dots tunnel-coupled to a degenerate electron gas in the Kondo regime have recently become accessible to the experiment. The absorption of a single photon leads to an abrupt change in the system Hamiltonian, which can be tailored such that it results in a quantum quench of the Kondo correlations. This is accompanied by a clear signature in the form of an Anderson orthogonality catastrophe, induced by a vanishing overlap between initial and final many-body wave functions and with power-law exponents that can be tuned by an applied magnetic field. We have modeled the experiment in terms of an Anderson impurity model undergoing an optically induced quench, and studied this Kondo exciton in detail using both analytical methods and the Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG). Our NRG results reproduce the measured absorption line shapes very well, showing that NRG is ideally suited for the study of Kondo excitons. In summary, the experiments demonstrate that optical measurements on single artificial atoms offer new perspectives on many-body phenomena previously studied using transport spectroscopy only. Co-authors: Andreas Weichselbaum, Markus Hanl, and Jan von Delft, Ludwig Maximilians University.

  10. Direct absorption measurements in thin rods and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon; Lorenz, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We report on the first realization of direct absorption measurements in thin rods and optical fibers using the laser induced deflection (LID) technique. Typically, along the fiber processing chain more or less technology steps are able to introduce additional losses to the starting material. After the final processing, the fibers are commonly characterized regarding losses using the so-called cut-back technique in combination with spectrometers. This, however, only serves for a total loss determination. For optimization of the fiber processing, it would be of great interest to not only distinguish between different loss mechanisms but also have a better understanding of possible causes. For measuring the absorption losses along the fiber processing, a particular concept for the LID technique is introduced and requirements, calibration procedure as well as first results are presented. It allows to measure thin rods, e.g. during preform manufacturing, as well as optical fibers. In addition, the results show the prospects to also apply the new concept to topics like characterizing unwanted absorption after fiber splicing or Bragg grating inscription.

  11. Some relationships between Secchi depth and inherent optical properties of natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Wouters, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between the inherent and optical properties of the ocean (Gorden et al., 1975 and Preisendorfer, 1961) are combined with the Duntley-Preisendorfer equation to show the dependence of these properties on the depth at which a Secchi disk disappears from view. An expression relating the Secchi depth to the limiting contrast of the disk is derived in terms of the average beam attenuation coefficient, the average diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance, the albedo of the disk, and the reflectance functions at the Secchi depth and just below the surface. It is shown that combining Secchi depth observations with other optical properties yields significant information about the constituents of the medium.

  12. Optical absorptance and thermomodulation studies of several A-15 compounds

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the optical properties of several high T/sub c/ compounds in the form of sputtered films. The measurements are used toward this end: optical absorptance (using a calorimetric technique near 4.2K), which yields (after Kramers-Kronig analysis) the complex dielectric function, and thermoreflectance (which measures the change in reflectance in the optical range when a 1 to 10/sup 0/K temperature wave is applied), performed at two ambient temperatures (80 and 300/sup 0/K), yielding the differential dielectric function. The sputtered films included Nb/sub 3/Ge, Nb/sub 3/Al, V/sub 3/Ga and Nb/sub 3/Ir. It is noted that Nb/sub 3/Ir is not a high T/sub c/ superconductor. The thermoreflectance on the bulk samples V/sub 3/Si, V/sub 3/Ge and single crystal Cr/sub 3/Si were not performed because the samples were not in the form of thin films. The thermomodulation studies are correlated with the absorptance measurements in comparison to band structure calculations. When thermomodulation studies are performed on semiconductors, these studies yield information about critical points, but studies on metals indicate that Fermi-level transitions become important. It is thought that A-15 structured compounds, which have a high density of electron states around the Fermi level, will produce spectra due to this high density of states. Procedures and results are detailed.

  13. Optical Hydrogen Absorption Consistent with a Bow Shock Leading the Hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauley, Paul Wilson; Redfield, Seth; Jensen, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Bow shocks are ubiquitous astrophysical phenomena resulting from the supersonic passage of an object through a gas. Recently, pre-transit absorption in UV metal transitions of the hot Jupiter exoplanets HD 189733b and WASP12-b have been interpreted as being caused by material compressed in a planetary bow shock. Here we present a robust detection of a time-resolved pre-transit, as well as in-transit, absorption signature around the hot Jupiter exoplanet HD 189733b using high spectral resolution observations of several hydrogen Balmer lines. The line shape of the pre-transit feature and the shape of the time series absorption provide the strongest constraints on the morphology and physical characteristics of extended structures around an exoplanet. The in-transit measurements confirm the exospheric Hα detection of Jensen et al. (2012) although the absorption depth measured here is ~50% lower. The pre-transit absorption feature occurs 125 minutes before the predicted optical transit, a projected linear distance to the stellar disk of 7.2 Rp. The absorption strength observed in the Balmer lines indicates an optically thick, but physically small, geometry. We model this signal as the early ingress of a planetary bow shock. If the bow shock is mediated by a planetary magnetosphere, the large standoff distance derived from the model suggests a large planetary magnetic field strength. Better knowledge of exoplanet magnetic field strengths is crucial to understanding the role these fields play in star-planet interactions and protecting planets in the habitable zone from dangerous stellar flares.

  14. Absorptance Measurements of Optical Coatings - A Round Robin

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Taylor, J R; Wu, Z L; Boccara, C A; Broulik, U; Commandre, M; DiJon, J; Fleig, C; Giesen, A; Fan, Z X; Kuo, P K; Lalezari, R; Moncur, K; Obramski, H-J; Reicher, D; Ristau, D; Roche, P; Steiger, B; Thomsen, M; von Gunten, M

    2000-10-26

    An international round robin study was conducted on the absorption measurement of laser-quality coatings. Sets of optically coated samples were made by a ''reactive DC magnetron'' sputtering and an ion beam sputtering deposition process. The sample set included a high reflector at 514 nm and a high reflector for the near infrared (1030 to 1318 nm), single layers of silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, and hafnium dioxide. For calibration purposes, a sample metalized with hafnium and an uncoated, superpolished fused silica substrate were also included. The set was sent to laboratory groups for absorptance measurement of these coatings. Whenever possible, each group was to measure a common, central area and another area specifically assigned to the respective group. Specific test protocols were also suggested in regards to the laser exposure time, power density, and surface preparation.

  15. Beyond the first optical depth: fusing optical data from ocean color imagery and gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Hugo, M. A.; Gould, R.; Arnone, R.; Ducklow, H.; Carder, K.; English, D.; Schofield, O.; Kerfoot, J.

    2009-08-01

    Optical properties derived from ocean color imagery represent vertically-integrated values from roughly the first attenuation length in the water column, thereby providing no information on the vertical structure. Robotic, in situ gliders, on the other hand, are not as synoptic, but provide the vertical structure. By linking measurements from these two platforms we can obtain a more complete environmental picture. We merged optical measurements derived from gliders with ocean color satellite imagery to reconstruct vertical structure of particle size spectra (PSD) in Antarctic shelf waters during January 2007. Satellite-derived PSD was estimated from reflectance ratios using the spectral slope of particulate backscattering (γbbp). Average surface values (0-20 m depth) of γbbp were spatially coherent (1 to 50 km resolution) between space and in-water remote sensing estimates. This agreement was confirmed with shipboard vertical profiles of spectral backscattering (HydroScat-6). It is suggested the complimentary use of glider-satellite optical relationships, ancillary data (e.g., wind speed) and ecological interpretation of spatial changes on particle dynamics (e.g., phytoplankton growth) to model underwater light fields based on cloud-free ocean color imagery.

  16. Optical Path Switching Based Differential Absorption Radiometry for Substance Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting one or more substances. An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. The first wavelength band and second wavelength band are unique. Further, spectral absorption of a substance of interest is different at the first wavelength band as compared to the second wavelength band. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  17. Effect of Thin Cirrus Clouds on Dust Optical Depth Retrievals From MODIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Qian; Hsu, N. Christina; Yang, Ping; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    The effect of thin cirrus clouds in retrieving the dust optical depth from MODIS observations is investigated by using a simplified aerosol retrieval algorithm based on the principles of the Deep Blue aerosol property retrieval method. Specifically, the errors of the retrieved dust optical depth due to thin cirrus contamination are quantified through the comparison of two retrievals by assuming dust-only atmospheres and the counterparts with overlapping mineral dust and thin cirrus clouds. To account for the effect of the polarization state of radiation field on radiance simulation, a vector radiative transfer model is used to generate the lookup tables. In the forward radiative transfer simulations involved in generating the lookup tables, the Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric gaseous molecules and the reflection of the surface assumed to be Lambertian are fully taken into account. Additionally, the spheroid model is utilized to account for the nonsphericity of dust particles In computing their optical properties. For simplicity, the single-scattering albedo, scattering phase matrix, and optical depth are specified a priori for thin cirrus clouds assumed to consist of droxtal ice crystals. The present results indicate that the errors in the retrieved dust optical depths due to the contamination of thin cirrus clouds depend on the scattering angle, underlying surface reflectance, and dust optical depth. Under heavy dusty conditions, the absolute errors are comparable to the predescribed optical depths of thin cirrus clouds.

  18. Combining energy and Laplacian regularization to accurately retrieve the depth of brain activity of diffuse optical tomographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarelli, Antonio M.; Maclin, Edward L.; Low, Kathy A.; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides data about brain function using surface recordings. Despite recent advancements, an unbiased method for estimating the depth of absorption changes and for providing an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction remains elusive. DOT involves solving an ill-posed inverse problem, requiring additional criteria for finding unique solutions. The most commonly used criterion is energy minimization (energy constraint). However, as measurements are taken from only one side of the medium (the scalp) and sensitivity is greater at shallow depths, the energy constraint leads to solutions that tend to be small and superficial. To correct for this bias, we combine the energy constraint with another criterion, minimization of spatial derivatives (Laplacian constraint, also used in low resolution electromagnetic tomography, LORETA). Used in isolation, the Laplacian constraint leads to solutions that tend to be large and deep. Using simulated, phantom, and actual brain activation data, we show that combining these two criteria results in accurate (error <2 mm) absorption depth estimates, while maintaining a two-point spatial resolution of <24 mm up to a depth of 30 mm. This indicates that accurate 3-D reconstruction of brain activity up to 30 mm from the scalp can be obtained with DOT.

  19. Photoacoustic determination of optical absorption to extinction ratio in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Roessler, D M; Faxvog, F R

    1980-02-15

    The photoacoustic technique has been used in conjunction with an optical transmission measurement to determine the fraction of light absorbed in cigarette and acetylene smoke aerosols. At 0.5145-microm wavelength,the absorption-to-extinction fraction is 0.01 +/- 0.003 for cigarette smoke and is in excellent agreement with predictions from Mie theory for smoke particles having a refractive index of 1.45-0.00133i and a median diameter in the 0.15-0.65-microm range. For acetylene smoke the absorbed fraction was 0.85 +/- 0.05. PMID:20216896

  20. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  1. Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

    1977-01-01

    By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

  2. A COMPARISON OF AEROSOL OPTICAL DEPTH SIMULATED USING CMAQ WITH SATELLITE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite data provide new opportunities to study the regional distribution of particulate matter. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) - a derived estimate from the satellite measured irradiance, can be compared against model derived estimate to provide an evaluation of the columnar ...

  3. Comparison of Cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.; Meerkoetter, R.; Renger, W.; Ruppersberg, G.H.; Wendling, P. )

    1993-10-01

    During the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE'89) simultaneous measurements of cirrus cloud-top height and optical depth by satellite and aircraft have been taken. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA polar-orbiting meteorological satellite system have been used together with the algorithm package AVHRR processing scheme over clouds, land and ocean (APOLLO) to derive optical depth. NOAA High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data have been used together with a bispectral technique to derive cloud-top height. Also, the optical depth of some contrails could be estimated. Airborne measurements have been performed simultaneously by using the Airborne Lidar Experiment (ALEX), a backscatter lidar. Comparison of satellite data with airborne data showed agreement of the top heights to about 500 m and of the optical depths to about 30%. These uncertainties are within the limits obtained from error estimates. 34 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds over oceans from CALIPSO infrared radiometer and lidar measurements, and an evaluation of the lidar multiple scattering factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed evaluation of cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm and comparisons to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on-board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. The blackbody radiance taken in the IIR Version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are then compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent 2-way transmittance through the cloud. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40% as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. This behavior is explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT to be applied to correct the measured transmittance, which is taken equal to 0.6 in the CALIOP Version 3 algorithm, and which is found here to vary with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP depolarization ratios and particle habits derived from IIR measurements.

  5. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers. PMID:24921786

  6. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  7. Constraining the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes using satellite observations

    DOE PAGES

    Terai, C. R.; Klein, S. A.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-08-26

    The increase in cloud optical depth with warming at middle and high latitudes is a robust cloud feedback response found across all climate models. This study builds on results that suggest the optical depth response to temperature is timescale invariant for low-level clouds. The timescale invariance allows one to use satellite observations to constrain the models' optical depth feedbacks. Three passive-sensor satellite retrievals are compared against simulations from eight models from the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). This study confirms that the low-cloud optical depth response is timescale invariant in the AMIPmore » simulations, generally at latitudes higher than 40°. Compared to satellite estimates, most models overestimate the increase in optical depth with warming at the monthly and interannual timescales. Many models also do not capture the increase in optical depth with estimated inversion strength that is found in all three satellite observations and in previous studies. The discrepancy between models and satellites exists in both hemispheres and in most months of the year. A simple replacement of the models' optical depth sensitivities with the satellites' sensitivities reduces the negative shortwave cloud feedback by at least 50% in the 40°–70°S latitude band and by at least 65% in the 40°–70°N latitude band. Furthermore, based on this analysis of satellite observations, we conclude that the low-cloud optical depth feedback at middle and high latitudes is likely too negative in climate models.« less

  8. The optically thick C III spectrum. I - Term populations and multiplet intensities at lower optical depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1992-01-01

    The C III spectrum is studied quantitatively under both optically thin and optically thick conditions, yielding term populations and line/multiplet intensities for column lengths from zero to 10 exp 18/sq cm. The roles of escape probabilities and line profiles in the calculation are discussed in some detail. It is shown that use of the fully integrated escape factor, rather than the more appropriate monodirectional escape probability, can lead to appreciable errors in calculated intensities. The results for populations and intensities make it possible to identify two unassigned features in the solar EUV spectrum of Vernazza and Reeves (1978) as C III multiplets, and to establish that an unidentified infrared solar feature at 8500.32 A, seen in both absorption (Fraunhofer) and emission (chromospheric) spectra, is the C III transition 2s3s(1S)-2s3p(1P). Voigt parameters for the C III lines and multiplets, obtained by a modified semiclassical method are tabulated. A new, unambiguous notation for the numerous line ratios present in a typical spectrum, which is argued to be an improvement over present arbitrary notations, is proposed and used.

  9. Impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-21

    We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data-up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.

  10. Graphical aerosol classification method using aerosol relative optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Shuai, Yong; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A simple graphical method is presented to classify aerosol types based on a combination of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and aerosol relative optical thickness (AROT). Six aerosol types, including maritime (MA), desert dust (DD), continental (CO), sub-continental (SC), urban industry (UI) and biomass burning (BB), are discriminated in a two dimensional space of AOT440 and AROT1020/440. Numerical calculations are performed using MIE theory based on a multi log-normal particle size distribution, and the AROT ranges for each aerosol type are determined. More than 5 years of daily observations from 8 representative aerosol sites are applied to the method to confirm spatial applicability. Finally, 3 individual cases are analyzed according to their specific aerosol status. The outcomes indicate that the new graphical method coordinates well with regional characteristics and is also able to distinguish aerosol variations in individual situations. This technique demonstrates a novel way to estimate different aerosol types and provide information on radiative forcing calculations and satellite data corrections.

  11. Improving Calculation Accuracies of Accumulation-Mode Fractions Based on Spectral of Aerosol Optical Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Zhang; Zhengqiang, Li; Yan, Wang

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are released into the atmosphere, which cause scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation, thus exerting a direct radiative forcing on the climate system. Anthropogenic Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) calculations are important in the research of climate changes. Accumulation-Mode Fractions (AMFs) as an anthropogenic aerosol parameter, which are the fractions of AODs between the particulates with diameters smaller than 1μm and total particulates, could be calculated by AOD spectral deconvolution algorithm, and then the anthropogenic AODs are obtained using AMFs. In this study, we present a parameterization method coupled with an AOD spectral deconvolution algorithm to calculate AMFs in Beijing over 2011. All of data are derived from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) website. The parameterization method is used to improve the accuracies of AMFs compared with constant truncation radius method. We find a good correlation using parameterization method with the square relation coefficient of 0.96, and mean deviation of AMFs is 0.028. The parameterization method could also effectively solve AMF underestimate in winter. It is suggested that the variations of Angstrom indexes in coarse mode have significant impacts on AMF inversions.

  12. Importance of representing optical depth variability for estimates of global line-shaped contrail radiative forcing

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Bernd; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Ponater, Michael; Frömming, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of the global radiative forcing by line-shaped contrails differ mainly due to the large uncertainty in contrail optical depth. Most contrails are optically thin so that their radiative forcing is roughly proportional to their optical depth and increases with contrail coverage. In recent assessments, the best estimate of mean contrail radiative forcing was significantly reduced, because global climate model simulations pointed at lower optical depth values than earlier studies. We revise these estimates by comparing the probability distribution of contrail optical depth diagnosed with a climate model with the distribution derived from a microphysical, cloud-scale model constrained by satellite observations over the United States. By assuming that the optical depth distribution from the cloud model is more realistic than that from the climate model, and by taking the difference between the observed and simulated optical depth over the United States as globally representative, we quantify uncertainties in the climate model’s diagnostic contrail parameterization. Revising the climate model results accordingly increases the global mean radiative forcing estimate for line-shaped contrails by a factor of 3.3, from 3.5 mW/m2 to 11.6 mW/m2 for the year 1992. Furthermore, the satellite observations and the cloud model point at higher global mean optical depth of detectable contrails than often assumed in radiative transfer (off-line) studies. Therefore, we correct estimates of contrail radiative forcing from off-line studies as well. We suggest that the global net radiative forcing of line-shaped persistent contrails is in the range 8–20 mW/m2 for the air traffic in the year 2000. PMID:20974909

  13. Importance of representing optical depth variability for estimates of global line-shaped contrail radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, Bernd; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Ponater, Michael; Frömming, Christine

    2010-11-01

    Estimates of the global radiative forcing by line-shaped contrails differ mainly due to the large uncertainty in contrail optical depth. Most contrails are optically thin so that their radiative forcing is roughly proportional to their optical depth and increases with contrail coverage. In recent assessments, the best estimate of mean contrail radiative forcing was significantly reduced, because global climate model simulations pointed at lower optical depth values than earlier studies. We revise these estimates by comparing the probability distribution of contrail optical depth diagnosed with a climate model with the distribution derived from a microphysical, cloud-scale model constrained by satellite observations over the United States. By assuming that the optical depth distribution from the cloud model is more realistic than that from the climate model, and by taking the difference between the observed and simulated optical depth over the United States as globally representative, we quantify uncertainties in the climate model's diagnostic contrail parameterization. Revising the climate model results accordingly increases the global mean radiative forcing estimate for line-shaped contrails by a factor of 3.3, from 3.5 mW/m(2) to 11.6 mW/m(2) for the year 1992. Furthermore, the satellite observations and the cloud model point at higher global mean optical depth of detectable contrails than often assumed in radiative transfer (off-line) studies. Therefore, we correct estimates of contrail radiative forcing from off-line studies as well. We suggest that the global net radiative forcing of line-shaped persistent contrails is in the range 8-20 mW/m(2) for the air traffic in the year 2000. PMID:20974909

  14. Optical Absorption of Epoxy Resin and its Role in the Laser Ultrasonic Generation Mechanism in Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratoudaki, T.; Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Palmer, S. B.

    2003-03-01

    Epoxy resins are used in various applications and are essential to the fabrication of carbon fibre reinforced composite materials (CFRCs). This paper investigates laser generated ultrasound in epoxy resins using three different lasers, a TEA CO2, a Nd:YAG and a XeCl excimer. In these partially transparent materials the ultrasonic generation mechanism is directly related to the optical absorption depth which can therefore be measured directly from the ultrasonic waveforms using for example a Michelson interferometer as detector. The present work aims firstly to relate the observed amplitude of the longitudinal wave to the optical absorption depth of the epoxy and secondly to evaluate the role of the epoxy resin to the generation of the ultrasound in CFRCs. For the latter, comparative results of generation efficiency between the three wavelengths are presented and an attempt is made to understand the way that the resin matrix influences the generation mechanism of ultrasound in composite materials.

  15. Utilizing the ratio and the summation of two spectral lines for estimation of optical depth: Focus on thick plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a study is performed on the spectral lines of plasma radiations created from focusing of the Nd:YAG laser on Al standard alloys at atmospheric air pressure. A new theoretical method is presented to investigate the evolution of the optical depth of the plasma based on the radiative transfer equation, in LTE condition. This work relies on the Boltzmann distribution, lines broadening equations, and as well as the self-absorption relation. Then, an experimental set-up is devised to extract some of plasma parameters such as temperature from modified line ratio analysis, electron density from Stark broadening mechanism, line intensities of two spectral lines in the same order of ionization from similar species, and the plasma length from the shadowgraphy section. In this method, the summation and the ratio of two spectral lines are considered for evaluation of the temporal variations of the plasma parameters in a LIBS homogeneous plasma. The main advantage of this method is that it comprises the both of thin and thick laser induced plasmas without straight calculation of self-absorption coefficient. Moreover, the presented model can also be utilized for evaluation the transition of plasma from the thin condition to the thick one. The results illustrated that by measuring the line intensities of two spectral lines at different evolution times, the plasma cooling and the growth of the optical depth can be followed.

  16. Large damage threshold and small electron escape depth in X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer thin film.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lay-Lay; Dipankar, Mandal; Sivaramakrishnan, Sankaran; Gao, Xingyu; Qi, Dongchen; Wee, Andrew T S; Ho, Peter K H

    2006-09-26

    The information depth of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the total electron yield mode (TEY-NEXAFS) is given by the escape depth of the TEY electrons z(TEY). This is determined by the effective ranges both of the inelastically scattered secondary electrons and of the primary excited electron before they thermalize below the vacuum level. For regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rreg-P3HT) thin films, we have measured the total electron emission efficiency to be 0.028 +/- 0.005 e/ph at an incident photon energy of 320 eV. The range of the primary electron was computed using optical dielectric-loss theory to be 7.5 nm. The range of the secondary electrons was then found by modeling to be 3.0 nm. This gives z(TEY) to be 2.5 nm, which is considerably less than the often-assumed value of 10 nm in the literature. It is also considerably smaller than the computed electron-electron scattering inelastic mean free path in the material, which suggests the predominance of electron-phonon scattering. Thus, TEY-NEXAFS has sufficient surface sensitivity to probe the frontier molecular layers of these organic conjugated polymers. In a second aspect of this report, the rreg-P3HT films have been characterized by in-situ core and valence photoemission spectroscopies and by ex-situ microattenuated total-reflection vibrational spectroscopy as a function of irradiation dose. No damage was observed in composition, bonding, orientation, and surface morphology under typical TEY-NEXAFS spectral acquisition conditions. For an integrated TEY that exceeds 2 x 10(-3) C cm(-2), however, the material degrades via alkyl side-chain dehydrogenation to unsaturated units, cross linking, ring opening of the backbone, and sulfur extrusion. Given that secondary electrons are the dominant cause of radiation damage, this exposure threshold measured by integrated TEY should also be valid at other X-ray energies.

  17. Development and evaluation of optical needle depth sensor for percutaneous diagnosis and therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Keryn; Alelyunas, David; McCann, Connor; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Kato, Takahisa; Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Current methods of needle insertion during percutaneous CT and MRI guided procedures lack precision in needle depth sensing. The depth of the needle insertion is currently monitored through depth markers drawn on the needle and later confirmed by intra-procedural imaging; until this confirmation, the physicians' judgment that the target is reached is solely based on the depth markers, which are not always clearly visible. We have therefore designed an optical sensing device which provides continuous feedback of needle insertion depth and degree of rotation throughout insertion. An optical mouse sensor was used in conjunction with a microcontroller board, Arduino Due, to acquire needle position information. The device is designed to be attached to a needle guidance robot developed for MRI-guided prostate biopsy in order to aid the manual insertion. An LCD screen and three LEDs were employed with the Arduino Due to form a hand-held device displaying needle depth and rotation. Accuracy of the device was tested to evaluate the impact of insertion speed and rotation. Unlike single dimensional needle depth sensing developed by other researchers, this two dimensional sensing device can also detect the rotation around the needle axis. The combination of depth and rotation sensing would be greatly beneficial for the needle steering approaches that require both depth and rotation information. Our preliminary results indicate that this sensing device can be useful in detecting needle motion when using an appropriate speed and range of motion.

  18. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  19. Aerosol optical depth estimates based on nephelometer measurements at the SGP arm site

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.H.; Ogren, J.A.; Halthore, R.

    1996-03-01

    The scattering of shortwave radiation by anthropogenic aerosols during clear-sky conditions, termed direct aerosol forcing, has been estimated to be roughly 1 W/m{sup 2} on a global annual average and may be as high as 50 W/m{sup 2} locally and instantaneously new source regions. The extent of the direct aerosol forcing effect at a given time and place depends primarily in the aerosol optical depth, {tau}, as well as on other factors including the solar zenith angle, aerosol upscatter fraction, and the single scatter albedo (ratio of light scattering to total extinction). The aerosol optical depth at a given wavelength ({tau}{sub {lambda}}) can be written as the integral with height to the top of the atmosphere (toa) of the aerosol extinction coefficient, b{sub ext,p}. Where b{sub ext,p} is the sum of the aerosol extinction (b{sub ap}) and scattering (b{sub sp}) coefficients. The objectives of this research are to use nephelometer measurements of the scattering coefficient to estimate the aerosol optical depth at a specific wavelength (530 nm), and to compare these results with optical depths measured by a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Cimel Sun Photometer. This comparison will used to determine if all of the key parameters related to aerosol optical depth are being measured at the SGP ARM site.

  20. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leen, J Brian; O'Keefe, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10(-10) cm(-1)/√Hz; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  1. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leen, J. Brian; O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10−10 cm−1/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\sqrt {{\\rm Hz;}}$\\end{document} Hz ; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  2. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Leen, J. Brian O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  3. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert A; Phelan, Patrick E; Otanicar, Todd P; Adrian, Ronald; Prasher, Ravi

    2011-03-15

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm) in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power) increase.

  4. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm) in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power) increase. PMID:21711750

  5. Absorption Filter Based Optical Diagnostics in High Speed Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, Mo; Elliott, Gregory; Arnette, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Two major regimes where laser light scattered by molecules or particles in a flow contains significant information about the flow are Mie scattering and Rayleigh scattering. Mie scattering is used to obtain only velocity information, while Rayleigh scattering can be used to measure both the velocity and the thermodynamic properties of the flow. Now, recently introduced (1990, 1991) absorption filter based diagnostic techniques have started a new era in flow visualization, simultaneous velocity and thermodynamic measurements, and planar velocity measurements. Using a filtered planar velocimetry (FPV) technique, we have modified the optically thick iodine filter profile of Miles, et al., and used it in the pressure-broaden regime which accommodates measurements in a wide range of velocity applications. Measuring velocity and thermodynamic properties simultaneously, using absorption filtered based Rayleigh scattering, involves not only the measurement of the Doppler shift, but also the spectral profile of the Rayleigh scattering signal. Using multiple observation angles, simultaneous measurement of one component velocity and thermodynamic properties in a supersonic jet were measured. Presently, the technique is being extended for simultaneous measurements of all three components of velocity and thermodynamic properties.

  6. Photothermal optical coherence tomography for depth-resolved imaging of mesenchymal stem cells via single wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Connolly, Emma; Murphy, Mary; Barron, Valerie; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    The progress in stem cell research over the past decade holds promise and potential to address many unmet clinical therapeutic needs. Tracking stem cell with modern imaging modalities are critically needed for optimizing stem cell therapy, which offers insight into various underlying biological processes such as cell migration, engraftment, homing, differentiation, and functions etc. In this study we report the feasibility of photothermal optical coherence tomography (PT-OCT) to image human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) labeled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for in vitro cell tracking in three dimensional scaffolds. PT-OCT is a functional extension of conventional OCT with extended capability of localized detection of absorbing targets from scattering background to provide depth-resolved molecular contrast imaging. A 91 kHz line rate, spectral domain PT-OCT system at 1310nm was developed to detect the photothermal signal generated by 800nm excitation laser. In general, MSCs do not have obvious optical absorption properties and cannot be directly visualized using PT-OCT imaging. However, the optical absorption properties of hMSCs can me modified by labeling with SWNTs. Using this approach, MSC were labeled with SWNT and the cell distribution imaged in a 3D polymer scaffold using PT-OCT.

  7. Comparison of Atmospheric Column Optical Depth Measurements for Urban Reno, NV with Three Different Sun Photometers and In Situ Measurements Combined with Boundary Layer Height Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S. M.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Sumlin, B.; Karr, D.

    2011-12-01

    Reno, Nevada, USA is located in a mountain valley often characterized by very dry conditions, clear sky and red sunsets during the summer season, with rare incursions of monsoonal moisture. This city is subject to moderately strong nocturnal inversions nearly every day in summer. Urban aerosols, wind blown dust, as well as occasional biomass burning smoke from natural and non-natural fires all contribute to the optical depth. Because of its geographical position, drastic changes in weather conditions and variations in aerosol optical properties make Reno an excellent location for evaluating measurements of aerosol optical depth in order to determine particulate air pollution concentration as well as to provide input for models of atmospheric radiation transfer and evaluation of satellite-based aerosol optical sensing measurements. Aerosol optical depth can be calculated by in situ photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption and reciprocal nephelometer scattering coefficients and estimation of aerosol mixing height. LED-based hand-held sun photometers are commonly used as inexpensive instruments for informal networks. However, the LED emission wavelength maximum and bandwidth are higher and narrower than the LED reception wavelength spectrum, necessitating empirical determination of an equivalent wavelength. The manually operated spectrometer and Cimel sun photometer measurements provide the most accurate and precise column aerosol optical depth. This paper makes a comparison between these four instruments for measurements obtained during the summer and fall seasons in order to study how the total and aerosol optical depth change during dry and moist conditions. Ångström exponents of extinction and absorption are also analyzed to provide insight on aerosol size distribution and composition, respectively.

  8. Tunable optical absorption and interactions in graphene via oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Iman; Singh, Ram Sevak; Gogoi, Pranjal Kumar; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-02-01

    We report significant changes of optical conductivity (σ1) in single-layer graphene induced by mild oxygen plasma exposure and explore the interplay between carrier doping, disorder, and many-body interactions from their signatures in the absorption spectrum. The first distinctive effect is the reduction of the excitonic binding energy that can be extracted from the renormalized saddle point resonance at 4.64 eV. Secondly, σ1 is nearly completely suppressed (σ1≪σ0) below an exposure-dependent threshold in the near-infrared range. The clear steplike suppression follows the Pauli blocking behavior expected for doped monolayer graphene. The nearly zero residual conductivity below ω ˜ 2EF can be interpreted as arising from the weakening of the electronic self-energy. Our data shows that mild oxygen exposure can be used to controllably dope graphene without introducing the strong physical and chemical changes that are common in other approaches to oxidized graphene, allowing a controllable manipulation of the optical properties of graphene.

  9. Quantitative comparison of wavelength dependence on penetration depth and imaging contrast for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using supercontinuum sources at five wavelength regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Nishizawa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non invasive optical imaging technology for micron-scale cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue and materials. We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) using fiber based supercontinuum sources. Although ultrahigh longitudinal resolution was achieved in several center wavelength regions, its low penetration depth is a serious limitation for other applications. To realize ultrahigh resolution and deep penetration depth simultaneously, it is necessary to choose the proper wavelength to maximize the light penetration and enhance the image contrast at deeper depths. Recently, we have demonstrated the wavelength dependence of penetration depth and imaging contrast for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 0.8 μm, 1.3 μm, and 1.7 μm wavelength ranges. In this paper, additionally we used SC sources at 1.06 μm and 1.55 μm, and we have investigated the wavelength dependence of UHR-OCT at five wavelength regions. The image contrast and penetration depth have been discussed in terms of the scattering coefficient and water absorption of samples. Almost the same optical characteristics in longitudinal and lateral resolution, sensitivity, and incident optical power at all wavelength regions were demonstrated. We confirmed the enhancement of image contrast and decreased ambiguity of deeper epithelioid structure at longer wavelength region.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Perseus dust optical depth and column density maps (Zari+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zari, E.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J.; Lada, C.; Bouy, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present optical depth and temperature maps of the Perseus Molecular Cloud, created combining Planck and Herschel data. The maps were obtained using Herschel SPIRE 250um, SPIRE 350um, SPIRE 500um, and, where available, PACS 160um data. The file planckherschelfit.fits reports the results of a full SED fit (with free parameters the optical depth and the temperature), at the SPIRE 500um resolution (36-arcsec). The file planckherschelfit2-a.fits uses the temperature from planckherschelfit.fits and the flux at SPIRE 250um to infer the optical depth with a resolution of 18 arcsec. Finally, the catalogue of Class I/0 protostars reports WISE magnitudes for the sources used to estimate the Schmidt law. (3 data files).

  11. A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Baize, R. R.; Videen, G.; Hu, Y.; Fu, Q.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, an algorithm that uses the polarization angle of the backscattered solar radiation to detect clouds with optical depth (OD) < ~ 0.3 is further developed. We find that at viewing angles within ± ∼ 8° around the backscattering direction, the p-polarized intensity that is parallel to the meridian plane of reflected light from the surface is sensitive to, and nearly linearly related to, the optical depth of super-thin clouds. Moreover, our sensitivity study suggests that the p-polarized intensity at these viewing angles is not sensitive to the ocean surface conditions. Using this property of p-polarized intensity, super-thin clouds' optical depth can be retrieved.

  12. Depth enhancement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using bidirectional imaging modality with a single spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-07-01

    A method for depth enhancement is presented using a bidirectional imaging modality for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Two precisely aligned sample arms along with two reference arms were utilized in the optical configuration to scan the samples. Using exemplary images of the optical resolution target, Scotch tape, a silicon sheet with two needles, and a leaf, we demonstrated how the developed bidirectional SD-OCT imaging method increases the ability to characterize depth-enhanced images. The results of the developed system were validated by comparing the images with the standard OCT configuration (single-sample arm setup). Given the advantages of higher resolution and the ability to visualize deep morphological structures, this method can be utilized to increase the depth dependent fall-off in samples with limited thickness. Thus, the proposed bidirectional imaging modality is apt for cross-sectional imaging of entire samples, which has the potential capability to improve the diagnostic ability.

  13. Study on the Relationship between the Depth of Spectral Absorption and the Content of the Mineral Composition of Biotite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-bao; Zhang, Chen-xi; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Qi-gang

    2015-09-01

    The mineral composition of rock is one of the main factors affecting the spectral reflectance characteristics, and it's an important reason for generating various rock characteristic spectra. This study choose the rock samples provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (including all kinds of mineral percentage of rocks, and spectral reflectances range from 0.35 to 2.50 μm wavelength measured by ASD spectrometer), and the various types of mineral spectral reflectances contained within the rocks are the essential data. Using the spectral linear mixture model of rocks and their minerals, firstly, a simulation study on the mixture of rock and mineral composition is achieved, the experimental results indicate that rock spectral curves using the model which based on the theory of the linear mixture are able to simulate better and preserve the absorption characteristics of various mineral components well. Then, 8 samples which contain biotite mineral are picked from the rock spectra of igneous, biotite contents and the absorption depth characteristics of spectral reflection at 2.332 μm, furthermore, a variety of linear and nonlinear normal statistical models are used to fit the relationship between the depth of absorption spectra and the content of the mineral composition of biotite, finally, a new simulation model is build up with the Growth and the Exponential curve model, and a statistical response relationship between the spectral absorption depth and the rock mineral contents is simulated by using the new model, the fitting results show that the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9984 and the standard deviation is 0.572, although the standard deviation using Growth and Exponential model is less than the two model combined with the new model fitting the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient of the new model had significantly increased, which suggesting that the, new model fitting effect is closer to the measured values of samples, it proves that the

  14. Study on the Relationship between the Depth of Spectral Absorption and the Content of the Mineral Composition of Biotite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-bao; Zhang, Chen-xi; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Qi-gang

    2015-09-01

    The mineral composition of rock is one of the main factors affecting the spectral reflectance characteristics, and it's an important reason for generating various rock characteristic spectra. This study choose the rock samples provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (including all kinds of mineral percentage of rocks, and spectral reflectances range from 0.35 to 2.50 μm wavelength measured by ASD spectrometer), and the various types of mineral spectral reflectances contained within the rocks are the essential data. Using the spectral linear mixture model of rocks and their minerals, firstly, a simulation study on the mixture of rock and mineral composition is achieved, the experimental results indicate that rock spectral curves using the model which based on the theory of the linear mixture are able to simulate better and preserve the absorption characteristics of various mineral components well. Then, 8 samples which contain biotite mineral are picked from the rock spectra of igneous, biotite contents and the absorption depth characteristics of spectral reflection at 2.332 μm, furthermore, a variety of linear and nonlinear normal statistical models are used to fit the relationship between the depth of absorption spectra and the content of the mineral composition of biotite, finally, a new simulation model is build up with the Growth and the Exponential curve model, and a statistical response relationship between the spectral absorption depth and the rock mineral contents is simulated by using the new model, the fitting results show that the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9984 and the standard deviation is 0.572, although the standard deviation using Growth and Exponential model is less than the two model combined with the new model fitting the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient of the new model had significantly increased, which suggesting that the, new model fitting effect is closer to the measured values of samples, it proves that the

  15. Design and fabrication of an optical probe with a phase filter for extended depth of focus.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jingchao; Kim, Junyoung; Yoo, Hongki

    2016-01-25

    The trade-off between spot size and depth of focus (DOF) often limits the performance of optical systems, such as optical coherence tomography and optical tweezers. Although researchers have proposed various methods to extend the DOF in free-space optics, many are difficult to implement in miniaturized optical probes due to space limitations. In this study, we present an optical probe with an extended DOF using a binary phase spatial filter (BPSF). The BPSF pattern was fabricated on the distal tip of an optical probe with a diameter of 1 mm by replica molding soft lithography, which can be easily implemented in a miniaturized optical probe due to its simple configuration. We optimized the BPSF pattern to enhance DOF, spot diameter, and light efficiency. To evaluate the fabricated endoscopic optical probe, we measured the three-dimensional point spread function of the BPSF probe and compared it with a probe without BPSF. The BPSF probe has a spot diameter of 3.56 μm and a DOF of 199.7 μm, while the probe without BPSF has a spot diameter of 3.69 μm and a DOF of 73.9 μm, representing a DOF gain of 2.7. We anticipate that this optical probe can be used in biomedical applications, including optical imaging and optical trapping techniques.

  16. Increasing the penetration depth for ultrafast laser tissue ablation using glycerol based optical clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Ilan; Subramanian, Kaushik G.; Martin, Chris; Yildirim, Murat; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Background: Deep tissue ablation is the next challenge in ultrafast laser microsurgery. By focusing ultrafast pulses below the tissue surface one can create an ablation void confined to the focal volume. However, as the ablation depth increases in a scattering tissue, increase in the required power can trigger undesired nonlinear phenomena out of focus that restricts our ability to ablate beyond a maximum ablation depth of few scattering lengths. Optical clearing (OC) might reduce the intensity and increase the maximal ablation depth by lowering the refractive index mismatch, and therefore reducing scattering. Some efforts to ablate deeper showed out of focus damage, while others used brutal mechanical methods for clearing. Our clinical goal is to create voids in the scarred vocal folds and inject a biomaterial to bring back the tissue elasticity and restore phonation. Materials and methods: Fresh porcine vocal folds were excised and applied a biocompatible OC agent (75% glycerol). Collimated transmittance was monitored. The tissue was optically cleared and put under the microscope for ablation threshold measurements at different depths. Results: The time after which the tissue was optically cleared was roughly two hours. Fitting the threshold measurements to an exponential decay graph indicated that the scattering length of the tissue increased to 83+/-16 μm, which is more than doubling the known scattering length for normal tissue. Conclusion: Optical clearing with Glycerol increases the tissue scattering length and therefore reduces the energy for ablation and increases the maximal ablation depth. This technique can potentially improve clinical microsurgery.

  17. Calculation of optical properties of dental composites as a basis for determining color impression and penetration depth of laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weniger, Kirsten K.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    In order to achieve esthetic dental restorations, there should be no visible difference between restorative material and treated teeth. This requires a match of the optical properties of both restorative material and natural teeth. These optical properties are determined by absorption and scattering of light emerging not only on the surface but also inside the material. Investigating different dental composites in several shades, a method has been developed to calculate the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g and reduced scattering coefficient μs'. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer, followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Determination of optical properties is more precise and comprehensive than with the previously used Kubelka Munk theory because scattering can be looked at separated into pure scattering with the scattering coefficient μs and its direction with the anisotropy factor g. Moreover the use of the inverse Monte Carlo simulation not only minimizes systematic errors and considers the scattering phase function, but also takes into account the measuring geometry. The compilation of a data pool of optical parameters now enables the application of further calculation models as a basis for optimization of the composition of new materials. For example, a prediction of the general color impression for multiple layers can be carried out as well as the calculation of the wavelength dependent penetration depths of light with regard to photo polymerization. Further applications are possible in the area of laser ablation.

  18. A disposable flexible skin patch for clinical optical perfusion monitoring at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Dana L.; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Stapels, Christopher J.; McAdams, Daniel R.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Podolsky, Matthew J.; Christian, James F.; Ward, Brent B.; Vartarian, Mark; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Lee, Seung Yup; Parikh, Urmi; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Joyner, Michael J.; Johnson, Christopher P.; Paradis, Norman A.

    2016-03-01

    Stable, relative localization of source and detection fibers is necessary for clinical implementation of quantitative optical perfusion monitoring methods such as diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). A flexible and compact device design is presented as a platform for simultaneous monitoring of perfusion at a range of depths, enabled by precise location of optical fibers in a robust and secure adhesive patch. We will discuss preliminary data collected on human subjects in a lower body negative pressure model for hypovolemic shock. These data indicate that this method facilitates simple and stable simultaneous monitoring of perfusion at multiple depths and within multiple physiological compartments.

  19. Remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth using a smartphone sun photometer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum). However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12-0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations.

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth using a smartphone sun photometer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum). However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12-0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations. PMID:24416199

  1. Average depth of blood vessels in skin and lesions deduced by optical fiber spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Tittel, Frank K.

    1994-09-01

    The average depth of blood vessels in a cutaneous site, either normal or diseased, can be specified by a simple rapid noninvasive optical measurement. An optical fiber spectrophotometer delivers white light via optical fibers to a skin site. The light reflected by tissue scattering and successfully collected by optical fibers is carried to a diode array spectrophotometer for spectral analysis. The reflectance spectrum is analyzed to specify the component of the optical density (OD) spectrum which is attributed to the cutaneous blood. Then the ratio of the OD420 nm/OD585 nm provides a quantitative indication of the average depth of the blood in the skin site. The purple light (420 nm) less easily penetrates the skin to sample the cutaneous blood content than does the yellow light (585 nm). The calibration of the measurement was accomplished by Monte Carlo simulations of measurements on skin with a layer of blood at various depths. In a study of 47 neonates, the amount of blood content ranged from 4 - 12 mg hemoglobin/g tissue (equivalent to 0.8 - 2.4% of the skin volume being whole blood), and the average depth of blood ranged from 250 - 425 micrometers .

  2. On the sources of bias in aerosol optical depth retrieval in the UV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, Antti; Koskela, Tapani

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate the systematic sources of bias in aerosol optical depth (AOD) values in the UV range due to (1) the entrance of diffuse light into the finite field of view, (2) diurnal atmospheric changes of ozone under urban conditions, (3) the influence of omitting the effect of NO2 absorption, and (4) stray light of a single monochromator. These error sources have been neglected before in Brewer AOD retrieval. However, if these bias estimates are added together, it appears likely that the main reason for the recent results, that is, an AOD wavelength dependency that is in contradiction to the Ångstrom law, lies in the omitted sources of systematic error in the AOD retrieval. For instance, the estimated negative bias in AOD difference between 306.3 and 320.1 nm is ˜0.0772, while between 310.1 and 320.1 nm it is ˜0.0346. If the true Ångstrom α was 1 and the AOD at 320.1 was 0.5, then the actual difference between 306.3 and 320.1 nm would be positive and equal to 0.022, while between 310.1 and 320.1 nm it would be 0.016. Therefore the neglected source of bias can mask this difference and result in a negative Ångstrom exponent (AE) value. In addition to these sources of bias, we also discuss other potential sources of uncertainty that have been previously neglected.

  3. Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Shyam M.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Keikhanzadeh, Kurosh; Huang, Leah; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1999-04-01

    Burn depth assessment is a key step guiding the treatment plan in patients who have sustained thermal injuries. We have developed a technique, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), to provide the physician with a quantitative estimate of actual burn depth. We generated burns of various depths by contacting rates with a brass rod preheated to 75 degrees for 5, 15, or 30 seconds. PS-OCT imags birefringence in biological tissue, through the depth resolved changes in the polarization state of light propagated and reflected from the sample. Preliminary result are presented that show a correlation between the loss of birefringence due to thermal injury and the actual burn depth determined by histological analysis. PS-OCT is a noninvasive technique which potentially can give physicians the accuracy to formulate the best treatment plan for burn patients.

  4. Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Brian D; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Suter, Melissa J; Waxman, Sergio; Freilich, Mark I; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2009-09-14

    High-speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) has enabled practical wide-field microscopic imaging in the biological laboratory and clinical medicine. The imaging speed of OFDI, and therefore the field of view, of current systems is limited by the rate at which data can be digitized and archived rather than the system sensitivity or laser performance. One solution to this bottleneck is to natively digitize OFDI signals at reduced bit depths, e.g., at 8-bit depth rather than the conventional 12-14 bit depth, thereby reducing overall bandwidth. However, the implications of reduced bit-depth acquisition on image quality have not been studied. In this paper, we use simulations and empirical studies to evaluate the effects of reduced depth acquisition on OFDI image quality. We show that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth systems. Images of a human coronary artery acquired in vivo at 8-bit depth are presented and compared with images at higher bit-depth acquisition.

  5. Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting

    PubMed Central

    Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J. F.; Bouma, B. E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel technique using an acousto-optic frequency shifter in optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is presented. The frequency shift eliminates the ambiguity between positive and negative differential delays, effectively doubling the interferometric ranging depth while avoiding image cross-talk. A signal processing algorithm is demonstrated to accommodate nonlinearity in the tuning slope of the wavelength-swept OFDI laser source. PMID:19484034

  6. Design of an optical system with large depth of field using in the micro-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Ye, Xin; Zheng, Hai-jing

    2013-08-01

    Micro system currently is the mainstream of application and demand of the field of micro fabrication of civilian and national defense. Compared with the macro assembly, the requirements on location accuracy of the micro-assembly system are much higher. Usually the dimensions of the components of the micro-assembly are mostly between a few microns to several hundred microns. The general assembly precision requires for the sub-micron level. Micro system assembly is the bottleneck of micro fabrication currently. The optical stereo microscope used in the field of micro assembly technology can achieve high-resolution imaging, but the depth of field of the optical imaging system is too small. Thus it's not conducive to the three-dimensional observation process of the micro-assembly. This paper summarizes the development of micro system assembly at home and abroad firstly. Based on the study of the core features of the technology, a program is proposed which uses wave front coding technology to increase the depth of field of the optical imaging system. In the wave front coding technology, by combining traditional optical design with digital image processing creatively, the depth of field can be greatly increased, moreover, all defocus-related aberrations, such as spherical aberration, chromatic aberration, astigmatism, Ptzvel(field) curvature, distortion, and other defocus induced by the error of assembling and temperature change, can be corrected or minimized. In this paper, based on the study of theory, a set of optical microscopy imaging system is designed. This system is designed and optimized by optical design software CODE V and ZEMAX. At last, the imaging results of the traditional optical stereo microscope and the optical stereo microscope applied wave front coding technology are compared. The results show that: the method has a practical operability and the phase plate obtained by optimized has a good effect on improving the imaging quality and increasing the

  7. Study on distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chongqing urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiqi; Liu, Can; Gao, Yanghua

    2015-12-01

    This paper selected 6S (second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum) model with dark pixel method to inversion aerosol optical depth by MODIS data, and got the spatial distribution and the temporal distribution of Chongqing urban area. By comparing with the sun photometer and API data, the result showed that the inversion method can be used in aerosol optical thickness monitoring in Chongqing urban area.

  8. Depth discrimination in diffuse optical transmission imaging by planar scanning off-axis fibers: initial applications to optical mammography.

    PubMed

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M; Yu, Yang; Weliwitigoda, Geethika; Anderson, Pamela G; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for depth discrimination in parallel-plate, transmission mode, diffuse optical imaging. The method is based on scanning a set of detector pairs, where the two detectors in each pair are separated by a distance δDi along direction δ D i within the x-y scanning plane. A given optical inhomogeneity appears shifted by αi δ D i (with 0≤ αi ≤1) in the images collected with the two detection fibers of the i-th pair. Such a spatial shift can be translated into a measurement of the depth z of the inhomogeneity, and the depth measurements based on each detector pair are combined into a specially designed weighted average. This depth assessment is demonstrated on tissue-like phantoms for simple inhomogeneities such as straight rods in single-rod or multiple-rod configurations, and for more complex curved structures which mimic blood vessels in the female breast. In these phantom tests, the method has recovered the depth of single inhomogeneities in the central position of the phantom to within 4 mm of their actual value, and within 7 mm for more superficial inhomogeneities, where the thickness of the phantom was 65 mm. The application of this method to more complex images, such as optical mammograms, requires a robust approach to identify corresponding structures in the images collected with the two detectors of a given pair. To this aim, we propose an approach based on the inner product of the skeleton images collected with the two detectors of each pair, and we present an application of this approach to optical in vivo images of the female breast. This depth discrimination method can enhance the spatial information content of 2D projection images of the breast by assessing the depth of detected structures, and by allowing for 3D localization of breast tumors.

  9. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Mao, J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Abshire, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen (O2) optical depth measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission. Since O2 in uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, its absorption spectra can be used to estimate atmospheric pressure. In its airborne configuration, the IPDA lidar uses a doubled Erbium Doped Fiber amplifier and single photon counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at multiple discrete wavelengths in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. This instrument has been deployed three times aboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory as part of campaigns to measure CO2 mixing ratios over a wide range of topography and weather conditions from altitudes between 3 km and 13 km. The O2 IPDA lidar flew seven flights in 2011 and six flights in 2013 in the continental United States and British Columbia, Canada. Our results from 2011 showed good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km after a systematic bias correction of approximately 8% was applied. The random noise component was 2.5-3.0 %. The most recent data recorded in 2013 show better agreement between experimental optical depth measurements and theoretical predictions and much smaller systematic errors. The random error remained comparable with 2011 at 2-3%. The main source of random error is primarily the low energy (power) of the laser transmitter and the high solar background. We are in the process of addressing this issue with a new, higher energy amplifier that we anticipate will reduce the random noise component by a factor of 3-5 to less than 0.5%. The results from these flights show that the IPDA technique is a viable method

  10. Parametric distortion of the optical absorption edge of a magnetic semiconductor by a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, O.A.C.

    1985-09-15

    The influence of a strong laser field on the optical absorption edge of a direct-gap magnetic semiconductor is considered. It is shown that as the strong laser intensity increases the absorption coefficient is modified so as to give rise to an absorption tail below the free-field forbidden gap. An application is made for the case of the EuO.

  11. Ripeness of 'Sun Bright' tomato using the optical absorption and scattering properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity is one of the most important factors in determining the processing and eating quality of tomato. The objective of this research was to test the suitability of optical absorption and scattering properties for evaluating the maturity of tomatoes. Optical absorption and reduced scattering coef...

  12. Lidar multiple scattering factors inferred from CALIPSO lidar and IIR retrievals of semi-transparent cirrus cloud optical depths over oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pelon, J.; Vaughan, M. A.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 μm are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 μm from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over ocean made by the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) and the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) flying on board the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite. IIR infrared absorption optical depths are compared to CALIOP visible extinction optical depths when the latter can be directly derived from the measured apparent two-way transmittance through the cloud. An evaluation of the CALIOP multiple scattering factor is inferred from these comparisons after assessing and correcting biases in IIR and CALIOP optical depths reported in version 3 data products. In particular, the blackbody radiance taken in the IIR version 3 algorithm is evaluated, and IIR retrievals are corrected accordingly. Numerical simulations and IIR retrievals of ice crystal sizes suggest that the ratios of CALIOP extinction and IIR absorption optical depths should remain roughly constant with respect to temperature. Instead, these ratios are found to increase quasi-linearly by about 40 % as the temperature at the layer centroid altitude decreases from 240 to 200 K. It is discussed that this behavior can be explained by variations of the multiple scattering factor ηT applied to correct the measured apparent two-way transmittance for contribution of forward-scattering. While the CALIOP version 3 retrievals hold ηT fixed at 0.6, this study shows that ηT varies with temperature (and hence cloud particle size) from ηT = 0.8 at 200 K to ηT = 0.5 at 240 K for single-layered semi-transparent cirrus clouds with optical depth larger than 0.3. The revised parameterization of ηT introduces a concomitant temperature dependence in the simultaneously derived CALIOP lidar ratios that is consistent with observed changes in CALIOP

  13. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  14. NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OPTICAL DEPTH NEAR STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 2.4 IN THE KECK BARYONIC STRUCTURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium by measuring the absorption by neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 2.4. Our sample consists of 679 rest-frame UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts that have impact parameters <2 (proper) Mpc to the line of sight of one of the 15 bright, background QSOs and that fall within the redshift range of its Ly{alpha} forest. We present the first two-dimensional maps of the absorption around galaxies, plotting the median Ly{alpha} pixel optical depth as a function of transverse and line-of-sight separation from galaxies. The Ly{alpha} optical depths are measured using an automatic algorithm that takes advantage of all available Lyman series lines. The median optical depth, and hence the median density of atomic hydrogen, drops by more than an order of magnitude around 100 kpc, which is similar to the virial radius of the halos thought to host the galaxies. The median remains enhanced, at the >3{sigma} level, out to at least 2.8 Mpc (i.e., >9 comoving Mpc), but the scatter at a given distance is large compared with the median excess optical depth, suggesting that the gas is clumpy. Within 100 (200) kpc, and over {+-}165 km s{sup -1}, the covering fraction of gas with Ly{alpha} optical depth greater than unity is 100{sup +0}{sub -32}% (66% {+-} 16%). Absorbers with {tau}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 0.1 are typically closer to galaxies than random. The mean galaxy overdensity around absorbers increases with the optical depth and also as the length scale over which the galaxy overdensity is evaluated is decreased. Absorbers with {tau}{sub Ly{alpha}} {approx} 1 reside in regions where the galaxy number density is close to the cosmic mean on scales {>=}0.25 Mpc. We clearly detect two types of redshift space anisotropies. On scales <200 km s{sup -1}, or <1 Mpc, the absorption is stronger along the line of sight than in the transverse direction. This 'finger of God

  15. Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2014-02-16

    In the paper “Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights” by Y. Shinozuka et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020596, 2013), Tables 1 and 2 were published with the column heads out of order. Tables 1 and 2 are published correctly here. The publisher regrets the error.

  16. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  17. INTEGRATING LIDAR AND SATELLITE OPTICAL DEPTH WITH AMBIENT MONITORING FOR 3-DIMENSIONAL PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of in-situ PM2.5, sunphotometers, upward pointing lidar and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) instruments have been employed to better understand variability in the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 at the surface. Previous studies have shown good correlation be...

  18. Direct numerical modeling of Saturn's dense rings at high optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Morishima, Ryuji

    2015-11-01

    Saturn's B ring exhibits complex optical depth structure of uncertain origin. We are investigating the extent to which viscous overstability and/or gravitational wakes can give rise to this structure, via discrete particle numerical simulations. We use the parallelized N-body tree code pkdgrav with a soft-sphere collision model for detailed treatment of particle collisional physics, including multi-point persistent contact with static, sliding, rolling, and twisting friction forces. This enables us to perform local simulations with millions of particles, realistic sizes, and configurable material properties in high-optical-depth ring patches with near-linear scaling across multiple processors. Recent code improvements to the collision search algorithm provide a further roughly factor of 2 speedup. We present results from the first year of this study in which a library of simulations with different optical depths was constructed. Parameters explored include normal (dynamical) optical depths between 0.5 (approximately 100,000 particles) and 4.0 (approximately 8.3 million particles) in ring patches of dimension 6 by 6 critical Toomre wavelengths, using material parameters ranging from highly elastic smooth spheres to rough "gravel"-like particles. We also vary the particle internal densities to enhance (low density)/suppress (high density) viscous overstability in order to compare against gravitational instability in these different regimes. These libraries will be used to carry out simulated observations for comparison with Cassini CIRS temperature measurements and UVIS occulation data of Saturn's dense rings.

  19. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  20. Depth evaluation of intended vs actual intacs intrastromal ring segments using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Barbara, R; Barbara, A; Naftali, M

    2016-01-01

    PurposeEvaluation of actual vs intended intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) implantation depth as measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT)MethodsProspective study evaluating 30 Intacs segments implanted manually in 19 eyes of 15 patients suffering from keratoconus. Segment depth evaluation was performed using anterior segment OCT. Measurements were performed above and below the segment at 3 points in relation to the incision site. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software for ANOVA, matched t-test, and GLIMMIX procedure.ResultsIntacs segment depth was 153-μm shallower than intended (58% vs 80%). Segment layout demonstrated the proximal and distal portions to be 13-μm shallower and 12-μm deeper (on average), respectively. Intacs segment thickness does not influence implantation depth. Intacs segments implanted in the same eye do not share similar implantation depths. Stromal compression is likely to occur.ConclusionIntacs are implanted at a shallower depth than intended. The 'pocketing' stage prior to implantation most likely has a stronger effect on the segment's final implantation depth than does the incisions' depth.

  1. Urban ozone measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Morales, J A; Treacy, J; Coffey, S

    2004-05-01

    In order to improve the air quality in Europe the European Commission has issued a number of directives with regard to acceptable levels of a range of gaseous pollutants, which includes ozone. Therefore, monitoring of this compound is necessary to comply with EU legislation, to provide improved pollution warnings for those who are sensitive to air pollutants as well as providing valuable data for environmental planning. Open-path spectroscopic techniques, such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), are ideal for monitoring pollutants because of the advantages they offer over classical methods and point-source analysers. A DOAS system has been installed in Dublin city centre to monitor a range of criteria pollutants including ozone. Observations of urban background ozone concentrations are presented. The measurements are compared with those obtained using a UV point-source analyser and are presented in the context of the current EU directive. The influence of trans-boundary pollution from mainland Europe leading to ozone episodes is also discussed. Observations of high ozone during this measurement campaign coincided with the influx of photochemically polluted air masses which originated over continental Europe. For the analysed time interval, the data suggest that the ground ozone level in Dublin might be significantly influenced by long-range transport from the United Kingdom and continental Europe. PMID:14963627

  2. UV optical absorption spectra analysis of spodumene crystals from Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotani, Sadao; Watari, Kazunori; Mizukami, Akiyoshi; Bonventi, Waldemar; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2007-04-01

    The spectral decomposition analysis was applied to the optical absorption spectra of spodumene crystals from the Brazilian eastern pegmatitic province. The analyzed samples were natural, treated at 400 °C for 24 h and those irradiated with γ rays of 60Co with doses up to 5 MGy. The attributions of the lines were made taking in account highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The heated sample had only three lines, which were not affected by irradiation. One of them at 7.58 eV was attributed to an oxygen vacancy defect and the other two at 5.07 and 4.64 eV to a peroxy-type defect. The analysis of the growth of the lines with the irradiation showed that they belong to two groups of defects. The first group of lines at 4.2, 5.3 and 5.9 eV was attributed to a silanone-type defect. The other group of lines at 1.36, 2.0, 2.6, 3.6 and 5.0 eV was attributed to a type of Mn 3+ defect. The natural and irradiated samples also showed a line at 2.3 eV, which was attributed to another type of diamagnetic Mn 3+ defect.

  3. Optical absorption in ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, C. H.; Land, C. E.

    1984-08-01

    Optical absorption measurements have been performed on unmodified and on ion-implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics using the photothermal deflection spectroscopy technique. Bulk absorption coefficients depend on the average grain size of the material while the absorption associated with the ion-damaged layers does not. The damage-induced surface absorptance correlates well with the photosensitivity observed in implanted PLZT devices, supporting earlier models for the enhanced imaging efficiency of the materials.

  4. Microlensing Optical Depth towards the Galactic Bulge Using Clump Giants from the MACHO Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P; Griest, K; Thomas, C L; Cook, K H; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Alves, D R; Minniti, D; Drake, A J; Alcock, C; Allsman, R A; Axelrod, T S; Freeman, K C; Geha, M; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Nelson, C A; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D

    2005-07-14

    Using 7 years of MACHO survey data, we present a new determination of the optical depth to microlensing towards the Galactic bulge. We select the sample of 62 microlensing events (60 unique) on clump giant sources and perform a detailed efficiency analysis. We use only the clump giant sources because these are bright bulge stars and are not as strongly affected by blending as other events. Using a subsample of 42 clump events concentrated in an area of 4.5 deg{sup 2} with 739000 clump giant stars, we find {tau} = 2.17{sub -0.38}{sup +0.47} x 10{sup -6} at (l,b) = (1{sup o}.50, -2{sup o}.68), somewhat smaller than found in most previous MACHO studies, but in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. We also present the optical depth in each of the 19 fields in which we detected events, and find limits on optical depth for fields with no events. The errors in optical depth in individual fields are dominated by Poisson noise. We measure optical depth gradients of (1.06 {+-} 0.71) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} and (0.29 {+-} 0.43) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} in the galactic latitude b and longitude l directions, respectively. Finally, we discuss the possibility of anomalous duration distribution of events in the field 104 centered on (l,b) = (3{sup o}.11, -3{sup o}.01) as well as investigate spatial clustering of events in all fields.

  5. Determination of the droplet effective size and optical depth of cloudy media from polarimetric measurements: theory.

    PubMed

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Weichert, Reiner

    2002-06-20

    We present the development of a semi-analytical algorithm for optical particle sizing in disperse media. The algorithm is applied to the specific case of water clouds. However, it can be extended with minor modifications to other types of light-scattering medium. It is assumed that the optical thickness tau of the medium is large and the probability of photon absorption beta is small. Thus the optical particle-sizing problem is studied in the regime of highly developed multiple light scattering. It was found that the degree of polarization in visible and near-infrared channels provides us with information both on the effective size of droplets and on the optical thickness tau.

  6. Terminal speed of a gaseous stratus with finite optical depth over a luminous flat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takao; Fukue, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We reexamine the terminal speed of a moving stratus irradiated by an infinite flat source, considering relativistic radiative transfer in the stratus. For the case of a particle, V. Icke (1989, A&A, 216, 294) analytically derived the terminal speed of (4-√{7})c/3 ˜ 0.45 c, whereas the terminal speed of a stratus with finite optical depth is calculated under the Eddington approximation (J. Fukue, 2014, PASJ, 66, 13), and becomes larger up to 0.7 c in the optically thin limit. In this paper, we numerically calculate radiative transfer in the stratus without the Eddington approximation, and obtain the terminal speed. In the optically thick limit the terminal speed approaches 0.47 c. In the optically thin limit, in contrast to the previous analytical study, it becomes small as the optical depth decreases, and approaches 0.26 c. This is due to the anisotropic effect of the radiation field in the optically thin regime.

  7. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM’s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3 is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. Unrealistic energy absorption by uniform atmospheric dust leads to an unrealistic thermal energy balance on the polar caps. The outcome is an inaccurate cycle of condensation/sublimation of the polar caps and, as a consequence, an inaccurate cycle of total atmospheric mass and global-average surface pressure. Under an assumption of unchanged temperature profile and hydrostatic equilibrium, a given percentage change in surface pressure would produce a corresponding percentage change in density at all altitudes. Consequently, the final result of a change in surface pressure is an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, a density factor value was determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with MapYears 1 and 2 MGCM output

  8. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3 is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars- GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars- GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. Unrealistic energy absorption by uniform atmospheric dust leads to an unrealistic thermal energy balance on the polar caps. The outcome is an inaccurate cycle of condensation/sublimation of the polar caps and, as a consequence, an inaccurate cycle of total atmospheric mass and global-average surface pressure. Under an assumption of unchanged temperature profile and hydrostatic equilibrium, a given percentage change in surface pressure would produce a corresponding percentage change in density at all altitudes. Consequently, the final result of a change in surface pressure is an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, a density factor value was determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear=0 with MapYears 1 and 2 MGCM output

  9. Techniques of surface optical breakdown prevention for low-depths femtosecond waveguides writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, M. A.; Skryabin, N. N.; Ganin, D. V.; Khudyakov, D. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrated technique of direct femtosecond waveguide writing at record low depth (2-15 μm) under surface of lithium niobate, that play a key role in design of electrooptical modulators with low operating voltage. To prevent optical breakdown of crystal surface we used high numerical aperture objectives for focusing of light and non-thermal regime of inscription in contrast to widespread femtosecond writing technique at depths of tens micrometers or higher. Surface optical breakdown threshold was measured for both x- and z- cut crystals. Inscribed waveguides were examined for intrinsic microstructure. It also reported sharp narrowing of operating pulses energy range with writing depth under the surface of crystal, that should be taken in account when near-surface waveguides design. Novelty of the results consists in reduction of inscription depth under the surface of crystals that broadens applications of direct femtosecond writing technique to full formation of near-surface waveguides and postproduction precise geometry correction of near-surfaces optical integrated circuits produced with proton-exchanged technique.

  10. Optimization of Pit Depth for Concurrent Read Only Memory-Random Access Memory Optical Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Nobuhide; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kunimatsu, Yasukiyo; Hosokawa, Tetsuo; Morimoto, Yasuaki; Suenaga, Masashi; Yoshihiro, Masafumi; Shimazaki, Katsusuke

    2004-06-01

    We have studied a concurrent read only memory-random access memory (ROM-RAM) optical disk system without laser feedback by optimizing pit depth. When the pit depth was 47 nm (optical depth about 1/11 λ) and the pit width 0.45 μm, about 8% jitter in both pit and magneto-optical (MO) signals was obtained with a 785 nm wavelength laser diode and 0.55 NA objective lens by employing magnetic-field-modulation (MFM) MO recording. Both pit data and MO data were recorded with eight to fourteen modulation (EFM) code with a minimum mark length of 0.83 μm and a track pitch of 1.6 μm and thus the areal density is comparable to 1.3 GB for φ 120 mm single sided disk. By the optimization of the pit depth, sufficient system margins for practical use were obtained without laser feed back for the simultaneous reproduction of both pit and MO signals.

  11. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2011-11-15

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Z(eff). These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues. With the proper knowledge of buildup factors of human organs and tissues, energy absorption in the human body can be carefully controlled. The present results will help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and also useful in diagnostics and dosimetry. The tissue-equivalent materials for skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, cortical bone, and lung tissue are also discussed. It is observed that water and MS20 are good tissue equivalent materials for skeletal muscle in the extended energy range.

  12. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  13. MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Albino; Gafton, Emanuel; Cabezón, Rubén; Rosswog, Stephan; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods: Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results: In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost. In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.

  14. Nocturnal Measurements of HONO by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtal, P.; McLaren, R.

    2011-12-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used to quantify the concentration of HONO, NO2 and SO2 in the nocturnal urban atmosphere at York University over a period of one year. These measurements form a comprehensive HONO data set, including a large range of temperatures, relative humidity, surface conditions (snow, water, dry, etc.) and NO2 concentrations. Laboratory studies and observations within the nocturnal boundary layer reported in the literature suggest heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on surface adsorbed water as the major nighttime source of HONO. HONO formation and photolysis is believed to represent a major source term in the hydroxyl radical budget in polluted continental regions. Currently, most air quality models tend to significantly underpredict HONO, caused by the lack of understanding of HONO formation processes and the parameters that affect its concentration. Recently, we reported nocturnal pseudo steady states (PSS) of HONO in an aqueous marine environment and a conceptual model for HONO formation on aqueous surfaces was proposed. The data set collected at York University is being analyzed with a view towards further understanding the nighttime HONO formation mechanism and testing several hypotheses: 1) A HONO PSS can exist during certain times at night in an urban area in which the HONO concentration is independent of NO2, given the surface contains sufficient water coverage and is saturated with nitrogen containing precursors; 2) The concentration of HONO is positively correlated with temperature during periods where a PSS exists; 3) Different conversion efficiencies of NO2 to HONO exist on dry, wet and snow surfaces; 4) HONO formation has a NO2 order dependence between 0 and 2nd order, dependant on NO2 concentration, relative humidity, etc. The data set will be presented along with statistical analysis that sheds new light on the source of HONO in urban areas at night.

  15. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Optical Depth Using a Smartphone Sun Photometer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tingting; Thompson, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, smart phones have been explored for making a variety of mobile measurements. Smart phones feature many advanced sensors such as cameras, GPS capability, and accelerometers within a handheld device that is portable, inexpensive, and consistently located with an end user. In this work, a smartphone was used as a sun photometer for the remote sensing of atmospheric optical depth. The top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance was estimated through the construction of Langley plots on days when the sky was cloudless and clear. Changes in optical depth were monitored on a different day when clouds intermittently blocked the sun. The device demonstrated a measurement precision of 1.2% relative standard deviation for replicate photograph measurements (38 trials, 134 datum). However, when the accuracy of the method was assessed through using optical filters of known transmittance, a more substantial uncertainty was apparent in the data. Roughly 95% of replicate smart phone measured transmittances are expected to lie within ±11.6% of the true transmittance value. This uncertainty in transmission corresponds to an optical depth of approx. ±0.12–0.13 suggesting the smartphone sun photometer would be useful only in polluted areas that experience significant optical depths. The device can be used as a tool in the classroom to present how aerosols and gases effect atmospheric transmission. If improvements in measurement precision can be achieved, future work may allow monitoring networks to be developed in which citizen scientists submit acquired data from a variety of locations. PMID:24416199

  16. The tunable electronic structure and optic absorption properties of phosphorene by a normally applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Duan, Hou-Jian; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic structure and optical absorption properties of phosphorene (a monolayer black phosphorus) under a normally applied electric field. The electric field enlarges the energy gap, weakens the effective mass anisotropy, and increases the effective mass component along the armchair direction (x-direction) for both conduction and valence bands but provides little change to the component along the zigzag direction (y-direction). The band edge optical absorption is completely polarized in the x-direction, and decreases when increasing the electric field. If the exciting frequency is beyond the energy gap, the absorption for the y-polarized light becomes nonzero, but the absorption is still highly polarized.

  17. Implications for GCM Modeling of MARCI/TES ACB Optical Depth Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, David R.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Wolff, Michael J.; Haberle, Robert; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2016-10-01

    The Aphelion Cloud Belt (ACB) is a well-studied phenomenon of Mars. HST violet images and microwave observations [e.g. 1–3] helped characterize its seasonal morphology and measure typical optical depths. Follow up, long-term studies by orbiting instruments [e.g. 4–6] characterized the growth and decline of the ACB as well as a baseline set of zonally averaged optical depths as a function of latitude and season. All this work provided ground-truth for the assessment and modification of Mars GCMs and current models provide good agreement with observations [e.g. 7–8].We will present recent analyses of MARCI and TES ACB optical depths that show a wavelength dependance on the timing of the peak zonal-average optical depth that implies a possible evolution in average effective radius of ACB cloud particles as the ACB ages. As we will show, this difference in timing of the optical depth peak between short and long wavelength bands is not seen in the Ames MGCM. In order to begin understanding these differences, we will present retrieved ACB cloud particle sizes from the Ames MGCM to compare to the optical depth observations and calculations and discuss possible model adjustments that may lead to better fits. Aligning model and observation results should lead to a better understanding of what is physically driving the particle size evolution.[1] James, P. B., et al. 1996, JGR, 101, 18883[2] Clancy, R. T., et al. 1996, Icarus, 122, 36[3] Wolff, M. J., et al. 1999, in The Fifth International Conference on Mars, July 19-24, 1999, Pasadena, California, 6173[4] Pearl, J. C., et al. 2001, JGR, 106, 12325[5] Smith, M. D., et al. 2003, JGR-Planets, 108, 1[6] Smith, M. D. 2004, Icarus, 167, 148[7] Montmessin, F., et al. 2004, JGR-Planets, 109, E10004[8] Haberle, R. M., et al. 2010, in BAAS, 42, 1031

  18. Optical depth retrievals from Delta-T SPN1 measurements of broadband solar irradiance at ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estelles, Victor; Serrano, David; Segura, Sara; Wood, John; Webb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The SPN1 radiometer, manufactured by Delta-T Devices Ltd., is an instrument designed for the measurement of global solar irradiance and its components (diffuse, direct) at ground level. In the present study, the direct irradiance component has been used to retrieve an effective total optical depth, by applying the Beer-Lambert law to the broadband measurements. The results have been compared with spectral total optical depths derived from two Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01 sun-sky radiometers, located at the Burjassot site in Valencia (Spain), during years 2013 - 2015. The SPN1 is an inexpensive and versatile instrument for the measurement of the three components of the solar radiation without any mobile part and without any need to azimuthally align the instrument to track the sun (http://www.delta-t.co.uk). The three components of the solar radiation are estimated from a combination of measurements performed by 7 different miniature thermopiles. In turn, the Beer-Lambert law has been applied to the broadband direct solar component to obtain an effective total optical depth, representative of the total extinction in the atmosphere. For the assessment of the total optical depth values retrieved with the SPN1, two different sun-sky radiometers (Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01L) have been employed. Both instruments belong to the international networks AERONET and SKYNET. The modified SUNRAD package has been applied in both Cimel and Prede instruments. Cloud affected data has been removed by applying the Smirnov cloud-screening procedure in the SUNRAD algorithm. The broadband SPN1 total optical depth has been analysed by comparison with the spectral total optical depth from the sun-sky radiometer measurements at wavelengths 440, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. The slopes and intercepts have been estimated to be 0.47 - 0.98 and 0.055 - 0.16 with increasing wavelength. The average correlation coefficients and RMSD were 0.80 - 0.83 and 0.034 - 0.036 for all the channels. The

  19. Diffuse optical microscopy for quantification of depth-dependent epithelial backscattering in the cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Miller, Dianne M.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Lee, Marette; Kienle, Alwin; MacAulay, Calum

    2016-06-01

    A fiber optic imaging approach is presented using structured illumination for quantification of almost pure epithelial backscattering. We employ multiple spatially modulated projection patterns and camera-based reflectance capture to image depth-dependent epithelial scattering. The potential diagnostic value of our approach is investigated on cervical ex vivo tissue specimens. Our study indicates a strong backscattering increase in the upper part of the cervical epithelium caused by dysplastic microstructural changes. Quantization of relative depth-dependent backscattering is confirmed as a potentially useful diagnostic feature for detection of precancerous lesions in cervical squamous epithelium.

  20. Enhanced performance of graphene-based electro-absorption waveguide modulators by engineered optical modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosciniak, J.; Tan, D. T. H.; Corbett, B.

    2015-06-01

    Electro-absorption modulators based on electrically contacted double-layer graphene optimally incorporated in plasmonic and photonic waveguide configurations were simulated and analyzed in terms of the device performance at telecom wavelengths. It is shown that increasing the mode electric field strength on the graphene layers enhances absorption of graphene and, in consequence, improves the electro-optic performances. The ratio of the change in extinction ratio and the waveguide loss (Δα/α) is used as a figure of merit. A plasmonic waveguide configuration with a silicon ridge has a simulated 3 dB modulation depth for a device length of ~140 nm and Δα/α ~ 20. The calculated energy consumption per bit is as low as ~240 aJ bit-1 and ~1.8 aJ bit-1 for plasmonic modulators with polymer and silicon ridge waveguides respectively. Much higher figures of merit were obtained for modulators based on photonic waveguides with Δα/α exceeding 220 for a waveguide with a TM-supported mode. This comes at the cost of the modulator length, which increases to over 500 nm, and the calculated energy per bit of 1.93 fJ bit-1 for polymer and ~10.3 aJ bit-1 for silicon waveguides. The photonic waveguides were designed to support both TM and TE modes. The TE mode requires a much longer modulation length of ~10 µm to achieve a 3 dB modulation depth and shows a lower figure of merit of ~12 compared to the TM mode, but has a low energy per bit of ~44.0 aJ bit-1. The TE mode is in the OFF state at low applied voltage.

  1. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Hariharan, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  2. Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D; Kiedron, Peter; Michalsky, Joseph J; Hodges, Gary; Flynn, Connor J; Lacis, Andrew A

    2007-11-20

    Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the United States include the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). We discuss a number of technical issues specific to shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as some data processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

  3. Evaluation of sulfate aerosol optical depths over the North Atlantic and comparison with satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, C.M.; Ghan, S.J.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Wagener, R.; Nemesure, S.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has been postulated that scattering of sunlight by aerosols can significantly reduce the amount of solar energy absorbed by the climate system. Aerosol measurement programs alone cannot provide all the information needed to evaluate the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. Thus, comprehensive global-scale aerosol models, properly validated against surface-based and satellite measurements, are a fundamental tool for evaluating the impacts of aerosols on the planetary radiation balance. Analyzed meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are used to drive a modified version of the PNL Global Chemistry Model, applied to the atmospheric sulfur cycle. The resulting sulfate fields are used to calculate aerosol optical depths, which in turn are compared to estimates of aerosol optical depth based on satellite observations.

  4. Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution in Extratropical Cyclones over the Northern Hemisphere Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and an extratropical cyclone database,the climatological distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in extratropical cyclones is explored based solely on observations. Cyclone-centered composites of aerosol optical depth are constructed for the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude ocean regions, and their seasonal variations are examined. These composites are found to be qualitatively stable when the impact of clouds and surface insolation or brightness is tested. The larger AODs occur in spring and summer and are preferentially found in the warm frontal and in the post-cold frontal regions in all seasons. The fine mode aerosols dominate the cold sector AODs, but the coarse mode aerosols display large AODs in the warm sector. These differences between the aerosol modes are related to the varying source regions of the aerosols and could potentially have different impacts on cloud and precipitation within the cyclones.

  5. Ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography for imaging the anterior segment of human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Leng, Lin

    2012-12-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was developed in order to image the anterior segment of human eye. The optical path at reference arm was switched to compensate the sensitivity drop in OCT images. An scan depth of 12.28 mm and an axial resolution of 12.8 μm in air were achieved. The anterior segment from cornea to posterior surface of crystalline lens was clearly imaged and measured using this system. A custom designed Badal optometer was coupled into the sample arm to induce the accommodation, and the movement of crystalline lens was traced after the image registration. Our research demonstrates that SD-OCT with ultra-long scan depth can be used to image the human eye for accommodation research.

  6. Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Mikhail; Kiedron, Peter; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Hodges, Gary; Flynn, Connor J.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2007-11-20

    Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the U.S. include DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). In this paper we discuss a number of technical issues specific for shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as some data processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

  7. Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Mikhail; Kiedron, Peter; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Hodges, Gary; Flynn, Connor J.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2007-11-15

    Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the U.S. include DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). In this paper we discuss a number of technical issues specific for shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as somedata processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

  8. Constructing portable depth from defocus optical profilometers for surface roughness evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Robert; Steiner, Matthew; Suhring, William; Agnew, Sean; Fitz-Gerald, James

    2015-03-01

    Hand portability of non-contact optical profilometers represents a significant technological breakthrough for wide-area industrial processes such as grit blasting, capable of replacing mechanical styluses and providing real time assessment of surface roughness without damaging sampled areas. This paper demonstrates the possibility of building depth from defocus profilometers using off the shelf components, allowing for improved portability, affordability, and customization compared to similar table-top commercial products. An outlined demonstration device is proven to be capable of matching the performance of an ISO/NIST standardized mechanical profilometer for isotropic rough surfaces in the 2-10 μm Ra range with R2 > 0.96, and important considerations for each component of the assembly are addressed in detail. A prototype for a next generation liquid-lens based depth from defocus optical profilometer is also presented along with the technological obstacles found to be associated with such devices.

  9. Depth estimation of laser glass drilling based on optical differential measurements of acoustic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodesky, Niv; Ozana, Nisan; Berg, Yuval; Dolev, Omer; Danan, Yossef; Kotler, Zvi; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We present the first steps of a device suitable for characterization of complex 3D micro-structures. This method is based on an optical approach allowing extraction and separation of high frequency ultrasonic sound waves induced to the analyzed samples. Rapid, non-destructive characterization of 3D micro-structures are limited in terms of geometrical features and optical properties of the sample. We suggest a method which is based on temporal tracking of secondary speckle patterns generated when illuminating a sample with a laser probe while applying known periodic vibration using an ultrasound transmitter. In this paper we investigated lasers drilled through glass vias. The large aspect ratios of the vias possess a challenge for traditional microscopy techniques in analyzing depth and taper profiles of the vias. The correlation of the amplitude vibrations to the vias depths is experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Research on the Relationship Between Cloud Temperature and Optical Depth Using Rotational and Vibrational Raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jia; McCormick, M. Patrick; Lei, Liqiao

    2016-06-01

    Clouds play a key role in the climate system, for they can result in a warming or a cooling effect according to their characteristics and altitudes. Raman Lidars have been proven to be a very useful remote sensing tool to characterize cloud properties and locations. In this paper, cloud temperature and optical depth are obtained using rotational Raman (RR) and vibrational Raman techniques. Results of cloud temperature and optical depth (OD) observed by the Hampton University (HU) Rotational-Vibrational Raman Lidar are presented. The paper discusses the influence of cloud OD on temperature of the cloud base and top. From these measurements, the relation of low-altitude cloud OD and temperature is summarized. These analyses are unique in that they combine simultaneous measurements of these quantities that can lead to an improvement in the understanding of cloud radiation transfer and effects.

  11. Cooperative luminescence and absorption in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Tom G.; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2007-05-01

    The cooperative luminescence and absorption properties of Yb 3+ doped aluminosilicate glass optical fibres and preforms are investigated in detail. In accordance with previous investigations, both the visible cooperative luminescence and the infrared luminescence decay measurements have been resolved into a single exponential decay component. We show that for a glass with similar Yb 3+ dopant concentration but more Al 3+, the glass emits less visible luminescence. Absorption loss measurements completed on fibre samples revealed a broad absorption in the 350-500 nm range, which we propose is due to a combination of Yb 2+ absorption and cooperative absorption from Yb 3+ ion pairs.

  12. Annual behavior of the aerosol optical depth in some regions of Asian part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Beresnev, Sergey A.; Gorda, Stanislav Yu.; Holben, Brent N.; Kornienko, Gennady I.; Nikolashkin, Semen V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Taschilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-11-01

    The annual behaviors of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in some regions from Ural to Russian Far East are compared on the basis of monthly and decadal averages in two data samples: "all data" and "without fire smokes". It is shown that when the smoke events are excluded, the average AOD values vary more smoothly during the year. Parameterization of the annual behavior of the spectral dependence of AOD is presented by the example of results obtained in Tomsk.

  13. Burn depth determination in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Park, Boris H.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2003-07-01

    Accurate evaluation of the depth of injury in burn victims is of considerable practical value to the surgeon, both for initial determination of resuscitation fluid requirements, and in deciding whether excision and closure of the wound is necessary. Currently, burn depth is most accurately evaluated by visual inspection, though decisions concerning treatment may not be possible for a number of days post-injury. As part of our ongoing efforts to provide an objective, quantitative method for burn depth determination, we present here the results of a study using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to detect and measure thermally induced changes in collagen birefringence in skin excised from burn patients. We find that PS-OCT is capable of imaging and quantifying significantly reduced birefringence in burned human skin.

  14. Quantitative comparison of contrast and imaging depth of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography images in 800–1700 nm wavelength region

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Shutaro; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the wavelength dependence of imaging depth and clearness of structure in ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography over a wide wavelength range. We quantitatively compared the optical properties of samples using supercontinuum sources at five wavelengths, 800 nm, 1060 nm, 1300 nm, 1550 nm, and 1700 nm, with the same system architecture. For samples of industrially used homogeneous materials with low water absorption, the attenuation coefficients of the samples were fitted using Rayleigh scattering theory. We confirmed that the systems with the longer-wavelength sources had lower scattering coefficients and less dependence on the sample materials. For a biomedical sample, we observed wavelength dependence of the attenuation coefficient, which can be explained by absorption by water and hemoglobin. PMID:22312581

  15. The optical depth sensor (ODS) for column dust opacity measurements and cloud detection on martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Foujols, T.

    2016-08-01

    A lightweight and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) able to measure alternatively scattered flux at zenith and the sum of the direct flux and the scattered flux in blue and red has been developed to work in martian environment. The principal goals of ODS are to perform measurements of the daily mean dust opacity and to retrieve the altitude and optical depth of high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in the understanding of martian meteorology. The retrieval procedure of dust opacity is based on the use of radiative transfer simulations reproducing observed changes in the solar flux during the day as a function of 4 free parameters: dust opacity in blue and red, and effective radius and effective width of dust size distribution. The detection of clouds is undertaken by looking at the time variation of the color index (CI), defined as the ratio between red and blue ODS channels, at twilight. The retrieval of altitude and optical depth of clouds is carried out using a radiative transfer model in spherical geometry to simulate the CI time variation at twilight. Here the different retrieval procedures to analyze ODS signals, as well as the results obtained in different sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed.

  16. Preliminary results of the aerosol optical depth retrieval in Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. Q.; Kanniah, K. D.; Lau, A. M. S.

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric aerosols over the urban area is important as tremendous amounts of pollutants are released by industrial activities and heavy traffic flow. Air quality monitoring by satellite observation provides better spatial coverage, however, detailed aerosol properties retrieval remains a challenge. This is due to the limitation of aerosol retrieval algorithm on high reflectance (bright surface) areas. The aim of this study is to retrieve aerosol optical depth over urban areas of Iskandar Malaysia; the main southern development zone in Johor state, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m resolution data. One of the important steps is the aerosol optical depth retrieval is to characterise different types of aerosols in the study area. This information will be used to construct a Look Up Table containing the simulated aerosol reflectance and corresponding aerosol optical depth. Thus, in this study we have characterised different aerosol types in the study area using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. These data were processed using cluster analysis and the preliminary results show that the area is consisting of coastal urban (65%), polluted urban (27.5%), dust particles (6%) and heavy pollution (1.5%) aerosols.

  17. In-depth fiber optic two-photon polymerization and its applications in micromanipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Yogeshwar N.; Ingle, Ninad D.; Pinto, Mervyn; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2011-02-01

    Two photon polymerization (TPP) has enabled three-dimensional microfabrication with sub-diffraction limited spatial resolution. However, depth at which TPP could be achieved, has been limited due to the high numerical aperture microscope objective, used to focus the ultrafast laser beam. Here, we report fiber-optic two photon polymerization (FTP) for in-depth fabrication of microstructures from a photopolymerizable resin. A cleaved single mode optical fiber coupled with tunable femtosecond laser could achieve TPP, forming extended waveguide on the fiber itself. The length of the FTP tip was found to depend on the laser power and exposure duration. Microfabricated fiber tip using FTP was employed to deliver continuous wave laser beam on to polystyrene microspheres in order to transport and manipulate selected particles by scattering force and 2D trapping. Such microstructures formed by TPP on tip of the fiber will also enable puncture and micro-surgery of cellular structures. With use of a cleaved fiber or axicon tip, FTP structures were fabricated on curved surfaces at large depth. The required Power for FTP and the polymerization rate was faster while using an axicon tip optical fiber. This enabled fabrication of complex octopus-like microstructures.

  18. Multi-spectral optical absorption in substrate-free nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junpeng; Chia, Andrew; Boulanger, Jonathan; LaPierre, Ray; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khodadad, Iman; Saini, Simarjeet

    2014-09-22

    A method is presented of fabricating gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire arrays of controlled diameter and period by reactive ion etching of a GaAs substrate containing an indium gallium arsenide (InGaP) etch stop layer, allowing the precise nanowire length to be controlled. The substrate is subsequently removed by selective etching, using the same InGaP etch stop layer, to create a substrate-free GaAs nanowire array. The optical absorptance of the nanowire array was then directly measured without absorption from a substrate. We directly observe absorptance spectra that can be tuned by the nanowire diameter, as explained with rigorous coupled wave analysis. These results illustrate strong optical absorption suitable for nanowire-based solar cells and multi-spectral absorption for wavelength discriminating photodetectors. The solar-weighted absorptance above the bandgap of GaAs was 94% for a nanowire surface coverage of only 15%.

  19. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides.

  20. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  1. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  2. Depth and Shape of the 0.94-microm Water Vapor Absorption Band for Clear and Cloudy Skies.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1969-11-01

    Sky radiation near zenith and solar radiation in the rhosigmatau band region were recorded by means of a rotating interference filter (lambda0.98-0.88 microm) and a silicon detector. Although the spectral resolution of the simple spectrometer was not high, the water vapor content of the cloud free atmosphere was obtained with reasonable accuracy. The band depth of the radiation from thin, bright clouds was only slightly greater than that of the cloud free atmosphere, but dense and dark clouds showed deep bands mainly caused by increased path length as a result of multiple scattering. Considerable distortion of the band due to absorption by liquid water is observed in the radiation from very dark and dense clouds, and sometimes during snowfall. Some laboratory measurements are also discussed.

  3. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  4. [The Establishment of the Method of the Fiber Optic Chemical Sensor Synchronous Absorption-Fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Zhang Li-hua; Iburaim, Arkin

    2016-03-01

    A new method of simultaneously measuring fiber-optic chemical sensor absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum is established. Make synchronous absorption-fluorescence cuvette, establish synchronous absorption-fluorescence spectrometry instrumentation combined by fiber optic chemical sensor technology, measure the synchronous absorption-fluorescence spectrums of solutions of rhodamine B, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6, compared by absorption spectroscopy measured by traditional UV-Visible photometric method and fluorescence spectroscopy measured by traditional fluorescence method. Synchronous absorption-fluorescence method measure absorption spectrums and fluorescence spectrums the same to traditional photometric and fluorescence spectroscopy of rhodamine B, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6. The maximum wavelength of fluorescence intensity method has high accuracy relatively compared with fluorescence, but the maximum wavelength of absorption has a slight deviation. Synchronous absorption-fluorescence method means simultaneously measure the absorption spectrums and fluorescence spectrums of the fluorescent substance, making two spectrums to one. The method measured the maximum emission wavelength with high accuracy, though in measuring maximum absorption wavelength there is a slight deviation, but it is worth further studying. PMID:27400519

  5. Analysis for nonlinear inversion technique developed to estimate depth-distribution of absorption by spatially resolved backscattering measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kazuhiro; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    We have proposed a new nonlinear inversion technique to estimate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient (μa) in the depth direction of a turbid medium by spatially resolved backscattering measurement. With this technique, we can obtain cross-sectional image of μa as deep as the backscattered light traveled even when the transmitted light through the medium cannot be detected. In this technique, the depth distribution of absorption coefficient is determined by iterative calculation using the spatial path-length distribution (SPD) of traveled photons as a function of source-detector distance. In this calculation, the variance of path-length of many photons in each layer is also required. The SPD and the variance of path-length are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using a known reduced scattering coefficient (μs'). Therefore, we need to know the μs' of the turbid medium beforehand. We have shown in computer simulation that this technique works well when the μs' is the typical values of mammalian body tissue, or 1.0 /mm. In this study, the accuracy of the μa estimation was analyzed and its dependence on the μs' was clarified quantitatively in various situations expected in practice. 10% deviations in μs' resulted in about 30% error in μa estimation, in average. This suggested that the measurement or the appropriate estimation of μs' is required to utilize the proposed technique effectively. Through this analysis, the effectiveness and the limitation of the newly proposed technique were clarified, and the problems to be solved were identified.

  6. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    2006-06-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of photoacoustic tomography for reconstructing the optical absorption coefficient images of heterogeneous media. Photoacoustic images are obtained from a series of tissuelike phantom experiments using a finite element-based reconstruction algorithm coupled with a scanning photoacoustic imaging system. The experimental results show that optical absorption images can be quantitatively reconstructed when the photon diffusion model is coupled with the Helmholtz photoacoustic wave equation.

  7. Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yin B.; Vogelmann A.; Min Q.; Duan M.; Bartholomew M. J.; Turner D. D.

    2011-12-13

    A Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) was developed and deployed in a field test at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The TCRSR measures the forward-scattering lobe of the direct solar beam (i.e., the solar aureole) through an optically thin cloud (optical depth < 8). We applied the retrieval algorithm of Min and Duan (2005) to the TCRSR measurements of the solar aureole to derive simultaneously the cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud drop effective radius (DER), subsequently inferring the cloud liquid-water path (LWP). After careful calibration and preprocessing, our results indicate that the TCRSR is able to retrieve simultaneously these three properties for optically thin water clouds. Colocated instruments, such as the MultiFilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), and Microwave Radiometer (MWR), are used to evaluate our retrieval results. The relative difference between retrieved CODs from the TCRSR and those from the MFRSR is less than 5%. The distribution of retrieved LWPs from the TCRSR is similar to those from the MWR and AERI. The differences between the TCRSR-based retrieved DERs and those from the AERI are apparent in some time periods, and the uncertainties of the DER retrievals are discussed in detail in this article.

  8. Effect of UV Absorption on Fabrication of Fiber-Optic Bragg Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ying; Sharma, Anup; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    UV light is used to fabricate fiber-optic gratings also heats up the fiber due to absorption by either the fiber-buffer, fiber-cladding, doped with titania or a thin coating of paint. Significant enhancement in the rate of grating fabrication is observed due to UV light absorption.

  9. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for geostationary retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0

  10. A Neural Network Approach to Infer Optical Depth of Thick Ice Clouds at Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Hong, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Yan; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    One of the roadblocks to continuously monitoring cloud properties is the tendency of clouds to become optically black at cloud optical depths (COD) of 6 or less. This constraint dramatically reduces the quantitative information content at night. A recent study found that because of their diffuse nature, ice clouds remain optically gray, to some extent, up to COD of 100 at certain wavelengths. Taking advantage of this weak dependency and the availability of COD retrievals from CloudSat, an artificial neural network algorithm was developed to estimate COD values up to 70 from common satellite imager infrared channels. The method was trained using matched 2007 CloudSat and Aqua MODIS data and is tested using similar data from 2008. The results show a significant improvement over the use of default values at night with high correlation. This paper summarizes the results and suggests paths for future improvement.

  11. Dual-band Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with depth-related compensations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Ma, Lixin; Yu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Dual-band Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) provides depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging that enhances tissue contrast and reduces image speckle. However, previous dual-band FD-OCT systems could not correctly give the tissue spectroscopic contrast due to depth-related discrepancy in the imaging method and attenuation in biological tissue samples. We designed a new dual-band full-range FD-OCT imaging system and developed an algorithm to compensate depth-related fall-off and light attenuation. In our imaging system, the images from two wavelength bands were intrinsically overlapped and their intensities were balanced. The processing time of dual-band OCT image reconstruction and depth-related compensations were minimized by using multiple threads that execute in parallel. Using the newly developed system, we studied tissue phantoms and human cancer xenografts and muscle tissues dissected from severely compromised immune deficient mice. Improved spectroscopic contrast and sensitivity were achieved, benefiting from the depth-related compensations. PMID:24466485

  12. CALIPSO and MODIS Observations of Increases in Aerosol Optical Depths near Marine Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, J. A.; Tahnk, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosols not only affect droplet sizes and number concentrations in marine stratocumulus but in turn the near cloud environment gives rise to changes in the aerosol particle concentrations and sizes. In addition, the clouds serve as reflectors that illuminate the adjacent cloud-free air. This extra illumination leads to overestimates of aerosol optical depths and fine mode fractions retrieved from multispectral satellite imagery. Large cloud-free ocean regions bounded on both ends, or if sufficiently large (>100 km), on at least one end by layers of marine stratocumulus, as deduced from CALIPSO lidar returns, were examined to deduce the effects of the clouds on the properties of nearby aerosols. CALIPSO aerosol optical depths composited for more than a year and covering the global oceans, 60°S-60°N, reveal that the fractional increase in aerosol optical depth in going from a cloud-free 5-km region more than 10 to 15 km from a cloud boundary to one adjacent the clouds is 10%-15% at both 532 and 1064 nm for both daytime and nighttime observations. All of the changes are statistically significant at the 90% confidence level or greater. The associated reduction in the 532/1064 Ånsgtröm Exponent is 0.023 for the nighttime observations, but owing to a poorer signal to noise ratio, no change in the Exponent is detected for the daytime observations. For comparison, the MODIS aerosol optical depths collocated with the daytime CALIPSO optical depths suggest that the fractional increases in aerosol optical depths in going from a cloud-free 10-km region 15 km from a cloud boundary to one adjacent the clouds is about 5% at both 550 and 850 nm. The associated reduction in the 550/850 Ånsgtröm Exponent is 0.053. The changes in aerosol properties die away within 10 to 20 km from the marine stratocumulus. The increases in aerosol scattering and reductions in Ånsgtröm Exponent suggest that near the clouds, the aerosol particles become larger. The fine mode fraction found in

  13. Spectroscopic Combustion Temperature Measurements: Effect Of Optical Depth In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, J. R.; Charagundla, S. R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1988-11-01

    Results of a study directed toward using observed spectroscopic features for the measurement of temperature in the combustion zone of recovery boilers are described. Emissions of the potassium doublets at 404 and 766 nanometers (nm) have been observed in recovery boilers and temperature and self absorption effects on lines shapes have been modeled. Predicted emission line shapes are strongly dependent upon predicted concentration values of potassium. Proper selection of concentration ranges results in good qualitative agreement of predicted line shapes with those observed in boilers and laboratory flame experiments. These results indicate that the temperature dependence of potassium emissions is complicated by self-absorption effects which limit the optical pathlength over which emissions are practically observable. Temperature measurement may be feasible using pattern recognition methods coupled with algorithms based on an emission model and realistic estimates of the emitting species concentration.

  14. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  15. Depth profile of optically recorded patterns in light-sensitive liquid-crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Gregorc, Marko; Zalar, Boštjan; Domenici, Valentina; Ambrožič, Gabriela; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena; Fally, Martin; Čopič, Martin

    2011-09-01

    We investigated nonlinear absorption and photobleaching processes in a liquid-crystal elastomer doped with light-sensitive azobenzene moiety. A conventional one-dimensional holographic grating was recorded in the material with the use of two crossed UV laser beams and the angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency in the vicinity of the Bragg peak was analyzed. These measurements gave information on the depth to which trans to cis isomerization had progressed into the sample as a function of the UV irradiation time. Using a numerical model that takes into account the propagation of writing beams and rate equations for the local concentration of the absorbing trans conformer, we computed the expected spatial distribution of the trans and cis conformers and the shape of the corresponding Bragg diffraction peak for different irradiation doses. Due to residual absorption of the cis conformers the depth of the recording progresses logarithmically with time and is limited by the thermal relaxation from the cis to trans conformation. PMID:22060390

  16. THE OPTICAL DEPTH OF H II REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Oey, M. S.; Jaskot, A. E.; Zastrow, J.; Winkler, P. F.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C.

    2012-08-10

    We exploit ionization-parameter mapping (IPM) as a powerful tool to measure the optical depth of star-forming H II regions. Our simulations using the photoionization code CLOUDY and our new, SURFBRIGHT surface-brightness simulator demonstrate that this technique can directly diagnose most density-bounded, optically thin nebulae using spatially resolved emission-line data. We apply this method to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), using the data from the Magellanic Clouds Emission Line Survey. We generate new H II region catalogs based on photoionization criteria set by the observed ionization structure in the [S II]/[O III] ratio and H{alpha} surface brightness. The luminosity functions from these catalogs generally agree with those from H{alpha}-only surveys. We then use IPM to crudely classify all the nebulae into optically thick versus optically thin categories, yielding fundamental new insights into Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation transfer. We find that in both galaxies, the frequency of optically thin objects correlates with H{alpha} luminosity, and that the numbers of these objects dominate above log L/(erg s{sup -1}) {>=} 37.0. The frequencies of optically thin objects are 40% and 33% in the LMC and SMC, respectively. Similarly, the frequency of optically thick regions correlates with H I column density, with optically thin objects dominating at the lowest N(H I). The integrated escape luminosity of ionizing radiation is dominated by the largest regions and corresponds to luminosity-weighted, ionizing escape fractions from the H II region population of {>=}0.42 and {>=}0.40 in the LMC and SMC, respectively. These values correspond to global galactic escape fractions of 4% and 11%, respectively. This is sufficient to power the ionization rate of the observed diffuse ionized gas in both galaxies. Since our optical depth estimates tend to be underestimates, and also omit the contribution from field stars without nebulae, our results suggest

  17. Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

    2003-06-01

    We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

  18. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  19. Aerosol Radiative Effects: Expected Variations in Optical Depth Spectra and Climate Forcing, with Implications for Closure Experiment Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Stowe, L. L.; Hobbs, P. V.; Podolske, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We examine measurement strategies for reducing uncertainties in aerosol direct radiative forcing by focused experiments that combine surface, air, and space measurements. Particularly emphasized are closure experiments, which test the degree of agreement among different measurements and calculations of aerosol properties and radiative effects. By combining results from previous measurements of large-scale smokes, volcanic aerosols, and anthropogenic aerosols with models of aerosol evolution, we estimate the spatial and temporal variability in optical depth spectra to be expected in the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX, planned for summer 1996 off the Eastern U.S. seaboard). In particular, we examine the expected changes in the wavelength dependence of optical depth as particles evolve through nucleation, growth by condensation and coagulation, and removal via sedimentation. We then calculate the expected radiative climate forcing (i.e. change in net radiative flux) for typical expected aerosols and measurement conditions (e.g. solar elevations, surface albedos, radiometer altitudes). These calculations use new expressions for flux and albedo changes, which account not only for aerosol absorption, but also for instantaneous solar elevation angles and the dependence of surface albedo on solar elevation. These factors, which are usually ignored or averaged in calculations of global aerosol effects, can have a strong influence on fluxes measured in closure experiments, and hence must be accounted for in calculations if closure is to be convincingly tested. We compare the expected measurement signal to measurement uncertainties expected for various techniques in various conditions. Thereby we derive recommendations for measurement strategies that combine surface, airborne, and spaceborne measurements.

  20. Luminescence and photoinduced absorption in ytterbium-doped optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybaltovsky, A. A.; Aleshkina, S. S.; Likhachev, M. E.; Bubnov, M. M.; Umnikov, A. A.; Yashkov, M. V.; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N.; Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2011-12-01

    Photochemical reactions induced in the glass network of an ytterbium-doped fibre core by IR laser pumping and UV irradiation have been investigated by analysing absorption and luminescence spectra. We have performed comparative studies of the photoinduced absorption and luminescence spectra of fibre preforms differing in core glass composition: Al2O3 : SiO2, Al2O3 : Yb2O3 : SiO2, and P2O5 : Yb2O3 : SiO2. The UV absorption spectra of unirradiated preform core samples show strong bands peaking at 5.1 and 6.5 eV, whose excitation plays a key role in photoinduced colour centre generation in the glass network. 'Direct' UV excitation of the 5.1- and 6.5-eV absorption bands at 244 and 193 nm leads to the reduction of some of the Yb3+ ions to Yb2+. The photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres by IR pumping is shown to result from oxygen hole centre generation. A phenomenological model is proposed for the IR-pumping-induced photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres. The model predicts that colour centre generation in the core glass network and the associated absorption in the visible range result from a cooperative effect involving simultaneous excitation of a cluster composed of several closely spaced Yb3+ ions.

  1. Examination of Optical Depth Effects on Fluorescence Imaging of Cardiac Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Wikswo, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Optical mapping with voltage-sensitive dyes provides a high-resolution technique to observe cardiac electrodynamic behavior. Although most studies assume that the fluorescent signal is emitted from the surface layer of cells, the effects of signal attenuation with depth on signal interpretation are still unclear. This simulation study examines the effects of a depth-weighted signal on epicardial activation patterns and filament localization. We simulated filament behavior using a detailed cardiac model, and compared the signal obtained from the top (epicardial) layer of the spatial domain with the calculated weighted signal. General observations included a prolongation of the action upstroke duration, early upstroke initiation, and reduction in signal amplitude in the weighted signal. A shallow filament was found to produce a dual-humped action potential morphology consistent with previously reported observations. Simulated scroll wave breakup exhibited effects such as the false appearance of graded potentials, apparent supramaximal conduction velocities, and a spatially blurred signal with the local amplitude dependent upon the immediate subepicardial activity; the combination of these effects produced a corresponding change in the accuracy of filament localization. Our results indicate that the depth-dependent optical signal has significant consequences on the interpretation of epicardial activation dynamics. PMID:14645100

  2. Noncontact depth-resolved micro-scale optical coherence elastography of the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution elastographic assessment of the cornea can greatly assist clinical diagnosis and treatment of various ocular diseases. Here, we report on the first noncontact depth-resolved micro-scale optical coherence elastography of the cornea achieved using shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT) combined with the spectral analysis of the corneal Lamb wave propagation. This imaging method relies on a focused air-puff device to load the cornea with highly-localized low-pressure short-duration air stream and applies phase-resolved OCT detection to capture the low-amplitude deformation with nano-scale sensitivity. The SWI-OCT system is used here to image the corneal Lamb wave propagation with the frame rate the same as the OCT A-line acquisition speed. Based on the spectral analysis of the corneal temporal deformation profiles, the phase velocity of the Lamb wave is obtained at different depths for the major frequency components, which shows the depthwise distribution of the corneal stiffness related to its structural features. Our pilot experiments on ex vivo rabbit eyes demonstrate the feasibility of this method in depth-resolved micro-scale elastography of the cornea. The assessment of the Lamb wave dispersion is also presented, suggesting the potential for the quantitative measurement of corneal viscoelasticity. PMID:25426312

  3. Depth-resolved imaging of colon tumor using optical coherence tomography and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qinggong; Frank, Aaron; Wang, Jianting; Chen, Chao-wei; Jin, Lily; Lin, Jon; Chan, Joanne M.; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of neoplastic changes remains a critical challenge in clinical cancer diagnosis and treatment. Many cancers arise from epithelial layers such as those of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Current standard endoscopic technology is unable to detect those subsurface lesions. Since cancer development is associated with both morphological and molecular alterations, imaging technologies that can quantitative image tissue's morphological and molecular biomarkers and assess the depth extent of a lesion in real time, without the need for tissue excision, would be a major advance in GI cancer diagnostics and therapy. In this research, we investigated the feasibility of multi-modal optical imaging including high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and depth-resolved high-sensitivity fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT) for structural and molecular imaging. APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice model were imaged using OCT and FLOT and the correlated histopathological diagnosis was obtained. Quantitative structural (the scattering coefficient) and molecular imaging parameters (fluorescence intensity) from OCT and FLOT images were developed for multi-parametric analysis. This multi-modal imaging method has demonstrated the feasibility for more accurate diagnosis with 87.4% (87.3%) for sensitivity (specificity) which gives the most optimal diagnosis (the largest area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). This project results in a new non-invasive multi-modal imaging platform for improved GI cancer detection, which is expected to have a major impact on detection, diagnosis, and characterization of GI cancers, as well as a wide range of epithelial cancers.

  4. Designing Ligand-Enhanced Optical Absorption of Thiolated Gold Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Dass, Amala; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2015-05-07

    The optical spectra of thiolated Au25(SR)18/Au23(SR)16 clusters with different R residues are investigated via TDDFT simulations. Significant enhancements in the optical region and effective electron delocalization are simultaneously achieved by tuning the ligands' steric hindrance and electronic conjugating features, producing a resonance phenomenon between the Au–S core motif and the ligand fragments.

  5. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  6. Optical path switching based differential absorption radiometry for substance detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters the second polarized components to isolate at least a second wavelength band thereby generating second filtered radiation. A beam combiner combines the first and second filtered radiation to form a combined beam of radiation. A detector is disposed to monitor magnitude of at least a portion of the combined beam alternately at the first wavelength band and the second wavelength band as an indication of the concentration of the substance in the sample path.

  7. Investigation on optical absorption properties of ion irradiated single walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Vishalli, Dharamvir, Keya; Kaur, Ramneek; Raina, K. K.; Avasthi, D. K.; Jeet, Kiran

    2015-08-28

    In the present study change in the optical absorption properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under nickel ion (60 MeV) irradiation at various fluences has been investigated. Langmuir Blodgett technique is used to deposit SWCNT thin film of uniform thickness. AFM analysis shows a network of interconnected bundles of nanotubes. UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra indicate that the sample mainly contain SWCNTs of semiconducting nature. It has been found in absorption spectra that there is decrease in the intensity of the characteristic SWCNT peaks with increase in fluence. At fluence value 1×10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} there is almost complete suppression of the characteristic SWCNTs peaks.The decrease in the optical absorption with increase in fluence is due to the increase in the disorder in the system which leads to the decrease in optically active states.

  8. Increasing trend of Aerosol Optical Depth and Its Effect on Rainfall over

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Waseem; Singh, Ramesh; Prasad, Anup

    Since last two decades, the aerosol optical depth has increased due to urbanization and industrialization. The nature of the aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic plains is found to be very dynamic and its transport depends on the meteorological conditions. The aerosol optical parameters vary during summer and winter seasons. The Indo-Gangetic plains is affected by the intense dusts during pre-monsoon/summer season and the anthropogenic activities control the nature of aerosols during winter season. The meteorological conditions and nature of the boundary layer play an important role in the climatic change during winter season, as a result million of people get affected due to the intense formation of haze, fog and smog in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Detailed analysis of TOMS, MODIS, MISR, AIRS and TRIMM have been carried out to study the aerosol parameters and rainfall. The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth from western part to the eastern parts of the Indo-Gangetic plains is found using multi sensor data at most of the locations during summer and winter seasons. The rainfall derived from TRIMM and GPCP data show increasing and also decreasing trend. The observed rainfall trend will be discussed in terms of the nature of the aerosol parameters which are found to be different due to the source of pollutants.

  9. Relating Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth in the Summertime Continental Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, C. A.; Wagner, N.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Attwood, A. R.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Brown, S. S.; McComiskey, A. C.; Gordon, T. D.; Welti, A.; Carlton, A. G.; Murphy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), the column-integrated ambient aerosol light extinction, is determined from satellite and ground-based remote sensing measurements. AOD is the parameter most often used to validate earth system model simulations of aerosol mass. Relating aerosol mass to AOD, however, is problematic due to issues including aerosol water uptake as a function of relative humidity (RH) and the complicated relationship between aerosol physicochemical properties and light extinction. Measurements of aerosol microphysical, chemical, and optical properties help to constrain the relationship between aerosol mass and optical depth because aerosol extinction at ambient RH is a function of the abundance, composition and size distribution of the aerosol. We use vertical profiles of humidity and dry aerosol extinction observed in the southeastern United States (U.S.) to examine the relationship between submicron aerosol mass concentration and extinction at ambient RH. We show that the κ-Köhler parameterization directly, and without additional Mie calculations, describes the change in extinction with varying RH as a function of composition for both aged aerosols typical of the polluted summertime continental boundary layer and the biomass burning aerosols we encountered. We calculate how AOD and the direct radiative effect in the eastern U.S. have likely changed due to trends in aerosol composition in recent decades. We also examine the sensitivity of AOD to the RH profile and to aerosol composition, size distribution and abundance.

  10. Optical absorption of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films in UV-vis-NIR region.

    PubMed

    Farag, A A M

    2006-11-01

    The optical absorption studies of sodium copper chlorophyllin thin films (SCC), prepared by spray pyrolysis, in the UV-vis-NIR region was reported for the first time. Several new discrete transitions are observed in the UV-vis region of the spectra in addition to a strong continuum component in the IR region. The spectra of the infrared absorption allow characterization of vibration modes for the powder and thin films of SCC. The absorption spectrum recorded in the UV-vis region showed different absorption bands, namely the Soret (B) in the region 340-450 nm and Q-band in the region 600-700 nm and other band labeled N in the 240-320 region. Some important spectral parameters namely optical absorption coefficient (alpha), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(molar)), oscillator strength (f), electric dipole strength (q(2)) and absorption half bandwidth (Deltalambda) of the principle optical transitions were evaluated. The analysis of the absorption coefficient in the absorption region revealed direct transitions and the energy gap was estimated as 1.63 eV. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparison with the previous published data are also given.

  11. Extension of depth-resolved reconstruction of attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography for slim samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Martin; Lengenfelder, B.; Kanawade, R.; Klämpfl, F.; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Coherent light propagating through turbid media is attenuated due to scattering and absorption. The decrease of the intensity of the coherent light is described by the attenuation coefficient. The measured decay of the coherent light through turbid media with optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to reconstruct the attenuation coefficient. Since most of the OCT systems work in the near-infrared region, they are the optical window from 800-1400 nm in tissue. Hence, the most part of the attenuation coefficient is caused due to the scattering. Therefore, deriving the attenuation coefficient is one way to get an approximation of the scattering coefficient which is difficult to access even up to day. Moreover, OCT measurements are one of the few possibilities to derive physical properties with micrometre resolution of the media under investigation.

  12. AERONET-based models of smoke-dominated aerosol near source regions and transported over oceans, and implications for satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-10-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol system. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of aerosol microphysical/optical parameters at 10 sites reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke observed at coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at the near-source sites. Differences between sites tend to be larger than variability at an individual site, although optical properties for some sites in different regions can be quite similar. Across the sites, typical midvisible SSA ranges from ~ 0.95-0.97 (sites dominated by boreal forest or peat burning, typically with larger fine-mode particle radius and spread) to ~ 0.88-0.9 (sites most influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning, typically smaller fine-mode particle radius and spread). The tropical forest site Alta Floresta (Brazil) is closer to this second category, although with intermediate SSA ~ 0.92. The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savannah at Mongu (Zambia), with average midvisible SSA ~ 0.85. Sites with stronger absorption also tend to have stronger spectral gradients in SSA, becoming more absorbing at longer wavelengths. Microphysical/optical models are presented in detail so as to facilitate their use in radiative transfer calculations, including extension to UV (ultraviolet) wavelengths, and lidar ratios. One intended application is to serve as candidate optical models for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean often have insufficient absorption (i.e. too high SSA) to represent these biomass burning aerosols. The underestimates in satellite-retrieved AOD in smoke outflow regions, which have important consequences for applications of these satellite data sets, are consistent with

  13. Acousto-optic differential optical absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurement of nitrogen dioxide in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andrew Y S; Chan, M H

    2004-12-01

    Measurement of the atmospheric concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) pollutant was demonstrated by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using a visible acousto-optic tunable filter. In a traditional spectral scanning DOAS system for atmospheric concentration monitoring, a highly stable light source is required. When the light intensity fluctuates during scanning, the concentration retrieval will be inaccurate. In order to reduce the error due to intensity fluctuations, a modified DOAS system has been developed by introducing a broadband light intensity monitoring channel. Using the measured intensity of the broadband channel as the intensity of the light source, the spectrum can be de-biased and the residual intensity variation will primarily result from atmospheric extinction. In addition, by employing the lock-in detection technique, the background light interference is also removed in the modified DOAS system. The atmospheric NO(2) concentration measurement was performed at the campus of City University of Hong Kong, and the results were compared with the concentration reported from a nearby monitoring station in Sham Shui Po, operated by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department.

  14. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  15. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments. PMID:21343997

  16. Theory of absorption bands in molecular dimers: Interpolating between optical asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenknecht, Hans; Esser, Bernd

    2003-02-01

    Absorption band shapes of an asymmetric dimer system constituted by monomers with different excitation energies and optical transition matrix elements are considered in the semiclassical parameter region. Optical transition matrix elements originating from arbitrary initial vibrational states are analyzed on the basis of a spin representation of the eigenstates of an associated symmetry broken spin-boson Hamiltonian. Correlations between the spin-down and spin-up coefficients of these eigenstates are shown to exist and investigated in detail. Using these correlations, an asymmetry interpolation of the intensity of absorption lines between dimer configurations with different optical monomer transition matrix elements is proposed.

  17. The microlensing event rate and optical depth toward the galactic bulge from MOA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Wada, K.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboratoin; and others

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of the microlensing optical depth and event rate toward the Galactic Bulge (GB) based on two years of the MOA-II survey. This sample contains ∼1000 microlensing events, with an Einstein radius crossing time of t {sub E} ≤ 200 days in 22 bulge fields covering ∼42 deg{sup 2} between –5° < l < 10° and –7° < b < –1°. Our event rate and optical depth analysis uses 474 events with well-defined microlensing parameters. In the central fields with |l| < 5°, we find an event rate of Γ = [2.39 ± 1.1]e {sup [0.60±0.05](3–|b|)} × 10{sup –5} star{sup –1} yr{sup –1} and an optical depth (for events with t {sub E} ≤ 200 days) of τ{sub 200} = [2.35 ± 0.18]e {sup [0.51±0.07](3–|b|)} × 10{sup –6} for the 427 events, using all sources brighter than I{sub s} ≤ 20 mag. The distribution of observed fields is centered at (l, b) = (0.°38, –3.°72). We find that the event rate is maximized at low latitudes and a longitude of l ≈ 1°. For the 111 events in 3.2 deg{sup 2} of the central GB at |b| ≤ 3.°0 and 0.°0 ≤ l ≤ 2.°0, centered at (l, b) = (0.°97, –2.°26), we find Γ=4.57{sub −0.46}{sup +0.51}×10{sup −5} star{sup –1} yr{sup –1} and τ{sub 200}=3.64{sub −0.45}{sup +0.51}×10{sup −6}. We also consider a red clump giant (RCG) star sample with I{sub s} < 17.5, and we find that the event rate for the RCG sample is slightly lower than but consistent with the all-source event rate. The main difference is the lack of long duration events in the RCG sample due to a known selection effect. Our results are consistent with previous optical depth measurements, but they are somewhat lower than previous all-source measurements, and slightly higher than previous RCG optical depth measurements. This suggests that the previously observed difference in optical depth measurements between all-source and RCG samples may largely be due to statistical fluctuations. These event rate measurements toward the central GB

  18. Singular topology of optical absorption in biaxial crystals.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; Petit, Yannick; Boulanger, Benoît; Segonds, Patricia; Félix, Corinne; Ménaert, Bertrand; Aka, Gérard

    2009-10-26

    We show for the first time that biaxial crystals exhibit continua of directions of propagation where the absorption coefficient is the same for the two associated polarization modes. This statement is supported by both calculations and experimental data obtained in Nd:YCOB.

  19. Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy: a differential absorption approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Paola; Bassi, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    A method was developed to estimate spectral changes of the absorption properties of turbid media from time-resolved reflectance/transmittance measurements. It was derived directly from the microscopic Beer-Lambert law, and tested against simulations and phantom measurements.

  20. Deriving in situ phytoplankton absorption for bio-optical productivity models in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Schofield, Oscar; Bergmann, Trisha; Glenn, Scott; Orrico, Cristina; Moline, Mark

    2004-07-01

    As part of Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiment, a high-resolution hydrographic and bio-optical data set was collected from two cabled profilers at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO). Upwelling- and downwelling-favorable winds and a buoyant plume from the Hudson River induced large changes in hydrographic and optical structure of the water column. An absorption inversion model estimated the relative abundance of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus, as well as the spectral exponential slopes of CDOM and detritus from in situ WET Labs nine-wavelength absorption/attenuation meter (ac-9) absorption data. Derived optical weights were proportional to the parameter concentrations and allowed for their absorptions to be calculated. Spectrally weighted phytoplankton absorption was estimated using modeled spectral irradiances and the phytoplankton absorption spectra inverted from an ac-9. Derived mean spectral absorption of phytoplankton was used in a bio-optical model estimating photosynthetic rates. Measured radiocarbon uptake productivity rates extrapolated with water mass analysis and the bio-optical modeled results agreed within 20%. This approach is impacted by variability in the maximum quantum yield (ϕmax) and the irradiance light-saturation parameter (Ek(PAR)). An analysis of available data shows that ϕmax variability is relatively constrained in temperate waters. The variability of Ek(PAR) is greater in temperate waters, but based on a sensitivity analysis, has an overall smaller impact on water-column-integrated productivity rates because of the exponential decay of light. This inversion approach illustrates the utility of bio-optical models in turbid coastal waters given the measurements of the bulk inherent optical properties.

  1. Herschel-Planck dust optical depth and column density maps. II. Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zari, Eleonora; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, João; Lada, Charles J.; Bouy, Hervé

    2016-03-01

    We present optical depth and temperature maps of the Perseus molecular cloud, obtained combining dust emission data from the Herschel and Planck satellites and 2MASS/NIR dust extinction maps. The maps have a resolution of 36 arcsec in the Herschel regions, and of 5 arcmin elsewhere. The dynamic range of the optical depth map ranges from 1 × 10-2 mag up to 20 mag in the equivalent K-band extinction. We also evaluate the ratio between the 2.2 μm extinction coefficient and the 850 μm opacity. The value we obtain is close to the one found in the Orion B molecular cloud. We show that the cumulative and the differential area function of the data (which is proportional to the probability distribution function of the cloud column density) follow power laws with an index of respectively ≃-2, and ≃-3. We use WISE data to improve current YSO catalogs based mostly on Spitzer data and we build an up-to-date selection of Class I/0 objects. Using this selection, we evaluate the local Schmidt law, ΣYSO ∝ Σgasβ, showing that β = 2.4 ± 0.6. Finally, we show that the area-extinction relation is important for determining the star-formation rate in the cloud, which is in agreement with other recent works. The optical depth and temperature maps (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A106

  2. The microlensing optical depth towards the Large Magellanic Cloud: is there a puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. Wyn; Belokurov, Vasily

    2007-01-01

    Using neural networks, Belokurov, Evans & Le Du showed that seven out of the 29 microlensing candidates towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) of the MACHO collaboration are consistent with blended microlensing and added Gaussian noise. We then estimated the microlensing optical depth to the LMC to be 0.3 × 10-7 <~ τ <~ 0.5 × 10-7, lower than the value τ = 1.2+0.4-0.3 × 10-7 claimed by the MACHO collaboration. There have been independent claims of a low optical depth to the LMC by the EROS collaboration, who have most recently reported τ < 0.36 × 10-7. Griest & Thomas have contested our calculations. Unfortunately, their paper contains a number of scientific misrepresentations of our work, which we clarify here. We stand by our application of the neural networks to microlensing searches, and believe it to be a technique of great promise. Rather, the main cause of the disparity between Griest & Thomas and Belokurov et al. lies in the very different data sets through which these investigators look for microlensing events. Whilst not everything is understood about the microlensing data sets towards the LMC, the latest downward revisions of the optical depth to (1.0 +/- 0.3) × 10-7 is within <~2σ of the theoretical prediction from stellar populations alone. Efficiency calculations can correct for the effects of false negatives, but they cannot correct for the effects of false positives (variable stars that are mistaken for microlensing). In our opinion, the best strategy in a microlensing experiment is to eschew a decision boundary altogether and so sidestep the vagaries of candidate selection and efficiency calculations. Rather, each lightcurve should be assigned a probability that it is a bona fide microlensing event and the microlensing rate calculated by summing over the probabilities of all such lightcurves.

  3. Effect of Binary Source Companions on the Microlensing Optical Depth Determination toward the Galactic Bulge Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cheongho

    2005-11-01

    Currently, gravitational microlensing survey experiments toward the Galactic bulge field use two different methods of minimizing the blending effect for the accurate determination of the optical depth τ. One is measuring τ based on clump giant (CG) source stars, and the other is using ``difference image analysis'' (DIA) photometry to measure the unblended source flux variation. Despite the expectation that the two estimates should be the same assuming that blending is properly considered, the estimates based on CG stars systematically fall below the DIA results based on all events with source stars down to the detection limit. Prompted by the gap, we investigate the previously unconsidered effect of companion-associated events on τ determination. Although the image of a companion is blended with that of its primary star and thus not resolved, the event associated with the companion can be detected if the companion flux is highly magnified. Therefore, companions work effectively as source stars to microlensing, and thus the neglect of them in the source star count could result in a wrong τ estimation. By carrying out simulations based on the assumption that companions follow the same luminosity function as primary stars, we estimate that the contribution of the companion-associated events to the total event rate is ~5fbi% for current surveys and can reach up to ~6fbi% for future surveys monitoring fainter stars, where fbi is the binary frequency. Therefore, we conclude that the companion-associated events comprise a nonnegligible fraction of all events. However, their contribution to the optical depth is not large enough to explain the systematic difference between the optical depth estimates based on the two different methods.

  4. UVIS ring occultations show F ring feature location and optical depth correlated with Prometheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Esposito, L. W.; Albers, N.

    2010-05-01

    We find 24 statistically significant features in the F ring occultations using the High Speed Photometer (HSP) channel of the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). These features are likely transient clumps of material embedded in the ring, each of which attenuates stellar signal during an occultation because the ring material is more densely packed at that location. In fact, two of these features are opaque, indicating they may be solid moonlets. Two trends are evident in the azimuthal location of these 24 F ring features with respect to that of Prometheus. First, the orbital locations of these features are mostly opposite Prometheus, as 11 of the 24 occupy the orbital region separated from Prometheus by 180° ± 20°. Second, average feature optical depth is maximum near the antipode of Prometheus in orbit. Our hypothesis is that these results show aggregation and disaggregation of clumps after Prometheus passes by. As Prometheus passes interior to the F ring, it encounters material once every synodic period, 68 days. Optical depth indicates density of ring material along the line of sight, so as material clumps together, we expect to see higher optical depths. Thus we infer that the encounter stimulates clumping of material that reaches a maximum 180° downstream. This may reinforce similar evidence that Ring-Moon interaction stimulates clumping in the F ring region from Cassini imaging (Beurle, et al., 2010) and at the B ring edge (Esposito, et al., 2010). Esposito, et al. (2010) suggest that the combined mass and velocity evolution of the ring system resembles a predator/prey model. This research was supported by the Cassini Project.

  5. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Kerstin E.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-06-01

    Damping of magnetic fields via ambipolar diffusion and decay of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in the post decoupling era heats the intergalactic medium (IGM). Delayed recombination of hydrogen atoms in the IGM yields an optical depth to scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The optical depth generated at z gg 10 does not affect the ``reionization bump'' of the CMB polarization power spectrum at low multipoles, but affects the temperature and polarization power spectra at high multipoles. Writing the present-day energy density of fields smoothed over the damping scale at the decoupling epoch as ρB,0=B02/2, we constrain B0 as a function of the spectral index, nB. Using the Planck 2013 likelihood code that uses the Planck temperature and lensing data together with the WMAP 9-year polarization data, we find the 95% upper bounds of B0<0.63, 0.39, and 0.18 nG for nB=-2.9, -2.5, and -1.5, respectively. For these spectral indices, the optical depth is dominated by dissipation of the decaying MHD turbulence that occurs shortly after the decoupling epoch. Our limits are stronger than the previous limits ignoring the effects of the fields on ionization history. Inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons off electrons in the heated IGM distorts the thermal spectrum of CMB. Our limits on B0 imply that the y-type distortion from dissipation of fields in the post decoupling era should be smaller than 10-9, 4×10-9, and 10-9, respectively.

  6. A One-Dimensional Solution of the Photoacoustic Wave Equation and its Relationship with Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywiak, D.; Barreiro-Argüelles, M. D.; Cywiak, M.; Landa-Curiel, A.; Garcia-Segundo, C.; Gutierrez-Juárez, G.

    2013-09-01

    A study based on the general solution of the one-dimensional photoacoustic (PA) wave equation for an acoustic plane source is presented. This study relies on obtaining the impulse response of the PA system considering a heating function proportional to the Lambert-Beer law and spatially bounded by a rectangle function. The PA pressure is obtained by convoluting the impulse response with the temporal profile of the exciting pulse of light. With the obtained solution, it is possible to comprise, on a single expression, the PA pressure profile for optically thin samples (whose dimensions are smaller than the optical absorption length) and optically opaque samples (whose dimensions are larger than the optical absorption length). In the limit of weak absorption, the solution is in good agreement with the one for a uniform distribution of energy. Also, a study of the dependence of the acoustic pressure with the duration of the laser pulse is included.

  7. Defects forming the optical absorption edge in TlGaSe2 layered crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Şale, Yasin

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the results of optical experiments designed to investigate the changes in optical absorption spectra of TlGaSe2 ferroelectric-semiconductor with incommensurate (INC) phase in experimental conditions where crystal is kept several hours within the INC-phase (the regime of so called "memory" effect). The fundamental absorption of TlGaSe2, experimentally investigated by optical transmission measurements performed in the temperature range 15-300 K. An extraordinary modification of the optical absorption edge in the range of Urbach's tail is discovered as a result of the annealing within the INC-phase. The role of native defects forming the band edge in the observed phenomena in TlGaSe2 is discussed.

  8. AERONET-based microphysical and optical properties of smoke-dominated aerosol near source regions and transported over oceans, and implications for satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-09-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad ''families'' of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA ∼0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA ∼0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savannah at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA ∼0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysical/optical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  9. Luminescence and photoinduced absorption in ytterbium-doped optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Rybaltovsky, A A; Aleshkina, S S; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Umnikov, A A; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-12-31

    Photochemical reactions induced in the glass network of an ytterbium-doped fibre core by IR laser pumping and UV irradiation have been investigated by analysing absorption and luminescence spectra. We have performed comparative studies of the photoinduced absorption and luminescence spectra of fibre preforms differing in core glass composition: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} : Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} : Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} : SiO{sub 2}. The UV absorption spectra of unirradiated preform core samples show strong bands peaking at 5.1 and 6.5 eV, whose excitation plays a key role in photoinduced colour centre generation in the glass network. 'Direct' UV excitation of the 5.1- and 6.5-eV absorption bands at 244 and 193 nm leads to the reduction of some of the Yb{sup 3+} ions to Yb{sup 2+}. The photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres by IR pumping is shown to result from oxygen hole centre generation. A phenomenological model is proposed for the IR-pumping-induced photodarkening of ytterbium-doped fibres. The model predicts that colour centre generation in the core glass network and the associated absorption in the visible range result from a cooperative effect involving simultaneous excitation of a cluster composed of several closely spaced Yb{sup 3+} ions.

  10. Determining optical depth in different parts of the Fraunhofer line contour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurtovenko, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    The method of approximate determination of the optical depth tau in the profile of the Fraunhofer line is considered. In the method the observed profile and allocation of tau to the temperature in the photosphere must be known. If the source function B prime (tau) in the line seems not to be equal to the Planck function, the dependence B prime (tau) on tau is needed. The method for the determination of B prime (tau) using the center-to-limb observations of the central intensities of the line is suggested.

  11. Visible/Infrared Optical Depths of Cirrus as Seen by Satellite and Scanning Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald; Wolf, Walt; Piironen, Paivi; Eloranta, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Volume Imaging Lidar (VIL) were combined to produce a quantitative image of the visible optical depth of cirrus clouds. The HSRL was used to calibrate the VIL signal into backscatter cross sections of particulates. The backscatter cross sections were related to extinction by a constant backscatter phase function determined from the HSRL data. This produced a three dimensional image of visual extinction in the cirrus clouds over a one hour period. Two lidar images were constructed from one hour VIL cross section records.

  12. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The poster provides an overview of techniques to improve the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) sensitivity. It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) when used for sensitivity studies for TES MapYear = 0 and large optical depth values such as tau = 3 is less than realistic. A preliminary fix has been made to Mars-GRAM by adding a density factor value that was determined for tau = 0.3, 1 and 3.

  13. Depth-resolved 3D visualization of coronary microvasculature with optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wan; Roberts, Meredith A.; Qi, Xiaoli; Murry, Charles E.; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we propose a novel implementation of optical coherence tomography-based angiography combined with ex vivo perfusion of fixed hearts to visualize coronary microvascular structure and function. The extracorporeal perfusion of Intralipid solution allows depth-resolved angiographic imaging, control of perfusion pressure, and high-resolution optical microangiography. The imaging technique offers new opportunities for microcirculation research in the heart, which has been challenging due to motion artifacts and the lack of independent control of pressure and flow. With the ability to precisely quantify structural and functional features, this imaging platform has broad potential for the study of the pathophysiology of microvasculature in the heart as well as other organs.

  14. An ultra-high optical depth cold atomic ensemble for quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparkes, B. M.; Bernu, J.; Hosseini, M.; Geng, J.; Glorieux, Q.; Altin, P. A.; Lam, P. K.; Robins, N. P.; Buchler, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum memories for light lie at the heart of long-distance provably-secure communication. Demand for a functioning quantum memory, with high efficiency and coherence times approaching a millisecond, is therefore at a premium. Here we report on work towards this goal, with the development of a 87Rb magneto-optical trap with a peak optical depth of 1000 for the D2 F = 2 → F' = 3 transition using spatial and temporal dark spots. With this purpose-built cold atomic ensemble we implemented the gradient echo memory (GEM) scheme on the D1 line. Our data shows a memory efficiency of 80 ± 2% and coherence times up to 195 μs.

  15. Multi-wavelength measurements of aerosol optical absorption coefficients using a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Yao; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The atmospheric aerosol absorption capacity is a critical parameter determining its direct and indirect effects on climate. Accurate measurement is highly desired for the study of the radiative budget of the Earth. A multi-wavelength (405 nm, 532 nm, 780 nm) aerosol absorption meter based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) invovling a single cylindrical acoustic resonator is developed for measuring the aerosol optical absorption coefficients (OACs). A sensitivity of 1.3 Mm-1 (at 532 nm) is demonstrated. The aerosol absorption meter is successfully tested through measuring the OACs of atmospheric nigrosin and ambient aerosols in the suburbs of Hefei city. The absorption cross section and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) for ambient aerosol are determined for characterizing the component of the ambient aerosol.

  16. Correction to the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law for optical absorption.

    PubMed

    Abitan, Haim; Bohr, Henrik; Buchhave, Preben

    2008-10-10

    The Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption law, known as Beer's law for absorption in an optical medium, is precise only at power densities lower than a few kW. At higher power densities this law fails because it neglects the processes of stimulated emission and spontaneous emission. In previous models that considered those processes, an analytical expression for the absorption law could not be obtained. We show here that by utilizing the Lambert W-function, the two-level energy rate equation model is solved analytically, and this leads into a general absorption law that is exact because it accounts for absorption as well as stimulated and spontaneous emission. The general absorption law reduces to Beer's law at low power densities. A criterion for its application is given along with experimental examples.

  17. Broadband optical mammography instrument for depth-resolved imaging and local dynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Anderson, Pamela G.; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    We present a continuous-wave instrument for non-invasive diffuse optical imaging of the breast in a parallel-plate transmission geometry. The instrument measures continuous spectra in the wavelength range 650-1000 nm, with an intensity noise level <1.5% and a spatial sampling rate of 5 points/cm in the x- and y-directions. We collect the optical transmission at four locations, one collinear and three offset with respect to the illumination optical fiber, to recover the depth of optical inhomogeneities in the tissue. We imaged a tissue-like, breast shaped, silicone phantom (6 cm thick) with two embedded absorbing structures: a black circle (1.7 cm in diameter) and a black stripe (3 mm wide), designed to mimic a tumor and a blood vessel, respectively. The use of a spatially multiplexed detection scheme allows for the generation of on-axis and off-axis projection images simultaneously, as opposed to requiring multiple scans, thus decreasing scan-time and motion artifacts. This technique localizes detected inhomogeneities in 3D and accurately assigns their depth to within 1 mm in the ideal conditions of otherwise homogeneous tissue-like phantoms. We also measured induced hemodynamic changes in the breast of a healthy human subject at a selected location (no scanning). We applied a cyclic, arterial blood pressure perturbation by alternating inflation (to a pressure of 200 mmHg) and deflation of a pneumatic cuff around the subject's thigh at a frequency of 0.05 Hz, and measured oscillations with amplitudes up to 1 μM and 0.2 μM in the tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, respectively. These hemodynamic oscillations provide information about the vascular structure and functional integrity in tissue, and may be used to assess healthy or abnormal perfusion in a clinical setting.

  18. Monitoring transformer oil insulation using optical absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Benjamin P.

    As the electrical power distribution system ages, new methods of determining the quality of electrical transformer units are needed. Due to the relatively high expense of loss of service and safety hazards, a relatively cheap sensor to track the age of the insulation would aide in the progress of an intelligent power grid. The degradation of solid insulating paper releases some of the age indicating organic compounds into the oil. At present, the only available method to determine the concentration of those compounds is to perform high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing in a laboratory. This is an expensive and time consuming activity that also requires transformer to be taken offline. Currently there are no sensors that can directly (on-line) measure the chemical integrity of the material. This research was focused upon one of the well known organic compounds released by paper into the transformer oil - 2-furfuraldehyde (2FAL). Previous methods of 2FAL detection were explored and expounded upon. A device was constructed to utilize light emitting diodes to optically interrogate solid discs made out of chemically active material in multiple tests. A 10 kVA distribution transformer was fitted with a special device allowing a continuous oil circulation and the optical setup. The transformer was tested while being loaded under accelerated ageing conditions. A premature failure of the distribution transformer did not allow any correlation between concentration of 2FAL and the optical signals. Previously sampled oils for a current transformer (CT) were also tested for chemical analysis in the laboratory and optical signals from the newly developed optical device were obtained. A 95% linear correlation was found between the age of the CT oil and the output of the optical device. Although the technique was validated and does seem to have merit, more tests are needed before the optical device can be recommended for use in the field.

  19. Estimating the absorption coefficient of the bottom layer in four-layered turbid mediums based on the time-domain depth sensitivity of near-infrared light reflectance.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chie; Shimada, Miho; Tanikawa, Yukari; Hoshi, Yoko

    2013-09-01

    Expanding our previously proposed "time segment analysis" for a two-layered turbid medium, this study attempted to selectively determine the absorption coefficient (μa) of the bottom layer in a four-layered human head model with time-domain near-infrared measurements. The difference curve in the temporal profiles of the light attenuation between an object and a reference medium, which are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, is divided into segments along the time axis, and a slope for each segment is calculated to obtain the depth-dependent μa(μaseg). The reduced scattering coefficient (μs') of the reference is determined by curve fitting with the temporal point spread function derived from the analytical solution of the diffusion equation to the time-resolved reflectance of the object. The deviation of μaseg from the actual μa is expressed by a function of the ratio of μaseg in an earlier time segment to that in a later segment for mediums with different optical properties and thicknesses of the upper layers. Using this function, it is possible to determine the μa of the bottom layer in a four-layered epoxy resin-based phantom. These results suggest that the method reported here has potential for determining the μa of the cerebral tissue in humans.

  20. In situ optical absorption mercury continuous emission monitor.

    PubMed

    Thiebaud, Jérôme; Thomson, Murray J; Mani, Reza; Morrow, William H; Morris, Eric A; Jia, Charles Q

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports the development of an in situ continuous emission monitor (CEM) for measuring elemental mercury (Hg(0)) concentration in the exhaust stream of coal-fired power plants. The instrument is based on the ultraviolet atomic absorption of a mercury lamp emission line by elemental mercury and a light-emitting diode (LED) background correction system. This approach allows an in situ measurement since the absorption of other species such as SO(2) can be removed to monitor the Hg(0) contribution only. Proof of concept was established through a laboratory-based investigation, and a limit of detection, [Hg(0)](min), of 2 microg/m(3) was measured for a 1-min averaged sample and an absorption path length of 49 cm. [Hg(0)](min) is anticipated to be better than 0.2 microg/m(3) across a 7 m diameter stack. Finally, the apparatus was field-tested in a 230 MW coal-fired power plant. The operability of the measurement in real conditions was demonstrated, leading to the first Hg(0) concentration values recorded by the in situ CEM. Comparison with an accepted standard method is required for validation.

  1. The Importance of Optical Pathlength Control for Plasma Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, M.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inductively coupled GEC Cell with modified viewing ports has been used to measure in-situ absorption in CF4 plasmas via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and the results compared to those obtained in a standard viewport configuration. The viewing ports were modified so that the window boundary is inside, rather than outside, of the GEC cell. Because the absorption obtained is a spatially integrated absorption, measurements made represent an averaging of absorbing species inside and outside of the plasma. This modification is made to reduce this spatial averaging and thus allow a more accurate estimation of neutral species concentrations and temperatures within the plasmas. By reducing this pathlength, we find that the apparent CF4 consumption increases from 65% to 95% and the apparent vibrational temperature of CF4 rises by 50-75 K. The apparent fraction of etch product SiF4 decreases from 4% to 2%. The data suggests that these density changes may be due to significant temperature gradients between the plasma and chamber viewports.

  2. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies with different probing depths: Effect of an electrolyte additive on electrode surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogi, Chihiro; Takamatsu, Daiko; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Kojima, Kazuo; Watanabe, Iwao; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ogumi, Zenpachi

    2014-02-01

    A solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on a model LiCoO2 electrode was analyzed by the ultra-soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The data of Li K-, B K-, C K-, O K-, and Co L-edges spectra for the SEI film on the electrode were collected using three detection methods with different probing depths. The electrode was prepared by a pulsed laser deposition method. All the spectral data consistently indicated that the SEI film containing lithium carbonate was instantly formed just after the soak of the electrode into the electrolyte solution and that it decomposed during the repeated charge-discharge reactions. The decomposition of the SEI film seems to cause the deterioration in lithium ion battery cycle performance. By adding lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) to the electrolyte the decomposition could be suppressed leading to longer cycle life. It was found that some of the Co ions at the electrode surface were reduced to Co(II) during the charge-discharge reactions and this reaction could also be suppressed by the addition of LiBOB.

  3. Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Jess

    2009-03-01

    The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features. PMID:19708105

  4. Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Jess

    2009-03-01

    The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features.

  5. THEMIS Observations of Mars Aerosol Optical Depth from 2002-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We use infrared images obtained by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on-board Mars Odyssey to retrieve the optical depth of dust and water ice aerosols over more than 3.5 martian years between February 2002 (MY 25, Ls=330 ) and December 2008 (MY 29, Ls=183). These data provide an important bridge between earlier TES observations and recent observations from Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. An improvement to our earlier retrieval to include atmospheric temperature information from THEMIS Band 10 observations leads to much improved retrievals during the largest dust storms. The new retrievals show moderate dust storm activity during Mars Years 26 and 27, although details of the strength and timing of dust storms is different from year to year. A planet-encircling dust storm event was observed during Mars Year 28 near Southern Hemisphere Summer solstice. A belt of low-latitude water ice clouds was observed during the aphelion season during each year, Mars Years 26 through 29. The optical depth of water ice clouds is somewhat higher in the THEMIS retrievals at approximately 5:00 PM local time than in the TES retrievals at approximately 2:00 PM, suggestive of possible local time variation of clouds.

  6. Spacecraft Observations of Atmospheric Temperature and Aerosol Optical Depth Near the Time of the MER Landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    Continued atmospheric monitoring by the Mars Global Surveyor TES and Mars Odyssey THEMIS instruments provided daily maps of the regional to global scale variation of atmospheric temperature and aerosol optical depth before, during, and after the time of the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landings in January 2005. After landing, the MER Mini-TES instrument provided additional complementary information about the late-summer atmospheric state at the Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum landing sites. Orbital observations taken before the MER landings documented the initiation, growth, and decay of a large regional dust storm in mid-December 2004, just weeks before the MER Spirit landing. This dust storm caused an increase in atmospheric temperature above nominal seasonal values, and left relatively dusty conditions for the rovers after landing. Atmospheric entry parameters such as the height at which to open the parachute were adjusted considering the daily TES updates in the days before both MER landings. Here we present observations of atmospheric temperatures and aerosol optical depth by TES and THEMIS in the time period near the MER landings. We compare the TES and THEMIS observations against the values predicted from climatology and the observations taken after landing by the MER Mini-TES.

  7. The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Photons in the Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of radiative feedback and star formation in galaxies at high redshift is hindered by the rarity of similar systems at low redshift. However, the recently identified Green Pea (GP) galaxies are similar to high-redshift galaxies in their morphologies and star formation rates and are vital tools for probing the generation and transmission of ionizing photons. The GPs contain massive star clusters that emit copious amounts of high-energy radiation, as indicated by intense [OIII] 5007 emission and HeII 4686 emission. We focus on six GP galaxies with high ratios of [O III] 5007,4959/[O II] 3727 ~10 or more. Such high ratios indicate gas with a high ionization parameter or a low optical depth. The GP line ratios and ages point to chemically homogeneous massive stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or shock ionization as the most likely sources of the He II emission. Models including shock ionization suggest that the GPs may have low optical depths, consistent with a scenario in which ionizing photons escape along passageways created by recent supernovae. The GPs and similar galaxies can shed new light on cosmic reionization by revealing how ionizing photons propagate from massive star clusters to the intergalactic medium.

  8. Selectivity of the optical-absorption method based on an instrumental pick out of Fourier components in the absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Kolesnikova, E. S.; Turutin, Yu. A.; Konopelko, L. A.; Shor, N. B.

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of interference-polarization filters (IPFs) in the structure of an optical-absorption analyzer makes it possible to pick out a harmonic (a Fourier component of the absorption spectrum) providing measurement with the highest sensitivity. The selectivity of such a method of analysis is determined by overlapping the oscillations of the measured and interfering components. By the example of measurement in benzene in the presence of an interfering component (toluene), the possibility is considered for the optimization of selectivity due to the variation of the path-difference dispersion for ordinary and extraordinary interfering rays. The metrological characteristics of the interference-polarization analyzer of C6H6 confirming the results of calculations are given.

  9. Ultra-high modulation depth exceeding 2,400% in optically controlled topological surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sangwan; Jang, Houk; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Moon, Jisoo; Sung, Ji Ho; Park, Jun; Cha, Soonyoung; Oh, Seongshik; Jo, Moon-Ho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Choi, Hyunyong

    2015-01-01

    Modulating light via coherent charge oscillations in solids is the subject of intense research topics in opto-plasmonics. Although a variety of methods are proposed to increase such modulation efficiency, one central challenge is to achieve a high modulation depth (defined by a ratio of extinction with/without light) under small photon-flux injection, which becomes a fundamental trade-off issue both in metals and semiconductors. Here, by fabricating simple micro-ribbon arrays of topological insulator Bi2Se3, we report an unprecedentedly large modulation depth of 2,400% at 1.5 THz with very low optical fluence of 45 μJ cm−2. This was possible, first because the extinction spectrum is nearly zero due to the Fano-like plasmon–phonon-destructive interference, thereby contributing an extremely small denominator to the extinction ratio. Second, the numerator of the extinction ratio is markedly increased due to the photoinduced formation of massive two-dimensional electron gas below the topological surface states, which is another contributor to the ultra-high modulation depth. PMID:26514372

  10. Round-robin test on optical absorption at 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev; Niederwald, Hansjoerg S.; Erdelyi, D.; Meja, Peter; Giesen, Adolf; Plass, Wilfried; Krupka, Rene; Kennedy, Michael; Oertel, E.; Lu, Zhiming; Le, T. V.; Lee, Kwang M.; Reedy, Herman E.; Scatena, D.; Ellis, Nick; Greening, David

    1996-05-01

    The approved Draft International Standard 11551 on test methods for absorptance of optical laser components recently passed the international voting procedure. The utility of this standard practice document is the subject of the present round robin test. In order to cover a broad range of CO2-laser optical components, different types of metal mirrors and transmissive ZnSe-optics were included in the master sample set. After an initial inspection, this set passed through a series of optical laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The absorption of the samples was measured by calorimetric methods according to ISO DIS 11551, and the measurement results were compiled by the coordinating institute. The evaluation of the experiment was not started until all tests were completed. The results of the round robin test are discussed, compared and evaluated with respect to ageing mechanisms in optical coatings for CO2-laser systems. Although a great variety of different test facilities was employed by the round robin partners, a good agrement of the absorption values was observed for the wavelength of 10.6 micrometers . This demonstrates the versatility of the approved Draft International Standard 11551 for the calorimetric measurement of optical absorption in CO2-laser components.

  11. On the assimilation of optical reflectances and snow depth observations into a detailed snowpack model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrois, Luc; Cosme, Emmanuel; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Morin, Samuel; Libois, Quentin; Picard, Ghislain

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the ability of optical reflectance data assimilation to improve snow depth and snow water equivalent simulations from a chain of models with the SAFRAN meteorological model driving the detailed multilayer snowpack model Crocus now including a two-stream radiative transfer model for snow, TARTES. The direct use of reflectance data, allowed by TARTES, instead of higher level snow products, mitigates uncertainties due to commonly used retrieval algorithms.Data assimilation is performed with an ensemble-based method, the Sequential Importance Resampling Particle filter, to represent simulation uncertainties. In snowpack modeling, uncertainties of simulations are primarily assigned to meteorological forcings. Here, a method of stochastic perturbation based on an autoregressive model is implemented to explicitly simulate the consequences of these uncertainties on the snowpack estimates.Through twin experiments, the assimilation of synthetic spectral reflectances matching the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spectral bands is examined over five seasons at the Col du Lautaret, located in the French Alps. Overall, the assimilation of MODIS-like data reduces by 45 % the root mean square errors (RMSE) on snow depth and snow water equivalent. At this study site, the lack of MODIS data on cloudy days does not affect the assimilation performance significantly. The combined assimilation of MODIS-like reflectances and a few snow depth measurements throughout the 2010/2011 season further reduces RMSEs by roughly 70 %. This work suggests that the assimilation of optical reflectances has the potential to become an essential component of spatialized snowpack simulation and forecast systems. The assimilation of real MODIS data will be investigated in future works.

  12. Sunlight absorption engineering for thermophotovoltaics: contributions from the optical design.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up. PMID:25677828

  13. Sunlight absorption engineering for thermophotovoltaics: contributions from the optical design.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up.

  14. Confined optical-phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance in quantum wells via two-photon absorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Huynh Vinh; Hien, Nguyen Dinh; Dinh, Le; Phong, Tran Cong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of confined phonons on the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance (PACR) via both one and two photon absorption processes in a quantum well is theoretically studied. We consider cases when electrons are scattered by confined optical phonons described by the Fuchs-Kliewer slab, Ridley's guided, and Huang-Zhu models. The analytical expression of the magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) is obtained by relating it to the transition probability for the absorption of photons. It predicts resonant peaks caused by transitions between Landau levels and electric subband accompanied by confined phonons emission in the absorption spectrum. The MOAC and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the intra- and inter-subband transitions are given as functions of the magnetic field, temperature, and quantum well width. In narrow quantum wells, the phonon confinement becomes more important and should be taken into account in studying FWHM.

  15. Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.

    2014-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.

  16. Magnetic field control of the optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductor rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olendski, Oleg; Barakat, Thabit

    2014-03-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers m as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results which allow clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency, is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening. Authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group no RGP-VPP-217.

  17. A tunable fiber-coupled optical cavity for agile enhancement of detector absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Robert M.; Tanner, Michael G.; Kirkwood, Robert A.; Miki, Shigehito; Warburton, Richard J.; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2016-09-01

    Maximizing photon absorption into thin active structures can be the limiting factor for photodetector efficiency. In this work, a fiber-coupled tunable cavity is demonstrated, designed to achieve close to unity absorption of photons into a thin film superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD). A technique for defining a stable cavity between the end of a telecommunications optical fiber and a reflective substrate is described and realized. Cavity resonances are demonstrated both through the tuning of input wavelength and cavity length. The resulting optical cavity can tune the resonant absorption in situ over a wavelength range of 100 nm. This technique is used to maximize the single photon absorption into both a back-side-coupled Au mirror SNSPD and a front-side-coupled distributed Bragg reflector cavity SNSPD. The system detection efficiency (SDE) is limited by imperfections in the thin films, but in both cases we demonstrate an improvement of the SDE by 40% over bare fiber illumination.

  18. Magnetic field control of the intraband optical absorption in two-dimensional quantum rings

    SciTech Connect

    Olendski, O.; Barakat, T.

    2014-02-28

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of the two-dimensional semiconductor ring in the perpendicular magnetic field B are calculated within independent electron approximation. Characteristic feature of the energy spectrum are crossings of the levels with adjacent nonpositive magnetic quantum numbers as the intensity B changes. It is shown that the absorption coefficient of the associated optical transition is drastically decreased at the fields corresponding to the crossing. Proposed model of the Volcano disc allows to get simple mathematical analytical results, which provide clear physical interpretation. An interplay between positive linear and intensity-dependent negative cubic absorption coefficients is discussed; in particular, critical light intensity at which additional resonances appear in the total absorption dependence on the light frequency is calculated as a function of the magnetic field and levels' broadening.

  19. Microscopic optical model calculations of 4He, 12C-nucleus absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, R. R.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of absorption cross sections using a microscopic first-order optical potential for heavy-ion scattering are compared with experiments. In-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections were used to calculate the two-body scattering amplitude. A medium-modified first-order optical potential was obtained for heavy-ion scattering using the in-medium two-body scattering amplitude. A partial wave expansion of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in momentum space was used to calculate the absorption cross sections for various systems. The results are presented for the absorption cross sections for 4He-nucleus and 12C-nucleus scattering systems and are compared with the experimental values in the energy range 18-83A MeV. The use of the in-medium NN cross sections is found to result in significant reduction of the free space absorption cross sections in agreement with experiment.

  20. Photothermal absorption measurements for improved thermal stability of high-power laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubenvoll, M.; Schäfer, B.; Mann, K.; Walter, A.; Zittel, L.

    2013-11-01

    An absorption measurement system was set up deploying a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor with extreme sensitivity to accomplish spatially resolved monitoring of thermally induced wavefront distortions. Photothermal absorption measurements in the near-infrared range were performed for both the characterization of optical materials and complete F-Theta lenses, utilizing a 500 W Yb fiber laser (λ = 1070 nm) to induce thermal load. Different combinations of bulk materials and AR coatings were examined to minimize absorption and to evaluate potential approaches for thermal compensation. Additionally, bulk and surface / coating absorption coefficients were determined by means of curve-fitting procedures. Furthermore, F-Theta lenses were tested to gain understanding of the thermal behavior of the entire optical system.

  1. Optical depth of the Martian atmosphere and surface albedo from high-resolution orbiter images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. V.; Hoekzema, N. M.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Stenzel, O. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate the so-called shadow method. This method can be used to estimate the optical depth of the Martian atmosphere from the differences in brightness between shadowed and sunlit regions observed from an orbiter. We present elaborate and simplified versions of the method and analyze the capabilities and the sources of errors. It proves essential to choose shadowed and sunlit comparison regions with similar surface properties. Accurate knowledge of the observing geometry, including the slopes of the observed region, is important as well, since the procedure should be corrected for the non-horizontal surface. Moreover, the elaborate version of the shadow method can be sensitive to (i) the optical model of aerosols and (ii) the assumed bi-directional reflectance function of the surface. To obtain reliable estimates, the analyzed images must have a high spatial resolution, which the HiRISE camera onboard the MRO provides. We tested the shadow method on two HiRISE images of Victoria crater (TRA_0873_1780 and PSP_001414_1780) that were taken while this crater was the exploration site of the Opportunity rover. While the rover measured optical depth τ approximately in the ranges from 0.43 to 0.53 and from 0.53 to 0.59 by imaging the sun, our shadow procedure yielded τ about 0.50 and 0.575, respectively (from the HiRISE's red images). Thus, the agreement is quite good. The obtained estimates of the surface albedo are about 0.20 and 0.17, respectively.

  2. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  3. Strain- and twist-engineered optical absorption of few-layer black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qian; Kong, XiangHua; Qiao, JingSi; Ji, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Density functional and many-body perturbation theories calculations were carried out to investigate fundamental and optical bandgap, exciton binding energy and optical absorption property of normal and strain- and twist-engineered few-layer black phosphorus (BP). We found that the fundamental bandgaps of few layer BP can be engineered by layer stacking and in-plane strain, with linear relationships to their associated exciton binding energies. The strain-dependent optical absorption behaviors are also anisotropic that the position of the first absorption peak monotonically blue-shifts as the strain applies to either direction for incident light polarized along the armchair direction, but this is not the case for that along the zigzag direction. Given those striking properties, we proposed two prototype devices for building potentially more balanced light absorbers and light filter passes, which promotes further applications and investigations of BP in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  4. [Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 by multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Xie, Pin-hua; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Li, Ang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Wen-qing

    2010-09-01

    A method of retrieving NO2 in troposphere based on multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) was introduced. The differential slant column density (dSCD) of NO2 was evaluated by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), removing the Fraunhofer structure and Ring effect. Combining the results of different observing directions, the tropospheric NO2 differential slant column density (deltaSCD) was evaluated, and the air mass factor (AMF) was calculated with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN and the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) was retrieved. To ensure the accuracy of the results, it was compared with the results of long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS), a good accordance was shown with the correlation coefficients of 0.94027 and 0.96924. PMID:21105419

  5. Enhanced light absorption in graphene via a liquid-crystalline optical diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazi, Aikaterini Iria; Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that light absorption in graphene can be boosted via a light-trapping mechanism based on a liquid-crystalline optical diode. The optical diode consists of twisted-nematic and nematic liquid-crystalline slabs. In particular, we show that, using a proper optical-diode setup, the absorption in a single graphene layer can be enhanced by a factor of four. By varying the pitch of the twisted-nematic liquid-crystalline slabs comprising the diode, one can tune the operating spectral region of the diode and thus enhance the absorption of graphene within a desired spectral window. Our calculations are based on Berreman's 4×4 method which treats anisotropic, isotropic and/ or inhomogeneous layered systems on equal footing.

  6. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Muralikrishna, Molli Kiran, Aditha Sai Ravikanth, B. Sowmendran, P. Muthukumar, V. Sai Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  7. Method of optical coherence tomography with parallel depth-resolved signal reception and fibre-optic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V

    2013-12-31

    The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)

  8. Strong mid-infrared optical absorption by supersaturated sulfur doping in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezu, I.; Kohno, A.; Warrender, J. M.; Takatori, Y.; Hirao, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Sugimura, A.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Williams, J. S.; Aziz, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Single crystalline silicon supersaturated with sulfur was prepared by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification. A strong and broad optical absorption band and free-carrier absorption appeared for this sample around 0.5 eV and below 0.2 eV, respectively. A possible candidate for the origin of the 0.5 eV band is the formation of an impurity band by supersaturated doping.

  9. Optical absorption of Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions in gadolinium gallium garnet epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileva, N. V.; Gerus, P. A.; Sokolov, V. O.; Plotnichenko, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Single-crystal Ni-doped gadolinium gallium garnet films were grown for the first time from supercooled Bi2O3-B2O3-based melt solutions by liquid-phase epitaxy. Optical absorption bands due to Ni2+, Ni3+ and Bi3+ ions were observed in those films. Interpretation and tabulation of all absorption bands of nickel ions occupying octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the garnet lattice are presented.

  10. Application of oxygen A-band equivalent width to disambiguate downwelling radiances for cloud optical depth measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niple, Edward R.; Scott, Herman E.; Conant, John A.; Jones, Stephen H.; Iannarilli, Frank J.; Pereira, Wellesley E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the three-waveband spectrally agile technique (TWST) for measuring cloud optical depth (COD). TWST is a portable field-proven sensor and retrieval method offering a unique combination of fast (1 Hz) cloud-resolving (0.5° field of view) real-time-reported COD measurements. It entails ground-based measurement of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) zenith spectral radiances much like the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) cloud-mode sensors. What is novel in our approach is that we employ absorption in the oxygen A-band as a means of resolving the COD ambiguity inherent in using up-looking spectral radiances. We describe the TWST sensor and algorithm, and assess their merits by comparison to AERONET cloud-mode measurements collected during the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Spectral radiance agreement was better than 1 %, while a linear fit of COD yielded a slope of 0.905 (TWST reporting higher COD) and offset of -2.1.

  11. Focusing of photomechanical waves with an optical lens for depth-targeted molecular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takuichirou; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-02-01

    We have been developing molecular delivery systems based on photomechanical waves (PMWs), which are generated by the irradiation of a laser absorbing material with nanosecond laser pulses. This method enables highly site-specific delivery in the horizontal plane of the tissue. However, targeting in the vertical direction is a remaining challenge. In this study, we developed a novel PMW focusing device for deeper tissue targeting. A commercial optical concave lens and black natural rubber sheet (laser absorber) were attached to the top and bottom end of a cylindrical spacer, respectively, which was filled with water. A laser pulse was transmitted through the lens and water and hit the rubber sheet to induce a plasma, generating a PMW. The PMW was propagated both downward and upward. The downward wave (1st wave) was diffused, while the upward (2nd wave) wave was reflected with the concave surface of the lens and focused at a depth determined by the geometrical parameters. To attenuate the 1st wave, a small-diameter silicon sponge rubber disk was adhered just under the rubber sheet concentrically with the laser axis. With the lens of f = -40 mm, the 2nd wave was focused to a diameter of 5.7 mm at a targeted depth of 20 mm, which was well agreed with the result of calculation by ray tracing. At a laser fluence of 5.1 J/cm2, peak pressure of the PMW reached ~40 MPa at the depth of 20 mm. Under this condition, we examined depth-targeted gene delivery to the rat skin.

  12. Depth discrimination in acousto-optic cerebral blood flow measurement simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsalach, A.; Schiffer, Z.; Ratner, E.; Breskin, I.; Zeitak, R.; Shechter, R.; Balberg, M.

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial, as inadequate perfusion, even for relatively short periods of time, may lead to brain damage or even death. Thus, significant research efforts are directed at developing reliable monitoring tools that will enable continuous, bed side, simple and cost-effective monitoring of CBF. All existing non invasive bed side monitoring methods, which are mostly NIRS based, such as Laser Doppler or DCS, tend to underestimate CBF in adults, due to the indefinite effect of extra-cerebral tissues on the obtained signal. If those are to find place in day to day clinical practice, the contribution of extra-cerebral tissues must be eliminated and data from the depth (brain) should be extracted and discriminated. Recently, a novel technique, based on ultrasound modulation of light was developed for non-invasive, continuous CBF monitoring (termed ultrasound-tagged light (UTL or UT-NIRS)), and shown to correlate with readings of 133Xe SPECT and laser Doppler. We have assembled a comprehensive computerized simulation, modeling this acousto-optic technique in a highly scattering media. Using the combination of light and ultrasound, we show how depth information may be extracted, thus distinguishing between flow patterns taking place at different depths. Our algorithm, based on the analysis of light modulated by ultrasound, is presented and examined in a computerized simulation. Distinct depth discrimination ability is presented, suggesting that using such method one can effectively nullify the extra-cerebral tissues influence on the obtained signals, and specifically extract cerebral flow data.

  13. Software-Assisted Depth Analysis of Optic Nerve Stereoscopic Images in Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Patel, Shriji N; Szirth, Ben C; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Khouri, Albert S

    2016-01-01

    Background. Software guided optic nerve assessment can assist in process automation and reduce interobserver disagreement. We tested depth analysis software (DAS) in assessing optic nerve cup-to-disc ratio (VCD) from stereoscopic optic nerve images (SONI) of normal eyes. Methods. In a prospective study, simultaneous SONI from normal subjects were collected during telemedicine screenings using a Kowa 3Wx nonmydriatic simultaneous stereoscopic retinal camera (Tokyo, Japan). VCD was determined from SONI pairs and proprietary pixel DAS (Kowa Inc., Tokyo, Japan) after disc and cup contour line placement. A nonstereoscopic VCD was determined using the right channel of a stereo pair. Mean, standard deviation, t-test, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCC) were calculated. Results. 32 patients had mean age of 40 ± 14 years. Mean VCD on SONI was 0.36 ± 0.09, with DAS 0.38 ± 0.08, and with nonstereoscopic 0.29 ± 0.12. The difference between stereoscopic and DAS assisted was not significant (p = 0.45). ICCC showed agreement between stereoscopic and software VCD assessment. Mean VCD difference was significant between nonstereoscopic and stereoscopic (p < 0.05) and nonstereoscopic and DAS (p < 0.005) recordings. Conclusions. DAS successfully assessed SONI and showed a high degree of correlation to physician-determined stereoscopic VCD. PMID:27190507

  14. Software-Assisted Depth Analysis of Optic Nerve Stereoscopic Images in Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Patel, Shriji N.; Szirth, Ben C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Software guided optic nerve assessment can assist in process automation and reduce interobserver disagreement. We tested depth analysis software (DAS) in assessing optic nerve cup-to-disc ratio (VCD) from stereoscopic optic nerve images (SONI) of normal eyes. Methods. In a prospective study, simultaneous SONI from normal subjects were collected during telemedicine screenings using a Kowa 3Wx nonmydriatic simultaneous stereoscopic retinal camera (Tokyo, Japan). VCD was determined from SONI pairs and proprietary pixel DAS (Kowa Inc., Tokyo, Japan) after disc and cup contour line placement. A nonstereoscopic VCD was determined using the right channel of a stereo pair. Mean, standard deviation, t-test, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCC) were calculated. Results. 32 patients had mean age of 40 ± 14 years. Mean VCD on SONI was 0.36 ± 0.09, with DAS 0.38 ± 0.08, and with nonstereoscopic 0.29 ± 0.12. The difference between stereoscopic and DAS assisted was not significant (p = 0.45). ICCC showed agreement between stereoscopic and software VCD assessment. Mean VCD difference was significant between nonstereoscopic and stereoscopic (p < 0.05) and nonstereoscopic and DAS (p < 0.005) recordings. Conclusions. DAS successfully assessed SONI and showed a high degree of correlation to physician-determined stereoscopic VCD. PMID:27190507

  15. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence elastography using a Bessel beam for extended depth of field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curatolo, Andrea; Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; Wijesinghe, Philip; Fritz, Alexander; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-03-01

    Visualizing stiffness within the local tissue environment at the cellular and sub-cellular level promises to provide insight into the genesis and progression of disease. In this paper, we propose ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography, and demonstrate three-dimensional imaging of local axial strain of tissues undergoing compressive loading. The technique employs a dual-arm extended focus optical coherence microscope to measure tissue displacement under compression. The system uses a broad bandwidth supercontinuum source for ultrahigh axial resolution, Bessel beam illumination and Gaussian beam detection, maintaining sub-2 μm transverse resolution over nearly 100 μm depth of field, and spectral-domain detection allowing high displacement sensitivity. The system produces strain elastograms with a record resolution (x,y,z) of 2×2×15 μm. We benchmark the advances in terms of resolution and strain sensitivity by imaging a suitable inclusion phantom. We also demonstrate this performance on freshly excised mouse aorta and reveal the mechanical heterogeneity of vascular smooth muscle cells and elastin sheets, otherwise unresolved in a typical, lower resolution optical coherence elastography system.

  16. Neutral Hydrogen Optical Depth near Star-forming Galaxies at z ≈ 2.4 in the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2012-06-01

    We study the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium by measuring the absorption by neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.4. Our sample consists of 679 rest-frame UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts that have impact parameters <2 (proper) Mpc to the line of sight of one of the 15 bright, background QSOs and that fall within the redshift range of its Lyα forest. We present the first two-dimensional maps of the absorption around galaxies, plotting the median Lyα pixel optical depth as a function of transverse and line-of-sight separation from galaxies. The Lyα optical depths are measured using an automatic algorithm that takes advantage of all available Lyman series lines. The median optical depth, and hence the median density of atomic hydrogen, drops by more than an order of magnitude around 100 kpc, which is similar to the virial radius of the halos thought to host the galaxies. The median remains enhanced, at the >3σ level, out to at least 2.8 Mpc (i.e., >9 comoving Mpc), but the scatter at a given distance is large compared with the median excess optical depth, suggesting that the gas is clumpy. Within 100 (200) kpc, and over ±165 km s-1, the covering fraction of gas with Lyα optical depth greater than unity is 100+0 - 32% (66% ± 16%). Absorbers with τLyα > 0.1 are typically closer to galaxies than random. The mean galaxy overdensity around absorbers increases with the optical depth and also as the length scale over which the galaxy overdensity is evaluated is decreased. Absorbers with τLyα ~ 1 reside in regions where the galaxy number density is close to the cosmic mean on scales >=0.25 Mpc. We clearly detect two types of redshift space anisotropies. On scales <200 km s-1, or <1 Mpc, the absorption is stronger along the line of sight than in the transverse direction. This "finger of God" effect may be due to redshift errors, but is probably dominated by gas motions within or very close to

  17. Time-domain reflectance diffuse optical tomography with Mellin-Laplace transform for experimental detection and depth localization of a single absorbing inclusion.

    PubMed

    Puszka, Agathe; Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Derouard, Jacques; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2013-04-01

    We show how to apply the Mellin-Laplace transform to process time-resolved reflectance measurements for diffuse optical tomography. We illustrate this method on simulated signals incorporating the main sources of experimental noise and suggest how to fine-tune the method in order to detect the deepest absorbing inclusions and optimize their localization in depth, depending on the dynamic range of the measurement. To finish, we apply this method to measurements acquired with a setup including a femtosecond laser, photomultipliers and a time-correlated single photon counting board. Simulations and experiments are illustrated for a probe featuring the interfiber distance of 1.5 cm and show the potential of time-resolved techniques for imaging absorption contrast in depth with this geometry.

  18. Charge-transfer optical absorption mechanism of DNA:Ag-nanocluster complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuinhos, R.; Lúcio, A. D.; Chacham, H.; Alexandre, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of DNA:Ag-nanoclusters complexes have been successfully applied experimentally in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind their optical activity remain unresolved. In this work, we present a time-dependent density functional study of optical absorption in DNA:Ag4. In all 23 different complexes investigated, we obtain new absorption peaks in the visible region that are not found in either the isolated Ag4 or isolated DNA base pairs. Absorption from red to green are predominantly of charge-transfer character, from the Ag4 to the DNA fragment, while absorption in the blue-violet range are mostly associated to electronic transitions of a mixed character, involving either DNA-Ag4 hybrid orbitals or intracluster orbitals. We also investigate the role of exchange-correlation functionals in the calculated optical spectra. Significant differences are observed between the calculations using the PBE functional (without exact exchange) and the CAM-B3LYP functional (which partly includes exact exchange). Specifically, we observe a tendency of charge-transfer excitations to involve purines bases, and the PBE spectra error is more pronounced in the complexes where the Ag cluster is bound to the purines. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of adding both the complementary base pair and the sugar-phosphate backbone in order to properly characterize the absorption spectrum of DNA:Ag complexes.

  19. Polyethylene laser welding based on optical absorption variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtieri, G.; Visco, A.; Nocita, D.; Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Scolaro, C.

    2016-04-01

    Polymeric materials, both pure and containing nanostructures, can be prepared as thin sheets in order to produce joints with an interface between an optically transparent sheet and an optically absorbent substrate to be welded by infrared pulsed laser irradiation. The Laser Transmission Welding (LTW) technique has been successfully applied in order to join two or more thermoplastic polymeric sheets that must have a similar chemical composition. In this research work, polymeric joints of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene sheets were realized, characterized and welded. Some polymer sheets were doped, at different concentrations, with carbon nano-particles absorbent the laser radiation. A pulsed laser operating in the wavelength region 532 nm with intensity of the order of 109 Watt/cm2 was employed to be transmitted by the transparent polymer and to be absorbed by the carbon enriched surface. At the interface of the two polymers the released energy induces melting, that is assisted by pressure, producing a fast and resistant welding zone. Mechanical and optical characterizations and surface analyses are presented and discussed.

  20. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Bean Seeds Investigated Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, G.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Perez-Reyes, M. C. J.; Martinez, E. Moreno

    2015-06-01

    A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in seed technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which could be useful for biostimulation processes, by light sources, in early stages of seed germination. In the present research photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient () of five varieties of bean seeds ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of different productive cycles; the seeds were biostimulated by laser treatment to evaluate the effects of biostimulation pre-sowing. It was found that the bean varieties V1, V2, V4, and V5 were optically opaque in the visible spectrum; in the case of the V3 variety, this sample was optically transparent from 680 nm. The varieties of the studied bean seeds showed significant statistical differences in sizes and also in their optical absorption spectra. The biostimulation effects showed that the seed samples with a higher optical penetration length had a positive biostimulation, in the percentage of germination, obtaining an enhancement of 47 % compared to the control sample. The utility of PAS for the optical characterization of seeds has been demonstrated in this study of the laser biostimulation process of this kind of samples.

  1. Recombination line intensities for hydrogenic ions. III - Effects of finite optical depth and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Storey, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on the recombination spectrum of hydrogen arising from: (1) finite optical thickness in the Lyman lines; (2) the overlapping of Lyman lines near the series limit; (3) the absorption of Lyman lines by dust or photoionization, and (4) the long-wave radiation emitted by dust is examined. Full account is taken of electron and heavy particle collisions in redistributing energy and angular momentum. It is seen that each of these deviations from the classical Case B leads to observable effects, and that dust influences the recombination spectrum in characteristic ways that may make possible new observational constraints on dust properties in nebulosities. On the basis of these calculations it is believed that the uncertainty in the determination of the helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio in the universe may be larger than currently claimed.

  2. [Novel analysis algorithms for differential optical absorption spectroscopy for pollution monitoring].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Dian; Huang, Xian; Xu, Ke-Xin

    2007-11-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy, or DOAS, is a widely used method to determine concentrations of atmospheric species. The principle of DOAS for measuring the concentration of air pollutants is presented in briefly. Using the linear relationship between the area of the measured differential absorbance curve and that of the differential absorption cross-section curve as taken from the literature, an alternative method for calculating the gas concentration on the basis of the proportionality between differential absorbance and differential absorption cross section of the gas under study was developed. The method can be used on its own for single-component analysis or as a complement to the standard technique in multi-component cases. The procedure can be used with differential absorption cross sections measured in the laboratory or taken from the literature. In addition, the method provides a criterion to discriminate between different species having absorption features in the same wavelength range.

  3. Tunable many-body interactions in semiconducting graphene: Giant excitonic effect and strong optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Marc; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    Electronic and optical properties of graphene depend strongly on many-body interactions. Employing the highly accurate many-body perturbation approach based on Green's functions, we find a large renormalization over independent particle methods of the fundamental band gaps of semiconducting graphene structures with periodic defects. Additionally, their exciton binding energies are larger than 0.4 eV, suggesting significantly strengthened electron-electron and electron-hole interactions. Their absorption spectra show two strong peaks whose positions are sensitive to the defect fraction and distribution. The strong near-edge optical absorption and excellent tunability make these two-dimensional materials promising for optoelectronic applications.

  4. Optical absorption issues in CdGeAs2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashio, K.; Bai, Lihua; DeMattei, R.; Giles, N. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    2005-08-01

    Cadmium germanium diarsenide (CdGeAs2,) crystals are very promising for infrared second harmonic generation. However, their use has been limited by optical absorption in the 5 pm region. The role of composition and dopants has been extensively studied, and some point defects have been identified which do affect transparency. While some low absorption material has been produced, it has not been reproducible and variations within boules have been a serious problem. In this paper, which reviews some recent work on this problem, we describe a surprising and complex correlation between optical transparency, dislocations and point defects.

  5. Absorption spectra and optical parameters of lithium-potassium sulphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fadl, A. Abu; Gaffar, M. A.; Omar, M. H.

    1999-09-01

    The optical transmittance and reflectance near the fundamental absorption region along the c- and a-axes of lithium potassium sulphate single crystal (LKS) are measured at room temperature. From the data the absorption coefficient ( α) and the optical band gap ( Eopt.g) were deduced. The type of transition was determined. The steepness parameter ( σ), the temperature dependence of the energy gap and the exciton energy ( E0) were also calculated. The extinction coefficient, the refractive index and both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity were calculated as functions of the photon energy.

  6. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  8. Laser modulation of optical absorption in ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The possibility of producing and detecting laser induced modulation of absorption (LIMA) in ZnSe crystals using a moderate laser intensity of about 6 mw output was investigated. The modulation is smaller than that previously obtained with higher laser photon flux, but is not too difficult to detect. Modulation of the order of a few parts in 10 to the 5th power, up to one part in 10 to the 4th power appears typical at the present. LIMA pulse shapes were recorded with varying system resolutions at a half dozen wavelengths in the visible, from 4800 A to 6000 A. Detailed data were taken, particularly at 5000 A, for a range of time intervals following laser pulse turn-on. Quantitative study of the excitation and decay kinetics of these is underway, though analysis is not complete. Major features are discussed with attention centered upon the detailed measurements made most recently at 5000 A.

  9. Effect of Sn on the optical band gap determined using absorption spectrum fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Heera, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    We report the preparation and the optical studies on tellurium rich glasses thin films. The thin films of Se{sub 30}Te{sub 70-x} Sn{sub x} system for x= 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 glassy alloys prepared by melt quenching technique are deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The analysis of absorption spectra in the spectral range 400nm–4000 nm at room temperature obtained from UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer [Perkin Elmer Lamda-750] helps us in the optical characterization of the thin films under study. The absorption spectrum fitting method is applied by using the Tauc’s model for estimating the optical band gap and the width of the band tail of the thin films. The optical band gap is calculated and is found to decrease with the Sn content.

  10. Intraband optical absorption in a single quantum ring: Hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The intraband optical absorption in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As two-dimensional single quantum ring is investigated. Considering the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field the energy of the ground and few excited states has been found using the effective mass approximation and exact diagonalization technique. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intraband optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure for the different values of the laser field parameter. We also investigated the dependencies of the intraband optical absorption coefficient as a function of incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure and laser field parameter. It is found that the effects of hydrostatic pressure and intense laser field lead to redshift and blueshift of the intraband optical spectrum respectively.

  11. Self-aggregation and optical absorption of stilbazolium merocyanine in chloroform.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel L; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Ågren, Hans; Canuto, Sylvio

    2014-02-20

    Dipolar aggregation is in many cases detrimental for the functioning of optical materials. In this study we investigate self-aggregation and optical absorption of stilbazolium merocyanine (SM) in chloroform solution by performing classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations under ambient conditions. The reversal solvatochromic shift, the large bathochromic shift, and the structured absorption band presented by SM in chloroform solution are all aspects of its optical absorption behavior for which the existence of self-aggregation is yet not completely understood. Moreover, the spectroscopic properties of SM oligomers and their occurrence in solvent of low polarity remain a relevant topic that deserves to be investigated. Our analysis of the aggregation behavior of SM in chloroform verified that the majority of the chromophores are involved in the formation of oligomers in solution, where the whole dimer and part of the trimer populations present a stable π-stacking structure. The optical properties of the monomers and oligomers in solution were evaluated by means of a discrete polarizable embedding quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (PE-QM/MM) response scheme where the quantum part is described at the level of density functional theory. The visible absorption spectrum of SM in chloroform is simulated using time average values obtained for the monomeric and oligomeric forms of SM from the PE-QM/MM calculations performed on uncorrelated configurations extracted from the classical MD simulations. This study shows that the self-aggregation of SM in chloroform may exist, but it is not essential for reproducing the reversal solvatochromic shift in chloroform and that the process does not contribute to enhance the bathochromic shift nor explain the structure observed in its absorption band. Moreover, it is verified that since the electronic transitions of the monomer and oligomers are close together, changes in the interplane separation between the monomeric units

  12. Atmospheric optical depth effects on angular anisotropy of plant canopy reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, Donald W.; Eck, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of varying atmospheric aerosol optical depth on the bidirectional reflectance distribution of vegetation canopies is investigated. The reflectance distributions of two pasture grass canopies and one soya bean canopy under different sky irradiance distributions were measured, and the data were analyzed in the visible and IR spectral bands. It is observed that, for the pasture grass canopies, the change in reflectance is due to the percentage of shadowed area viewed by the sensor, and for the soya bean, the specular reflection effect and increased diffuse irradiance penetration into the canopy cause reflectance changes. It is detected that the reflectivity for the soya bean canopy on a hazy day is lower than on a clear day; however, the opposite change is observed for the pasture grass. It is also detected that the normalized difference vegetation index values differ under clear and hazy conditions for the same vegetation canopy conditions.

  13. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  14. Erratum: The MACHO Project: Microlensing Optical Depth toward the Galactic Bulge from Difference Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M. R.; Quinn, P. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sutherland, W.; Tomaney, A. B.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D. L.

    2001-08-01

    In the paper ``The MACHO Project: Microlensing Optical Depth toward the Galactic Bulge from Difference Image Analysis'' by C. Alcock, R. A. Allsman, D. R. Alves, T. S. Axelrod, A. C. Becker, D. P. Bennett, K. H. Cook, A. J. Drake, K. C. Freeman, M. Geha, K. Griest, M. J. Lehner, S. L. Marshall, D. Minniti, C. A. Nelson, B. A. Peterson, P. Popowski, M. R. Pratt, P. J. Quinn, C. W. Stubbs, W. Sutherland, A. B. Tomaney, T. Vandehei, and D. L. Welch (ApJ, 541, 734 [2000]) an incorrect version of Table 3 was published. A second copy of Table 2 was given as Table 3. The correct version of Table 3 is available in the preprint version of the paper (astro-ph/0002510) and is printed below. This correction does not affect any of the results in the paper.

  15. Hemispheric aerosol vertical profiles: anthropogenic impacts on optical depth and cloud nuclei.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Antony; Kapustin, Vladimir

    2010-09-17

    Understanding the effect of anthropogenic combustion upon aerosol optical depth (AOD), clouds, and their radiative forcing requires regionally representative aerosol profiles. In this work, we examine more than 1000 vertical profiles from 11 major airborne campaigns in the Pacific hemisphere and confirm that regional enhancements in aerosol light scattering, mass, and number are associated with carbon monoxide from combustion and can exceed values in unperturbed regions by more than one order of magnitude. Related regional increases in a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and AOD imply that direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects are coupled issues linked globally to aged combustion. These profiles constrain the influence of combustion on regional AOD and CCN suitable for challenging climate model performance and informing satellite retrievals.

  16. In-vivo full depth of eye imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Cuixia; Zhou, Chuanqing; Jiao, Shuliang; Xi, Peng; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-09-01

    It is necessary to apply the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to image the whole eye segment for practically iatrical application, but the imaging depth of SD-OCT is limited by the spectral resolution of the spectrometer. By now, no result about this research has been reported. In our study, a new dual channel dual focus OCT system is adopted to image the whole eye segment. The cornea and the crystalline lens are simultaneously imaged by using full range complex spectral-domain OCT in one channel, the retina is detected by the other. The new system was successfully tested in imaging of the volunteer' eye in vivo. The preliminary results presented in this paper demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  17. Automated Solar Tracking Spectrophotometer for Remote Sensing of Column Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Karr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere are poorly understood in terms of how they affect weather and climate. In an effort to advance this knowledge, an automated solar tracking spectrophotometer has been constructed to measure direct solar radiation from the ultraviolet to infrared. This instrument facilitates determination of solar irradiance, precipitable water, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and the Ångström turbidity exponent related to aerosol size distribution. Measurements with a CIMEL CE-318 sun photometer (part of the global NASA AERONET network) and a manual solar spectrophotometer are being used to evaluate the accuracy of our instrument. Upon successful evaluation, this instrument will provide a basis for research into spectral information that will supplement CIMEL measurements. Presented is the design of this instrument and measurement comparisons with the aforementioned instruments for the air above Reno, Nevada, USA.

  18. The optical depth of the Universe seen through ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, K.; Lemoine, M.

    2008-11-01

    We provide an analytical description of the transport of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in a universe made up of magnetized scattering centers, with negligible magnetic fields between them. Magnetic deflection is no longer a continuous process: it is rather dominated by scattering events. We calculate the optical depth of the Universe to cosmic ray scattering and discuss its phenomenological consequences for various source scenarios. It is found that part of the correlation reported recently by the Pierre Auger Observatory between active galactic nuclei and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays may be affected by a scattering delusion. This experiment may be observing in part the last scattering surface of particles, rather than their source population.

  19. SAGE and SAM II measurements of global stratospheric aerosol optical depth and mass loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Several volcanic eruptions between November 1979 and April 1981 have injected material into the stratosphere. The SAGE and SAM II satellite systems have measured, with global coverage, the 1-micron extinction produced by this material, and examples of the data product are shown in the form of global maps of stratospheric optical depth and altitude-latitude plots of zonal mean extinction. These data, and that for the volcanically quiet period in early 1979, have been used to determine the changes in the total stratospheric mass loading. Estimates have also been made of the contribution to the total aerosol mass from each eruption. It has been found that between 1979 and mid-1981, the total stratospheric aerosol mass increased from a background level of approximately 570,000 metric tons to a peak of approximately 1,300,000 metric tons.

  20. A Simulation of the Aerosol Optical Depth over China in 2006 and Its Validation with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua

    By taking the updated emission source of Streets2006 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis meteorolog-ical field as the input data, MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) is used in this paper to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over China in 2006 for the major types of aerosol, including sulfate, dust, organic carbon, black carbon and sea salt. The simulation shows that the areas with higher AOD values are mainly located in Sichuan Basin, East and South China, while areas with lower AOD values are mainly located in Tibetan Plateau, Northwest and Northeast China. The simulation results are then validated with CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network), MOD08M 3, andAERON ET (observationaldataandsunphotometernetwork), respect 0.0001).ItdemonstratesthatM AT CHhastheabilitytosimulateAODinChinawell.KeywordsM AT CH, aer

  1. Mars-GRAM: Increasing the Precision of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM, when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3, is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This has resulted in an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, density factor values were determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with TES observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. The addition of these density factors to Mars-GRAM will improve the results of the sensitivity studies done for large optical depths.

  2. Updating Mars-GRAM to Increase the Accuracy of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hiliary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). During the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process, it was discovered that Mars-GRAM, when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3, is less than realistic. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear set to 0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. This has resulted in an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. As a preliminary fix to this pressure-density problem, density factor values were determined for tau=0.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. Currently, these density factors are fixed values for all latitudes and Ls. Results will be presented from work being done to derive better multipliers by including variation with latitude and/or Ls by comparison of MapYear 0 output directly against TES limb data. The addition of these more precise density factors to Mars-GRAM 2005 Release 1.4 will improve the results of the sensitivity studies done for large optical depths.

  3. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical depth variation in China during 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Qiu, J.; Xia, X.; Sun, L.; Min, M.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a critical physical parameter for indicating atmospheric turbidity and aerosol content, and is also a key factor in determining the aerosol radiative forcing effects. This study gives the long-term variation characteristics of atmospheric aerosol optical depth at 14 first-class solar radiation stations in China during 1993-2012. Based on the broadband extinction method (BEM), we retrieve the AOD from the hourly accumulated direct solar radiation. Using a AOD selection method, we derive and analyze the monthly, seasonal and annual averaged AOD. The results show that (1) the mean AOD ranges from 0.135 (Lhasa) to 0.678 (Zhengzhou). Shenyang has the maximum standard deviation of 0.109, while Ejin Banner has the minimum value of 0.021. The mean value for all years and stations is 0.423. (2) At most stations, the largest AOD appears in spring and the smallest in autumn. The seasonal averaged AOD of all years and stations is 0.487 (spring), 0.456 (summer), 0.364 (autumn) and 0.381 (winter). (3) As to the variation trend, an increasing trend appeared at five stations (Kashi, Kunming, Zhengzhou, Wuhan and Shanghai), while a decreasing trend is found at two stations (Guangzhou and Beijing). After analyzing the correlations between AOD and the meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, humidity and visibility), we find that AOD has a positive correlation with temperature, and a negative correlation with pressure and visibility at most of the stations.

  4. Aeronet-based Microphysical and Optical Properties of Smoke-dominated Aerosol near Source Regions and Transported over Oceans, and Implications for Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AERONET sites also mostly lie within the range of variability at near-source sites. Two broad families of aerosol properties are found, corresponding to sites dominated by boreal forest burning (larger, broader fine mode, with midvisible SSA 0.95), and those influenced by grass, shrub, or crop burning with additional forest contributions (smaller, narrower particles with SSA 0.88-0.9 in the midvisible). The strongest absorption is seen in southern African savanna at Mongu (Zambia), with average SSA 0.85 in the midvisible. These can serve as candidate sets of aerosol microphysicaloptical properties for use in satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms. The models presently adopted by these algorithms over ocean are often insufficiently absorbing to represent these biomass burning aerosols. A corollary of this is an underestimate of AOD in smoke outflow regions, which has important consequences for applications of these satellite datasets.

  5. Optical Estimation of Depth and Current in a Ebb Tidal Delta Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.

    2012-12-01

    A key limitation to our ability to make nearshore environmental predictions is the difficulty of obtaining up-to-date bathymetry measurements at a reasonable cost and frequency. Due to the high cost and complex logistics of in-situ methods, research into remote sensing approaches has been steady and has finally yielded fairly robust methods like the cBathy algorithm for optical Argus data that show good performance on simple barred beach profiles and near immunity to noise and signal problems. In May, 2012, data were collected in a more complex ebb tidal delta environment during the RIVET field experiment at New River Inlet, NC. The presence of strong reversing tidal currents led to significant errors in cBathy depths that were phase-locked to the tide. In this paper we will test methods for the robust estimation of both depths and vector currents in a tidal delta domain. In contrast to previous Fourier methods, wavenumber estimation in cBathy can be done on small enough scales to resolve interesting nearshore features.

  6. Extended scan depth optical coherence tomography for evaluating ocular surface shape

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meixiao; Cui, Lele; Li, Ming; Zhu, Dexi; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with extended scan depth makes it possible for quantitative measurement of the entire ocular surface shape. We proposed a novel method for ocular surface shape measurement using a custom-built anterior segment SD-OCT, which will serve on the contact lens fitting. A crosshair alignment system was applied to reduce the misalignment and tilting of the eye. An algorithm was developed to automatically segment the ocular surface. We also described the correction of the image distortion from the segmented dataset induced by the nontelecentric scanning system and tested the accuracy and repeatability. The results showed high accuracy of SD-OCT in measuring a bicurved test surface with a maximum height error of 17.4 μm. The repeatability of in vivo measurement was also good. The standard deviations of the height measurement within a 14-mm wide range were all less than 35 μm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using extended depth SD-OCT to perform noninvasive evaluation of the ocular surface shape. PMID:21639575

  7. Extended scan depth optical coherence tomography for evaluating ocular surface shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meixiao; Cui, Lele; Li, Ming; Zhu, Dexi; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-05-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with extended scan depth makes it possible for quantitative measurement of the entire ocular surface shape. We proposed a novel method for ocular surface shape measurement using a custom-built anterior segment SD-OCT, which will serve on the contact lens fitting. A crosshair alignment system was applied to reduce the misalignment and tilting of the eye. An algorithm was developed to automatically segment the ocular surface. We also described the correction of the image distortion from the segmented dataset induced by the nontelecentric scanning system and tested the accuracy and repeatability. The results showed high accuracy of SD-OCT in measuring a bicurved test surface with a maximum height error of 17.4 μm. The repeatability of in vivo measurement was also good. The standard deviations of the height measurement within a 14-mm wide range were all less than 35 μm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using extended depth SD-OCT to perform noninvasive evaluation of the ocular surface shape.

  8. Gas concentration measurement by optical similitude absorption spectroscopy: methodology and experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2016-06-13

    We propose a new methodology to measure gas concentration by light-absorption spectroscopy when the light source spectrum is larger than the spectral width of one or several molecular gas absorption lines. We named it optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS), as the gas concentration is derived from a similitude between the light source and the target gas spectra. The main OSAS-novelty lies in the development of a robust inversion methodology, based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm, which allows retrieving the target gas concentration from spectrally-integrated differential light-absorption measurements. As a proof, OSAS is applied in laboratory to the 2ν3 methane absorption band at 1.66 µm with uncertainties revealed by the Allan variance. OSAS has also been applied to non-dispersive infra-red and the optical correlation spectroscopy arrangements. This all-optics gas concentration retrieval does not require the use of a gas calibration cell and opens new tracks to atmospheric gas pollution and greenhouse gases sources monitoring.

  9. Gas concentration measurement by optical similitude absorption spectroscopy: methodology and experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2016-06-13

    We propose a new methodology to measure gas concentration by light-absorption spectroscopy when the light source spectrum is larger than the spectral width of one or several molecular gas absorption lines. We named it optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS), as the gas concentration is derived from a similitude between the light source and the target gas spectra. The main OSAS-novelty lies in the development of a robust inversion methodology, based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm, which allows retrieving the target gas concentration from spectrally-integrated differential light-absorption measurements. As a proof, OSAS is applied in laboratory to the 2ν3 methane absorption band at 1.66 µm with uncertainties revealed by the Allan variance. OSAS has also been applied to non-dispersive infra-red and the optical correlation spectroscopy arrangements. This all-optics gas concentration retrieval does not require the use of a gas calibration cell and opens new tracks to atmospheric gas pollution and greenhouse gases sources monitoring. PMID:27410280

  10. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in Chinese children using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xi-Shi; Shen, Li-Jun; Chen, Ru-Ru; Lyu, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT) in Chinese children, and to analyze the influencing factors. METHODS PPCT was measured with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) in 70 children (53 myopes and 17 non-myopes) aged 7 to 18y, with spherical equivalent refractive errors between 0.50 and −5.87 diopters (D). Peripapillary choroidal imaging was performed using circular scans of a diameter of 3.4 mm around the optic disc. PPCT was measured by EDI-OCT in six sectors: nasal (N), superonasal (SN), superotemporal (ST), temporal (T), inferotemporal (IT) and inferonasal (IN), as well as global RNFL thickness (G). RESULTS The mean global PPCT was 165.49±33.76 µm. The temporal, inferonasal, inferotemporal PPCT were significantly thinner than the nasal, superonasal, superotemporal segments PPCT were significantly thinner in the myopic group at temporal, superotemporal and inferotemporal segments. The axial length was significantly associated with the average global (β=−0.419, P=0.014), superonasal (β=−2.009, P=0.049) and inferonasal (β= −2.000, P=0.049) PPCT. The other factors (gender, age, SE) were not significantly associated with PPCT. CONCLUSION PPCT was thinner in the myopic group at temporal, superotemporal and inferotemporal segments. The axial length was found to be negatively correlated to PPCT. We need more further studies about the relationship between PPCT and myopia. PMID:27803863

  11. a Novel Index for Atmospheric Aerosol Types Categorization with Spectral Optical Depths from Satellite Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong; Liu, Chian-Yi

    2016-06-01

    In general, the type of atmospheric aerosols can be efficiently identified with the characteristics of optical properties, such as Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA). However, the retrieval of SSA is not frequently available to global area which may cause the difficulty in the identification of aerosol type. Since aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be easily requested, a novel index in terms of AOD, Normalized Gradient Aerosol Index (NGAI), is proposed to get over the constraint on SSA providing. With the NGAI derived from MODIS AOD products, the type of atmospheric aerosols can be clearly categorized between mineral dusts, biomass burning and anthropogenic pollutants. The results of aerosol type categorization show the well agreement with the ground-based observations (AERONET) in AE and SSA properties, implying that the proposed index equips highly practical for the application of aerosols type categorization by means of remote sensing. In addition, the fraction of AOD compositions can be potentially determined according to the value of index after compared with the products of CALIPSO Aerosol Subtype.

  12. Motionless active depth from defocus system using smart optics for camera autofocus applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a motionless active Depth from Defocus (DFD) system design suited for long working range camera autofocus applications. The design consists of an active illumination module that projects a scene illuminating coherent conditioned optical radiation pattern which maintains its sharpness over multiple axial distances allowing an increased DFD working distance range. The imager module of the system responsible for the actual DFD operation deploys an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) as a smart optic to enable a motionless imager design capable of effective DFD operation. An experimental demonstration is conducted in the laboratory which compares the effectiveness of the coherent conditioned radiation module versus a conventional incoherent active light source, and demonstrates the applicability of the presented motionless DFD imager design. The fast response and no-moving-parts features of the DFD imager design are especially suited for camera scenarios where mechanical motion of lenses to achieve autofocus action is challenging, for example, in the tiny camera housings in smartphones and tablets. Applications for the proposed system include autofocus in modern day digital cameras.

  13. A pinhole gamma camera with optical depth-of-interaction elimination.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Marc A N; Heemskerk, Jan W T; Beekman, Freek J

    2009-07-01

    The performance of pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) depends on the spatial resolution of the gamma-ray detectors used. Pinhole cameras suffer from strong resolution loss due to the varying depth-of-interaction (DOI) of gamma quanta that enter the detector material at an angle. We eliminate DOI effects in a scintillation gamma camera via a dedicated optic fiber bundle that acts as a focusing collimator for light generated in a scintillation crystal. A curved crystal is connected to a concavely shaped fiber-optic bundle such that the fibers connect perpendicularly to the crystal's convex surface and point straight at the pinhole opening. Limiting the fiber numerical apertures can be used to suppress resolution losses due to light spread. Here we demonstrate experimentally that this prototype position-sensitive gamma sensor successfully eliminates DOI effects, and has an intrinsic resolution of better than 280 microm full width at half maximum with an interaction probability of 67% for 140 keV photons. Therefore, the detector has great potential for increasing the resolution of pinhole SPECT.

  14. Depth-Encoded Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy for Simultaneous Multi-Site Nanoscale Optical Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hendargo, Hansford C.; Bower, Bradley A.; Reinstein, Alex S.; Shepherd, Neal; Tao, Yuankai K.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral domain phase microscopy (SDPM) is an extension of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) that exploits the extraordinary phase stability of spectrometer-based systems with common-path geometry to resolve sub-wavelength displacements within a sample volume. This technique has been implemented for high resolution axial displacement and velocity measurements in biological samples, but since axial displacement information is acquired serially along the lateral dimension, it has been unable to measure fast temporal dynamics in extended samples. Depth-Encoded SDPM (DESDPM) uses multiple sample arms with unevenly spaced common path reference reflectors to multiplex independent SDPM signals from separate lateral positions on a sample simultaneously using a single interferometer, thereby reducing the time required to detect unique optical events to the integration period of the detector. Here, we introduce DESDPM and demonstrate the ability to acquire useful phase data concurrently at two laterally separated locations in a phantom sample as well as a biological preparation of spontaneously beating chick cardiomyocytes. DESDPM may be a useful tool for imaging fast cellular phenomena such as nervous conduction velocity or contractile motion. PMID:21886940

  15. Depth-Encoded Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy for Simultaneous Multi-Site Nanoscale Optical Measurements.

    PubMed

    Hendargo, Hansford C; Bower, Bradley A; Reinstein, Alex S; Shepherd, Neal; Tao, Yuankai K; Izatt, Joseph A

    2011-09-01

    Spectral domain phase microscopy (SDPM) is an extension of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) that exploits the extraordinary phase stability of spectrometer-based systems with common-path geometry to resolve sub-wavelength displacements within a sample volume. This technique has been implemented for high resolution axial displacement and velocity measurements in biological samples, but since axial displacement information is acquired serially along the lateral dimension, it has been unable to measure fast temporal dynamics in extended samples. Depth-Encoded SDPM (DESDPM) uses multiple sample arms with unevenly spaced common path reference reflectors to multiplex independent SDPM signals from separate lateral positions on a sample simultaneously using a single interferometer, thereby reducing the time required to detect unique optical events to the integration period of the detector. Here, we introduce DESDPM and demonstrate the ability to acquire useful phase data concurrently at two laterally separated locations in a phantom sample as well as a biological preparation of spontaneously beating chick cardiomyocytes. DESDPM may be a useful tool for imaging fast cellular phenomena such as nervous conduction velocity or contractile motion.

  16. Aerosol optical depth, aerosol composition and air pollution during summer and winter conditions in Budapest.

    PubMed

    Alföldy, B; Osán, J; Tóth, Z; Török, S; Harbusch, A; Jahn, C; Emeis, S; Schäfer, K

    2007-09-20

    The dependence of aerosol optical depth (AOD) on air particulate concentrations in the mixing layer height (MLH) was studied in Budapest in July 2003 and January 2004. During the campaigns gaseous (CO, SO(2), NO(x), O(3)), solid components (PM(2.5), PM(10)), as well as ionic species (ammonium, sulfate and nitrate) were measured at several urban and suburban sites. Additional data were collected from the Budapest air quality monitoring network. AOD was measured by a ground-based sun photometer. The mixing layer height and other common meteorological parameters were recorded. A linear relationship was found between the AOD and the columnar aerosol burden; the best linear fit (R(2)=0.96) was obtained for the secondary sulfate aerosol due to its mostly homogeneous spatial distribution and its optically active size range. The linear relationship is less pronounced for the PM(2.5) and PM(10) fractions since local emissions are very heterogeneous in time and space. The results indicate the importance of the mixing layer height in determining pollutant concentrations. During the winter campaign, when the boundary layer decreases to levels in between the altitudes of the sampling stations, measured concentrations showed significant differences due to different local sources and long-range transport. In the MLH time series unexpected nocturnal peaks were observed. The nocturnal increase of the MLH coincided with decreasing concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone; the ozone concentration increase indicates nocturnal vertical mixing between different air layers.

  17. Titan's 2 micron Surface Albedo and Haze Optical Depth in 1996-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S; de Pater, I; Macintosh, B; Roe, H; Max, C; Young, E; McKay, C

    2004-05-04

    We observed Titan in 1996-2004 with high-resolution 2 {micro}m speckle and adaptive optics imaging at the W.M. Keck Observatory. By observing in a 2 {micro}m broadband filter we obtain images that have contributions from both Titan's surface and atmosphere. We have modeled Titan's atmosphere using a plane-parallel radiative transfer code that has been corrected to agree with 3-D Monte Carlo predictions. We find that Titan's surface albedo ranges from {le} 0:02 in the darkest equatorial region of the trailing hemisphere to {approx_equal} 0:1 in the brightest areas of the leading hemisphere. Over the past quarter of a Saturnian year haze optical depth in Titan's Southern hemisphere has decreased substantially from a value of 0.48 in 1996 down to 0.18 in 2004, while the northern haze has been increasing over the past few years. As a result of these changes, in 2004 the North/South haze asymmetry at K' band has disappeared.

  18. Optical absorption characteristics in thermally reduced Er:LiNbO 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Ma, Rui; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2006-03-01

    Influence of thermal reduction on intrinsic (bipolarons), extrinsic (Er3+) defects and OH- groups in Er:LiNbO3 crystals, which were as-grown and VTE-treated (VTE: vapor transport equilibration) before being reduced, was studied by measuring the polarised or unpolarised optical absorption in visible and near infrared regions. A wide and strong band extending from the optical absorption edge up to the infrared region and peaking around 500 nm (∼2.5 eV), resulting from the absorption of reduction-induced bipolarons, is observed. Meanwhile, the thermal reduction also induces an additional, relatively much narrow absorption band around 370 nm in a crystal whether it is Er-doped or undoped and whether it is congruent or originally VTE-treated. Both the 500 nm and the 370 nm bands show similar polarisation dependence. The thermal reduction treatment hardly influences Er3+ spectroscopic properties such as absorption amplitude, linewidth, peaking position and polarisation dependence. The original VTE effects on the spectroscopic properties of Er:LiNbO3 crystal are essentially retained still. The thermal reduction has a similar effect on the OH- absorption to a strong VTE treatment: the removal of the OH- groups contained in the crystal.

  19. Sensitive photothermal deflection technique for measuring absorption in optically thin media

    SciTech Connect

    Boccara, A. C.; Jackson, Warren; Amer, Nabil M.; Fournier, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive and simple photothermal scheme for determining optical absorptions in condensed matter samples. {alpha}l values as low as 10{sup -7} and 10{sup -8} were measured for thin films and coatings and for liquids, respectively. A comparison with thermal lens effect is given, and the experimental factors limiting our sensitivity are discussed.

  20. Influence of refractive index and solar concentration on optical power absorption in slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    The optical power absorbed by a slab at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator is calculated. The calculations are plotted versus maximum angle of incidence of irradiation (which corresponds to solar concentration) with absorption coefficient as a parameter for several different indices of refraction that represent real materials.

  1. Atomistic simulations of the optical absorption of type-II CdSe/ZnTe superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We perform accurate tight binding simulations to design type-II short-period CdSe/ZnTe superlattices suited for photovoltaic applications. Absorption calculations demonstrate a very good agreement with optical results with threshold strongly depending on the chemical species near interfaces. PMID:23031315

  2. Optical absorption and luminescence in neutron-irradiated, silica-based fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.W.; Farnum, E.H.; Clinard, F.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this work are to assess the effects of thermal annealing and photobleaching on the optical absorption of neutron-irradiated, silica fibers of the type proposed for use in ITER diagnostics, and to measure x-ray induced luminescence of unirradiated (virgin) and neutron-irradiated fibers.

  3. Retrievals of Thick Cloud Optical Depth from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) by Calibration of Solar Background Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Chiu, J. Christine; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Palm, Stephen P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nguyen, Louis; Spinhirne, James D.; Minnis, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (< about 3 for GLAS) are retrieved from the reflected lidar signal. This paper presents a comprehensive study of possible retrievals of optical depth of thick clouds using solar background light and treating GLAS as a solar radiometer. To do so we first calibrate the reflected solar radiation received by the photon-counting detectors of GLAS' 532 nm channel, which is the primary channel for atmospheric products. The solar background radiation is regarded as a noise to be subtracted in the retrieval process of the lidar products. However, once calibrated, it becomes a signal that can be used in studying the properties of optically thick clouds. In this paper, three calibration methods are presented: (I) calibration with coincident airborne and GLAS observations; (2) calibration with coincident Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and GLAS observations of deep convective clouds; (3) calibration from the first principles using optical depth of thin water clouds over ocean retrieved by GLAS active remote sensing. Results from the three methods agree well with each other. Cloud optical depth (COD) is retrieved from the calibrated solar background signal using a one-channel retrieval. Comparison with COD retrieved from GOES during GLAS overpasses shows that the average difference between the two retrievals is 24%. As an example, the COD values retrieved from GLAS solar background are illustrated for a marine stratocumulus cloud field that is too thick to be penetrated by the GLAS laser. Based on this study, optical depths for thick clouds will be provided as a supplementary product to the existing operational GLAS cloud products in future GLAS data releases.

  4. Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Maxim; Kelleher, Edmund J. R.; Hasan, Tawfique

    2016-10-01

    We develop an analytical model to describe sub-band-gap optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (s-TMD) nanoflakes. The material system represents an array of few-layer molybdenum disulfide crystals, randomly orientated in a polymer matrix. We propose that optical absorption involves direct transitions between electronic edge states and bulk bands, depends strongly on the carrier population, and is saturable with sufficient fluence. For excitation energies above half the band gap, the excess energy is absorbed by the edge-state electrons, elevating their effective temperature. Our analytical expressions for the linear and nonlinear absorption could prove useful tools in the design of practical photonic devices based on s-TMDs.

  5. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F =1 atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooshin; Seo, Sang Won; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of 23Na atoms in the F =1 hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations in the presence of a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the F =1 absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of 23Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe-beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in the quantitative analysis of F =1 spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali-metal atoms with I =3 /2 nuclear spin such as 87Rb.

  6. Intrinsic fiber optic absorption sensor for the detection of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunder, Gregory L.; Silva, Robert J.; Russo, Richard E.

    1994-03-01

    A core-based intrinsic fiber optic absorption sensor has been developed for the detection of volatile organic compounds. The sensor can detect organics in aqueous solutions or in the vapor phase without a chemical reaction. The distal ends of transmission and receiving fibers are connected by a small section of an optically clear silicone rubber. The silicone rubber section acts both as a lightpipe and as a selective membrane into which the analyte molecules can diffuse. Absorption spectra obtained in the nearinfrared (NIR) provide qualitative and quantitative information about the analyte. Water, which has strong broadband absorption in aqueous solutions of the NIR, is excluded from the spectra due to the hydrophobic properties of the silicone rubber. In a stirred solution, the sensor reaches equilibrium in approximately 10 minutes. The current limit of detection is 1.0 ppm for TCE in an aqueous solution.

  7. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  8. Depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy for noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard Alan

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx account for more than 7,500 deaths each year in the United States alone. Major advances have been made in the management of oral cancer through the combined use of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, improving the quality of life for many patients; however, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective, noninvasive methods for early diagnosis of oral neoplasia are needed. Here a method is presented to noninvasively evaluate oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (DSOS). A ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe was developed to enable preferential targeting of different depth regions in the oral mucosa. Clinical studies of the diagnostic performance of DSOS in 157 subjects were carried out in collaboration with the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. An overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 89% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue relative to histopathology. Based on these results a compact, portable version of the clinical DSOS device with real-time automated diagnostic capability was developed. The portable device was tested in 47 subjects and a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue. The diagnostic potential of multimodal platforms incorporating DSOS was explored through two pilot studies. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with widefield imaging was carried out in 29 oral cancer patients, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 69%. Widefield imaging and spectroscopy performed slightly better in combination than each method performed independently. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with the optical contrast agents 2-NBDG, EGF-Alexa 647, and proflavine was carried out in resected tissue

  9. Optical Estimation of Depth Induced Wave Breaking Distributions over Complex Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, A. S.; Holman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Parametric depth-induced-breaking dissipation models have shown great skill at predicting time averaged wave heights across the surf zone. First proposed by Battjes & Janssen (1978), these models balance the incoming wave energy flux with a roller dissipation term. This roller dissipation term is estimated by calculating the dissipation for one characteristic broken wave and then multiplying this quantity by the fraction of broken waves. To describe the fraction of broken waves, a typical assumption asserts that wave heights are nearly Rayleigh distributed [Thornton & Guza (1983)] allowing a sea state to be described by only a few parameters. While many experiments have validated the cross shore wave height profiles, few field experiments have been performed to analyze the probability distribution of breaking wave heights over a barred beach profile. The goal of the present research is to determine the distribution of broken and unbroken wave heights across a natural barred beach profile. Field data collected during the Surf Zone Optics experiment (a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative) in Duck, North Carolina, consisted of an array of in-situ pressure sensors and optical remote sensing cameras. Sea surface elevation time series from the in-situ pressure sensors are used here to resolve wave height distributions at multiple locations across the surf zone. Breaking wave height distributions are resolved based upon a combination of the pressure sensor and optically based breaker detection algorithm. Since breaking is easily able to be tracked by video imaging, breaking waves are flagged in the sea surface elevation series and binned into a broken wave height distribution. Results of this analysis are compared with model predictions based upon the Battjes & Janssen (1978), Thornton & Guza (1983) and Janssen & Battjes (2007) models to assess the validity of each wave height distribution model.

  10. Variability of aerosol optical depth and aerosol radiative forcing over Northwest Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheb, Shaik Darga; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, D.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the aerosol loading in India is increasing that has significant impact on the weather/climatic conditions. The present study discusses the analysis of temporal (monthly and seasonal) variation of aerosol optical depth(AOD) by the ground based observations from sun photometer and estimate the aerosol radiative forcing and heating rate over selected station Dehradun in North western Himalayas, India during 2015. The in-situ measurements data illustrate that the maximum seasonal average AOD observed during summer season AOD at 500nm ≍ 0.59+/-0.27 with an average angstrom exponent, α ≍0.86 while minimum during winter season AOD at 500nm ≍ 0.33+/-0.10 with angstrom exponent, α ≍1.18. The MODIS and MISR derived AOD was also compared with the ground measured values and are good to be in good agreement. Analysis of air mass back trajectories using HYSPLIT model reveal that the transportation of desert dust during summer months. The Optical Properties of Aerosols and clouds (OPAC) model was used to compute the aerosol optical properties like single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom coefficient (α) and Asymmetry(g) parameter for each day of measurement and they are incorporated in a Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model, i.e Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) to estimate the direct short-wave (0.25 to 4 μm) Aerosol Radiative forcing at the Surface (SUR), the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and Atmosphere (ATM). The maximum Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) was observed during summer months at SUR ≍ -56.42 w/m2, at TOA ≍-21.62 w/m2 whereas in ATM ≍+34.79 w/m2 with corresponding to heating rate 1.24°C/day with in lower atmosphere.

  11. Effects of Configuration of Optical Combiner on Near-Field Depth Perception in Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The ray-shift phenomenon means the apparent distance shift in the display image plane between virtual and physical objects. It is caused by the difference in the refraction of virtual display and see-through optical paths derived from optical combiners that are necessary to provide a see-through capability in optical see-through head-mounted displays. In this work, through a human-subject experiment, we investigated the effects of ray-shift phenomenon induced by the optical combiner on depth perception for near-field distances (40 cm-100 cm). In our experiment, we considered three different configurations of optical combiner: horizontal-tilt and vertical-tilt configurations (using plate beamsplitters horizontally and vertically tilted by 45°, respectively), and non-tilt configuration (using rectangular solid waveguides). Participants' depth perception errors in these configurations were compared with those in an ordinary condition (i.e., the condition where physical objects are directly shown without the displays) and theoretically estimated ones. According to the experimental results, the measured percentage depth perception errors were similar to the theoretically estimated ones, where the amount of estimated percentage depth errors was greater than 0.3%. Furthermore, the participants showed significantly larger depth perception errors in the horizontal-tilt configuration than in an ordinary condition, while no large errors were found in the vertical-tilt configuration. In the non-tilt configuration, the results were dependent on the thickness of optical combiner and target distance.

  12. Optical absorption of neutron-irradiated silica fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.W.; Farnum, E.H.; Bennett, B.L.

    1996-10-01

    Induced-loss spectra of silica-based optical fibers exposed to high (10{sup 23} n-m{sup {minus}2}) and low (10{sup 21} n-m{sup {minus}2}) fluences of neutrons at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) have been measured. Two types of fibers consisting of a pure fused silica core with fluorine-doped ({approximately}4 mole %) cladding were obtained from Fiberguide Industries and used in the as-received condition. Anhydroguide{trademark} and superguide{trademark} fibers contained less than 1 ppm, and 600 to 800 ppm of OH, respectively. The data suggest that presently available silica fibers can be used in plasma diagnostics, but the choice and suitability depends upon the spectral region of interest. Low-OH content fibers can be used for diagnostic purposes in the interval {approximately}800 to 1400 mn if the exposure is to high-fluence neutrons. For low-fluence neutron exposures, the low-OH content fibers are best suited for use in the interval {approximately}800 to 2000 nm, and the high-OH content fibers are the choice for the interval {approximately}400 to 800 nm.

  13. Macroscopic optical imaging technique for wide-field estimation of fluorescence depth in optically turbid media for application in brain tumor surgical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kolste, Kolbein K.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Valdés, Pablo A.; Jermyn, Michael; Wilson, Brian C.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Leblond, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A diffuse imaging method is presented that enables wide-field estimation of the depth of fluorescent molecular markers in turbid media by quantifying the deformation of the detected fluorescence spectra due to the wavelength-dependent light attenuation by overlying tissue. This is achieved by measuring the ratio of the fluorescence at two wavelengths in combination with normalization techniques based on diffuse reflectance measurements to evaluate tissue attenuation variations for different depths. It is demonstrated that fluorescence topography can be achieved up to a 5 mm depth using a near-infrared dye with millimeter depth accuracy in turbid media having optical properties representative of normal brain tissue. Wide-field depth estimates are made using optical technology integrated onto a commercial surgical microscope, making this approach feasible for real-world applications. PMID:25652704

  14. Optical design of transparent metal grids for plasmonic absorption enhancement in ultrathin organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inho; Lee, Taek Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook Seong; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2013-07-01

    Transparent metal grid combining with plasmonic absorption enhancement is a promising replacement to indium tin oxide thin films. We numerically demonstrate metal grids in one or two dimension lead to plasmonic absorption enhancements in ultrathin organic solar cells. In this paper, we study optical design of metal grids for plasmonic light trapping and identify different plasmonic modes of the surface plasmon polaritons excited at the interfaces of glass/metal grids, metal grids/active layers, and the localized surface plasmon resonance of the metal grids using numerical calculations. One dimension metal grids with the optimal design of a width and a period lead to the absorption enhancement in the ultrathin active layers of 20 nm thickness by a factor of 2.6 under transverse electric polarized light compared to the case without the metal grids. Similarly, two dimensional metal grids provide the absorption enhancement by a factor of 1.8 under randomly polarized light. PMID:24104493

  15. Observation of temperature dependence of the IR hydroxyl absorption bands in silica optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Bonnell, Elizabeth; Homa, Daniel; Pickrell, Gary; Wang, Anbo; Ohodnicki, P. R.; Woodruff, Steven; Chorpening, Benjamin; Buric, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on the temperature dependent behavior of silica based optical fibers upon exposure to high temperatures in hydrogen and ambient air. The hydroxyl absorption bands in the wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm of commercially available multimode fibers with pure silica and germanium doped cores were examined in the temperature range of 20-800 °C. Two hydroxyl-related infrared absorption bands were observed: ∼2200 nm assigned to the combination of the vibration mode of Si-OH bending and the fundamental hydroxyl stretching mode, and ∼1390 nm assigned to the first overtone of the hydroxyl stretching. The absorption in the 2200 nm band decreased in intensity, while the 1390 nm absorption band shifted to longer wavelengths with an increase in temperature. The observed phenomena were reversible with temperature and suspected to be due, in part, to the conversion of the OH spectral components into each other and structural relaxation.

  16. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  17. All-optical switching in a symmetric three-waveguide coupler with phase-mismatched absorptive central waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yijing; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Krishnamurthy, Vivek

    2013-12-20

    All-optical switching operation based on manipulation of absorption in a three-waveguide directional coupler is theoretically investigated. The proposed structure consists of one absorptive central waveguide and two identical passive side waveguides. Optically induced absorption change in the central waveguide effectively controls the coupling of light between the two side waveguides, leading to optical switching action. The proposed architecture alleviates the fabrication challenges and waveguide index matching conditions that limit previous demonstrations of similar switching schemes based on a two-waveguide directional coupler. The proposed device accommodates large modal index difference between absorptive and passive waveguides without compromising the switching extinction ratio.

  18. Polarized optical absorption of MnGa2S4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niftiev, N. N.; Tagiev, O. B.

    2016-09-01

    Optical absorption of MnGa2S4 single crystals is studied at two light polarizations ( E || C and E⊥ C). The polarization splitting of the absorption edge points to a splitting of the valence band of MnGa2S4. A contribution to the crystal-field splitting is made by two factors, namely, by a difference in the pseudopotential of cationic sublattice atoms and by tetragonal compression of the lattice along the C axis. A scheme of optical transitions in MnGa2S4 in the Brillouin zone center is suggested, according to which the optical transitions D3 + D4 → D1 occur in the polarization E ⊥ C, and the D2 → D1 transitions occur in the polarization E || C.

  19. Ultrahigh and persistent optical depths of cesium in Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Saunders, Dylan J; Sprague, Michael R; Kolthammer, W Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Walmsley, Ian A; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibers are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD). However, until now these large optical depths could only be generated for seconds, at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of the highest observed transient (>10(5) for up to a minute) and highest observed persistent (>2000 for hours) optical depths of alkali vapors in a light-guiding geometry to date, using a cesium-filled Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as generation of single-photon-level nonlinearities and development of single photon quantum memories.

  20. Ultrahigh and persistent optical depths of cesium in Kagomé-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Sprague, Michael R.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Feizpour, Amir; Ledingham, Patrick M.; Brecht, Benjamin; Poem, Eilon; Walmsley, Ian A.; Nunn, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Alkali-filled hollow-core fibres are a promising medium for investigating light-matter interactions, especially at the single-photon level, due to the tight confinement of light and high optical depths achievable by light-induced atomic desorption. However, until now these large optical depths could only be generated for seconds at most once per day, severely limiting the practicality of the technology. Here we report the generation of highest observed transient ($>10^5$ for up to a minute) and highest observed persistent ($>2000$ for hours) optical depths of alkali vapours in a light-guiding geometry to date, using a caesium-filled Kagom\\'e-type hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. Our results pave the way to light-matter interaction experiments in confined geometries requiring long operation times and large atomic number densities, such as generation of single-photon-level nonlinearities and development of single photon quantum memories.

  1. Absorptive carbon nanotube electrodes: Consequences of optical interference loss in thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Jeffrey G.; de Volder, Michaël F. L.; Cheyns, David; Heremans, Paul; Rand, Barry P.

    2015-04-01

    A current bottleneck in the thin film photovoltaic field is the fabrication of low cost electrodes. We demonstrate ultrasonically spray coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) layers as opaque and absorptive metal-free electrodes deposited at low temperatures and free of post-deposition treatment. The electrodes show sheet resistance as low as 3.4 Ω □-1, comparable to evaporated metallic contacts deposited in vacuum. Organic photovoltaic devices were optically simulated, showing comparable photocurrent generation between reflective metal and absorptive CNT electrodes for photoactive layer thickness larger than 600 nm when using archetypal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : (6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cells. Fabricated devices clearly show that the absorptive CNT electrodes display comparable performance to solution processed and spray coated Ag nanoparticle devices. Additionally, other candidate absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics were simulated with absorptive contacts, elucidating device design in the absence of optical interference and reflection.A current bottleneck in the thin film photovoltaic field is the fabrication of low cost electrodes. We demonstrate ultrasonically spray coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) layers as opaque and absorptive metal-free electrodes deposited at low temperatures and free of post-deposition treatment. The electrodes show sheet resistance as low as 3.4 Ω □-1, comparable to evaporated metallic contacts deposited in vacuum. Organic photovoltaic devices were optically simulated, showing comparable photocurrent generation between reflective metal and absorptive CNT electrodes for photoactive layer thickness larger than 600 nm when using archetypal poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : (6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) cells. Fabricated devices clearly show that the absorptive CNT electrodes display comparable performance to solution processed and spray coated Ag nanoparticle

  2. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  3. Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-12-24

    We describe a novel reconstruction method that allows for quantitative recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media using tomographic photoacoustic measurements. Images of optical absorption coefficient are obtained from a diffusion equation based regularized Newton method where the absorbed energy density distribution from conventional photoacoustic tomography serves as the measured field data. We experimentally demonstrate this new method using tissue-mimicking phantom measurements and simulations. The reconstruction results show that the optical absorption coefficient images obtained are quantitative in terms of the shape, size, location and optical property values of the heterogeneities examined.

  4. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  5. Whole eye axial biometry during accommodation using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jianguang; Tao, Aizhu; Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Shao, Yilei; Zhang, Huicheng; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate changes of whole eye axial biometry during accommodation using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT). DESIGN Prospective, observational case series. METHODS Twenty-one adult subjects were enrolled. Using UL-OCT, the left eye of each subject was imaged with relaxed (0 D) and accommodative stimuli (+6 D). Full eye biometry included central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, vitreous length and axial length (AL). RESULTS During accommodation (+6 D), the axial biometry of the whole eye changed significantly. Compared to the rest state, ACD at the accommodative state decreased significantly from 3.128 ± 0.305 mm to 2.961 ± 0.298 mm (paired t-test, P < 0.001). The lens thickness increased significantly from 3.723 ± 0.237 mm to 3.963 ± 0.234 mm (P < 0.001). The vitreous length decreased significantly from 17.129 ± 0.864 mm to 17.057± 0.848 mm (P < 0.001). AL was 24.519 ± 0.917 mm at the rest state and increased to 24.545±0.915 mm with +6 D accommodation stimulus. The elongated AL of 26.1 ± 13.4 μm between the rest and accommodative states was significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS During accommodation, whole eye axial biometry changed, including a decrease in ACD and vitreous length, and an increase in lens thickness and AL. UL-OCT provides an alternative method that is suitable for full eye biometry during accommodation. PMID:24487051

  6. Fast and automatic depth control of iterative bone ablation based on optical coherence tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Alexander; Pengel, Steffen; Bergmeier, Jan; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Simple Algorithm to Find Cloud Optical Depth with Emphasis on Thin Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C.; Long, Charles N.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Freer, Matthew; McFarquhar, Greg

    2008-04-14

    We present here an algorithm for determining cloud optical depth, τ, using data from shortwave broadband irradiances, focusing on the case of optically thin clouds. This method is empirical and consists of applying a one-line equation to the shortwave flux analysis described by Long and Ackerman (2000). We apply this method to cirrus clouds observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s (ARM) Darwin, Australia site during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) campaign and cirrus clouds observed at ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. These cases were chosen because independent verification of cloud optical depth retrievals is possible. For the TWP-ICE case, the calculated optical depths compare favorably (to within about 1 unit) with a “first principles” τ calculated from a vertical profile of ice particle size distributions obtained from an aircraft sounding. For the SGP case, the results from the algorithm correspond reasonably well with τ values obtained from an average over other methods; some of which have been subject to independent verification. The medians of the two time series are 0.79 and 0.81, for the empirical and averaged values, respectively (although such close agreement is likely to be fortuitous). This tool may be applied wherever measurements of the three components of the shortwave broadband flux are available at 1- to 5-minute resolution. Because these measurements are made across the world, it then becomes possible to estimate optical depth at many locations.

  8. Evaluation of CALIOP 532-nm Aerosol Optical Depth Over Opaque Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Winker, D.; Omar, A.; Vaughan, M.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C.; Hu, Y.; Schuster, G.

    2015-01-01

    With its height-resolved measurements and near global coverage, the CALIOP lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite offers a new capability for aerosol retrievals in cloudy skies. Validation of these retrievals is difficult, however, as independent, collocated and co-temporal data sets are generally not available. In this paper, we evaluate CALIOP aerosol products above opaque water clouds by applying multiple retrieval techniques to CALIOP Level 1 profile data and comparing the results. This approach allows us to both characterize the accuracy of the CALIOP above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and develop an error budget that quantifies the relative contributions of different error sources. We focus on two spatial domains: the African dust transport pathway over the tropical North Atlantic and the African smoke transport pathway over the southeastern Atlantic. Six years of CALIOP observations (2007-2012) from the northern hemisphere summer and early fall are analyzed. The analysis is limited to cases where aerosol layers are located above opaque water clouds so that a constrained retrieval technique can be used to directly retrieve 532 nm aerosol optical depth and lidar ratio. For the moderately dense Sahara dust layers detected in the CALIOP data used in this study, the mean/median values of the lidar ratios derived from a constrained opaque water cloud (OWC) technique are 45.1/44.4 +/- 8.8 sr, which are somewhat larger than the value of 40 +/- 20 sr used in the CALIOP Level 2 (L2) data products. Comparisons of CALIOP L2 AOD with the OWC-retrieved AOD reveal that for nighttime conditions the L2 AOD in the dust region is underestimated on average by approx. 26% (0.183 vs. 0.247). Examination of the error sources indicates that errors in the L2 dust AOD are primarily due to using a lidar ratio that is somewhat too small. The mean/median lidar ratio retrieved for smoke is 70.8/70.4 +/- 16.2 sr, which is consistent with the modeled value of 70 +/- 28 sr used in the

  9. Improving Mars-GRAM: Increasing the Accuracy of Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Extensively utilized for numerous mission applications, the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model. In a Monte-Carlo mode, Mars-GRAM's perturbation modeling capability is used to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Mars-GRAM has been found to be inexact when used during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3. Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) from the surface to 80 km altitude. Mars-GRAM with the MapYear parameter set to 0 utilizes results from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 at all locations for the entire year. Imprecise atmospheric density and pressure at all altitudes is a consequence of this use of MGCM with tau=3. Density factor values have been determined for tau=0.3, 1 and 3 as a preliminary fix to this pressure-density problem. These factors adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations for MapYears 1 and 2 at comparable dust loading. These density factors are fixed values for all latitudes and Ls and are included in Mars-GRAM Release 1.3. Work currently being done, to derive better multipliers by including variations with latitude and/or Ls by comparison of MapYear 0 output directly against TES limb data, will be highlighted in the presentation. The TES limb data utilized in this process has been validated by a comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). This comparison study was undertaken for locations on Mars of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST. The more precise density factors will be included in Mars-GRAM 2005 Release 1.4 and thus improve the results of future sensitivity studies done for large

  10. Modelling of thermally detected optical absorption and luminescence of (In,Ga)N/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siozade, L.; Leymarie, J.; Disseix, P.; Vasson, A.; Mihailovic, M.; Grandjean, N.; Leroux, M.; Massies, J.

    2000-08-01

    Thermally detected optical absorption (TDOA) and photoluminescence (PL) experiments are performed at 0.35 and 4 K, respectively, on In xGa 1- xN ( x≤0.12) layers grown on GaN by molecular beam epitaxy. The modelling of absorption allows us to extract the absorption coefficients and bandgap energies of (In,Ga)N alloy. A bowing parameter equal to 2.4 eV is deduced. The knowledge of the GaN complex refractive index, previously measured, enables us to account for the Fabry-Perot interferences which structure the TDOA and PL spectra. A procedure is proposed to remove the latter in the PL spectrum of nitride based heterostructures. The model is based on the description of the light propagation in an active layer sandwiched between two heterostructures. The parameters deduced from the absorption line shape adjustment are used to take the absorption and optical path into account in the different layers of the samples.

  11. Crystal structure and nonlinear optical absorption of a new chalcone derivative: a promising candidate for optical switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    A new nonlinear optical material, 4-[(2 E)-3-(3-fluorophenyl) prop-2-enoyl] benzonitrile (3FPB), belonging to chalcone family was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and linear absorption spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the new material crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/c space group and lattice parameters a = 6.4841(2) Å, b = 13.6038(5) Å, c = 14.6418(6) Å, α = 90.00°, β = 94.552(2)° and γ = 90°. The crystallographic perfection of the synthesized material has been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The X-ray powder diffraction peaks of the sample were indexed with hkl values. The UV-visible spectrum for 3FPB crystals showed the optical transmittance window and a lower cutoff wavelength of absorption at 343 nm. The direct transition band gap energy and indirect transition energy gap were determined using Tauc's plots. The thermal stability and melting point of the material have been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The Thermogravimetric curve showed the absence of any phase transition before melting point. Third-order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment were carried out using open-aperture Z-scan experiment with Nd:YAG laser nanosecond pulses at a wavelength of 532 nm.

  12. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in the visible range with a Brewer spectrophotometer in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos S.

    2016-04-01

    A MkIV Brewer spectrophotometer has been operating in Athens since 2004. Direct-sun measurements originally scheduled for nitrogen dioxide retrievals were reprocessed to provide aerosol optical depths (AODs) at a wavelength of about 440 nm. A novel retrieval algorithm was specifically developed and the resulting AODs were compared to those obtained from a collocated Cimel filter radiometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The series are perfectly correlated, with Pearson's correlation coefficients being as large as 0.996 and with 90 % of AOD deviations between the two instruments being within the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) traceability limits. In order to reach such a high agreement, several instrumental factors impacting the quality of the Brewer retrievals must be taken into account, including sensitivity to the internal temperature, and the state of the external optics and pointing accuracy must be carefully checked. Furthermore, the long-term radiometric stability of the Brewer was investigated and the performances of in situ Langley extrapolations as a way to track the absolute calibration of the Brewer were assessed. Other sources of error, such as slight shifts of the wavelength scale, are discussed and some recommendations to Brewer operators are drawn. Although MkIV Brewers are rarely employed to retrieve AODs in the visible range, they represent a key source of information about aerosol changes in the past three decades and a potential worldwide network for present and future coordinated AOD measurements. Moreover, a better understanding of the AOD retrieval at visible wavelengths will also contribute in improving similar techniques in the more challenging UV range.

  13. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, D.A.; Keller, R.A.

    1982-06-08

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be rlated to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10/sup -5/ cm/sup -1/ has been demonstrated using this technique.

  14. Apparatus and method for measurement of weak optical absorptions by thermally induced laser pulsing

    DOEpatents

    Cremers, David A.; Keller, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal lensing phenomenon is used as the basis for measurement of weak optical absorptions when a cell containing the sample to be investigated is inserted into a normally continuous-wave operation laser-pumped dye laser cavity for which the output coupler is deliberately tilted relative to intracavity circulating laser light, and pulsed laser output ensues, the pulsewidth of which can be related to the sample absorptivity by a simple algorithm or calibration curve. A minimum detection limit of less than 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.-1 has been demonstrated using this technique.

  15. Research of difference absorption optical fiber CO gas sensor based on FBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanju; Liu, Zhihua; Kang, Yueyi; Wang, Yutian

    2009-07-01

    Based on analysis of the near infrared spectral absorption of CO molecule and considering factors such as compatibility with the transmission characteristics of silica optical fiber and the price, a kind of allfiber remote sensor utilizing Fiber Bragg Grating(FBG) filters and 1.567μm high power light-emitting diode (LED) was developed for real time absorption measurement. FBG has a low insert loss and can be produced easily compared with dielectric interference filters. Theory and experiment proved that the system has simple construct and high sensibility.

  16. Optical absorption and luminescence studies of fast neutron-irradiated complex oxides for jewellery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Skvortsova, V.; Popov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We studied the optical absorption and luminescence of agate (SiO2), topaz (Al2[SiO4](F,OH)2), beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), and prehnite (Ca2Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)2) doped with different concentrations of transition metal ions and exposed to fast neutron irradiation. The exchange interaction between the impurity ions and the defects arising under neutron irradiation causes additional absorption as well as bands' broadening in the crystals. These experimental results allow us to suggest the method for obtaining new radiation-defect induced jewellery colors of minerals due to neutron irradiation.

  17. Performance of a high-resolution mid-IR optical-parametric-oscillator transient absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Echebiri, Geraldine O; Smarte, Matthew D; Walters, Wendell W; Mullin, Amy S

    2014-06-16

    We report on a mid-IR optical parametric oscillator (OPO)-based high resolution transient absorption spectrometer for state-resolved collisional energy transfer. Transient Doppler-broadened line profiles at λ = 3.3 μm are reported for HCl R7 transitions following gas-phase collisions with vibrationally excited pyrazine. The instrument noise, analyzed as a function of IR wavelength across the absorption line, is as much as 10 times smaller than in diode laser-based measurements. The reduced noise is attributed to larger intensity IR light that has greater intensity stability, which in turn leads to reduced detector noise and better frequency locking for the OPO.

  18. Recent Progress Towards Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Enhanced Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zerui; Ji, Haining; Yu, Peng; Wang, Zhiming

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dot solar cells, as a promising candidate for the next generation solar cell technology, have received tremendous attention in the last 10 years. Some recent developments in epitaxy growth and device structures have opened up new avenues for practical quantum dot solar cells. Unfortunately, the performance of quantum dot solar cells is often plagued by marginal photon absorption. In this review, we focus on the recent progress made in enhancing optical absorption in quantum dot solar cells, including optimization of quantum dot growth, improving the solar cells structure, and engineering light trapping techniques.

  19. Recent Progress Towards Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Enhanced Optical Absorption.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zerui; Ji, Haining; Yu, Peng; Wang, Zhiming

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dot solar cells, as a promising candidate for the next generation solar cell technology, have received tremendous attention in the last 10 years. Some recent developments in epitaxy growth and device structures have opened up new avenues for practical quantum dot solar cells. Unfortunately, the performance of quantum dot solar cells is often plagued by marginal photon absorption. In this review, we focus on the recent progress made in enhancing optical absorption in quantum dot solar cells, including optimization of quantum dot growth, improving the solar cells structure, and engineering light trapping techniques.

  20. Improvement of differential optical absorption spectroscopy with a multichannel scanning technique.

    PubMed

    Brauers, T; Hausmann, M; Brandenburger, U; Dorn, H P

    1995-07-20

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of atmospheric trace gases requires the detection of optical densities below 0.1%. Photodiode arrays are used more and more as detectors for DOAS because they allow one to record larger spectral intervals simultaneously. This type of optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), however, shows sensitivity differences among the individual photodiodes (pixels), which are of the order of 1%. To correct for this a sensitivity reference spectrum is usually recorded separately from the trace-gas measurements. Because of atmospheric turbulence the illumination of the detector while an atmospheric absorption spectrum is being recorded is different from the conditions during the reference measurement. As a result the sensitivity patterns do not exactly match, and the corrected spectra still show a residual structure that is due to the sensitivity difference. This effect usually limits the detection of optical densities to approximately 3 × 10(-4). A new method for the removal of the sensitivity pattern is presented in this paper: Scanning the spectrometer by small wavelength increments after each readout of the OMA allows one to separate the OMA-fixed pattern and the wavelength-fixed structures (absorption lines). The properties of the new method and its applicability are demonstrated with simulated spectra. Finally, first atmospheric measurements with a laser long-path instrument demonstrate a detection limit of 3 × 10(-5) of a DOAS experiment. PMID:21052280

  1. Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets.

    PubMed

    Eisenlohr, Johannes; Tucher, Nico; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Peters, Marius; Kiefel, Peter; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a simulation formalism for determining the Optical Properties of Textured Optical Sheets (OPTOS). Our matrix-based method allows for the computationally-efficient calculation of non-coherent light propagation and absorption in thick textured sheets, especially solar cells, featuring different textures on front and rear side that may operate in different optical regimes. Within the simulated system, the angular power distribution is represented by a vector. This light distribution is modified by interaction with the surfaces of the textured sheets, which are described by redistribution matrices. These matrices can be calculated for each individual surface texture with the most appropriate technique. Depending on the feature size of the texture, for example, either ray- or wave-optical methods can be used. The comparison of the simulated absorption in a sheet of silicon for a variety of surface textures, both with the results from other simulation techniques and experimentally measured data, shows very good agreement. To demonstrate the versatility of this newly-developed approach, the absorption in silicon sheets with a large-scale structure (V-grooves) at the front side and a small-scale structure (diffraction grating) at the rear side is calculated. Moreover, with minimal computational effort, a thickness parameter variation is performed. PMID:26072875

  2. Accuracy of near-surface aerosol extinction determined from columnar aerosol optical depth measurements in Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Arnott, W. Patrick; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present work is a detailed analysis of aerosol columnar optical depth as a tool to determine near-surface aerosol extinction in Reno, Nevada, USA, during the summer of 2012. Ground and columnar aerosol optical properties were obtained by use of in situ Photoacoustic and Integrated Nephelometer and Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer instruments, respectively. Both techniques showed that seasonal weather changes and fire plumes had enormous influence on local aerosol optics. The apparent optical height followed the shape but not magnitude of the development of the convective boundary layer when fire conditions were not present. Back trajectory analysis demonstrated that a local flow known as the Washoe Zephyr circulation often induced aerosol transport from Northern California over the Sierra Nevada Mountains that increased the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm during afternoons when compared with mornings. Aerosol fine mode fraction indicated that afternoon aerosols in June and July and fire plumes in August were dominated by submicron particles, suggesting upwind urban plume biogenically enhanced evolution toward substantial secondary aerosol formation. This fine particle optical depth was inferred to be beyond the surface, thereby complicating use of remote sensing measurements for near-ground aerosol extinction measurements. It is likely that coarse mode depletes fine mode aerosol near the surface by coagulation and condensation of precursor gases.

  3. EPR, optical absorption and luminescence studies of Cr3+-doped antimony phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vicente, F. S.; Santos, F. A.; Simões, B. S.; Dias, S. T.; Siu Li, M.

    2014-12-01

    Antimony phosphate glasses (SbPO) doped with 3 and 6 mol% of Cr3+ were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), UV-VIS optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The EPR spectra of Cr3+-doped glasses showed two principal resonance signals with effective g values at g = 5.11 and g = 1.97. UV-VIS optical absorption spectra of SbPO:Cr3+ presented four characteristics bands at 457, 641, 675, and 705 nm related to the transitions from 4A2(F) to 4T1(F), 4T2(F), 2T1(G), and 2E(G), respectively, of Cr3+ ions in octahedral symmetry. Optical absorption spectra of SbPO:Cr3+ allowed evaluating the crystalline field Dq, Racah parameters (B and C) and Dq/B. The calculated value of Dq/B = 2.48 indicates that Cr3+ ions in SbPO glasses are in strong ligand field sites. The optical band gap for SbPO and SbPO:Cr3+ were evaluated from the UV optical absorption edges. Luminescence measurements of pure and Cr3+-doped glasses excited with 350 nm revealed weak emission bands from 400 to 600 nm due to the 3P1 → 1S0 electronic transition from Sb3+ ions. Cr3+-doped glasses excited with 415 nm presented Cr3+ characteristic luminescence spectra composed by two broad bands, one band centered at 645 nm (2E → 4A2) and another intense band from 700 to 850 nm (4T2 → 4A2).

  4. The effect of implanting boron on the optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Stesmans, A.; Weeks, R. A.; Weller, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Silica samples (type III, Corning 7940) were implanted with B using multiple energies to produce a layer ˜600 nm thick in which the concentration of B ranged from 0.034 to 2.04 at. %. Optical absorption spectra were measured from 1.8 to 6.5 eV. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were generally made at ˜20.3 and 33 GHz for sample temperatures ranging from 77 to 100 K. Based on the EPR spectra three types of defects, namely, Eγ', the E'-type 73 G split doublet (E73'), and the peroxyradical (POR) were identified. No oxygen-associated hole centers (OHCs) nor specific B-associated paramagnetic defects were detected, not even at the largest B concentration of 2.04 at. %. Unlike previous assignments, there was no correlation between the 4.83 eV optical absorption band and the observed PORs. From these results, we infer that in addition to POR, there is at least one additional Si-related state absorbing in the 4.8-4.9 eV range that is likely diamagnetic. The 5.85 eV optical absorption band is found to be due to the Eγ' and E73' centers, with, in average, quite similar oscillator strengths inferred as before. Both the optical absorption and the electron spin resonance data can be satisfactorily explained without the need for specific B-associated defect site (s). As no OHCs are detected by ESR, these do not seem to make a detectable contribution to the optical spectra.

  5. A universal feature in the optical absorption spectrum associated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A dimensionless joint density of states analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevaril, Jasmin J.; O'Leary, Stephen K.

    2016-10-01

    Using a dimensionless joint density of states formalism for the quantitative characterization of the optical response associated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a critical comparative analysis of a large number of different optical absorption data sets is considered. When these data sets are cast into this dimensionless framework, we observe a trend that is almost completely coincident for all of the data sets considered. This suggests that there is a universal feature associated with the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

  6. Aerosol optical depth in a western Mediterranean site: An assessment of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; González, J. A.; Calbó, J.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Michalsky, J.

    2016-06-01

    Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowing radiometer (MFRSR) observations carried out at Girona (northeast Spain) from June 2012 to June 2014. We used a technique that allows estimating simultaneously aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) at high time-resolution. For the period studied, mean AOD at 500 nm was 0.14, with a noticeable seasonal pattern, i.e. maximum in summer and minimum in winter. Mean AE from 500 to 870 nm was 1.2 with a strong day-to-day variation and slightly higher values in summer. So, the summer increase in AOD seems to be linked with an enhancement in the number of fine particles. A radiative closure experiment, using the SMARTS2 model, was performed to confirm that the MFRSR-retrieved aerosol optical properties appropriately represent the continuously varying atmospheric conditions in Girona. Thus, the calculated broadband values of the direct flux show a mean absolute difference of less than 5.9 W m- 2 (0.77%) and R = 0.99 when compared to the observed fluxes. The sensitivity of the achieved closure to uncertainties in AOD and AE was also examined. We use this MFRSR-based dataset as a reference for other ground-based and satellite measurements that might be used to assess the aerosol properties at this site. First, we used observations obtained from a 100 km away AERONET station; despite a general similar behavior when compared with the in-situ MFRSR observations, certain discrepancies for AOD estimates in the different channels (R < 0.84 and slope < 1) appear. Second, AOD products from MISR and MODIS satellite observations were compared with our ground-based retrievals. Reasonable agreements are found for the MISR product (R = 0.92), with somewhat poorer agreement for the MODIS product (R = 0.70). Finally, we apply all these methods to study in detail the aerosol properties during two singular aerosol events related to a forest fire and a desert dust intrusion.

  7. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  8. High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth Mapping of Beijing Using LANSAT8 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Yuanliang; Wu, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is one of the most important parameters in the atmospheric correction of remote sensing images. We present a new method of per pixel AOD retrieval using the imagery of Landsat8. It is based on Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). General dark target method takes dense vegetation pixels as dark targets and derives their 550nm AODs directly from the LUT, and interpolates the AODs of other pixels according to spatial neighbourhood using those of dark target pixels. This method will down estimate the AOD levels for urban areas. We propose an innovative method to retrieval the AODs using multiple temporal data. For a pixel which has nothing change between the associated time, there must exists an intersection of surface albedo. When there are enough data to find the intersection it ought to be a value that meet the error tolerance. In this paper, we present an example of using three temporal Landsat ETM+ image to retrieve AOD taking Beijing as the testing area. The result is compared to the commonly employed dark target algorithm to show the effectiveness of the methods.

  9. Comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) determined from UVMRP and AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is critically important for a better understanding of how Earth's climate is radiatively forced. To compensate for the conventional satellite observations, several types of ground-based radiometers are operated by AOD measurement programs. This study compares the Bratts Lake climate station's long-term AOD measurements from 1999 to 2012 which are derived from two ground-based programs with high accuracy: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program. The comparison shows that, in the 14-year period, the AOD values have an excellent agreement at six wavelengths (368, 415, 500, 610, 665, and 860 nm) with varying slopes (ranging from 0.95763 to 1.04089), intercepts (ranging from 0.0219 to 0.03945), correlation coefficients (R) (ranging from 0.82005 to 0.96155), and root mean square errors (RMSE) (ranging from 0.02639 to 0.03663). The correlations of both monthly and hourly averaged AOD measurements are highly consistent for each band. Specifically, the shorter (with larger AOD values) the wavelength is, the better the correlation is. Also, the results show that the peaks of relative errors generally occur in summer each year, and at noon each day. Our analyses suggest that AOD products derived from UVMRP are accurate and can serve as an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD measurements.

  10. Analysis of the weekly cycle of aerosol optical depth using AERONET and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiangao; Eck, Tom F.; Holben, Brent N.; Phillippe, Goloub; Chen, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    Multi-year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data are used to study AOD weekly variations at the global scale. A clear weekly cycle of AOD is observed in the United States (U.S.) and Central Europe. AOD during the weekday is larger than that during the weekend in 36 out of 43 AERONET sites in the U.S. The average U.S. weekend effect (the percent difference in AOD during the weekday and the weekend) is 3.8%. A weekly periodicity with lower AODs on Sunday and Monday and higher AODs from Wednesday until Saturday is revealed over Central Europe and the average weekend effect there is 4.0%. The weekly cycle in urban sites is greater than that in rural sites. AOD during the weekday is also significantly larger than that during the weekend in urban AERONET sites in South America and South Korea. However, a reversed AOD weekly cycle is observed in the Middle East and India. AODs on Thursday and Friday, the "weekend" for Middle East cultures, are relatively lower than AODs on other days. There is no clear weekly variation of AOD over eastern China. The striking feature in this region is the occurrence of much higher AOD on Sunday and this phenomenon is independent of season. The analysis of MODIS aerosol data is in good agreement with that of AERONET data.

  11. Nine martian years of dust optical depth observations: A reference dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, Luca; Forget, Francois; Kleinboehl, Armin; Kass, David; Wilson, R. John; Millour, Ehouarn; Smith, Michael; Lewis, Stephen; Cantor, Bruce; Lemmon, Mark; Wolff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-annual reference dataset of the horizontal distribution of airborne dust from martian year 24 to 32 using observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to June 2015 made by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Our methodology to build the dataset works by gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. The resulting (irregularly) gridded maps (one per sol) were validated with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. Finally, regular maps of CDOD are produced by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These latter maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modelling applications. The two datasets (daily irregularly gridded maps and regularly kriged maps) for the nine available martian years are publicly available as NetCDF files and can be downloaded from the MCD website at the URL: http://www-mars.lmd.jussieu.fr/mars/dust_climatology/index.html

  12. The estimation of Aerosol Optical Depth in eastern China based on regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Chaoshun; Zhou, Cong

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric pollution and air quality issues are getting worse in China, the formation mechanism of aerosols and their environment effects attracted more and more attention. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is one of the most important parameters which can indicate the atmospheric turbidity and aerosol load. High-quality AOD data are significant for the study in the atmospheric environment (i.e., air quality). This paper used MODIS/Terra AOD in 2008 to improve the coverage of MODIS/Aqua AOD, which was based on linear regression analysis model. RMSE between estimation value and AquaAOD detected through satellite is 0.132. The average value of test data was 0.812. The average of regression result was 0.807. It showed that the regression model between AODTerra and AODAqua worked well. Also, we built two sets of estimation models (MODIS AOD and OMI AOD) through stepwise regression analysis model. One is using OMI AOD and meteorological elements to estimate MODIS AOD. The value of RMSE was 0.113, which represents 13.916% of the average(R2=0.782). The other one is using MODIS AOD and meteorological elements to estimate OMI AOD. RMSE of the model is 0.132, which represents 18.182% of the average (R2=0.726).

  13. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over land using MSG/SEVIRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Lu; Xue, Yong; Guang, Jie; Di, Aojie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we proposed an algorithm to estimate hourly Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) using multi-temporal data from SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The algorithm coupled a Radiative Transfer Model with Ross-Li-sparse bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) to calculate the AOD and bidirectional reflectance simultaneously using the visible and near-infrared (NIR) channel of SEVIRI data. We assume the surface albedo doesn't vary over a short time (e.g. 1 day), and a κ-ratio approach was used which assumes the ratio of surface reflectance in the visible and NIR channel for two observations is the same. In the inversion, the MODIS product (MCD43) was used as the prior information of the surface reflectance and the single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (g) were derived from six pre-defined aerosol types. The retrieved AOD and AngstrÖm exponent α were compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements, which shows good consistency.

  14. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  15. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; Ritter, C.; Sakai, T.; Santer, B. D.; Sato, M.; Schmidt, A.; Uchino, O.; Vernier, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  16. Towards next-generation time-domain diffuse optics for extreme depth penetration and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mora, Alberto Dalla; Contini, Davide; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Light is a powerful tool to non-invasively probe highly scattering media for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. Here we show that, for a paradigmatic case of diffuse optical imaging, ideal yet realistic time-domain systems yield more than 2-fold higher depth penetration and many decades higher contrast as compared to ideal continuous-wave systems, by adopting a dense source-detector distribution with picosecond time-gating. Towards this aim, we demonstrate the first building block made of a source-detector pair directly embedded into the probe based on a pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) to allow parallelization for dense coverage, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to maximize light harvesting, and a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to demonstrate the time-gating capability on the basic SiPM element. This paves the way to a dramatic advancement in terms of increased performances, new high impact applications, and availability of devices with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost for widespread use, including quantitative wearable imaging. PMID:26137377

  17. Spatio-temporal evaluation of resolution enhancement for passive microwave soil moisture and vegetation optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, A. I.; Parinussa, R. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; de Jeu, R. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Space-borne passive microwave radiometers are used to derive land surface parameters such as surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth (VOD). However, the value of such products in regional hydrology is limited by their coarse resolution. In this study, the land parameter retrieval model (LPRM) is used to derive enhanced resolution (∼10 km) soil moisture and VOD from advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures sharpened by a modulation technique based on high-frequency observations. A precipitation mask based on brightness temperatures was applied to remove precipitation artefacts in the sharpened LPRM products. The spatial and temporal patterns in the resulting products are evaluated against field-measured and modeled soil moisture as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over mainland Australia. Results show that resolution enhancement accurately sharpens the boundaries of different vegetation types, lakes and wetlands. Significant changes in temporal agreement between LPRM products and related datasets are limited to specific areas, such as lakes and coastal areas. Spatial correlations, on the other hand, increase over most of Australia. In addition, hydrological signals from irrigation and water bodies that were absent in the low-resolution soil moisture product become clearly visible after resolution enhancement. The increased information detail in the high-resolution LPRM products should benefit hydrological studies at regional scales.

  18. A Critical Look at Deriving Monthly Aerosol Optical Depth from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Leptoukh, Gregory, G.; Kahn, Ralph; Gopalan, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Satellite-derived aerosol data sets, such as those provided by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, are greatly improving our understanding of global aerosol optical depth (AOD). Yet, there are sampling issues. MODIS specific orbital geometry, convolved with the need to avoid bright surfaces (glint, desert, clouds, etc.), means that AOD can be under- or over-sampled in places. When deriving downstream products, such as daily or monthly gridded AOD, one must consider the spatial and temporal density of the measurements relative to the gradients of the true AOD. Additionally, retrieval confidence criteria should be considered. Averaged products are highly dependent on choices made for data aggregation and weighting, and sampling errors can be further propagated when deriving regional or global mean AOD. Different choices for aggregation and weighting result in estimates of regional and global means varying by 30% or more. The impacts of a particular averaging algorithm vary by region and surface type and can be shown to represent different tolerance for clouds and retrieval confidence.

  19. The uncertainty of MODIS C6 aerosol optical depth product over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yerong; de Graaf, Martin; Menenti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has an important impact on climate change and air quality. A number of AOD satellite data products have been released, like Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD product, which are further applied for monitoring PM2.5, for long-term aerosol trend analysis, and for estimating aerosol radiative forcing. However, the accuracy of MODIS AOD product with ±0.03 or 15-20% of global mean value over land is still low for extensive scientific research. To investigate the accuracy of the product, a synthetic experiment was designed where the errors introduced by both radiometry and algorithm, e.g. instrument calibration, gas correction and cloud mask, and some assumptions on aerosol properties can be removed. Through analysis of the mean value of retrieved AOD over 1520 observational configurations, the algorithm performs very well with small errors (up to 0.2%) for most cases, while for some extreme cases (eg., AOD=5.0), it performs less accurately (> 3%). The uncertainty also shows a trend related to the geometry of observations (e.g., scattering angle). The results suggest higher accuracy at large scattering angles, and lower accuracy at small scattering angles. The main reason for the uncertainty is an inappropriate assumption on surface reflectance, where surface reflectance is regarded as a function of aerosol loading and mixing ratio. Therefore, a more accurate representation of the surface reflectance will increase the accuracy of the MODIS AOD product.

  20. Towards next-generation time-domain diffuse optics for extreme depth penetration and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Alberto Dalla; Contini, Davide; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Light is a powerful tool to non-invasively probe highly scattering media for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. Here we show that, for a paradigmatic case of diffuse optical imaging, ideal yet realistic time-domain systems yield more than 2-fold higher depth penetration and many decades higher contrast as compared to ideal continuous-wave systems, by adopting a dense source-detector distribution with picosecond time-gating. Towards this aim, we demonstrate the first building block made of a source-detector pair directly embedded into the probe based on a pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) to allow parallelization for dense coverage, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to maximize light harvesting, and a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to demonstrate the time-gating capability on the basic SiPM element. This paves the way to a dramatic advancement in terms of increased performances, new high impact applications, and availability of devices with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost for widespread use, including quantitative wearable imaging. PMID:26137377

  1. Towards next-generation time-domain diffuse optics for extreme depth penetration and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mora, Alberto Dalla; Contini, Davide; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Light is a powerful tool to non-invasively probe highly scattering media for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. Here we show that, for a paradigmatic case of diffuse optical imaging, ideal yet realistic time-domain systems yield more than 2-fold higher depth penetration and many decades higher contrast as compared to ideal continuous-wave systems, by adopting a dense source-detector distribution with picosecond time-gating. Towards this aim, we demonstrate the first building block made of a source-detector pair directly embedded into the probe based on a pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) to allow parallelization for dense coverage, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to maximize light harvesting, and a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to demonstrate the time-gating capability on the basic SiPM element. This paves the way to a dramatic advancement in terms of increased performances, new high impact applications, and availability of devices with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost for widespread use, including quantitative wearable imaging.

  2. Estimation of aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths by multiple regression method.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fuyi; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Holben, Brent

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to investigate and establish a suitable model that can help to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD) in order to monitor aerosol variations especially during non-retrieval time. The relationship between actual ground measurements (such as air pollution index, visibility, relative humidity, temperature, and pressure) and AOD obtained with a CIMEL sun photometer was determined through a series of statistical procedures to produce an AOD prediction model with reasonable accuracy. The AOD prediction model calibrated for each wavelength has a set of coefficients. The model was validated using a set of statistical tests. The validated model was then employed to calculate AOD at different wavelengths. The results show that the proposed model successfully predicted AOD at each studied wavelength ranging from 340 nm to 1020 nm. To illustrate the application of the model, the aerosol size determined using measure AOD data for Penang was compared with that determined using the model. This was done by examining the curvature in the ln [AOD]-ln [wavelength] plot. Consistency was obtained when it was concluded that Penang was dominated by fine mode aerosol in 2012 and 2013 using both measured and predicted AOD data. These results indicate that the proposed AOD prediction model using routine measurements as input is a promising tool for the regular monitoring of aerosol variation during non-retrieval time.

  3. Observations of Black Carbon and Aerosol Optical Depth in the Kali Gandaki Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    During recent years there has been increasing concern about the deposition of black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic Plains onto the glaciers and snowfields of the Tibetan Plateau. There has also been increasing concern about the rapid increase in air temperature at high altitudes over the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya. To date, there is very little knowledge about the transport pathways for pollutants traveling from the Indo-Gangetic Plains across the Himalaya to the Tibetan Plateau. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from South Asia to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.). The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Observations of BC and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from Aeronet are analyzed and presented. Diurnal and seasonal patterns of BC have been observed with higher values during the day and lower at night and also highest during pre-monsoon and lowest during monsoon season, with observed BC concentrations exceeding 5 μg while average concentration around 3.7 μg.

  4. Relationship between the effective cloud optical depth and different atmospheric transmission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, D.; Marín, M. J.; Núñez, M.; Gandía, S.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of cloud optical depth (COD) for overcast conditions to radiation transmission using data collected in Valencia, Spain. These relationships are provided as simple empirical functions, therefore avoiding the need to apply complex model minimisation schemes to obtain COD. Comparisons are presented between COD obtained by a minimization method and several radiation transmission factors comprising a clearness index (kt), a modified version (kt'), a cloud modification factor (CMF) and its modified version (CMF'). Additionally, a statistical model of COD proposed by J.C. Barnard and C.N. Long (2004) is tested with our data. Statistical relationships between COD and these variables were developed for measurements in the ultraviolet Erythema Radiation (UVER) range as well as for broadband measurements covering the full solar spectrum. Measurements collected in 2011 were used to develop power and exponential relationships relating COD to the above transmission factors, and subsequently tested with independent data collected in 2012. In general, expressions relating COD to CMF perform better and exhibit a higher correlation than equivalent expressions relating COD to clearness indices, especially in the UVER range. The expression of Barnard and Long is potentially adequate for the estimation of COD for both UVER and broadband solar radiation in Valencia, but the regression coefficients need tuning for local conditions.

  5. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: A Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.

    2008-10-13

    A novel method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) under partly cloudy conditions has been suggested. The method exploits reflectance ratios, which are not sensitive to the three-dimensional (3D) effects of clouds. As a result, the new method provides an effective way to avoid the 3D cloud effects, which otherwise would have a large (up to 140%) contaminating impact on the aerosol retrievals. The 1D version of the radiative transfer model has been used to develop look-up tables (LUTs) of reflectance ratios as functions of two parameters describing the spectral dependence of AOD (a power law). The new method implements an innovative 2D inversion for simultaneous retrieval of these two parameters and, thus, the spectral behavior of AOD. The performance of the new method has been illustrated with a model-output inverse problem. We demonstrated that a new retrieval has the potential for (i) detection of clear pixels outside of cloud shadows and (ii) accurate (~15%) estimation of AOD for the majority of them.

  6. Total volcanic stratospheric aerosol optical depths and implications for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R.; Nevzorov, A. V.; Ritter, C.; Sakai, T.; Santer, B. D.; Sato, M.; Schmidt, A.; Uchino, O.; Vernier, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be -0.19 ± 0.09 Wm-2. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12°C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  7. Depth of focus extended intraocular lenses and their optical performances in a pseudophakic eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Qi; Rao, Feng; Liu, Yong-Ji

    2010-10-01

    Eye model is firstly used to design and assess the performance of intraocular lenses (IOL) with extended depth of focus (DOF), including aspherical IOL, refractive multifocal IOL and diffractive multifocal IOL. The details of design and optimization are given, and the optical performance of the pseudophakic eye with the designed IOLs is assessed with the spot diagram and the visual acuity. For the pseudophakic eye with 3mm pupil, when the spherical aberration is fully corrected by the aspherical IOL, the best visual acuity reaches 1.2 with a DOF of only 1.4D. Whereas when the spherical aberration is 0.4λ, the best visual acuity is 0.9 with a DOF as much as 2.2D. With the implantation of refractive or diffractive multifocal IOL, the pseudophakic eye has fairly good distant and near vision, while the intermediate vision is worse. Diffractive multifocal IOL diverts 81% of the input light to two primary focuses equally, with the additional 19% of the light wasted as higher order diffraction. Refractive multifocal IOL diverts all the light to two focuses but the light distribution varies with the pupil diameter.

  8. Major optical depth perturbations to the stratosphere from volcanic eruptions: Steller extinction period, 1961-1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    2001-02-01

    A revised chronology of stratospheric aerosol extinction due to volcanic eruptions has been assembled for the period 1961-1978, which immediately precedes the era of dedicated satellite measurements. On the whole, the most accurate data consist of published observations of stellar extinction, supplemented in part by other kinds of observational data. The period covered encompasses the important eruptions of Agung (1963) and Fuego (1974), whose dust veils are discussed with respect to their transport, decay, and total mass. The effective (area-weighted mean) radii of the aerosols for both eruptions are found to be 0.3-0.4 μm. It is confirmed that, among known tropical eruptions, Agung's dust was unique for a low-latitude eruption in remaining almost entirely confined to the hemisphere of its production. A new table of homogeneous visual optical depth perturbations, listed by year and by hemisphere, is provided for the whole period 1881-1978, including the pyrheliometric period before 1961 that was investigated previously.

  9. Assimilation of next generation geostationary aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Kim, Jhoon; Song, Chul H.; Choi, Myungje; Cheng, Yafang; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2014-12-01

    Planned geostationary satellites will provide aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at high temporal and spatial resolution which will be incorporated into current assimilation systems that use low-Earth orbiting (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) AOD. The impacts of such additions are explored in a real case scenario using AOD from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on board of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite, a geostationary satellite observing northeast Asia. The addition of GOCI AOD into the assimilation system generated positive impacts, which were found to be substantial in comparison to only assimilating MODIS AOD. We found that GOCI AOD can help significantly to improve surface air quality simulations in Korea for dust, biomass burning smoke, and anthropogenic pollution episodes when the model represents the extent of the pollution episodes and retrievals are not contaminated by clouds. We anticipate future geostationary missions to considerably contribute to air quality forecasting and provide better reanalyses for health assessments and climate studies.

  10. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris A.; Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2010-10-06

    A recently developed reflectance ratio (RR) method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is evaluated using extensive airborne and ground-based data sets collected during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) and the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), which took place in June 2007 over the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site. A detailed case study is performed for a field of single-layer shallow cumuli observed on June 12, 2007. The RR method is applied to retrieve the spectral values of AOD from the reflectance ratios measured by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) for two pairs of wavelengths (660 and 470 nm and 870 and 470 nm) collected at a spatial resolution of 0.05 km. The retrieval is compared with an independent AOD estimate from three ground-based Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The interpolation algorithm that is used to project MFRSR point measurements onto the aircraft flight tracks is tested using AOD derived from NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RR AOD estimates are in a good agreement (within 5%) with the MFRSR-derived AOD values for the 660-nm wavelength. The AODs obtained from MAS reflectance ratios overestimate those derived from MFRSR measurements by 15-30% for the 470-nm wavelength and underestimate the 870-nm AOD by the same amount.

  11. A Simple Stochastic Model for Generating Broken Cloud Optical Depth and Top Height Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigarin, Sergei M.; Marshak, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    A simple and fast algorithm for generating two correlated stochastic twodimensional (2D) cloud fields is described. The algorithm is illustrated with two broken cumulus cloud fields: cloud optical depth and cloud top height retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Only two 2D fields are required as an input. The algorithm output is statistical realizations of these two fields with approximately the same correlation and joint distribution functions as the original ones. The major assumption of the algorithm is statistical isotropy of the fields. In contrast to fractals and the Fourier filtering methods frequently used for stochastic cloud modeling, the proposed method is based on spectral models of homogeneous random fields. For keeping the same probability density function as the (first) original field, the method of inverse distribution function is used. When the spatial distribution of the first field has been generated, a realization of the correlated second field is simulated using a conditional distribution matrix. This paper is served as a theoretical justification to the publicly available software that has been recently released by the authors and can be freely downloaded from http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Public codes clouds.htm. Though 2D rather than full 3D, stochastic realizations of two correlated cloud fields that mimic statistics of given fields have proved to be very useful to study 3D radiative transfer features of broken cumulus clouds for better understanding of shortwave radiation and interpretation of the remote sensing retrievals.

  12. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical depth observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.

    2011-08-01

    We present statistics on the horizontal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) directly measured from the NASA P-3 aircraft. Our measurements during two contrasting phases (in Alaska and Canada) of the ARCTAS mission arguably constrain the variability in most aerosol environments common over the globe. In the Canada phase, which features local emissions, 499 nm AOD has a median relative standard deviation (stdrel, med) of 19 % and 9 % and an autocorrelation (r) of 0.37 and 0.71 over 20 km and 6 km horizontal segments, respectively. In the Alaska phase, which features long-range transport, the variability is considerably lower (stdrel, med = 3 %, r = 0.92 even over 35.2 km). Compared to the magnitude of AOD, its wavelength dependence varies less in the Canada phase, more in the Alaska phase. We translate these findings from straight-line flight tracks into grid boxes and points, to help interpretation and design of satellite remote sensing, suborbital observations and transport modeling.

  13. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical depth observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present statistics on the horizontal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) directly measured from the NASA P-3 aircraft. Our measurements during two contrasting phases (in Alaska and Canada) of the ARCTAS mission arguably constrain the variability in most aerosol environments common over the globe. In the Canada phase, which features local emissions, 499 nm AOD has a median relative standard deviation (stdrel,med) of 19 % and 9 % and an autocorrelation (r) of 0.37 and 0.71 over 20 km and 6 km horizontal segments, respectively. In the Alaska phase, which features long-range transport, the variability is considerably lower (stdrel,med = 3 %, r = 0.92 even over 35.2 km). Compared to the magnitude of AOD, its wavelength dependence varies less in the Canada phase, more in the Alaska phase. We translate these findings from straight-line flight tracks into grid boxes and points, to help interpretation and design of satellite remote sensing, suborbital observations and transport modeling.

  14. Validation of ASH Optical Depth and Layer Height from IASI using Earlinet Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, D.; Siomos, N.; Koukouli, M.; Clarisse, L.; Carboni, E.; Ventress, L.; Grainger, R.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2016-06-01

    The 2010 eruptions of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull attracted the attention of the public and the scientific community to the vulnerability of the European airspace to volcanic eruptions. The European Space Agency project "Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards", called for the creation of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on improved and dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide level assessments, as well as an extensive validation, using among others ground-based measurements (Koukouli et al., 2014). The validation of volcanic ash levels and height extracted from IASI/MetopA is presented in this work with emphasis on the ash plume height and ash optical depth levels. European Aerosol Research Lidar Network [EARLINET] lidar measurements are compared to different satellite estimates for two eruptive episodes. The validation results are extremely promising within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative datasets.

  15. Trends in aerosol optical depth in northern China retrieved from sunshine duration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Run; Liu, Shaw Chen; Shiu, Chein-Jung; Wang, Jingli; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-01-01

    A new method has been developed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sunshine duration (SSD). Retrieved AODs from SSD at the six stations in northern China in 2003-2005 agree reasonably well with AODs retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations near the six stations. Values and trends in AOD retrieved from SSD in Beijing and Tianjin in the period 1961-2005 also agree with those retrieved from solar radiation and visibility. These agreements allow the retrieval of credible upper and lower limits for anthropogenic AODs from SSD at the six stations during 1961-2005. The trends in anthropogenic AODs are approximately a factor of 3 to 5 lower than the trends in emissions of gas-phase precursors of aerosols in 1973-2005, implying a significant sublinear relationship between the level of aerosols and emissions of their gas phase precursors. This finding has important implications for formulating a control strategy for PM2.5 or haze pollution in northern China.

  16. Theoretical gravity darkening as a function of optical depth. A first approach to fast rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claret, A.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: Recent observations of very fast rotating stars show systematic deviations from the von Zeipel theorem and pose a challenge to the theory of gravity-darkening exponents (β1). In this paper, we present a new insight into the problem of temperature distribution over distorted stellar surfaces to try to reduce these discrepancies. Methods: We use a variant of the numerical method based on the triangles strategy, which we previously introduced, to evaluate the gravity-darkening exponents. The novelty of the present method is that the theoretical β1 is now computed as a function of the optical depth, that is, β1 ≡ β1(τ). The stellar evolutionary models, which are necessary to obtain the physical conditions of the stellar envelopes/atmospheres inherent to the numerical method, are computed via the code GRANADA. Results: When the resulting theoretical β1(τ) are compared with the best accurate data of very fast rotators, a good agreement for the six systems is simultaneously achieved. In addition, we derive an equation that relates the locus of constant convective efficiency in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram with gravity-darkening exponents.

  17. Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over East Asia via data assimilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over East Asia simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over East Asia.

  18. Comparison of Satellite Observations of Aerosol Optical Depth to Surface Monitor Fine Particle Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Mary M.; AlSaadi, Jassim A.; Neil, Doreen O.; Pierce, Robert B.; Pippin, Margartet R.; Roell, Marilee M.; Kittaka, Chieko; Szykman, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Applications Program, the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) project examined the relationship between satellite observations and surface monitors of air pollutants to facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network. This report provides a comparison of satellite aerosol optical depth to surface monitor fine particle concentration observations for the month of September 2003 at more than 300 individual locations in the continental US. During September 2003, IDEA provided prototype, near real-time data-fusion products to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed toward improving the accuracy of EPA s next-day Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts. Researchers from NASA Langley Research Center and EPA used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument combined with EPA ground network data to create a NASA-data-enhanced Forecast Tool. Air quality forecasters used this tool to prepare their forecasts of particle pollution, or particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), for the next-day AQI. The archived data provide a rich resource for further studies and analysis. The IDEA project uses data sets and models developed for tropospheric chemistry research to assist federal, state, and local agencies in making decisions concerning air quality management to protect public health.

  19. Use of Remotely Sensed Aerosol Optical Depth in Particulate Matter Forecasting for Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. L.; Crist, K.

    2011-12-01

    Cincinnati, a large metropolitan area in southwestern Ohio, has been listed as a non-attainment area based on the EPA 1997 PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5μm) standard with a number of unhealthy days reported annually for sensitive groups. AirNow provides air quality index for the city, but its accuracy largely depends on the air quality forecast models used and ground-based monitoring network measurements. These networks are inherently limited by their sparse distribution; nonetheless, they form an integral part of many decision-making structure and epidemiological studies. Remote sensing instruments such as MODIS provide daily aerosol optical depth (AOD) products with almost global spatial coverage, which are available on a near-real-time (NRT) basis. This work aims to show that the NRT AOD product obtained from MODIS can improve the air quality forecast in the Cincinnati area. To achieve this, an evaluation of the correlation of AOD retrievals with ground-based PM2.5 observations is carried out. Further to which, the MODIS AOD data is included as a variable in a statistical model to bolster current PM2.5 forecasting capabilities. Other key input parameters to the multiple linear regression model includes surface and vertical weather patterns, mixing height, local wind patterns, relative humidity and temperature.

  20. Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Jang, Kiwan; Park, Sang-An; Kim, Duck-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2006-09-01

    Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys were investigated in the composition region of 0.0 x 0.4 and in the wavelength region of 300 to 2500 nm at 4.8 K and 290 K. We observed several absorption bands in the wavelength regions corresponding to the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4P) transition and the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4F) transition of Co2+ at a tetrahedral Td point symmetry point in the host crystals, as well as unknown absorption bands. The several absorption bands were analyzed in the framework of the crystal-field theory along with the second-order spin-orbit coupling. The unknown absorption bands were assigned as due to phonon-assisted absorption bands. We also investigated the variations of the crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameter B with composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system. The results showed that the crystal-field parameter (Dq ) increases, on the other hand, the Racah parameter (B ) decreases with increasing composition x, which may be connected with an increase in the covalency of the metal-ligand bond with increasing composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system.

  1. Anisotropic nonlinear optical absorption of gold nanorods in a silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Billard, Franck; Kerboua, Chahineze Harkati; Lequime, Michel; Roorda, Sjoerd; Martinu, Ludvik

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposite films consisting of gold nanospheres or gold nanorods embedded in a silica matrix have been prepared using a hybrid deposition technique consisting of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 and co-sputtering of gold, followed by annealing at 900 °C. Subsequent irradiation with 30 MeV heavy ions (Cu5+) was used to form gold nanorods. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of this material are closely related with the surface plasmon resonance in the visible. The nonlinear absorption coefficient (α2@532 nm) for the films containing gold nanospheres was measured by Z-scan and P-scan techniques, and it was found to be isotropic and equal to -4.8 × 10-2 cm/W. On the contrary, gold nanorods films exhibited two distinct surface plasmon resonance absorption bands giving rise to a strong anisotropic behavior, namely a polarization-dependent linear absorption and saturable absorption. Z-scan and P-scan measurements using various light polarization directions yielded nonlinear absorption coefficient (α2@532 nm) values varying from -0.9 × 10-2 cm/W up to -3.0 × 10-2 cm/W. Linearity of the P-scan method in the context of nanocomposite saturable absorption is also discussed.

  2. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2016-05-01

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  3. Active optics for dynamical correction of fluctuations of atmospheric refraction on a differential optical absorption spectroscopy device.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Inzunza, Rodrigo A; Gutiérrez, Javier; Saavedra, Carlos

    2012-10-20

    We have designed and developed a feedback mechanism for continuous monitoring in a long-pass differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) setup. This allows one to correct photo-thermal deflection due to the local fluctuations refraction index of the air. For this purpose, using an unbalanced beam splitter, a small fraction of the collected DOAS signal is imaged onto a low-cost CCD camera using a biconvex lens, while the other portion of the signal is coupled into a fiber optic for trace gas detection. By monitoring the registered signal at the CCD camera, a feedback mechanism acting on the transversal position of the lens is able to compensate an arbitrary transversal displacement of the collected signal at the focal plane of the receiver telescope, allowing an optimal coupling into the optical fiber. PMID:23089775

  4. Fiber-optic thermometer using temperature dependent absorption, broadband detection, and time domain referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Piltch, Nancy D.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber-optic thermometer based on temperature dependent absorption in Nd(3+) doped glass is demonstrated over the 298-573 K range. A broadband detection technique allows the use of the complete spectrum of a pulse modulated light emitting diode. A fiber-optic recirculating loop is employed to construct a reference channel in the time domain by generating a train of pulses from one initial pulse. A theoretical model is developed, and experimental data are shown to compare well with the theory. Possible sources of error and instability are identified, and ways to enhance the performance of the system are proposed.

  5. 'Diamondlike' carbon films - Optical absorption, dielectric properties, and hardness dependence on deposition parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natarajan, V.; Lamb, J. D.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D. C.; Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    An RF plasma deposition system was used to prepare amorphous 'diamondlike' carbon films. The source gases for the RF system include methane, ethylene, propane, and propylene, and the parameters varied were power, dc substrate bias, and postdeposition anneal temperature. Films were deposited on various substrates. The main diagnostics were optical absorption in the visible and in the infrared, admittance as a function of frequency, hardness, and Auger and ESCA spectroscopy. Band gap is found to depend strongly on RF power level and band gaps up to 2.7 eV and hardness up to 7 Mohs were found. There appears to be an inverse relationship between hardness and optical band gap.

  6. Optical absorption enhancement in slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Wen; Li, Zhao-Feng; Liu, Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    We investigate slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays as light absorbing structures for solar photovoltaics via simulation. With only 1-μm equivalent thickness, a maximum short-circuit current density of 34.9 mA/cm2 is obtained. Moreover, by adding an Ag mirror under the whole structure, a short-circuit current density of 37.9 mA/cm2 is attained. It is understood that the optical absorption enhancement mainly results from three aspects. First, the silicon nanocone holes provide a highly efficient antireflection effect. Second, after breaking the geometric symmetry, the slanted silicon nanocone hole supports more resonant absorption modes than vertical structures. Third, the Fabry-Perot resonance enhances the light absorption after adding an Ag mirror. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274066, 61474115, and 61504138) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032602).

  7. Spectrum sensing of trace C(2)H(2) detection in differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Dong, Xiaopeng

    2014-09-10

    An improved algorithm for trace C(2)H(2) detection is presented in this paper. The trace concentration is accurately calculated by focusing on the absorption spectrum from the frequency domain perspective. The advantage of the absorption spectroscopy frequency domain algorithm is its anti-interference capability. First, the influence of the background noise on the minimum detectable concentration is greatly reduced. Second, the time-consuming preprocess of spectra calibration in the differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique is skipped. Experimental results showed the detection limit of 50 ppm is achieved at a lightpath length of 0.2 m. This algorithm can be used in real-time spectrum analysis with high accuracy.

  8. Optical absorption signature of a self-assembled dye monolayer on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Sghaier, Tessnim; Le Liepvre, Sylvain; Fiorini, Céline; Douillard, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Summary A well-organized monolayer of alkylated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-diimide (PTCDI) has been formed onto CVD graphene transferred on a transparent substrate. Its structure has been probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy and its optical properties by polarized transmission spectroscopy at varying incidence. The results show that the transition dipoles of adsorbed PTCDI are all oriented parallel to the substrate. The maximum absorption is consistent with the measured surface density of molecules and their absorption cross section. The spectrum presents mainly a large red-shift of the absorption line compared with the free molecules dispersed in solution, whereas the relative strengths of the vibronic structures are preserved. These changes are attributed to non-resonant interactions with the graphene layer and the neighbouring molecules. PMID:27547603

  9. Optical absorption signature of a self-assembled dye monolayer on graphene.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Tessnim; Le Liepvre, Sylvain; Fiorini, Céline; Douillard, Ludovic; Charra, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    A well-organized monolayer of alkylated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-diimide (PTCDI) has been formed onto CVD graphene transferred on a transparent substrate. Its structure has been probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy and its optical properties by polarized transmission spectroscopy at varying incidence. The results show that the transition dipoles of adsorbed PTCDI are all oriented parallel to the substrate. The maximum absorption is consistent with the measured surface density of molecules and their absorption cross section. The spectrum presents mainly a large red-shift of the absorption line compared with the free molecules dispersed in solution, whereas the relative strengths of the vibronic structures are preserved. These changes are attributed to non-resonant interactions with the graphene layer and the neighbouring molecules. PMID:27547603

  10. Optical absorption of dilute nitride alloys using self-consistent Green’s function method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the optical absorption for InGaNAs and GaNSb using the band anticrossing (BAC) model and a self-consistent Green’s function (SCGF) method. In the BAC model, we include the interaction of isolated and pair N levels with the host matrix conduction and valence bands. In the SCGF approach, we include a full distribution of N states, with non-parabolic conduction and light-hole bands, and parabolic heavy-hole and spin-split-off bands. The comparison with experiments shows that the first model accounts for many features of the absorption spectrum in InGaNAs; including the full distribution of N states improves this agreement. Our calculated absorption spectra for GaNSb alloys predict the band edges correctly but show more features than are seen experimentally. This suggests the presence of more disorder in GaNSb alloys in comparison with InGaNAs. PMID:24475947

  11. Optical absorption and emission characterization of P3HT: graphene composite for its prospective photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Prasad, Neetu; Nirwal, Varun Singh; Gautam, Khyati; Peta, Koteswara Rao; Bhatnagar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, regioregular P3HT (Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) was blended with graphene nanopowder and the optical spectroscopic characterization of the composite has been performed. It was observed that at low concentration of graphene (up to 0.1 wt %) there is no significant variation in absorption intensity or wavelength range. But at higher concentration (> 0.1 wt %) the absorption intensity starts reducing. Whereas, the photoluminescence of the composite solution quenches as we increase the concentration of graphene. It reveals that charge recombination decreases with increase in concentration (0.05 to 0.5 wt %) of graphene. Therefore 0.1 wt % seems to be the optimized concentration of graphene in the composite for which appropriate quenching of PL was observed without any significant reduction in absorption of photons. Thus maximum efficiency in P3HT: graphene composite photovoltaic cell is expected for 0.1 wt % of graphene concentration in our typical case.

  12. Optical absorption and radiative heat transport in olivine at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankland, T. J.; Nitsan, U.; Duba, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the optical absorption spectra (300-8000 nm) of olivine as a function of temperature (300-1700 K) under conditions of controlled and known oxygen fugacity within the stability field of the samples. The absorption spectra are used to calculate the temperature-dependent radiative transfer coefficient of olivine and to numerically study the accuracy of the method. The present absorption measurements in olivine under oxidizing conditions known to be within the olivine stability field indicate that the effective radiative conductivity K(R) is lower than that obtained in previous studies under different experimental conditions. The lower value of K(R) makes it more likely that some of the earth's internal heat is removed by convection and less likely that thermal models involving conduction and radiation alone will satisfactorily explain thermal conditions in the earth's mantle.

  13. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography by stochastic search: direct recovery of the optical absorption field.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Mamatha; van Es, Peter; Manohar, Srirang; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-09-15

    We present, perhaps for the first time, a stochastic search algorithm in quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT) for a one-step recovery of the optical absorption map from time-resolved photoacoustic signals. Such a direct recovery is free of the numerical inaccuracies inherent in conventional two-step approaches that depend on an accurate estimation of the absorbed energy distribution. The absorption profile parameterized as a vector stochastic process is additively updated over time recursions so as to drive the measurement-prediction misfit to a zero-mean white noise. The derivative-free additive update is a welcome departure from the conventional gradient-based methods requiring evaluation of Jacobians at every recursion. The quantitative accuracy of the recovered absorption map from both numerical and experimental data is good with an overall error of less than 10%.

  14. Magnetopolaron effects on the optical absorptions in a parabolic quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihua, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the influence of magnetic field on the linear and nonlinear optical absorptions in a parabolic quantumdot(QD) through electron—LO-phonon interaction by using the Lee-Low-Pines-Huybrecht variational calculation for all coupling strengths. We apply our calculations to GaAs which is a good candidate in III–V group semiconductors. We find that all the absorption spectra are strongly affected by the electron—LO-phonon interaction, the applied magnetic field, and the Coulomb binding potential. Furthermore, due to the Zeeman splitting, the response of all the absorption values in transition (+1→0) and (‑1→0) closely depends on the magnetic field increasing.

  15. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography by stochastic search: direct recovery of the optical absorption field.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Mamatha; van Es, Peter; Manohar, Srirang; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-09-15

    We present, perhaps for the first time, a stochastic search algorithm in quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT) for a one-step recovery of the optical absorption map from time-resolved photoacoustic signals. Such a direct recovery is free of the numerical inaccuracies inherent in conventional two-step approaches that depend on an accurate estimation of the absorbed energy distribution. The absorption profile parameterized as a vector stochastic process is additively updated over time recursions so as to drive the measurement-prediction misfit to a zero-mean white noise. The derivative-free additive update is a welcome departure from the conventional gradient-based methods requiring evaluation of Jacobians at every recursion. The quantitative accuracy of the recovered absorption map from both numerical and experimental data is good with an overall error of less than 10%. PMID:27628357

  16. Solar absorptance degradation of optical solar reflector radiators on the Spacenet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Telemetry data are presented for two communications hybrid satellites, Spacenet I and Spacenet II, collected to determine the long-term temperature trend and associated solar absorptance degradation of the optical solar reflectors (OSRs). A thermal model was used to calculate the thermal sensitivity of various OSR components to changes in the solar absorptance and to determine absolute values of solar absorptance. The separation of the data into sunlit and nonsunlit periods made it possible to confirm the hypothesis that degradation occurs under the catalytic activity of direct sunlight on the spacecraft contaminants. The differences found between the degradation rates for Spacenet-I and Spacenet-II satellites and between the present results and published reports on other satellites are considered to be related to variations in the volume of spacecraft contaminants.

  17. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures.

  18. Radiation Induced Optical Absorption of Cubic Lead Fluoride Crystals and the Effect of Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guo-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Li, Huan-Ying; Wu, Yun-Tao; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Qin, Lai-Shun

    2014-08-01

    Transparent and colorless lead fluoride crystals with sizes of 20 × 20 × 20 (mm3) are irradiated with several doses of γ-rays from a 60 Co source. Their transmittance spectra before and after irradiation are measured, and a new parameter ΔT = Tb - Ta is defined to evaluate the irradiation damage. Three optical absorption bands peaking at 270 nm, 370 nm and 500 nm are found in the plots of ΔT versus wavelength, and their intensities increase with the irradiation dose. These optical absorption bands, except the one at 270 nm, can recover spontaneously with time. Thermal annealing treatment can enhance this recovery of the transmittance, while the optimum annealing temperature for different samples depends on the irradiation dose.

  19. Solar energy absorption characteristics and the effects of heat on the optical properties of several coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The solar energy absorption characteristics of several high temperature coatings were determined and effects of heat on these coatings were evaluated. Included in the investigation were an electroplated alloy of black chrome and vanadium, electroplated black chrome, and chemically colored 316 stainless steel. Each of the coatings possessed good selective solar energy absorption properties at laboratory ambient temperature. Measured at a temperature of 700 K (800 F), the emittances of black chrome, black chrome vanadium, and colored stainless steel were 0.11, 0.61, and 0.15, respectively. Black chrome and black chrome vanadium did not degrade optically in the presence of high heat (811 K (1000 F)). Chemically colored stainless steel showed slight optical degradation when exposed to moderately high heat (616 K (650 F)0, but showed more severe degradation at exposure temperatures beyond this level. Each of the coatings showed good corrosion resistance to a salt spray environment.

  20. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer.

    PubMed

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-11

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures. PMID:27015478