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Sample records for absorption rate coefficient

  1. Measurement of diffusion coefficients important in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, R.L.; Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.

    1997-03-01

    Natural gas processors use amine treating processes to remove the acid gases H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} from gas streams. Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. The absorption rate was found to be insensitive to the diffusion coefficient of CO{sub 2} in solution but very sensitive to the diffusion rate of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA ions. Evidence also suggested that chemical reaction equilibrium is rapid relative to diffusion. A numerical model was developed on the basis of these observations. The modelmore » was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated amine, which must be equivalent by electroneutrality arguments, from measured absorption rates. Complete modeling of the absorption process also required data for the diffusion coefficient of MDEA in water. These were measured using a Taylor dispersion apparatus. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA in water.« less

  2. Human biokinetics of strontium. Part I: intestinal absorption rate and its impact on the dose coefficient of 90Sr after ingestion.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Bo; Höllriegl, Vera; Roth, Paul; Oeh, Uwe

    2006-07-01

    Intestinal absorption of strontium (Sr) in thirteen healthy adult German volunteers has been investigated by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of two stable tracer isotopes, i.e. (84)Sr and (86)Sr. The measured Sr tracer concentration in plasma was analyzed using the convolution integral technique to obtain the intestinal absorption rate. The results showed that the Sr labeled in different foodstuffs was absorbed into the body fluids in a large range of difference. The maximum Sr absorption rates were observed within 60-120 min after administration. The rate of absorption is used to evaluate the intestinal absorption fraction, i.e. the f (1) value for various foodstuffs. The equivalent and effective dose coefficients for ingestion of (90)Sr were calculated using these f (1) values, and they were compared with those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The geometric and arithmetic means of the f (1) values are 0.38 and 0.45 associated with a geometric standard deviation and a standard deviation of 1.88 and 0.22, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the f (1) values obtained in the present study ranges from 0.13 to 0.98. Expressed as the ratio of the 95 and 50% percentiles of the estimated probability, the uncertainty for the f (1) value corresponds to a factor of 2.58. The effective dose coefficients of (90)Sr after ingestion are 6.1 x 10(-9) Sv Bq(-1) for an f(1) value of 0.05, 1.0 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.1, 1.9 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.2, 2.8 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.3, 3.6 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.4, 5.3 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.6, 7.1 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.8, and 7.9 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for 0.9, respectively. Taking the effective dose coefficient of 2.8 x 10(-8) Sv Bq(-1) for an f (1) value of 0.3, which is recommended by the ICRP, as a reference, the effective dose coefficient of (90)Sr after ingestion varies by a factor of 2.8 when the f (1) value changes by a factor of 3, i.e. it decreases

  3. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    not observed at low energy level , are developed at high power levels . No matter how low the absorption is. the effect is objectionable at high-energy... levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...Presence of impurities can complicate the exponential tail. particularly at low absorption levels . The impurities may enter 12 the lattice singly or

  4. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  5. Diffusion coefficients significant in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine and of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorptionmore » rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.« less

  6. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  7. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  8. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  9. Determination of optical absorption coefficient with focusing photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Zhiping; Xie, Wenming; Chen, Wei R

    2012-06-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important factor for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. However, its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. It utilizes the ratio of the amplitude of the peak signal from the top boundary of the target to that from the bottom boundary based on wavelet transform. This method is self-calibrating. Factors, such as absolute optical fluence, ultrasound parameters, and Grüneisen parameter, can be canceled by dividing the amplitudes of the two peaks. To demonstrate this method, we quantified the optical absorption coefficient of a target with various concentrations of an absorbing dye. This method is particularly useful to provide accurate absorption coefficient for predicting the outcomes of photothermal interaction for cancer treatment with absorption enhancement.

  10. Studies on absorption coefficient near edge of multi elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, M. H.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Mi, Y.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Hu, T. D.; Xie, Y. N.

    2005-12-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was used to study the near edge mass-absorption coefficients of seven elements, such as, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. It is well known that, on the near edge absorption of element, when incident X-ray a few eV change can make the absorption coefficient an order magnitude alteration. So that, there are only a few points mass-absorption coefficient at the near edge absorption and that always average value in published table. Our results showed a wide range of data, the total measured data of mass-absorption coefficient of the seven elements was about 505. The investigation confirmed that XANES is useful technique for multi-element absorption coefficient measurement. Details of experimental methods and results are given and discussed. The experimental work has been performed at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured values were compared with the published data. Good agreement between experimental results and published data is obtained.

  11. Modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters: Implications for underwater optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2018-05-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.

  12. Measurement of HCl absorption coefficients with a DF laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, C. H.; Allario, F.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption coefficients in the fundamental P-branch of HCl at several DF laser transitions from 2439.02/cm to 2862.87/cm have been measured experimentally. The 2-1 P(3) DF laser transition has been shown to overlap the P(6) HCl-37 absorption line within the halfwidth of an atmospherically broadened line. The absorption coefficient k was measured to be 5.64 plus or minus 0.28/(atm-cm) for a 0.27% mixture of HCl in N2 at a total pressure of 760 torr. A theoretical and experimental comparison of the pressure dependence of k showed that the 2-1 P(3) DF transition lies 1.32 plus or minus 0.15 GHz from the center of the P(6) HCl absorption line. Applications of these results to differential absorption lidar and to heterodyne detection are discussed.

  13. Measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient with the nonequilibrium process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Jingxuan; Bai, Hailong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Shanlin; Zhang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of the conventional Jamin interferometer,the improved measuring method is proposed that using a polarization type reentrant Jamin interferometer measures atmospheric aerosol absorption coefficient under the photothermal effect.The paper studies the relationship between the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles and the refractive index change of the atmosphere.In Matlab environment, the variation curves of the output voltage of the interferometer with different concentration aerosol samples under stimulated laser irradiation were plotted.Besides, the paper also studies the relationship between aerosol concentration and the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium.When using the photothermal interferometry the results show that the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium is also increasing with the increasing concentration of aerosol particles,the absorption coefficient and time of aerosol in the process of nonequilibrium are exponentially changing.

  14. Multiple-scattering coefficients and absorption controlled diffusive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Salvador; García-Colín, L. S.; Micenmacher, Victor

    1999-11-01

    Multiple-scattering transmission and reflection coefficients (T,R) are introduced in addition to the diffusion coefficient D for the description of ballistic diffusion in the presence of absorption. For 1D (one-dimensional) systems, the measurement of only one between T and D imposes restrictions on the possible values of the other. If D is measured, then T is bounded between the Landauer and Lambert-Beer equations. Measurements of both (T,D) imply the theoretical knowledge of the microscopic absorption Σa and scattering rΣs cross sections.

  15. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  16. Absorption Coefficient of a Semiconductor Thin Film from Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, G.; Spindler, C.; Babbe, F.; Rachad, W.; Siebentritt, S.; Nuys, M.; Carius, R.; Li, S.; Platzer-Björkman, C.

    2018-06-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of semiconductors can be used to determine their absorption coefficient (α ) using Planck's generalized law. The standard method, suitable only for self-supported thick samples, like wafers, is extended to multilayer thin films by means of the transfer-matrix method to include the effect of the substrate and optional front layers. α values measured on various thin-film solar-cell absorbers by both PL and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) show good agreement. PL measurements are extremely sensitive to the semiconductor absorption and allow us to advantageously circumvent parasitic absorption from the substrate; thus, α can be accurately determined down to very low values, allowing us to investigate deep band tails with a higher dynamic range than in any other method, including spectrophotometry and PDS.

  17. Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.

  18. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    PubMed

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 < or = Z < or = 20, and the energy range 30-150 keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  19. Optimization of the acoustic absorption coefficients of certain functional absorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocsa, V.; Biborosch, L.; Veres, A.; Halpert, E.; Lorian, R.; Botos, T.

    1974-01-01

    The sound absorption coefficients of some functional absorbents (mineral wool plates) are determined by the reverberation chamber method. The influence of the angle of inclination of the sound absorbing material with respect to the surface to be treated is analyzed as well as the influence of the covering index, defined as the ratio of the designed area of a plate and the area of the treated surface belonging to another plate. As compared with the conventional method of applying sound-absorbing plates, the analyzed structures have a higher technological and economical efficiency. The optimum structure corresponds to an angle of inclination of 15 deg and a covering index of 0.8.

  20. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  1. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  2. Atomic rate coefficients in a degenerate plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The electrons in a dense, degenerate plasma follow Fermi-Dirac statistics, which deviate significantly in this regime from the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approach used by many models. We present methods to calculate the atomic rate coefficients for the Fermi-Dirac distribution and present a comparison of the ionization fraction of carbon calculated using both models. We have found that for densities close to solid, although the discrepancy is small for LTE conditions, there is a large divergence from the ionization fraction by using classical rate coefficients in the presence of strong photoionizing radiation. We have found that using these modified rates and the degenerate heat capacity may affect the time evolution of a plasma subject to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray radiation such as produced in free electron laser irradiation of solid targets.

  3. Photon absorption potential coefficient as a tool for materials engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akande, Raphael Oluwole; Oyewande, Emmanuel Oluwole

    2016-09-01

    Different atoms achieve ionizations at different energies. Therefore, atoms are characterized by different responses to photon absorption in this study. That means there exists a coefficient for their potential for photon absorption from a photon source. In this study, we consider the manner in which molecular constituents (atoms) absorb photon from a photon source. We observe that there seems to be a common pattern of variation in the absorption of photon among the electrons in all atoms on the periodic table. We assume that the electrons closest to the nucleus (En) and the electrons closest to the outside of the atom (Eo) do not have as much potential for photon absorption as the electrons at the middle of the atom (Em). The explanation we give to this effect is that the En electrons are embedded within the nuclear influence, and similarly, Eo electrons are embedded within the influence of energies outside the atom that there exists a low potential for photon absorption for them. Unlike En and Eo, Em electrons are conditioned, such that there is a quest for balance between being influenced either by the nuclear force or forces external to the atom. Therefore, there exists a higher potential for photon absorption for Em electrons than for En and Eo electrons. The results of our derivations and analysis always produce a bell-shaped curve, instead of an increasing curve as in the ionization energies, for all elements in the periodic table. We obtained a huge data of PAPC for each of the several materials considered. The point at which two or more PAPC values cross one another is termed to be a region of conflicting order of ionization, where all the atoms absorb equal portion of the photon source at the same time. At this point, a greater fraction of the photon source is pumped into the material which could lead to an explosive response from the material. In fact, an unimaginable and unreported phenomenon (in physics) could occur, when two or more PAPCs cross, and

  4. Determination of UV-visible-NIR absorption coefficient of graphite bulk using direct and indirect methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smausz, T.; Kondász, B.; Gera, T.; Ajtai, T.; Utry, N.; Pintér, M.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Budai, J.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.; Hopp, B.

    2017-10-01

    Absorption coefficient of graphite bulk pressed from 1 to 5 μm-sized crystalline grains was measured in UV-Vis-NIR range with three different methods: (i) determination of pulsed laser ablation rate as the function of laser fluence for different wavelengths (248, 337, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively); (ii) production of aerosol particles by UV laser ablation of the bulk graphite in inert atmosphere and determination of the mass-specific absorption coefficient with a four-wavelength (266, 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively) photoacoustic spectrometer, and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry in 250-1000 nm range. Taking into account the wide range of the absorption coefficients of different carbon structures, an overall relatively good agreement was observed for the three methods. The ellipsometric results fit well with the ablation rate measurement, and the data obtained with photoacoustic method are also similar in the UV and NIR region; however, the values were somewhat higher in visible and near-UV range. Taking into account the limitations of the methods, they can be promising candidates for the determination of absorption coefficient when the samples are strongly scattering and there is no possibility to perform transmissivity measurements.

  5. Protocol to determine accurate absorption coefficients for iron containing transferrins

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas G.; Mason, Anne B.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate protein concentration is an essential component of most biochemical experiments. The simplest method to determine a protein concentration is by measuring the A280, using an absorption coefficient (ε), and applying the Beer-Lambert law. For some metalloproteins (including all transferrin family members) difficulties arise because metal binding contributes to the A280 in a non-linear manner. The Edelhoch method is based on the assumption that the ε of a denatured protein in 6 M guanidine-HCl can be calculated from the number of the tryptophan, tyrosine, and cystine residues. We extend this method to derive ε values for both apo- and iron-bound transferrins. The absorbance of an identical amount of iron containing protein is measured in: 1) 6 M guanidine-HCl (denatured, no iron); 2) pH 7.4 buffer (non-denatured with iron); and 3) pH 5.6 (or lower) buffer with a chelator (non-denatured without iron). Since the iron free apo-protein has an identical A280 under non-denaturing conditions, the difference between the reading at pH 7.4 and the lower pH directly reports the contribution of the iron. The method is fast and consumes ~1 mg of sample. The ability to determine accurate ε values for transferrin mutants that bind iron with a wide range of affinities has proven very useful; furthermore a similar approach could easily be followed to determine ε values for other metalloproteins in which metal binding contributes to the A280. PMID:18471984

  6. Laser Ablation of Poly(methylmethacrylate) Doped with Aromatic Compounds: Laser Intensity Dependence of Absorption Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1999-02-01

    We developed a novel method of obtaining an absorption coefficient which depends on the laser intensity, since a single-photon absorption coefficient of a polymer could not be applied to laser ablation. The relationship between the nonlinear absorption coefficient and the laser intensity was derived from experimental data of transmission and incident laser intensities. Using the nonlinear absorption coefficient of poly(methylmethacrylate) doped with benzil and pyrene, we succeeded in fitting the relationship of etch depth and laser intensity, obtained experimentally, and discussed the energy absorbed by the polymer at the threshold fluence.

  7. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  8. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  9. Solvent dependence of the steady-state rate of 1O 2 generation upon excitation of dissolved oxygen by cw 1267 nm laser radiation in air-saturated solutions: Estimates of the absorbance and molar absorption coefficients of oxygen at the excitation wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnovsky, A. A., Jr.; Roumbal, Ya. V.; Ivanov, A. V.; Ambartzumian, R. V.

    2006-10-01

    The rates of oxygenation of the 1O 2 trap, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran were measured in air-saturated organic solvents and heterogeneous D 2O-sodium dodecyl sulfate dispersions upon infrared (1267 ± 4 nm) laser irradiation. The absorbance and molar absorption coefficients of oxygen corresponding to this wavelength were estimated from the observed oxygenation rates. The data suggest that 1O 2 was formed due to direct oxygen excitation without appreciable involvement of vibrationally excited solvent molecules. The minor 'pseudophase' of detergent micelles was shown to strongly enhance overall 1O 2 production in D 2O-detergent dispersions.

  10. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  11. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  12. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Free-Free Absorption Coefficients of the Negative Helium Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T. L.

    1994-08-01

    Free-free absorption coefficients of the negative helium ion are calculated by a phaseshift approximation, using continuum data that accurately account for electron-atom correlation and polarization. The approximation is considered to yield results within a few per cent of numerical values for wavelengths greater than 1 m, over the temperature range 1400-10080 K. These coefficients are expected to give the best current estimates of He - continuous absorption. Key words: atomic data - atomic processes - stars: atmospheres - infrared: general.

  14. Experiment to Determine the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Rays as a Function of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Simpler than x-ray diffractometer experiments, the experiment described illustrates certain concepts regarding the interaction of electromagnetic rays with matter such as the exponential decrease in the intensity with absorber thickness, variation of the coefficient of absorption with energy, and the effect of the K-absorption edge on the…

  15. Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.

  16. Bottom Extreme-Ultraviolet-Sensitive Coating for Evaluation of the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrathin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijikata, Hayato; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Takei, Satoshi

    2009-06-01

    A bottom extreme-ultraviolet-sensitive coating (BESC) for evaluation of the absorption coefficients of ultrathin films such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists was developed. This coating consists of a polymer, crosslinker, acid generator, and acid-responsive chromic dye and is formed by a conventional spin-coating method. By heating the film after spin-coating, a crosslinking reaction is induced and the coating becomes insoluble. A typical resist solution can be spin-coated on a substrate covered with the coating film. The evaluation of the linear absorption coefficients of polymer films was demonstrated by measuring the EUV absorption of BESC substrates on which various polymers were spin-coated.

  17. Determination of absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index from reflection and transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Bae; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-07-01

    It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of a nanofluid can be actively tuned by changing material, size, shape, and concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. In applications of engineered nanofluids for the direct absorption of solar radiation, it is important to experimentally characterize the absorption coefficient of nanofluids in the solar spectrum. If the refractive index of the base fluid (i.e., the solution without nanoparticles) is known a priori, the absorption coefficient of nanofluids can be easily determined from the transmission spectrum. However, if the refractive index of the base fluid is not known, it is not straightforward to extract the absorption coefficient solely from the transmission spectrum. The present work aims to develop an analytical method of determining the absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index by measuring both reflection and transmission spectra. The proposed method will be validated with deionized water, and the effect of measurement uncertainty will be carefully examined. Finally, the general applicability of the proposed method will also be demonstrated for Therminol VP-1 as well as the Therminol VP-1 - graphite nanofluid.

  18. [Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Su, Hai-xia; Yan, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Extracting absorption spectrum in THz band is one of the important aspects in THz applications. Sample's absorption coefficient has a complex nonlinear relationship with its thickness. However, as it is not convenient to measure the thickness directly, absorption spectrum is usually determined incorrectly. Based on the method proposed by Duvillaret which was used to precisely determine the thickness of LiNbO3, the approach to measuring the absorption coefficient spectra of glutamine and histidine in frequency range from 0.3 to 2.6 THz(1 THz = 10(12) Hz) was improved in this paper. In order to validate the correctness of this absorption spectrum, we designed a series of experiments to compare the linearity of absorption coefficient belonging to one kind amino acid in different concentrations. The results indicate that as agreed by Lambert-Beer's Law, absorption coefficient spectrum of amino acid from the improved algorithm performs better linearity with its concentration than that from the common algorithm, which can be the basis of quantitative analysis in further researches.

  19. Measurements of Soot Mass Absorption Coefficients from 300 to 660 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Fisher, Al; Helgestad, Taylor; Lambe, Andrew; Sedlacek, Arthur; Smith, Geoffrey; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In particular, the assumed mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot and its variation with wavelength presents a significant uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing in global climate change models. As part of the fourth Boston College/Aerodyne soot properties measurement campaign, we have measured the mass absorption coefficient of soot produced by an inverted methane diffusion flame over a spectral range of 300-660 nm using a variety of optical absorption techniques. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS, UC Davis) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm; the absorption coefficient was determined by subtraction. In addition, the absorption coefficients in 8 wavelength bands from 300 to 660 nm were measured using a new broadband photoacoustic absorption monitor (UGA). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The contribution of doubly charged particles to the sample mass was determined using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (DMT). Over a mass range of 1-8 fg, corresponding to differential mobility diameters of ~150 nm to 550 nm, the value of the soot MAC proved to be independent of mass for all wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the MAC was best fit to a power law with an Absorption Ångstrom Coefficient slightly greater than 1.

  20. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  1. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  2. Band-edge absorption coefficients from photoluminescence in semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, Alan; Zou, Yao; Dapkus, P. D.; Garmire, Elsa; Lee, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    A novel approach to determining absorption coefficients in thin films using luminescence is described. The technique avoids many of the difficulties typically encountered in measurements of thin samples, Fabry-Perot effects, for example, and can be applied to a variety of materials. The absorption edge for GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures, with quantum well widths ranging from 54 to 193 A is examined. Urbach (1953) parameters and excitonic linewidths are tabulated.

  3. Dynamic absorption coefficients of chemically amplified resists and nonchemically amplified resists at extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  4. Semi-analytical Model for Estimating Absorption Coefficients of Optically Active Constituents in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Cui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this paper are to validate the applicability of a multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) in retrieval absorption coefficients of optically active constituents in turbid coastal waters, and to further improve the model using a proposed semi-analytical model (SAA). The ap(531) and ag(531) semi-analytically derived using SAA model are quite different from the retrievals procedures of QAA model that ap(531) and ag(531) are semi-analytically derived from the empirical retrievals results of a(531) and a(551). The two models are calibrated and evaluated against datasets taken from 19 independent cruises in West Florida Shelf in 1999-2003, provided by SeaBASS. The results indicate that the SAA model produces a superior performance to QAA model in absorption retrieval. Using of the SAA model in retrieving absorption coefficients of optically active constituents from West Florida Shelf decreases the random uncertainty of estimation by >23.05% from the QAA model. This study demonstrates the potential of the SAA model in absorption coefficients of optically active constituents estimating even in turbid coastal waters. Keywords: Remote sensing; Coastal Water; Absorption Coefficient; Semi-analytical Model

  5. Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.

  6. Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.

  7. Hyperspectral absorption and backscattering coefficients of bulk water retrieved from a combination of remote-sensing reflectance and attenuation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Liu, Xiaohan

    2018-01-22

    Absorption (a) and backscattering (bb) coefficients play a key role in determining the light field; they also serve as the link between remote sensing and concentrations of optically active water constituents. Here we present an updated scheme to derive hyperspectral a and bb with hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) as the inputs. Results show that the system works very well from clear open oceans to highly turbid inland waters, with an overall difference less than 25% between these retrievals and those from instrument measurements. This updated scheme advocates the measurement and generation of hyperspectral a and bb from hyperspectral Rrs and Kd, as an independent data source for cross-evaluation of in situ measurements of a and bb and for the development and/or evaluation of remote sensing algorithms for such optical properties.

  8. Laboratory measurement of the absorption coefficient of riboflavin for ultraviolet light (365 nm).

    PubMed

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Popp, Max; Seiler, Theo; Spoerl, Eberhard; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is an increasingly used treatment technique for stabilizing the cornea in keratoconus. Cross-linking (polymerization) between collagen fibrils is induced by riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light (365 nm). Although reported to reach a constant value at higher riboflavin concentrations, the Lambert-Beer law predicts a linear increase in the absorption coefficient. This work was carried out to determine absorption behavior at different riboflavin concentrations and to further investigate the purported plateau absorption coefficient value of riboflavin and to identify possible bleaching effects. The Lambert-Beer law was used to calculate the absorption coefficient at various riboflavin concentrations. The following investigated concentrations of riboflavin solutions were prepared using a mixture of 0.5% riboflavin and 20% Dextran T500 dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution: 0%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.05%, 0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%, and were investigated with and without aperture plate implementation. An additional test series measured the transmitted power at selected riboflavin concentrations over time. In diluted solutions, a linear correlation exists between the absorption coefficient and riboflavin concentration. The absorption coefficient reaches a plateau, but this occurs at a higher riboflavin concentration (0.1%) than previously reported (just above 0.04%). Transmitted light power increases over time, indicating a bleaching effect of riboflavin. The riboflavin concentration can be effectively varied as a treatment parameter in a considerably broader range than previously thought. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  10. Mass attenuation coefficient of chromium and manganese compounds around absorption edge.

    PubMed

    Sharanabasappa; Kaginelli, S B; Kerur, B R; Anilkumar, S; Hanumaiah, B

    2009-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficient for Potassium dichromate, Potassium chromate and Manganese acetate compounds are measured at different photon energies 5.895, 6.404, 6.490, 7.058, 8.041 and 14.390 keV using Fe-55, Co-57 and 241Am source with Copper target, radioactive sources. The photon intensity is analyzed using a high resolution HPGe detector system coupled to MCA under good geometrical arrangement. The obtained values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values. This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 5-28%.

  11. Sustainable p-type copper selenide solar material with ultra-large absorption coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Erica M.; Williams, Logan; Olvera, Alan

    We report the synthesis of CTSe, a p-type titanium copper selenide semiconductor. Its band gap (1.15 eV) and its ultra-large absorption coefficient (10 5 cm −1 ) in the entire visible range make it a promising Earth-abundant solar absorber material.

  12. Absorption coefficients of solid NH3 from 50 to 7000 per cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, G.; Fink, U.; Ferraro, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thin-film spectra of solid NH3 at a resolution of 1 per cm were used to determine its absorption coefficient over the range 50-7000 per cm. The thin films were formed inside a liquid N2 cooled dewar using a variety of substrates and dewar windows. The spectra were recorded with two Fourier spectrometers, one covering the range from 1 to 4 microns and the other from 2.6 to 200 microns. The thickness of the films was measured with a laser interference technique. The absorption coefficients were determined by application of Lambert's law and by a fitting procedure to the observed spectra using thin-film theory. Good agreement was found with the absorption coefficients recently determined by other investigators over a more restricted wavelength range. A metastable phase was observed near a temperature of 90 K and its absorption coefficient is reported. No other major spectral changes with temperature were noted for the range 88-120 K.

  13. Sustainable p-type copper selenide solar material with ultra-large absorption coefficient

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Erica M.; Williams, Logan; Olvera, Alan; ...

    2018-01-01

    We report the synthesis of CTSe, a p-type titanium copper selenide semiconductor. Its band gap (1.15 eV) and its ultra-large absorption coefficient (10 5 cm −1 ) in the entire visible range make it a promising Earth-abundant solar absorber material.

  14. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  15. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed. PMID:22734767

  16. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  17. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  18. Efficient calculation of atomic rate coefficients in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.

    2017-03-01

    Modelling electron statistics in a cold, dense plasma by the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to complications in the calculations of atomic rate coefficients. The Pauli exclusion principle slows down the rate of collisions as electrons must find unoccupied quantum states and adds a further computational cost. Methods to calculate these coefficients by direct numerical integration with a high degree of parallelism are presented. This degree of optimization allows the effects of degeneracy to be incorporated into a time-dependent collisional-radiative model. Example results from such a model are presented.

  19. Quantification of optical absorption coefficient from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime using photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Multi-wavelength PAT can noninvasively monitor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. However, accurate quantification in PAT requires knowledge of the optical fluence distribution, acoustic wave attenuation, and detection system bandwidth. We propose a method to circumvent this requirement using acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at two optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560 and 575 nm were quantified with errors of ><5%.

  20. Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Sood, A. K.; Guha, Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan; Rao, C. N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Nonlinear transmission of 80 and 140fs pulsed light with 0.79μm wavelength through single walled carbon nanotubes suspended in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate is studied. Pulse-width independent saturation absorption and negative cubic nonlinearity are observed, respectively, in open and closed aperture z-scan experiments. The theoretical expressions derived to analyze the z-dependent transmission in the saturable limit require two photon absorption coefficient β0˜1.4cm/MW and a nonlinear index γ ˜-5.5×10-11cm2/W to fit the data.

  1. Rate Coefficients for the OH + (CHO)2 (Glyoxal) Reaction Between 240 and 400 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierabend, K. J.; Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Glyoxal (CHO)2, the simplest dialdehyde, is an end product formed in the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, for example, isoprene. As such, glyoxal plays a role in regional air quality and ozone production in certain locations. Glyoxal is lost in the atmosphere via UV photolysis and reaction with OH. However, the currently available rate coefficient data for the OH + glyoxal reaction is limited to a single room- temperature measurement made using the relative rate method. A determination of the rate coefficient temperature dependence is therefore needed for a more complete interpretation of the atmospheric processing of glyoxal. This study reports the rate coefficient for the OH + (CHO)2 reaction measured under pseudo- first-order conditions in OH ([(CHO)2] > 1000 [OH]0). OH radicals were produced using 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2 or HNO3 and detected by pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The concentration of glyoxal in the reactor was determined using three independent techniques; gas flow rates as well as in situ UV and IR absorption. The total pressure in the reactor was varied from 40 to 300 Torr (He), and the rate coefficient was found to be independent of pressure over the temperature range studied. The rate coefficient exhibits a negative temperature dependence between 240 and 400 K consistent with the dependence previously observed for many other aldehydes. Our room-temperature rate coefficient is smaller than the relative rate value that is currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations. Our measured rate coefficients are discussed with respect to those for other aldehydes. The atmospheric implications of our work will also be discussed.

  2. Effective dose rate coefficients for exposure to contaminated soil

    DOE PAGES

    Veinot, Kenneth G.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bellamy, Michael B.; ...

    2017-05-10

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has undertaken calculations related to various environmental exposure scenarios. A previous paper reported the results for submersion in radioactive air and immersion in water using age-specific mathematical phantoms. This paper presents age-specific effective dose rate coefficients derived using stylized mathematical phantoms for exposure to contaminated soils. Dose rate coefficients for photon, electron, and positrons of discrete energies were calculated and folded with emissions of 1252 radionuclides addressed in ICRP Publication 107 to determine equivalent and effective dose rate coefficients. The MCNP6 radiation transport code was used for organ dose ratemore » calculations for photons and the contribution of electrons to skin dose rate was derived using point-kernels. Bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons of positron emission were evaluated as discrete photons. As a result, the coefficients calculated in this work compare favorably to those reported in the US Federal Guidance Report 12 as well as by other authors who employed voxel phantoms for similar exposure scenarios.« less

  3. Effective dose rate coefficients for exposure to contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, Kenneth G.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has undertaken calculations related to various environmental exposure scenarios. A previous paper reported the results for submersion in radioactive air and immersion in water using age-specific mathematical phantoms. This paper presents age-specific effective dose rate coefficients derived using stylized mathematical phantoms for exposure to contaminated soils. Dose rate coefficients for photon, electron, and positrons of discrete energies were calculated and folded with emissions of 1252 radionuclides addressed in ICRP Publication 107 to determine equivalent and effective dose rate coefficients. The MCNP6 radiation transport code was used for organ dose ratemore » calculations for photons and the contribution of electrons to skin dose rate was derived using point-kernels. Bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons of positron emission were evaluated as discrete photons. As a result, the coefficients calculated in this work compare favorably to those reported in the US Federal Guidance Report 12 as well as by other authors who employed voxel phantoms for similar exposure scenarios.« less

  4. The Hyperspectral Absorption Sensor - Advantages and challenges of continuous, in situ absorption coefficient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, J.; Röttgers, R.; Petersen, W.; Zielinski, O.

    2016-12-01

    A free-water mass balance-based study was conducted to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. Open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2. Rates of metabolism were extremely high, with respiration (43 mol m-2 yr-1) greatly exceeding gross primary production (28 mol m-2 yr-1), such that the overall system was net heterotrophic. Metabolism measured with DIC were higher than with O2, which we attribute to high rates of anaerobic respiration and reduced sulfur storage in salt marsh sediments, and we assume substantial levels of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We found gas exchange from a flooded marsh is substantial, accounting for about 28% of total O2 and CO2 air-water exchange. A significant percentage of the overall estuarine aquatic metabolism is attributable to metabolism of marsh organisms during inundation. Our study suggests not rely on oceanographic stoichiometry to convert from O2to C based measurements when constructing C balances for the coastal ocean. We also suggest eddy covariance measurements of salt marsh net ecosystem exchange underestimate net ecosystem production as they do not account for lateral DIC exchange associated with marsh tidal inundation. With the increase of global temperature and sea level rise, salt marshes are likely to export more inorganic carbon to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean due to the decrease of solubility, the increase of aquatic and benthic metabolic activities and the longer marsh inundation.

  5. Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo

    2013-10-01

    Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.

  6. Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Paliwal, B R

    1986-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration.

  7. Infrared absorption-coefficient data on SF6 applicable to atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Gopalan, A.; Brannon, J. F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients, k(nu)/cm per atm, of SF6 have been measured in the central Q-branches of the nu(3)-fundamental at 947/cm at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights in solar-occultation experiments or layers in the atmosphere. The data obtained with the Doppler-limited spectral resolution (about 0.0001/cm) of a tunable-diode laser spectrometer are useful in the atmospheric remote sensing of this trace gas.

  8. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  9. Two-photon interband absorption coefficients in tungstate and molybdate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, V. I.; Karasik, A. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficients were measured in tungstate and molybdate crystals - BaWO4, KGW, CaMoO4, BaMoO4, CaWO4, PbWO4 and ZnWO4 upon different orientations of excitation polarization with respect to the crystallographic axes. Trains of 25 ps pulses with variable radiation intensities of third (349 nm) harmonics of passively mode-locked 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser were used for interband two-photon excitation of the crystals. It was suggested that in the case, when 349 nm radiation pumping energy exceeds the bandgap width (hν>Eg), the nonlinear excitation process can be considered as two-step absorption. The interband two-photon absorption in all the studied crystals induces the following one-photon absorption from the exited states, which affects the nonlinear process dynamics and leads to a hysteresis in the dependence of the transmission on the excitation intensity. This fact was taken into account under analysis of the experimental dependences of the reciprocal transmission on the excitation intensity. Laser excitation in the transparency region of the crystals caused stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) not for all the crystals studied. The measured nonlinear coefficients allowed us to explain the suppression of SRS in crystals as a result of competition between the SRS and TPA.

  10. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGES

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θ D ofmore » 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  11. Measuring high spectral resolution specific absorption coefficients for use with hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.; Bostater, C.

    1997-06-01

    A portable, long path length (50 cm), flow through, absorption tube system is utilized to obtain in-situ specific absorption coefficients from various water environments consisting of both clear and turbid water conditions from an underway ship or vessel. The high spectral resolution absorption signatures can be obtained and correlated with measured water quality parameters along a ship track. The long path cuvette system is capable of measuring important water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston or total suspended matter, tannins, humics, fulvic acids, or dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The various concentrations of these substances can be determinedmore » and correlated with laboratory measurements using the double inflection ratio (DIR) of the spectra based upon derivative spectroscopy. The DIR is determined for all of the possible combinations of the bands ranging from 362-1115 nm using 252 channels, as described previously by Bostater. The information gathered from this system can be utilized in conjunction with hyperspectral imagery that allows one to relate reflectance and absorption to water quality of a particular environment. A comparison is made between absorption signatures and reflectance obtained from the Banana River, Florida.« less

  12. Microwave Resonator Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients: A Preliminary Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design study examined the feasibility of using microwave resonator measurements to improve the accuracy of atmospheric absorption coefficients and refractivity between 18 and 35 GHz. Increased accuracies would improve the capability of water vapor radiometers to correct for radio signal delays caused by Earth's atmosphere. Calibration of delays incurred by radio signals traversing the atmosphere has applications to both deep space tracking and planetary radio science experiments. Currently, the Cassini gravity wave search requires 0.8-1.0% absorption coefficient accuracy. This study examined current atmospheric absorption models and estimated that current model accuracy ranges from 5% to 7%. The refractivity of water vapor is known to 1% accuracy, while the refractivity of many dry gases (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) are known to better than 0.1%. Improvements to the current generation of models will require that both the functional form and absolute absorption of the water vapor spectrum be calibrated and validated. Several laboratory techniques for measuring atmospheric absorption and refractivity were investigated, including absorption cells, single and multimode rectangular cavity resonators, and Fabry-Perot resonators. Semi-confocal Fabry-Perot resonators were shown to provide the most cost-effective and accurate method of measuring atmospheric gas refractivity. The need for accurate environmental measurement and control was also addressed. A preliminary design for the environmental control and measurement system was developed to aid in identifying significant design issues. The analysis indicated that overall measurement accuracy will be limited by measurement errors and imprecise control of the gas sample's thermodynamic state, thermal expansion and vibration- induced deformation of the resonator structure, and electronic measurement error. The central problem is to identify systematic errors because random errors can be reduced by averaging

  13. An Efficient Statistical Method to Compute Molecular Collisional Rate Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreau, Jérôme; Lique, François; Faure, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Our knowledge about the “cold” universe often relies on molecular spectra. A general property of such spectra is that the energy level populations are rarely at local thermodynamic equilibrium. Solving the radiative transfer thus requires the availability of collisional rate coefficients with the main colliding partners over the temperature range ∼10–1000 K. These rate coefficients are notoriously difficult to measure and expensive to compute. In particular, very few reliable collisional data exist for inelastic collisions involving reactive radicals or ions. In this Letter, we explore the use of a fast quantum statistical method to determine molecular collisional excitation rate coefficients. The method is benchmarked against accurate (but costly) rigid-rotor close-coupling calculations. For collisions proceeding through the formation of a strongly bound complex, the method is found to be highly satisfactory up to room temperature. Its accuracy decreases with decreasing potential well depth and with increasing temperature, as expected. This new method opens the way to the determination of accurate inelastic collisional data involving key reactive species such as {{{H}}}3+, H2O+, and H3O+ for which exact quantum calculations are currently not feasible.

  14. Measurement of diffusion coefficients from solution rates of bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of solution of a stationary bubble is limited by the diffusion of dissolved gas molecules away from the bubble surface. Diffusion coefficients computed from measured rates of solution give mean values higher than accepted literature values, with standard errors as high as 10% for a single observation. Better accuracy is achieved with sparingly soluble gases, small bubbles, and highly viscous liquids. Accuracy correlates with the Grashof number, indicating that free convection is the major source of error. Accuracy should, therefore, be greatly increased in a gravity-free environment. The fact that the bubble will need no support is an additional important advantage of Spacelab for this measurement.

  15. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  16. Exercise, Insulin Absorption Rates, and Artificial Pancreas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by an inability of a person to endogenously produce the hormone insulin. Because of this, insulin must be injected - usually subcutaneously. The size of the injected dose and the rate at which the dose reaches the circulatory system have a profound effect on the ability to control glucose excursions, and therefore control of diabetes. However, insulin absorption rates via subcutaneous injection are variable and depend on a number of factors including tissue perfusion, physical activity (vasodilation, increased capillary throughput), and other tissue geometric and physical properties. Exercise may also have a sizeable effect on the rate of insulin absorption, which can potentially lead to dangerous glucose levels. Insulin-dosing algorithms, as implemented in an artificial pancreas controller, should account accurately for absorption rate variability and exercise effects on insulin absorption. The aforementioned factors affecting insulin absorption will be discussed within the context of both fluid mechanics and data driven modeling approaches.

  17. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  18. Quantifying the effect of finite spectral bandwidth on extinction coefficient of species in laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Baljit; Ghanshyam, C.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the finite spectral bandwidth effect on laser absorption spectroscopy for a wide-band laser source. Experimental analysis reveals that the extinction coefficient of an analyte is affected by the bandwidth of the spectral source, which may result in the erroneous conclusions. An approximate mathematical model has been developed for optical intensities having Gaussian line shape, which includes the impact of source's spectral bandwidth in the equation for spectroscopic absorption. This is done by introducing a suitable first order and second order bandwidth approximation in the Beer-Lambert law equation for finite bandwidth case. The derived expressions were validated using spectroscopic analysis with higher SBW on a test sample, Rhodamine B. The concentrations calculated using proposed approximation, were in significant agreement with the true values when compared with those calculated with conventional approach.

  19. Transmission and Absorption Coefficients for Ocular Media of the Rhesus Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Report SAM-TR.78-32 @LEVtt ^ \\ TRANSMISSION AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS FOR OGVLAR MEDIA OF THE RHESUS MONKEY 30 JO \\ Edward F. Maher... MONKEY 5. I il | ||| MhlHWr W PI liriTl i I III I 5" . Final Report ""■"’ 15 Sep 74 - 15 Sep 76 6 «HFORMtMO OHG REPORT KUMBE...for these calculations were performed spectrophotometrically using freshly enucleated rhesus monkey eyes and narrow-bandwidth radiation. Much of the

  20. Determination of absorption coefficient of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekiner, Murat; Kurt, Mustafa; Ak, Ilknur; Kurt, Arzu

    2018-02-01

    Safe drinking water is crucial for human healthy, nowadays all drinking and irrigation water in developed country commonly come from dams. The water is transported to our usage area by several type of pipe or water-trench. The water can be infected some bacteria such as Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira maxima, during this transportation. In this study, we determine which wavelength effect to these green algae and cyanobacteria. For different concentration of these microorganisms in water, we determined uv-vis spectrum. By analyzing these spectrums, we determined absorption coefficient of these microorganisms for selected wavelength. The results show which wavelength can be used for destroy these microorganisms in affected water.

  1. Mesure de coefficients d'absorption de plasmas créés par laser nanoseconde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thais, F.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Eidmann, K.; Bastiani, S.; Blenski, T.; Gilleron, F.

    2005-06-01

    La mesure des coefficients d'absorption dans les plasmas chauds est particulièrement utile dans le domaine de la fusion par confinement inertiel ainsi que dans divers contextes en astrophysique. Le développement des calculs de physique atomique qui y sont associés repose sur des hypothèses qu'il est nécessaire de vérifier dans la plus large gamme possible de conditions physiques. Nous présentons ici la méthode de mesure et d'analyse employée en nous appuyant sur l'exemple des cibles multicouches nickel/aluminium.

  2. The coefficient of bond thermal expansion measured by extended x-ray absorption fine structure.

    PubMed

    Fornasini, P; Grisenti, R

    2014-10-28

    The bond thermal expansion is in principle different from the lattice expansion and can be measured by correlation sensitive probes such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and diffuse scattering. The temperature dependence of the coefficient α(bond)(T) of bond thermal expansion has been obtained from EXAFS for CdTe and for Cu. A coefficient α(tens)(T) of negative expansion due to tension effects has been calculated from the comparison of bond and lattice expansions. Negative lattice expansion is present in temperature intervals where α(bond) prevails over α(tens); this real-space approach is complementary but not equivalent to the Grüneisen theory. The relevance of taking into account the asymmetry of the nearest-neighbours distribution of distances in order to get reliable bond expansion values and the physical meaning of the third cumulant are thoroughly discussed.

  3. Temperature and pressure dependence of dichloro-difluoromethane (CF2C12) absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.

  4. Nonscanning Moiré deflectometry for measurement of nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient of liquids.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Shahrzad Shahrabi; Madanipour, Khosro; Koohian, Ata

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a nonscanning measurement technique is presented for determining the nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient of liquid media based on Moiré deflectometry. In the proposed method two lasers are used: a low power, wide beam as probe and a high power with specific wavelength as a pump. Interaction of the pump laser beam with the nonlinear sample changes the refractive index, which leads to change in convergence/divergence of the collimated incident probe laser beam. The induced deflection is monitored by Moiré deflectometry. If the pump laser has a Gaussian intensity profile, the refractive index profile of the sample is Gaussian, too. Measuring the deflection angle of the probe beam by Moiré fringes deflection, and by using the inverse Abel transform integral, the refractive index profile and nonlinear refractive index can be determined. This method is fast, easy, and insensitive to environmental noise and allows real-time measurement. Also, the refractive index profile of the interacted medium with pump laser can be achieved by this technique. As a liquid sample, a DCJ dye in water solution was studied. The value of nonlinear refractive index, n2, and absorption coefficient, α, were obtained -2.54×10-4  cm2 w-1 and 1.368  cm-1, respectively.

  5. Studies of absorption coefficient cum electro-optic performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal doped with CNT and dichroic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vandna; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Absorption coefficient of doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) is a critical factor for their device performance and depends on dopants parameters like solubility, order parameter and extinction coefficients, in addition to configuration and orientation of the droplets. In this study, a fixed amount (0.125% wt/wt) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and orange azo dichroic dye was doped in PDLC and measured the OFF state absorption coefficient. Considering the theory based on Beer's law and followed by extinction coefficients of CNT and dye, the OFF state transmission for dye doped PDLC was found lower compared to CNT doped PDLC. As a result, absorption coefficient for dye doped PDLC was higher and resulted in the superior contrast ratio. The experimental results were found be consistent with the theoretical results.

  6. Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697

  7. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  8. Methamphetamine absorption by skin lipids: accumulated mass, partition coefficients, and the influence of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Parker, K; Morrison, G

    2016-08-01

    Occupants of former methamphetamine laboratories, often residences, may experience increased exposure through the accumulation of the methamphetamine in the organic films that coat skin and indoor surfaces. The objectives of this study were to determine equilibrium partition coefficients of vapor-phase methamphetamine with artificial sebum (AS-1), artificial sebum without fatty acids (AS-2), and real skin surface films, herein called skin oils. Sebum and skin oil-coated filters were exposed to vapor-phase methamphetamine at concentrations ranging from 8 to 159 ppb, and samples were analyzed for exposure time periods from 2 h to 60 days. For a low vapor-phase methamphetamine concentration range of ~8-22 ppb, the equilibrium partition coefficient for AS-1 was 1500 ± 195 μg/g/ppb. For a high concentration range of 98-112 ppb, the partition coefficient was lower, 459 ± 80 μg/g/ppb, suggesting saturation of the available absorption capacity. The low partition coefficient for AS-2 (33 ± 6 μg/g/ppb) suggests that the fatty acids in AS-1 and skin oil are responsible for much high partition coefficients. We predict that the methamphetamine concentration in skin lipids coating indoor surfaces can exceed recommended surface remediation standards even for air concentrations well below 1 ppb. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    PubMed

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  12. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Rüfenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-21

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware.

  13. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were

  14. Temperature-Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Reaction of CH2OO with Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mica C; Chao, Wen; Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2017-02-09

    The reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO with hydrogen sulfide was measured with transient UV absorption spectroscopy in a temperature-controlled flow reactor, and bimolecular rate coefficients were obtained from 278 to 318 K and from 100 to 500 Torr. The average rate coefficient at 298 K and 100 Torr was (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -13 cm 3 s -1 . The reaction was found to be independent of pressure and exhibited a weak negative temperature dependence. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficient at the QCISD(T)/CBS level are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The reaction of CH 2 OO with H 2 S is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the reaction with H 2 O monomer. Though rates of CH 2 OO scavenging by water vapor under atmospheric conditions are primarily controlled by the reaction with water dimer, the H 2 S loss pathway will be dominated by the reaction with monomer. The agreement between experiment and theory for the CH 2 OO + H 2 S reaction lends credence to theoretical descriptions of other Criegee intermediate reactions that cannot easily be probed experimentally.

  15. Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, Ψ(T) and Ψ(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. Ψ(T) and Ψ(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)).

  16. Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Duque, Carlos A.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Ilyasov, Victor V.; Hieu, Nguyen V.; Dinh, Le; Quang, Quach K.; Tung, Luong V.; Phuc, Huynh V.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we study the magneto-optical absorption coefficients (MOACs) and refractive index changes (RICs) in monolayer graphene under a perpendicular magnetic field using the compact density matrix approach. The results are presented as functions of photon energy and external magnetic field. Our results show that there are three groups of the possible transitions: the intra-band, the mixed, and the inter-band transitions; in which the MOACs and the RICs appear as a series of peaks in both intra-band and inter-band transitions between the Landau levels. With an increase magnetic field, the resonant peaks give a blue-shift and reduce in their amplitudes. These results suggest a potential application of monolayer graphene in nanoscale electronic and magneto-optical devices.

  17. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  18. Free-free absorption coefficients and Gaunt factors for dense hydrogen-like stellar plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srećković, V. A.; Sakan, N.; Šulić, D.; Jevremović, D.; Ignjatović, Lj M.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present a study dedicated to determination of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients and the corresponding Gaunt factor of dense hydrogen-like stellar-atmosphere plasmas where electron density and temperature change in a wide range. A method suitable for this wide range is suggested and applied to the inner layers of the solar atmosphere, as well as the plasmas of partially ionized layers of some other stellar atmospheres (for example, some DA and DB white dwarfs) where the electron densities vary from 1014 cm-3 to 1020 cm-3 and temperatures from 6000 K to 300 000 K in the wavelength region of 10 nm ≤ λ ≤ 3000 nm. The results of the calculations are illustrated by the corresponding figures and tables.

  19. Quantification of the dynamic changes in the absorption coefficient of liquid water at erbium:YAG and carbon dioxide laser wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shori, Ramesh K.

    , the laser was used to measure the optical transmission across water layers of known thicknesses. The data were used to develop a Dynamic Saturable Absorption (DSA) model to predict the dynamic changes in the absorption coefficient of water as a function of incident energy. The DSA model, based in part upon the homogeneous broadening of an atomic transition in a laser gain medium, accurately predicts the absorption coefficient of water over a wide range of incident fluences. One sees saturation of the absorption at both high and low fluence with a monotonic decrease in absorption with increasing fluence. Transmission measurements were also made at 9.6 and 10.6 μm using a TEA CO2 laser. The data show essentially no change in the absorption coefficient as the fluence is varied. The results from the experiments make a significant contribution towards an understanding of the relationship among the dynamic optical properties of water and clinically relevant properties such as ablation rate and residual thermal damage.

  20. Realistic absorption coefficient of each individual film in a multilayer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2015-02-01

    A spectrophotometric strategy, termed multilayer-method (ML-method), is presented and discussed to realistically calculate the absorption coefficient of each individual layer embedded in multilayer architectures without reverse engineering, numerical refinements and assumptions about the layer homogeneity and thickness. The strategy extends in a non-straightforward way a consolidated route, already published by the authors and here termed basic-method, able to accurately characterize an absorbing film covering transparent substrates. The ML-method inherently accounts for non-measurable contribution of the interfaces (including multiple reflections), describes the specific film structure as determined by the multilayer architecture and used deposition approach and parameters, exploits simple mathematics, and has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions, thick-to-ultrathin films). Reliability tests are performed on films and multilayers based on a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing the film structural quality through doping, thickness-tuning and underlying supporting-film. Results are found consistent with information obtained by standard (optical and structural) analysis, the basic-method and band gap values reported in the literature. The discussed example-applications demonstrate the ability of the ML-method to overcome the drawbacks commonly limiting an accurate description of multilayer architectures.

  1. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin

    2017-11-27

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.

  2. [Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.

  3. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of photolysis rate coefficients (or "j-values") is essential to determining the photochemical reaction rates that define ozone loss and other crucial processes in the atmosphere. j-Values can be calculated with radiative transfer models, derived from actinic flux observations, or inferred from trace gas measurements. The primary objective of the present effort was the accurate calculation of j-values in the Arctic twilight along NASA DC-8 flight tracks during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II), based in Kiruna, Sweden (68 degrees N, 20 degrees E) during January-February 2003. The JHU/APL radiative transfer model was utilized to produce a large suite of j-values for photolysis processes (over 70 reactions) relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The calculations take into account the actual changes in ozone abundance and apparent albedo of clouds and the Earth surface along the aircraft flight tracks as observed by in situ and remote sensing platforms (e.g., EP-TOMS). A secondary objective was to analyze solar irradiance data from NCAR s Direct beam Irradiance Atmospheric Spectrometer (DIAS) on-board the NASA DC-8 and to start the development of a flexible, multi-species spectral fitting technique for the independent retrieval of O3,O2.02, and aerosol optical properties.

  4. Approximating the near-edge mass absorption coefficients for Ni using an ultra-thin bimetal foil

    DOE PAGES

    Alkire, Randall W.

    2016-11-01

    In an effort to improve the characteristics of a fluorescing metal-foil-based beam position monitor, a new bimetal ultra-thin (0.98/0.67 µm) Ti–Ni foil was introduced to replace an existing single-element ultra-thin 0.5 µm thick Cr foil. During characterization it was determined that absorption measurements on the bimetal foil could be used to fit the Ni mass absorption coefficients accurately in the vicinity of the NiKedge. Comparison with experimental results from the literature demonstrated that the fitting procedure produced coefficients with uncertainties of the order of ±1%. Once determined, these fit coefficients allowed the thickness of an independently mounted 8 µm thickmore » Ni foil to be computed from absorption measurements instead of relying on a tool-based measurement of the foil thickness. Using the 8 µm thick foil, a continuous map of Ni mass absorption coefficients was produced at 1 eV resolution throughout the near-edge region. Lastly, this high-resolution map marks a significant improvement over the existing NIST XCOM or FFAST database mass absorption coefficients, which have estimated errors of 10–20% for the near-edge region.« less

  5. Soft black hole absorption rates as conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    The absorption rate of low-energy, or soft, electromagnetic radiation by spherically symmetric black holes in arbitrary dimensions is shown to be fixed by conservation of energy and large gauge transformations. Here, we interpret this result as the explicit realization of the Hawking-Perry-Strominger Ward identity for large gauge transformations in the background of a non-evaporating black hole. Along the way we rederive and extend our previous analytic results regarding the absorption rate for the minimal scalar and the photon.

  6. Soft black hole absorption rates as conservation laws

    DOE PAGES

    Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2017-04-10

    The absorption rate of low-energy, or soft, electromagnetic radiation by spherically symmetric black holes in arbitrary dimensions is shown to be fixed by conservation of energy and large gauge transformations. Here, we interpret this result as the explicit realization of the Hawking-Perry-Strominger Ward identity for large gauge transformations in the background of a non-evaporating black hole. Along the way we rederive and extend our previous analytic results regarding the absorption rate for the minimal scalar and the photon.

  7. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the MSX/UVISI satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the Midcourse Space Experiment(MSX)/Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. The influence of surface modification on sound absorption coefficient of albizzia wood absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Prabowo, Anditya E.; Jamasri, Suharty, Neng Sri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of surface modification to sound absorption on absorber based albizia wood and kenaf fiber. The absorber was produced using the albizia wood as main materials, and the kenaf fiber was used as acoustic fill. The albizia wood used for producing the absorber was cut in the transverse direction so that its surface had good porosity. The size of specimens had 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in thickness. The configuration of resonator cavities was 30 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth, and each resonator was completed with a neck hole of the resonator. The types of surface modification were the addition of screen printing ink, fabric (with and without neck hole), and vinyl-wallpaper (with and without neck hole). According to ISO 10534-2, the absorber specimens were tested using two microphones impedance tube with random noise source to get the curve of noise absorption coefficient (NAC) for each specimen. The result shows that both unmodified absorber and absorber modified with screen printing ink have the similar characteristic of NAC and they are feasible to be used as an absorber in conversation rooms. The addition of fabric and vinyl-wallpaper as cover on the absorber surface give the positive effect of the air gap, and it increases the NAC in low frequency (100-400 Hz). However, the covers decrease the NAC in high frequency (400-1,400 Hz). The holes on the fabric and wallpaper covers give the improvement of NAC.

  10. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to measure laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions of hydrocarbon molecules and radicals at low temperatures, which are relevant to the atmospheric photochemistry of Saturn, Jupiter, and Titan. Upcoming NASA planetary missions, such as Cassini, will probe the atmosphere of Titan in more detail, offering an excellent opportunity to test kinetic models and to establish fiducial standards for using kinetic models to interpret various parameters of the outer planets. Accurate low temperature kinetic data, which are presently lacking, may require crucial revisions to the rates of formation and destruction and are of utmost importance to the success of these efforts. In this program, several key reactions of ethynyl radicals (C2H) with acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4), and oxygen (O2), down to temperatures of 170 K were successfully investigated. The experimental apparatus developed in our laboratory for measuring reaction kinetics at low temperatures consists of a laser photolysis/infrared probe laser setup. The rate measurements are carried out as a function of (low) temperature with a transverse flow cell designed specifically for these studies. A 193 nm argon fluoride pulsed excimer laser is used to photolyze a suitable precursor molecule, such as acetylene to produce C2H, and a high resolution, tunable infrared F-center laser (2.3-3.35 mu m) probes the transient concentrations of the radical species directly in absorption to extract the kinetic rate coefficients.

  11. Estimation of the absorption coefficients of two-layered media by a simple method using spatially and time-resolved reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, M.; Sato, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2009-08-01

    Our newly developed method using spatially and time-resolved reflectances can easily estimate the absorption coefficients of each layer in a two-layered medium if the thickness of the upper layer and the reduced scattering coefficients of the two layers are known a priori. We experimentally validated this method using phantoms and examined its possibility of estimating the absorption coefficients of the tissues in human heads. In the case of a homogeneous plastic phantom (polyacetal block), the absorption coefficient estimated by our method agreed well with that obtained by a conventional method. Also, in the case of two-layered phantoms, our method successfully estimated the absorption coefficients of the two layers. Furthermore, the absorption coefficients of the extracerebral and cerebral tissue inside human foreheads were estimated under the assumption that the human heads were two-layered media. It was found that the absorption coefficients of the cerebral tissues were larger than those of the extracerebral tissues.

  12. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.

  13. Accurate estimation of normal incidence absorption coefficients with confidence intervals using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuye, Cedric; Vanlanduit, Steve; Guillaume, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    When using optical measurements of the sound fields inside a glass tube, near the material under test, to estimate the reflection and absorption coefficients, not only these acoustical parameters but also confidence intervals can be determined. The sound fields are visualized using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). In this paper the influence of different test signals on the quality of the results, obtained with this technique, is examined. The amount of data gathered during one measurement scan makes a thorough statistical analysis possible leading to the knowledge of confidence intervals. The use of a multi-sine, constructed on the resonance frequencies of the test tube, shows to be a very good alternative for the traditional periodic chirp. This signal offers the ability to obtain data for multiple frequencies in one measurement, without the danger of a low signal-to-noise ratio. The variability analysis in this paper clearly shows the advantages of the proposed multi-sine compared to the periodic chirp. The measurement procedure and the statistical analysis are validated by measuring the reflection ratio at a closed end and comparing the results with the theoretical value. Results of the testing of two building materials (an acoustic ceiling tile and linoleum) are presented and compared to supplier data.

  14. Temperature modulation of the visible and near infrared absorption and scattering coefficients of human skin.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Omar S; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Lowery, Michael G; Wu, Xiaomao; Hanna, Charles F; Kantor, Stanislaw; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen; Kanger, Johannes S; Bolt, Rene A; de Mul, Frits F

    2003-04-01

    We determine temperature effect on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (mu(a) and mu(s)(')) of human forearm skin. Optical and thermal simulation data suggest that mu( a) and mu(s)(') are determined within a temperature-controlled depth of approximately 2 mm. Cutaneous mu(s)(') change linearly with temperature. Change in mu(a) was complex and irreversible above body normal temperatures. Light penetration depth (delta) in skin increased on cooling, with considerable person-to-person variations. We attribute the effect of temperature on mu(s)(') to change in refractive index mismatch, and its effect on mu(a) to perfusion changes. The reversible temperature effect on mu (s)(' ) was maintained during more than 90 min. contact between skin and the measuring probe, where temperature was modulated between 38 and 22 degrees C for multiple cycles While temperature modulated mu(s)(' ) instantaneously and reversibly, mu(a) exhibited slower response time and consistent drift. There was a statistically significant upward drift in mu(a) and a mostly downward drift in mu( s)(') over the contact period. The drift in temperature-induced fractional change in mu(s)(') was less statistically significant than the drift in mu(s)('). Deltamu( s)(') values determined under temperature modulation conditions may have less nonspecific drift than mu(s)(') which may have significance for noninvasive determination of analytes in human tissue.

  15. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  16. Vertical profiles of aerosol absorption coefficient from micro-Aethalometer data and Mie calculation over Milan.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, L; Mocnik, G; Ferrini, B S; Perrone, M G; Sangiorgi, G; Bolzacchini, E

    2011-06-15

    Vertical profiles of aerosol number-size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentration were measured between ground-level and 500m AGL over Milan. A tethered balloon was fitted with an instrumentation package consisting of the newly-developed micro-Aethalometer (microAeth® Model AE51, Magee Scientific, USA), an optical particle counter, and a portable meteorological station. At the same time, PM(2.5) samples were collected both at ground-level and at a high altitude sampling site, enabling particle chemical composition to be determined. Vertical profiles and PM(2.5) data were collected both within and above the mixing layer. Absorption coefficient (b(abs)) profiles were calculated from the Aethalometer data: in order to do so, an optical enhancement factor (C), accounting for multiple light-scattering within the filter of the new microAeth® Model AE51, was determined for the first time. The value of this parameter C (2.05±0.03 at λ=880nm) was calculated by comparing the Aethalometer attenuation coefficient and aerosol optical properties determined from OPC data along vertical profiles. Mie calculations were applied to the OPC number-size distribution data, and the aerosol refractive index was calculated using the effective medium approximation applied to aerosol chemical composition. The results compare well with AERONET data. The BC and b(abs) profiles showed a sharp decrease at the mixing height (MH), and fairly constant values of b(abs) and BC were found above the MH, representing 17±2% of those values measured within the mixing layer. The BC fraction of aerosol volume was found to be lower above the MH: 48±8% of the corresponding ground-level values. A statistical mean profile was calculated, both for BC and b(abs), to better describe their behaviour; the model enabled us to compute their average behaviour as a function of height, thus laying the foundations for valid parametrizations of vertical profile data which can be useful in both remote sensing

  17. Mapping Surface Water DOC in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Using CDOM Absorption Coefficients and Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.

  18. Backscatter factors and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for diagnostic radiology dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Bouchard, Hugo; Fransson, Annette; Andreo, Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Backscatter factors, B, and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios, (μen/ρ)w, air, for the determination of the surface dose in diagnostic radiology were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The main purpose was to extend the range of available data to qualities used in modern x-ray techniques, particularly for interventional radiology. A comprehensive database for mono-energetic photons between 4 and 150 keV and different field sizes was created for a 15 cm thick water phantom. Backscattered spectra were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo system, scoring track-length fluence differential in energy with negligible statistical uncertainty; using the Monte Carlo computed spectra, B factors and (μen/ρ)w, air were then calculated numerically for each energy. Weighted averaging procedures were subsequently used to convolve incident clinical spectra with mono-energetic data. The method was benchmarked against full Monte Carlo calculations of incident clinical spectra obtaining differences within 0.3-0.6%. The technique used enables the calculation of B and (μen/ρ)w, air for any incident spectrum without further time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. The adequacy of the extended dosimetry data to a broader range of clinical qualities than those currently available, while keeping consistency with existing data, was confirmed through detailed comparisons. Mono-energetic and spectra-averaged values were compared with published data, including those in ICRU Report 74 and IAEA TRS-457, finding average differences of 0.6%. Results are provided in comprehensive tables appropriated for clinical use. Additional qualities can easily be calculated using a designed GUI interface in conjunction with software to generate incident photon spectra.

  19. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  20. A reduced-scale railway noise barrier's insertion loss and absorption coefficients: comparison of field measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, T. A.; Nugent, R. E.

    2003-10-01

    In situ testing determined the insertion loss ( IL) and absorption coefficients of a candidate absorptive noise barrier (soundwall) to abate railway noise for residents of Anaheim, CA. A 4000 m barrier is proposed south of the tracks, but residential areas to the north have expressed concerns that barrier reflections will increase their noise exposure. To address these concerns, a 3.66 m high by 14.6 m long demonstration barrier was built in the parking lot of Edison Field, Anaheim, as part of a public open house, thereby allowing for acoustical measurements. Insertion loss ( IL) was measured in third-octave bands assuming 1/2-scale construction. The IL for three, scaled railway noise sub-sources (rail/wheel interface, locomotive, and train horn) was measured at six, scaled distances. The highest total, A-weighted IL, after corrections for finite-barrier and point-source speaker effects was 22 dB(A) for rail/wheel noise, 18 dB(A) for locomotive noise, and 20 dB(A) for train horn noise. These results can be compared favourably to IL predictions made using algorithms from the US Federal Rail Administration (FRA) noise assessment guidelines. For the actual barrier installation, shielded residential receivers located south of the project are expected to see their future noise exposures reduced from an unmitigated 78 CNEL to 65 CNEL. Absorption coefficients were measured using time delay spectrometry. At lower frequencies, measured absorption coefficients were notably less than the reverberation room results advertised in the manufacturer's literature, but generally conformed with impedance tube results. At higher frequencies the correspondence between measured absorption coefficients and reverberation room results was much improved. For the actual barrier installation, unshielded residential receivers to the north are expected to experience noise exposure increases of less than 1 dB(A). This factor of increase is consistent with a finding of no impact when assessed

  1. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  2. Distribution of photon absorption rates across the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Williams, T P; Webbers, J P; Giordano, L; Henderson, R P

    1998-04-15

    1. An investigation into the distribution of light intensity across the rat retina was carried out on excised, intact rat eyes exposed to Ganzfeld illumination from a helium-neon laser (543 nm). 2. Some of the light entering the eyes exits through the sclera where its intensity can be monitored with an optical 'pick-up' that samples the intensity coming from a small region of external sclera and underlying retina. The spatial resolution of the pick-up is such that it samples light that has passed through ca 2 % of the rods in the rat eye. 3. Some of the laser light is absorbed by the rod pigment, rhodopsin, which gradually bleaches. Bleaching in the retina, in turn, causes an exponential increase in intensity emanating from the sclera. By monitoring this intensity increase, we are able to measure two important parameters in a single bleaching run: the local rhodopsin concentration and the local intensity falling on the rods. 4. With an ocular transmission photometer, we have measured both the local intensity and the local rhodopsin concentration across wide regions of rat retina. Both pigmented and albino rats were studied. 5. The distributions of rhodopsin and intensity were both nearly uniform; consequently, the product, (rhodopsin concentration) x (intensity), was similarly nearly equal across the retina. This means that the initial rate of photon absorption is about the same at all retinal locations. 6. Interpreted in terms of photostasis (the regulation of daily photon catch), this means that the rate of photon absorption is about the same in each rod, viz. 14 400 photons absorbed per rod per second. Since this rate of absorption is sufficient to saturate the rod, one possible purpose of photostasis is to maintain the rod system in a saturated state during daylight hours.

  3. Reference-free determination of tissue absorption coefficient by modulation transfer function characterization in spatial frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiting; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Tongxin; Yan, Panpan; Zhao, Kuanxin; Qi, Caixia; Gao, Feng

    2017-08-08

    Spatial frequency domain (SFD) measurement allows rapid and non-contact wide-field imaging of the tissue optical properties, thus has become a potential tool for assessing physiological parameters and therapeutic responses during photodynamic therapy of skin diseases. The conventional SFD measurement requires a reference measurement within the same experimental scenario as that for a test one to calibrate mismatch between the real measurements and the model predictions. Due to the individual physical and geometrical differences among different tissues, organs and patients, an ideal reference measurement might be unavailable in clinical trials. To address this problem, we present a reference-free SFD determination of absorption coefficient that is based on the modulation transfer function (MTF) characterization. Instead of the absolute amplitude that is used in the conventional SFD approaches, we herein employ the MTF to characterize the propagation of the modulated lights in tissues. With such a dimensionless relative quantity, the measurements can be naturally corresponded to the model predictions without calibrating the illumination intensity. By constructing a three-dimensional database that portrays the MTF as a function of the optical properties (both the absorption coefficient μ a and the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text]) and the spatial frequency, a look-up table approach or a least-square curve-fitting method is readily applied to recover the absorption coefficient from a single frequency or multiple frequencies, respectively. Simulation studies have verified the feasibility of the proposed reference-free method and evaluated its accuracy in the absorption recovery. Experimental validations have been performed on homogeneous tissue-mimicking phantoms with μ a ranging from 0.01 to 0.07 mm -1 and [Formula: see text] = 1.0 or 2.0 mm -1 . The results have shown maximum errors of 4.86 and 7% for [Formula: see text] = 1.0 mm -1 and

  4. Experimental technique for simultaneous measurement of absorption-, emission cross-sections, and background loss coefficient in doped optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, M.; Seraji, F. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report a new simple technique for the simultaneous measurements of absorption-, emission cross-sections, background loss coefficient, and dopant density of doped optical fibers with low dopant concentration. Using our proposed technique, the experimental characterization of a sample Ge-Er-doped optical fiber is presented, and the results are analyzed and compared with other reports. This technique is suitable for production line of doped optical fibers.

  5. Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Prasad

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients k(v) in the atmospheric window are reported for CFC-11 and CFC-12. Data obtained with a grating spectrometer are compared with NCAR cross sections and measurements of k(v) made with a tunable diode laser spectrometer at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights or layers in the atmosphere are presented. The results are suitable for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies.

  6. Effects of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on the thermal infrared remote sensing of the earth surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.

  7. Absolute Two-Photon Absorption Coefficients in UltraViolet Window Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    fvtt* tld » II ntctHB,-y md Idtnlll’ by block number; The absolute two-photon absorption coefficiehts of u. v. transmitting materials have been...measured using well-calibrated single picosecond pulses, at the third and fourth harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YAG laser systems. Twc photon...30, 1977. Work in the area of laser induced breakdown and multiphoton absorption in ultraviolet and infrared laser window materials was carried

  8. Water-absorption rate equation of rice for brewing sake.

    PubMed

    Mizuma, Tomochika; Tomita, Akiko; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Kiyokawa, Yoshifumi; Wakai, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the kinetics of water absorption and to derive an equation for the rate at which water is absorbed by rice for brewing sake. We used two rice varieties: Gin-oumi, commonly used as a staple food, and Gohyakumangoku, a variety used particularly for brewing sake. The water-absorption rate equations of Gin-oumi and Gohyakumangoku were postulated based on the following equations. For Gin-oumi (water content, 11.5%), dx/dtheta=k(1-x)(n), n=1, k=(2 x 10(-9))exp(0.0604 x (t+273.15)). For Gohyakumangoku (11.5%), dx/dtheta=k(1-x)(n)(x+a), n=1, a=0.29, k=(2 x 10(-8))exp(0.0534 x (t+273.15)). Here, x, theta (min), and t ( degrees C) are the water absorbing ratio, time, and temperature, respectively. The result shows that the values of the temperature-dependence parameter k (min(-1)), as well as its curves, are different; a typical rice grain has a monotonically smooth curve, whereas that suitable for sake brewing has an S-shaped curve.

  9. Determination of 2p Excitation Transfer Rate Coefficient in Neon Gas Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Stewart, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    We will discuss our theoretical modelling and application of an array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques for low-temperature plasmas. These are cw laser collisionally-induced fluorescence (LCIF), cw optogalvanic effect (OGE), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). We will briefly present an overview of our investigation of neon positive column plasmas for reduced axial electric fields ranging from 3x10-17 Vcm2 to 2x10-16 Vcm2 (3-20 Td), detailing our determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients involving the fifteen lowest levels, the 1S0 ground state and the 1s and 2p excited states (in Paschen notation), hence information on several energy regions of the electron distribution function (EDF). The discussion will be extended to show the new results obtained from analysis of the argon positive column over similar reduced fields. Future work includes application of our multi-diagnostic technique to more complex systems, including the addition of molecules for EDF determination. array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques OGE LCIF determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients

  10. Estimation of the molar absorption coefficient of copper salicylate within the spectral range 300-350 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2017-12-01

    Additional absorption was detected in absorption spectra within the range 300-350 nm after addition of copper sulfate CuSO4(aq) to a solution of sodium salicylate NaНSal (рН = 7.8). The additional maximum absorption was observed at 320 nm. Assuming that the additional absorption depends on the formation of copper salicylate CuSal, the molar absorption coefficient εCuSal of this complex was determined to be (3.8 ± 0.02) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1. This value is almost equal to that of monoanion HSal-, εHSal - = (3.6 ± 0.04) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1, and is 2.5 times as much as εFe3 + HSal - = (1.55 ± 0.05) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1 for iron salicylate. The difference in εCuSal and εFe3 + HSal - is due to the difference in the initial electron states of Cu2 + and Fe3 + ions that have the d9 and d5 configurations, respectively.

  11. Measurement of the electron-impact transfer rate coefficients between the Kr(1s) states in an afterglow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jie; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2018-04-01

    The rate coefficients for the electron-impact transfer from Kr(1s5) to Kr(1s4) and from Kr(1s3) to Kr(1s2) are measured in the electron temperature (T e) range between 0.07 eV and 1 eV. In the afterglow of a capacitive krypton discharge at a fixed pressure of 20 mTorr and a peak rf power ranging from 4 to 128 W, the densities of four krypton 1s states, the electron temperature and the electron density are measured by diode laser absorption, a Langmuir probe and a microwave interferometer, respectively. With these measured quantities, the rate coefficients are obtained from a population model for krypton metastable states. The measured rate coefficients are compared with those derived from the excitation cross sections of Kr metastable states calculated by different R-matrix models. It is found that our results agree best with that from Allan et al [1]. Moreover, we analyze the assumptions made in the population model and discuss their possible impact on the accuracy of the measured rate coefficients, especially for the low T e (0.1-0.2 eV) range and a higher T e (0.4-1 eV) range.

  12. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  13. Precise Measurement of Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient of Near Millimeter Wave and Far Infrared Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    polyethylene. The plexiglass is a polymethyl methacrylate and the acrylic is a polymethacrylate . The polyamide(nylon) is made with adipic acid and hexamethylene...are made with acrylic acid . It was not sur- prizing to see both exhibiting similar absorption characteristics atleast 30 times higher than

  14. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-05-21

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types ofmore » approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams.« less

  15. Effective absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Ali, Nujhat N.; Saiduddin, Mariyah N.; Wu, Michael; Lee, Hyun Ji (Julie); Aiona, Paige K.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mass absorption coefficient (MAC) values were measured for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples produced by flow tube ozonolysis and smog chamber photooxidation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically: α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, farnesene, guaiacol, imidazole, isoprene, linalool, ocimene, p-xylene, 1-methylpyrrole, and 2-methylpyrrole. Both low-NOx and high-NOx conditions were employed during the chamber photooxidation experiments. MAC values were converted into effective molecular absorption cross sections assuming an average molecular weight of 300 g/mol for SOA compounds. The upper limits for the effective photolysis rates of SOA compounds were calculated by assuming unity photolysis quantum yields and convoluting the absorption cross sections with a time-dependent solar spectral flux. A more realistic estimate for the photolysis rates relying on the quantum yield of acetone was also obtained. The results show that condensed-phase photolysis of SOA compounds can potentially occur with effective lifetimes ranging from minutes to days, suggesting that photolysis is an efficient and largely overlooked mechanism of SOA aging.

  16. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  17. Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption coefficient in a four-level M-model cylindrical quantum dot under the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozian, B.; Askari, H. R.

    2018-07-01

    The Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient in a four-level M-model of a GaAs cylindrical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential under electromagnetically induced transparency are investigated. By solving the density matrix equations in the steady-state, the third order susceptibility is obtained. Then, by using the real and imaginary parts of third order susceptibility, the Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient, respectively, for this system are computed. The effects of the radius and height of the cylindrical QD are then investigated. In addition, the effects of the control laser fields on the Kerr nonlinearity and the nonlinear absorption coefficient are investigated.

  18. Rapid evaluation for dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of the H-like isoelectronic sequence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, H.; Xu, Z.

    1996-09-01

    The authors present a set of accurate formulae for the rapid calculation of dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of H-like ions from Ne (Z = 10) to Ni (Z = 29) with an electron temperature range from 0.6 to 10 keV. This set of formulae are obtained by fitting directly the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients calculated on the basis of the intermediate - coupling multi - configuration Hartree-Fock model made by Karim and Bhalla (1988). The dielectronic recombination rate coefficients from these formulae are in close agreement with the original results of Karim et al. The errors are generally less than 0.1%. The results are also compared with the ones obtained by a set of new rate formulae developed by Hahn. These formulae can be used for generating dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of some H-like ions where the explicit calculations are unavailable. The detailed results are tabulated and discussed.

  19. On the use temperature parameterized rate coefficients in the estimation of non-equilibrium reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.; Chikhaoui, Aziz

    2006-06-01

    The present paper considers a detailed analysis of the nonequilibrium effects for a model reactive system with the Chapman-Eskog (CE) solution of the Boltzmann equation as well as an explicit time dependent solution. The elastic cross sections employed are a hard sphere cross section and the Maxwell molecule cross section. Reactive cross sections which model reactions with and without activation energy are used. A detailed comparison is carried out with these solutions of the Boltzmann equation and the approximation introduced by Cukrowski and coworkers [J. Chem. Phys. 97 (1992) 9086; Chem. Phys. 89 (1992) 159; Physica A 188 (1992) 344; Chem. Phys. Lett. A 297 (1998) 402; Physica A 275 (2000) 134; Chem. Phys. Lett. 341 (2001) 585; Acta Phys. Polonica B 334 (2003) 3607.] based on the temperature of the reactive particles. We show that the Cukrowski approximation has limited applicability for the large class of reactive systems studied in this paper. The explicit time dependent solutions of the Boltzmann equation demonstrate that the CE approach is valid only for very slow reactions for which the corrections to the equilibrium rate coefficient are very small.

  20. Computed rate coefficients and product yields for c-C5H5 + CH3 --> products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Green, William H

    2009-08-06

    Using quantum chemical methods, we have explored the region of the C6H8 potential energy surface that is relevant in predicting the rate coefficients of various wells and major product channels following the reaction between cyclopentadienyl radical and methyl radical, c-C5H5 + CH3. Variational transition state theory is used to calculate the high-pressure-limit rate coefficient for all of the barrierless reactions. RRKM theory and the master equation are used to calculate the pressure dependent rate coefficients for 12 reactions. The calculated results are compared with the limited experimental data available in the literature and the agreement between the two is quite good. All of the rate coefficients calculated in this work are tabulated and can be used in building detailed chemical kinetic models.

  1. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  2. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  3. Changing of optical absorption and scattering coefficients in nonlinear-optical crystal lithium triborate before and after interaction with UV-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, Artem S.; Nikitin, Dmitriy G.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2016-04-01

    In current work optical properties of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with ultraviolet (UV) (λ= 266 nm) induced volume macroscopic defect (track) are investigated using novel piezoelectric resonance laser calorimetry technique. Pulsed laser radiation of 10 W average power at 532 nm wavelength, is consecutively focused into spatial regions with and without optical defect. For these cases exponential fitting of crystal temperature kinetics measured during its irradiation gives different optical absorption coefficients α1 = 8.1 • 10-4 cm-1 (region with defect) and α =3.9ṡ10-4 cm-1 (non-defected region). Optical scattering coefficient is determined as the difference between optical absorption coefficients measured for opaque and transparent lateral facets of the crystal respectively. Measurements reveal that scattering coefficient of LBO in the region with defect is three times higher than the optical absorption coefficient.

  4. The excitation of OH by H2 revisited - I: fine-structure resolved rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłos, J.; Ma, Q.; Dagdigian, P. J.; Alexander, M. H.; Faure, A.; Lique, F.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of OH in molecular clouds provide crucial constraints on both the physical conditions and the oxygen and water chemistry in these clouds. Accurate modelling of the OH emission spectra requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation of OH by collisions with the most abundant collisional partner in the molecular clouds, namely the H2 molecule. We report here theoretical calculations for the fine-structure excitation of OH by H2 (both para- and ortho-H2) using a recently developed highly accurate potential energy surface. Full quantum close coupling rate coefficients are provided for temperatures ranging from 10 to 150 K. Propensity rules are discussed and the new OH-H2 rate coefficients are compared to the earlier values that are currently used in astrophysical modelling. Significant differences were found: the new rate coefficients are significantly larger. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of OH in typical cold molecular clouds and star-forming regions. The new rate coefficients predict substantially larger line intensities. As a consequence, OH abundances derived from observations will be reduced from the values predicted by the earlier rate coefficients.

  5. Rate coefficient measurements for the ClO radical self-reaction as a function of pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Feierabend, K.

    2010-12-01

    Halogen chemistry plays an important role in polar stratospheric ozone loss. The ClO dimer (Cl2O2) catalytic ozone destruction cycle accounts for the vast majority of winter/spring polar stratospheric ozone loss. A key step in the dimer catalytic cycle is the pressure and temperature dependent self-reaction of the ClO radical. The rate coefficient for the ClO self-reaction has been measured in previous laboratory studies but uncertainties persist, particularly at atmospherically relevant temperatures and pressures. In this laboratory study, rate coefficients for the ClO self-reaction were measured over a range of temperature (200 - 296 K) and pressure (50 - 600 Torr, He and N2 bath gases). ClO radicals were produced by pulsed laser photolysis of Cl2O at 248 nm. The ClO radical temporal profile was measured using dual wavelength cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) near 280 nm. The absolute ClO radical concentration was determined using the ClO UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence measured as part of this work. The results from this work will be compared with previous studies and the discrepancies discussed. Possible explanations for deviations of the reaction rate coefficient from the simple Falloff kinetic behavior currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations will be discussed.

  6. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  7. Effect of Feed Gas Flow Rate on CO2 Absorption through Super Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber membrane Contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartohardjono, Sutrasno; Alexander, Kevin; Larasati, Annisa; Sihombing, Ivander Christian

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is pollutant in natural gas that could reduce the heating value of the natural gas and cause problem in transportation due to corrosive to the pipeline. This study aims to evaluate the effects of feed gas flow rate on CO2 absorption through super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. Polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) solution was used as absorbent in this study, whilst the feed gas used in the experiment was a mixture of 30% CO2 and 70% CH4. There are three super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactors sized 6 cm and 25 cm in diameter and length used in this study, which consists of 1000, 3000 and 5000 fibers, respectively. The super hydrophobic fiber membrane used is polypropylene-based with outer and inner diameter of about 525 and 235 μm, respectively. In the experiments, the feed gas was sent through the shell side of the membrane contactor, whilst the absorbent solution was pumped through the lumen fibers. The experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient, flux, absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system and CO2 loading increased with the feed gas flow rate, but the absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system decreased. The mass transfer coefficient and the flux, at the same feed gas flow rate, decreased with the number of fibers in the membrane contactor, but the CO2 absorption efficiency and the CO2 loading increased.

  8. Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings

    DOE PAGES

    Veinot, K. G.; Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN; Dewji, S. A.; ...

    2017-08-24

    External dose coefficients for environmental exposure scenarios are often computed using assumption on infinite or semi-infinite radiation sources. For example, in the case of a person standing on contaminated ground, the source is assumed to be distributed at a given depth (or between various depths) and extending outwards to an essentially infinite distance. In the case of exposure to contaminated air, the person is modeled as standing within a cloud of infinite, or semi-infinite, source distribution. However, these scenarios do not mimic common workplace environments where scatter off walls and ceilings may significantly alter the energy spectrum and dose coefficients.more » In this study, dose rate coefficients were calculated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms positioned in rooms of three sizes representing an office, laboratory, and warehouse. For each room size calculations using the reference phantoms were performed for photons, electrons, and positrons as the source particles to derive mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Since the voxel phantoms lack the resolution to perform dose calculations at the sensitive depth for the skin, a mathematical phantom was developed and calculations were performed in each room size with the three source particle types. Coefficients for the noble gas radionuclides of ICRP Publication 107 (e.g., Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) were generated by folding the corresponding photon, electron, and positron emissions over the mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Finally, results indicate that the smaller room sizes have a significant impact on the dose rate per unit air concentration compared to the semi-infinite cloud case. For example, for Kr-85 the warehouse dose rate coefficient is 7% higher than the office dose rate coefficient while it is 71% higher for Xe-133.« less

  9. Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.; Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN; Dewji, S. A.

    External dose coefficients for environmental exposure scenarios are often computed using assumption on infinite or semi-infinite radiation sources. For example, in the case of a person standing on contaminated ground, the source is assumed to be distributed at a given depth (or between various depths) and extending outwards to an essentially infinite distance. In the case of exposure to contaminated air, the person is modeled as standing within a cloud of infinite, or semi-infinite, source distribution. However, these scenarios do not mimic common workplace environments where scatter off walls and ceilings may significantly alter the energy spectrum and dose coefficients.more » In this study, dose rate coefficients were calculated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms positioned in rooms of three sizes representing an office, laboratory, and warehouse. For each room size calculations using the reference phantoms were performed for photons, electrons, and positrons as the source particles to derive mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Since the voxel phantoms lack the resolution to perform dose calculations at the sensitive depth for the skin, a mathematical phantom was developed and calculations were performed in each room size with the three source particle types. Coefficients for the noble gas radionuclides of ICRP Publication 107 (e.g., Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) were generated by folding the corresponding photon, electron, and positron emissions over the mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Finally, results indicate that the smaller room sizes have a significant impact on the dose rate per unit air concentration compared to the semi-infinite cloud case. For example, for Kr-85 the warehouse dose rate coefficient is 7% higher than the office dose rate coefficient while it is 71% higher for Xe-133.« less

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of (Z)-CF3CH═CHCF3: OH radical reaction rate coefficient and global warming potential.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2011-09-29

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) (cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to detect it. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperatures (212-374 K) and bath gas pressures (20-200 Torr; He, N(2)) and found to be independent of pressure over this range of conditions. The rate coefficient has a non-Arrhenius behavior that is well-described by the expression k(1)(T) = (5.73 ± 0.60) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(678 ± 10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(1)(296 K) was measured to be (4.91 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and the uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. Rate coefficients for the analogous OD radical reaction were determined over a range of temperatures (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He) to be k(2)(T) = (4.81 ± 0.20) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(776 ± 15)/T], with k(2)(296 K) = (5.73 ± 0.50) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). OH radical rate coefficients were also measured at 296, 345, and 375 K using a relative rate technique and found to be in good agreement with the PLP-LIF results. A room-temperature rate coefficient for the O(3) + (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) reaction was measured using an absolute method with O(3) in excess to be <6 × 10(-21) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The atmospheric lifetime of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) due to loss by OH reaction was estimated to be ~20 days. Infrared absorption spectra of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) measured in this work were used to determine a (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) global warming potential (GWP) of ~9 for the 100 year time horizon. A comparison of the OH reactivity of (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHCF(3) with other unsaturated fluorinated compounds is presented.

  11. Collisional Dissociation of CO: ab initio Potential Energy Surfaces and Quasiclassical Trajectory Rate Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Chaban, Galina M.

    2016-01-01

    We have generated accurate global potential energy surfaces for CO+Ar and CO+O that correlate with atom-diatom pairs in their ground electronic states based on extensive ab initio electronic structure calculations and used these potentials in quasi-classical trajectory nuclear dynamics calculations to predict the thermal dissociation rate coefficients over 5000- 35000 K. Our results are not compatible with the 20-45 year old experimental results. For CO + Ar we obtain fairly good agreement with the experimental rate coefficients of Appleton et al. (1970) and Mick and Roth (1993), but our computed rate coefficients exhibit a stronger temperature dependence. For CO + O our dissociation rate coefficient is in close agreement with the value from the Park model, which is an empirical adjustment of older experimental results. However, we find the rate coefficient for CO + O is only 1.5 to 3.3 times larger than CO + Ar over the temperature range of the shock tube experiments (8000-15,000 K). The previously accepted value for this rate coefficient ratio is 15, independent of temperature. We also computed the rate coefficient for the CO + O ex- change reaction which forms C + O2. We find this reaction is much faster than previously believed and is the dominant process in the removal of CO at temperatures up to 16,000 K. As a result, the dissociation of CO is accomplished in two steps (react to form C+O2 and then O2 dissociates) that are endothermic by 6.1 and 5.1 eV, instead of one step that requires 11.2 eV to break the CO bond.

  12. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-09-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip boundary condition can be applied. The measured viscous slip coefficients of binary gas mixtures exhibit a concave function of the molar ratio of the mixture, showing a similar profile with numerical results. However, from the detailed comparison between the measured and numerical values with the complete and incomplete accommodation at a surface, it is inappropriate to estimate the viscous slip coefficient for the mixture numerically by employing separately measured tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for each component. The time variation of the molar ratio in the downstream chamber was measured by sampling the gas from the chamber using the quadrupole mass spectrometer. In our measurements, it is indicated that the volume flow rate of argon is larger than that of helium because of the difference in the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient.

  13. Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law.

    PubMed

    Cuppo, F L S; Gómez, S L; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2004-04-01

    In this paper is reported a systematic experimental study of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped isotropic lyotropic mixtures as a function of the magnetic-grains concentration. The linear optical absorption of ferrolyomesophases increases in a nonlinear manner with the concentration of magnetic grains, deviating from the usual Beer-Lambert law. This behavior is associated to the presence of correlated micelles in the mixture which favors the formation of small-scale aggregates of magnetic grains (dimers), which have a higher absorption coefficient with respect to that of isolated grains. We propose that the indirect heating of the micelles via the ferrofluid grains (hyperthermia) could account for this nonlinear increase of the linear-optical-absorption coefficient as a function of the grains concentration.

  14. Inelastic rate coefficients for collisions of C6H- with H2 and He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kyle M.; Lique, François; Dumouchel, Fabien; Dawes, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The recent detection of anions in the interstellar medium has shown that they exist in a variety of astrophysical environments - circumstellar envelopes, cold dense molecular clouds and star-forming regions. Both radiative and collisional processes contribute to molecular excitation and de-excitation in these regions so that the 'local thermodynamic equilibrium' approximation, where collisions cause the gas to behave thermally, is not generally valid. Therefore, along with radiative coefficients, collisional excitation rate coefficients are needed to accurately model the anionic emission from these environments. We focus on the calculation of state-to-state rate coefficients of the C6H- molecule in its ground vibrational state in collisions with para-H2, ortho-H2 and He using new potential energy surfaces. Dynamical calculations for the pure rotational excitation of C6H- were performed for the first 11 rotational levels (up to j1 = 10) using the close-coupling method, while the coupled-states approximation was used to extend the H2 rate coefficients to j1 = 30, where j1 is the angular momentum quantum number of C6H-. State-to-state rate coefficients were obtained for temperatures ranging from 2 to 100 K. The rate coefficients for H2 collisions for Δj1 = -1 transitions are of the order of 10-10 cm3 s-1, a factor of 2 to 3 greater than those of He. Propensity rules are discussed. The collisional excitation rate coefficients produced here impact astrophysical modelling since they are required for obtaining accurate C6H- level populations and line emission for regions that contain anions.

  15. Experimental Determination of the Molar Absorption Coefficient of n-Hexane Adsorbed on High-Silica Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Giorgio; Olivas Olivera, Diana F; Sacchetto, Vittoria; Cossi, Maurizio; Braschi, Ilaria; Marchese, Leonardo; Bisio, Chiara

    2017-09-06

    Determination of the molar absorption coefficients of the CH 3 bending mode at ν˜ =1380 cm -1 (ϵ 1380 ) of n-hexane adsorbed from the gas phase on two different dealuminated zeolites is derived by a combination of IR spectroscopy and microgravimetric analysis. High-silica zeolite Y (HSZ-Y) and zeolite ZSM-5 (with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratios of 200 and 280, respectively) with different textural and surface features are selected to evaluate the effect of the pore structure and architecture on the value of ϵ 1380 of the adsorbed n-hexane. Experimental data indicate that the molecule experiences a different adsorption environment inside zeolites; thus resulting in a significant change of the dipole moment and very different ϵ 1380 values: (0.278±0.018) cm μmol -1 for HSZ-Y and (0.491±0.032) cm μmol -1 for ZSM-5. Experimental data are also supported by computational modeling, which confirms the effect of different matrices on the IR absorption intensity. This study reveals that the use of probe molecules for quantitative measurements of surface sites has to be judiciously adopted, especially if adsorption occurs in the restricted spaces of microporous materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  17. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  18. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), Scdm (units: nm−1), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving Scdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360–500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of Scdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors. PMID:29201583

  19. Light absorption coefficients by phytoplankton pigments, suspended particles and colored dissolved organic matter in the Crimea coastal water (the Black sea) in June 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.

    2017-11-01

    Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.

  20. Comparison of monoenergetic photon organ dose rate coefficients for stylized and voxel phantoms submerged in air

    DOE PAGES

    Bellamy, Michael B.; Hiller, Mauritius M.; Dewji, Shaheen A.; ...

    2016-02-01

    As part of a broader effort to calculate effective dose rate coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, soil or water, age-specific stylized phantoms have been employed to determine dose coefficients relating dose rate to organs and tissues in the body. In this article, dose rate coefficients computed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference adult male voxel phantom are compared with values computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory adult male stylized phantom in an air submersion exposure geometry. Monte Carlo calculations for both phantoms were performed for monoenergetic source photonsmore » in the range of 30 keV to 5 MeV. Furthermore, these calculations largely result in differences under 10 % for photon energies above 50 keV, and it can be expected that both models show comparable results for the environmental sources of radionuclides.« less

  1. Accurate Determination of Tunneling-Affected Rate Coefficients: Theory Assessing Experiment.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Junxiang; Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua; Xie, Daiqian

    2017-07-20

    The thermal rate coefficients of a prototypical bimolecular reaction are determined on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) using ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). It is shown that quantum effects such as tunneling and zero-point energy (ZPE) are of critical importance for the HCl + OH reaction at low temperatures, while the heavier deuterium substitution renders tunneling less facile in the DCl + OH reaction. The calculated RPMD rate coefficients are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the HCl + OH reaction in the entire temperature range of 200-1000 K, confirming the accuracy of the PES. On the other hand, the RPMD rate coefficients for the DCl + OH reaction agree with some, but not all, experimental values. The self-consistency of the theoretical results thus allows a quality assessment of the experimental data.

  2. Comparison of monoenergetic photon organ dose rate coefficients for stylized and voxel phantoms submerged in air

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, Michael B.; Hiller, Mauritius M.; Dewji, Shaheen A.

    As part of a broader effort to calculate effective dose rate coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, soil or water, age-specific stylized phantoms have been employed to determine dose coefficients relating dose rate to organs and tissues in the body. In this article, dose rate coefficients computed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference adult male voxel phantom are compared with values computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory adult male stylized phantom in an air submersion exposure geometry. Monte Carlo calculations for both phantoms were performed for monoenergetic source photonsmore » in the range of 30 keV to 5 MeV. Furthermore, these calculations largely result in differences under 10 % for photon energies above 50 keV, and it can be expected that both models show comparable results for the environmental sources of radionuclides.« less

  3. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different composite nanolubricant concentrations on Aluminium 2024 plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawawi, N. N. M.; Azmi, W. H.; Redhwan, A. A. M.; Sharif, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Wear of sliding parts and operational machine consistency enhancement can be avoided with good lubrication. Lubrication reduce wear between two contacting and sliding surfaces and decrease the frictional power losses in compressor. The coefficient of friction and wear rate effects study were carried out to measure the friction and anti-wear abilities of Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants a new type of compressor lubricant to enhanced the compressor performances. The tribology test rig employing reciprocating test conditions to replicate a piston ring contact in the compressor was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. Coefficient of friction and wear rate effects of different Al2O3-SiO2/PAG composite nanolubricants of Aluminium 2024 plate for 10-kg load at different speed were investigated. Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in the Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG 46) lubricant using two-steps method of preparation. The result shows that the coefficient friction and wear rate of composite nanolubricants decreased compared to pure lubricant. The maximum reduction achievement for friction of coefficient and wear rate by Al2O3-SiO2 composite nanolubricants by 4.78% and 12.96% with 0.06% volume concentration. Therefore, 0.06% volume concentration is selected as the most enhanced composite nanolubricants with effective coefficient of friction and wear rate reduction compared to other volume concentrations. Thus, it is recommended to be used as the compressor lubrication to enhanced compressor performances.

  4. Dielectronic and Trielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients of Be-like Ar14+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. K.; Wen, W. Q.; Xu, X.; Mahmood, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, H. B.; Dou, L. J.; Khan, N.; Badnell, N. R.; Preval, S. P.; Schippers, S.; Xu, T. H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, K.; Xu, W. Q.; Chuai, X. Y.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Mao, L. J.; Ma, X. M.; Li, J.; Mao, R. S.; Yuan, Y. J.; Wu, B.; Sheng, L. N.; Yang, J. C.; Xu, H. S.; Zhu, L. F.; Ma, X.

    2018-03-01

    Electron–ion recombination of Be-like 40Ar14+ has been measured by employing the electron–ion merged-beams method at the cooler storage ring CSRm. The measured absolute recombination rate coefficients for collision energies from 0 to 60 eV are presented, covering all dielectronic recombination (DR) resonances associated with 2s 2 → 2s2p core transitions. In addition, strong trielectronic recombination (TR) resonances associated with 2s 2 → 2p 2 core transitions were observed. Both DR and TR processes lead to series of peaks in the measured recombination spectrum, which have been identified by the Rydberg formula. Theoretical calculations of recombination rate coefficients were performed using the state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit–Pauli atomic structure code AUTOSTRUCTURE to compare with the experimental results. The plasma rate coefficients for DR+TR of Ar14+ were deduced from the measured electron–ion recombination rate coefficients in the temperature range from 103 to 107 K, and compared with calculated data from the literature. The experimentally derived plasma rate coefficients are 60% larger and 30% lower than the previously recommended atomic data for the temperature ranges of photoionized plasmas and collisionally ionized plasmas, respectively. However, good agreement was found between experimental results and the calculations by Gu and Colgan et al. The plasma rate coefficients deduced from experiment and calculated by the current AUTOSTRUCTURE code show agreement that is better than 30% from 104 to 107 K. The present results constitute a set of benchmark data for use in astrophysical modeling.

  5. Rate Coefficient Measurements and Theoretical Analysis of the OH + ( E)-CF3CH═CHCF3 Reaction.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Marshall, Paul; Waterland, Robert L; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2018-05-04

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with ( E)-CF 3 CH═CHCF 3 (( E)-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene, HFO-1336mzz(E)) were measured over a range of temperatures (211-374 K) and bath gas pressures (20-300 Torr; He, N 2 ) using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique. k 1 ( T) was independent of pressure over this range of conditions with k 1 (296 K) = (1.31 ± 0.15) × 10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 and k 1 ( T) = (6.94 ± 0.80) × 10 -13 exp[-(496 ± 10)/ T] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , where the uncertainties are 2σ, and the pre-exponential term includes estimated systematic error. Rate coefficients for the OD reaction were also determined over a range of temperatures (262-374 K) at 100 Torr (He). The OD rate coefficients were ∼15% greater than the OH values and showed similar temperature dependent behavior with k 2 ( T) = (7.52 ± 0.44) × 10 -13 exp[-(476 ± 20)/ T] and k 2 (296 K) = (1.53 ± 0.15) × 10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . The rate coefficients for reaction 1 were also measured using a relative rate technique between 296 and 375 K with k 1 (296 K) measured to be (1.22 ± 0.1) × 10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , in agreement with the PLP-LIF results. In addition, the 296 K rate coefficient for the O 3 + ( E)-CF 3 CH═CHCF 3 reaction was determined to be <5.2 × 10 -22 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . A theoretical computational analysis is presented to interpret the observed positive temperature dependence for the addition reaction and the significant decrease in OH reactivity compared to the ( Z)-CF 3 CH═CHCF 3 stereoisomer reaction. The estimated atmospheric lifetime of ( E)-CF 3 CH═CHCF 3 , due to loss by reaction with OH, is estimated to be ∼90 days, while the actual lifetime will depend on the location and season of its emission. Infrared absorption spectra of ( E)-CF 3 CH═CHCF 3 were measured and used to estimate the 100 year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) of 32

  6. Species-to-species rate coefficients for the H3+ + H2 reacting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Harju, J.; Caselli, P.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We study whether or not rotational excitation can make a large difference to chemical models of the abundances of the H3+ isotopologs, including spin states, in physical conditions corresponding to starless cores and protostellar envelopes. Methods: We developed a new rate coefficient set for the chemistry of the H3+ isotopologs, allowing for rotational excitation, using previously published state-to-state rate coefficients. These new so-called species-to-species rate coefficients are compared with previously-used ground-state-to-species rate coefficients by calculating chemical evolution in variable physical conditions using a pseudo-time-dependent chemical code. Results: We find that the new species-to-species model produces different results to the ground state-to-species model at high density and toward increasing temperatures (T> 10 K). The most prominent difference is that the species-to-species model predicts a lower H3+ deuteration degree at high density owing to an increase of the rate coefficients of endothermic reactions that tend to decrease deuteration. For example at 20 K, the ground-state-to-species model overestimates the abundance of H2D+ by a factor of about two, while the abundance of D3+ can differ by up to an order of magnitude between the models. The spin-state abundance ratios of the various H3+ isotopologs are also affected, and the new model better reproduces recent observations of the abundances of ortho and para H2D+ and D2H+. The main caveat is that the applicability regime of the new rate coefficients depends on the critical densities of the various rotational transitions which vary with the abundances of the species and the temperature in dense clouds. Conclusions: The difference in the abundances of the H3+ isotopologs predicted by the species-to-species and ground state-to-species models is negligible at 10 K corresponding to physical conditions in starless cores, but inclusion of the excited states is very important in studies

  7. Low-Temperature Rate Coefficients of C2H with CH4 and CD4 from 154 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction C2H + CH4 yields C2H2 + CH3 and C2H + CD4 yields C2HD + CD3 are measured over the temperature range 154-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. Ethynyl radicals are produced by pulsed laser photolysis of C2H2 in a variable temperature flow cell, and a tunable color center laser probes the transient removal of C2H (Chi(exp 2) Sigma(+) (0,0,0)) in absorption. The rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H with CH4 and CD4 both show a positive temperature dependence over the range 154-359 K, which can be expressed as k(sub CH4) = (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp -11) exp((-491 +/- 12)/T) and k(sub CD4) = (8.7 +/- 1.8) x 10(exp -12) exp((-650 +/- 61)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1), respectively. The reaction of C2H + CH4 exhibits a significant kinetic isotope effect at 300 K of k(sub CH4)/k(sub CD4) = 2.5 +/- 0.2. Temperature dependent rate constants for C2H + C2H2 were also remeasured over an increased temperature range from 143 to 359 K and found to show a slight negative temperature dependence, which can be expressed as k(sub C2H2) = 8.6 x 10(exp -16) T(exp 1.8) exp((474 +/- 90)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1).

  8. Determination of the N2 recombination rate coefficient in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orsini, N.; Torr, D. G.; Brinton, H. C.; Brace, L. H.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of aeronomic parameters made by the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite are used to determine the recombination rate coefficient of N2(+) in the ionosphere. The rate is found to increase significantly with decreasing electron density. Values obtained range from approximately 1.4 x 10 to the -7th to 3.8 x 10 to the -7th cu cm/sec. This variation is explained in a preliminary way in terms of an increase in the rate coefficient with vibrational excitation. Thus, high electron densities depopulate high vibrational levels reducing the effective recombination rate, whereas, low electron densities result in an enhancement in the population of high vibrational levels, thus, increasing the effective recombination rate.

  9. Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.

  10. Dialyzer clearances and mass transfer-area coefficients for small solutes at low dialysate flow rates.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, John K; Kamerath, Craig D; Gilson, Janice F; Friederichs, Goetz

    2006-01-01

    New daily hemodialysis therapies operate at low dialysate flow rates to minimize dialysate volume requirements; however, the dependence of dialyzer clearances and mass transfer-area coefficients for small solutes on dialysate flow rate under these conditions have not been studied extensively. We evaluated in vitro dialyzer clearances for urea and creatinine at dialysate flow rates of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 ml/min and ultrafiltration flow rates of 0, 1, and 2 l/h, using a dialyzer containing PUREMA membranes (NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA). Clearances were measured directly across the dialyzer by perfusing bovine blood with added urea and creatinine single pass through the dialyzer at a nominal blood flow rate of 400 ml/min. Limited, additional studies were performed with the use of dialyzers containing PUREMA membranes at a blood flow rate of 200 ml/min and also with the use of other dialyzers containing polysulfone membranes (Optiflux 160NR, FMC-NA, Ogden, UT) and dialyzers containing Synphan membranes (NxStage Medical). For dialyzers containing PUREMA membranes, urea and creatinine clearances increased (p < 0.001) with increasing dialysate and ultrafiltration flow rates but were not different at blood flow rates of 200 and 400 ml/min. Dialysate saturation, defined as dialysate outlet concentration divided by blood water inlet concentration, for urea and creatinine was independent of blood and ultrafiltration flow rate but varied inversely (p < 0.001) with dialysate flow rate. Mass transfer-area coefficients for urea and creatinine were independent of blood and ultrafiltration flow rate but decreased (p < 0.001) with decreasing dialysate flow rate. Calculated mass transfer-area coefficients at low dialysate flow rates for all dialyzers tested were substantially lower than those reported by the manufacturers under conventional conditions. We conclude that dialyzers require specific characterization under relevant conditions if they are used in novel daily

  11. Laboratory investigation on the role of tubular shaped micro resonators phononic crystal insertion on the absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly

  12. Absolute rate coefficients for photorecombination of beryllium-like and boron-like silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, D.; Becker, A.; Brandau, C.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report measured rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination of Si10+ forming Si9+ and of Si9+ forming Si8+, respectively. The measurements were performed using the electron-ion merged-beams technique at a heavy-ion storage ring. Electron-ion collision energies ranged from 0 to 50 eV for Si9+ and from 0 to 2000 eV for Si10+, thus, extending previous measurements for Si10+ (Orban et al 2010 Astrophys. J. 721 1603) to much higher energies. Experimentally derived rate coefficients for the recombination of Si9+ and Si10+ ions in a plasma are presented along with simple parameterizations. These rate coefficients are useful for the modeling of the charge balance of silicon in photoionized plasmas (Si9+ and Si10+) and in collisionally ionized plasmas (Si10+ only). In the corresponding temperature ranges, the experimentally derived rate coefficients agree with the latest corresponding theoretical results within the experimental uncertainties.

  13. Structure dependence of the rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical+aromatic molecule reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2013-06-01

    The rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical addition to the rings of simple aromatic molecules (kOH) were evaluated based on the literature data. By analyzing the methods of kOH determination and the data obtained the most probable values were selected for the kOH's of individual compounds and thereby the most reliable dataset was created for monosubstituted aromatics and p-substituted phenols. For these compounds the rate coefficients fall in a narrow range between 2×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1 and 1×1010 mol-1 dm3 s-1. Although the values show some regular trend with the electron donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, the log kOH-σp Hammett substituent constant plots do not give straight lines because these high kOH's are controlled by both, the chemical reactivity and the diffusion. However, the logarithms of the rate coefficients of the chemical reactivity controlled reactions (kchem), are calculated by the equation 1/kOH=1/kchem+1/kdiff, and accepting for the diffusion controlled rate coefficient kdiff=1.1×1010 mol-1 dm3 s-1, show good linear correlation with σp.

  14. Direct access to dithiobenzoate RAFT agent fragmentation rate coefficients by ESR spin-trapping.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Kayte; Delaittre, Guillaume; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The β-scission rate coefficient of tert-butyl radicals fragmenting off the intermediate resulting from their addition to tert-butyl dithiobenzoate-a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent-is estimated via the recently introduced electron spin resonance (ESR)-trapping methodology as a function of temperature. The newly introduced ESR-trapping methodology is critically evaluated and found to be reliable. At 20 °C, a fragmentation rate coefficient of close to 0.042 s(-1) is observed, whereas the activation parameters for the fragmentation reaction-determined for the first time-read EA = 82 ± 13.3 kJ mol(-1) and A = (1.4 ± 0.25) × 10(13) s(-1) . The ESR spin-trapping methodology thus efficiently probes the stability of the RAFT adduct radical under conditions relevant for the pre-equilibrium of the RAFT process. It particularly indicates that stable RAFT adduct radicals are indeed formed in early stages of the RAFT poly-merization, at least when dithiobenzoates are employed as controlling agents as stipulated by the so-called slow fragmentation theory. By design of the methodology, the obtained fragmentation rate coefficients represent an upper limit. The ESR spin-trapping methodology is thus seen as a suitable tool for evaluating the fragmentation rate coefficients of a wide range of RAFT adduct radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chemical Reaction Rate Coefficients from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Practical Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Suleimanov, Yury V.; Aoiz, F. Javier; Guo, Hua

    2016-09-14

    This Feature Article presents an overview of the current status of ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) rate theory. We first analyze the RPMD approach and its connection to quantum transition-state theory. We then focus on its practical applications to prototypical chemical reactions in the gas phase, which demonstrate how accurate and reliable RPMD is for calculating thermal chemical reaction rate coefficients in multifarious cases. This review serves as an important checkpoint in RPMD rate theory development, which shows that RPMD is shifting from being just one of recent novel ideas to a well-established and validated alternative to conventional techniques formore » calculating thermal chemical rate coefficients. We also hope it will motivate further applications of RPMD to various chemical reactions.« less

  16. Laser-based measurements of pressure broadening and pressure shift coefficients of combustion-relevant absorption lines in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Sebastian; Walter, Nicole; Wagner, Steven

    2018-06-01

    A set of high-resolution absorption spectrometers based on TDLAS was used to determine the impact of combustion-relevant gases on the pressure shift and broadening of H2O, CO2, C2H2 and CH4 absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. In particular, self- and foreign-broadening coefficients induced by CO2, N2, O2, air, C2H2 and CH4 were measured. The absorption lines under investigation are suitable to measure the respective species in typical combustion environments via laser absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, species-dependent self- and foreign-induced pressure shift coefficients were measured and compared to the literature. The experiments were performed in two specifically designed absorption cells over a wide pressure range from 5 to 180 kPa. Different sources of uncertainty were identified and quantified to achieve relative measurement uncertainties of 0.7-1.5% for broadening coefficients and 0.6-1.6% for pressure shift coefficients.

  17. Mean absorption coefficients of He/Ar/N2/(C1-x-y , Ni x , Co y ) thermal plasmas for CNT synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, D.; Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph; Béji, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the mean absorption coefficients (MACs) calculated for plasma mixtures of argon-helium-nitrogen-carbon-nickel-cobalt at 60 kPa and in a temperature range from 1 kK to 20 kK. These coefficients have been computed under the assumption of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), isothermal plasma, including atomic and molecular continuum, molecular bands and lines radiation splitted into nine spectral intervals. The results show that the continuum absorption coefficients strongly depend on photodissociation and photoionization processes of the molecular species N2, CN and C2, with a significant effect on photodetachment processes of C- in a frequency interval lower than 1  ×  1015 Hz and for low temperature (<6 kK). While at high temperature, the main contribution in continuum absorption coefficient comes from radiative recombination processes except in the infrared region (<0.5  ×  1015 Hz) where the inverse bremsstrahlung represents the most important component in continuum processes for all temperature values. On the other hand, the calculation of MAC shows that the role of molecular continuum, molecular bands and line absorption of the neutral catalysis species Ni/Co are only important in a small range of temperature and in a few spectral bands located in visible and infrared regions, while at high temperature and in UV and visible regions, the foremost contributions to MAC come from atomic continuum and line absorption.

  18. Statistical models for sediment/detritus and dissolved absorption coefficients in coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Rebecca E.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Ko, Dong S.

    2008-06-01

    We developed statistically-based, optical models to estimate tripton (sediment/detrital) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients ( a sd, a g) from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data. First, empirical algorithms for satellite-derived a sd and a g were developed, based on comparison with a large data set of cruise measurements from northern Gulf shelf waters; these algorithms were then applied to a time series of ocean color (SeaWiFS) satellite imagery for 2002-2005. Unique seasonal timing was observed in satellite-derived optical properties, with a sd peaking most often in fall/winter on the shelf, in contrast to summertime peaks observed in a g. Next, the satellite-derived values were coupled with the physical data to form multiple regression models. A suite of physical forcing variables were tested for inclusion in the models: discharge from the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay, Alabama; gridded fields for winds, precipitation, solar radiation, sea surface temperature and height (SST, SSH); and modeled surface salinity and currents (Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM). For satellite-derived a sd and a g time series (2002-2004), correlation and stepwise regression analyses revealed the most important physical forcing variables. Over our region of interest, the best predictors of tripton absorption were wind speed, river discharge, and SST, whereas dissolved absorption was best predicted by east-west wind speed, river discharge, and river discharge lagged by 1 month. These results suggest the importance of vertical mixing (as a function of winds and thermal stratification) in controlling a sd distribution patterns over large regions of the shelf, in comparison to advection as the most important control on a g. The multiple linear regression models for estimating a sd and a g were applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis and

  19. Theory and simulation of the time-dependent rate coefficients of diffusion-influenced reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H X; Szabo, A

    1996-01-01

    A general formalism is developed for calculating the time-dependent rate coefficient k(t) of an irreversible diffusion-influenced reaction. This formalism allows one to treat most factors that affect k(t), including rotational Brownian motion and conformational gating of reactant molecules and orientation constraint for product formation. At long times k(t) is shown to have the asymptotic expansion k(infinity)[1 + k(infinity) (pie Dt)-1/2 /4 pie D + ...], where D is the relative translational diffusion constant. An approximate analytical method for calculating k(t) is presented. This is based on the approximation that the probability density of the reactant pair in the reactive region keeps the equilibrium distribution but with a decreasing amplitude. The rate coefficient then is determined by the Green function in the absence of chemical reaction. Within the framework of this approximation, two general relations are obtained. The first relation allows the rate coefficient for an arbitrary amplitude of the reactivity to be found if the rate coefficient for one amplitude of the reactivity is known. The second relation allows the rate coefficient in the presence of conformational gating to be found from that in the absence of conformational gating. The ratio k(t)/k(0) is shown to be the survival probability of the reactant pair at time t starting from an initial distribution that is localized in the reactive region. This relation forms the basis of the calculation of k(t) through Brownian dynamics simulations. Two simulation procedures involving the propagation of nonreactive trajectories initiated only from the reactive region are described and illustrated on a model system. Both analytical and simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the equilibrium-distribution approximation method. PMID:8913584

  20. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients and theoretical calculations for the OH+Cl2O reaction.

    PubMed

    Riffault, Véronique; Clark, Jared M; Hansen, Jaron C; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2010-12-17

    Rate coefficients k for the OH+Cl(2)O reaction are measured as a function of temperature (230-370 K) and pressure by using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser-induced fluorescence to monitor their loss under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH. The reaction rate coefficient is found to be independent of pressure, within the precision of our measurements at 30-100 Torr (He) and 100 Torr (N(2)). The rate coefficients obtained at 100 Torr (He) showed a negative temperature dependence with a weak non-Arrhenius behavior. A room-temperature rate coefficient of k(1)(297 K)=(7.5±1.1)×10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) is obtained, where the quoted uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. Theoretical methods are used to examine OH···OCl(2) and OH···ClOCl adduct formation and the potential-energy surfaces leading to the HOCl+ClO (1a) and Cl+HOOCl (1d) products in reaction (1) at the hybrid density functional UMPW1K/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory. The OH···OCl(2) and OH···ClOCl adducts are found to have binding energies of about 0.2 kcal mol(-1). The reaction is calculated to proceed through weak pre-reactive complexes. Transition-state energies for channels (1a) and (1d) are calculated to be about 1.4 and about 3.3 kcal mol(-1) above the energy of the reactants. The results from the present study are compared with previously reported rate coefficients, and the interpretation of the possible non-Arrhenius behavior is discussed.

  1. Effects of Motility and Adsorption Rate Coefficient on Transport of Bacteria through Saturated Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    Camper, Anne K.; Hayes, Jason T.; Sturman, Paul J.; Jones, Warren L.; Cunningham, Alfred B.

    1993-01-01

    Three strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens with different motility rates and adsorption rate coefficients were injected into porous-medium reactors packed with l-mm-diameter glass spheres. Cell breakthrough, time to peak concentration, tailing, and cell recovery were measured at three interstitial pore velocities (higher than, lower than, and much lower than the maximal bacterial motility rate). All experiments were done with distilled water to reduce the effects of growth and chemotaxis. Contrary to expectations, motility did not result in either early breakthrough or early time to peak concentration at flow velocities below the motility rate. Bacterial size exclusion effects were shown to affect breakthrough curve shape at the very low flow velocity, but no such effect was seen at the higher flow velocity. The tendency of bacteria to adsorb to porous-medium surfaces, as measured by adsorption rate coefficients, profoundly influenced transport characteristics. Cell recoveries were shown to be correlated with the ratio of advective to adsorptive transport in the reactors. Adsorption rate coefficients were found to be better predictors of microbial transport phenomena than individual characteristics, such as size, motility, or porous-medium hydrodynamics. PMID:16349075

  2. Fission Product Appearance Rate Coefficients in Design Basis Source Term Determinations - Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro B.; Hamawi, John N.

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear power plant radiation protection design features are based on radionuclide source terms derived from conservative assumptions that envelope expected operating experience. Two parameters that significantly affect the radionuclide concentrations in the source term are failed fuel fraction and effective fission product appearance rate coefficients. Failed fuel fraction may be a regulatory based assumption such as in the U.S. Appearance rate coefficients are not specified in regulatory requirements, but have been referenced to experimental data that is over 50 years old. No doubt the source terms are conservative as demonstrated by operating experience that has included failed fuel, but it may be too conservative leading to over-designed shielding for normal operations as an example. Design basis source term methodologies for normal operations had not advanced until EPRI published in 2015 an updated ANSI/ANS 18.1 source term basis document. Our paper revisits the fission product appearance rate coefficients as applied in the derivation source terms following the original U.S. NRC NUREG-0017 methodology. New coefficients have been calculated based on recent EPRI results which demonstrate the conservatism in nuclear power plant shielding design.

  3. A method to determine the acoustic reflection and absorption coefficients of porous media by using modal dispersion in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.

  4. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  5. Influence of the light propagation models on a linearized photoacoustic image reconstruction of the light absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of the optical properties of the tissues and blood by noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging may provide useful information for screening and early diagnosis of diseases. Linearized 2D image reconstruction algorithm based on PA wave equation and the photon diffusion equation (PDE) can reconstruct the image with computational cost smaller than a method based on 3D radiative transfer equation. However, the reconstructed image is affected by the differences between the actual and assumed light propagations. A quantitative capability of a linearized 2D image reconstruction was investigated and discussed by the numerical simulations and the phantom experiment in this study. The numerical simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and the 2D finite element calculation of the PDE were carried out. The phantom experiment was also conducted. In the phantom experiment, the PA pressures were acquired by a probe which had an optical fiber for illumination and the ring shaped P(VDF-TrFE) ultrasound transducer. The measured object was made of Intralipid and Indocyanine green. In the numerical simulations, it was shown that the linearized image reconstruction method recovered the absorption coefficients with alleviating the dependency of the PA amplitude on the depth of the photon absorber. The linearized image reconstruction method worked effectively under the light propagation calculated by 3D MC simulation, although some errors occurred. The phantom experiments validated the result of the numerical simulations.

  6. Determination of the Rate Coefficients of the SO2 plus O plus M yields SO3 plus M Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Cooke, J. A.; De Witt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Rate coefficients of the title reaction R(sub 31) (SO2 +O+M yields SO3 +M) and R(sub 56) (SO2 + HO2 yields SO3 +OH), important in the conversion of S(IV) to S(VI),were obtained at T =970-1150 K and rho (sub ave) = 16.2 micro mol/cubic cm behind reflected shock waves by a perturbation method. Shock-heated H2/ O2/Ar mixtures were perturbed by adding small amounts of SO2 (1%, 2%, and 3%) and the OH temporal profiles were then measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. Reaction rate coefficients were elucidated by matching the characteristic reaction times acquired from the individual experimental absorption profiles via simultaneous optimization of k(sub 31) and k(sub 56) values in the reaction modeling (for satisfactory matches to the observed characteristic times, it was necessary to take into account R(sub 56)). In the experimental conditions of this study, R(sub 31) is in the low-pressure limit. The rate coefficient expressions fitted using the combined data of this study and the previous experimental results are k(sub 31,0)/[Ar] = 2.9 10(exp 35) T(exp ?6.0) exp(?4780 K/T ) + 6.1 10(exp 24) T(exp ?3.0) exp(?1980 K/T ) cm(sup 6) mol(exp ?2)/ s at T = 300-2500 K; k(sub 56) = 1.36 10(exp 11) exp(?3420 K/T ) cm(exp 3)/mol/s at T = 970-1150 K. Computer simulations of typical aircraft engine environments, using the reaction mechanism with the above k(sub 31,0) and k(sub 56) expressions, gave the maximum S(IV) to S(VI) conversion yield of ca. 3.5% and 2.5% for the constant density and constant pressure flow condition, respectively. Moreover, maximum conversions occur at rather higher temperatures (?1200 K) than that where the maximum k(sub 31,0) value is located (approximately 800 K). This is because the conversion yield is dependent upon not only the k(sup 31,0) and k(sup 56) values (production flux) but also the availability of H, O, and HO2 in the system (consumption flux).

  7. Radiative rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients for Ne-like selenium, Se XXV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Chen, C.Y., E-mail: chychen@fudan.edu.cn; Huang, M.

    2011-07-15

    In this article we report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, electron impact collision strengths, and effective collision strengths for transitions among the 241 fine-structure levels arising from 2l{sup 8} and 2l{sup 7}n{sup '}l{sup '} (n{sup '{<=}}6 and l{sup '{<=}}n{sup '}-1) configurations of Ne-like Se XXV using the Flexible Atomic Code. Energy levels and radiative rates are calculated within the relativistic configuration-interaction method. Direct excitation collision strengths are calculated using the relativistic distorted-wave approximation and high-energy collision strengths are obtained in the relativistic plane-wave approximation. Resonance contributions through the relevant Na-like doubly-excited configurations 2l{sup 7}n'l'n''l'' (3{<=}n'{<=}7, l'{<=}n'-1, n'{<=}n''{<=}50, and l''{<=}8)more » are explicitly taken into account via the independent-process and isolated-resonance approximation using distorted waves. Resonant stabilizing transitions and possibly important radiative decays from the resonances toward low-lying autoionizing levels are considered. In addition, the resonance contributions from Na-like 2l{sup 6}3l'3l'''n''' (n'''=3-6) configurations are included and found to be predominant for many transitions among the singly-excited states in Ne-like Se XXV. We present the radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic quadrupole, electric octopole, and magnetic octopole transitions among the 241 levels. The effective collision strengths are reported for all 28920 transitions among the 241 levels over a wide temperature range up to 10 keV. To assess the reliability and accuracy of the present collisional data, we have performed a 27-state close-coupling calculation, employing the Dirac R-matrix theory. The results from the close-coupling calculation and the independent-process calculation for the identical target states are found to be in good

  8. On the validity of the Arrhenius equation for electron attachment rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Fabrikant, Ilya I; Hotop, Hartmut

    2008-03-28

    The validity of the Arrhenius equation for dissociative electron attachment rate coefficients is investigated. A general analysis allows us to obtain estimates of the upper temperature bound for the range of validity of the Arrhenius equation in the endothermic case and both lower and upper bounds in the exothermic case with a reaction barrier. The results of the general discussion are illustrated by numerical examples whereby the rate coefficient, as a function of temperature for dissociative electron attachment, is calculated using the resonance R-matrix theory. In the endothermic case, the activation energy in the Arrhenius equation is close to the threshold energy, whereas in the case of exothermic reactions with an intermediate barrier, the activation energy is found to be substantially lower than the barrier height.

  9. Rate-coefficients and polarization results for the electron-impact excitation of Ar+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Dipti, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    A fully relativistic distorted wave theory has been employed to study the electron impact excitation in Ar+ ion. Results have been obtained for the excitation cross-sections and rate-coefficients for the transitions from the ground state 3p5 (J = 3/2) to fine-structure levels of excited states 3p4 4 s, 3p4 4 p , 3p4 5 s, 3p4 5 p, 3p4 3 d and 3p4 4 d. Polarization of the radiation following the excitation has been calculated using the obtained magnetic sub-level cross-sections. Comparison of the present rate-coefficients is also done with the previously reported theoretical results for some unresolved fine structure transitions. Work is supported by DAE-BRNS Mumbai and CSIR, New Delhi.

  10. New method to determine the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of organic nonlinear crystals in the ultra-wideband THz region.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Seigo; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Minamide, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiromasa

    2010-08-02

    A method for simultaneously measuring the refractive index and absorption coefficient of nonlinear optical crystals in the ultra-wideband terahertz (THz) region is described. This method is based on the analysis of a collinear difference frequency generation (DFG) process using a tunable, dual-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator. The refractive index and the absorption coefficient in the organic nonlinear crystal DAST were experimentally determined in the frequency range 2.5-26.2 THz by measuring the THz-wave output using DFG. The resultant refractive index in the x-direction was approximately 2.3, while the absorption spectrum was in good agreement with FT-IR measurements. The output of the DAST-DFG THz-wave source was optimized to the phase-matching condition using the measured refractive index spectrum in THz region, which resulted in an improvement in the output power of up to a factor of nine.

  11. Factorization of the association rate coefficient in ligand rebinding to heme proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic theory of ligand migration in biomolecules is used to analyze the recombination of small ligands to heme proteins after flash photolysis. The stochastic theory is based on a generalized sequential barrier model in which a ligand binds by overcoming a series of barriers formed by the solvent protein interface, the protein matrix, and the heme distal histidine system. The stochastic theory shows that the association rate coefficient λon factorizes into three terms λon =γ12Nout, where γ12 is the rate coefficient from the heme pocket to the heme binding site, is the equilibrium pocket occupation factor, and Nout is the fraction of heme proteins which do not undergo geminate recombination of a flashed-off ligand. The factorization of λon holds for any number of barriers and with no assumptions regarding the various rate coefficients so long as the exponential solvent process occurs. Transitions of a single ligand are allowed between any two sites with two crucial exceptions: (i) the heme binding site acts as a trap so that thermal dissociation of a bound ligand does not occur within the time of the measurement; (ii) the final step in the rebinding process always has a ligand in the heme pocket from where the ligand binds to the heme iron.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Low Temperature Rate Coefficients: The Atmospheric Chemistry of the Outer Planets and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogan, Denis

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory measurements have been carried out to determine low temperature chemical rate coefficients of ethynyl radical (C2H) for the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. This effort is directly related to the Cassini mission which will explore Saturn and Titan. A laser-based photolysis/infrared laser probe setup was used to measure the temperature dependence of kinetic rate coefficients from approx. equal to 150 to 350 K for C2H radicals with H2, C2H2, CH4, CD4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, neo-C5H12, C3H4 (methylacetylene and allene), HCN, and CH3CN. The results revealed discrepancies of an order of magnitude or more compared with the low temperature rate coefficients used in present models. A new Laval nozzle, low Mach number supersonic expansion kinetics apparatus has been constructed, resulting in the first measurements of neutral C2H radical kinetics at 90 K and permitting studies on condensable gases with insufficient vapor pressure at low temperatures. New studies of C 2H with acetylene have been completed.

  13. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  14. Novel and facile microwave-assisted synthesis of Mo-doped hydroxyapatite nanorods: Characterization, gamma absorption coefficient, and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Abutalib, M M; Yahia, I S

    2017-09-01

    In the current work, the authors report the microwave-assisted synthesis Molybdenum-doped (from 0.05 to 5wt%) hydroxyapatite (HAp) for the first time. The morphology of Mo-doped HAp is nanorods of diameter in the range of 25-70nm and length in the range of 25nm to 200nm. The good crystalline nature was confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and also lattice parameters, grain size, strain and dislocation density were determined. The crystallite size was found to be in the range 16 to 30nm and crystallinity was found to be enhanced from 0.5 to 0.7 with doping. The field emission SEM micrographs show that the morphology of the synthesized nanostructures of pure and Mo-doped HAp are nanorods of few nanometers. The vibrational modes were identified using the FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were studied and the AC electrical conductivity was found to be increased with increasing the concentration of Mo ions doping in HAp. Moreover, antimicrobial studies were also carried out to understand the anti-bacterial and anti-fungi properties. The results suggest that it may be a good bio-ceramics material for bio-medical applications. Mo-doped HAp was subjected to the gamma irradiation produced from Cs-137 (662keV) and its related parameters such as linear absorption coefficient, the half-value layer (HVL) and the tenth value layer TVL were calculated and analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The functional correlation between rainfall rate and extinction coefficient for frequencies from 3 to 10 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rainfall rate (R) obtained from radiometric brightness temperatures and the extinction coefficient (k sub e) is investigated by computing the values of k sub e over a wide range of rainfall rates, for frequencies from 3 to 25 GHz. The results show that the strength of the relation between the R and the k sub e values exhibits considerable variation for frequencies at this range. Practical suggestions are made concerning the selection of particular frequencies for rain measurements to minimize the error in R determinations.

  16. Derivation of the chemical-equilibrium rate coefficient using scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering theory is applied to derive the equilibrium rate coefficient for a general homogeneous chemical reaction involving ideal gases. The reaction rate is expressed in terms of the product of a number of normalized momentum distribution functions, the product of the number of molecules with a given internal energy state, and the spin-averaged T-matrix elements. An expression for momentum distribution at equilibrium for an arbitrary molecule is presented, and the number of molecules with a given internal-energy state is represented by an expression which includes the partition function.

  17. Determination of reaeration-rate coefficients of the Wabash River, Indiana, by the modified tracer technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    1985-01-01

    The modified tracer technique was used to determine reaeration-rate coefficients in the Wabash River in reaches near Lafayette and Terre Haute, Indiana, at streamflows ranging from 2,310 to 7,400 cu ft/sec. Chemically pure (CP grade) ethylene was used as the tracer gas, and rhodamine-WT dye was used as the dispersion-dilution tracer. Reaeration coefficients determined for a 13.5-mi reach near Terre Haute, Indiana, at streamflows of 3,360 and 7,400 cu ft/sec (71% and 43% flow duration) were 1.4/day and 1.1/day at 20 C, respectively. Reaeration-rate coefficients determined for a 18.4-mile reach near Lafayette, Indiana, at streamflows of 2,310 and 3,420 cu ft/sec (70% and 53 % flow duration), were 1.2/day and 0.8/day at 20 C, respectively. None of the commonly used equations found in the literature predicted reaeration-rate coefficients similar to those measured for reaches of the Wabash River near Lafayette and Terre Haute. The average absolute prediction error for 10 commonly used reaeration equations ranged from 22% to 154%. Prediction error was much smaller in the reach near Terre Haute than in the reach near Lafayette. The overall average of the absolute prediction error for all 10 equations was 22% for the reach near Terre Haute and 128% for the reach near Lafayette. Confidence limits of results obtained from the modified tracer technique were smaller than those obtained from the equations in the literature. 

  18. Synthesis of New Organic Semiconducting Polymer Materials Having High Radiowave Absorption Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    ISTC Project No. #1571P Synthesis of New Organic Semiconducting Polymer Materials Having High Radiowave Absorption Rate Final Project Technical...Technology Center ( ISTC ), Moscow. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...polymer materials having high radiowave absorption rate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ISTC Registration No: A-1571p 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  20. Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

  1. Fnk Model of Cracking Rate Calculus for a Variable Asymmetry Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşca, Vâlcu; Miriţoiu, Cosmin Mihai

    2017-12-01

    In the process of materials fracture, a very important parameter to study is the cracking rate growth da/dN. This paper proposes an analysis of the cracking rate, in a comparative way, by using four mathematical models:1 - polynomial method, by using successive iterations according to the ASTM E647 standard; 2 - model that uses the Paris formula; 3 - Walker formula method; 4 - NASGRO model or Forman - Newman - Konig equation, abbreviated as FNK model. This model is used in the NASA programs studies. For the tests, CT type specimens were made from stainless steel, V2A class, 10TiNiCr175 mark, and loaded to a variable tensile test axial - eccentrically, with the asymmetry coefficients: R= 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5; at the 213K (-60°C) temperature. There are analyzed the cracking rates variations according to the above models, especially through FNK method, highlighting the asymmetry factor variation.

  2. Excitation rate coefficients and line ratios for the optical and ultraviolet transitions in S II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Wei; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1993-01-01

    New calculations are reported for electron excitation collision strengths, rate coefficients, transition probabilities, and line ratios for the astrophysically important optical and UV lines in S II. The collision strengths are calculated in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. The present calculations are more extensive than previous ones, including all transitions among the 12 lowest LS terms and the corresponding 28 fine-structure levels in the collisional-radiative model for S II. While the present rate coefficients for electron impact excitation are within 10-30 percent of the previous values for the low-lying optical transitions employed as density diagnostics of H II regions and nebulae, the excitation rates for the UV transitions 4S super 0 sub 3/2 - 4Psub 1/2,3/2,5/2 differ significantly from earlier calculations, by up to factor of 2. We describe temperature and density sensitive flux ratios for a number of UV lines. The present UV results are likely to be of interest in a more accurate interpretation of S II emission from the Io plasma torus in the magnetosphere of Jupiter, as well as other UV sources observed from the IUE, ASTRO 1, and the HST.

  3. On the accuracy of the rate coefficients used in plasma fluid models for breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtzanidis, Konstantinos, E-mail: kkourt@utexas.edu; Raja, Laxminarayan L., E-mail: lraja@mail.utexas.edu

    2016-07-15

    The electrical breakdown of air depends on the balance between creation and loss of charged particles. In fluid models, datasets of the rate coefficients used are obtained either from fits to experimental data or by solutions of the Boltzmann equation. Here, we study the accuracy of the commonly used models for ionization and attachment frequencies and their impact on the prediction of the breakdown threshold for air. We show that large errors can occur depending on the model and propose the most accurate dataset available for modeling of air breakdown phenomena.

  4. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform laboratory measurements of reaction rate coefficients at low temperature. The reactions and temperatures of interest are those that are important in the chemistry of the hydrocarbon rich atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. In this stage of the study we are investigating reactions of ethynyl radicals, C2H, with acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4), and hydrogen (H2). In the previous status report from 24 Jan. 1992, we reported on the development of the experimental apparatus and the first, preliminary data for the C2H + C2H2 reaction.

  5. Determination of the Mass Absorption Coefficient in Two-Layer Ti/V and V/Ti Thin Film Systems by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.

  6. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  7. Obliquity, precession rate, and nutation coefficients for a set of 100 asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Souchay, J.; Shahsavari, A.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Thanks to various space missions and the progress of ground-based observational techniques, the knowledge of asteroids has considerably increased in the recent years. Aims: Due to this increasing database that accompanies this evolution, we compute for a set of 100 asteroids their rotational parameters: the moments of inertia along the principal axes of the object, the obliquity of the axis of rotation with respect to the orbital plane, the precession rates, and the nutation coefficients. Methods: We select 100 asteroids for which the parameters for the study are well-known from observations or space missions. For each asteroid, we determine the moments of inertia, assuming an ellipsoidal shape. We calculate their obliquity from their orbit (instead of the ecliptic) and the orientation of the spin-pole. Finally, we calculate the precession rates and the largest nutation components. The number of asteroids concerned leads to some statistical studies of the output. Results: We provide a table of rotational parameters for our set of asteroids. The table includes the obliquity, their axes ratio, their dynamical ellipticity Hd, and the scaling factor K. We compute the precession rate ψ˙ and the leading nutation coefficients Δψ and Δɛ. We observe similar characteristics, as observed by previous authors that is, a significantly larger number of asteroids rotates in the prograde mode (≈ 60%) than in the retrograde one with a bimodal distribution. In particular, there is a deficiency of objects with a polar axis close to the orbit. The precession rates have a mean absolute value of 18″/y, and the leading nutation coefficients have an average absolute amplitude of 5.7″ for Δψ and 5.2″ for Δɛ. At last, we identify and characterize some cases with large precession rates, as seen in 25143 Itokawa, with has a precession rate of about - 475''/y. Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130

  8. Chemical and spectral behavior of nitric acid in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: Absorption spectrum and molar absorption coefficient of nitronium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).

  9. Measurement of the Two-photon Absorption Coefficient of Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Using a Dispersion-minimized Sub-10 Femtosecond Z-scan Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    bandwidth of the pulse. Using the standard laboratory and analysis methods of Sheik- Bahae et al., we obtain a two-photon absorption coefficient, β, of...organic thin-film materials deposited on various substrates. 15 6. References 1. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W. High...sensitivity, Single-beam n2 Measurements. Optics Letters 1989, 14 (17). 2. Sheik- Bahae , M.; Said, A. A.; Van Stryland, E. W.; Wei, T-H; Hagan, D. J

  10. Remote Sensing of the Absorption Coefficients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the U.S. Southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.

  11. Plasma rate coefficients for electron-impact ionization of Xeq+ ions (q = 8, …, 17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovik, A., Jr.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

    2015-02-01

    Plasma rate coefficients (PRCs) for electron-impact single ionization of ground-state Xeq+ ions (q=8,\\ldots ,17) in the temperature range 2 × 105 - 2 × 107 K have been derived from a combination of experimental cross-section data and results of distorted-wave calculations. For Xe8+ and Xe9+ new measurements were performed and thoroughly analyzed with respect to the contributions from different ionization mechanisms and the effects of long-lived excited states in the parent ion beams that had been employed in the experiments. In the same manner, previously published experimental data for the higher charge states were analyzed to extract the ground-configuration ionization cross sections and to derive the associated PRCs. The resulting temperature-dependent PRC functions were parameterized and the associated parameters are provided in tabular form. With the exception of Xe8+ the absolute uncertainties of the inferred rate coefficients are estimated to be +/- 10%. For Xe8+ the uncertainties are +/- 25% due to the necessary correction for strong metastable-ion contributions to the measured cross sections.

  12. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the research are to measure low temperature laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions relevant to the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. These reactions are, for example, C2H + H2, CH4, C2H2, and other hydrocarbons which need to be measured at low temperatures, down to approximately 150 K. The results of this work are provided to NASA specialists who study modeling of the hydrocarbon chemistry of the outer planets. The apparatus for this work consists of a pulsed laser photolysis system and a tunable F-center probe laser to monitor the disappearance of C2H. A low temperature cell with a cryogenic circulating fluid in the outer jacket provides the gas handling system for this work. These elements have been described in detail in previous reports. Several new results are completed and the publications are just being prepared. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 has been measured with an improved apparatus down to 154 K. An Arrhenius plot indicates a clear increase in the rate coefficient at the lowest temperatures, most likely because of the long-lived (C4H3) intermediate. The capability to achieve the lowest temperatures in this work was made possible by construction of a new cell and addition of a multipass arrangement for the probe laser, as well as improvements to the laser system.

  13. Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Luo, Jian

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transportmore » over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.« less

  14. Determination of the global recombination rate coefficient for the ISX-B Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The global recombination rate coefficient for hydrogen has been measured for the ISX-B tokamak vacuum vessel for various surface conditions. The measurements were performed by observing the rate of decrease of gas pressure in the vessel during a glow discharge. The parameters of the glow discharge and the complete experimental method are described. Previously published analytic and numerical models are used for data analysis. The effects of surface contamination on the results are described. For ''unclean'' wall conditions sigmak/sub r/ = 1.8 x 10/sup -28/ cm/sup 4//atom.s at 296 K and increases to sigmak/sub r/ = 4.4 x 10/sup -28/more » cm/sup 4//atoms.s for ''clean'' conditions and remains constant until subsequent exposure to air.« less

  15. Rate coefficients of exchange reactions accounting for vibrational excitation of reagents and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustova, E. V.; Savelev, A. S.; Kunova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models for the vibrational state-resolved Zeldovich reaction are assessed by comparison with the results of quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. An error in the model of Aliat is corrected; the model is generalized taking into account NO vibrational states. The proposed model is fairly simple and can be easily implemented to the software for non-equilibrium flow modeling. It provides a good agreement with the QCT rate coefficients in the whole range of temperatures and reagent/product vibrational states. The developed models are tested in simulations of vibrational and chemical relaxation of air mixture behind a shock wave. The importance of accounting for excitated NO vibrational states and accurate prediction of Zeldovich reactions rates is shown.

  16. Control of optical bandgap energy and optical absorption coefficient by geometric parameters in sub-10 nm silicon-nanodisc array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairuz Budiman, Mohd; Hu, Weiguo; Igarashi, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Isoda, Taiga; Itoh, Kohei M.; Yamashita, Ichiro; Murayama, Akihiro; Okada, Yoshitaka; Samukawa, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon-nanodisc (Si-ND) array has been fabricated using a new top-down process, which involves a 2D array bio-template etching mask made of Listeria-Dps with a 4.5 nm diameter iron oxide core and damage-free neutral-beam etching (Si-ND diameter: 6.4 nm). An Si-ND array with an SiO2 matrix demonstrated more controllable optical bandgap energy due to the fine tunability of the Si-ND thickness and diameter. Unlike the case of shrinking Si-ND thickness, the case of shrinking Si-ND diameter simultaneously increased the optical absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy. The optical absorption coefficient became higher due to the decrease in the center-to-center distance of NDs to enhance wavefunction coupling. This means that our 6 nm diameter Si-ND structure can satisfy the strict requirements of optical bandgap energy control and high absorption coefficient for achieving realistic Si quantum dot solar cells.

  17. Measurement of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air for x-rays in the range from 3 to 60 keV.

    PubMed

    Buhr, H; Büermann, L; Gerlach, M; Krumrey, M; Rabus, H

    2012-12-21

    For the first time the absolute photon mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the energy range of 10 to 60 keV has been measured with relative standard uncertainties below 1%, considerably smaller than those of up to 2% assumed for calculated data. For monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring BESSY II both the radiant power and the fraction of power deposited in dry air were measured using a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer and a free air ionization chamber, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients were compared with state-of-the art calculations and showed an average deviation of 2% from calculations by Seltzer. However, they agree within 1% with data calculated earlier by Hubbell. In the course of this work, an improvement of the data analysis of a previous experimental determination of the mass energy-absorption coefficient of air in the range of 3 to 10 keV was found to be possible and corrected values of this preceding study are given.

  18. Parameters and computer software for the evaluation of mass attenuation and mass energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde A

    2007-07-01

    The mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients (radiation interaction data), which are widely used in the shielding and dosimetry of X-rays used for medical diagnostic and orthovoltage therapeutic procedures, are strongly dependent on the energy of photons, elements and percentage by weight of elements in body tissues and substitutes. Significant disparities exist in the values of percentage by weight of elements reported in literature for body tissues and substitutes for individuals of different ages, genders and states of health. Often, interested parties are in need of these radiation interaction data for body tissues or substitutes with percentage by weight of elements and intermediate energies that are not tabulated in literature. To provide for the use of more precise values of these radiation interaction data, parameters and computer programs, MUA_T and MUEN_T are presented for the computation of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients for body tissues and substitutes of arbitrary percentage-by-weight elemental composition and photon energy ranging between 1 keV (or k-edge) and 400 keV. Results are presented, which show that the values of mass attenuation and energy-absorption coefficients obtained from computer programs are in good agreement with those reported in literature.

  19. Long term change in atmospheric dust absorption, dust scattering and black carbon aerosols scattering coefficient parameters over western Indian locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoliya, Anil Kumar; Vyas, B. M.; Shekhawat, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The first time satellite space based measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosols scattering coefficient at 550nm (BC SC at 550nm), dust aerosols scattering and dust aerosols extinction coefficient (DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm) parameters have been used to understand their long term trend of natural and anthropogenic aerosols behavior with its close association with ground based measured precipitation parameters such as Total Rain Fall (TRF), and Total Number of Rainy Days (TNRD) for the same period over western Indian regions concerned to the primary aerosols sources of natural activities. The basic objective of this study is an attempt to investigate the inter-correlation between dust and black carbon aerosols loading characteristics with a variation of rainfall pattern parameters as indirect aerosols induced effect i.e., aerosols-cloud interaction. The black carbon aerosols generated by diverse anthropogenic or human made activities are studied by choosing of measured atmospheric BC SC at 550nm parameter, whereas desert dust mineral aerosols primarily produced by varieties of natural activities pre-dominated of dust mineral desert aerosols mainly over Thar desert influenced area of hot climate and rural tropical site are investigated by selecting DSC at 550nm and DEC at 550nm of first semi-urban site i.e., Udaipur (UDP, 24.6°N, 73.35°E, 580m above surface level (asl)) situated in southern Rajasthan part as well as over other two Great Indian Thar desert locations i.e., Jaisalmer (JSM, 26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220m asl)) and Bikaner (BKN, 28.03°N, 73.30°E, 224m asl) located in the vicinity of the Thar desert region situated in Rajasthan state of the western Indian region. The source of the present study would be collection of longer period of monthly values of the above parameters of spanning 35 years i.e., 1980 to 2015. Such types of atmospheric aerosols-cloud monsoon interaction investigation is helpful in view of understanding their direct and

  20. A review of lung-to-blood absorption rates for radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Bailey, M R

    2013-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and polonium (Type M) in ICRP Publication 71 but stated that the values were not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper reviews and evaluates published data from volunteer and laboratory animal experiments to estimate the HRTM absorption parameter values for short-lived radon progeny. Animal studies showed that lead ions have two phases of absorption: ∼10 % absorbed with a half-time of ∼15 min, the rest with a half-time of ∼10 h. The studies also indicated that some of the lead ions were bound to respiratory tract components. Bound fractions, f(b), for lead were estimated from volunteer and animal studies and ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Based on the evaluations of published data, the following HRTM absorption parameter values were derived for lead as a decay product of radon: f(r) = 0.1, s(r) = 100 d(-1), s(s) = 1.7 d(-1), f(b) = 0.5 and s(b) = 1.7 d(-1). Effective doses calculated assuming these absorption parameter values instead of a single absorption half-time of 10 h with no binding (as has generally been assumed) are only a few per cent higher. However, as there is some conflicting evidence on the absorption kinetics for radon progeny, dose calculations have been carried out for different sets of absorption parameter values derived from different studies. The results of these calculations are discussed.

  1. Estimating reaction rate coefficients within a travel-time modeling framework.

    PubMed

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Wu, W-M; Cheng, H; Gu, B; Watson, D; Jardine, P M; Brooks, S C; Criddle, C S; Kitanidis, P K; Luo, J

    2011-01-01

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Cold collisions of SH- with He: Potential energy surface and rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bop, C. T.; Trabelsi, T.; Hammami, K.; Mogren Al Mogren, M.; Lique, F.; Hochlaf, M.

    2017-09-01

    Collisional energy transfer under cold conditions is of great importance from the fundamental and applicative point of view. Here, we investigate low temperature collisions of the SH- anion with He. We have generated a three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the SH-(X1Σ+)-He(1S) van der Waals complex. The ab initio multi-dimensional interaction PES was computed using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster approach with simple, double, and perturbative triple excitation in conjunction with the augmented-correlation consistent-polarized valence triple zeta Gaussian basis set. The PES presents two minima located at linear geometries. Then, the PES was averaged over the ground vibrational wave function of the SH- molecule and the resulting two-dimensional PES was incorporated into exact quantum mechanical close coupling calculations to study the collisional excitation of SH- by He. We have computed inelastic cross sections among the 11 first rotational levels of SH- for energies up to 2500 cm-1. (De-)excitation rate coefficients were deduced for temperatures ranging from 1 to 300 K by thermally averaging the cross sections. We also performed calculations using the new PES for a fixed internuclear SH- distance. Both sets of results were found to be in reasonable agreement despite differences existing at low temperatures confirming that accurate predictions require the consideration of all internal degrees of freedom in the case of molecular hydrides. The rate coefficients presented here may be useful in interpreting future experimental work on the SH- negative ion colliding with He as those recently done for the OH--He collisional system as well as for possible astrophysical applications in case SH- would be detected in the interstellar medium.

  3. Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

    2012-07-01

    A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

  4. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Laporta, V.; Celiberto, R.; Tennyson, J.

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  5. Comparison of Monoenergetic Photon Organ Dose Rate Coefficients for the Female Stylized and Voxel Phantoms Submerged in Air

    DOE PAGES

    Hiller, Mauritius; Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-02-16

    Dose rate coefficients computed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult female voxel phantom were compared with values computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) adult female stylized phantom in an air submersion exposure geometry. This is a continuation of previous work comparing monoenergetic organ dose rate coefficients for the male adult phantoms. With both the male and female data computed, effective dose rate as defined by ICRP Publication 103 was compared for both phantoms. Organ dose rate coefficients for the female phantom and ratios of organ dose rates for the voxel and stylized phantoms aremore » provided in the energy range from 30 to 5 MeV. Analysis of the contribution of the organs to effective dose is also provided. Lastly, comparison of effective dose rates between the voxel and stylized phantoms was within 8% at 100 keV and is <5% between 200 and 5000 keV.« less

  6. Comparison of Monoenergetic Photon Organ Dose Rate Coefficients for the Female Stylized and Voxel Phantoms Submerged in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, Mauritius; Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    Dose rate coefficients computed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult female voxel phantom were compared with values computed using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) adult female stylized phantom in an air submersion exposure geometry. This is a continuation of previous work comparing monoenergetic organ dose rate coefficients for the male adult phantoms. With both the male and female data computed, effective dose rate as defined by ICRP Publication 103 was compared for both phantoms. Organ dose rate coefficients for the female phantom and ratios of organ dose rates for the voxel and stylized phantoms aremore » provided in the energy range from 30 to 5 MeV. Analysis of the contribution of the organs to effective dose is also provided. Lastly, comparison of effective dose rates between the voxel and stylized phantoms was within 8% at 100 keV and is <5% between 200 and 5000 keV.« less

  7. Temperature-(208-318 K) and pressure-(18-696 Torr) dependent rate coefficients for the reaction between OH and HNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulitz, Katrin; Amedro, Damien; Dillon, Terry J.; Pozzer, Andrea; Crowley, John N.

    2018-02-01

    Rate coefficients (k5) for the title reaction were obtained using pulsed laser photolytic generation of OH coupled to its detection by laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF). More than 80 determinations of k5 were carried out in nitrogen or air bath gas at various temperatures and pressures. The accuracy of the rate coefficients obtained was enhanced by in situ measurement of the concentrations of both HNO3 reactant and NO2 impurity. The rate coefficients show both temperature and pressure dependence with a rapid increase in k5 at low temperatures. The pressure dependence was weak at room temperature but increased significantly at low temperatures. The entire data set was combined with selected literature values of k5 and parameterised using a combination of pressure-dependent and -independent terms to give an expression that covers the relevant pressure and temperature range for the atmosphere. A global model, using the new parameterisation for k5 rather than those presently accepted, indicated small but significant latitude- and altitude-dependent changes in the HNO3 / NOx ratio of between -6 and +6 %. Effective HNO3 absorption cross sections (184.95 and 213.86 nm, units of cm2 molecule-1) were obtained as part of this work: σ213.86 = 4.52-0.12+0.23 × 10-19 and σ184.95 = 1.61-0.04+0.08 × 10-17.

  8. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scatteringmore » sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.« less

  9. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  10. OH{sup +} in astrophysical media: state-to-state formation rates, Einstein coefficients and inelastic collision rates with He

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Carrasco, Susana; Godard, Benjamin; Lique, François

    The rate constants required to model the OH{sup +} observations in different regions of the interstellar medium have been determined using state of the art quantum methods. First, state-to-state rate constants for the H{sub 2}(v = 0, J = 0, 1) + O{sup +}({sup 4} S) → H + OH{sup +}(X {sup 3}Σ{sup –}, v', N) reaction have been obtained using a quantum wave packet method. The calculations have been compared with time-independent results to assess the accuracy of reaction probabilities at collision energies of about 1 meV. The good agreement between the simulations and the existing experimental cross sectionsmore » in the 0.01-1 eV energy range shows the quality of the results. The calculated state-to-state rate constants have been fitted to an analytical form. Second, the Einstein coefficients of OH{sup +} have been obtained for all astronomically significant rovibrational bands involving the X {sup 3}Σ{sup –} and/or A {sup 3}Π electronic states. For this purpose, the potential energy curves and electric dipole transition moments for seven electronic states of OH{sup +} are calculated with ab initio methods at the highest level, including spin-orbit terms, and the rovibrational levels have been calculated including the empirical spin-rotation and spin-spin terms. Third, the state-to-state rate constants for inelastic collisions between He and OH{sup +}(X {sup 3}Σ{sup –}) have been calculated using a time-independent close coupling method on a new potential energy surface. All these rates have been implemented in detailed chemical and radiative transfer models. Applications of these models to various astronomical sources show that inelastic collisions dominate the excitation of the rotational levels of OH{sup +}. In the models considered, the excitation resulting from the chemical formation of OH{sup +} increases the line fluxes by about 10% or less depending on the density of the gas.« less

  11. Spatial variation in deposition rate coefficients of an adhesion-deficient bacterial strain in quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Tong, Meiping; Camesano, Terri A; Johnson, William P

    2005-05-15

    The transport of bacterial strain DA001 was examined in packed quartz sand under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Under all conditions, the retained bacterial concentrations decreased with distance from the column inlet at a rate that was faster than loglinear, indicating that the deposition rate coefficient decreased with increasing transport distance. The hyperexponential retained profile contrasted againstthe nonmonotonic retained profiles that had been previously observed for this same bacterial strain in glass bead porous media, demonstrating that the form of deviation from log-linear behavior is highly sensitive to system conditions. The deposition rate constants in quartz sand were orders of magnitude below those expected from filtration theory, even in the absence of electrostatic energy barriers. The degree of hyperexponential deviation of the retained profiles from loglinear behavior did not decrease with increasing ionic strength in quartz sand. These observations demonstrate thatthe observed low adhesion and deviation from log-linear behavior was not driven by electrostatic repulsion. Measurements of the interaction forces between DA001 cells and the silicon nitride tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) showed that the bacterium possesses surface polymers with an average equilibrium length of 59.8 nm. AFM adhesion force measurements revealed low adhesion affinities between silicon nitride and DA001 polymers with approximately 95% of adhesion forces having magnitudes < 0.8 nN. Steric repulsion due to surface polymers was apparently responsible for the low adhesion to silicon nitride, indicating that steric interactions from extracellular polymers controlled DA001 adhesion deficiency and deviation from log-linear behavior on quartz sand.

  12. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate in dialyzers with various filtration coefficients using dimensionless correlation equation.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kengo; Namekawa, Koki; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of filtration coefficient and internal filtration on dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer coefficient in dialyzers using dimensionless mass transfer correlation equations. Aqueous solution of vitamin B 12 clearances were obtained for REXEED-15L as a low flux dialyzer, and APS-15EA and APS-15UA as high flux dialyzers. All the other design specifications were identical for these dialyzers except for filtration coefficient. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated, moreover, the exponents of Reynolds number (Re) and film mass transfer coefficient of the dialysis-side fluid (k D ) for each flow rate were derived from the Wilson plot and dimensionless correlation equation. The exponents of Re were 0.4 for the low flux dialyzer whereas 0.5 for the high flux dialyzers. Dialysis fluid of the low flux dialyzer was close to laminar flow because of its low filtration coefficient. On the other hand, dialysis fluid of the high flux dialyzers was assumed to be orthogonal flow. Higher filtration coefficient was associated with higher k D influenced by mass transfer rate through diffusion and internal filtration. Higher filtration coefficient of dialyzers and internal filtration affect orthogonal flow of dialysis fluid.

  13. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    PubMed

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  14. Measurement of polarization dependence of two-photon absorption coefficient in InP using extended Z-scan technique for thick materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    The two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured in the wavelength range of 1640 to 1800 nm by the Z-scan technique in relatively thick materials. The values of β have been evaluated from the fit to the equation including the spatial and temporal profiles of the focused Gaussian beam. The polarization dependence of β has also been measured. The dependence has been expressed very well by the expression of β with the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ(3).

  15. Determination of true optical absorption and scattering coefficient of wooden cell wall substance by time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Ryunosuke; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2016-02-22

    The true absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ´s) of the cell wall substance in Douglas fir were determined using time-of-flight near infrared spectroscopy. Samples were saturated with hexane, toluene or quinolone to minimize the multiple reflections of light on the boundary between pore-cell wall substance in wood. μ´s exhibited its minimum value when the wood was saturated with toluene because the refractive index of toluene is close to that of the wood cell wall substance. The optical parameters of the wood cell wall substance calculated were μa = 0.030 mm(-1) and μ´s= 18.4 mm(-1). Monte Carlo simulations using these values were in good agreement with the measured time-resolved transmittance profiles.

  16. Absorption of subcutaneously infused insulin: influence of the basal rate pulse interval.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, P; Birch, K; Jensen, B M; Kühl, C; Brange, J

    1985-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were given two constant infusions (each 1 IU/h) of 125I-labeled insulin into the abdominal subcutaneous tissue for about 12 h. Insulin was infused in pulses into one side of the abdomen in 6-min intervals (by means of an Auto-Syringe pump) and in the other side of the abdomen, insulin was infused in 1-h intervals (by means of a Medix pump). The size of the subcutaneous depots was continuously measured by counting the radioactivity at the infusion sites. After starting the infusions, the two depots were built up to steady-state levels at the same time and of the same size (approximately 3 IU) and with similar absorption rates. Thus, during basal rate insulin infusion, identical insulin absorption kinetics was achieved, irrespective of a 10-fold difference in the pulse rate.

  17. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  18. Gas-phase ozonolysis of β-ocimene: Temperature dependent rate coefficients and product distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona-Colmán, Elizabeth; Blanco, María B.; Barnes, Ian; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2016-12-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction of β-ocimene with O3 molecules have been determined over the temperature range 288-311 K at 750 Torr total pressure of nitrogen using the relative rate technique. The investigations were performed in a large volume reaction vessel using long-path in-situ Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to monitor the reactants and products. A value of k(β-ocimene + O3) = (3.74 ± 0.92) × 10-16 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 has been obtained for the reaction at 298 K. The temperature dependence of the reaction is best described by the Arrhenius expression k = (1.94 ± 0.02) × 10-14 exp [(-1181 ± 51)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In addition, a product study has been carried out at 298 K in 750 Torr of synthetic air and the following products with yields in molar % were observed: formaldehyde (36 ± 2), acetone (15 ± 1), methylglyoxal (9.5 ± 0.4) and hydroxyacetone (19 ± 1). The formation of formaldehyde can be explained by the addition of O3 to the C1sbnd C2 double bond of the β-ocimene. Addition of O3 to the C6sbnd C7 double bond leads to the formation of acetone and the CH3C·(OO·)CH3 biradical, which can through isomerization/stabilization form methylglyoxal (hydroperoxide channel) and hydroxyacetone. The formed products will contribute to the formation of PAN and derivatives in polluted environments and also the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere.

  19. Analysis of the Lankford coefficient evolution at different strain rates for AA6016-T4, DP800 and DC06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzen, Matthias; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    In the automotive sector, a major challenge is the deep-drawing of modern lightweight sheet metals with limited formability. Thus, conventional material models lack in accuracy due to the complex material behavior. A current field of research takes into account the evolution of the Lankford coefficient. Today, changes in anisotropy under increasing degree of deformation are not considered. Only a consolidated average value of the Lankford coefficient is included in conventional material models. This leads to an increasing error in prediction of the flow behavior and therefore to an inaccurate prognosis of the forming behavior. To increase the accuracy of the prediction quality, the strain dependent Lankford coefficient should be respected, because the R-value has a direct effect on the contour of the associated flow rule. Further, the investigated materials show a more or less extinct rate dependency of the yield stress. For this reason, the rate dependency of the Lankford coefficient during uniaxial tension is focused within this contribution. To quantify the influence of strain rate on the Lankford coefficient, tensile tests are performed for three commonly used materials, the aluminum alloy AA6016-T4, the advanced high strength steel DP800 and the deep drawing steel DC06 at three different strain rates. The strain measurement is carried out by an optical strain measurement system. An evolution of the Lankford coefficient was observed for all investigated materials. Also, an influence of the deformation velocity on the anisotropy could be detected.

  20. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  1. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  2. Absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for a double δ-doped GaAs MIGFET-like structure: Electric and magnetic field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.

  3. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  4. Ingestion Rates and Absorption Efficiencies of Abra ovata(Mollusca: Bivalvia) Fed on Macrophytobenthic Detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, F.; Grémare, A.; Amouroux, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Ingestion and absorption were investigated in the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra ovatafed on 14C-formaldehyde-labelled detritus derived from 11 macrophytes: Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica, Stypocaulon scoparium, Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseira mediterranea, Dilophus spiralis, Rissoella verruculosa, Ulva rigida, Corallina elongata andCodium vermilara . Labelling efficiency ranged from 3·2 (R. verruculosa ) to 53·0% (C. sinuosa) depending on the detritus. The stability of the labelling also varied among detritus types, and was negatively correlated with labelling efficiency. For all types of detritus, the exchanges of radioactivity between compartments were dominated by the transfer between particulate organic matter (POM) and bivalves. These transfers resulted from the interactions between the processes of ingestion, defaecation, and recycling of faeces. The coexistence of these processes together with the occasional lack of stability of the label complicated the actual determination of ingestion rates and absorption efficiencies, which necessitated the use of mathematical modelling. The model was initially composed of five compartments: Detritus, Bivalves, Dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO 2, and Faeces. Two first-order time delays were introduced to account for the production of faeces and CO 2by the bivalves. These delays resulted in the subdivision of the Bivalves compartment into three subcompartments: bivIng, bivDig, and bivAbs. The model also accounts for differences in utilization rates of detritus and faeces by the bivalves. It simulates the exchange of radioactivity between compartments and allows the quantification of ingestion and absorption efficiencies. Our results show large differences in both ingestion rates and absorption efficiencies of A. ovatafed on different types of detritus. Ingestion rates ranged between 0·16 ( C. mediterraneaand D. spiralis) and 8·65 μgOM mgDW -1 h -1( U. rigida). Absorption efficiencies ranged

  5. Estimation of apparent rate coefficients for radionuclides interacting with marine sediments from Novaya Zemlya.

    PubMed

    Børretzen, P; Salbu, B

    2000-10-30

    To assess the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from dumped nuclear waste, information on the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and their mobility in seawater-sediment systems is essential. Due to interactions with sediment components, sediments may act as a sink, reducing the mobility of radionuclides in seawater. Due to remobilisation, however, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential source of radionuclides to the water phase. In the present work, time-dependent interactions of low molecular mass (LMM, i.e. species < 10 kDa) radionuclides with sediments from the Stepovogo Fjord, Novaya Zemlya and their influence on the distribution coefficients (Kd values) have been studied in tracer experiments using 109Cd2+ and 60Co2+ as gamma tracers. Sorption of the LMM tracers occurred rapidly and the estimated equilibrium Kd(eq)-values for 109Cd and 60Co were 500 and 20000 ml/g, respectively. Remobilisation of 109Cd and 60Co from contaminated sediment fractions as a function of contact time was studied using sequential extraction procedures. Due to redistribution, the reversibly bound fraction of the gamma tracers decreased with time, while the irreversibly (or slowly reversibly) associated fraction of the gamma tracers increased. Two different three-compartment models, one consecutive and one parallel, were applied to describe the time-dependent interaction of the LMM tracers with operationally defined reversible and irreversible (or slowly reversible) sediment fractions. The interactions between these fractions were described using first order differential equations. By fitting the models to the experimental data, apparent rate constants were obtained using numerical optimisation software. The model optimisations showed that the interactions of LMM 60Co were well described by the consecutive model, while the parallel model was more suitable to describe the interactions of LMM 109Cd with the sediments, when the squared sum of

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rate coefficients for H2(v,j)+H2(v',j'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandy, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    State-specific rate coefficients for the dissociation of H2 result of collisions with H2 were calculated for all combinations of (v,j) with an internal energy below 1eV. Full-dimensional quasiclassical trajectories were calculated using the BMKP2 interaction potential with a minimum of 80000 trajectories at each translational energy. Additional large batches of trajectories were carried out to calculate the cross sections near the threshold to dissociation to attain the desired precision of the rate coefficients. A piecewise linear excitation function was used to calculate the rate coefficient between 100 and 100000K. The resulting state-specific rate coefficients, γ, were parametrized as a function of temperature over the range 600-10000K using: log10γ(t)=a+bz+cz2-d(1/t-1) where t=T/4500K and z=log10t. The values of the resulting rate coefficients were sensitive to the internal energy of both molecules, with initial vibrational energy having a slightly greater effect than rotational energy. This effect diminished as temperature increased. (15 data files).

  7. Specific absorption rate analysis of broadband mobile antenna with negative index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial-inspired printed mobile wireless antenna that can support most mobile applications such as GSM, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN frequency bands. The antenna consists of a semi-circular patch, a 50Ω microstrip feed line and metamaterial ground plane. The antenna occupies a very small space of 37 × 47 × 0.508 mm3, making it suitable for mobile wireless application. The perceptible novelty shown in this proposed antenna is that reduction of specific absorption rate using the negative index metamaterial ground plane. The proposed antenna reduced 72.11 and 75.53 % of specific absorption rate at 1.8 and 2.4 GHz, respectively.

  8. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  9. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  10. Measurement of absorption rates of HFC single and blended refrigerants in POE oils

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, M.; Jotshi, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Thermophysical properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures play an important role in refrigeration and air-conditioning system design. Therefore it is important to have a good understanding of the mixture composition in each system component such as the compressor or evaporator. Because the system operation is dynamic the rates of absorption and desorption become significant parameters. In this paper measured absorption rates of alternative refrigerants in polyolester (POE) oils are reported. An effective online mass gain method was designed and constructed to measure the absorption rates and solubility of refrigerants in lubricants. HFC single refrigerants (R-32, R-125, R-134a, and R-143a), and blended refrigerantsmore » (R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A) were tested with POE ISO 68 lubricant under various conditions. The experimental results showed that, at room temperature, R-134a is the most soluble in POE ISO 68 oil among all the refrigerants tested at pressures of 239 kPa (20 psig) to 446 kPa (70 psig). Among the blended refrigerants tested, R-407C was found to be the most soluble at room temperature and pressures of 239 kPa and 446 kPa. Experimental solubility data from this new measurement method were compared with data available in the literature. Good agreement between the two indicates the feasibility of the new method employed in this investigation.« less

  11. Communication: rate coefficients from quasiclassical trajectory calculations from the reverse reaction: The Mu + H2 reaction re-visited.

    PubMed

    Homayoon, Zahra; Jambrina, Pablo G; Aoiz, F Javier; Bowman, Joel M

    2012-07-14

    In a previous paper [P. G. Jambrina et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034310 (2011)] various calculations of the rate coefficient for the Mu + H(2) → MuH + H reaction were presented and compared to experiment. The widely used standard quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method was shown to overestimate the rate coefficients by several orders of magnitude over the temperature range 200-1000 K. This was attributed to a major failure of that method to describe the correct threshold for the reaction owing to the large difference in zero-point energies (ZPE) of the reactant H(2) and product MuH (∼0.32 eV). In this Communication we show that by performing standard QCT calculations for the reverse reaction and then applying detailed balance, the resulting rate coefficient is in very good agreement with the other computational results that respect the ZPE, (as well as with the experiment) but which are more demanding computationally.

  12. Vibrational Relaxation and Electronic Quenching-Rate Coefficients for BiF (A0+,v1) by SF6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-22

    REPORT SD-TR-88-83 LO Vibrational Relaxation and Electronic Quenching-Rate N Coefficients for BiF (AO+ , v ) by SF 6 0) 0) H . HELVAJIAN , J. S...1. J. M. Herbelin and R. A. Klingberg, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 16, 849 (19824). 2. R. F. Heidner III, H . Helvajian , J. S. Holloway, and J. B. Koffend, J...driven electronic-transfer laser based on the efficient H + NF2 NF(a) + HF reaction. More recently, the rate coefficients for spontaneous emission

  13. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2Absorption Band.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Zhu, Zhen; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Following up on our previous work, we have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO2absorption band (4.3 µm). This improves the contrast between the foreground (i.e., expired air) and background (e.g., wall). Based on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then determine the breathing frequency through Fourier analysis. We have performed experiments on 9 subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 ft. We compared the breathing rate computed by our novel method with ground-truth measurements obtained via a traditional contact device (PowerLab/4SP from ADInstruments with an abdominal transducer). The results show high correlation between the two modalities. For the first time, we report a Fourier based breathing rate computation method on a MWIR signal in the CO2absorption band. The method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of an important vital sign, that is, breathing rate. It may find widespread applications in preventive medicine as well as sustained physiological monitoring of subjects suffering from chronic ailments.

  14. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraintsmore » on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)« less

  15. Thermal Rate Coefficients for the Astrochemical Process C + CH+ → C2+ + H by Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Sergio; Suleimanov, Yury V

    2016-12-22

    Thermal rate coefficients for the astrochemical reaction C + CH + → C 2 + + H were computed in the temperature range 20-300 K by using novel rate theory based on ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) on a recently published bond-order based potential energy surface and compared with previous Langevin capture model (LCM) and quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations. Results show that there is a significant discrepancy between the RPMD rate coefficients and the previous theoretical results that can lead to overestimation of the rate coefficients for the title reaction by several orders of magnitude at very low temperatures. We argue that this can be attributed to a very challenging energy profile along the reaction coordinate for the title reaction, not taken into account in extenso by either the LCM or QCT approximation. In the absence of any rigorous quantum mechanical or experimental results, the computed RPMD rate coefficients represent state-of-the-art estimates to be included in astrochemical databases and kinetic networks.

  16. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  17. Computations and estimates of rate coefficients for hydrocarbon reactions of interest to the atmospheres of outer solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, A. H.; Gardner, E. P.; Kwok, T. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    1983-01-01

    The rate coefficients, including Arrhenius parameters, have been computed for a number of chemical reactions involving hydrocarbon species for which experimental data are not available and which are important in planetary atmospheric models. The techniques used to calculate the kinetic parameters include the Troe and semiempirical bond energy-bond order (BEBO) or bond strength-bond length (BSBL) methods.

  18. Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Cosmic Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, D. W.; Gwinner, G.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2002-01-01

    Low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination mechanism for most ions in X-ray photoionized cosmic plasmas. Reliably modeling and interpreting spectra from these plasmas requires accurate low temperature DR rate Coefficients. Of particular importance are the DR rate coefficients for the iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII-Fe XXIV). These ions are predicted to play an important role in determining the thermal structure and line emission of X-ray photoionized plasmas, which form in the media surrounding accretion powered sources such as X-ray binaries (XRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cataclysmic variables (Savin et al., 2000). The need for reliable DR data of iron L-shell ions has become particularly urgent after the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton. These satellites are now providing high-resolution X-ray spectra from a wide range of X-ray photoionized sources. Interpreting the spectra from these sources requires reliable DR rate coefficients. However, at the temperatures relevant, for X-ray photoionized plasmas, existing theoretical DR rate coefficients can differ from one another by factors of two to orders of magnitudes.

  19. COMPARISON OF MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS BETWEEN FIELD-COLLECTED AND LABORATORY MICROCOSM MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two second-order transformation rate coefficients--kb, based on total plate counts, and kA, based on periphyton-colonized surface areas--were used to compare xenobiotic chemical transformation by laboratory-developed (microcosm) and by field-collected microbiota. Similarity of tr...

  20. Do large rate coefficients for ion-polar neutral reactions have a serious effect on chemical models of dense clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, E.; Leung, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to incorporate large ion-polar neutral rate coefficients into existing gas phase reaction networks, it is necessary to utilize simplified theoretical treatments because of the significant number of rate coefficients needed. The authors have used two simple theoretical treatments: the locked dipole approach of Moran and Hamill for linear polar neutrals and the trajectory scaling approach of Su and Chesnavich for nonlinear polar neutrals. The former approach is suitable for linear species because in the interstellar medium these are rotationally relaxed to a large extent and the incoming charged reactants can lock their dipoles into the lowest energy configuration. The latter approach is a better approximation for nonlinear neutral species, in which rotational relaxation is normally less severe and the incoming charged reactants are not as effective at locking the dipoles. The treatments are in reasonable agreement with more detailed long range theories and predict an inverse square root dependence on kinetic temperature for the rate coefficient. Compared with the locked dipole method, the trajectory scaling approach results in rate coefficients smaller by a factor of approximately 2.5.

  1. New potential energy surface for the HCS{sup +}–He system and inelastic rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Quintas-Sánchez, Ernesto; Tuckey, Philip

    2015-07-28

    A new high quality potential energy surface is calculated at a coupled-cluster single double triple level with an aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for the HCS{sup +}–He system. This potential energy surface is used in low energy quantum scattering calculations to provide a set of (de)-excitation cross sections and rate coefficients among the first 20 rotational levels of HCS{sup +} by He in the range of temperature from 5 K to 100 K. The paper discusses the impact of the new ab initio potential energy surface on the cross sections at low energy and provides a comparison with the HCO{sup +}–He system.more » The HCS{sup +}–He rate coefficients for the strongest transitions differ by factors of up to 2.5 from previous rate coefficients; thus, analysis of astrophysical spectra should be reconsidered with the new rate coefficients.« less

  2. Natural variability of bio-optical properties in an ultra-oligotrophic region: backscattering, attenuation and absorption coefficients as observed in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, M.; Jones, B. H.

    2016-02-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. The optical properties of the Red Sea have been empirically related to the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl], historically used as an index of the trophic state and of the abundance of the biological materials. The natural variability around the mean statistical relationships is here examined by comparing the optical properties as a function of [Chl] in different area of the Red Sea: the North Red Sea (NRS), the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) and the South Central Red Sea (SCRS) waters. The systematic deviations, with respect to the average laws provided for the global ocean, mainly result from the differing contents in non-algal particles, phytoplankton communities and dissolved colored substance for a given [Chl] level. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. Specifically, absorption's values of colored dissolved organic matter are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given [Chl] concentration. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan or Arabian origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  3. (CH3)3COOH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide): OH reaction rate coefficients between 206 and 375 K and the OH photolysis quantum yield at 248 nm.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Hasson, Alam S; Burkholder, James B

    2010-10-14

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (CH(3))(3)COOH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) were measured as a function of temperature (206-375 K) and pressure (25-200 Torr (He, N(2))). Rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH and laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) to measure the OH temporal profile. Two independent methods were used to determine the gas-phase infrared cross sections of (CH(3))(3)COOH, absolute pressure and chemical titration, that were used to determine the (CH(3))(3)COOH concentration in the LIF reactor. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is described, within the measurement precision, by the Arrhenius expression k(1)(T) = (7.0 ± 1.0) × 10(-13) exp[(485 ± 20)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) where k(1)(296 K) was measured to be (3.58 ± 0.54) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The uncertainties are 2σ (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. UV absorption cross sections of (CH(3))(3)COOH were determined at 185, 214, 228, and 254 nm and over the wavelength range 210-300 nm. The OH quantum yield following the 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of (CH(3))(3)COOH was measured relative to the OH quantum yields of H(2)O(2) and HNO(3) using PLP-LIF and found to be near unity.

  4. Rate Coefficients for Reactions of Ethynyl Radical (C2H) With HCN and CH3CN: Implications for the Formation of Comples Nitriles on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoobler, Ray J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H + HCN yields products and C2H + CH3CN yields products have been measured over the temperature range 262-360 K. These experiments represent an ongoing effort to accurately measure reaction rate coefficients of the ethynyl radical, C2H, relevant to planetary atmospheres such as those of Jupiter and Saturn and its satellite Titan. Laser photolysis of C2H2 is used to produce C2H, and transient infrared laser absorption is employed to measure the decay of C2H to obtain the subsequent reaction rates in a transverse flow cell. Rate constants for the reaction C2H + HCN yields products are found to increase significantly with increasing temperature and are measured to be (3.9-6.2) x 10(exp 13) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 297-360 K. The rate constants for the reaction C2H + CH3CN yields products are also found to increase substantially with increasing temperature and are measured to be (1.0-2.1) x 10(exp -12) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 262-360 K. For the reaction C2H + HCN yields products, ab initio calculations of transition state structures are used to infer that the major products form via an addition/elimination pathway. The measured rate constants for the reaction of C2H + HCN yields products are significantly smaller than values currently employed in photochemical models of Titan, which will affect the HC3N distribution.

  5. An Experimental Study on Normal Stress and Shear Rate Dependency of Basic Friction Coefficient in Dry and Wet Limestone Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrishal, Seyedahmad; Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Shahriar, Korosh; Song, Jae-Jon

    2016-12-01

    Among all parameters that affect the friction of rocks, variable normal stress and slip rate are the most important second-order parameters. The shear-rate- and normal-stress-dependent friction behavior of rock discontinuities may significantly influence the dynamic responses of rock mass. In this research, two limestone rock types, which were travertine and onyx marble with slickenside and grinded #80 surfaces, were prepared and CNL direct shear tests were performed on the joints under various shear conditions. The shearing rate varied from 0.1 to 50 mm/min under different normal stresses (from 2 to 30 % of UCS) in both dry and wet conditions. Experiments showed that the friction coefficient of slickensided and ground #80 surfaces of limestone increased with the increasing shear velocity and decreased with the increasing normal stress. Micro-asperity interlocking between ground #80 surfaces showed higher wear and an increase in friction coefficient ( µ) compared to slickensided surfaces. Slickensided samples with moist surfaces showed an increase in the coefficient of friction compared to dry surfaces; however, on ground #80 surfaces, the moisture decreased the coefficient of friction to a smaller value. Slickenside of limestone typically slides stably in a dry condition and by stick-slip on moist surfaces. The observed shear-rate- and normal-stress-dependent friction behavior can be explained by a similar framework to that of the adhesion theory of friction and a friction mechanism that involves the competition between microscopic dilatant slip and surface asperity deformation. The results have important implications for understanding the behavior of basic and residual friction coefficients of limestone rock surfaces.

  6. Extracting rate coefficients from single-molecule photon trajectories and FRET efficiency histograms for a fast-folding protein.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hoi Sung; Gopich, Irina V; McHale, Kevin; Cellmer, Troy; Louis, John M; Eaton, William A

    2011-04-28

    Recently developed statistical methods by Gopich and Szabo were used to extract folding and unfolding rate coefficients from single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data for proteins with kinetics too fast to measure waiting time distributions. Two types of experiments and two different analyses were performed. In one experiment bursts of photons were collected from donor and acceptor fluorophores attached to a 73-residue protein, α(3)D, freely diffusing through the illuminated volume of a confocal microscope system. In the second, the protein was immobilized by linkage to a surface, and photons were collected until one of the fluorophores bleached. Folding and unfolding rate coefficients and mean FRET efficiencies for the folded and unfolded subpopulations were obtained from a photon by photon analysis of the trajectories using a maximum likelihood method. The ability of the method to describe the data in terms of a two-state model was checked by recoloring the photon trajectories with the extracted parameters and comparing the calculated FRET efficiency histograms with the measured histograms. The sum of the rate coefficients for the two-state model agreed to within 30% with the relaxation rate obtained from the decay of the donor-acceptor cross-correlation function, confirming the high accuracy of the method. Interestingly, apparently reliable rate coefficients could be extracted using the maximum likelihood method, even at low (<10%) population of the minor component where the cross-correlation function was too noisy to obtain any useful information. The rate coefficients and mean FRET efficiencies were also obtained in an approximate procedure by simply fitting the FRET efficiency histograms, calculated by binning the donor and acceptor photons, with a sum of three-Gaussian functions. The kinetics are exposed in these histograms by the growth of a FRET efficiency peak at values intermediate between the folded and unfolded peaks as the bin

  7. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of the hydroxyl radical with CH2=CHF and CH2=CF2.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Knight, Gary; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2010-04-08

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with CH(2)=CHF (k(1)) and CH(2)=CF(2) (k(2)) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH and laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) to detect it. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperature (220-373 K) and bath gas pressure (20-600 Torr; He, N(2)). The rate coefficients were found to be independent of pressure. The measured rate coefficient for reaction 1 at room temperature was k(1)(296 K) = (5.18 +/- 0.50) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), independent of pressure, and the temperature dependence is given by the Arrhenius expression k(1)(T) = (1.75 +/- 0.20) x 10(-12) exp[(316 +/- 25)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); the rate coefficients for reaction 2 were k(2)(296 K) = (2.79 +/- 0.25) x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(2)(T) = (1.75 +/- 0.20) x 10(-12) exp[(140 +/- 20)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainties are 2sigma (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. The fall-off parameters for reaction 2 of k(infinity) = 3 x 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(0)(296 K) = 1.8 x 10(-28) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) with F(c) = 0.6 reproduce the room temperature data obtained in this study combined with the low pressure rate coefficient data from Howard (J. Chem. Phys. 1976, 65, 4771). OH radical formation was observed for reactions 1 and 2 in the presence of O(2), and the mechanism was investigated using (18)OH and OD rate coefficient measurements with CH(2)=CHF and CH(2)=CF(2) over a range of temperature (260-373 K) and pressure (20-100 Torr, He). Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) were used to determine the geometries and energies of the reactants and adducts formed in reactions 1 and 2 and the peroxy radicals formed following the addition of O(2). The atmospheric lifetimes of CH(2)=CHF and CH(2)=CF(2) due to loss by reaction with OH are approximately 2 and 4

  8. Greater apparent absorption of flavonoids is associated with lesser human fecal flavonoid disappearance rates.

    PubMed

    Simons, Andrean L; Renouf, Mathieu; Murphy, Patricia A; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-13

    It was hypothesized that 5,7,4'-OH-flavonoids disappeared more rapidly from human fecal incubations and were less absorbable by humans than flavonoids without 5-OH moieties. Anaerobic fecal disappearance rates over 24 h were determined for 15 flavonoids in samples from 20 men and 13 women. In these anaerobic fecal mixtures, flavonoids with 5,7,4'-OH groups, genistein, apigenin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin (disappearance rate, k=0.46+/-0.10 h(-1)), and methoxylated flavonoids, hesperetin and glycitein (k=0.24+/-0.21 h(-1)), disappeared rapidly compared with flavonoids lacking 5-OH (e.g., daidzein, k=0.07+/-0.03 h(-1)). Apparent absorption of flavonoids that disappeared rapidly from in vitro fecal incubations, genistein, naringenin, quercetin, and hesperetin, was compared with that of daidzein, a slowly disappearing flavonoid, in 5 men and 5 women. Subjects ingested 104 micromol of genistein and 62 micromol of daidzein (soy milk), 1549 micromol of naringenin and 26 micromol of hesperetin (grapefruit juice), and 381 micromol of quercetin (onions) in three test meals, each separated by 1 week. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h after each test meal. Plasma flavonoid concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 1 microM. The apparent absorption, expressed as percentage of ingested dose excreted in urine, was significantly less for naringenin (3.2+/-1.7%), genistein (7.2+/-4.6%), hesperetin (7.3+/-3.2%), and quercetin (5.6+/-3.7%) compared with daidzein (43.4+/-15.5%, p=0.02). These data affirmed the hypothesis that the 5,7,4'-OH of flavonoids limited apparent absorption of these compounds in humans.

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  10. Effects of Geometrical and Flow Rates on the Prediction of Bottom Pressure Coefficients of Tunnel Lift Gate of Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Sheeraz; Taher, Taha; Ahmed, Thamir M.

    2018-06-01

    Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics forces are generated and applied on the vertical lift tunnel gates due to the influence of a wide range of dam operating conditions. One of the most important forces is the uplift force resulting from the jet flow issuing below the gate. This force is based mainly upon many hydraulic and geometrical parameters. In this work, the uplift force is studied in terms of bottom pressure coefficient. The investigation is made paying particular attention on the effects of various three discharges and three gate lip angles on values of bottom pressure coefficients in addition to four different tunnel longitudinal slopes whose impact has not been studied in many previous works. Hydraulic model is constructed in this work for the sake of measuring all parameters required for estimating the bottom pressure coefficients, which are all examined against gate openings. The results show that the bottom pressure coefficient is related to the said variables, however, its behaviour and values are not necessary regular with variance of studied variables. The values are seen more significantly related to the flow rates and for some extent to the slopes of tunnel. An attempt by using the nonlinear regression of Statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) is made to set equations relating bottom pressure coefficient with gate openings for several angles of gate lips. The obtained equations are shown in good agreement with the selected cases of experimental results. The results are applicable for design purposes for similar geometrical and flow parameters considered in this study.

  11. Rating of Dynamic Coefficient for Simple Beam Bridge Design on High-Speed Railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diachenko, Leonid; Benin, Andrey; Smirnov, Vladimir; Diachenko, Anastasia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the work is to improve the methodology for the dynamic computation of simple beam spans during the impact of high-speed trains. Mathematical simulation utilizing numerical and analytical methods of structural mechanics is used in the research. The article analyses parameters of the effect of high-speed trains on simple beam spanning bridge structures and suggests a technique of determining of the dynamic index to the live load. Reliability of the proposed methodology is confirmed by results of numerical simulation of high-speed train passage over spans with different speeds. The proposed algorithm of dynamic computation is based on a connection between maximum acceleration of the span in the resonance mode of vibrations and the main factors of stress-strain state. The methodology allows determining maximum and also minimum values of the main efforts in the construction that makes possible to perform endurance tests. It is noted that dynamic additions for the components of the stress-strain state (bending moments, transverse force and vertical deflections) are different. This condition determines the necessity for differentiated approach to evaluation of dynamic coefficients performing design verification of I and II groups of limiting state. The practical importance: the methodology of determining the dynamic coefficients allows making dynamic calculation and determining the main efforts in split beam spans without numerical simulation and direct dynamic analysis that significantly reduces the labour costs for design.

  12. OH + (E)- and (Z)-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene-1 (CF3CH═CHCl) reaction rate coefficients: stereoisomer-dependent reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, M; Burkholder, James B

    2014-11-20

    Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (E)- and (Z)-CF3CH═CHCl (1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene-1, HFO-1233zd) (k1(T) and k2(T), respectively) were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH over the temperature range 213-376 K. OH was produced by pulsed laser photolysis, and its temporal profile was measured using laser-induced fluorescence. The obtained rate coefficients were independent of pressure between 25 and 100 Torr (He, N2) with k1(296 K) = (3.76 ± 0.35) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k2(296 K) = (9.46 ± 0.85) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (quoted uncertainties are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors). k2(T) showed a weak non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range. The (E)- and (Z)- stereoisomer rate coefficients were found to have opposite temperature dependencies that are well represented by k1(T) = (1.14 ± 0.15) × 10(-12) exp[(-330 ± 10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k2(T) = (7.22 ± 0.65) × 10(-19) × T(2) × exp[(800 ± 20)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The present results are compared with a previous room temperature relative rate coefficient study of k1, and an explanation for the discrepancy is presented. CF3CHO, HC(O)Cl, and CF3CClO, were observed as stable end-products following the OH radical initiated degradation of (E)- and (Z)-CF3CH═CHCl in the presence of O2. In addition, chemically activated isomerization was also observed. Atmospheric local lifetimes of (E)- and (Z)-CF3CH═CHCl, due to OH reactive loss, were estimated to be ∼34 and ∼11 days, respectively. Infrared absorption spectra measured in this work were used to estimate radiative efficiencies and well-mixed global warming potentials of ∼10 and ∼3 for (E)- and (Z)-CF3CH═CHCl, respectively, on the 100-year time horizon.

  13. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  14. Rate coefficients for the reaction of formaldehyde with HO2 radicals from fluorescence spectroscopy of HOCH2OO radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkan, Arne; Amédro, Damien; Crowley, John

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of formaldehyde with HO2 radicals constitutes a minor, but significant sink of formaldehyde in the troposphere as well as a possible interference in other formaldehyde photooxidation experiments. HCHO + HO2 ⇌ HOCH2OO (1) Due to the difficulty of simultaneously monitoring the reactant and product concentrations while preventing interfering secondary chemistry, there is a considerable uncertainty in the literature values for the reaction rate coefficients. We have used two photon, excited fragment spectroscopy (TPEFS), originally developed for monitoring HNO3 formation in kinetic experiments, to monitor the formation of the HOCH2OO radical. Dispersed and single wavelength fluorescence emission following the 193 nm photolysis of HOCH2OO have been recorded and analysed. Characterisation of the method is presented along with rate coefficients for the reaction of HCHO with HO2 radicals at tropospheric temperatures.

  15. Measurements of Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for He-like and H-like Metal Ions from Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K. W.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D. W.; Decaux, V.

    1991-01-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate coefficients associated with the Δn = 1 radiative core transitions have been determined for Ti XXI, Fe XXV, Ni XXVII, and Ti XXII as a function of the electron temperature from the analysis of x-ray satellite spectra emitted from tokamak plasmas. The results obtained are in good agreement with the recent theoretical predictions of Bely-Dubau et al., and Karim and Bhalla.

  16. Rate coefficient for H + O2 + M = HO2 + M evaluated from shock tube measurements of induction times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shock tube experiments measured hydrogen-air induction times near the second explosion limit. By matching these experimental results with numerically predicted induction times, the rate coefficient for the reaction H + O2 + M = HO2 + M was evaluated as k-sub 4,N2 = 3.3 (plus or minus .6) x 10 to the 15 cm to the 6th/sq mole/s.

  17. Equivalent Black Carbon measurements and spectral analysis of absorption coefficient during a biomass burning episode in the city of Bogotá, Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirama, M.; Morales, R.

    2016-12-01

    Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol is recognized as a significant short lived climate pollutant that can contribute to direct and indirect radiative forcing. In urban environments, black carbon is an important contributor to the deterioration of local air quality. In this study, we report measurements of equivalent Black Carbon performed during the months of January, February, and March 2016 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. During this period, a persistent condition of atmospheric stability lead to high concentrations of particulate matter throughout the city. During the month of February, the city was further impacted by a series of small-scale forest fires that took place on hills neighboring the city center. Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations were monitored before, during, and after a mayor forest fire episode with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. The monitoring instruments were located at a traffic impacted site, 18.3 km from the forest fire. To evaluate the contribution of biomass burning to the light-absorbing aerosol particle concentration, spectral analysis of the absorption coefficient of the sampled aerosol particles was performed. When the biomass burning plume directly impacted the monitoring station during the night of February 4, eBC concentrations of up to 40 µg/m3 were observed at nighttime. This concentration was significantly higher than average nighttime concentrations of eBC, observed to be 4 µg/m3 at the site. However, during the period most intensely affected by the biomass burning plume, the angstrom exponent computed between the 450nm and the 970 nm channel, was found to be close to 1. Angstrom exponent close to 1 is an indication that the contribution from traffic generated black carbon is dominant compared to the contribution of biomass burning. The data set collected during this period suggests that despite the significant contribution of the fresh biomass burning plume to the particulate matter concentration in the city, the

  18. Low-temperature MIR to submillimeter mass absorption coefficient of interstellar dust analogues. II. Mg and Fe-rich amorphous silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Nayral, C.; Ojo, W.-S.; Delpech, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To model the cold dust emission observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, in dense molecular clouds or in cold clumps that could eventually form new stars, it is mandatory to know the physical and spectroscopic properties of this dust and to understand its emission. Aims: This work is a continuation of previous studies aiming at providing astronomers with spectroscopic data of realistic cosmic dust analogues for the interpretation of observations. The aim of the present work is to extend the range of studied analogues to iron-rich silicate dust analogues. Methods: Ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues were produced by a sol-gel method with a mean composition close to Mg1-xFexSiO3 with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4. Part of each sample was annealed at 500 °C for two hours in a reducing atmosphere to modify the oxidation state of iron. We have measured the mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of these eight ferromagnesium amorphous silicate dust analogues in the spectral domain 30-1000 μm for grain temperature in the range 10-300 K and at room temperature in the 5-40 μm range. Results: The MAC of ferromagnesium samples behaves in the same way as the MAC of pure Mg-rich amorphous silicate samples. In the 30-300 K range, the MAC increases with increasing grain temperature whereas in the range 10-30 K, we do not see any change of the MAC. The MAC cannot be described by a single power law in λ- β. The MAC of the samples does not show any clear trend with the iron content. However the annealing process has, on average, an effect on the MAC that we explain by the evolution of the structure of the samples induced by the processing. The MAC of all the samples is much higher than the MAC calculated by dust models. Conclusions: The complex behavior of the MAC of amorphous silicates with wavelength and temperature is observed whatever the exact silicate composition (Mg vs. Fe amount). It is a universal characteristic of amorphous materials, and therefore of

  19. Potential energy surface and rate coefficients of protonated cyanogen (HNCCN+) induced by collision with helium (He) at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bop, Cheikh T.; Faye, N. AB; Hammami, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nitriles have been identified in space. Accurately modeling their abundance requires calculations of collisional rate coefficients. These data are obtained by first computing potential energy surfaces (PES) and cross-sections using high accurate quantum methods. In this paper, we report the first interaction potential of the HNCCN+-He collisional system along with downward rate coefficients among the 11 lowest rotational levels of HNCCN+. The PES was calculated using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster approach with simple, second and non-iterative triple excitation (CCSD(T)-F12) in conjunction with the augmented-correlation consistent-polarized valence triple zeta (aug-cc-pVTZ) Gaussian basis set. It presents two local minima of ˜283 and ˜136 cm-1, the deeper one is located at R = 9 a0 towards the H end (HeṡṡṡHNCCN+). Using the so-computed PES, we calculated rotational cross-sections of HNCCN+ induced by collision with He for energies ranging up to 500 cm-1 with the exact quantum mechanical close coupling (CC) method. Downward rate coefficients were then worked out by thermally averaging the cross-sections at low temperature (T ≤ 100 K). The discussion on propensity rules showed that the odd Δj transitions were favored. The results obtained in this work may be crucially needed to accurately model the abundance of cyanogen and its protonated form in space.

  20. Communication: Rate coefficients from quasiclassical trajectory calculations from the reverse reaction: The Mu + H2 reaction re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayoon, Zahra; Jambrina, Pablo G.; Aoiz, F. Javier; Bowman, Joel M.

    2012-07-01

    In a previous paper [P. G. Jambrina et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034310 (2011), 10.1063/1.3611400] various calculations of the rate coefficient for the Mu + H2 → MuH + H reaction were presented and compared to experiment. The widely used standard quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method was shown to overestimate the rate coefficients by several orders of magnitude over the temperature range 200-1000 K. This was attributed to a major failure of that method to describe the correct threshold for the reaction owing to the large difference in zero-point energies (ZPE) of the reactant H2 and product MuH (˜0.32 eV). In this Communication we show that by performing standard QCT calculations for the reverse reaction and then applying detailed balance, the resulting rate coefficient is in very good agreement with the other computational results that respect the ZPE, (as well as with the experiment) but which are more demanding computationally.

  1. Peptide kinetics from picoseconds to microseconds using boxed molecular dynamics: Power law rate coefficients in cyclisation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Beddard, Godfrey S.; Paci, Emanuele; Glowacki, David R.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are increasingly widespread, but simulation of rare events in complex molecular systems remains a challenge. We recently introduced the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) method, which accelerates rare events, and simultaneously provides both kinetic and thermodynamic information. We illustrate how the BXD method may be used to obtain high-resolution kinetic data from explicit MD simulations, spanning picoseconds to microseconds. The method is applied to investigate the loop formation dynamics and kinetics of cyclisation for a range of polypeptides, and recovers a power law dependence of the instantaneous rate coefficient over six orders of magnitude in time, in good agreement with experimental observations. Analysis of our BXD results shows that this power law behaviour arises when there is a broad and nearly uniform spectrum of reaction rate coefficients. For the systems investigated in this work, where the free energy surfaces have relatively small barriers, the kinetics is very sensitive to the initial conditions: strongly non-equilibrium conditions give rise to power law kinetics, while equilibrium initial conditions result in a rate coefficient with only a weak dependence on time. These results suggest that BXD may offer us a powerful and general algorithm for describing kinetics and thermodynamics in chemical and biochemical systems.

  2. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater.

  3. The effect of realistic heavy particle induced secondary electron emission coefficients on the electron power absorption dynamics in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daksha, M.; Derzsi, A.; Wilczek, S.; Trieschmann, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Awakowicz, P.; Donkó, Z.; Schulze, J.

    2017-08-01

    In particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions (PIC/MCC) simulations of capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the plasma-surface interaction is generally described by a simple model in which a constant secondary electron emission coefficient (SEEC) is assumed for ions bombarding the electrodes. In most PIC/MCC studies of CCPs, this coefficient is set to γ = 0.1, independent of the energy of the incident particle, the electrode material, and the surface conditions. Here, the effects of implementing energy-dependent secondary electron yields for ions, fast neutrals, and taking surface conditions into account in PIC/MCC simulations is investigated. Simulations are performed using self-consistently calculated effective SEECs, {γ }* , for ‘clean’ (e.g., heavily sputtered) and ‘dirty’ (e.g., oxidized) metal surfaces in single- and dual-frequency discharges in argon and the results are compared to those obtained by assuming a constant secondary electron yield of γ =0.1 for ions. In single-frequency (13.56 MHz) discharges operated under conditions of low heavy particle energies at the electrodes, the pressure and voltage at which the transition between the α- and γ-mode electron power absorption occurs are found to strongly depend on the surface conditions. For ‘dirty’ surfaces, the discharge operates in α-mode for all conditions investigated due to a low effective SEEC. In classical dual-frequency (1.937 MHz + 27.12 MHz) discharges {γ }* significantly increases with increasing low-frequency voltage amplitude, {V}{LF}, for dirty surfaces. This is due to the effect of {V}{LF} on the heavy particle energies at the electrodes, which negatively influences the quality of the separate control of ion properties at the electrodes. The new results on the separate control of ion properties in such discharges indicate significant differences compared to previous results obtained with different constant values of γ.

  4. Experimental determination of the absorption cross-section and molar extinction coefficient of CdSe and CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Protasenko, Vladimir; Bacinello, Daniel; Kuno, Masaru

    2006-12-21

    Absorption cross-sections and corresponding molar extinction coefficients of solution-based CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs) are determined. Chemically grown semiconductor NWs are made via a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) synthesis, employing low melting Au/Bi bimetallic nanoparticle "catalysts" to induce one-dimensional (1D) growth. Resulting wires are highly crystalline and have diameters between 5 and 12 nm as well as lengths exceeding 10 microm. Narrow diameters, below twice the corresponding bulk exciton Bohr radius of each material, place CdSe and CdTe NWs within their respective intermediate to weak confinement regimes. Supporting this are solution linear absorption spectra of NW ensembles showing blue shifts relative to the bulk band gap as well as structure at higher energies. In the case of CdSe, the wires exhibit band edge emission as well as strong absorption/emission polarization anisotropies at the ensemble and single-wire levels. Analogous photocurrent polarization anisotropies have been measured in recently developed CdSe NW photodetectors. To further support fundamental NW optical/electrical studies as well as to promote their use in device applications, experimental absorption cross-sections are determined using correlated transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible extinction spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Measured CdSe NW cross-sections for 1 microm long wires (diameters, 6-42 nm) range from 6.93 x 10(-13) to 3.91 x 10(-11) cm2 at the band edge (692-715 nm, 1.73-1.79 eV) and between 3.38 x 10(-12) and 5.50 x 10(-11) cm2 at 488 nm (2.54 eV). Similar values are obtained for 1 microm long CdTe NWs (diameters, 7.5-11.5 nm) ranging from 4.32 x 10(-13) to 5.10 x 10(-12) cm2 at the band edge (689-752 nm, 1.65-1.80 eV) and between 1.80 x 10(-12) and 1.99 x 10(-11) cm2 at 2.54 eV. These numbers compare well with previous theoretical estimates of CdSe/CdTe NW cross-sections far to the blue of the

  5. Design of Miniaturized Double-Negative Material for Specific Absorption Rate Reduction in Human Head

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a double-negative triangular metamaterial (TMM) structure, which exhibits a resounding electric response at microwave frequency, was developed by etching two concentric triangular rings of conducting materials. A finite-difference time-domain method in conjunction with the lossy-Drude model was used in this study. Simulations were performed using the CST Microwave Studio. The specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction technique is discussed, and the effects of the position of attachment, the distance, and the size of the metamaterials on the SAR reduction are explored. The performance of the double-negative TMMs in cellular phones was also measured in the cheek and the tilted positions using the COMOSAR system. The TMMs achieved a 52.28% reduction for the 10 g SAR. These results provide a guideline to determine the triangular design of metamaterials with the maximum SAR reducing effect for a mobile phone. PMID:25350398

  6. Magnetic Nanoparticles with High Specific Absorption Rate at Low Alternating Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Kekalo, K.; Baker, I.; Meyers, R.; Shyong, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for use in the hyperthermia treatment of tumors. These particles consist of 2–4 nm crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 gathered in 20–40 nm aggregates with a coating of carboxymethyl-dextran, producing a zetasize of 110–120 nm. Despite their very low saturation magnetization (1.5–6.5 emu/g), the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the nanoparticles is 22–200 W/g at applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) with strengths of 100–500 Oe at a frequency of 160 kHz. PMID:26884816

  7. Design of miniaturized double-negative material for specific absorption rate reduction in human head.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a double-negative triangular metamaterial (TMM) structure, which exhibits a resounding electric response at microwave frequency, was developed by etching two concentric triangular rings of conducting materials. A finite-difference time-domain method in conjunction with the lossy-Drude model was used in this study. Simulations were performed using the CST Microwave Studio. The specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction technique is discussed, and the effects of the position of attachment, the distance, and the size of the metamaterials on the SAR reduction are explored. The performance of the double-negative TMMs in cellular phones was also measured in the cheek and the tilted positions using the COMOSAR system. The TMMs achieved a 52.28% reduction for the 10 g SAR. These results provide a guideline to determine the triangular design of metamaterials with the maximum SAR reducing effect for a mobile phone.

  8. Hysteresis losses and specific absorption rate measurements in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Martino, Luca; Kane, Shashank N; Raghuvanshi, Saroj; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia on magnetic nanoparticles have been studied with the aim of providing reliable and reproducible methods of measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with two different mean sizes, and Ni 1-x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 ferrites with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 has been measured with three approaches: static hysteresis loops areas, dynamic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia of a water solution. For dynamic loops and thermometric measurements, specific experimental setups have been developed, that operate at comparable frequencies (≈ 69kHz and ≈ 100kHz respectively) and rf magnetic field peak values (up to 100mT). The hyperthermia setup has been fully modelled to provide a direct measurement of the SAR of the magnetic nanoparticles by taking into account the heat exchange with the surrounding environment in non-adiabatic conditions and the parasitic heating of the water due to ionic currents. Dynamic hysteresis loops are shown to provide an accurate determination of the SAR except for superparamagnetic samples, where the boundary with a blocked regime could be crossed in dynamic conditions. Static hysteresis loops consistently underestimate the specific absorption rate but can be used to select the most promising samples. A means of reliably measure SAR of magnetic nanoparticles by different approaches for hyperthermia applications is presented and its validity discussed by comparing different methods. This work fits within the general subject of metrological traceability in medicine with a specific focus on magnetic hyperthermia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os ( Z = 76) derived from new mass attenuation coefficient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Necati; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydın, Gökhan; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

    2007-08-01

    The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.

  10. A Review of Rate Coefficients in the D2-F2 Chemical Laser System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-05

    analyzed by subjecting the mixture to a high-frequency dis- charge, then using EPR to assay the relative H and D atom concentrations. The rate...856 ( 1935 ). Anlauf, K. G. , P. E. Charters, D. S. Home, R. G. MacDonald, D. II. Maylotte, J. C. Polanyi, W. J

  11. Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13): measured OH radical reaction rate coefficients for several isomers and enantiomers and their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Aaron M; Gierczak, Tomasz; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Waterland, Robert L; Burkholder, James B

    2014-05-06

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (CH3OC7F13, MPHEs) are currently in use as replacements for perfluorinated alkanes (PFCs) and poly-ether heat transfer fluids, which are persistent greenhouse gases with lifetimes >1000 years. At present, the atmospheric processing and environmental impact from the use of MPHEs is unknown. In this work, rate coefficients at 296 K for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six key isomers (including stereoisomers and enantiomers) of MPHEs used commercially were measured using a relative rate method. Rate coefficients for the six MPHE isomers ranged from ∼ 0.1 to 2.9 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a strong stereoisomer and -OCH3 group position dependence; the (E)-stereoisomers with the -OCH3 group in an α- position relative to the double bond had the greatest reactivity. Rate coefficients measured for the d3-MPHE isomer analogues showed decreased reactivity consistent with a minor contribution of H atom abstraction from the -OCH3 group to the overall reactivity. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the MPHE isomers range from days to months. Atmospheric lifetimes, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials for these short-lived MPHE isomers were estimated based on the measured OH rate coefficients along with measured and theoretically calculated MPHE infrared absorption spectra. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the atmospheric impact of individual components in an isomeric mixture.

  12. Temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with the atmospheric biogenics isoprene, alpha-pinene and delta-3-carene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Terry J.; Dulitz, Katrin; Groß, Christoph B. M.; Crowley, John N.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsed laser methods for OH generation and detection were used to study atmospheric degradation reactions for three important biogenic gases: OH + isoprene (Reaction R1), OH +α-pinene (Reaction R2) and OH + Δ-3-carene (Reaction R3). Gas-phase rate coefficients were characterized by non-Arrhenius kinetics for all three reactions. For (R1), k1 (241-356 K) = (1.93±0.08) × 10-11exp{(466±12)/T} cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was determined, with a room temperature value of k1 (297 K) = (9.3±0.4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of bath-gas pressure (5-200 Torr) and composition (M = N2 or air). Accuracy and precision were enhanced by online optical monitoring of isoprene, with absolute concentrations obtained via an absorption cross section, σisoprene = (1.28±0.06) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at λ = 184.95 nm, determined in this work. These results indicate that significant discrepancies between previous absolute and relative-rate determinations of k1 result in part from σ values used to derive the isoprene concentration in high-precision absolute determinations.

    Similar methods were used to determine rate coefficients (in 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) for (R2)-(R3): k2 (238-357 K) = (1.83±0.04) × exp{(330±6)/T} and k3 (235-357 K) = (2.48±0.14) × exp{(357±17)/T}. This is the first temperature-dependent dataset for (R3) and enables the calculation of reliable atmospheric lifetimes with respect to OH removal for e.g. boreal forest springtime conditions. Room temperature values of k2 (296 K) = (5.4±0.2) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and k3 (297 K) = (8.1±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were independent of bath-gas pressure (7-200 Torr, N2 or air) and in good agreement with previously reported values. In the course of this work, 184.95 nm absorption cross sections were determined: σ = (1.54±0.08) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for α-pinene and (2.40±0.12) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 for Δ-3-carene.

  13. Measurement of the Electron Density and the Attachment Rate Coefficient in Silane/Helium Discharges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    materials -- in this case hydrogenated amorphous silicon . One of the biggest problems in such a task is the fact that the discharge creates complex radicals...electron density is enhanced -- even on a time-averaged basis, and the silicon deposition rate is also increased. The physical process for the density...etching and deposition of semiconductor materials. Plasma etching (also known as dry etching) Of silicon using flourine bearing gases has made it possible

  14. Determination of the rate coefficient for the N2/+/ + O reaction in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.; Orsini, N.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Walker, J. C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Using approximately 400 simultaneous measurements of ion and neutral densities and temperatures, and the spectrum of the solar flux measured by the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite, we have determined the rate constant k1 for the reaction between N2(+) and O in the ionosphere for ion temperatures between 600 and 700 K. We find that k1 = 1.1 x 10 to the minus 10th power cu cm per sec, with a standard deviation of + or - 15%. If we use the temperature dependence for this reaction determined in the laboratory then at 300 K we find excellent agreement with the recommended laboratory value.

  15. Effect on phloridzin on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, L; Agostoni, E; Raffaini, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous indirect findings have suggested the occurrence of solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space, consistent with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase on the interstitial side plus a Na(+)-H+ and CI(-)-HCO3- double exchange on the luminal side of the pleural mesothelium. To assess whether Na(+)-glucose cotransport also operates on the luminal side, the relationship between net rate of liquid absorption from the right pleural space (Jnet) and volume of liquid injected into this space (0.5, 1 or 2 ml) was determined in anaesthetized rabbits during hydrothoraces with phloridzin (10(-3)M) or with phloridzin plus 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonic acid (SITS; 1.5 x 10(-4)M). The relationship obtained during hydrothoraces with phloridzin was displaced downwards by 0.09 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P < 0.01). The decrease in Jnet was similar in hydrothoraces of various sizes. The relationship obtained in hydrothoraces with phloridzin plus SITS was displaced downwards by 0.16 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P < 0.01), i.e. the decrease in Jnet was similar to the sum (0.17 ml h-1) of the decreases in Jnet produced individually by phloridzin and by SITS (0.08 ml h-1). The decrease in Jnet was similar in hydrothoraces of differing size. The above findings are consistent with the occurrence of Na(+)-glucose cotransport on the luminal side of the pleural mesothelium, operating simultaneously with the double exchange also under physiological conditions.

  16. Impact of head morphology on local brain specific absorption rate from exposure to mobile phone radiation.

    PubMed

    Adibzadeh, Fatemeh; Bakker, Jurriaan F; Paulides, Margarethus M; Verhaart, René F; van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2015-01-01

    Among various possible health effects of mobile phone radiation, the risk of inducing cancer has the strongest interest of laymen and health organizations. Recently, the Interphone epidemiological study investigated the association between the estimated Radio Frequency (RF) dose from mobile phones and the risk of developing a brain tumor. Their dosimetric analysis included over 100 phone models but only two homogeneous head phantoms. So, the potential impact of individual morphological features on global and local RF absorption in the brain was not investigated. In this study, we performed detailed dosimetric simulations for 20 head models and quantified the variation of RF dose in different brain regions as a function of head morphology. Head models were exposed to RF fields from generic mobile phones at 835 and 1900 MHz in the "tilted" and "cheek" positions. To evaluate the local RF dose variation, we used and compared two different post-processing methods, that is, averaging specific absorption rate (SAR) over Talairach regions and over sixteen predefined 1 cm(3) cube-shaped field-sensors. The results show that the variation in the averaged SAR among the heads can reach up to 16.4 dB at a 1 cm(3) cube inside the brain (field-sensor method) and alternatively up to 15.8 dB in the medulla region (Talairach method). In conclusion, we show head morphology as an important uncertainty source for dosimetric studies of mobile phones. Therefore, any dosimetric analysis dealing with RF dose at a specific region in the brain (e.g., tumor risk analysis) should be based upon real morphology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. H + O3 Fourier-transform infrared emission and laser absorption studies of OH(X2Pi) radical - An experimental dipole moment function and state-to-state Einstein A coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.

    1990-01-01

    FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.

  18. Gravity field and solar component of the precession rate and nutation coefficients of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Reimond, S.; Souchay, J.; Baur, O.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is first to determine the gravity field of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and second to derive the solar component of the precession rate and nutation coefficients of the spin-axis of the comet nucleus, I.e. without the direct, usually larger, effect of outgassing. The gravity field and related moments of inertia are obtained from two polyhedra, which are provided by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) and NAVigation CAMera (NAVCAM) experiments on Rosetta, and are based on the assumption of uniform density for the comet nucleus. We also calculate the forced precession rate as well as the nutation coefficients on the basis of Kinoshita's theory of rotation of the rigid Earth and adapted it to be able to indirectly include the effect of outgassing on the rotational parameters. The second degree denormalized Stokes coefficients of comet 67P/C-G turn out to be (bracketed numbers refer to second shape model) C20 ≃ -6.74 [-7.93] × 10-2, C22 ≃ 2.60 [2.71] × 10-2, consistent with normalized principal moments of inertia A/MR2 ≃ 0.13 [0.11], B/MR2 ≃ 0.23 [0.22], with polar moment c = C/MR2 ≃ 0.25, depending on the choice of the polyhedron model. The obliquity between the rotation axis and the mean orbit normal is ɛ ≃ 52°, and the precession rate only due to solar torques becomes dot{ψ }in [20,30] arcsec yr^{-1}. Oscillations in longitude caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun turn out to be of the order of Δψ ≃ 1 arcmin, and oscillations in obliquity can be estimated to be of the order of Δɛ ≃ 0.5 arcmin.

  19. Evaluation of the factors controlling the time-dependent inactivation rate coefficients of bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    Static and dynamic batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature and the presence of sand on the inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1. The experimental data suggested that the inactivation process can be satisfactorily represented by a pseudo-first-order expression with time-dependent rate coefficients. The time-dependent rate coefficients were used to determine pertinent thermodynamic properties required for the analysis of the molecular processes involved in the inactivation of each bacteriophage. A combination of high temperature and the presence of sand appears to produce the greatest disruption to the surrounding protein coat of MS2. However, the lower activation energies for PRD1 indicate a weaker dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Instead, the presence of air-liquid and air-solid interfaces appears to produce the greatest damage to specific viral components that are related to infection. These results indicate the importance of using thermodynamic parameters based on the time-dependent inactivation model to better predict the inactivation of viruses in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  20. Evapotranspiration rates and crop coefficients for a restored marsh in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Anderson, Frank E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface renewal method was used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) for a restored marsh on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, USA. ET estimates for the marsh, together with reference ET measurements from a nearby climate station, were used to determine crop coefficients over a 3‐year period during the growing season. The mean ET rate for the study period was 6 mm day−1, which is high compared with other marshes with similar vegetation. High ET rates at the marsh may be due to the windy, semi‐arid Mediterranean climate of the region, and the permanently flooded nature of the marsh, which results in very low surface resistance of the vegetation. Crop coefficient (Kc) values for the marsh ranged from 0·73 to 1·18. The mean Kc value over the entire study period was 0·95. The daily Kc values for any given month varied from year to year, and the standard deviation of daily Kc values varied between months. Although several climate variables were undoubtedly responsible for this variation, our analysis revealed that wind direction and the temperature of standing water in the wetland were of particular importance in determining ET rates and Kc values. 

  1. Sum over Histories Representation for Kinetic Sensitivity Analysis: How Chemical Pathways Change When Reaction Rate Coefficients Are Varied

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Shirong; Davis, Michael J.; Skodje, Rex T.

    2015-11-12

    The sensitivity of kinetic observables is analyzed using a newly developed sum over histories representation of chemical kinetics. In the sum over histories representation, the concentrations of the chemical species are decomposed into the sum of probabilities for chemical pathways that follow molecules from reactants to products or intermediates. Unlike static flux methods for reaction path analysis, the sum over histories approach includes the explicit time dependence of the pathway probabilities. Using the sum over histories representation, the sensitivity of an observable with respect to a kinetic parameter such as a rate coefficient is then analyzed in terms of howmore » that parameter affects the chemical pathway probabilities. The method is illustrated for species concentration target functions in H-2 combustion where the rate coefficients are allowed to vary over their associated uncertainty ranges. It is found that large sensitivities are often associated with rate limiting steps along important chemical pathways or by reactions that control the branching of reactive flux« less

  2. BiF(AO+, v’) Radiative Lifetimes and Rate Coefficients for V yields T Transfer and Electronic Quenching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-24

    8217) Radiative Lifetimes and Rate Coefficients for V - T Transfer and Electronic Quenching R. F. HEIDNER Ill, H . HELVAJIAN ,J. S. HOLLOWAY, and J. B...ofoffene. 9. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ia U91FO01NGOGNIAIO AE N DDESIIIA T NR.ASK II.~~~~~~~~ WSPIUIOk:TTMET:. .I epn *~~ h Approsp c...collisions of the metastable NF(a 1 h ) state with ground-state BI? molecules, a chemical pumping scheme made efficient by the large densities of NF(a) that can

  3. Feasibility of estimating cementation rates in a brittle fault zone using Sr/Ca partition coefficients for sedimentary diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, Jafar; Foit, Franklin F.

    2000-04-01

    Cement phases such as calcite or quartz often incorporate trace elements from the parent fluids as they crystallize. Experimental sedimentary diagenesis indicates that trace element partition coefficients reflect rates of cementation. The applicability of these findings to fault zone cementation is examined as we make a preliminary attempt to estimate calcite cementation rate in a brittle fault zone directly from the fault-rock composition data. Samples for this study were collected from the Knoxville outcrop of the Saltville fault in Tennessee. The cementation rates for the fault rock samples range from 1×10 -12 to 3×10 -13 m3/ h per m, in agreement with some experimental rates and the rates reported for samples from the DSDP sites. When applied to a non-responsive pore-system model, these rates result in rapid precipitation sealing indicating the influence exerted by the surface-area/volume ratio of the pore network. We find it feasible to obtain a reasonable range of values for the cementation rate using the trace element partition method. However, the study also indicates the need for relatively accurate values for the trace/carrier element ratio in the fault zone syntectonic pore fluid, and exhumed cement.

  4. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for Southern Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2012-10-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for Southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows to separate colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) by determining NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, that were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and turbid waters, respectively. In situ measurements showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the Southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  5. Absorption coefficients and frequency shifts measurement in the spectral range of 1071.88-1084.62 cm-1 vs. pressure for chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) using tunable CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif

    2013-02-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.

  6. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.

  7. Correction of pathlength amplification in the filter-pad technique for measurements of particulate absorption coefficient in the visible spectral region.

    PubMed

    Stramski, Dariusz; Reynolds, Rick A; Kaczmarek, Sławomir; Uitz, Julia; Zheng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Spectrophotometric measurement of particulate matter retained on filters is the most common and practical method for routine determination of the spectral light absorption coefficient of aquatic particles, ap(λ), at high spectral resolution over a broad spectral range. The use of differing geometrical measurement configurations and large variations in the reported correction for pathlength amplification induced by the particle/filter matrix have hindered adoption of an established measurement protocol. We describe results of dedicated laboratory experiments with a diversity of particulate sample types to examine variation in the pathlength amplification factor for three filter measurement geometries; the filter in the transmittance configuration (T), the filter in the transmittance-reflectance configuration (T-R), and the filter placed inside an integrating sphere (IS). Relationships between optical density measured on suspensions (ODs) and filters (ODf) within the visible portion of the spectrum were evaluated for the formulation of pathlength amplification correction, with power functions providing the best functional representation of the relationship for all three geometries. Whereas the largest uncertainties occur in the T method, the IS method provided the least sample-to-sample variability and the smallest uncertainties in the relationship between ODs and ODf. For six different samples measured with 1 nm resolution within the light wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm, a median error of 7.1% is observed for predicted values of ODs using the IS method. The relationships established for the three filter-pad methods are applicable to historical and ongoing measurements; for future work, the use of the IS method is recommended whenever feasible.

  8. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    PubMed

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  9. Calculation of State Specific Rate Coefficients for Non-Equilibrium Hypersonics Applications: from H(Psi) = E(Psi) to k(T) = A *exp(-E(sub a)/RT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David; Chaban, Galina; Panesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Development of High-Fidelity Physics-Based Models to describe hypersonic flight through the atmospheres of Earth and Mars is underway at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal is to construct chemistry models of the collisional and radiative processes that occur in the bow shock and boundary layers of spacecraft during atmospheric entry that are free of empiricism. In this talk I will discuss our philosophy and describe some of our progress. Topics to be covered include thermochemistry, internal energy relaxation, collisional dissociation and radiative emission and absorption. For this work we start by solving the Schrodinger equation to obtain accurate interaction potentials and radiative properties. Then we invoke classical mechanics to compute state-specific heavy particle collision cross sections and reaction rate coefficients. Finally, phenomenological rate coefficients and relaxation times are determined from master equation solutions.

  10. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    PubMed Central

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites. PMID:28793431

  11. Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways and Rate Coefficients for the Dichlorosilane-Hydrogen and Trichlorosilane-Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Walch, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA Ames Research Center's Integrated Process Team on Device/Process Modeling and Nanotechnology our goal is to create/contribute to a gas-phase chemical database for use in modeling microelectronics devices. In particular, we use ab initio methods to determine chemical reaction pathways and to evaluate reaction rate coefficients. Our initial studies concern reactions involved in the dichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H2--H2) and trichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H-H2) systems. Reactant, saddle point (transition state), and product geometries and their vibrational harmonic frequencies are determined using the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure method with the correlation consistent polarized valence double-zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ). Reaction pathways are constructed by following the imaginary frequency mode of the saddle point to both the reactant and product. Accurate energetics are determined using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Using the data from the electronic structure calculations, reaction rate coefficients are obtained using conventional and variational transition state and RRKM theories.

  12. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    PubMed

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah

    2015-07-08

    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  13. Development of a kinetic model of hydrogen absorption and desorption in magnesium and analysis of the rate-determining step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yuta; Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Mg is promising as a new light-weight and low-cost hydrogen-storage material. We construct a numerical model to represent the hydrogen dynamics on Mg, comprising dissociative adsorption, desorption, bulk diffusion, and chemical reaction. Our calculation shows a good agreement with experimental data for hydrogen absorption and desorption on Mg. Our model clarifies the evolution of the rate-determining processes as absorption and desorption proceed. Furthermore, we investigate the optimal condition and materials design for efficient hydrogen storage in Mg. By properly understanding the rate-determining processes using our model, one can determine the design principle for high-performance hydrogen-storage systems.

  14. New rate coefficients of CS in collision with para- and ortho-H2 and astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Dutrey, Anne

    2018-05-01

    Astronomers use the CS molecule as a gas mass tracer in dense regions of the interstellar medium, either to measure the gas density through multi-line observations or the level of turbulence. This necessarily requires the knowledge of the rates coefficients with the most common colliders in the interstellar medium, He and H2. In the present work, the close coupling collisional rates are computed for the first thirty rotational states of CS in collision with para- and ortho-H2 using a recent rigid rotor potential energy surface. Some radiative transfer calculations, using typical astrophysical conditions, are also performed to test this new set of data and to compare with the existing ones.

  15. On the reliable measurement of specific absorption rates and intrinsic loss parameters in magnetic hyperthermia materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeboer, R. R.; Southern, P.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical application of magnetic hyperthermia, the heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field is used as a cancer treatment. The heating ability of the particles is quantified by the specific absorption rate (SAR), an extrinsic parameter based on the clinical response characteristic of power delivered per unit mass, and by the intrinsic loss parameter (ILP), an intrinsic parameter based on the heating capacity of the material. Even though both the SAR and ILP are widely used as comparative design parameters, they are almost always measured in non-adiabatic systems that make accurate measurements difficult. We present here the results of a systematic review of measurement methods for both SAR and ILP, leading to recommendations for a standardised, simple and reliable method for measurements using non-adiabatic systems. In a representative survey of 50 retrieved datasets taken from published papers, the derived SAR or ILP was found to be more than 5% overestimated in 24% of cases and more than 5% underestimated in 52% of cases.

  16. Assessment of specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the head from a TETRA handset.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter; Khalid, Mohammed; Mann, Simon

    2003-12-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) from a representative TETRA handset have been performed in an anatomically realistic model of the head. TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a modern digital private mobile radio system designed to meet the requirements of professional users, such as the police and fire brigade. The current frequency allocations in the UK are 380-385 MHz and 390-395 MHz for the public sector network. A comprehensive set of calculations of SAR in the head was performed for positions of the handset in front of the face and at both sides of the head. The representative TETRA handset considered. operating at 1 W in normal use, will show compliance with both the ICNIRP occupational and public exposure restrictions. The handset with a monopole antenna operating at 3 W in normal use will show compliance with both the ICNIRP occupational and public exposure restrictions. The handset with a helical antenna operating at 3 W in normal use will show compliance with the ICNIRP occupational exposure restriction but will be over the public exposure restriction by up to approximately 50% if kept in the position of maximum SAR for 6 min continuously.

  17. Rate Coefficient for Collisional Removal of O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) with O Atoms at 240 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejaković, D. A.; Campbell, Z.; Kalogerakis, K. S.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

    2004-12-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration profile is key to understanding of the chemistry and energy flow in the stratosphere and mesosphere. One of the tasks of the SABER instrument in NASA's TIMED mission is to measure water vapor concentration by detecting H2O(ν 2) emission in the 6.8 μ m region. An important source of the H2O(ν 2) emission is the collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited O2: O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) + H2O <-> O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 0) + H2O(ν 2). For reliable interpretation of the SABER data it is crucial to determine rate coefficient for the competing process: O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) + O(3P) -> O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 0) + O(3P) [1]. Laboratory measurements are reported of the rate coefficient for collisional removal of O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) by O(3P) at a temperature of 240 K, relevant to the upper mesosphere. Instead of directly detecting the O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) population, a novel, technically simpler, approach is used in which the v = 1 level of the O2(a1Δ g) state is monitored. With ground-state O2 present, owing to the rapid equilibration of the O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) and O2(a1Δ g, v = 1) populations via the processes O2(a1Δ g, v = 1) + O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 0) <-> O2(a1Δ g, v = 0) + O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1), the information on the O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) kinetics is extracted from the O2(a1Δ g, v = 1) temporal evolution. A two-laser method is employed, in which the pulsed output of the first laser near 285 nm photodissociates ozone to produce atomic oxygen and O2(a1Δ g, v = 1), and the pulsed output of the second laser detects O2(a1Δ g, v = 1) via the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. In the same experiment, rate coefficients for removal of O2(a1Δ g, v = 1) with the atmospherically relevant colliders O2, CO2, and O also were measured at room temperature and 240 K. The measured rate coefficient for O2(X3Σ ^-g, v = 1) removal by O(3P) is in the range 2--3 × 10-12 cm3s-1 at 240 K, compared to the recently measured room temperature value of about 3 × 10

  18. Absolute empirical rate coefficient for the excitation of the 117.6 nm line in C III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, L. D.; Daw, A. N.; Janzen, P. H.; Atkins, N.; Kohl, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    We have measured the absolute cross sections for electron impact excitation (EIE) of C2+ (2s2p 3P° - 2p2 3P) for energies from below threshold to 17 eV above and derived EIE rate coefficients required for astrophysical applications. The uncertainty in the rate coefficient at a typical solar temperature of formation of C2+ is less than ± 6 %. Ions are produced in a 5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, extracted, formed into a beam, and transported to a collision chamber where they collide with electrons from an electron beam inclined at 45 degrees. The beams are modulated and the radiation from the decay of the excited ions at λ 117.6 nm is detected synchronously using an absolutely calibrated optical system that subtends slightly over π steradians. The fractional population of the C2+ metastable state in the incident ion beam has been determined experimentally to be 0.42 ± 0.03 (1.65 σ). At the reported ± 15 % total experimental uncertainty level (1.65 σ), the measured structure and absolute scale of the cross section are in fairly good agreement with 6-term close-coupling R-matrix calculations and 90-term R-matrix with pseudo-states calculations, although some minor differences are seen just above threshold. As density-sensitive line intensity ratios vary by only about a factor of 5 as the density changes by nearly a factor of 100, even a 30 % uncertainty in the excitation rate can lead to a factor of 3 error in density. This work is supported by NASA Supporting Research and Technology grants NAG5- 9516 and NAG5-12863 in Solar and Heliospheric Physics and by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  19. Direct measurements of rate coefficients for thermal decomposition of CF3I using shock—tube ARAS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystrov, N. S.; Emelianov, A. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Yatsenko, P. I.

    2018-05-01

    The kinetics of the dissociation of CF3I behind shock waves was experimentally investigated. The reaction CF3I  +  Ar  →  CF3  +  I  +  Ar was studied at temperatures between 900 and 1250 K and pressures of 2–3 bar. For this purpose, the time profiles of the concentration of atomic iodine were measured using a highly sensitive atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy method at a wavelength of 183.04 nm. From these data, the experimental value of the dissociation rate constant of CF3I was obtained: . We found that the investigated range of pressures and temperatures for the CF3I dissociation lies in the pressure transition region. Based on the Rice-Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus theory, the threshold high and low-pressure rate constants ( and k 0) and falloff curves are calculated for the temperatures of 950–1200 K. As a result of this calculation, the threshold rate constants could be evaluated in the forms: and , and the center broadening factor, which takes into account the contribution of strong and weak collisions in the transition region, is .

  20. Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.

    1958-01-01

    An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.

  1. On the relation between the activation energy for electron attachment reactions and the size of their thermal rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Hotop, H; Ruf, M-W; Kopyra, J; Miller, T M; Fabrikant, I I

    2011-02-14

    Rate coefficients k(T) for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules in many cases exhibit a more or less strong rise with increasing temperature T (the electron temperature T(e) and the molecular temperature T(G) are assumed to be in thermal equilibrium, i.e., T = T(e) = T(G)). This rise is frequently modeled by the Arrhenius equation k(T) = k(A) exp[-E(a)∕(k(B)T)], and an activation energy E(a) is deduced from fits to the experimental data k(T). This behavior reflects the presence of an energy barrier for the anion on its path to the dissociated products. In a recent paper [J. Kopyra, J. Wnorowska, M. Foryś, and I. Szamrej, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 268, 60 (2007)] it was suggested that the size of the rate coefficients for DEA reactions at room temperature exhibits an exponential dependence on the activation energy, i.e., k(E(a); T ≈ 300 K) = k(1) exp[-E(a)∕E(0)]. More recent experimental data for molecules with high barriers [T. M. Miller, J. F. Friedman, L. C. Schaffer, and A. A. Viggiano, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 084302 (2009)] are compatible with such a correlation. We investigate the validity and the possible origin of this dependence by analyzing the results of R-matrix calculations for temperature-dependent rate coefficients of exothermic DEA processes with intermediate barrier toward dissociation. These include results for model systems with systematically varied barrier height as well as results of molecule-specific calculations for CH(3)Cl, CH(3)Br, CF(3)Cl, and CH(2)Cl(2) (activation energies above 0.2 eV) involving appropriate molecular parameters. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical results for the considered class of molecules (halogenated alkanes) supports the idea that the exponential dependence of k(T = 300 K) on the activation energy reflects a general phenomenon associated with Franck-Condon factors for getting from the initial neutral vibrational levels to the dissociating final anion state in a direct DEA process. Cases

  2. Cross sections and rate coefficients for inner-shell excitation of Li-like ions with 6 < Z < 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Kato, T.

    1996-07-01

    Excitation cross sections and rate coefficients by electron impact were calculated for the 1s22s-1s2s2p, 1s22s-1s2s2 and 1s22s-1s2p2 transitions of the Li-like ions (C IV, N V, O VI, Ne VIII, Mg X, Al XI, Si XII, S XIV, Ar XVI, Ca XVIII, Ti XX, Fe XXIV, Ni XXVI, Zn XXVIII, Ge XXX, Se XXXII, Kr XXXIV and Mo XXXX) in the Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange including relativistic effects and configuration interaction. Level energies, mixing coefficients and transition wavelengths and probabilities were also computed. Calculations performed by the 1/Z perturbation theory and Coulomb-Born approximation are compared with the R-matrix method and the distorted-wave approximation were Z is the nuclear charge. Formulae obtained for the angular factors of n-electron atomic system allow one to generalize this method to an arbitrary system of highly charged ions.

  3. Atmospheric reactions of methylcyclohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals: determination of rate coefficients and degradation products.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Bernabé; Ceacero-Vega, Antonio A; Jiménez, Elena; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    As the result of biogenic and anthropogenic activities, large quantities of chemical compounds are emitted into the troposphere. Alkanes, in general, and cycloalkanes are an important chemical class of hydrocarbons found in diesel, jet and gasoline, vehicle exhaust emissions, and ambient air in urban areas. In general, the primary atmospheric fate of organic compounds in the gas phase is the reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The oxidation by Cl atoms has gained importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments, and in the Arctic troposphere. The aim of this paper is to study of the atmospheric reactivity of methylcylohexanes with Cl atoms and OH radicals under atmospheric conditions (in air at room temperature and pressure). Relative kinetic techniques have been used to determine the rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl atoms and OH radicals with methylcyclohexane, cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane, and 1,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane at 298 ± 2 K and 720 ± 5 Torr of air by Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two atmospheric simulation chambers. The products formed in the reaction under atmospheric conditions were investigated using a 200-L Teflon bag and employing the technique of solid-phase microextraction coupled to a GC-MS. The rate coefficients obtained for the reaction of Cl atoms with the studied compounds are the following ones (in units of 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (3.11 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.16), (2.89 ± 0.26), and (2.61 ± 0.42), respectively. For the reactions with OH radicals the determined rate coefficients are (in units of 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): (1.18 ± 0.12), (1.49 ± 0.16), (1.41 ± 0.15), and (1.77 ± 0.23), respectively. The reported error is twice the standard deviation. A detailed

  4. Approximating the nonlinear density dependence of electron transport coefficients and scattering rates across the gas-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, N. A.; Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.

    2018-02-01

    This study reviews the neutral density dependence of electron transport in gases and liquids and develops a method to determine the nonlinear medium density dependence of electron transport coefficients and scattering rates required for modeling transport in the vicinity of gas-liquid interfaces. The method has its foundations in Blanc’s law for gas-mixtures and adapts the theory of Garland et al (2017 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 26) to extract electron transport data across the gas-liquid transition region using known data from the gas and liquid phases only. The method is systematically benchmarked against multi-term Boltzmann equation solutions for Percus-Yevick model liquids. Application to atomic liquids highlights the utility and accuracy of the derived method.

  5. Determination of the thermal rate coefficient, products, and branching ratios for the reaction of O/+/ /D-2/ with N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite measurements are used to determine rate coefficients (RCs) for the following reactions: O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields N2(+) + O (reaction 1), O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields O(+)(S-4) + N2 (reaction 2), and O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields NO(+) + N (reaction 3). Results show the RC for reaction 1 to be 1 (plus 1 or minus 0.5) x 10 to the -10th cu cm per sec, for reaction 2 to be 3 (plus 1 or minus 2) x 10 to the -11th cu cm per sec, and 3 to be less than 5.5 x 10 to the -11th cu cm per sec. It is also found that the reaction of O(+)(D-2) with N2 does not constitute a detectable source of NO(+) ions in the thermosphere.

  6. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  7. Combined acquisition technique (CAT) for neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis at low specific absorption rates (SAR).

    PubMed

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A; Jakob, Peter M; Bartsch, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001). Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.

  8. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    PubMed Central

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001). Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID

  9. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Hooker, S. B.; Bricaud, A.; Gentili, B.; Babin, M.

    2013-02-01

    A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM), has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM) was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM) into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP) through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012) showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97). By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  10. Rate coefficients from quantum and quasi-classical cumulative reaction probabilities for the S(1D) + H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambrina, P. G.; Lara, Manuel; Menéndez, M.; Launay, J.-M.; Aoiz, F. J.

    2012-10-01

    Cumulative reaction probabilities (CRPs) at various total angular momenta have been calculated for the barrierless reaction S(1D) + H2 → SH + H at total energies up to 1.2 eV using three different theoretical approaches: time-independent quantum mechanics (QM), quasiclassical trajectories (QCT), and statistical quasiclassical trajectories (SQCT). The calculations have been carried out on the widely used potential energy surface (PES) by Ho et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 4124 (2002), 10.1063/1.1431280] as well as on the recent PES developed by Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 9213 (2009), 10.1021/jp903790h]. The results show that the differences between these two PES are relatively minor and mostly related to the different topologies of the well. In addition, the agreement between the three theoretical methodologies is good, even for the highest total angular momenta and energies. In particular, the good accordance between the CRPs obtained with dynamical methods (QM and QCT) and the statistical model (SQCT) indicates that the reaction can be considered statistical in the whole range of energies in contrast with the findings for other prototypical barrierless reactions. In addition, total CRPs and rate coefficients in the range of 20-1000 K have been calculated using the QCT and SQCT methods and have been found somewhat smaller than the experimental total removal rates of S(1D).

  11. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE PAGES

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; ...

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  12. Survey on Different Samsung with Nokia Smart Mobile Phones in the Specific Absorption Rate Electrical Field of Head

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Alinejad, Azim; Keramati, Hassan; Bay, Abotaleb; Avazpour, Moayed; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Moradi, Bigard; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The use of smart phones is increasing in the world. This excessive use, especially in the last two decades, has created too much concern on the effects of emitted electromagnetic fields and specific absorption rate on human health. In this descriptive-analytical study of the electric field resulting from smart phones of Samsung and Nokia by portable measuring device, electromagnetic field, Model HI-3603-VDT/VLF, were measured. Then, head absorption rate was calculated in these two mobiles by ICNIRP equation. Finally, the comparison of specific absorption rate, especially between Samsung and Nokia smart phones, was conducted by T-Test statistics analysis. The mean of electric field for Samsung and Nokia smart mobile phones was obtained 1.8 ±0.19 v/m and 2.23±0.39 v/m, respectively, while the range of the electric field was obtained as 1.56-2.21 v/m and 1.69-2.89 v/m for them, respectively. The mean of specific absorption rate in Samsung and Nokia was obtained 0.002 ± 0.0005 W/Kg and 0.0041±0.0013 W/Kg at the frequency of 900 MHz and 0.004±0.001 W/Kg and 0.0062±0.0002 W/Kg at the frequency of 1800 MHz respectively. The ratio of mean electronic field to guidance in the Samsung mobile phone at the frequency of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz was 4.36% and 3.34%, while was 5.62% and 4.31% in the Nokia mobile phone, respectively. The ratio of mean head specific absorption rate in smart mobile phones of Samsung and Nokia in the guidance level at the frequency of 900 was 0.15% and 0.25%, respectively, while was 0.23% and 0.38% at the frequency of 1800 MHz, respectively. The rate of specific absorption of Nokia smart mobile phones at the frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz was significantly higher than Samsung (p value <0.05). Hence, we can say that in a fixed period, health risks of Nokia smart phones is higher than Samsung smart mobile phone. PMID:27157169

  13. Survey on Different Samsung with Nokia Smart Mobile Phones in the Specific Absorption Rate Electrical Field of Head.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Alinejad, Azim; Keramati, Hassan; Bay, Abotaleb; Avazpour, Moayed; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Moradi, Bigard; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-09-01

    The use of smart phones is increasing in the world. This excessive use, especially in the last two decades, has created too much concern on the effects of emitted electromagnetic fields and specific absorption rate on human health. In this descriptive-analytical study of the electric field resulting from smart phones of Samsung and Nokia by portable measuring device, electromagnetic field, Model HI-3603-VDT/VLF, were measured. Then, head absorption rate was calculated in these two mobiles by ICNIRP equation. Finally, the comparison of specific absorption rate, especially between Samsung and Nokia smart phones, was conducted by T-Test statistics analysis. The mean of electric field for Samsung and Nokia smart mobile phones was obtained 1.8 ±0.19 v/m  and 2.23±0.39 v/m , respectively, while the range of the electric field was obtained as 1.56-2.21 v/m and 1.69-2.89 v/m for them, respectively. The mean of specific absorption rate in Samsung and Nokia was obtained 0.002 ± 0.0005 W/Kg and 0.0041±0.0013 W/Kg at the frequency of 900 MHz and 0.004±0.001 W/Kg and 0.0062±0.0002 W/Kg at the frequency of 1800 MHz respectively. The ratio of mean electronic field to guidance in the Samsung mobile phone at the frequency of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz was 4.36% and 3.34%, while was 5.62% and 4.31% in the Nokia mobile phone, respectively. The ratio of mean head specific absorption rate in smart mobile phones of Samsung and Nokia in the guidance level at the frequency of 900 was 0.15% and 0.25%, respectively, while was 0.23 %and 0.38% at the frequency of 1800 MHz, respectively. The rate of specific absorption of Nokia smart  mobile phones at the frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz  was significantly higher than Samsung (p value <0.05). Hence, we can say that in a fixed period, health risks of Nokia smart phones is higher than Samsung smart mobile phone.

  14. Pressure shift coefficient measurements in an RF discharge for Ar 4s[3/2]2—5p[3/2]3 transition with the help of diodelaser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. K.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Lunev, N. N.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties were recently proposed with a possibility to obtain the laser power on the order of hundreds of Watts from a cubic centimeter. To provide high laser efficiency, the pumping radiation has to match the absorption spectrum of the rare gas metastables. To meet this condition a reliable diagnostics of the key parameters of the active medium is required and knowledge of the broadening and shift coefficients for corresponding transitions of rare gases is necessary. In this paper, the diode-laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the pressure shift coefficient for 811.5 nm Ar line. The value of obtained coefficient in pure argon reduced to 300 K is -(2.1 ± 0.1) × 10-10 s-1cm3. In the course of the study the pressure broadening coefficient was also evaluated and found to be (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-10 s-1cm3.

  15. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with (1-/sup 14/C)glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused (3-/sup 3/H)glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation.more » That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery.« less

  16. Measuring the Absorption Rate of CO 2 in Nonaqueous CO 2 -Binding Organic Liquid Solvents with a Wetted-Wall Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, Paul M.; Zheng, Feng; Heldebrant, David J.

    2015-09-17

    The kinetics of the absorption of CO 2 into two nonaqueous CO 2-binding organic liquid (CO 2BOL) solvents were measured at T=35, 45, and 55 °C with a wetted-wall column. Selected CO 2 loadings were run with a so-called “first-generation” CO 2BOL, comprising an independent base and alcohol, and a “second-generation” CO 2BOL, in which the base and alcohol were conjoined. Liquid-film mass-transfer coefficient (k'g) values for both solvents were measured to be comparable to values for monoethanolamine and piperazine aqueous solvents under a comparable driving force, in spite of far higher solution viscosities. An inverse temperature dependence of themore » k'g value was also observed, which suggests that the physical solubility of CO 2 in organic liquids may be making CO 2 mass transfer faster than expected. Aspen Plus software was used to model the kinetic data and compare the CO 2 absorption behavior of nonaqueous solvents with that of aqueous solvent platforms. This work continues our development of the CO2BOL solvents. Previous work established the thermodynamic properties related to CO 2 capture. The present paper quantitatively studies the kinetics of CO 2 capture and develops a rate-based model.« less

  17. C02(nu2)-0 Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental Fort Collins Lidar and SABER Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C. Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(V2) vibrational levels in collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, neither the rate coefficient of this process (k(CO2O)) nor the atomic oxygen concentrations ([O]) in the MLT are well known. The discrepancy between k(CO2O) measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements is of about factor of 2.5. At the same time, the discrepancy between [O] in the MLT measured by different instruments is of the same order of magnitude. In this work we used a synergy of a ground based lidar and satellite infrared radiometer to make a further step in understanding of the physics of the region. In this study we apply the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado for retrieving the product of k(CO2-O) x [O] from the limb radiances in the 15 micron channel measured by the SABER/TIMED instrument for nearly simultaneous common volume measurements of both instruments within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude and +/-10 minutes in time. We derive k(CO2-O) and its possible variation range from the retrieved product by utilizing the [O] values measured by the SABER and other instruments.

  18. Population decay time and distribution of exciton states analyzed by rate equations based on theoretical phononic and electron-collisional rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Kensuke; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Population distributions and transition fluxes of the A exciton in bulk GaN are theoretically analyzed using rate equations of states of the principal quantum number n up to 5 and the continuum. These rate equations consist of the terms of radiative, electron-collisional, and phononic processes. The dependence of the rate coefficients on temperature is revealed on the basis of the collisional-radiative model of hydrogen plasma for the electron-collisional processes and theoretical formulation using Fermi's "golden rule" for the phononic processes. The respective effects of the variations in electron, exciton, and lattice temperatures are exhibited. This analysis is a base of the discussion on nonthermal equilibrium states of carrier-exciton-phonon dynamics. It is found that the exciton dissociation is enhanced even below 150 K mainly by the increase in the lattice temperature. When the thermal-equilibrium temperature increases, the population fluxes between the states of n >1 and the continuum become more dominant. Below 20 K, the severe deviation from the Saha-Boltzmann distribution occurs owing to the interband excitation flux being higher than the excitation flux from the 1 S state. The population decay time of the 1 S state at 300 K is more than ten times longer than the recombination lifetime of excitons with kinetic energy but without the upper levels (n >1 and the continuum). This phenomenon is caused by a shift of population distribution to the upper levels. This phonon-exciton-radiation model gives insights into the limitations of conventional analyses such as the ABC model, the Arrhenius plot, the two-level model (n =1 and the continuum), and the neglect of the upper levels.

  19. A self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jacob T.; Lidster, Richard T.; Cryer, Danny R.; Ramirez, Noelia; Whiting, Fiona C.; Boustead, Graham A.; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Rickard, Andrew R.; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Heard, Dwayne E.; Lewis, Ally C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Hamilton, Jacqui F.; Dillon, Terry J.

    2018-03-01

    Gas-phase rate coefficients are fundamental to understanding atmospheric chemistry, yet experimental data are not available for the oxidation reactions of many of the thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) observed in the troposphere. Here, a new experimental method is reported for the simultaneous study of reactions between multiple different VOCs and OH, the most important daytime atmospheric radical oxidant. This technique is based upon established relative rate concepts but has the advantage of a much higher throughput of target VOCs. By evaluating multiple VOCs in each experiment, and through measurement of the depletion in each VOC after reaction with OH, the OH + VOC reaction rate coefficients can be derived. Results from experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions were in good agreement with the available literature for the reaction of 19 VOCs, prepared in synthetic gas mixtures, with OH. This approach was used to determine a rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with 2,3-dimethylpent-1-ene for the first time; k = 5.7 (±0.3) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In addition, a further seven VOCs had only two, or fewer, individual OH rate coefficient measurements available in the literature. The results from this work were in good agreement with those measurements. A similar dataset, at an elevated temperature of 323 (±10) K, was used to determine new OH rate coefficients for 12 aromatic, 5 alkane, 5 alkene and 3 monoterpene VOC + OH reactions. In OH relative reactivity experiments that used ambient air at the University of York, a large number of different VOCs were observed, of which 23 were positively identified. Due to difficulties with detection limits and fully resolving peaks, only 19 OH rate coefficients were derived from these ambient air samples, including 10 reactions for which data were previously unavailable at the elevated reaction temperature of T = 323 (±10) K.

  20. Estimation of absorption rate constant (ka) following oral administration by Wagner-Nelson, Loo-Riegelman, and statistical moments in the presence of a secondary peak.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Wagner-Nelson, Loo-Reigelman, and statistical moments methods in determining the absorption rate constant(s) in the presence of a secondary peak. These methods were also evaluated when there were two absorption rates without a secondary peak. Different sets of plasma concentration versus time data for a hypothetical drug following one or two compartment models were generated by simulation. The true ka was compared with the ka estimated by Wagner-Nelson, Loo-Riegelman and statistical moments methods. The results of this study indicate that Wagner-Nelson, Loo-Riegelman and statistical moments methods may not be used for the estimation of absorption rate constants in the presence of a secondary peak or when absorption takes place with two absorption rates.

  1. CH3CO + O2 + M (M = He, N2) Reaction Rate Coefficient Measurements and Implications for the OH Radical Product Yield.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Karafas, Emmanuel S; Gierczak, Tomasz; Burkholder, James B

    2015-07-16

    The gas-phase CH3CO + O2 reaction is known to proceed via a chemical activation mechanism leading to the formation of OH and CH3C(O)OO radicals via bimolecular and termolecular reactive channels, respectively. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the CH3CO + O2 reaction were measured over a range of temperature (241-373 K) and pressure (0.009-600 Torr) with He and N2 as the bath gas and used to characterize the bi- and ter-molecular reaction channels. Three independent experimental methods (pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF), pulsed laser photolysis-cavity ring-down spectroscopy (PLP-CRDS), and a very low-pressure reactor (VLPR)) were used to characterize k(T,M). PLP-LIF was the primary method used to measure k(T,M) in the high-pressure regime under pseudo-first-order conditions. CH3CO was produced by PLP, and LIF was used to monitor the OH radical bimolecular channel reaction product. CRDS, a complementary high-pressure method, measured k(295 K,M) over the pressure range 25-600 Torr (He) by monitoring the temporal CH3CO radical absorption following its production via PLP in the presence of excess O2. The VLPR technique was used in a relative rate mode to measure k(296 K,M) in the low-pressure regime (9-32 mTorr) with CH3CO + Cl2 used as the reference reaction. A kinetic mechanism analysis of the combined kinetic data set yielded a zero pressure limit rate coefficient, kint(T), of (6.4 ± 4) × 10(-14) exp((820 ± 150)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (with kint(296 K) measured to be (9.94 ± 1.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)), k0(T) = (7.39 ± 0.3) × 10(-30) (T/300)(-2.2±0.3) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1), and k∞(T) = (4.88 ± 0.05) × 10(-12) (T/300)(-0.85±0.07) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with Fc = 0.8 and M = N2. A He/N2 collision efficiency ratio of 0.60 ± 0.05 was determined. The phenomenological kinetic results were used to define the pressure and temperature dependence of the OH radical yield in the CH3CO + O2 reaction. The

  2. OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Infrared Spectrum, and Global Warming Potential of (CF3)2CFCH═CHF (HFO-1438ezy(E)).

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B

    2016-08-25

    Rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical + (E)-(CF3)2CFCH═CHF ((E)-1,3,4,4,4-pentafluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene, HFO-1438ezy(E)) gas-phase reaction were measured using pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) between 214 and 380 K and 50 and 450 Torr (He or N2 bath gas) and with a relative rate method at 296 K between 100 and 400 Torr (synthetic air). Over the range of pressures included in this study, no pressure dependence in k(T) was observed. k(296 K) obtained using the two techniques agreed to within ∼3% with (3.26 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (2σ absolute uncertainty) obtained using the PLP-LIF technique. k(T) displayed non-Arrhenius behavior that is reproduced by (7.34 ± 0.30) × 10(-19)T(2) exp[(481 ± 10)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). With respect to OH reactive loss, the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1438ezy(E) is estimated to be ∼36 days and HFO-1438ezy(E) is considered a very short-lived substance (VSLS) (the actual lifetime will depend on the time and location of the HFO-1438ezy(E) emission). On the basis of the HFO-1438ezy(E) infrared absorption spectrum measured in this work and its estimated lifetime, a radiative efficiency of 0.306 W m(-2) ppb(-1) (well-mixed gas) was calculated and its 100-year time-horizon global warming potential, GWP100, was estimated to be 8.6. CF3CFO, HC(O)F, and CF2O were identified using infrared spectroscopy as stable end products in the oxidation of HFO-1438ezy(E) in the presence of O2. Two additional fluorinated products were observed and theoretical calculations of the infrared spectra of likely degradation products are presented. The photochemical ozone creation potential of HFO-1438ezy(E) was estimated to be ∼2.15.

  3. Thermal Rate Coefficients and Kinetic Isotope Effects for the Reaction OH + CH4 → H2O + CH3 on an ab Initio-Based Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-15

    Thermal rate coefficients for the title reaction and its various isotopologues are computed using a tunneling-corrected transition-state theory on a global potential energy surface recently developed by fitting a large number of high-level ab initio points. The calculated rate coefficients are found to agree well with the measured ones in a wide temperature range, validating the accuracy of the potential energy surface. Strong non-Arrhenius effects are found at low temperatures. In addition, the calculations reproduced the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects. These results confirm the strong influence of tunneling to this heavy-light-heavy hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  4. The effect of N2/+/ recombination on the aeronomic determination of the charge exchange rate coefficient of O/+//2D/ with N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Orsini, N.

    1978-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer (AE) data are reexamined in the light of new laboratory measurements of the N2(+) recombination rate coefficient alpha. The new measurements support earlier measurements which yielded values of alpha significantly lower than the AE values. It is found that the values for alpha determined from the satellite data can be reconciled with the laboratory measurements, if the charge exchange rate coefficient for O(+)(2D) with N2 is less than one-quarter of that derived in the laboratory by Rutherford and Vroom (1971).

  5. Variable food absorption by Antarctic krill: Relationships between diet, egestion rate and the composition and sinking rates of their fecal pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Schmidt, K.; Fielding, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Geissler, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of food processing by zooplankton affects both their energy budgets and the biogeochemical fate of their fecal pellets. We sampled 40 schools of krill across the Scotia Sea during spring, summer and autumn and found that in all 3 seasons, every aspect of their absorption and defecation varied greatly. The C content of fecal pellets varied from 0.85% to 29% of their dry mass (median 9.8%) and C egestion rates varied 75-fold. C:N mass ratios of pellets ranged from 4.9 to 13.2 (median 7.8), higher than values of 3.9 in the krill and 5.4 in their food, pointing to enhanced uptake of N. Pellet sinking rates equated to 27-1218 m d -1 (median 304 m d -1), being governed mainly by pellet diameter (80-600 μm, mean 183 μm) and density (1.038-1.391 g cm -3, mean 1.121 g cm -3). Pellets showed little loss of C or N in filtered seawater over the first 2 days and were physically robust. When feeding rates were low, slow gut passage time and high absorption efficiency resulted in low egestion rates of pellets that were low in C and N content. These pellets were compact, dense and fast-sinking. Conversely, in good feeding conditions much food tended to pass quickly through the gut and was not efficiently absorbed, producing C and N-rich, slow-sinking pellets. Such "superfluous feeding" probably maximises the absolute rates of nutrient absorption. Food composition was also important: diatom-rich diets depressed the C content of the pellets but increased their sinking rates, likely due to silica ballasting. So depending on how krill process food, their pellets could represent both vehicles for rapid export and slow sinking, C and N-rich food sources for pelagic scavengers. C egestion rates by krill averaged 3.4% of summer primary production (and ingestion rates would be 2-10-fold higher than this) so whatever the fate of the pellets, krill are an important re-packager within the food web. While salp pellets tend to sink faster than those of krill, it is the latter

  6. Effect of adrenaline and alpha-agonists on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zocchi, L; Raffaini, A; Agostoni, E

    1997-05-01

    Indirect evidence supporting a solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits has recently been provided; moreover, the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline has been found to increase this absorption. In this study the effect of adrenaline and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists on net rate of liquid absorption (Jnet) from albumin Ringer hydrothoraces of various sizes has been determined in anaesthetized rabbits. In hydrothoraces with adrenaline (5 x 10(-6) M) the relationship between Jnet and volume of liquid injected was displaced upwards by 0.09 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P < 0.01). This displacement did not occur with lower adrenaline concentrations or after pretreatment with the beta-blocker propranolol. Hence, this increase in Jnet is mediated by stimulation of beta-receptors. It seems to be caused by an increase in solute-coupled liquid absorption, since beta-agonists inhibit lymphatic activity while, at relatively high concentrations, they may increase active transport. Conversely, the strong stimulation of lymphatic alpha-receptors that should occur with adrenaline after beta-blockade may fail to increase lymphatic drainage, because it has been shown that the increase in contraction frequency of lymphatics may be balanced by the decrease in their stroke volume. Arterial blood pressure during the hydrothoraces with adrenaline was unchanged. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 2-agonist clonidine (5 x 10(-6) M; a less potent agent than adrenaline) the slope of the relationship between Jnet and volume injected increased by 26% (P < 0.01), while its origin did not change. This increase in slope did not occur with a lower clonidine concentration or after pretreatment with the alpha-blocker phentolamine. Hence, it is caused by stimulation of alpha 2-receptors, which probably lead to an increase in lymphatic drainage related to liquid load. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine (5 x 10(-6) or 10(-7) M) Jnet was

  7. A study on transmission characteristics and specific absorption rate using impedance-matched electrodes for various human body communication.

    PubMed

    Machida, Yuta; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    Human body communication (HBC) is a new communication technology that has presented potential applications in health care and elderly support systems in recent years. In this study, which is focused on a wearable transmitter and receiver for HBC in a body area network (BAN), we performed electromagnetic field analysis and simulation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with various models of the human body. Further we redesigned a number of impedance-matched electrodes to allow transmission without stubs or transformers. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and transmission characteristics S21 of these electrode structures were compared for several models.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values formore » carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)« less

  9. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0% body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0% BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0% BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% and 6.0% BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57% BW/day.

  10. Absorption rates and free radical scavenging values of vitamin C-lipid metabolites in human lymphoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin S; Perez, Pedro P

    2007-10-01

    In this study we investigated the cellular absorption rates, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites. The absorption was measured in a human lymphoblastic cell line using a spectrophotometric technique. Cellular vitamin C levels in the human lymphoblastic H9 cell line were measured using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine spectrophotometric technique. Free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites was measured by the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine. Vitamin C-lipid metabolite scavenging of peroxyl radical oxygen reactive species (ORAC) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compared to ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA), and calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C), vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) were more rapidly absorbed by the H9 human T-lymphocytes. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) also reduced pesticide-induced T-lymphocyte aggregation by 84%, while calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C) reduced aggregation by only 34%. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) demonstrated free radical scavenging activity of nearly 100% reduction of DPPH at 20 microg/ml and oxygen radical scavenging of over 1200 micro Trolox equivalents per gram. These data demonstrate that the vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are more rapidly taken-up and absorbed by cells than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C. This increased rate of absorption correlates with an increased protection of the T-lymphocytes from pesticide toxicities. Further, vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are a potent antioxidant and have significant free radical scavenging capabilities.

  11. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  12. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  13. Dual-energy X-ray analysis using synchrotron computed tomography at 35 and 60 keV for the estimation of photon interaction coefficients describing attenuation and energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Stewart; Schleich, Nanette

    2015-05-01

    A novel method for dual-energy X-ray analysis (DEXA) is tested using measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient μ. The key is a mathematical model that describes elemental cross sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The model is combined with the mixture rule to describe μ for materials, using the same polynomial coefficients. Materials are characterized by their electron density Ne and statistical moments Rk describing their distribution of elements, analogous to the concept of effective atomic number. In an experiment with materials of known density and composition, measurements of μ are written as a system of linear simultaneous equations, which is solved for the polynomial coefficients. DEXA itself involves computed tomography (CT) scans at two energies to provide a system of non-linear simultaneous equations that are solved for Ne and the fourth statistical moment R4. Results are presented for phantoms containing dilute salt solutions and for a biological specimen. The experiment identifies 1% systematic errors in the CT measurements, arising from third-harmonic radiation, and 20-30% noise, which is reduced to 3-5% by pre-processing with the median filter and careful choice of reconstruction parameters. DEXA accuracy is quantified for the phantom as the mean absolute differences for Ne and R4: 0.8% and 1.0% for soft tissue and 1.2% and 0.8% for bone-like samples, respectively. The DEXA results for the biological specimen are combined with model coefficients obtained from the tabulations to predict μ and the mass energy absorption coefficient at energies of 10 keV to 20 MeV.

  14. Seasonal variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter and relationships among fluorescent components, absorption coefficients and dissolved organic carbon in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Zhuo; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The absorption coefficient and fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) in spring and autumn were analyzed in this study. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three components, namely, humic-like C1, tyrosine-like C2 and tryptophan-like C3. The seasonal variations in the vertical patterns of the CDOM absorption coefficient (aCDOM(355)) and fluorescent components were influenced by the seasonal water mass except for the terrestrial input. The relationship between aCDOM(355) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) was attributed to their own mixing behavior. The correlation of the fluorescent components with DOC was disturbed by other non-conservative processes during the export of CDOM to the open ocean. The different chemical compositions and origins of DOC and CDOM led to variability in carbon-specific CDOM absorption (a*CDOM(355)) and fluorescent component ratios (ICn/IC1). The relationship between a*CDOM(355) and aCDOM(355) demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the BS, but not in the ECS, highly contributed non-absorbing DOC to the total DOC concentration. The photodegradation of dominant terrestrially derived CDOM in the ECS contributed to the positive relationship between a*CDOM(355) and ICn/IC1. By contrast, the abundant autochthonous CDOM in the YS was negatively correlated with ICn/IC1 in autumn. Our established box models showed that water exchange is a potentially important source of the aromatic components in the BS, YS, and ECS. Hence, the seasonal variations in water exchange might contribute to the variability of CDOM chemical composition in the BS, YS, and ECS, and significantly influence the structure and function of their ecosystems.

  15. Determination of the photolysis rate coefficient of monochlorodimethyl sulfide (MClDMS) in the atmosphere and its implications for the enhancement of SO2 production from the DMS + Cl2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Copeland, G; Lee, E P F; Williams, R G; Archibald, A T; Shallcross, D E; Dyke, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the photolysis rate coefficient of CH3SCH2Cl (MClDMS) in the lower atmosphere has been determined and has been used in a marine boundary layer (MBL) box model to determine the enhancement of SO2 production arising from the reaction DMS + Cl2. Absorption cross sections measured in the 28000-34000 cm(-1) region have been used to determine photolysis rate coefficients of MClDMS in the troposphere at 10 solar zenith angles (SZAs). These have been used to determine the lifetimes of MClDMS in the troposphere. At 0° SZA, a photolysis lifetime of 3-4 h has been obtained. The results show that the photolysis lifetime of MClDMS is significantly smaller than the lifetimes with respect to reaction with OH (≈ 4.6 days) and with Cl atoms (≈ 1.2 days). It has also been shown, using experimentally derived dissociation energies with supporting quantum-chemical calculations, that the dominant photodissocation route of MClDMS is dissociation of the C-S bond to give CH3S and CH2Cl. MBL box modeling calculations show that buildup of MClDMS at night from the Cl2 + DMS reaction leads to enhanced SO2 production during the day. The extra SO2 arises from photolysis of MClDMS to give CH3S and CH2Cl, followed by subsequent oxidation of CH3S.

  16. High Repetition Rate and Frequency Stabilized Ho:YLF Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, M.; Petzar, Pau; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    High repetition rate operation of an injection seeded Ho:YLF laser has been demonstrated. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy reaches 5.8mJ and the optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W.

  17. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  18. Cross sections and rate coefficients for excitation of Δn = 1 transitions in Li-like ions with 6 < Z < 42.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Kato, T.

    Excitation cross sections and rate coefficients by electron impact were calculated for the 1s22s - 1s2s2p, 1s22s - 1s2s2 and 1s22s - 1s2p2 transitions of the Li-like ions (C IV, N V, O VI, Ne VIII, Mg X, Al XI, Si XII, S XIV, Ar XVI, Ca XVIII, Ti XX, Fe XXIV, Ni XXVI, Zn XXVIII, Ge XXX, Se XXXII, Kr XXXIIV and Mo XXXX) by a Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange and including relativistic effects and configuration interactions. Level energies, mixing coefficients and transition wavelengths and probabilities were also computed.

  19. Investigation of the Maximum Spin-Up Coefficients of Friction Obtained During Tests of a Landing Gear Having a Static-Load Rating of 20,000 Pounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, Sidney A.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made at the Langley landing loads track to obtain data on the maximum spin-up coefficients of friction developed by a landing gear having a static-load rating of 20,000 pounds. The forward speeds ranged from 0 to approximately 180 feet per second and the sinking speeds, from 2.7 feet per second to 9.4 feet per second. The results indicated the variation of the maximum spin-up coefficient of friction with forward speed and vertical load. Data obtained during this investigation are also compared with some results previously obtained for nonrolling tires to show the effect of forward speed.

  20. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  1. Extreme learning machine: a new alternative for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Li, Hao; Tang, Xindong; Zhang, Xinyu; Lin, Fan; Cheng, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    Heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial indicators for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, wasting too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we previously used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to develop precise knowledge-based models for predicting the heat collection rates and heat loss coefficients of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters, setting the properties measured by "portable test instruments" as the independent variables. A robust software for determination was also developed. However, in previous results, the prediction accuracy of heat loss coefficients can still be improved compared to those of heat collection rates. Also, in practical applications, even a small reduction in root mean square errors (RMSEs) can sometimes significantly improve the evaluation and business processes. As a further study, in this short report, we show that using a novel and fast machine learning algorithm-extreme learning machine can generate better predicted results for heat loss coefficient, which reduces the average RMSEs to 0.67 in testing.

  2. Heating rates in furnace atomic absorption using the L'vov platform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koirtyohann, S.R.; Giddings, R.C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rate profiles for the furnace tube wall, the furnace atmosphere, and a L'vov platform were established for a range of conditions in a cyclically heated graphite atomizer. The tube wall profile was made by direct observation with a recording optical pyrometer. The sodium line reversal method was used to establish the heating rate of the furnace atmosphere, and appearance temperatures for a series metals of differing volatility was used to establish platform profiles. The tube wall heating rate was nearly linear at 2240??C s- until the desired temperature was reached after which the temperature remained constant. The furnace atmosphere reached a given temperature 0.2-0.4 s later than the tube wall through most of the atomize cycle. The platform lagged the tube wall 0.5-0.8 s. Under typical operating conditions the furnace atmosphere was 100-200??C cooler than the tube wall and at nearly constant temperature when the analyte vaporized from the platform. The L'vov platform causes the cyclically heated commercial furnace to approximate the behavior of a constant temperature furnace during atomization. ?? 1984.

  3. Development of a carbonate absorption-based process for post-combustion CO2 capture: The role of biocatalyst to promote CO2 absorption rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Ye, X.; Zhang, Z.; Khodayari, A.; Djukadi, T.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is described. IVCAP employs potassium carbonate (PC) as a solvent, uses waste or low quality steam from the power plant for CO2 stripping, and employs a biocatalyst, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, for promoting the CO2 absorption into PC solution. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the activity of CA enzyme mixed in PC solutions in a stirred tank reactor system under various temperatures, CA dosages, CO2 loadings, CO2 partial pressures, and the presence of major flue gas contaminants. It was demonstrated that CA enzyme is an effective biocatalyst for CO2 absorption under IVCAP conditions. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre.

  5. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T V; Olsen, D R; Skretting, A

    1997-08-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm2 h-1, at the cost of significantly lower Rl sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the Rl sensitivity.

  6. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  7. Evaluation of the difference in the rate coefficients of F2 + NOx (x = 1 or 2) → F + FNOx by the stereochemical arrangement using the density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Satomi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hori, Masaru

    2015-02-26

    The rate coefficient of F2 + NO → F + FNO is 2 to 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of F2 + NO2 → F + FNO2 even though bond energies of FNO and FNO2 only differ by ∼0.2 eV. To understand the cause of having different rate coefficients of these two reactions, the change in total energies was calculated by varying the stereochemical arrangement of F2 with respect to NOx (x = 1 or 2) by the density functional theory (DFT), using CAM-B3LYP/6-311 G+(d) in the Gaussian program. The permitted approaching angle between the x-axis and the plane consisting of O, N, F, and ϕ plays a key role to restrict the reaction of NO2 and F2 compared to the reaction of NO and F2. This restriction in the reaction space is considered to be the main cause of different rate coefficients depending on the selection of x = 1 or 2 of the reaction of F2 + NOx → F + FNOx, which was also confirmed by the difference in Si etch rate using the F formed by those reactions.

  8. Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

    2010-08-01

    A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate ofmore » the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.« less

  9. Enhancement of specific absorption rate in lossy dielectric objects using a slab of left-handed material.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Cui, Tie Jun

    2005-12-01

    An enhancement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside a lossy dielectric object has been investigated theoretically based on a slab of left-handed medium (LHM). In order to make an accurate analysis of SAR distribution, a proper Green's function involved in the LHM slab is proposed, from which an integral equation for the electric field inside the dielectric object is derived. Such an integral equation has been solved accurately and efficiently using the conjugate gradient method and the fast Fourier transform. We have made a lot of numerical experiments on the SAR distributions inside the dielectric object excited by a line source with and without the LHM slab. Numerical experiments show that SAR can be enhanced tremendously when the LHM slab is involved due to the proper usage of strong surface waves, which will be helpful in the potential biomedical applications for hyperthermia. The physical insight for such a phenomenon has also been discussed.

  10. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2–5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20–40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110–120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99–164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (<250 Oe). This may extend MNP hyperthermia therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue. PMID:25825545

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2-5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20-40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110-120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99-164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (<250 Oe). This may extend MNP hyperthermia therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy.

    PubMed

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-03-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2-5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe 2 O 3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20-40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110-120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99-164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (<250 Oe). This may extend MNP hyperthermia therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue.

  14. Communication: Rigorous quantum dynamics of O + O{sub 2} exchange reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface substantiate the negative temperature dependence of rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yaqin; Sun, Zhigang, E-mail: zsun@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Center for Advanced Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026

    2014-08-28

    The kinetics and dynamics of several O + O{sub 2} isotope exchange reactions have been investigated on a recently determined accurate global O{sub 3} potential energy surface using a time-dependent wave packet method. The agreement between calculated and measured rate coefficients is significantly improved over previous work. More importantly, the experimentally observed negative temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is for the first time rigorously reproduced theoretically. This negative temperature dependence can be attributed to the absence in the new potential energy surface of a submerged “reef” structure, which was present in all previous potential energy surfaces. In addition, contributionsmore » of rotational excited states of the diatomic reactant further accentuate the negative temperature dependence.« less

  15. Global minimum profile error (GMPE) - a least-squares-based approach for extracting macroscopic rate coefficients for complex gas-phase chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K

    2018-01-03

    Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.

  16. An Experimental and Master Equation Study of the Kinetics of OH/OD + SO2: The Limiting High-Pressure Rate Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Mark A; Salter, Robert J; Heard, Dwayne E; Seakins, Paul W

    2017-05-04

    The kinetics of the reaction OH/OD + SO 2 were studied using a laser flash photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Evidence for two-photon photolysis of SO 2 at 248 nm is presented and quantified, and which appears to have been evident to some extent in most previous photolysis studies, potentially leading to values for the rate coefficient k 1 that are too large. The kinetics of the reaction OH(v = 0) + SO 2 (T = 295 K, p = 25-300 torr) were measured under conditions where SO 2 photolysis was taken into account. These results, together with literature data, were modeled using a master equation analysis. This analysis highlighted problems with the literature data: the rate coefficients derived from flash photolysis data were generally too high and from the flow tube data too low. Our best estimate of the high-pressure limiting rate coefficient k 1 ∞ was obtained from selected data and gives a value of (7.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , which is lower than that recommended in the literature. A parametrized form of k 1 ([N 2 ],T) is provided. The OD(v = 0) + SO 2 (T = 295 K, p = 25-300 torr) data are reported for the first time, and master equation analysis reinforces our assignment of k 1 ∞ .

  17. High absorption coefficients of the CuSb(Se,Te)2 and CuBi(S,Se)2 alloys enable high-efficient 100 nm thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the band-gap energies Eg of CuSb(Se,Te)2 and CuBi(S,Se)2 can be optimized for high energy conversion in very thin photovoltaic devices, and that the alloys then exhibit excellent optical properties, especially for tellurium rich CuSb(Se1-xTex)2. This is explained by multi-valley band structure with flat energy dispersions, mainly due to the localized character of the Sb/Bi p-like conduction band states. Still the effective electron mass is reasonable small: mc ≈ 0.25m0 for CuSbTe2. The absorption coefficient α(ω) for CuSb(Se1-xTex)2 is at ħω = Eg + 1 eV as much as 5-7 times larger than α(ω) for traditional thin-film absorber materials. Auger recombination does limit the efficiency if the carrier concentration becomes too high, and this effect needs to be suppressed. However with high absorptivity, the alloys can be utilized for extremely thin inorganic solar cells with the maximum efficiency ηmax ≈ 25% even for film thicknesses d ≈ 50 - 150 nm, and the efficiency increases to ˜30% if the Auger effect is diminished.

  18. Measurements of the Coefficient of Restitution of Quartz Sand on Basalt: Implications for Abrasion Rates on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, M.; Bridges, N. T.; Benzit, M.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the rates at which rocks abrade from the impact of saltating sand provides important input into estimating the age and degree of modification of arid surfaces on Earth and Mars. Previous work has relied on measuring mass loss rates in the field and the laboratory. The susceptibility of rocks and other natural materials has been quantified on a relative scale from laboratory studies.

  19. Collisional rate coefficients of C3H2 and the determination of physical conditions in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, L. W.; Green, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    Collisional excitation rates for C3H2, calculated using the coupled states approximation at temperatures of 10-30 K, are presented. C3H2 produces a number of spectral line pairs whose members are close together in frequency but arise from levels with different excitation energies. The rates are used in statistical equilibrium calculations to illustrate the excitation properties and density-dependent behavior of various C3H2 line ratios.

  20. Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Plasmas: Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for L-Shell Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Bartsch, T.; Brandau, C.; Chen, M. H.; Grieser, M.; Gwinner, G.; Hoffknecht, A.; Kahn, S. M.; Linkemann, J.

    2000-01-01

    Iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII to Fe XXIV) play an important role in determining the line emission and thermal and ionization structures of photoionized gases. Existing uncertainties in the theoretical low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for these ions significantly affects our ability to model and interpret observations of photoionized plasmas. To help address this issue, we have initiated a laboratory program to produce reliable low temperature DR rates. Here, we present some of our recent results and discuss some of their astrophysical implications.

  1. Effect of coefficient of viscosity and ambient temperature on the flow rate of drug solutions in infusion pumps.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    FOLFOX6 and FOLFIRI regimens are often selected as the first- or second-line treatment for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. Patients are now able to undergo at-home treatment by using a portable disposable infusion pump (SUREFUSER(®)A) for continuous intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The duration of continuous 5-FU infusion is normally set at an average of 46 h, but large variations in the duration of infusion are observed. The relationship between the total volume of the drug solution in SUREFUSER(®)A and the duration of infusion was analyzed by regression analysis. In addition, multiple regression analysis of the total volume of the drug solution, dummy variables for temperature, and duration of infusion was carried out. The duration of infusion was affected by the coefficient of viscosity of the drug solution and the ambient temperature. The composition of the drug solutions and the ambient temperature must be considered to ensure correct duration of continuous infusion.

  2. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film.

  3. A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF MASS TRANSFER RATE COEFFICIENTS WITH APPLICATION TO PURGING AND BATCH EXPERIMENTS. (R825825)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding o...

  4. Transfer coefficients for L-valine and the rate of incorporation of L-(1-/sup 14/C) valine into proteins in normal adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kirikae, M.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    An autoradiographic method for the measurement of the rate of valine incorporation into brain proteins is described. The transfer coefficients for valine into and out of the brain and the rate of valine incorporation into normal rat brain proteins are given. The valine incorporation and the transfer constants of valine between different biological compartments are provided for 14 gray matter and 2 white matter structures of an adult rat brain. The rate of valine incorporation varies between 0.52 +/- 0.19 nmol/g/min in white matter and 1.94 +/- 0.47 in inferior colliculus (gray matter). Generally, the rate of valine incorporation ismore » about three to four times higher in the gray matter than in the white matter structures.« less

  5. Rate Coefficient for the (4)Heμ + CH4 Reaction at 500 K: Comparison between Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Donald J; Fleming, Donald G; Li, Yongle; Li, Jun; Suleimanov, Yury V; Guo, Hua

    2016-03-03

    The rate constant for the H atom abstraction reaction from methane by the muonic helium atom, Heμ + CH4 → HeμH + CH3, is reported at 500 K and compared with theory, providing an important test of both the potential energy surface (PES) and reaction rate theory for the prototypical polyatomic CH5 reaction system. The theory used to characterize this reaction includes both variational transition-state (CVT/μOMT) theory (VTST) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations on a recently developed PES, which are compared as well with earlier calculations on different PESs for the H, D, and Mu + CH4 reactions, the latter, in particular, providing for a variation in atomic mass by a factor of 36. Though rigorous quantum calculations have been carried out for the H + CH4 reaction, these have not yet been extended to the isotopologues of this reaction (in contrast to H3), so it is important to provide tests of less rigorous theories in comparison with kinetic isotope effects measured by experiment. In this regard, the agreement between the VTST and RPMD calculations and experiment for the rate constant of the Heμ + CH4 reaction at 500 K is excellent, within 10% in both cases, which overlaps with experimental error.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Flow Rate on Friction Coefficient and Surface Roughness of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steel Using Arc Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, Esah; Ourdjini, Ali; Ali, Mubarak; Akhter, Parvez; Hj. Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi; Abdul Hamid, Mansor

    In the present study, the effect of various N2 gas flow rates on friction coefficient and surface roughness of TiN-coated D2 tool steel was examined by a commercially available cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD) technique. A Pin-on-Disc test was carried out to study the Coefficient of friction (COF) versus sliding distance. A surface roughness tester measured the surface roughness parameters. The minimum values for the COF and surface roughness were recorded at a N2 gas flow rate of 200 sccm. The increase in the COF and surface roughness at a N2 gas flow rate of 100 sccm was mainly attributed to an increase in both size and number of titanium particles, whereas the increase at 300 sccm was attributed to a larger number of growth defects generated during the coating process. These ideas make it possible to optimize the coating properties as a function of N2 gas flow rate for specific applications, e.g. cutting tools for automobiles, aircraft, and various mechanical parts.

  7. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  8. Structures for attaching or sealing a space between components having different coefficients or rates of thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Pecchioli, Mario

    2005-06-28

    A structure for attaching together or sealing a space between a first component and a second component that have different rates or amounts of dimensional change upon being exposed to temperatures other than ambient temperature. The structure comprises a first attachment structure associated with the first component that slidably engages a second attachment structure associated with the second component, thereby allowing for an independent floating movement of the second component relative to the first component. The structure can comprise split rings, laminar rings, or multiple split rings.

  9. Poster - Thur Eve - 13: Quantifying specific absorption rate of shielded RF coils through electromagnetic simulations for 7-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, J-G; Gilbert, K M; Abou-Khousa, M; Menon, R S

    2012-07-01

    Ultra-high field MRI has many advantages such as increasing spatial resolution and exploiting contrast never before seen in-vivo. This contrast has been shown to be beneficial for many applications such as monitoring early and late effect to radiation therapy and transient changes during disease to name a few. However, at higher field strengths the RF wave, needed to for transmitting and receiving signal, approaches that of the head. This leads to constructive and deconstructive interference and a non -uniform flip angle over the volume being imaged. A transmit or transceive RF surface coil arrays is currently a method of choice to overcome this problem; however, mutual inductance between elements poses a significant challenge for the designer. A method to decouple elements in such an array is by using circumferential shielding; however, the potential benefits and/or disadvantages have not been investigated. This abstract primarily focuses on understanding power deposition - measured through Specific Absorption Rate - in the sample using circumferentially shielded RF coils. Various geometries of circumferentially shielded coils are explored to determine the behaviour of shield width and its effect on required transmit power and power deposition to the sample. Our results indicate that there is an optimization on shield width depending on the imaging depth. Additionally, the circumferential shield focuses the field more than unshielded coils, meaning that slight SAR may even be lower for circumferential shielded RF coils in array. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  11. Multimodal Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Unusually Enhanced Specific Absorption Rate for Synergetic Cancer Therapeutics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Nanasaheb D; Bohara, Raghvendra A; Malgras, Victor; Tofail, Syed A M; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-06-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy frequently face trade off between a high magnetization saturation and their good colloidal stability, high specific absorption rate (SAR), and most importantly biological compatibility. This necessitates the development of new nanomaterials, as MFH and MRI are considered to be one of the most promising combined noninvasive treatments. In the present study, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) SPMNPs for efficient cancer hyperthermia therapy and MRI application. The superparamagnetic nanomaterial revealed excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility. A high SAR of 390 W/g was observed due to higher colloidal stability leading to an increased Brownian and Neel's spin relaxation. Cell viability of PEG capped nanoparticles is up to 80% on different cell lines tested rigorously using different methods. PEG coating provided excellent hemocompatibility to human red blood cells as PEG functionalized SPMNPs reduced hemolysis efficiently compared to its uncoated counterpart. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia of SPMNPs resulted in cancer cell death up to 80%. Additionally, improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the PEG capped La1-xSrxMnO3 formulation in aqueous medium compared to the bare LSMO. Taken together, PEG capped SPMNPs can be useful for diagnosis, efficient magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and multimodal cancer treatment as the amphiphilicity of PEG can easily be utilized to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs.

  12. Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

    2009-05-01

    In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the current density and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue is analyzed by the transmission line modeling method, and the current density and SAR as a function of frequency, output voltage, output power, and coil dimension are calculated. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The results of simulation analysis show SARs to be very small at any given transmission conditions, about 2-14 mW/kg, compared to the basic restrictions of the International Commission on nonionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP; 2 W/kg), while the current density divided by the ICNIRP's basic restrictions gets smaller as the frequency rises and the output voltage falls. It is possible to transfer energy below the ICNIRP's basic restrictions when the frequency is over 250 kHz and the output voltage is under 24 V. Also, the parts of the biological tissue that maximized the current density differ by frequencies; in the low frequency is muscle and in the high frequency is skin. The boundary is in the vicinity of the frequency 600-1000 kHz.

  14. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  15. International Intercomparison of Specific Absorption Rates in a Flat Absorbing Phantom in the Near-Field of Dipole Antennas

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christopher C.; Beard, Brian B.; Tillman, Ahlia; Rzasa, John; Merideth, Eric; Balzano, Quirino

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international intercomparison of the specific absorption rates (SARs) measured in a flat-bottomed container (flat phantom), filled with human head tissue simulant fluid, placed in the near-field of custom-built dipole antennas operating at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. These tests of the reliability of experimental SAR measurements have been conducted as part of a verification of the ways in which wireless phones are tested and certified for compliance with safety standards. The measurements are made using small electric-field probes scanned in the simulant fluid in the phantom to record the spatial SAR distribution. The intercomparison involved a standard flat phantom, antennas, power meters, and RF components being circulated among 15 different governmental and industrial laboratories. At the conclusion of each laboratory’s measurements, the following results were communicated to the coordinators: Spatial SAR scans at 900 and 1800 MHz and 1 and 10 g maximum spatial SAR averages for cubic volumes at 900 and 1800 MHz. The overall results, given as meanstandard deviation, are the following: at 900 MHz, 1 g average 7.850.76; 10 g average 5.160.45; at 1800 MHz, 1 g average 18.44 ± 1.65; 10 g average 10.14 ± 0.85, all measured in units of watt per kilogram, per watt of radiated power. PMID:29520117

  16. Precise dielectric property measurements and E-field probe calibration for specific absorption rate measurements using a rectangular waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, B M; Beard, B B; Davis, C C

    2018-01-01

    Specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements require accurate calculations of the dielectric properties of tissue-equivalent liquids and associated calibration of E-field probes. We developed a precise tissue-equivalent dielectric measurement and E-field probe calibration system. The system consists of a rectangular waveguide, electric field probe, and data control and acquisition system. Dielectric properties are calculated using the field attenuation factor inside the tissue-equivalent liquid and power reflectance inside the waveguide at the air/dielectric-slab interface. Calibration factors were calculated using isotropicity measurements of the E-field probe. The frequencies used are 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The uncertainties of the measured values are within ±3%, at the 95% confidence level. Using the same waveguide for dielectric measurements as well as calibrating E-field probes used in SAR assessments eliminates a source of uncertainty. Moreover, we clearly identified the system parameters that affect the overall uncertainty of the measurement system. PMID:29520129

  17. Parallel transmission pulse design with explicit control for the specific absorption rate in the presence of radiofrequency errors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adrian; Schiavi, Emanuele; Eryaman, Yigitcan; Herraiz, Joaquin L; Gagoski, Borjan; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L; Guerin, Bastien

    2016-06-01

    A new framework for the design of parallel transmit (pTx) pulses is presented introducing constraints for local and global specific absorption rate (SAR) in the presence of errors in the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain. The first step is the design of a pTx RF pulse with explicit constraints for global and local SAR. Then, the worst possible SAR associated with that pulse due to RF transmission errors ("worst-case SAR") is calculated. Finally, this information is used to re-calculate the pulse with lower SAR constraints, iterating this procedure until its worst-case SAR is within safety limits. Analysis of an actual pTx RF transmit chain revealed amplitude errors as high as 8% (20%) and phase errors above 3° (15°) for spokes (spiral) pulses. Simulations show that using the proposed framework, pulses can be designed with controlled "worst-case SAR" in the presence of errors of this magnitude at minor cost of the excitation profile quality. Our worst-case SAR-constrained pTx design strategy yields pulses with local and global SAR within the safety limits even in the presence of RF transmission errors. This strategy is a natural way to incorporate SAR safety factors in the design of pTx pulses. Magn Reson Med 75:2493-2504, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Design of parallel transmission pulses for simultaneous multislice with explicit control for peak power and local specific absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Bastien; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Poser, Benedikt A; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-05-01

    To design parallel transmit (pTx) simultaneous multislice (SMS) spokes pulses with explicit control for peak power and local and global specific absorption rate (SAR). We design SMS pTx least-squares and magnitude least squares spokes pulses while constraining local SAR using the virtual observation points (VOPs) compression of SAR matrices. We evaluate our approach in simulations of a head (7T) and a body (3T) coil with eight channels arranged in two z-rows. For many of our simulations, control of average power by Tikhonov regularization of the SMS pTx spokes pulse design yielded pulses that violated hardware and SAR safety limits. On the other hand, control of peak power alone yielded pulses that violated local SAR limits. Pulses optimized with control of both local SAR and peak power satisfied all constraints and therefore had the best excitation performance under limited power and SAR constraints. These results extend our previous results for single slice pTx excitations but are more pronounced because of the large power demands and SAR of SMS pulses. Explicit control of local SAR and peak power is required to generate optimal SMS pTx excitations satisfying both the system's hardware limits and regulatory safety limits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Upper limits to the reaction rate coefficients of C(n)(-) and C(n)H(-) (n = 2, 4, 6) with molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Endres, Eric S; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Hauser, Daniel; Huber, Stefan E; Best, Thorsten; Kumar, Sunil S; Probst, Michael; Wester, Roland

    2014-08-21

    In the interstellar medium (ISM) ion–molecule reactions play a key role in forming complex molecules. Since 2006, after the radioastronomical discovery of the first of by now six interstellar anions, interest has grown in understanding the formation and destruction pathways of negative ions in the ISM. Experiments have focused on reactions and photodetachment of the identified negatively charged ions. Hints were found that the reactions of CnH(–) with H2 may proceed with a low (<10(–13) cm(3) s(–1)), but finite rate [Eichelberger, B.; et al. Astrophys. J. 2007, 667, 1283]. Because of the high abundance of molecular hydrogen in the ISM, a precise knowledge of the reaction rate is needed for a better understanding of the low-temperature chemistry in the ISM. A suitable tool to analyze rare reactions is the 22-pole radiofrequency ion trap. Here, we report on reaction rates for Cn(–) and CnH(–) (n = 2, 4, 6) with buffer gas temperatures of H2 at 12 and 300 K. Our experiments show the absence of these reactions with an upper limit to the rate coefficients between 4 × 10(–16) and 5 × 10(–15) cm(3) s(–1), except for the case of C2(–), which does react with a finite rate with H2 at low temperatures. For the cases of C2H(–) and C4H(–), the experimental results were confirmed with quantum chemical calculations. In addition, the possible influence of a residual reactivity on the abundance of C4H(–) and C6H(–) in the ISM were estimated on the basis of a gas-phase chemical model based on the KIDA database. We found that the simulated ion abundances are already unaffected if reaction rate coefficients with H2 were below 10(–14) cm(3) s(–1).

  20. Absorption Coefficient of Alkali Halides. Part I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Q7 A*.oj DATA’ SET ±6 4-5. 0.827 T - Elsa - Li,. 1.62, 3..%?. f..224 1 t.-.5 :.13L 312.9 15.8 9.8*6 16. t u.. t...5 ., i lo.~ 6.705 Z6.8 . 87± - c7. 9...With Synchrotron Radiation," Solid State Coimnun., 6, 575 (1968). 168. Saito, H., Saito, S., Onaka, R., and Ikeo, B., "Extreme Ultraviolet Ab- sorption

  1. Study of the influence of the supersaturation coefficient on scaling rate using the pre-calcified surface of a quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Horner, Olivier; Lédion, Jean; Perrot, Hubert

    2018-05-29

    Scale deposition is a common issue in industrial plants, which creates technical problems, i.e. reduction of heat transfer, decrease of flow rate due to an obstruction of pipes. Therefore, the development of some appropriate methods based on well suitable in situ sensors to evaluate and predict the scaling propensity of water is a major concern in current research. This would be a good strategy for the optimization of anti-scaling treatments. In this study, scaling tests were carried out using a sensitive sensor, which has been developed using a quartz crystal microbalance with a pre-calcified electrode surface (SQCM). This technique allowed studying the influence of the supersaturation on the scaling rate. The set-up was tested with different water samples which were brought to a given supersaturation coefficient by degassing the dissolved CO 2 . The prediction of the scaling propensity of water was then possible through the relationship between the scaling rate on a pre-calcified surface and the supersaturation coefficient. In addition, the kinetics of CaCO 3 deposit on the pre-calcified SQCM surface was found to be slower for natural water than for synthetic water (same calcium concentration). Furthermore, the activation energy for scale deposit, in synthetic water, was found to be 22 kJ.mol -1 , which may be related to the diffusion of ions and/or CaCO 3 nuclei in solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by a 3G mobile phone: problems in dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Nirala, Jay Prakash

    2013-12-01

    A specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements system has been developed for compliance testing of personal mobile phone in a brain phantom material contained in a Perspex box. The volume of the box has been chosen corresponding to the volume of a small rat and illuminated by a 3G mobile phone frequency (1718.5 MHz), and the emitted radiation directed toward brain phantom .The induced fields in the phantom material are measured. Set up to lift the plane carrying the mobile phone is run by a pulley whose motion is controlled by a stepper motor. The platform is made to move at a pre-determined rate of 2 degrees per min limited up to 20 degrees. The measured data for induced fields in various locations are used to compute corresponding SAR values and inter comparison obtained. These data are also compared with those when the mobile phone is placed horizontally with respect to the position of the animal. The SAR data is also experimentally obtained by measuring a rise in temperature due to this mobile exposures and data compared with those obtained in the previous set. To seek a comparison with the safety criteria same set of measurements are performed in 10 g phantom material contained in a cubical box. These results are higher than those obtained with the knowledge of induced field measurements. It is concluded that SAR values are sensitive to the angular position of the moving platform and are well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure. The data are suggestive of having a fresh look to understand the mode of electromagnetic field -bio interaction.

  3. Direct measurement of the thermal rate coefficient for electron attachment to ozone in the gas phase, 300-550 K: implications for the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jane M; Miller, Thomas M; Williams, Skip; Viggiano, A A

    2003-11-28

    Attachment of thermal electrons to O3 was studied in 133 Pa He between 300-550 K; the process is extremely inefficient. The rate coefficient increases sharply with temperature from 0.9 to 5 x 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) (+/-30%) and comparison to kinetic energy measurements suggests internal energy can drive the reaction. These determinations account for competing processes of diffusion, recombination, and electron detachment reactions, and imply that no significant zero-energy resonance cross section exists, contradicting recent electron-beam results that call for substantial revision of ionospheric models.

  4. Altitude Variation of the CO2 (V2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient in Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilovi, Artem; Kutepov, Alexander; She, Chiao-Yao; Smith, Anne K.; Pesnell, William Dean; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (mlt), the quenching of CO2(N2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, the k(CO2-O) values measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements vary from 1.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second through 9.0 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second that requires further studying. In this work we used synergistic data from a ground based lidar and a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate K(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the colorado state university narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at fort collins, colorado (41N, 255E) as ground truth of the saber/timed nearly simultaneous (plus or minus 10 minutes) and common volume (within plus or minus 1 degree in latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees in longitude) observations. For each altitude in 80-110 km interval we estimate an "optimal" value of K(CO2-O) needed to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated 15 mm CO2 radiance and that measured by the saber/timed instrument. The K(CO2-O) obtained in this way varies in altitude from 3.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second at 80 km to 5.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters pers second for altitudes above 95 km. We discuss this variation of the rate constant and its impact on temperature retrievals from 15 mm radiance measurements and on the energy budget of mlt.

  5. Altitude Variation of the CO2(V2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient in Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A.; Kutepov, A.; She, C.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(v2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, the k(CO2-O) values measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements vary from 1.5 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s through 9.0 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s that requires further studying. In this work we used synergistic data from a ground based lidar and a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate k(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 N, 255E) as ground truth of the SABER/TIMED nearly simultaneous ( +/-10 minutes) and common volume (within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude) observations. For each altitude in 80-110 km interval we estimate an 'optimal" value of k(CO2-O) needed to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated 15 micron CO2 radiance and that measured by the SABER/TIMED instrument. The k(CO2-O) obtained in this way varies in altitude from 3.5 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s at 80 km to 5.2 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s for altitudes above 95 km. We discuss this variation of the rate constant and its impact on temperature retrievals from 15 pm radiance measurements and on the energy budget of MLT.

  6. Impact of concentration and rate of intraluminal drug delivery on absorption and gut wall metabolism of verapamil in humans.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Hartmut; Drescher, Siegfried; Hofmann, Ute; Heinkele, Georg; Somogyi, Andrew A; Eichelbaum, Michel; Fromm, Martin F

    2004-09-01

    In humans gut wall metabolism can be quantitatively as important as hepatic drug metabolism in limiting the systemic exposure to drugs after oral administration. However, it has been proposed that the role of gut wall metabolism might be overemphasized, because high luminal drug concentrations would lead to a saturation of gut wall metabolism. Therefore we investigated the impact of concentration and rate of intraluminal drug delivery on absorption (F(abs)) and gastrointestinal extraction (E(GI)) of a luminally administered cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate (verapamil) using a multilumen perfusion catheter in combination with a stable isotope technique. Two 20-cm-long, adjacent jejunal segments were isolated with the multilumen perfusion catheter in 7 subjects. In this study 80 mg of unlabeled verapamil (d0-verapamil 15 min) was infused into one segment over a 15-minute period, 80 mg of 3-fold deuterated verapamil (d3-verapamil 240 min) was administered over a 240-minute period into the other segment, and simultaneously, 5 mg of 7-fold deuterated verapamil (d7-verapamil) was injected intravenously over a 15-minute period. The rate of intraluminal drug delivery had only a modest effect on bioavailability of the verapamil isotopes (after correction for F abs ) (F/F abs d3-verapamil 240 min versus d0-verapamil 15 min, 0.24 +/- 0.10 versus 0.20 +/- 0.09; P <.05). Accordingly, the E GI value for d3-verapamil 240 min was 0.50 +/- 0.18 compared with 0.59 +/- 0.14 for d0 -verapamil 15 min ( P <.05). In vivo, E GI (d0-verapamil 15 min ) correlated strongly with E GI (d3-verapamil 240 min ) (r = 0.94, P <.005). Moreover, intrinsic clearance of CYP3A4-mediated verapamil metabolism in homogenates of simultaneously collected shed enterocytes correlated with in vivo E GI of d0-verapamil 15 min /d3-verapamil 240 min (r = 0.62, P =.03). Substantial gut wall metabolism of verapamil occurs in humans and can be predicted from ex vivo data by use of shed enterocytes. The different

  7. Rotational cross sections and rate coefficients of aluminium monoxide AlO(X2Σ+) induced by its collision with He(1 S) at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchakoua, Théophile; Nkot Nkot, Pierre René; Fifen, Jean Jules; Nsangou, Mama; Motapon, Ousmanou

    2018-06-01

    We present the first potential energy surface (PES) for the AlO(X2Σ+)-He(1 S) van der Waals complex. This PES has been calculated at the RCCSD(T) level of theory. The mixed Gaussian/Exponential Extrapolation Scheme of complete basis set [CBS(D,T,Q)] was employed. The PES was fitted using global analytical method. This fitted PES was used subsequently in the close-coupling approach for the computation of the state-to-state collisional excitation cross sections of the fine-structure levels of the AlO-He complex. Collision energies were taken up to 2500 cm-1 and they yield after thermal averaging, state-to-state rate coefficients up to 300 K. The propensity rules between the lowest fine-structure levels were studied. These rules show, on one hand, a strong propensity in favour of odd ΔN transitions, and on the other hand, that cross sections and collisional rate coefficients for Δj = ΔN transitions are larger than those for Δj ≠ ΔN transitions.

  8. Co2(nu2)-o Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental SABER-TIMED and Fort Collins Lidar Observations of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(nu2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, k(sub VT),and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve k(sub VT) in the altitude region85-105 km from the coincident SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 micron radiation. The averaged k(sub VT) value obtained in this work is 6.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations.However, the retrieved k(sub VT) also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 1 +/-1 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 90 km to 7.9 +/- 1.2 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 micron radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the non-thermal oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.

  9. The effect of the intermolecular potential formulation on the state-selected energy exchange rate coefficients in N2-N2 collisions.

    PubMed

    Kurnosov, Alexander; Cacciatore, Mario; Laganà, Antonio; Pirani, Fernando; Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Garcia, Ernesto

    2014-04-05

    The rate coefficients for N2-N2 collision-induced vibrational energy exchange (important for the enhancement of several modern innovative technologies) have been computed over a wide range of temperature. Potential energy surfaces based on different formulations of the intramolecular and intermolecular components of the interaction have been used to compute quasiclassically and semiclassically some vibrational to vibrational energy transfer rate coefficients. Related outcomes have been rationalized in terms of state-to-state probabilities and cross sections for quasi-resonant transitions and deexcitations from the first excited vibrational level (for which experimental information are available). On this ground, it has been possible to spot critical differences on the vibrational energy exchange mechanisms supported by the different surfaces (mainly by their intermolecular components) in the low collision energy regime, though still effective for temperatures as high as 10,000 K. It was found, in particular, that the most recently proposed intermolecular potential becomes the most effective in promoting vibrational energy exchange near threshold temperatures and has a behavior opposite to the previously proposed one when varying the coupling of vibration with the other degrees of freedom. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analytic expressions for perturbations and partial derivatives of range and range rate of a spacecraft with respect to the coefficient of the second harmonic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgevic, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Closed-form analytic expressions for the time variations of instantaneous orbital parameters and of the topocentric range and range rate of a spacecraft moving in the gravitational field of an oblate large body are derived using a first-order variation of parameters technique. In addition, the closed-form analytic expressions for the partial derivatives of the topocentric range and range rate are obtained, with respect to the coefficient of the second harmonic of the potential of the central body (J sub 2). The results are applied to the motion of a point-mass spacecraft moving in the orbit around the equatorially elliptic, oblate sun, with J sub 2 approximately equal to .000027.

  11. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  12. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  13. Rate Coefficients for O-Atom Three-Body Recombination in N2 at Temperatures in the Range 170--320 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejakovic, D. A.; Kalogerakis, K. S.; Copeland, R. A.; Huestis, D. L.; Robertson, R. M.; Smith, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Three-body recombination of O-atoms, O + O + M → O_2* + M is one of the most important reactions in the upper atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars. It is the only source for O2 nightglow, and the resulting emissions of electronically excited O2 are key tracers for photochemical and wave activity near the mesopause. Thus, knowledge of the rate coefficient for recombination of atomic oxygen is essential for modeling atmospheric composition. However, there exists a large discrepancy in the published estimates for this rate coefficient. For M = N2, the room temperature coefficient varies between about 3 × 10-33 cm6s-1, which is the value used in the combustion science community, and 5 × 10-33 cm6s-1, a value adopted in the atmospheric modeling community. We report measurements of the rate coefficient for O-atom recombination with N2 as the third body by two different experimental approaches. In the first experiment, we employ the pulsed output of a F2 laser at 157 nm to achieve high levels of photodissociation of molecular oxygen. In a high-pressure (760 Torr) background of N2 the produced O-atoms recombine in a time scale of several milliseconds. Oxygen atom population is monitored by observing fluorescence at 845 nm, induced by the output of a second laser near 226 nm. In the second experiment, the focused output of a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm is used to achieve complete photodissociation of measured amounts of ozone (0.2--0.9 Torr) in a background of ~500 Torr of N2, producing known initial concentrations of O-atoms. Their population decay is monitored by laser-induced fluorescence excited by the 226 nm radiation from a delayed frequency-doubled OPO system. The reaction cell can be cooled by dry ice or liquid nitrogen baths. The preliminary results of the O2 photolysis experiments give a room-temperature value for the rate coefficient of about 2.8 × 10-33 cm6s-1. The ozone photolysis experiments at 316 K (including effects of laser and kinetic heating of the

  14. Uncertainties in the estimation of specific absorption rate during radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced non-adiabatic heating of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Philip, John

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is becoming a viable cancer treatment methodology where the alternating magnetic field induced heating of magnetic fluid is utilized for ablating the cancerous cells or making them more susceptible to the conventional treatments. The heating efficiency in MFH is quantified in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR), which is defined as the heating power generated per unit mass. In majority of the experimental studies, SAR is evaluated from the temperature rise curves, obtained under non-adiabatic experimental conditions, which is prone to various thermodynamic uncertainties. A proper understanding of the experimental uncertainties and its remedies is a prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible SAR. Here, we study the thermodynamic uncertainties associated with peripheral heating, delayed heating, heat loss from the sample and spatial variation in the temperature profile within the sample. Using first order approximations, an adiabatic reconstruction protocol for the measured temperature rise curves is developed for SAR estimation, which is found to be in good agreement with those obtained from the computationally intense slope corrected method. Our experimental findings clearly show that the peripheral and delayed heating are due to radiation heat transfer from the heating coils and slower response time of the sensor, respectively. Our results suggest that the peripheral heating is linearly proportional to the sample area to volume ratio and coil temperature. It is also observed that peripheral heating decreases in presence of a non-magnetic insulating shielding. The delayed heating is found to contribute up to ~25% uncertainties in SAR values. As the SAR values are very sensitive to the initial slope determination method, explicit mention of the range of linear regression analysis is appropriate to reproduce the results. The effect of sample volume to area ratio on linear heat loss rate is systematically studied and the

  15. Laboratory Study of the OH + Permethylsiloxane (L2, L3, D3, and D4) Reaction Rate Coefficients Between 240 and 370 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, J. B.; Bernard, F.; Papadimitriou, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of organosiloxanes has recently been implicated in the formation of new particles as well as regional and indoor air quality. Methylsiloxanes with Si<6 are relatively volatile compounds with either linear or cyclic molecular structures. Methylsiloxanes are found in consumer goods such as cosmetics, textiles, health care and household products and in industrial applications as solvents and lubricants. They are released into the atmosphere during manufacturing, use, and disposal and have been observed in the atmosphere in ppb levels in certain locations. However, the fundamental chemical properties of this class of compounds, particularly their reactivity with the OH radical, are presently not fully characterized. In this work, the temperature dependence of the rate coefficients for the OH radical reaction with the simplest linear (L2 and L3) and cyclic (D3 and D4) siloxanes were measured: OH + (CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3 = Products L2OH + [(CH3)3SiO]2Si(CH3)2 = Products L3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]3 = Products D3OH + [-Si(CH3)2O-]4 = Products D4OH rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first conditions in OH over the temperature range 240-370 K using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique and at 296 K using a relative rate method. The present results are compared with available literature data where possible and discrepancies are discussed. The results from this work will be discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetimes of these methylsiloxanes and the reactivity trends for this class of compound.

  16. Development of picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy by high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Can; Wei, Xu; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Guang Lei; Sun, Da Rui; Li, Zhenjie; Zhou, Yangfan; Li, Qiu Ju; Zhang, Bing Bing; Xu, Jin Qiang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Tan, Ying Lei; Tao, Ye

    2017-05-01

    A new setup and commissioning of transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy are described, based on the high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe method, at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A high-repetition-rate and high-power laser is incorporated into the setup with in-house-built avalanche photodiodes as detectors. A simple acquisition scheme was applied to obtain laser-on and laser-off signals simultaneously. The capability of picosecond transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurement was demonstrated for a photo-induced spin-crossover iron complex in 6 mM solution with 155 kHz repetition rate.

  17. Optical absorption coefficient, time of thermal relaxation, time of surface threshold, and time of heat incubation for PMMA samples at the CO2 laser-beam wavelength of 10.6 microm.

    PubMed

    Canestri, Franco

    2006-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the mathematical identification of the optical absorption alpha (cm(1)) of Beer's law, a crucial parameter to study the development of laser beam craters into dry poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) samples exposed to steady CO(2) laser beams emitting radiation at lambda = 10.6 microm in continuous- wave (CW) mode. Three additional time-dependent coefficients have been determined as well. In clinical applications, these results are important in order to precisely quantify and forecast the ablation capabilities of the CO(2) laser beam, to optimize its usage in the operating room, and to address the safety issues related to surgical interventions on human tissue. Currently, the data available in the literature do not allow the identification of the numerical value of alpha (cm(1)) for PMMA at lambda = 10.6 microm with enough, and therefore satisfactory, accuracy. Additionally, the correct identification of the optical absorption of PMMA would allow the isolation, with better accuracy, of other key time-dependent coefficients, such as relaxation time, surface threshold time, and heat incubation time, which are all described in the literature in a qualitative rather than quantitative fashion. Correct bone cement preparation depends on the value of alpha (cm(1)) of the PMMA in order to avoid unwanted complications in patients during cement removal via laser techniques. The laser in use was configured in different combinations with the following parameters: transverse electromagnetic modes (TEMnm), output power (I0), exposure times (te), and focal lengths (fk). Several PMMA blocks (1 cm x 4 cm x 4 cm) were exposed to CW radiation of three commercially available CO(2) medical laser devices showing a TEM11 mode. Each block was exposed to the beam on a horizontal and well-polished surface of each sample. Four focal lengths (2.5", 5", 7.5", and 15.75" [400 mm]) were used to focus the beam on the well-polished and dry surface of the PMMA samples

  18. Absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from charged BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Chen, Juhua; Wang, Yongjiu

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the absorption and radiation of nonminimally coupled scalar field from the charged BTZ black hole. We find the analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient, the absorption cross section and the decay rate in strong coupling case. We find that the reflection coefficient is directly governed by Hawking temperature TH, scalar wave frequency ω , Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_{BH}, angular momentum m and coupling constant ξ.

  19. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  20. Temperature Dependent Rate Coefficients for the Gas-Phase Reaction of the OH Radical with Linear (L2, L3) and Cyclic (D3, D4) Permethylsiloxanes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, François; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B

    2018-05-03

    Permethylsiloxanes are emitted into the atmosphere during production and use as personal care products, lubricants, and cleaning agents. The predominate atmospheric loss process for permethylsiloxanes is expected to be via gas-phase reaction with the OH radical. In this study, rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical gas-phase reaction with the two simplest linear and cyclic permethylsiloxanes were measured using a pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique over the temperature range of 240-370 K and a relative rate method at 294 K: hexamethyldisiloxane ((CH 3 ) 3 SiOSi(CH 3 ) 3 , L 2 ), k 1 ; octamethyltrisiloxane ([(CH 3 ) 3 SiO] 2 Si(CH 3 ) 2 , L 3 ), k 2 ; hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 3 , D 3 ), k 3 ; and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane ([-Si(CH 3 ) 2 O-] 4 , D 4 ), k 4 . The obtained k(294 K) values and temperature-dependence expressions for the 240-370 K temperature range are (cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , 2σ absolute uncertainties): k 1 (294 K) = (1.28 ± 0.08) × 10 -12 , k 1 ( T) = (1.87 ± 0.18) × 10 -11 exp(-(791 ± 27)/ T); k 2 (294 K) = (1.72 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 2 ( T) = 1.96 × 10 -13 (T/298) 4.34 exp(657/ T); k 3 (294 K) = (0.82 ± 0.05) × 10 -12 , k 3 ( T) = (1.29 ± 0.19) × 10 -11 exp(-(805 ± 43)/ T); and k 4 (294 K) = (1.12 ± 0.10) × 10 -12 , k 4 ( T) = (1.80 ± 0.26) × 10 -11 exp(-(816 ± 43)/ T). The cyclic molecules were found to be less reactive than the analogous linear molecule with the same number of -CH 3 groups, while the linear and cyclic permethylsiloxane reactivity both increase with the increasing number of CH 3 - groups. The present results are compared with previous rate coefficient determinations where available. The permethylsiloxanes included in this study are atmospherically short-lived compounds with estimated atmospheric lifetimes of 11, 8, 17, and 13 days, respectively.

  1. Improvement of oxygen transfer coefficient during Penicillium canescens culture. Influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, A; Strodiot, L; Thonart, P

    1998-01-01

    To improve xylanase productivity from Penicillium canescens 10-10c culture, an optimization of oxygen supply is required. Because the strain is sensitive to shear forces, leading to lower xylanase productivity as to morphological alteration, vigorous mixing is not desired. The influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on K1a (global mass transfer coefficient, h(-1)) and enzyme production is discussed. K1a values increased with agitation speed and air flow rate, whatever the impeller, in our assay conditions. Agitation had more influence on K1a values than air flow, when a disk-mounted blade's impeller (DT) is used; an opposite result was obtained with a hub-mounted pitched blade's impeller (PBT). Xylanase production appeared as a function of specific power (W/m3), and an optimum was found in 20 and 100 L STRs fitted with DT impellers. On the other hand, the use of a hub-mounted pitched blade impeller (PBT8), instead of a disk-mounted blade impeller (DT4), reduced the lag time of hemicellulase production and increased xylanase productivity 1.3-fold.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of the optical Kerr coefficient of graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-08-25

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the nonlinear optical Kerr effect in graphene. We directly solve the S-matrix element to calculate the absorption rate, utilizing the Volkov-Keldysh-type crystal wave functions. We then convert to the nonlinear refractive index coefficients through the Kramers-Kronig relation. In this formalism, the source of Kerr nonlinearity is the interplay of optical fields that cooperatively drive the transition from valence to conduction band. This formalism makes it possible to identify and compute the rates of distinct nonlinear processes that contribute to the Kerr nonlinear refractive index coefficient. The four identified mechanisms are two-photon absorption, Raman transition,more » self-coupling, and quadratic ac Stark effect. As a result, we present a comparison of our theory with recent experimental and theoretical results.« less

  3. Experimental measurements of low temperature rate coefficients for neutral-neutral reactions of interest for atmospheric chemistry of Titan, Pluto and Triton: reactions of the CN radical.

    PubMed

    Morales, Sébastien B; Le Picard, Sébastien D; Canosa, André; Sims, Ian R

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of cyano radical, CN (X2sigma+) with three hydrocarbons, propane (CH3CH2CH3), propene (CH3CH=CH2) and 1-butyne (CH[triple band]CCH2CH3) have been studied over the temperature range of 23-298 K using a CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) apparatus combined with the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. These reactions are of interest for the cold atmospheres of Titan, Pluto and Triton, as they might participate in the formation of nitrogen and carbon bearing molecules, including nitriles, that are thought to play an important role in the formation of hazes and biological molecules. All three reactions are rapid with rate coefficients in excess of 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at the lowest temperatures of this study and show behaviour characteristic of barrierless reactions. Temperature dependences, different for each reaction, are compared to those used in the most recent photochemical models of Titan's atmosphere.

  4. The evaluation of a new method to extract spectroscopic factors using asymptotic normalization coefficients and the astrophysical ^14C(n,γ)^15C reaction rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Trache, L.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E. N.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new method to determine spectroscopic factors (SFs) that utilizes asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) has been tested at Texas A&M, using ^15C as a test case. The method would use the ANC to fix the external contribution to a non-peripheral reaction which would otherwise be free to vary to unphysical values in a traditional approach. The investigation consisted of two parts. First, the ANC for the ^14C+n configuration in ^15C was determined from the heavy ion neutron transfer reaction ^13C(^14C,^15C)^12C and the inverse kinematics reaction d(^14C,p)^15C. Both of these reactions were measured at sufficiently low energy to be peripheral. Next, a non-peripheral reaction ^14C(d,p)^15C was measured with an incident deuteron energy of 60 MeV, and this reaction was used along with the previously determined ANC to attempt to find the SF. The ANC was also used to calculate the astrophysical neutron direct capture rate for ^14C(n,γ)^15C, which was compared with recent direct experimental results.

  5. Characteristics of acetaminophen absorption in healthy unweaned calves as an indirect measurement of the oroduodenal transit rate of liquid meals.

    PubMed

    Schaer, S; Herrli-Gygi, M; Kosmeas, N; Boschung, H; Steiner, A

    2005-09-01

    Abomasal emptying plays an important role in the incidence of digestive problems in calves. Our aim was to evaluate the acetaminophen absorption test (APAT) for characterization of the oroduodenal transit (ODT) of liquid meals in unweaned calves. Six healthy, unweaned Simmental x Red Holstein crossbred calves were involved in the project. The study was performed in three blocks at 3, 6 and 9 weeks of the calves' age. Within blocks, APAT was performed twice at an interval of at least 24 h. Once per each block, liquid transit was carried out with non-coagulating electrolyte solution (NES). The second test within a block was performed either while atropine sulphate was administered (block I), or by feeding a coagulating milk replacer (block II), or by administration of NES by ruminal tube (block III). Data were compared within and among blocks. Significant differences of several APAT traits were present for the different types of feeding, the different types of meals, the administration of atropine sulphate and the different ages of the calves. The emptying index T(max)/C(max) was suggested to be a valuable kinetic parameter for the characterization of ODT in these calves. We conclude that APAT represents a valid technique for characterization of ODT of liquid meals in healthy unweaned calves and may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of the reticular groove mechanism, the abomasal emptying and the absorption capacity of the duodenum.

  6. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  7. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  8. Molecular insights into the enhanced rate of CO2 absorption to produce bicarbonate in aqueous 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Haley M; Hwang, Gyeong S

    2017-12-06

    2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), a sterically hindered amine, exhibits a much higher CO 2 absorption rate relative to tertiary amine diethylethanolamine (DEEA), while both yield bicarbonate as a major product in aqueous solution, despite their similar basicity. We present molecular mechanisms underlying the significant difference of CO 2 absorption rate based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations combined with metadynamics. Our calculations predict the free energy barrier for base-catalyzed CO 2 hydration to be lower in aqueous AMP compared to DEEA. Further molecular analysis suggests that the difference in free energy barrier is largely attributed to entropic effects associated with reorganization of H 2 O molecules adjacent to the basic N site. Stronger hydrogen bonding of H 2 O with N of DEEA than AMP, in addition to the presence of bulky ethyl groups, suppresses the thermal rearrangement of adjacent H 2 O molecules, thereby leading to lower stability of the transition state involving OH - creation and CO 2 polarization. Moreover, the hindered reorganization of adjacent H 2 O molecules is found to facilitate migration of OH - (created via proton abstraction by DEEA) away from the N site while suppressing CO 2 approach. This leads us to speculate that catalyzed CO 2 hydration in aqueous DEEA may involve OH - migration through multiple hydrogen-bonded H 2 O molecules prior to reaction with CO 2 , whereas in aqueous AMP it seems to preferentially follow the one H 2 O-mediated mechanism. This study highlights the importance of entropic effects in determining both mechanisms and rates of CO 2 absorption into aqueous sterically hindered amines.

  9. Dynamic absorption and scattering of water and hydrogel during high-repetition-rate (>100 MHz) burst-mode ultrafast-pulse laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zuoming; Covarrubias, Andrés; Grindal, Alexander W; Akens, Margarete K; Lilge, Lothar; Marjoribanks, Robin S

    2016-06-01

    High-repetition-rate burst-mode ultrafast-laser ablation and disruption of biological tissues depends on interaction of each pulse with the sample, but under those particular conditions which persist from previous pulses. This work characterizes and compares the dynamics of absorption and scattering of a 133-MHz repetition-rate, burst-mode ultrafast-pulse laser, in agar hydrogel targets and distilled water. The differences in energy partition are quantified, pulse-by-pulse, using a time-resolving integrating-sphere-based device. These measurements reveal that high-repetition-rate burst-mode ultrafast-laser ablation is a highly dynamical process affected by the persistence of ionization, dissipation of plasma plume, neutral material flow, tissue tensile strength, and the hydrodynamic oscillation of cavitation bubbles.

  10. Living on a trophic subsidy: Algal quality drives an upper-shore herbivore’s consumption, preference and absorption but not growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla-Ahumada, Diego; Quijón, Pedro A.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Pulgar, José

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of seaweeds from subtidal bottoms to nearby intertidal rocky shores is a common but often overlooked phenomenon. Freshly detached seaweeds often represent critical trophic subsidies for herbivores living in upper-shore rocky intertidal areas, such as the marine snail Diloma nigerrima. This species relies on three species of seaweeds for food and displays feeding strategies to deal with a resource that is scarce and at times unpredictable. This study focused on the nutritional quality of freshly detached algae (Durvillaea antarctica, Lessonia spicata and Lessonia trabeculata) and measured Diloma nigerrima’s algal consumption rates in trials with and without choice. Absorption efficiency and growth of individual snails fed on each alga were also measured. Durvillaea antarctica had the highest nutritional quality and was the most consumed algae in both single and multiple-choice trials. Absorption efficiency was also highest for D. antarctica but growth rates of snails fed with this species were similar to those fed with the other algae. Combined, these results suggest that D. nigerrima has the ability to discriminate among seaweeds based on their nutritional quality. A potential increase in oxygen uptake when D. nigerrima is consuming the preferred food item is also proposed as a plausible hypothesis to explain the mismatch between snails’ preference and growth rate. These results aim to guide further studies on trophic subsidies and their role in coastal systems. PMID:29672599

  11. Living on a trophic subsidy: Algal quality drives an upper-shore herbivore's consumption, preference and absorption but not growth rates.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla-Ahumada, Diego; Quijón, Pedro A; Navarro, Jorge M; Pulgar, José; Duarte, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of seaweeds from subtidal bottoms to nearby intertidal rocky shores is a common but often overlooked phenomenon. Freshly detached seaweeds often represent critical trophic subsidies for herbivores living in upper-shore rocky intertidal areas, such as the marine snail Diloma nigerrima. This species relies on three species of seaweeds for food and displays feeding strategies to deal with a resource that is scarce and at times unpredictable. This study focused on the nutritional quality of freshly detached algae (Durvillaea antarctica, Lessonia spicata and Lessonia trabeculata) and measured Diloma nigerrima's algal consumption rates in trials with and without choice. Absorption efficiency and growth of individual snails fed on each alga were also measured. Durvillaea antarctica had the highest nutritional quality and was the most consumed algae in both single and multiple-choice trials. Absorption efficiency was also highest for D. antarctica but growth rates of snails fed with this species were similar to those fed with the other algae. Combined, these results suggest that D. nigerrima has the ability to discriminate among seaweeds based on their nutritional quality. A potential increase in oxygen uptake when D. nigerrima is consuming the preferred food item is also proposed as a plausible hypothesis to explain the mismatch between snails' preference and growth rate. These results aim to guide further studies on trophic subsidies and their role in coastal systems.

  12. Comparing spatially varying coefficient models: a case study examining violent crime rates and their relationships to alcohol outlets and illegal drug arrests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast a Bayesian spatially varying coefficient process (SVCP) model with a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model for the estimation of the potentially spatially varying regression effects of alcohol outlets and illegal drug activity on violent crime in Houston, Texas. In addition, we focus on the inherent coefficient shrinkage properties of the Bayesian SVCP model as a way to address increased coefficient variance that follows from collinearity in GWR models. We outline the advantages of the Bayesian model in terms of reducing inflated coefficient variance, enhanced model flexibility, and more formal measuring of model uncertainty for prediction. We find spatially varying effects for alcohol outlets and drug violations, but the amount of variation depends on the type of model used. For the Bayesian model, this variation is controllable through the amount of prior influence placed on the variance of the coefficients. For example, the spatial pattern of coefficients is similar for the GWR and Bayesian models when a relatively large prior variance is used in the Bayesian model.

  13. Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Rathbun, R.E.; Yotsukura, N.; Parker, G.W.; DeLong, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Stream reaeration is the physical absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere by a flowing stream. This is the primary process by which a stream replenishes the oxygen consumed in the biodegradation of organic wastes.Prior to 1965, reaeration rate coefficients could be estimated only by indirect methods. In 1965, a direct method of measuring stream reaeration coefficients was developed in which a radioactive tracer gas was injected into a stream--the tracer gas being desorbed from the stream inversely to how oxygen would be absorbed. The technique has since been modified by substituting hydrocarbon gases for the radioactive tracer gas.This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate injection methods of performing gas-tracer desorption measurements. Emphasis is on the use of rhodamine WT dye as a relatively conservative tracer and propane as the nonconservative gas tracer, on planning field tests, methods of injection, sampling and analysis, and computational techniques to compute desorption and reaeration coefficients.

  14. [Effects of different nitrogen application rates on 15N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality of dwarf apple].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Ning; Peng, Ling; Ge, Shun Feng; Jiang, Yuan Mao

    2017-07-18

    Seven-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M 26 /M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and 15 N trace technique were used to explore the characteristics of 15 N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality under different nitrogen application rates (N 100 , N 200 and N 300 ). The main results were as follows: the plant growth, 15 N absorption, utilization and loss differed significantly under different treatments. The plant leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (P n ), total N content of leaves and the biomass, as well as the root-shoot ratio of N 200 treatment were obviously higher than the N 100 and N 300 treatments. Significant differences were observed in the 15 N derived from fertilizer (Ndff value) of different organs under different nitrogen application rates. The Ndff of fruits (flowers), leaves, one-year-old branch, and perennial branches in each measurement period was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , while that of the roots at full-bloom and spring shoot growing slowly stage was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , and in a trend of N 200 >N 100 >N 300 at autumn shoot growing stage, fruit rapid-swel-ling stage and fruit maturity stage. At fruit maturity stage, plant 15 N nitrogen utilization ratio of N 200 treatment was 23.6%, which was obviously higher than the N 100 (16.3%) and N 300 (14.4%) treatments, with the 15 N loss rate of 56.4%, obviously lower than the N 100 (60.6%) and N 300 (66.1%) treatments. There were significant differences among the treatments in fruit mass, yield per plant, soluble solid, fruit firmness, soluble sugar, titratable acids and sugar-acid ratio of different nitrogen rates, and the N 200 treatment showed the best performance, followed by the N 300 treatment, and then the N 100 treatment.

  15. The effects of receiving room dimensions and absorption in the measurement of impact insulation class (IIC) rating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rose Mary; Tocci, Gregory

    2005-09-01

    The measurement of the Impact Insulation Class (IIC) rating of any floor/ceiling construction requires the use of a certified laboratory space. In a recent investigation into the IIC rating of a new floor system, several tests were conducted in a certified laboratory. In many tests, the IIC rating was controlled by the 100-Hz 1/3-octave frequency band, despite changes in the floor/ceiling construction. The base floor/ceiling construction included a wood structural floor on open-web wood joists and a GWB ceiling below. This paper will investigate the possibility that room resonances influenced the IIC ratings of the several floor systems tested. These data will be compared with IIC data collected for the same floor construction with the GWB ceiling removed. The removal of the GWB ceiling increased the receiver room volume and exposed the glass fiber insulation to the receiver room, thus eliminating the control of the 100-Hz 1/3-octave band over the IIC rating.

  16. Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.

  17. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  18. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  19. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  20. Mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K fluorescence yield and Kβ/Kα relative X-ray emission rate for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn measured with a tunable monochromatic X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents new measurements of mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K-absorption jump-ratios, Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. We use the experimental facility SOLEX, a tunable monochromatic X-ray source combined with an energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The results are compared with theoretical values as well as with other experimental data and show a relatively good agreement. However, the derived K-jump-ratios appear larger than those widely used in the XCOM database. The Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields and the corresponding relative emission rates Kβ/Kα are also derived, which was made possible by the use of energy-dispersive detectors with good spectral resolution.

  1. A method for assessing real time rates of dissolution and absorption of carbohydrate and other food matrices in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lentle, R G; Sequeira, I R; Hardacre, A K; Reynolds, G

    2016-06-15

    We prepared pasta of differing physical dimensions but identical chemical composition that contained two monosaccharide probes (lactulose and mannitol) that are absorbed passively and promptly excreted in urine. We showed that the rates of their liberation from the pasta under simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions largely depended upon the rate of digestion of the starchy matrix. We showed, in 20 female subjects, that excretion of mannitol was slower from the pasta with the larger particle size. Hence, after consumption of either the powdered pasta or the simple solution of probe sugars, the mass of mannitol excreted between 1 and 2½ hours was greater than that excreted between 2½ and 4 hours. However these masses did not differ significantly after consumption of the pasta pellets. These differences were not reflected in the concurrent patterns of variation in either serum glucose or insulin taken over 120 minutes, their levels being similar for pasta pellets and powder with their peak values occurring synchronously during the first hour. Hence feeding test foods impregnated with lactulose and mannitol probes provided a reproducible and practical means of assessing the timing of digestion of the carbohydrate matrix and showed that this was more protracted than suggested by post prandial glucose levels. Further, the transit times calculated on a basis of the ratios of the two marker sugars could identify that the prolongation of digestion of larger particles was not accompanied by retention of digesta in particular segments of the gut.

  2. Influence of the oral dissolution time on the absorption rate of locally administered solid formulations for oromucosal use: the flurbiprofen lozenges paradigm.

    PubMed

    Imberti, Roberto; De Gregori, Simona; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent preferentially used for local oromucosal treatment of painful and/or inflammatory conditions of the oropharynx such as gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis. In this study, we have investigated the bioavailability of a new generic formulation of flurbiprofen lozenges developed by Epifarma Srl, compared to the originator Benactiv Gola® taken as reference. Within the framework of a formal bioequivalence study, we investigated in particular the putative influence of oral dissolution time (i.e. the time spent suckling the lozenge from its intake to complete dissolution) on the absorption rate, and the contribution of this factor to the total variability of plasma flurbiprofen during absorption. We found that the amount of flurbiprofen absorbed into the systemic circulation is not significantly higher for the test drug compared to that of the reference product. We observed that the length of oral dissolution time is inversely correlated to 10-min flurbiprofen plasma levels in the test but not in the reference formulation. We estimated that oral dissolution time accounts for about 14% of overall variability in flurbiprofen plasma 10 min after test drug administration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Generation of a head phantom according to the 95th percentile Chinese population data for evaluating the specific absorption rate by wireless communication devices.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu; Wang, Yuduo; Shao, Qing; Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2014-03-01

    A Chinese head phantom (CHP) is constructed for evaluating the specific absorption rate (SAR) by the wireless transceivers. The dimensions of the head phantom are within 4 % difference compared with the 95th percentile data from the China's standard. The shell's thickness and the configuration of the pinna are the same as those of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM). Three computable models for the mobile phones are generated and used in the SAR simulations with the SAM and the CHP. The results show that the simulated SAR from the SAM head is similar. Its morphological reason has been analysed. The authors discuss the conservativeness of the two head phantoms as well. The CHP can be used in the inter-laboratory evaluation for the SAR uncertainty. It can also provide the information for the SAR variability due to physical difference, which will benefit the maintenance and the harmonisation of the standards.

  4. Temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength in tunable diode laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Mishima, T; Nakayama, N; Masuda, T

    2010-08-01

    The factors determining temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength are investigated and discussed under monitoring CO(2)-gas absorption spectra. The diffusion rate of Joule heating at the active layer to the surrounding region is observed by monitoring the change in the junction voltage, which is a function of temperature and the wavelength (frequency) deviation under sinusoidal current modulation. Based on the experimental results, the time interval of monitoring the wavelength after changing the ambient temperature or injected current (scanning rate) has to be constant at least to eliminate the monitoring error induced by the deviation of lasing wavelength, though the temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength differ with the rate.

  5. The effect of increase in dielectric values on specific absorption rate (SAR) in eye and head tissues following 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz radio frequency (RF) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshvari, Jafar; Keshvari, Rahim; Lang, Sakari

    2006-03-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to address the question of the RF energy absorption difference between children and adults using computational methods. They have assumed the same dielectric parameters for child and adult head models in SAR calculations. This has been criticized by many researchers who have stated that child organs are not fully developed, their anatomy is different and also their tissue composition is slightly different with higher water content. Higher water content would affect dielectric values, which in turn would have an effect on RF energy absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate possible variation in specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head region of children and adults by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and using anatomically correct child and adult head models. In the calculations, the conductivity and permittivity of all tissues were increased from 5 to 20% but using otherwise the same exposure conditions. A half-wave dipole antenna was used as an exposure source to minimize the uncertainties of the positioning of a real mobile device and making the simulations easily replicable. Common mobile telephony frequencies of 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz were used in this study. The exposures of ear and eye regions were investigated. The SARs of models with increased dielectric values were compared to the SARs of the models where dielectric values were unchanged. The analyses suggest that increasing the value of dielectric parameters does not necessarily mean that volume-averaged SAR would increase. Under many exposure conditions, specifically at higher frequencies in eye exposure, volume-averaged SAR decreases. An increase of up to 20% in dielectric conductivity or both conductivity and permittivity always caused a SAR variation of less than 20%, usually about 5%, when it was averaged over 1, 5 or 10 g of cubic mass for all models. The thickness and composition of different tissue layers in the exposed

  6. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-10-07

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor' deltaT/SAR. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur.

  7. Distortion of bulk-ion distribution function due to nuclear elastic scattering and its effect on T(d,n)4He reaction rate coefficient in neutral-beam-injected deuterium-tritium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.

    2007-05-01

    An effect of nuclear elastic scattering on the rate coefficient of fusion reaction between field deuteron and triton in the presence of neutral beam injection heating is studied. Without assuming a Maxwellian for bulk-ion distribution function, the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equations for field (bulk) deuteron, field (bulk) triton, α-particle, and beam deuteron are simultaneously solved in an ITER-like deuterium-tritium thermonuclear plasma [R. Aymar, Fusion Eng. Des. 55, 107 (2001)]. The BFP calculation shows that enhancement of the reaction rate coefficient due to knock-on tail formation in fuel-ion distribution functions becomes appreciable, especially in the case of low-density operations.

  8. Photochemical parameters of atmospheric source gases: accurate determination of OH reaction rate constants over atmospheric temperatures, UV and IR absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orkin, V. L.; Khamaganov, V. G.; Martynova, L. E.; Kurylo, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    instrumental uncertainties related to our FP-RF experiment proves a total uncertainty of the OH reaction rate constant to be as small as ca. 2-3%. The high precision of kinetic measurements allows reliable determination of weak temperature dependences of the rate constants and clear resolution of the curvature of the Arrhenius plots for the OH reaction rate constants of various compounds. The results of OH reaction rate constant determinations between 220 K and 370 K will be presented. Similarly, the accuracy of UV and IR absorption measurements will be highlighted to provide an improved basis for atmospheric modeling.

  9. Effect of Microenvironmental pH Modulation on the Dissolution Rate and Oral Absorption of the Salt of a Weak Acid - Case Study of GDC-0810.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hao Helen; Jia, Wei; Liu, Lichuan; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Li, Jane; Nauka, Ewa; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of microenvironmental pH modulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and oral absorption of GDC-0810, an oral anti-cancer drug, in human. The pH-solubility profile of GDC-0810 free acid and pH max of its N-Methyl-D-glucamine (NMG) salt were determined. Precipitation studies were conducted for GDC-0810 NMG salt at different pH values. GDC-0810 200-mg dose NMG salt tablet formulations containing different levels of sodium bicarbonate as the pH modifier were tested for dissolution under the dual pH-dilution scheme. Three tablet formulations were evaluated in human as a part of a relative bioavailability study. A 200-mg dose of GDC-0810 was administered QD with low fat food. Intrinsic solubility of GDC-0810 free acid was found to be extremely low. The pH max of the NMG salt suggested a strong tendency for form conversion to the free acid under GI conditions. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that the dissolution rate and extent of GDC-0810 increased with increasing the level of sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The human PK data showed a similar trend for the geometric mean of C max and AUC 0-t for formulations containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate, but the difference is not statistically significant. Incorporation of a basic pH modifier, sodium bicarbonate, in GDC-0810 NMG salt tablet formulations enhanced in vitro dissolution rate of GDC-0810 via microenvironmental pH modulation. The human PK data showed no statistically significant difference in drug exposure from tablets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate.

  10. Electron Excitation Rate Coefficients for Transitions from the IS21S Ground State to the 1S2S1,3S and 1S2P1,3P0 Excited States of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Kingston, A. E.; McDowell, M. R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The available experimental and theoretical electron impact excitation cross section data for the transitions from the 1s2 1S ground state to the 1s2s 1,3S and 1s2p 1,3P0 excited states of helium are assessed. Based on this assessed data, excitation rate coefficients are calculated over a wide electron temperature range below 3.0×106K. A comparison with other published results suggests that the rates used should be lower by a factor of 2 or more.

  11. Radiative lifetimes and quenching rate coefficients for directly excited rotational levels of OH/A 2Sigma +, v-prime = 0/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, I. S.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A narrow-bandwidth pulsed dye laser was used to excite OH X 2Pi i radicals to the A 2Sigma(+) state by pumping in the (0, 0) vibrational band around 308 nm. The radiative lifetimes of specific (K-prime, J-prime) rotational levels in v-prime = 0 were measured at low pressures (not greater than 1 mtorr), which yielded a mean lifetime of 0.71 + or - 0.009 microsec (2 sigma). Electronic quenching rate constants for N2, O2, H2O, and H2 were measured for a range of initially excited rotational levels. A strong dependence of this rate constant on the initially excited rotational level was found for N2, and less markedly for O2, with the rate constant tending to increase for the lowest rotational levels K-prime not greater than 3. The implications of these results for the laser-induced fluorescence detection of atmospheric OH are discussed.

  12. Investigation of maximum local specific absorption rate in 7 T magnetic resonance with respect to load size by use of electromagnetic simulations.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Fontana, Nunzia; Costagli, Mauro; Stara, Riccardo; Biagi, Laura; Symms, Mark Roger; Monorchio, Agostino; Retico, Alessandra; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela

    2015-07-01

    Local specific absorption rate (SAR) evaluation in ultra high field (UHF) magnetic resonance (MR) systems is a major concern. In fact, at UHF, radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity generates hot-spots that could cause localized tissue heating. Unfortunately, local SAR measurements are not available in present MR systems; thus, electromagnetic simulations must be performed for RF fields and SAR analysis. In this study, we used three-dimensional full-wave numerical electromagnetic simulations to investigate the dependence of local SAR at 7.0 T with respect to subject size in two different scenarios: surface coil loaded by adult and child calves and quadrature volume coil loaded by adult and child heads. In the surface coil scenario, maximum local SAR decreased with decreasing load size, provided that the RF magnetic fields for the different load sizes were scaled to achieve the same slice average value. On the contrary, in the volume coil scenario, maximum local SAR was up to 15% higher in children than in adults. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  14. Tilt optimized flip uniformity (TOFU) RF pulse for uniform image contrast at low specific absorption rate levels in combination with a surface breast coil at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    van Kalleveen, Irene M L; Boer, Vincent O; Luijten, Peter R; Klomp, Dennis W J

    2015-08-01

    Going to ultrahigh field MRI (e.g., 7 Tesla [T]), the nonuniformity of the B1+ field and the increased radiofrequency (RF) power deposition become challenging. While surface coils improve the power efficiency in B1+, its field remains nonuniform. In this work, an RF pulse was designed that uses the slab selection to compensate the inhomogeneous B1+ field of a surface coil without a substantial increase in specific absorption rate (SAR). A breast surface coil was used with a decaying B1+ field in the anterior-posterior direction of the human breast. Slab selective RF pulses were designed and compared with adiabatic and spokes RF pulses. Proof of principle was demonstrated with FFE and B1+ maps of the human breast. In vivo measurements obtained with the breast surface coil show that the tilt optimized flip uniformity (TOFU) RF pulses can improve the flip angle homogeneity by 31%, while the SAR will be lower compared with BIR-4 and spokes RF pulses. By applying TOFU RF pulses to the breast surface coil, we are able to compensate the inhomogeneous B1+ field, while keeping the SAR low. Therefore stronger T1 -weighting in FFE sequences can be obtained, while pulse durations can remain short, as shown in the human breast at 7T. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of L-Ornithine-L-Aspartate on the Development of Encephalopathy, Using Localization Pulses with Reduced Specific Absorption Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotboom, J.; Vogels, B. A. P. M.; Dehaan, J. G.; Creyghton, J. H. N.; Quack, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.; Bovee, W. M. M. J.

    Using the SADLOVE ( single-shot adiabatic localized volume excitation) localization technique with reduced specific absorption rate phase-compensated 2π pulses for localization, in vivo rat brain spectra were obtained in order to study the possible beneficial effects of L-ornithine-L-aspartate (OA) on the development of encephalopathy induced by hyperammonemia in portacaval shunted rats, an experimental model for subacute hepatic encephalopathy. The in vivo1H spectra were quantified using a conjugate-gradient-based frequency-domain fitting procedure. OA treatment resulted in an about threefold lower increase in train lactate ( P < 0.0001) and a slower increase of brain glutamine ( P = 0.022) concentration. However, these changes in brain metabolism, including a significantly lower ammonia concentration during OA treatment, were not associated with a sig significant improvement in clinical symptoms of encephalopathy, suggesting either insufficient decrease in brain ammonia concentration or another effect of OA treatment counteracting the lowering effect on blood and brain ammonia and on brain glutamine and lactate. It is concluded that localized in vivo1H MRS of the brain in combination with other analytical techniques, such as in vivo microdialysis, is helpful in explaining pathophysiological changes during hyperammonemia-induced encephalopathy.

  16. Comparison of FDTD-calculated specific absorption rate in adults and children when using a mobile phone at 900 and 1800 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Martín, A.; Anguiano, M.; Villar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) in scaled human head models is analysed to study possible differences between SAR in the heads of adults and children and for assessment of compliance with the international safety guidelines, while using a mobile phone. The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) has been used for calculating SAR values for models of both children and adults, at 900 and 1800 MHz. Maximum 1 g averaged SAR (SAR1 g) and maximum 10 g averaged SAR (SAR10 g) have been calculated in adults and scaled head models for comparison and assessment of compliance with ANSI/IEEE and European guidelines. Results show that peak SAR1 g and peak SAR10 g all trend downwards with decreasing head size but as head size decreases, the percentage of energy absorbed in the brain increases. So, higher SAR in children's brains can be expected depending on whether the thickness of their skulls and surrounding tissues actually depends on age. The SAR in eyes of different sizes, as a critical organ, has also been studied and very similar distributions for the full size and the scaled models have been obtained. Standard limits can only be exceeded in the unpractical situation where the antenna is located at a very short distance in front of the eye.

  17. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding an air-core type of transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the current density analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core type of transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue surrounding the transformer was analyzed by the transmission-line modeling method, and the SAR and current density as a function of frequency (200k-1 MHz) for a transcutaneous transmission of 20 W were calculated. The model's biological tissue has three layers including the skin, fat and muscle. As a result, the SAR in the vicinity of the transformer is sufficiently small and the normalized SAR value, which is divided by the ICNIRP's basic restriction, is 7 x 10(-3) or less. On the contrary, the current density is slightly in excess of the ICNIRP's basic restrictions as the frequency falls and the output voltage rises. Normalized current density is from 0.2 to 1.2. In addition, the layer in which the current's density is maximized depends on the frequency, the muscle in the low frequency (<700 kHz) and the skin in the high frequency (>700 kHz). The result shows that precision analysis taking into account the biological properties is very important for developing the transcutaneous transformer for TAH.

  18. Atomic data from the iron project. 3: Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of boron-like ions: Ne VI, Mg VIII, Al IX, Si X, S XII, Ar XIV, Ca XVI and Fe XXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Graziani, Mark; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1994-01-01

    Collison strengths and maxwellian averaged rate coefficients have been calculated for the 105 transitions among all 15 fine structure levels of the 8 LS terms 2s(sup 2) 2 P(P-2(sup 0 sub 1/, 3/2)), 2s2p(sup 2)(P-4(sub 1/2,3/2,5/2), D-2(sub 3/2, 5/2), S-2(sub 1/2), P-2(sub 1/2, 3/2)), 2p(sup 3)(S-4(sup 0)(sub 3/2), D-2(sup 0 sub 3/2, 5/2), P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2, 3/2)) in highly- charged B-like Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. Rate coefficients have been tabulated at a wide range of temperatures, depending on the ion charge and abundance in plasma sources. Earlier work for O IV has also been extended to include the high temperature range. A brief discussion of the calculations, sample results, and comparison with earlier works is also given. While much of the new data should be applicable to UV spectral diagnostics, the new rates for the important ground state fine structure transition P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2)-P-2(sup 0 sub 3/2) should result in significant revision of the IR cooling rates in plasmas where B-like ions are prominent constituents, since the new rate coefficients are generally higher by several factors compared with the older data.

  19. CAN WE DETERMINE PENETRATION COEFFICIENTS AND DEPOSITION RATES FROM FIELD STUDIES? RESULTS OF A 37-PERSON PANEL STUDY IN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of outdoor particles to indoor concentrations is governed by three physical processes: air exchange, penetration, and deposition. Air exchange rates can be measured during field studies, but the other two parameters must be estimated. Over the past few years,...

  20. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  1. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.

    PubMed

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at approximately 130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at approximately 120 MHz and approximately 160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at approximately 180 and approximately 600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in

  2. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at ~130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at ~120 MHz and ~160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at ~180 and ~600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the specific regions in which the seated

  3. Evaluation of the use of partition coefficients and molecular surface properties as predictors of drug absorption: a provisional biopharmaceutical classification of the list of national essential medicines of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shawahna, R.; Rahman, NU.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Partition coefficients (log D and log P) and molecular surface area (PSA) are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators. Methods Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0), and PSA. Results Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0, and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0 and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81%) with Caco-2 permeability (Papp). Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). Of these, 57 (42.2%), 28 (20.7%), 44 (32.6%), and 6 (4.4%) were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol. PMID:22615645

  4. Improved excitation rate coefficients for the n = 2 and n = 3 levels of Ca XIX and Fe XXV including fine structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    Reently calculated collision strengths, including relativistic and resonance effects, are employed to compute Maxwellian averaged collision strengths for 78 transitions involving states of principal quantum numbers 2-1 and 3-1 in Ca XIX and Fe XXV. These rate parameters are tabulated at temperatures of interest in astrophysical and labortory plasmas with radiation in the hard X-ray wavelength range. For some transitions, significant differences are found with the earlier calculations of Pradhan, Norcross, and Hummer (1981).

  5. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  6. Relations among low ionosphere parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, and Wallops Island, Virginia, are compared with atmospheric parameters and high frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Charged particle densities are derived from the conductivity data. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity correlated well with neutral atmospheric temperature, with temperature coefficients as large as 4.6%/deg K. Good correlations were also found between HF radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, indicating that the day-to-day absorption variations were principally due to variations in electron loss rate.

  7. 7T MRI-Histologic Correlation Study of Low Specific Absorption Rate T2-Weighted GRASE Sequences in the Detection of White Matter Involvement in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Francesca; Hametner, Simon; Pennell, David; Dortch, Richard; Dula, Adrienne N; Pawate, Siddharama; Smith, Seth A; Lassmann, Hans; Gore, John C; Welch, Edward B

    2015-01-01

    The high value of the specific absorption rate (SAR) of radio-frequency (RF) energy arising from the series of RF refocusing pulses in T2-weighted (T2-w) turbo spin echo (TSE) MRI hampers its clinical application at 7.0 Tesla (7T). T2-w gradient and spin echo (GRASE) uses the speed from gradient refocusing in combination with the chemical-shift/static magnetic field (B0) inhomogeneity insensitivity from spin-echo refocusing to acquire T2-w images with a limited number of refocusing RF pulses, thus reducing SAR. To investigate whether low SAR T2-w GRASE could replace T2-w TSE in detecting white matter (WM) disease in MS patients imaged at 7T. The .7 mm3 isotropic T2-w TSE and T2-w GRASE images with variable echo times (TEs) and echo planar imaging (EPI) factors were obtained on a 7T scanner from postmortem samples of MS brains. These samples were derived from brains of 3 female MS patients. WM lesions (WM-Ls) and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) signal intensity, WM-Ls/NAWM contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MRI/myelin staining sections comparisons were obtained. GRASE sequences with EPI factor/TE = 3/50 and 3/75 ms were comparable to the SE technique for measures of CNR in WM-Ls and NAWM and for detection of WM-Ls. In all sequences, however, identification of areas with remyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and gray matter demyelination, as depicted by myelin staining, was not possible. T2-w GRASE images may replace T2-w TSE for clinical use. However, even at 7T, both sequences fail in detecting and characterizing MS disease beyond visible WM-Ls. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate in the human head due to a 13.56 MHz RFID-based intra-ocular pressure measurement system.

    PubMed

    Hirtl, Rene; Schmid, Gernot

    2013-09-21

    A modern wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system, based on 13.56 MHz inductively coupled data transmission, was dosimetrically analyzed with respect to the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced inside the head and the eye due to the electromagnetic field exposure caused by the reader antenna of the transmission system. The analysis was based on numerical finite difference time domain computations using a high resolution anatomical eye model integrated in a modern commercially available anatomical model of a male head. Three different reader antenna configurations, a 7-turn elliptic (30 mm × 50 mm) antenna at 12 mm distance from the eye, a flexible circular antenna (60 mm diameter, 8 turns on 2 mm substrate) directly attached to the skin, and a circular 7-turn antenna (30 mm diameter at 12 mm distance to the eye) were analyzed, respectively. Possible influences of the eye-lid status (closed or opened) and the transponder antenna contained in a contact lens directly attached to the eye were taken into account. The results clearly demonstrated that for typical reader antenna currents required for proper data transmission, the SAR values remain far below the limits for localized exposure of the head, as defined by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Particularly the induced SAR inside the eye was found to be substantially (orders of magnitudes for typical reader antenna currents in the order of 1 A turn) below values which have been reported to be critical with respect to thermally induced adverse health effects in eye tissues.

  9. Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate in the human head due to a 13.56 MHz RFID-based intra-ocular pressure measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Rene; Schmid, Gernot

    2013-09-01

    A modern wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system, based on 13.56 MHz inductively coupled data transmission, was dosimetrically analyzed with respect to the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced inside the head and the eye due to the electromagnetic field exposure caused by the reader antenna of the transmission system. The analysis was based on numerical finite difference time domain computations using a high resolution anatomical eye model integrated in a modern commercially available anatomical model of a male head. Three different reader antenna configurations, a 7-turn elliptic (30 mm × 50 mm) antenna at 12 mm distance from the eye, a flexible circular antenna (60 mm diameter, 8 turns on 2 mm substrate) directly attached to the skin, and a circular 7-turn antenna (30 mm diameter at 12 mm distance to the eye) were analyzed, respectively. Possible influences of the eye-lid status (closed or opened) and the transponder antenna contained in a contact lens directly attached to the eye were taken into account. The results clearly demonstrated that for typical reader antenna currents required for proper data transmission, the SAR values remain far below the limits for localized exposure of the head, as defined by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Particularly the induced SAR inside the eye was found to be substantially (orders of magnitudes for typical reader antenna currents in the order of 1 A turn) below values which have been reported to be critical with respect to thermally induced adverse health effects in eye tissues.

  10. Induction of an adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields: influence of the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) signal and the specific absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Olga; Sannino, Anna; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Sarti, Maurizio; Reddy, Abishek B; Prihoda, Thomas J; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2012-08-30

    The induction of an adaptive response (AR) was examined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF). Cells from nine healthy human volunteers were stimulated for 24h with phytohaemagglutinin and then exposed for 20h to an adaptive dose (AD) of a 1950MHz RF UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) signal used for mobile communications, at different specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.25, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.15W/kg. This was followed by treatment of the cells at 48h with a challenge dose (CD) of 100ng/ml mitomycin C (MMC). Lymphocytes were collected at the end of the 72h total culture period. The cytokinesis-block method was used to record the frequency of micronuclei (MN) as genotoxicity end-point. When lymphocytes from six donors were pre-exposed to RF at 0.3W/kg SAR and then treated with MMC, these cells showed a significant reduction in the frequency of MN, compared with the cells treated with MMC alone; this result is indicative of induction of AR. The results from our earlier study indicated that lymphocytes that were stimulated for 24h, exposed for 20h to a 900MHz RF GSM (global system for mobile communication) signal at 1.25W/kg SAR and then treated with 100ng/ml MMC, also exhibited AR. These overall data suggest that the induction of AR depends on RF frequency, type of the signal and SAR. Further characterization of RF-induced AR is in progress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-spoke placement optimization under explicit specific absorption rate and power constraints in parallel transmission at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Laura; Massire, Aurélien; Amadon, Alexis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Boulant, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    The spokes method combined with parallel transmission is a promising technique to mitigate the B1(+) inhomogeneity at ultra-high field in 2D imaging. To date however, the spokes placement optimization combined with the magnitude least squares pulse design has never been done in direct conjunction with the explicit Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and hardware constraints. In this work, the joint optimization of 2-spoke trajectories and RF subpulse weights is performed under these constraints explicitly and in the small tip angle regime. The problem is first considerably simplified by making the observation that only the vector between the 2 spokes is relevant in the magnitude least squares cost-function, thereby reducing the size of the parameter space and allowing a more exhaustive search. The algorithm starts from a set of initial k-space candidates and performs in parallel for all of them optimizations of the RF subpulse weights and the k-space locations simultaneously, under explicit SAR and power constraints, using an active-set algorithm. The dimensionality of the spoke placement parameter space being low, the RF pulse performance is computed for every location in k-space to study the robustness of the proposed approach with respect to initialization, by looking at the probability to converge towards a possible global minimum. Moreover, the optimization of the spoke placement is repeated with an increased pulse bandwidth in order to investigate the impact of the constraints on the result. Bloch simulations and in vivo T2(∗)-weighted images acquired at 7 T validate the approach. The algorithm returns simulated normalized root mean square errors systematically smaller than 5% in 10 s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of in situ electric field and specific absorption rate in human models for wireless power transfer system with induction coupling.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Onishi, Teruo

    2014-07-21

    This study investigates the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the in situ electric field in anatomically based human models for the magnetic field from an inductive wireless power transfer system developed on the basis of the specifications of the wireless power consortium. The transfer system consists of two induction coils covered by magnetic sheets. Both the waiting and charging conditions are considered. The transfer frequency considered in this study is 140 kHz, which is within the range where the magneto-quasi-static approximation is valid. The SAR and in situ electric field in the chest and arm of the models are calculated by numerically solving the scalar potential finite difference equation. The electromagnetic modelling of the coils in the wireless power transfer system is verified by comparing the computed and measured magnetic field distributions. The results indicate that the peak value of the SAR averaged over a 10 g of tissue and that of the in situ electric field are 72 nW kg(-1) and 91 mV m(-1) for a transmitted power of 1 W, Consequently, the maximum allowable transmitted powers satisfying the exposure limits of the SAR (2 W kg(-1)) and the in situ electric field (18.9 V m(-1)) are found to be 28 MW and 43 kW. The computational results show that the in situ electric field in the chest is the most restrictive factor when compliance with the wireless power transfer system is evaluated according to international guidelines.

  13. Compressive strength and initial water absorption rate for cement brick containing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a substitutional material for sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Noorwirdawati; Din, Norhasmiza; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Samad, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah

    2017-11-01

    The rapid growth of today’s construction sector requires high amount of building materials. Bricks, known to have solid properties and easy to handle, which leads to the variety of materials added or replaced in its mixture. In this study, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was selected as the substitute materials in the making of bricks. The reason behind the use of HDPE is because of its recyclable properties and the recycling process that do not emit hazardous gases to the atmosphere. Other than that, the use of HDPE will help reducing the source of pollution by avoiding the millions of accumulated plastic waste in the disposal sites. Furthermore, the material has high endurance level and is weatherproof. This study was carried out on experimenting the substitute materials in the mixture of cement bricks, a component of building materials which is normally manufactured using the mixture of cement, sand and water, following a certain ratios, and left dried to produce blocks of bricks. A series of three different percentages of HDPE were used, which were 2.5%, 3.0% and 3.5%. Tests were done on the bricks, to study its compressive strength and the initial water absorption rate. Both tests were conducted on the seventh and 28th day. Based on the results acquired, for compressive strength tests on the 28th day, the use of 2.5% of HDPE shown values of 12.6 N/mm2 while the use of 3.0% of HDPE shown values of 12.5 N/mm2. Onto the next percentage, 3.5% of HDPE shown values of 12.5 N/mm2.

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Oral Topotecan in Infants and Very Young Children with Brain Tumors Demonstrates a Role of ABCG2 rs4148157 on the Absorption Rate Constant

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jessica K.; Birg, Anna V.; Lin, Tong; Daryani, Vinay M.; Panetta, John C.; Broniscer, Alberto; Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar J.

    2016-01-01

    For infants and very young children with brain tumors, chemotherapy after surgical resection is the main treatment due to neurologic and neuroendocrine adverse effects from whole brain irradiation. Topotecan, an anticancer drug with antitumor activity against pediatric brain tumors, can be given intravenous or orally. However, high interpatient variability in oral drug bioavailability is common in children less than 3 years old. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the population pharmacokinetics of oral topotecan in infants and very young children, specifically evaluating the effects of age and ABCG2 and ABCB1 on the absorption rate constant (Ka), as well as other covariate effects on all pharmacokinetic parameters. A nonlinear mixed effects model was implemented in Monolix 4.3.2 (Lixoft, Orsay, France). A one-compartment model with first-order input and first-order elimination was found to adequately characterize topotecan lactone concentrations with population estimates as [mean (S.E.)]; Ka = 0.61 (0.11) h−1, apparent volume of distribution (V/F) = 40.2 (7.0) l, and apparent clearance (CL/F) = 40.0 (2.9) l/h. After including the body surface area in the V/F and CL/F as a power model centered on the population median, the ABCG2 rs4148157 allele was found to play a significant role in the value of Ka. Patients homozygous or heterozygous for G>A demonstrated a Ka value 2-fold higher than their GG counterparts, complemented with a 2-fold higher maximal concentration as well. These results demonstrate a possible role for the ABCG2 rs4148157 allele in the pharmacokinetics of oral topotecan in infants and very young children, and warrants further investigation. PMID:27052877

  15. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  16. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    PubMed

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-06

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  17. Low temperature rate coefficients for the reactions of 1CH2 with reactive and non-reactive species, and the implications for Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Kevin; Slater, Eloise; Blitz, Mark; Plane, John; Heard, Dwayne; Seakins, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan revealed unexpectedly large amounts of benzene in the troposphere, and confirmed the absence of a global ethane ocean as predicted by photochemical models of methane conversion over the lifetime of the solar system. An important chemical intermediate in both the production and loss of benzene and ethane is the first electronically excited state of methylene, 1CH2. For example, at room temperature an important reaction of 1CH2 is with acetylene (R1a), leading to the formation of propargyl (C3H3)[1]. The subsequent recombination of propargyl radicals is the major suggested route to benzene in Titan's atmosphere (R2)[2]. In addition to reaction of 1CH2 leading to products, there is also competition between inelastic electronic relaxation to form the ground triplet state 3CH2 (R1b). This ground state 3CH2 has a markedly different reactivity to the singlet, reacting primarily with methyl radicals (CH3) to form ethene (R3). As methyl radical recombination is the primary route to ethane (R4)[3], reactions of 1CH2 will also heavily influence the ethane budget on Titan. 1CH2 + C2H2 → C3H3 + H (R1a) 1CH2 + C2H2 → 3CH2 + C2H2 (R1b) C3H3 + C3H3 → C6H6 (R2) 3CH2 + CH3 → C2H4 + H (R3) CH3 + CH3 (+ M) → C2H6 (R4) Thus this competition between chemical reaction and electronic relaxation in the reactions of 1CH2 with H2, CH4, C2H4, and C2H6 will play an important role in determining the benzene and ethane budgets on Titan. Despite this there are no measurements of any rate constants for 1CH2 at temperatures relevant to Titan's atmosphere (60 - 170 K). Using a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus coupled with pulsed laser photolysis laser-induced fluorescence, the low temperature reaction kinetics for the removal of 1CH2 with nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, and oxygen, have been studied. The results revealed an increase in the removal rate of 1CH2 at temperatures below 200 K, with a sharp increase of around a factor of

  18. [Diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Wanhua; Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rui; Li, Fengfang; Peng, Chengyu

    2014-06-17

    To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 152 patients with 162 confirmed histopathologically breast lesions (85 malignant and 77 benign) underwent 3.0 T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four b values (0, 400, 800 and 1 000 s/mm²) were used. The signal intensity and ADC values of breast lesions were measured respectively. The signal intensity decline rate (SIDR) and apparent diffusion coefficient decline rate (ADCDR) were calculated respectively. SIDR = (signal intensity of lesions with low b value-signal intensity of lesions with high b value)/signal intensity of lesions with low b value, ADCDR = (ADC value of lesions with low b value-ADC value of lesions with high b value) /ADC value of lesions with low b value. The independent sample t-test was employed for statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating the diagnosis efficiency of SIDR and ADCDR values. Significant differences were observed in SIDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 0-400, 400-800 and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SIDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.2%, 68.2% and 67.1%, the specificities 74.0%, 85.7% and 67.5%, the diagnosis accordance rates 67.3%, 76.5% and 67.3%, the positive predictive values 72.2%, 84.1% and 69.5% and the negative predictive values 63.3%, 71.0% and 65.0% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ADCDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 400-800 s/mm² and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 80.0% and 65.9%, the specificities 72.7% and 65.0%, the diagnostic accordance rates 76.5% and 65.4%, the positive predictive values 76.4% and 67

  19. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  20. Communication: Equilibrium rate coefficients from atomistic simulations: The O((3)P) + NO((2)Π) → O2(X(3)Σg(-)) + N((4)S) reaction at temperatures relevant to the hypersonic flight regime.

    PubMed

    Castro-Palacio, Juan Carlos; Bemish, Raymond J; Meuwly, Markus

    2015-03-07

    The O((3)P) + NO((2)Π) → O2(X(3)Σg(-)) + N((4)S) reaction is among the N- and O- involving reactions that dominate the energetics of the reactive air flow around spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric re-entry. In this regime, the temperature in the bow shock typically ranges from 1000 to 20,000 K. The forward and reverse rate coefficients for this reaction derived directly from trajectory calculations over this range of temperature are reported in this letter. Results compare well with the established equilibrium constants for the same reaction from thermodynamic quantities derived from spectroscopy in the gas phase which paves the way for large-scale in silico investigations of equilibrium rates under extreme conditions.

  1. Rate coefficients for the reaction of O(1D) with the atmospherically long-lived greenhouse gases NF3, SF5CF3, CHF3, C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasandorj, M.; Hall, B. D.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of atmospherically persistent (long-lived) greenhouse gases to the radiative forcing of Earth has increased over the past several decades. The impact of highly fluorinated, saturated compounds, in particular perfluorinated compounds, on climate change is a concern because of their long atmospheric lifetimes, which are primarily determined by stratospheric loss processes, as well as their strong absorption in the infrared "window" region. A potentially key stratospheric loss process for these compounds is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Therefore, accurate reaction rate coefficient data is desired for input to climate change models. In this work, rate coefficients, k, were measured for the reaction of O(1D) with several key long-lived greenhouse gases, namely NF3, SF5CF3, CHF3 (HFC-23), C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. Room temperature rate coefficients for the total reaction, kTot, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive channel, kR, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, were measured for NF3 and SF5CF3 using competitive reaction and relative rate methods, respectively. kR was measured for the CHF3 reaction and improved upper-limits were determined for the perfluorinated compounds included in this study. For NF3, kTot was determined to be (2.55 ± 0.38) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR, which was measured using CF3Cl, N2O, CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), and CF3CFCl2 (CFC-114a) as reference compounds, was determined to be (2.21 ± 0.33) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. For SF5CF3, kTot = (3.24 ± 0.50) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and kR < 5.8 × 10×14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 were measured, where kR is a factor of three lower than the current recommendation of kTot for use in atmospheric modeling. For CHF3 kR was determined to be (2.35 ± 0.35) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which corresponds to a reactive channel yield of 0.26 ± 0.04, and resolves a large discrepancy among previously reported values

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CF═CH2 and (Z)-CF3CF═CHF: Cl and NO3 rate coefficients, Cl reaction product yields, and thermochemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Lazarou, Yannis G; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Burkholder, James B

    2011-01-20

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms and NO(3) radicals with 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, CF(3)CF═CH(2) (HFO-1234yf), and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene, (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF (HFO-1225ye), are reported. Cl-atom rate coefficients were measured in the fall-off region as a function of temperature (220-380 K) and pressure (50-630 Torr; N(2), O(2), and synthetic air) using a relative rate method. The measured rate coefficients are well represented by the fall-off parameters k(0)(T) = 6.5 × 10(-28) (T/300)(-6.9) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞)(T) = 7.7 × 10(-11) (T/300)(-0.65) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for CF(3)CF═CH(2) and k(0)(T) = 3 × 10(-27) (T/300)(-6.5) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞)(T) = 4.15 × 10(-11) (T/300)(-0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for (Z)-CF(3)C═CHF with F(c) = 0.6. Reaction product yields were measured in the presence of O(2) to be (98 ± 7)% for CF(3)C(O)F and (61 ± 4)% for HC(O)Cl in the CF(3)CF═CH(2) reaction and (108 ± 8)% for CF(3)C(O)F and (112 ± 8)% for HC(O)F in the (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF reaction, where the quoted uncertainties are 2σ (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. NO(3) reaction rate coefficients were determined using absolute and relative rate methods. Absolute measurements yielded upper limits for both reactions between 233 and 353 K, while the relative rate measurements yielded k(3)(295 K) = (2.6 ± 0.25) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(4)(295 K) = (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF, respectively. The Cl-atom reaction with CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF leads to decreases in their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials and formation of a chlorine-containing product, HC(O)Cl, for CF(3)CF═CH(2). The NO(3) reaction has been shown to have a negligible impact on the atmospheric lifetimes of CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF. The energetics for the reaction of Cl, NO(3), and OH with CF

  3. Measurements of the rate constant of HOsub2 + NOsub2 + Nsub2 --> HOsub2NOsub2 + Nsub2 using near-infrared wavelength-modulation spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Miller, C. E.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction HO(sub 2)+ NO(sub 2) + N(sub 2) --> HO(sub 2)NO(sub 2) + N(sub 2) (reaction 1) were measured using simultaneous near-IR and UV spectroscopy from 220 to 298 K and from 45 to 200 Torr.

  4. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  5. Nondestructive Method For Measuring The Scattering Coefficient Of Bulk Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenhuis, R. A. J.; ten Bosch, J. J.

    1981-05-01

    During demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel its structure changes resulting in a change of the absorption and scattering coefficients of the enamel. By measuring these coefficients during demineralization and remineralization these processes can be monitored in a non-destructive way. For this purpose an experimental arrangement was made: a fibre illuminates a spot on the sample with monochromatic light with a wave-length between 400 nm and 700 nm; a photomultiplier measures the luminance of the light back-scattered by the sample as a function of the distance from the measuring snot to the spot of illumination. In a Monte Carlo-model this luminance is simulated using the same geometry given the scattering and absorption coefficients in a sample. Then the scattering and absorption coefficients in the sample are determined by selecting the theoretical curve fitting the experimental one. Scattering coefficients below 10 mm-1 and absorption coefficients obtained with this method on calibration samples correspond well with those obtained with another method. Scattering coefficients above 10 mm-1 (paper samples) were measured ton low. This perhaps is caused by the anisotropic structure of paper sheets. The method is very suitable to measure the scattering and absorption coefficients of bulk materials.

  6. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances