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Sample records for absorption rate coefficient

  1. Correlation analysis of optical absorption cross section and rate coefficient measurements in reacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.; Ogren, P.J.

    1992-08-31

    A technique was developed for determining relative importance and correlation between reactions making up a complex kinetic system. This technique was used to investigate measurements of optical absorption cross sections and the correlation between cross sections and measured rate coefficients. It is concluded that (1) species, initial conditions, and temporal regions may be identified where cross sections may be measured without interference from the kinetic behavior of the observed species and (2) experiments designed to measure rate coefficients will always be correlated with the absorption cross section of the observed species. This correlation may reduce the accuracy of rate coefficient measurements.

  2. Measurement of diffusion coefficients important in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, R.L.; Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Oscarson, J.L.; Wilding, W.V.; Anderson, D.J.

    1997-03-01

    Natural gas processors use amine treating processes to remove the acid gases H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} from gas streams. Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. The absorption rate was found to be insensitive to the diffusion coefficient of CO{sub 2} in solution but very sensitive to the diffusion rate of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA ions. Evidence also suggested that chemical reaction equilibrium is rapid relative to diffusion. A numerical model was developed on the basis of these observations. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated amine, which must be equivalent by electroneutrality arguments, from measured absorption rates. Complete modeling of the absorption process also required data for the diffusion coefficient of MDEA in water. These were measured using a Taylor dispersion apparatus. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate and protonated MDEA were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA in water.

  3. HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl): OH rate coefficient, UV and infrared absorption spectra, and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillen, Max R.; Bernard, François; Fleming, Eric L.; Burkholder, James B.

    2015-07-01

    HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl), an ozone-depleting substance, is primarily removed from the atmosphere by gas-phase reaction with OH radicals and by UV photolysis. The rate coefficient, k, for the OH + HCFC-133a reaction was measured between 233 and 379 K and is given by k(T) = (9.32 ± 0.8) × 10-13 exp(-(1296 ± 28)/T), where k(296 K) was measured to be (1.10 ± 0.02) × 10-14 (cm3 molecule-1 s-1) (2σ precision uncertainty). The HCFC-133a UV absorption spectrum was measured between 184.95 and 240 nm at 213-323 K, and a spectrum parameterization is presented. The HCFC-133a atmospheric loss processes, lifetime, ozone depletion potential, and uncertainties were evaluated using a 2-D atmospheric model. The global annually averaged steady state lifetime and ozone depletion potential (ODP) were determined to be 4.45 (4.04-4.90) years and 0.017 (±0.001), respectively, where the ranges are based solely on the 2σ uncertainty in the kinetic and photochemical parameters. The infrared absorption spectrum of HCFC-133a was measured, and its global warming potential was determined to be 380 on the 100 year time horizon.

  4. Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.

  5. The in vitro permeability coefficient and short-term absorption rates for vinyl toluene using human cadaver skin mounted in a static diffusion cell model.

    PubMed

    Fasano, William J; Baer, Kevin N

    2006-01-01

    Vinyl toluene is one of several methylstyrene monomers that provide improved performance in resins for specialty paints, hydrocarbon resins for adhesives, specialty polymers, and unsaturated polyester resins. The purpose of this study was to determine a permeability coefficient (Kp) and short-term absorption rate for vinyl toluene using human cadaver skin mounted in an in vitro static diffusion cell model with an exposure area of 0.64 cm2. For the Kp determination, vinyl toluene was applied at a rate of 100 microL/cm2 to 6 skin replicates representing 4 human subjects. Serial receptor fluid samples were collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postapplication and analyzed for vinyl toluene by HPLC-UV. Based on the slope at steady-state (203.3 microg cm(-2) h(-1) +/- 120.0 microg cm(-2) h(-1)) and the concentration of the applied dose of vinyl toluene, taken as its density (894,600 microg/cm3), the Kp was calculated to be 2.27 x 10(-4) cm/h (+/-1.34 x 10(-4) cm/h). For the short-term absorption experiments, 12 skin replicates representing 3 human subjects were employed. Following 10- and 60-min exposures to a finite dose of vinyl toluene (10 microL/cm2), the respective short-term absorption rates were calculated to be 66.0 (+/-29.9) and 104.2 (+/-63.0) microg cm(-2) h(-1). These data provide industrial hygienists and safety personnel values to estimate the amount of vinyl toluene that may be absorbed via the dermal exposure route, given a variety of exposure scenarios, and the time it takes (skin absorption time) to reach a body burden equal to the Occupational Safety and Health Administrative permissible exposure level (OSHA PEL) or ACGIH TLV. PMID:16455589

  6. Determination of absorption coefficients of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lodenquai, J.F. )

    1994-08-01

    The equations that are usually presented as those used to determine the absorption coefficients of materials in film form based on measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients are fundamentally incorrect. These equations omit a multiplicative factor arising from the complex nature of the refractive indices of the materials. This factor enters explicitly into the relationship between the transmission and reflection coefficients for such materials and is not necessarily close to unity, although in practice this factor can be approximated by unity at least in the infrared through the optical range of wavelengths.

  7. Inversion of instantaneous equivalent absorption coefficient and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Weihua, W. )

    1992-01-01

    Absorption coefficient is an important parameter for reservoir description. The major troubles in extracting absorption coefficient from seismic data are amplitude and waveform distortions; they greatly restrict the inversion which is based on reflection amplitude variation or reflection frequency variation. This paper presents a new method which avoids amplitude and uses waveform variation gradient in wave propagation to make the inversion of absorption coefficient. Apparent absorption coefficient and pseudo absorption coefficient are adopted so as to remove the influence which the waveform distortion due to thin bed tuning brings to absorption coefficient extraction. The final instantaneous equivalent absorption coefficient, a true absorption coefficient which reflects real absorptive character of a seismic medium, can be obtained by subtracting the pseudo absorption coefficient (inversely calculated using maximum entropy) from the apparent absorption coefficient the authors have calculated.

  8. Diffusion coefficients significant in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine and of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.

  9. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi

    2015-08-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.

  11. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  12. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S.

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  13. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S.

    2015-08-01

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al2O3, CaCO3, ZnO2, SmO2 and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  14. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  15. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient. PMID:23914523

  16. Absorption coefficients of a hydrogen plasma for laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The formalism for the calculation of the absorption of radiation by a hydrogen plasma at common laboratory conditions is summarized. The hydrogen plasma absorption coefficient for laser radiation has been computed for a wide range of electron densities and temperatures (10,000-40,000 K). The results of this computation are presented in a graphical form that permits a determination of the absorption coefficient for the following laser wavelengths: 0.176, 0.325, 0.337, 0.442, 0.488, 0.515, 0.633, 0.694, 1.06, 1.15, 2.36, 3.39, 5.40 and 10.6 microns. The application of these results and laser radiation absorption measurements to plasma diagnostics is discussed briefly.

  17. Scattering and absorption coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tairan; Tang, Jiaqi; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Alumina-based aerogels are especially useful in many applications due to their excellent stability at high temperatures. This study experimentally analyzed the radiative properties of silica-doped alumina aerogels through spectral directional-hemispherical measurements for wavelengths of 0.38-25 μm. The silica-doped alumina aerogel samples were prepared with a 1.4∶1 molar ratio of silica to alumina. A two-flux model was used to describe the radiation propagation in a 1D scattering absorbing sample to derive expressions for the normal-hemispherical transmittances and reflectances based on the transport approximation. The normal-hemispherical transmittances and reflectances were measured at various spectral wavelengths and sample thicknesses using the integrating sphere method. The spectral absorption and transport scattering coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels were then determined from the measured normal-hemispherical data. The absorption and transport scattering coefficients of silica-doped alumina aerogels are (0.1  cm-1, 36  cm-1) and (0.1  cm-1, 112  cm-1) for wavelengths of 0.38-8.0 μm. The spectral transport scattering coefficient varies in the opposite direction from the spectral absorption coefficient for various wavelengths. The radiative properties for silica and alumina aerogels were quite different for the absorption coefficient for wavelengths of 2.5-8.0 μm and for the transport scattering coefficient for wavelengths of 0.38-2.5 and 3.5-6.0 μm. The measured radiative properties were used to predict the spectral normal-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the silica-doped alumina aerogels for various sample thicknesses and wavelengths. The predicted values do not change for the sample thicknesses greater than a critical value. The analysis provides valuable reference data for alumina aerogels for high-temperature applications. PMID:26836071

  18. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients as a function of temperature and IR absorption cross sections for CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf), potential replacement of CF3CH2F (HFC-134a).

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-04-01

    CF3CH=CH2 (hydrofluoroolefin, HFO-1243zf) is a potential replacement of high global-warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbon (HFC-134a, CF3CFH2). Both the atmospheric lifetime and the radiative efficiency of HFO-1243zf are parameters needed for estimating the GWP of this species. Therefore, the aim of this work is (i) to estimate the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1243zf from the reported OH rate coefficients, k OH, determined under tropospheric conditions and (ii) to calculate its radiative efficiency from the reported IR absorption cross sections. The OH rate coefficient at 298 K also allows the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)). The pulsed laser photolysis coupled to a laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to determine k OH for the reaction of OH radicals with HFO-1243zf as a function of pressure (50-650 Torr of He) and temperature (263-358 K). Gas-phase IR spectra of HFO-1243zf were recorded at room temperature using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer between 500 and 4,000 cm(-1). At all temperatures, k OH did not depend on bath gas concentration (i.e., on the total pressure between 50 and 650 Torr of He). A slight but noticeable T dependence of k OH was observed in the temperature range investigated. The observed behavior is well described by the following Arrhenius expression: k OH(T) = (7.65 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) exp [(165 ± 10) / T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Negligible IR absorption of HFO-1243zf was observed at wavenumbers greater than 1,700 cm(-1). Therefore, IR absorption cross sections, [Formula: see text], were determined in the 500-1,700 cm(-1) range. Integrated [Formula: see text] were determined between 650 and 1,800 cm(-1) for comparison purposes. The main diurnal removal pathway for HFO-1243zf is the reaction with OH radicals, which accounts for 64% of the overall loss by homogeneous reactions at 298 K. Globally, the lifetime due to OH reaction (τ OH) was estimated to be 8.7 days under

  19. Impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-01

    We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data—up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.

  20. Absorption-coefficient-determination method for particulate materials.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J D; Douglass, R E; Garvey, D M

    1994-07-01

    A method is presented for determining the optical absorption coefficient, or the imaginary refractive index, of particulate material that has been collected from aerosols or hydrosols by means of filtration. The method, based on the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse reflectance, is nondestructive and requires no other knowledge of the sample than the amount present, the specific gravity, and an estimate of the real index of refraction. The theoretical development of the method is discussed along with an analysis of photometric and gravimetric errors. We test the method by comparing results obtained for powdered didymium glass with measurements made before the glass was crushed. An example of the method's application to the determination of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric dust at UV, visible, and near-IR wavelengths is also presented. PMID:20935789

  1. A high absorption coefficient DL-MPP imitating owl skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lijun; Zhao, Zhan; Kong, Deyi; Wu, Shaohua; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    This paper proposes a high absorption coefficient micro-perforated panel (MPP) imitating owl skin structure for acoustic noise reduction. Compared to the traditional micro-perforated panel, this device has two unique characteristics-simulating the owl skin structure, its radius of perforated apertures even can be as small as 55μ, and its material is silicon and fabricated by micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) technology; So that its absorption coefficients of acoustic noise for normal incidence sound wave whose frequencies arrange from 1.5 kHz to 6.0 kHz are all above 0.8 which is the owl's hunts sensitivity frequency band. Double leaf MPP fabricated by MEMS technology is an absolutely bionic success in functional-imitation.

  2. Optimization of the acoustic absorption coefficients of certain functional absorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocsa, V.; Biborosch, L.; Veres, A.; Halpert, E.; Lorian, R.; Botos, T.

    1974-01-01

    The sound absorption coefficients of some functional absorbents (mineral wool plates) are determined by the reverberation chamber method. The influence of the angle of inclination of the sound absorbing material with respect to the surface to be treated is analyzed as well as the influence of the covering index, defined as the ratio of the designed area of a plate and the area of the treated surface belonging to another plate. As compared with the conventional method of applying sound-absorbing plates, the analyzed structures have a higher technological and economical efficiency. The optimum structure corresponds to an angle of inclination of 15 deg and a covering index of 0.8.

  3. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  4. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  5. Photosensitizer absorption coefficient modeling and necrosis prediction during Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Salas-García, Irene; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2012-09-01

    The development of accurate predictive models for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as a valuable tool to adjust the current therapy dosimetry to get an optimal treatment response, and definitely to establish new personal protocols. Several attempts have been made in this way, although the influence of the photosensitizer depletion on the optical parameters has not been taken into account so far. We present a first approach to predict the spatio-temporal variation of the photosensitizer absorption coefficient during PDT applied to dermatological diseases, taking into account the photobleaching of a topical photosensitizer. This permits us to obtain the photons density absorbed by the photosensitizer molecules as the treatment progresses and to determine necrosis maps to estimate the short term therapeutic effects in the target tissue. The model presented also takes into account an inhomogeneous initial photosensitizer distribution, light propagation in biological media and the evolution of the molecular concentrations of different components involved in the photochemical reactions. The obtained results allow to investigate how the photosensitizer depletion during the photochemical reactions affects light absorption by the photosensitizer molecules as the optical radiation propagates through the target tissue, and estimate the necrotic tumor area progression under different treatment conditions. PMID:22704663

  6. Absorption coefficient at 10.6 microm in CdTe modulator crystals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A W; Birnbaum, M; Montes, H; Fincher, C L

    1982-08-15

    The bulk and surface absorption coefficients of CdTe modulator crystals at 10.6 microm were compared with those of single-crystal KC1 and NaCl which served to calibrate the laser calorimeter. High-resistivity (>10(7) ohm/cm) CdTe crystals exhibited a bulk absorption coefficient of 0.0014 cm(-1). PMID:20396150

  7. FTIR-spectrometer-determined absorption coefficients of seven hydrazine fuel gases - Implications for laser remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Grant, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption spectra of three hydrazines and four of their air-oxidation products were measured in the 9-12-micron spectral region with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a 0.05-kayser resolution to determine absorption coefficients at CO2 and tunable diode laser wavelengths. The measurements agreed well with published CO2 laser determinations for many of the absorption coefficients, except where the published values are thought to be in error. The coefficients were then used to estimate the sensitivity for remote detection of these gases using CO2 and tunable diode lasers in long-path differential absorption measurements.

  8. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.

  9. Dynamic absorption coefficients of CAR and non-CAR resists at EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several CAR and non-CAR EUV photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the XIL beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called Chemical Sensitivity to account for all the post-absorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which is also predicts a quantitative clearing volume, and respectively clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help in deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of EUV concept of clearing volume and clearing radius are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  10. Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.

  11. Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Schladitz, A.; Massling, A.; Kaaden, N.; Kandler, K.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-02-01

    ABSTRACT During the SAMUM-1 experiment, absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of mineral dust particles were investigated in southern Morocco. Main absorbing constituents of airborne samples were identified to be iron oxide and soot. Spectral absorption coefficients were measured using a spectral optical absorption photometer (SOAP) in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm with a resolution of 50 nm. A new method that accounts for a loading-dependent correction of fibre filter based absorption photometers, was developed. The imaginary part of the refractive index was determined using Mie calculations from 350 to 800 nm. The spectral absorption coefficient allowed a separation between dust and soot absorption. A correlation analysis showed that the dust absorption coefficient is correlated (R2 up to 0.55) with the particle number concentration for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm, whereas the coefficient of determination R2 for smaller particles is below 0.1. Refractive indices were derived for both the total aerosol and a dust aerosol that was corrected for soot absorption. Average imaginary parts of refractive indices of the entire aerosol are 7.4 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3 and 2.0 × 10-3 at wavelengths of 450, 550 and 650 nm. After a correction for the soot absorption, imaginary parts of refractive indices are 5.1 × 10-3, 1.6 × 10-3 and 4.5 × 10-4.

  12. Absorption of laser radiation in a H-He plasma. I - Theoretical calculation of the absorption coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The theory for calculating the absorption of laser radiation by hydrogen is outlined for the temperatures and pressures of common laboratory plasmas. Nonhydrogenic corrections for determining the absorption by helium are also included. The coefficients for the absorption of He-Ne laser radiation at the wavelengths of 0.633, 1.15, and 3.39 microns in a H plasma is presented for temperatures in the range from 10,000 to 40,000 K and electron number densities in the range from 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 18th power per cu cm. The total absorption of a H-He plasma calculated from this theory is compared with the measured absorption. The theoretical composition of the H-He absorption is analyzed with respect to the significant absorption processes, inverse bremsstrahlung, photoionization, resonance excitation, and photodetachment.

  13. Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

    2003-06-01

    We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

  14. Binary TLBO algorithm assisted for designing plasmonic nano bi-pyramids-based absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Majid; Emami, Farzin; Nozhat, Najmeh

    2014-07-01

    A new efficient binary optimization method based on Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed to design an array of plasmonic nano bi-pyramids in order to achieve maximum absorption coefficient spectrum. In binary TLBO, a group of learners consisting of a matrix with binary entries controls the presence ('1') or the absence ('0') of nanoparticles in the array. Simulation results show that absorption coefficient strongly depends on the localized position of plasmonic nanoparticles. Non-periodic structures have more appropriate response in term of absorption coefficient. This approach is useful in optical applications such as solar cells and plasmonic nano antenna.

  15. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  16. Experimental Excitation Rate Coefficients for Ne VIII Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Greve, P.; Kolk, K.-H.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1984-02-01

    From the line emission of a pure neon plasma produced in a theta pinch discharge rate coefficients for the excitation of the n = 3 and 4 levels in Ne VIII ions are derived and compared with theoretical calculations and previous measurements. The general agreement between theory and all measurements is rather satisfactory for the excitation to the n = 3 levels, the measured rate coefficients to the 4p and 4d levels, however, being consistently too low.

  17. Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Heike; Neusüß, Christian; Wendisch, Manfred; Stratmann, Frank; Koziar, Christian; Keil, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ebert, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Comparisons between measured and calculated aerosol scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients were made based on in situ, ground-based measurements during the Melpitz INTensive (MINT) and Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) field studies. Furthermore, airborne measurements made with the same type of instruments are reviewed and compared with the ground-based measurements. Agreement between measured and calculated values is on the order of ±20% for scattering and backscattering coefficients. A sensitivity analysis showed a large influence on the calculated particle scattering and backscattering coefficients resulting from sizing uncertainties in the measured number size distributions. Measured absorption coefficients were significantly smaller than the corresponding calculated values. The largest uncertainty for the calculated absorption coefficients resulted from the size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon (EC) of the aerosol. A correction for the measured fractions of EC could significantly improve the agreement between measured and calculated absorption coefficients. The overall uncertainty of the calculated values was investigated with a Monte Carlo method by simultaneously and randomly varying the input parameters of the calculations, where the variation of each parameter was bounded by its uncertainty. The measurements were mostly found to be within the range of uncertainties of the calculations, with uncertainties for the calculated scattering and backscattering coefficients of about ±20% and for the absorption coefficients of about ±30%. Thus, to increase the accuracy of calculated scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients, it is crucial to further reduce the error in particle number size distribution measurement techniques. In addition, further improvement of the techniques for measuring absorption coefficients and further investigation of the measurement of the fraction of EC of the aerosol is

  18. Effect of absorption parameters on calculation of the dose coefficient: example of classification of industrial uranium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chazel, V; Houpert, P; Paquet, F; Ansoborlo, E

    2001-01-01

    In the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) described in ICRP Publication 66, time-dependent dissolution is described by three parameters: the fraction dissolved rapidly, fr, and the rapid and slow dissolution rates sr and ss. The effect of these parameters on the dose coefficient has been studied. A theoretical analysis was carried out to determine the sensitivity of the dose coefficient to variations in the values of these absorption parameters. Experimental values of the absorption parameters and the doses per unit intake (DPUI) were obtained from in vitro dissolution tests, or from in vivo experiments with rats, for five industrial uranium compounds UO2, U3O8, UO4, UF4 and a mixture of uranium oxides. These compounds were classified in terms of absorption types (F, M or S) according to ICRP. The overall result was that the factor which has the greatest influence on the dose coefficient was the slow dissolution rate ss. This was verified experimentally, with a variation of 20% to 55% for the DPUI according to the absorption type of the compound. In contrast, the rapid dissolution rate sr had little effect on the dose coefficient, excepted for Type F compounds. PMID:11487809

  19. Experimental measurements of the spectral absorption coefficient of pure fused silica optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Travis J; Jones, Matthew R

    2015-02-20

    Knowledge of the spectral absorption coefficient of fused silica optical fibers is important in modeling heat transfer in the processes and applications in which these fibers are used. An experimental method used to measure the spectral absorption coefficient of optical fibers is presented. Radiative energy from a blackbody radiator set at different temperatures is directed through the optical fibers and into an FTIR spectrometer. Spectral instrument response functions are calculated for different fiber lengths. The ratios of the slopes of the instrument response functions for the different lengths of fibers are used to solve for the spectral absorption coefficient of the fibers. The spectral absorption coefficient of low OH pure fused silica optical fibers is measured between the wavelengths 1.5 and 2.5 μm. PMID:25968202

  20. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. PMID:25241360

  1. Absorption of laser radiation in a H-He plasma. II - Experimental measurement of the absorption coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.; Rowley, P. D.; Stallcop, J. R.; Presley, L.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of 0.633-, 1.15-, and 3.39-micron laser radiation for a homogeneous H-He plasma have been measured in the temperature range from 12.2 to 21.7 (x 1000 K) and in the electron number density range 0.45 to 6.5 (x 10 to the 17th power per cu cm). Good agreement is found between the experimentally determined total absorption for each of the wavelengths and that calculated from theory. Furthermore, because the 3.39-micron absorption is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung, while the 0.633-micron absorption is dominated by photoionization and resonance absorption, the experiment indicates a correct assessment by the theory of these individual absorption mechanisms.

  2. Satellite retrieval of the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton phycoerythrin pigment: theory and feasibility status.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Lyon, P E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K

    1999-12-20

    Oceanic radiance model inversion methods are used to develop a comprehensive algorithm for retrieval of the absorption coefficients of phycourobilin (PUB) pigment, type I phycoerythrobilin (PEB) pigment rich in PUB, and type II PEB deficient in PUB pigment (together with the usual "big three" inherent optical properties: the total backscattering coefficient and the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM)-detritus and phytoplankton). This fully modeled inversion algorithm is then simplified to yield a hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversion algorithm in which the phycoerythrin (PE) absorption coefficient is retrieved as unmodeled 488-nm absorption (which exceeds the modeled phytoplankton and the CDOM-detritus absorption coefficients). Each algorithm was applied to water-leaving radiances, but only hybrid modeled-unmodeled inversions yielded viable retrievals of the PE absorption coefficient. Validation of the PE absorption coefficient retrieval was achieved by relative comparison with airborne laser-induced PEB fluorescence. The modeled-unmodeled retrieval of four inherent optical properties by direct matrix inversion is rapid and well conditioned, but the accuracy is strongly limited by the accuracy of the three principal inherent optical property models across all four spectral bands. Several research areas are identified to enhance the radiance-model-based retrievals: (a) improved PEB and PUB absorption coefficient models, (b) PE spectral shifts induced by PUB chromophore substitution at chromophore binding sites, (c) specific absorption-sensitive phytoplankton absorption modeling, (d) total constituent backscattering modeling, (e) unmodeled carotinoid and phycocyanin absorption that are not now accounted for in the chlorophyll-dominated phytoplankton absorption coefficient model, and (f) iterative inversion techniques to solve for six constituents with only five radiances. Although considerable progress has been made toward the

  3. Satellite Retrieval of the Absorption Coefficient of Phytoplankton Phycoerythrin Pigment: Theory and Feasibility Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Lyon, Paul E.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    1999-12-01

    Oceanic radiance model inversion methods are used to develop a comprehensive algorithm for retrieval of the absorption coefficients of phycourobilin (PUB) pigment, type I phycoerythrobilin (PEB) pigment rich in PUB, and type II PEB deficient in PUB pigment (together with the usual big three inherent optical properties: the total backscattering coefficient and the absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) detritus and phytoplankton). This fully modeled inversion algorithm is then simplified to yield a hybrid modeled unmodeled inversion algorithm in which the phycoerythrin (PE) absorption coefficient is retrieved as unmodeled 488-nm absorption (which exceeds the modeled phytoplankton and the CDOM detritus absorption coefficients). Each algorithm was applied to water-leaving radiances, but only hybrid modeled unmodeled inversions yielded viable retrievals of the PE absorption coefficient. Validation of the PE absorption coefficient retrieval was achieved by relative comparison with airborne laser-induced PEB fluorescence. The modeled unmodeled retrieval of four inherent optical properties by direct matrix inversion is rapid and well conditioned, but the accuracy is strongly limited by the accuracy of the three principal inherent optical property models across all four spectral bands. Several research areas are identified to enhance the radiance-model-based retrievals: (a) improved PEB and PUB absorption coefficient models, (b) PE spectral shifts induced by PUB chromophore substitution at chromophore binding sites, (c) specific absorption-sensitive phytoplankton absorption modeling, (d) total constituent backscattering modeling, (e) unmodeled carotinoid and phycocyanin absorption that are not now accounted for in the chlorophyll-dominated phytoplankton absorption coefficient model, and (f) iterative inversion techniques to solve for six constituents with only five radiances. Although considerable progress has been made toward the satellite

  4. Continuous wavelet-transform analysis of photoacoustic signal waveform to determine optical absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Ishihara, M.; Tsujita, K.; Hirota, K.; Irisawa, K.; Kitagaki, M.; Fujita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    2012-02-01

    In photo-acoustic (PA) imaging, valuable medical applications based on optical absorption spectrum such as contrast agent imaging and blood oxygen saturation measurement have been investigated. In these applications, there is an essential requirement to determine optical absorption coefficients accurately. In present, PA signal intensities have been commonly used to determine optical absorption coefficients. This method achieves practical accuracy by combining with radiative transfer analysis. However, time consumption of radiative transfer analysis and effects of signal generation efficiencies were problems of this method. In this research, we propose a new method to determine optical absorption coefficients using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We used CWT to estimate instantaneous frequencies of PA signals which reflects optical absorption distribution. We validated the effectiveness of CWT in determination of optical absorption coefficients through an experiment. In the experiment, planar shaped samples were illuminated to generate PA signal. The PA signal was measured by our fabricated PA probe in which an optical fiber and a ring shaped P(VDFTrFE) ultrasound sensor were coaxially aligned. Optical properties of samples were adjusted by changing the concentration of dye solution. Tunable Ti:Sapphire laser (690 - 1000 nm) was used as illumination source. As a result, we confirmed strong correlation between optical absorption coefficients of samples and the instantaneous frequency of PA signal obtained by CWT. Advantages of this method were less interference of light transfer and signal generation efficiency.

  5. Experiment to Determine the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Rays as a Function of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Simpler than x-ray diffractometer experiments, the experiment described illustrates certain concepts regarding the interaction of electromagnetic rays with matter such as the exponential decrease in the intensity with absorber thickness, variation of the coefficient of absorption with energy, and the effect of the K-absorption edge on the…

  6. Absorption and Scattering Coefficients: A Biophysical-Chemistry Experiment Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Gabriela B.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    A biophysical-chemistry experiment, based on the reflectance spectroscopy for calculating the absorption and scattering coefficients of leaves is described. The results show that different plants species exhibit different values for both the coefficients because of their different pigment composition.

  7. Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.

  8. A reverberation room round robin on the determination of absorption coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kath, U.

    In ten reverberation rooms with very different volumes and different room shapes, the absorption coefficients for mineral fiber mat were measured. The particular feature of this round robin was that the absorption material was much thicker than in other similar experiments and that it was measured not only with an area of 12 sq m on the floor, but also as a complete surface covering of a small wall in order to avoid the edge effect. The decay curves were evaluated in at least two institutions and the absorption coefficients were calculated using the Eyring equation. The absorption coefficients were quite dispersed from one room to another and also from one-third octave band to the adjacent ones. Errors due to change are small, thus one is dealing with systematic errors.

  9. RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF BORON-LIKE Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.; Orban, I.; Ali, S.; Schuch, R.; Glans, P.; Bleda, E. A.; Altun, Z.

    2013-07-10

    Recombination of Ne{sup 5+} was measured in a merged-beam type experiment at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING. In the collision energy range 0-110 eV resonances due to 2s {sup 2}2p {yields} 2s2p {sup 2} ({Delta}n = 0) and 2s {sup 2}2p {yields} 2s {sup 2}3l ({Delta}n = 1), core excitations were observed. The experimentally derived rate coefficients agree well with the calculations obtained using AUTOSTRUCTURE. At low energies, recombination is dominated by resonances belonging to the spin-forbidden 2s2p {sup 2}({sup 4} P{sub J})nl series. The energy-dependent rate coefficients were convoluted with a Maxwell-Boltzmann electron energy distribution to obtain plasma recombination rate coefficients. The data from the literature deviate from the measured results at low temperature.

  10. Measurements of Soot Mass Absorption Coefficients from 300 to 660 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Fisher, Al; Helgestad, Taylor; Lambe, Andrew; Sedlacek, Arthur; Smith, Geoffrey; Cappa, Christopher; Davidovits, Paul; Onasch, Timothy; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In particular, the assumed mass absorption coefficient (MAC) of soot and its variation with wavelength presents a significant uncertainty in the calculation of radiative forcing in global climate change models. As part of the fourth Boston College/Aerodyne soot properties measurement campaign, we have measured the mass absorption coefficient of soot produced by an inverted methane diffusion flame over a spectral range of 300-660 nm using a variety of optical absorption techniques. Extinction and absorption were measured using a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS, UC Davis) at 405 nm and 532 nm. Scattering and extinction were measured using a CAPS PMssa single scattering albedo monitor (Aerodyne) at 630 nm; the absorption coefficient was determined by subtraction. In addition, the absorption coefficients in 8 wavelength bands from 300 to 660 nm were measured using a new broadband photoacoustic absorption monitor (UGA). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA, Cambustion), mobility size with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI) and soot concentration with a CPC (Brechtel). The contribution of doubly charged particles to the sample mass was determined using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (DMT). Over a mass range of 1-8 fg, corresponding to differential mobility diameters of ~150 nm to 550 nm, the value of the soot MAC proved to be independent of mass for all wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of the MAC was best fit to a power law with an Absorption Ångstrom Coefficient slightly greater than 1.

  11. RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF Be-LIKE Si

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, I.; Boehm, S.; Schuch, R.; Loch, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    Recombination of Be-like Si{sup 10+} over the 0-43 eV electron-ion energy range is measured at the CRYRING electron cooler. In addition to radiative and dielectronic recombination, the recombination spectrum also shows strong contributions from trielectronic recombination. Below 100 meV, several very strong resonances associated with a spin-flip of the excited electron dominate the spectrum and also dominate the recombination in the photoionized plasma. The resonant plasma rate coefficients corrected for the experimental field ionization are in good agreement with calculated results by Gu and with AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. All other calculations significantly underestimate the plasma rate coefficients at low temperatures.

  12. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of pulsed laser deposited MgZnO thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Arpana Dar, Tanveer A.; Solanki, Ravi; Sen, Pratima; Phase, D. M.

    2015-06-24

    We report the imaginary part of 3{sup rd} order nonlinear susceptibility and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of Mg doped ZnO thin film using standard Z-scan technique. The origin of nonlinear absorption is attributed to the two photon absorption followed by the free carrier absorption because of the presence of oxygen vacancy defects. We have also confirmed the experimental results with the theoretical results obtained by considering the steady state response of a two level atom with the monochromatic field models.

  13. ROVIBRATIONAL QUENCHING RATE COEFFICIENTS OF HD IN COLLISIONS WITH He

    SciTech Connect

    Nolte, J. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Lee, T.-G.; Balakrishnan, N.; Forrey, R. C. E-mail: stancil@physast.uga.edu E-mail: naduvala@unlv.nevada.edu

    2012-01-01

    Along with H{sub 2}, HD has been found to play an important role in the cooling of the primordial gas for the formation of the first stars and galaxies. It has also been observed in a variety of cool molecular astrophysical environments. The rate of cooling by HD molecules requires knowledge of collisional rate coefficients with the primary impactors, H, He, and H{sub 2}. To improve knowledge of the collisional properties of HD, we present rate coefficients for the He-HD collision system over a range of collision energies from 10{sup -5} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -1}. Fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations were performed for initial HD rovibrational states of j = 0 and 1 for v = 0-17 which utilized accurate diatom rovibrational wave functions. Rate coefficients of all {Delta}v = 0, -1, and -2 transitions are reported. Significant discrepancies with previous calculations, which adopted a small basis and harmonic HD wave functions for excited vibrational levels, were found for the highest previously considered vibrational state of v = 3. Applications of the He-HD rate coefficients in various astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.

  14. In situ measurements of the oblique incidence sound absorption coefficient for finite sized absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Trojgaard, Per; Tiana-Roig, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which combines microphone array measurements over a finite sample with the sound field model in an inverse manner, is proposed. Besides, a temporal subtraction method, a microphone array method, impedance tube measurements, and an equivalent fluid model are used for validation. The finite surface method gives promising agreement with theory, especially at near grazing incidence. Thus, the finite surface method is proposed for further measurements at large incidence angles. PMID:26827003

  15. Rate Coefficients for the OH + (CHO)2 (Glyoxal) Reaction Between 240 and 400 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierabend, K. J.; Talukdar, R. K.; Zhu, L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Glyoxal (CHO)2, the simplest dialdehyde, is an end product formed in the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, for example, isoprene. As such, glyoxal plays a role in regional air quality and ozone production in certain locations. Glyoxal is lost in the atmosphere via UV photolysis and reaction with OH. However, the currently available rate coefficient data for the OH + glyoxal reaction is limited to a single room- temperature measurement made using the relative rate method. A determination of the rate coefficient temperature dependence is therefore needed for a more complete interpretation of the atmospheric processing of glyoxal. This study reports the rate coefficient for the OH + (CHO)2 reaction measured under pseudo- first-order conditions in OH ([(CHO)2] > 1000 [OH]0). OH radicals were produced using 248 nm pulsed laser photolysis of H2O2 or HNO3 and detected by pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The concentration of glyoxal in the reactor was determined using three independent techniques; gas flow rates as well as in situ UV and IR absorption. The total pressure in the reactor was varied from 40 to 300 Torr (He), and the rate coefficient was found to be independent of pressure over the temperature range studied. The rate coefficient exhibits a negative temperature dependence between 240 and 400 K consistent with the dependence previously observed for many other aldehydes. Our room-temperature rate coefficient is smaller than the relative rate value that is currently recommended for use in atmospheric model calculations. Our measured rate coefficients are discussed with respect to those for other aldehydes. The atmospheric implications of our work will also be discussed.

  16. Multi-wavelength measurements of aerosol optical absorption coefficients using a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Huang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Yao; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The atmospheric aerosol absorption capacity is a critical parameter determining its direct and indirect effects on climate. Accurate measurement is highly desired for the study of the radiative budget of the Earth. A multi-wavelength (405 nm, 532 nm, 780 nm) aerosol absorption meter based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) invovling a single cylindrical acoustic resonator is developed for measuring the aerosol optical absorption coefficients (OACs). A sensitivity of 1.3 Mm-1 (at 532 nm) is demonstrated. The aerosol absorption meter is successfully tested through measuring the OACs of atmospheric nigrosin and ambient aerosols in the suburbs of Hefei city. The absorption cross section and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) for ambient aerosol are determined for characterizing the component of the ambient aerosol.

  17. The absorption coefficient of the liquid N2 2.15-micron band and application to Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    The present measurements of the temperature dependence exhibited by the liquid N2 2.15-micron 2-0 collision-induced band's absorption coefficient and integrated absorption show the latter to be smaller than that of the N2 gas, and to decrease with decreasing temperature. Extrapolating this behavior to Triton's nominal surface temperature yields a new estimate of the N2-ice grain size on the Triton south polar cap; a mean N2 grain size of 0.7-3.0 cm is consistent with grain growth rate calculation results.

  18. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  19. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  20. Methane Absorption Coefficients in the 750-940 nm region derived from Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectral Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, J. J.

    2002-09-01

    The absorption spectrum of methane has been recorded in the visible to near-IR region using the intracavity laser spectroscopy technique. Spectra are recorded at high spectral resolution for narrow overlapping intervals in the region for room and 77 K temperature methane samples. After spectra are deconvolved for the instrument function, absorption coefficients are derived. These will be presented (750-940 nm for room temperature methane; 850-920 nm for 77 K methane) and compared with results reported by other workers. Future work in this area also will be indicated. Support from NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program (NAG5-6091 and a Major Equipment Grant) is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Measurement of nanofluids absorption coefficient by Moiré deflectometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanipour, Khosro; Koohian, Ataollah; Shahrabi Farahani, Shahrzad

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit many unique and interesting optical properties which make them very useful in biomedical applications. In order to employ NPs for disease treatment, comprehensive knowledge of their important properties is crucial. One of these parameters is absorption coefficient. In this work, absorption coefficient of a nanofluid (Au nanoparticles in water) is measured by using Moiré deflectometry technique. Two laser beams are used: a comparatively high intensity laser beam as interacting beam and a low intensity as a probe beam. This method is fast, easy and nonscanning, also insensitive to vibrations.

  2. In vivo light fluence correction for determination of tissue absorption coefficient using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal R.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic Tomography is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound detection with the high contrast available from optical absorption in tissue. The spectral profile of near infrared excitation light used in optoacoustic tomography instruments is modified by absorption and scattering as it propagates deep into biological tissue. The resulting images therefore provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. Knowledge of the spectral profile of excitation light across the mouse is needed for accurate determination of the absorption coefficient in vivo. Under the conditions of constant Grueneisen parameter and accurate knowledge of the light fluence, a linear relationship should exist between the initial optoacoustic pressure amplitude and the tissue absorption coefficient. Using data from a commercial optoacoustic tomography system, we implemented an iterative optimization based on the σ-Eddington approximation to the Radiative Transfer Equation to derive a light fluence map within a given object. We segmented the images based on the positions of phantom inclusions, or mouse organs, and used known scattering coefficients for initialization. Performing the fluence correction in simple phantoms allowed the expected linear relationship between recorded and independently measured absorption coefficients to be retrieved and spectral coloring to be compensated. For in vivo data, the correction resulted in an enhancement of signal intensities in deep tissues. This improved our ability to visualize organs at depth (> 5mm). Future work will aim to perform the optimization without data normalization and explore the need for methodology that enables routine implementation for in vivo imaging.

  3. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  4. Photoacoustic measurements of black carbon light absorption coefficients in Irbid city, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M; Arnott, W Patrick

    2010-07-01

    There is a need to recognize air pollution levels by particles, especially in developing countries such as Jordan where data are scarce due to the absence of routine monitoring of ambient air quality. This study aims at studying the air quality in different locations at Irbid, Jordan through the measurement and analysis of the time series of black carbon light absorption coefficients (B (abs)). Black carbon light absorption coefficients were measured with a photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. The measurements were conducted during July 2007 at six sites in Irbid city, Jordan. Comparisons of black carbon concentrations at various locations were conducted to understand where values tend to be largest. The average value of B (abs) of all sites was 40.4 Mm(-1). The largest value of B (abs) was 61.2 Mm(-1) at Palestine Street which is located at a very crowded street in a highly populated region in the city center. The lowest value was 14.1 Mm(-1) at Thirtieth Street which is located at a main street in an open plain region in the east of the city. The black carbon light absorption coefficients fluctuate above a background level (transported black carbon from the neighboring states), which are almost identical at all sampling sites. The light absorption coefficients will be used as a benchmark in later years as combustion efficiencies and population patterns change. PMID:19479334

  5. The average ion model. Computation of the absorption and emission coefficients in hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Geindre, Jean-Paul

    1988-06-01

    A program was developed to evaluate the emission and absorption plasma coefficient variations as a function of the density, temperature and the atomic number of the specimen. The treatment is simplified because of the reduced number of characteristic frequencies which are necessary for the hydrodynamic code. The approach is less efficient when applied to high Z atoms.

  6. [Development of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system for the measurement of absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Niu, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Shi; Cao, Zhen-Song; Liu, Kun; Chen, Wei-Dong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors focus on the effect of the resonance frequency shift due to the changes in temperature and humidity on the PA signal, present several methods to control the noise derived form gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Based on the efforts mentioned above, a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-8) W x cm(-1) x Hz(-1/2) was achieved for the measurement of atmospheric aerosols absorption coefficient. During the experiments, the PA cell was calibrated with the absorption of standard NO2 gas at 532 nm and the atmospheric aerosols were measured continuously. The measurement results show that the PAS is suitable for the real-time measurement of the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosols in their natural suspended state. PMID:24059163

  7. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  8. Temperature- and pressure-dependent absorption coefficients for CO2 and O2 at 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, K. T.; Nord, S.; Monkhouse, P. B.

    Absorption of laser radiation at 193 nm by CO2 and O2 was studied at a series of different temperatures up to 1273 K and pressures up to 1 bar. The spectrum for CO2 was found to be broadband, so that absorption could be fitted to a Beer-Lambert law. On the other hand, the corresponding O2 spectrum is strongly structured and parameterisation requires a more complex relation, depending on both temperature and the product (pressure × absorption path length). In this context, the influence of spectral structure on the resulting spectrally integrated absorption coefficients is discussed. Using the fitting parameters obtained, effective transmissions at 193 nm can be calculated for a wide range of experimental conditions. As an illustration of the practical application of these data, the calculation of effective transmission for a typical industrial flue gas is described.

  9. Light fluence correction for quantitative determination of tissue absorption coefficient using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-07-01

    MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound with the excellent contrast from optical imaging of tissue. Absorption and scattering of the near infrared excitation light modulates the spectral profile of light as it propagates deep into biological tissue, meaning the images obtained provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. The goal of this work is to accurately recover the spectral profile of excitation light by modelling light fluence in the data reconstruction, to enable quantitative imaging. We worked with a commercial small animal MSOT scanner and developed our light fluence correction for its' cylindrical geometry. Optoacoustic image reconstruction pinpoints the sources of acoustic waves detected by the transducers and returns the initial pressure amplitude at these points. This pressure is the product of the dimensionless Grüneisen parameter, the absorption coefficient and the light fluence. Under the condition of constant Grüneisen parameter and well modelled light fluence, there is a linear relationship between the initial pressure amplitude measured in the optoacoustic image and the absorption coefficient. We were able to reproduce this linear relationship in different physical regions of an agarose gel phantom containing targets of known optical absorption coefficient, demonstrating that our light fluence model was working. We also demonstrate promising results of light fluence correction effects on in vivo data.

  10. Absorption Coefficients of Particulate Matter off the Southwest Coast of Europe: A Contribution to Validation of the MERIS Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goela, P.; Icely, J.; Cristina, S.; Newton, A.

    2010-12-01

    Variability of particulate absorption coefficients was studied off the south-west coast of Portugal, as part of a validation exercise for the Medium Resolution Image Spectrometer Sensor. Regular sampling campaigns occurred at three stations on a transect from inshore to offshore to compare fluctuations in these coefficients at the local scale. Transmittance-reflectance method with sodium hypochlorite bleaching was used to determine absorption coefficients for phytoplankton and non-algal particles. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results show that the absorption of light by particulate matter is almost totally dependent on the phytoplankton, with no significant contribution from non-algal particles, both in coastal and oceanic waters. Specific phytoplankton coefficients show significant fluctuations between seasons and stations, ranging from 0.012 to 0.038 at 678 nm. Particulate absorption is dominant over dissolved absorption. The variations in the coefficients of absorption are analysed as a function of species assemblages.

  11. Traffic-related differences in indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, Janine; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; van der Zee, Saskia; Brunekreef, Bert

    Population studies indicate that study participants living near major roads are more prone to chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function decrements and hospital admissions for asthma. The majority of the studies used proxy measures, such as distance to major roads or traffic intensity in the surroundings of the home. Few studies have communicated findings of concurrently performed measurements of outdoor, indoor and personal air pollution in urban streets with high- and low-traffic density. Measuring light absorption or reflectance of particulate matter (PM) collected on filters is an alternative method to determine elemental carbon, a marker for particles produced by incomplete combustion, compared to expensive and destructive analytical methods. This study sets out to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in personal and indoor filter absorption coefficients for participants living along busy and quiet roads in Amsterdam. In one study we measured personal and indoor absorption coefficients in a sample of adults (50-70 years) and, in another study, the indoor levels in a population of adults (50-70 years) and school children (10-12 years). In the first study, the ratios of personal and indoor absorption coefficients in homes along busy roads compared with homes on quiet streets were significantly higher by 29% for personal measurements ( n=16 days, p<0.001), and by 19% for indoor measurements ( n=20, p<0.001), while in the second study, the ratio for the indoor measurements was higher by 26% ( n=25 days, p<0.05). Exposure differences between homes along busy compared to homes along quiet streets remained and significant after adjustment for potential indoor sources (such as cooking and use of unvented heating appliances). This study therefore provides tentative support for the use of the type of road as proxy measure for indoor and personal absorption coefficient measurements in epidemiological studies due to the limitations of the study.

  12. Derivation of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient with edge-loss method and comparison with video reflectometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro

    2016-08-01

    We derived the absorption coefficient ( μ a) and the reduced scattering coefficient ( μ s') using the edge-loss method (ELM) and the video reflectometry method (VRM), and compared the results. In a previous study, we developed the ELM to easily evaluate the lateral spread in the skin; the VRM is a conventional method. The ELM measures the translucency index, which is correlated with μ a and μ s'. To obtain a precise estimation of these parameters, we improved the treatment of a white standard and the surface reflection. For both skin phantoms and actual skin, the values for μ a and μ s' that we obtained using the ELM were similar to those obtained using the VRM, when μ a/ μ s' was less than or equal to 0.05 and the diffusion approximation was applicable. Under this condition, the spectral reflectivity is greater than 0.4. In this study, we considered wavelengths longer than 600 nm for Types III and IV of the Fitzpatrick scale. For skin, the repeatability errors of the parameters obtained with the ELM were smaller than those obtained with the VRM; this can be an advantage in field tests.

  13. Derivation of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient with edge-loss method and comparison with video reflectometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenichiro

    2016-07-01

    We derived the absorption coefficient (μ a) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ s') using the edge-loss method (ELM) and the video reflectometry method (VRM), and compared the results. In a previous study, we developed the ELM to easily evaluate the lateral spread in the skin; the VRM is a conventional method. The ELM measures the translucency index, which is correlated with μ a and μ s'. To obtain a precise estimation of these parameters, we improved the treatment of a white standard and the surface reflection. For both skin phantoms and actual skin, the values for μ a and μ s' that we obtained using the ELM were similar to those obtained using the VRM, when μ a/μ s' was less than or equal to 0.05 and the diffusion approximation was applicable. Under this condition, the spectral reflectivity is greater than 0.4. In this study, we considered wavelengths longer than 600 nm for Types III and IV of the Fitzpatrick scale. For skin, the repeatability errors of the parameters obtained with the ELM were smaller than those obtained with the VRM; this can be an advantage in field tests.

  14. A new photoacoustic method based on the modulation of the light induced absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, S.; Wenisch, C.; Müller, F. A.; Gräf, S.

    2016-04-01

    The present study reports on a new photoacoustic (PA) measurement method that is suitable for the investigation of light induced absorption effects including e.g. excited state absorption. Contrary to the modulation of the radiation intensity used in conventional PA-methods, the key principle of this novel setup is based on the modulation of the induced absorption coefficient by light. For this purpose, a pump-probe setup with a pulsed pump laser beam and a continuous probe laser beam is utilized. In this regime, the potential influence of heat on the PA-signal is much smaller when compared to arrangements with pulsed probe beam and continuous pump beam. Beyond that, the negative effect of thermal lenses can be neglected. Thus, the measurement technique is well-suited for materials exhibiting a strong absorption at the pump wavelength. The quantitative analysis of the induced absorption coefficient was achieved by the calibration of the additional PA-signal caused by the continuous probe laser to the PA-signal resulting from the pulsed pump laser using thallium bromoiodide (KRS-5) as sample material.

  15. Measurements of the optical absorption coefficient of Ar8+ ion implanted silicon layers using the photothermal radiometry and the modulated free carrier absorption methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrobak, Ł.; Maliński, M.; Pawlak, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a method of the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient of the Ar8+ ions implanted layers in the p-type silicon substrate. The absorption coefficient is calculated using a value of the attenuation of amplitudes of a photothermal radiometry (PTR) and/or a modulation free carrier absorption (MFCA) signals and the implanted layer thickness calculated by means of the TRIM program. The proposed method can be used to indicate the amorphization of the ions implanted layers.

  16. Absorption coefficients of GeSn extracted from PIN photodetector response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Kaiheng; Zhang, Wogong; Oehme, Michael; Schmid, Marc; Gollhofer, Martin; Kostecki, Konrad; Widmann, Daniel; Körner, Roman; Kasper, Erich; Schulze, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the optical absorption of the GeSn PIN photodetector was investigated. The vertical GeSn PIN photodetectors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and dry etching. By means of current density-voltage (J-V) and capacity-voltage (C-V) measurements the photodetector device was characterized. The absorption coefficients of GeSn material were finally extracted from the optical response of PIN structure. With further direct bandgap analysis the influences of device structure was proved negligible.

  17. Heat/Mass Transfer Coefficients of an Absorber in Absorption Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Isamu; Hihara, Eiji

    This paper presents a new method to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients applicable to the vertical tube or plate type absorber of absorption refrigeration system. Conventional method for calculating the coefficients using logarithmic mean temperature/ concentration differences is criticized for its lacking in the theoretical rationality and usually giving untrue values except some limited situations such that temperature of the solution can be assumed to change linearly along the heat transfer surface. The newly introduced method, which is intended to overcome this difficulty, is verified by numerical simulation and is accompanied by an example applied to the experimental results.

  18. Index of Refraction and Absorption Coefficient Spectra of Paratellurite in the Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unferdorben, Márta; Buzády, Andrea; Hebling, János; Kiss, Krisztián; Hajdara, Ivett; Kovács, László; Péter, Ágnes; Pálfalvi, László

    2016-07-01

    Index of refraction and absorption coefficient spectra of pure paratellurite (α-TeO2) crystal as a potential material for terahertz (THz) applications were determined in the 0.25-2 THz frequency range at room temperature by THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The investigation was performed with beam polarization both parallel (extraordinary polarization) and perpendicular (ordinary polarization) to the optical axis [001] of the crystal. Similarly to the visible spectral range, positive birefringence was observed in the THz range as well. It was shown that the values of the refractive index for extraordinary polarization are higher and show significantly larger dispersion than for the ordinary one. The absorption coefficient values are also larger for extraordinary polarization. The measured values were fitted by theoretical curves derived from the complex dielectric function containing independent terms of Lorentz oscillators due to phonon-polariton resonances. The results are compared with earlier publications, and the observed significant discrepancies are discussed.

  19. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature-dependent absorption coefficient and conductivity of participating media

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fangzhou; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-01-01

    A secondary optimization technique was proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. In the proposed method, the stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied to solve the inverse problem. The coupled radiation and conduction problem was solved in a 1D absorbing, emitting, but non-scattering slab exposed to a pulse laser. It is found that in the coupled radiation and conduction problem, the temperature response is highly sensitive to conductivity but slightly sensitive to the optical properties. On the contrary, the radiative intensity is highly sensitive to optical properties but slightly sensitive to thermal conductivity. Therefore, the optical and thermal signals should both be considered in the inverse problem to estimate the temperature-dependent properties of the transparent media. On this basis, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient were both estimated accurately by measuring the time-dependent temperature, and radiative response at the boundary of the slab. PMID:26912418

  20. Effective infrared absorption coefficient for photothermal radiometric measurements in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Majaron, Boris; Milanic, Matija

    2008-01-01

    Although photothermal radiometric (PTR) measurements commonly employ broad-band signal acquisition to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, all reported studies apply a fixed infrared (IR) absorption coefficient to simplify the involved signal analysis. In samples with large spectral variation of micro(lambda) in mid-IR, which includes most biological tissues, the selection of the effective IR absorption coefficient value (micro(eff)) can strongly affect the accuracy of the result. We present a novel analytical approach for the determination of optimal micro(eff) from spectral properties of the sample and radiation detector. In extensive numerical simulations of pulsed PTR temperature profiling in human skin using three common IR radiation detectors and several acquisition spectral bands, we demonstrate that our approach produces viable values micro(eff). Two previously used analytical estimations perform much worse in the same comparison. PMID:18182701

  1. Determination of RW3-to-water mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio for absolute dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Hanlon, Peta M; Charles, Paul H

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of absorbed dose to water in a solid-phantom may require a conversion factor because it may not be radiologically equivalent to water. One phantom developed for the use of dosimetry is a solid water, RW3 white-polystyrene material by IBA. This has a lower mass-energy absorption coefficient than water due to high bremsstrahlung yield, which affects the accuracy of absolute dosimetry measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of mass-energy absorption coefficient ratios, relative to water, from measurements in plastic water and RW3 with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (6 and 10 MV photon beams) as well as Monte Carlo modeling in BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. From this, the solid-phantom-to-water correction factor was determined for plastic water and RW3. PMID:21960410

  2. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature-dependent absorption coefficient and conductivity of participating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fangzhou; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-02-01

    A secondary optimization technique was proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. In the proposed method, the stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied to solve the inverse problem. The coupled radiation and conduction problem was solved in a 1D absorbing, emitting, but non-scattering slab exposed to a pulse laser. It is found that in the coupled radiation and conduction problem, the temperature response is highly sensitive to conductivity but slightly sensitive to the optical properties. On the contrary, the radiative intensity is highly sensitive to optical properties but slightly sensitive to thermal conductivity. Therefore, the optical and thermal signals should both be considered in the inverse problem to estimate the temperature-dependent properties of the transparent media. On this basis, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient were both estimated accurately by measuring the time-dependent temperature, and radiative response at the boundary of the slab.

  3. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature-dependent absorption coefficient and conductivity of participating media.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yatao; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fangzhou; Ruan, Liming; Tan, Heping

    2016-01-01

    A secondary optimization technique was proposed to estimate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. In the proposed method, the stochastic particle swarm optimization was applied to solve the inverse problem. The coupled radiation and conduction problem was solved in a 1D absorbing, emitting, but non-scattering slab exposed to a pulse laser. It is found that in the coupled radiation and conduction problem, the temperature response is highly sensitive to conductivity but slightly sensitive to the optical properties. On the contrary, the radiative intensity is highly sensitive to optical properties but slightly sensitive to thermal conductivity. Therefore, the optical and thermal signals should both be considered in the inverse problem to estimate the temperature-dependent properties of the transparent media. On this basis, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient were both estimated accurately by measuring the time-dependent temperature, and radiative response at the boundary of the slab. PMID:26912418

  4. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal radiometry. II Multilayered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal radiometry to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.

  5. Measurement and calculation of the sound absorption coefficient of pine wood charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Jae Gap; Baik, Kyung min; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Sung Soo

    2013-10-01

    Although charcoal has been widely utilized for physical therapy and as a deodorant, water purifier, etc. due to its porous features, research on its role as a sound-absorbing material is rarely found. Thus, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoal were measured using an impedance tube and were compared with the theoretical predictions in the frequency range of 500˜ 5000 Hz. The theory developed in the current study only considers the lowest possible mode propagating along the air channels of the charcoal and shows good agreements with the measurements. As the frequency is increased, the sound absorption coefficients of pine wood charcoals also increase, but are lower than those of other commonly-used sound-absorbing materials.

  6. AN INTERCOMPARISON CF THE INTEGRATING PLATE AND THE LASER TRANSMISSION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AEROSOL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.; Charlson, R.J.; Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1980-07-01

    The absorption coefficients determined by the integrating plate method and the laser transmission method are found to be comparable and highly correlated. Furthermore, a high correlation is found between these absorption coefficients and the carbon content of the aerosol in urbanized regions.

  7. Infrared absorption-coefficient data on SF6 applicable to atmospheric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Gopalan, A.; Brannon, J. F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients, k(nu)/cm per atm, of SF6 have been measured in the central Q-branches of the nu(3)-fundamental at 947/cm at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights in solar-occultation experiments or layers in the atmosphere. The data obtained with the Doppler-limited spectral resolution (about 0.0001/cm) of a tunable-diode laser spectrometer are useful in the atmospheric remote sensing of this trace gas.

  8. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  9. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.

  10. Use of radial symmetry for the calculation of cylindrical absorption coefficients and optimal capillary loadings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khalifah, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less

  11. Two-photon interband absorption coefficients in tungstate and molybdate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, V. I.; Karasik, A. Ya.

    2015-02-01

    Two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficients were measured in tungstate and molybdate crystals - BaWO4, KGW, CaMoO4, BaMoO4, CaWO4, PbWO4 and ZnWO4 upon different orientations of excitation polarization with respect to the crystallographic axes. Trains of 25 ps pulses with variable radiation intensities of third (349 nm) harmonics of passively mode-locked 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser were used for interband two-photon excitation of the crystals. It was suggested that in the case, when 349 nm radiation pumping energy exceeds the bandgap width (hν>Eg), the nonlinear excitation process can be considered as two-step absorption. The interband two-photon absorption in all the studied crystals induces the following one-photon absorption from the exited states, which affects the nonlinear process dynamics and leads to a hysteresis in the dependence of the transmission on the excitation intensity. This fact was taken into account under analysis of the experimental dependences of the reciprocal transmission on the excitation intensity. Laser excitation in the transparency region of the crystals caused stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) not for all the crystals studied. The measured nonlinear coefficients allowed us to explain the suppression of SRS in crystals as a result of competition between the SRS and TPA.

  12. Extended Simulations of Graphene Growth with Updated Rate Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; You, X; Frenklach, M

    2010-03-18

    New simulations of graphene growth in flame environments are presented. The simulations employ a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm coupled to molecular mechanics (MM) geometry optimization to track individual graphenic species as they evolve. Focus is given to incorporation of five-member rings and resulting curvature and edge defects. The model code has been re-written to be more computationally efficient enabling a larger set of simulations to be run, decreasing stochastic fluctuations in the averaged results. The model also includes updated rate coefficients for graphene edge reactions recently published in the literature. The new simulations are compared to results from the previous model as well as to hydrogen to carbon ratios recorded in experiment and calculated with alternate models.

  13. Cosmological Implications of the Uncertainty in Astrochemical Rate Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, S. C. O.; Savin, D. W.; Jappsen, A.-K.

    2006-01-01

    The cooling of neutral gas of primordial composition, or with very low levels of metal enrichment, depends crucially on the formation of molecular coolants, such as H2 and HD within the gas. Although the chemical reactions involved in the formation and destruction of these molecules are well known, the same cannot be said for the rate coefficients of these reactions, some of which are uncertain by an order of magnitude. Here we discuss two reactions for which large uncertainties exist the formation of H2 by associative detachment of H- with H and the destruction of H- by mutual neutralization with protons. We show that these uncertainties can have a dramatic impact on the effectiveness of cooling during protogalactic collapse.

  14. Diffusion Coefficients of Water and Leachables in Methacrylate-based Crosslinked Polymers using Absorption Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10−8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592

  15. Microwave Resonator Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients: A Preliminary Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design study examined the feasibility of using microwave resonator measurements to improve the accuracy of atmospheric absorption coefficients and refractivity between 18 and 35 GHz. Increased accuracies would improve the capability of water vapor radiometers to correct for radio signal delays caused by Earth's atmosphere. Calibration of delays incurred by radio signals traversing the atmosphere has applications to both deep space tracking and planetary radio science experiments. Currently, the Cassini gravity wave search requires 0.8-1.0% absorption coefficient accuracy. This study examined current atmospheric absorption models and estimated that current model accuracy ranges from 5% to 7%. The refractivity of water vapor is known to 1% accuracy, while the refractivity of many dry gases (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) are known to better than 0.1%. Improvements to the current generation of models will require that both the functional form and absolute absorption of the water vapor spectrum be calibrated and validated. Several laboratory techniques for measuring atmospheric absorption and refractivity were investigated, including absorption cells, single and multimode rectangular cavity resonators, and Fabry-Perot resonators. Semi-confocal Fabry-Perot resonators were shown to provide the most cost-effective and accurate method of measuring atmospheric gas refractivity. The need for accurate environmental measurement and control was also addressed. A preliminary design for the environmental control and measurement system was developed to aid in identifying significant design issues. The analysis indicated that overall measurement accuracy will be limited by measurement errors and imprecise control of the gas sample's thermodynamic state, thermal expansion and vibration- induced deformation of the resonator structure, and electronic measurement error. The central problem is to identify systematic errors because random errors can be reduced by averaging

  16. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of photolysis rate coefficients (or "j-values") is essential to determining the photochemical reaction rates that define ozone loss and other crucial processes in the atmosphere. j-Values can be calculated with radiative transfer models, derived from actinic flux observations, or inferred from trace gas measurements. The primary objective of the present effort was the accurate calculation of j-values in the Arctic twilight along NASA DC-8 flight tracks during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II), based in Kiruna, Sweden (68 degrees N, 20 degrees E) during January-February 2003. The JHU/APL radiative transfer model was utilized to produce a large suite of j-values for photolysis processes (over 70 reactions) relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The calculations take into account the actual changes in ozone abundance and apparent albedo of clouds and the Earth surface along the aircraft flight tracks as observed by in situ and remote sensing platforms (e.g., EP-TOMS). A secondary objective was to analyze solar irradiance data from NCAR s Direct beam Irradiance Atmospheric Spectrometer (DIAS) on-board the NASA DC-8 and to start the development of a flexible, multi-species spectral fitting technique for the independent retrieval of O3,O2.02, and aerosol optical properties.

  17. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  18. Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.

    PubMed

    Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. PMID:24972796

  19. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  20. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis

  1. A comparison of methods for the measurement of the absorption coefficient in natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegau, W. Scott; Cleveland, Joan S.; Doss, W.; Kennedy, C. Dan; Maffione, Robert A.; Mueller, James L.; Stone, R.; Trees, Charles C.; Weidemann, Alan D.; Wells, Willard H.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring of 1992 an optical closure experiment was conducted at Lake Pend Orielle, Idaho. A primary objective of the experiment was to compare techniques for the measurement of the spectral absorption coefficent and other inherent optical properties of natural waters. Daily averages of absorption coefficents measured using six methods are compared at wavelengths of 456, 488, and 532 nm. Overall agreement was within 40% at 456 nm and improved with increasing wavelength to 25% at 532 nm. These absorption measurements were distributed over the final 9 days of the experiement, when bio-optical conditions in Lake Pend Oreille (as indexed by the beam attenuation coefficent c(sub p)(660) and chlorophyll a fluorescence profiles) were representative of those observed throughout the experiment. However, profiles of stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and beam transmission showed that bio-optical properties in the lake varied strongly on all time and space scales. Therefore environmental variabilty contributed significantly to deviations between daily mean absorption coefficients measured using the different techniques.

  2. Mesure de coefficients d'absorption de plasmas créés par laser nanoseconde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thais, F.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Eidmann, K.; Bastiani, S.; Blenski, T.; Gilleron, F.

    2005-06-01

    La mesure des coefficients d'absorption dans les plasmas chauds est particulièrement utile dans le domaine de la fusion par confinement inertiel ainsi que dans divers contextes en astrophysique. Le développement des calculs de physique atomique qui y sont associés repose sur des hypothèses qu'il est nécessaire de vérifier dans la plus large gamme possible de conditions physiques. Nous présentons ici la méthode de mesure et d'analyse employée en nous appuyant sur l'exemple des cibles multicouches nickel/aluminium.

  3. Determination of Absorption Coefficient of a Solution by a Simple Experimental Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Deepak; Akhildev, C.; Sreenivasan, P. V.; Leelamma, K. K.; Joseph, Lyjo K.; Anila, E. I.

    2011-10-01

    The absorption coefficients of aqueous potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution at 638.8 nm for various concentrations are determined using a simple experimental set up. The setup consists of He-Ne laser source (Red, 638.8 nm, 10 mW), a glass jar in which the KMnO4 sample is taken, a mirror strip inclined at 45° to direct the laser beam towards the bottom of the glass jar, a traveling microscope to adjust the position of light dependent resistor (LDR) and a digital multimeter to measure the resistance.

  4. Water in the Earth's Mantle: Mineral-specific IR Absorption Coefficients and Radiative Thermal Conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Minor and trace element chemistry, phase relations, rheology, thermal structure and the role of volatiles and their abundance in the deep Earth mantle are still far from fully explored, but fundamental to understanding the processes involved in Earth formation and evolution. Theory and high pressure experiments imply a significant water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals, such as majoritic garnet, olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, composing the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone to a depth of 660 km. Studying the effect of water incorporation on chemical and physical mineral properties is of importance, because the presence of trace amounts of water, incorporated as OH through charge-coupled chemical substitutions into such nominally anhydrous high-pressure silicates, notably influences phase relations, melting behavior, conductivity, elasticity, viscosity and rheology. Knowledge of absolute water contents in nominally anhydrous minerals is essential for modeling the Earth's interior water cycle. One of the most common and sensitive tools for water quantification is IR spectroscopy for which mineral-specific absorption coefficients are required. Such calibration constants can be derived from hydrogen concentrations determined by independent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy or proton-proton(pp)-scattering. Here, analytical advances and mineral-specific IR absorption coefficients for the quantification of H2O in major phases of the Earth's mantle will be discussed. Furthermore, new data from optical absorption measurements in resistively heated diamond-anvil cells at high pressures and temperatures up to 1000 K will be presented. Experiments were performed on synthetic single-crystals of olivine, ringwoodite, majoritic garnet, and Al-bearing phase D with varying iron, aluminum and OH contents to calculate radiative thermal conductivities and study their contribution to heat transfer in the Earth's interior

  5. Theoretical calculations of nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients of doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, Vl A.; Muryumin, E. E.; Gaiduk, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we present the first theoretical predictions concerning the nonlinear refractive and absorptive properties of the doped graphene in which the Fermi energy {{E}F} of charge carriers (noninteracting massless Dirac fermions) is controlled by an external gate voltage. We base our study on the original perturbation theory technique developed by Genkin and Mednis (1968 Sov. Phys. JETP 27 609) for calculating the nonlinear-optical (NLO) response coefficients of bulk crystalline semiconductors with partially filled bands. Using a simple tight-binding model for the π-electron energy bands of graphene, we obtain analytic expressions for the nonlinear refractive index {{n}2}(ω ) and the nonlinear absorption coefficient {{α }2}(ω ) of the doped graphene at photon energies above twice the value of the Fermi energy (\\hbar ω \\gt 2{{E}F}). We show that in this spectral region, both the nonlinear refraction ant the nonlinear absorption are determined predominantly by the combined processes which simultaneously involve intraband and interband motion of π-electrons. Our calculations indicate that extremely large negative values of n2 (of the order of -{{10}-6} cm2 W-1) can be achieved in the graphene at a relatively low doping level (of about 1012 cm-2) provided that the excitation frequency slightly exceeds the threshold frequency corresponding to the onset of interband transitions. With a further increase of the radiation frequency, the {{n}2}(ω ) becomes positive and begins to decrease in its absolute magnitude. The peculiar frequency dispersion of n2 and a negative sign of the {{α }2} (absorption bleaching), as predicted by our theory, suggest that the doped graphene is a prospective NLO material to be used in practical optical switching applications.

  6. Proton Transfer Rate Coefficient Measurements of Selected Volatile Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, G.; Popović, S.; Vušković, L.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed an apparatus based on the selected ion flow tube (SIFT)footnote D. Smith and N.G. Adams, Ads. At. Mol. Phys. 24, 1 (1987). that allows the study of proton transfer between various positive ions and volatile organic molecules. Reactions in the flow tube occur at pressures of approximately 300 mTorr, eliminating the requirement of thermal beam production. The proton donor molecule H_3O^+ has been produced using several types of electrical discharges in water vapor, such as a capacitively coupled RF discharge and a DC hollow cathode discharge. Presently we are developing an Asmussen-type microwave cavity discharge using the components of a standard microwave oven that has the advantages of simple design and operation, as well as low cost. We will be presenting the results of the microwave cavity ion source to produce H_3O^+, and compare it to the other studied sources. In addition, we will be presenting a preliminary measurement of the proton transfer rate coefficient in the reaction of H_3O^+ with acetone and methanol.

  7. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the MSX/UVISI satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the Midcourse Space Experiment(MSX)/Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. A Coefficient for Measuring the Agreement on Bipolar Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viernstein, Nikolaus

    1990-01-01

    A new coefficient--psi-star--is presented for measuring agreement on bidirectional response continua. The coefficient is designed to measure agreement in larger square contingency tables with even numbers of rows and columns. Advantages of the procedure are discussed. (SLD)

  10. Temperature and pressure dependence of dichloro-difluoromethane (CF2C12) absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.

  11. The effect of metal nano particle on optical absorption coefficient of multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, N.; Keshavarz, A.; Nadgaran, H.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optical absorption coefficient of hybrid structure consisting of metal nano particle (MNP) coupled to multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MSQD). Energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of Schrödinger equation in this structure are obtained by using numerical solution (by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The effect of MNP in the vicinity of MSQD is calculated by considering local field theory. Then the variation of optical absorption coefficient hybrid structure is calculated. The results show that the presence of MNP near MSQD enhances the optical absorption coefficient. Also, by changing the distance between MNP and MSQD and radius of MNP, variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are introduced.

  12. Spectral absorption coefficients of argon and silicon and spectral reflectivity of aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krascella, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to estimate the spectral properties of argon as a function of pressure, temperature, and wave number. The spectral characteristics of the argon buffer gas exert a strong influence on radiative energy transfer in the in-reactor test configuration of the nuclear light bulb engine. An existing computer program was modified and used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficients of argon at total pressures of 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 atm in the temperature interval between 1000 and 30,000 K. At each pressure and temperature, spectral properties were calculated for forty-seven wave numbers in the interval between 1000 and 1,000,000 cm/1. Estimates of the spectral absorption coefficients of silicon were made as part of an evaluation of silicon vapor as a possible buffer-gas seeding agent for the reference nuclear light bulb engine. Existing cross-section data were used to calculate the spectral characteristics of silicon at twenty-four temperatures in the interval between 2000 and 10,000 K.

  13. Spectral variation of the infrared absorption coefficient in pulsed photothermal profiling of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Majaron, Boris; Verkruysse, Wim; Tanenbaum, B Samuel; Milner, Thomas E; Nelson, J Stuart

    2002-06-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry can be used for non-invasive depth profiling of optically scattering samples, including biological tissues such as human skin. Computational reconstruction of the laser-induced temperature profile from recorded radiometric signals is sensitive to the value of the tissue absorption coefficient in the infrared detection band (muIR). While assumed constant in reported reconstruction algorithms, muIR of human skin varies by two orders of magnitude in the commonly used 3-5 microm detection band. We analyse the problem of selecting the effective absorption coefficient value to be used with such algorithms. In a numerical simulation of photothermal profiling we demonstrate that results can be markedly impaired, unless the reconstruction algorithm is augmented by accounting for spectral variation muIR(lambda). Alternatively, narrowing the detection band to 4.5-5 microm reduces the spectral variation muIR(lambda) to a level that permits the use of the simpler, unaugmented algorithm. Implementation of the latter approach for depth profiling of port wine stain birthmarks in vivo is presented and discussed. PMID:12108776

  14. Effect of the absorption coefficient of aluminium plates on their thermoelastic bending in photoacoustic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Galović, S.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.

    2015-06-01

    The open-cell photoacoustic signal measured in the transmission configuration for aluminum thin plates with thicknesses of 280 μm, 197 μm, and 112 μm is experimentally and theoretically analyzed, in the 20 Hz-7 kHz modulation frequency range. It is shown that the observed differences between the predictions of the standard thermoelastic model and the experiment data of both the amplitude and phase of the photoacoustic signal can be overcome by considering the aluminum samples coated with a thin layer of black paint as volume-absorber materials. This new approach provides a quite good agreement with the obtained experimental data, in the whole frequency range, and yields an effective absorption coefficient of (16 ± 2) mm-1, for a 280 μm-thick sample. The introduction of the finite absorption coefficient led to the correct ratio between the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic components of the photoacoustic signal. Furthermore, it is found that the "volume-absorber" approach accurately describes the behavior of the amplitude, but not that of the phase recorded for a 112 μm-thick sample, due to its relatively strong thermoelastic bending, which is not considered by this theory. Within the approximation of the small bending, the proposed "volume-absorber" model provides a reliable description of the photoacoustic signal for Al samples thicker than 112 μm, and extends the applicability of the classical "opaque" approach.

  15. Effect of hydrogenic impurity on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Mou, Sen; Xiao, Bo

    2015-05-01

    The analytical expressions of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum dot with a hydrogenic impurity are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The wave functions and the energy levels are obtained by using the variational method. Numerical results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are strongly affected by the hydrogenic impurity.

  16. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to measure laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions of hydrocarbon molecules and radicals at low temperatures, which are relevant to the atmospheric photochemistry of Saturn, Jupiter, and Titan. Upcoming NASA planetary missions, such as Cassini, will probe the atmosphere of Titan in more detail, offering an excellent opportunity to test kinetic models and to establish fiducial standards for using kinetic models to interpret various parameters of the outer planets. Accurate low temperature kinetic data, which are presently lacking, may require crucial revisions to the rates of formation and destruction and are of utmost importance to the success of these efforts. In this program, several key reactions of ethynyl radicals (C2H) with acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4), and oxygen (O2), down to temperatures of 170 K were successfully investigated. The experimental apparatus developed in our laboratory for measuring reaction kinetics at low temperatures consists of a laser photolysis/infrared probe laser setup. The rate measurements are carried out as a function of (low) temperature with a transverse flow cell designed specifically for these studies. A 193 nm argon fluoride pulsed excimer laser is used to photolyze a suitable precursor molecule, such as acetylene to produce C2H, and a high resolution, tunable infrared F-center laser (2.3-3.35 mu m) probes the transient concentrations of the radical species directly in absorption to extract the kinetic rate coefficients.

  17. Rate coefficients for N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, D. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1991-09-01

    The data of Zipf (1980) on N2(+)(v) dissociative recombination are analyzed taking into account the fact that there is coupling due to reversible symmetrical resonance charge transfer, N2(+)(v) + N2(0) yields N2(+)(0) + N2(v). The vibrational deactivation in N2(+)(v)-Ne collisions is also considered. A reported experimental value of the vibrational deactivation coefficient is found to be much higher than can be reconciled with the results of Zipf and it is therefore rejected. The analysis shows that the recombination coefficient for N2(+)(0) is about 2.6 x 10 exp-7 cu cm/s at 300 K and that recombination coefficients for N2(+)(1) and N2(+)(2) are substantially smaller. It is concluded that these coefficients conflict with the dissociative recombination cross section vs energy curve obtained by the merged beam method.

  18. Absorption Spectra and Absorption Coefficients for Methane in the 750-940 nm region obtained by Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, J. J.; Cao, H.

    2000-10-01

    Methane spectral features are prominent in the reflected sunlight spectra from the outer planets and some of their major satellites and can provide useful information on the atmospheres of those bodies. Methane bands occurring in the visible to near-IR region are particularly important because for many of these planetary bodies, methane bands occurring in the IR are saturated. Spectral observations of these bodies also are being made at increasingly higher resolution. In order to interpret the planetary spectra, laboratory data for methane obtained at appropriate sample conditions and spectral resolution are required. Since the visible to near-IR spectrum of methane is intrinsically weak, sensitive techniques are required to perform the laboratory measurements. We have employed the intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS) technique to record methane spectrum in the visible to near-IR region. New results for room temperature methane in the 10,635 - 13,300 cm-1 region and for liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) methane in the 10,860 - 11,605 cm-1 region will be presented. Spectra throughout the more strongly absorbing sections will be shown. These spectra are acquired at a resolution of 400,000 - 500,000 and are calibrated using iodine reference spectra acquired from an extra-cavity cell at nearly the same time as when the methane data are recorded. From the spectra, absorption coefficients are determined and these are presented as averages over 1 Å and 1 cm-1 intervals. In order to obtain the results, spectra are deconvolved for the instrument function using a Fourier transform technique. The validity of the approach is verified from studies of isolated oxygen lines in the A band occurring around 760 nm. Good agreement is observed between the intensity values determined from the FT deconvolution and integration method and those derived by fitting the observed line profiles to Voigt line-shapes convoluted with the instrument function. The methane results are compared

  19. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    PubMed

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. PMID:25465962

  20. Measuring absorption coefficient of scattering liquids using a tube inside an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Veenstra, Colin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-04-10

    A method for measuring the absorption coefficient μa of absorbing and scattering liquid samples is presented. The sample is injected into a small transparent tube mounted through an integrating sphere. Two models for determining the absorption coefficient using the relative optical output signal are described and validated using aqueous ink absorbers of 0.5 vol.% (0.3  mm-1a<1.55  mm-1) and 1.0 vol.% (1.0  mm-1a<4.0  mm-1) concentrations with 1 vol.% (μs'≈1.4  mm-1) and 10 vol.% (μs'≈14  mm-1) Intralipid dilutions. The low concentrations give μa and μs values, which are comparable with those of biological tissues. One model assumes a uniform light distribution within the sample, which is valid for low absorption. Another model considers light attenuation that obeys Lambert-Beer's law, which may be used for relatively high absorption. Measurements with low and high scattering samples are done for the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Measured spectra of purely absorbing samples are within 15% agreement with measurements using standard transmission spectrophotometry. For 0.5 vol.% ink absorbers and at wavelengths below 700 nm, measured μa values are higher for samples with low scattering and lower for those with high scattering. At wavelengths above 700 nm, measured μa values do not vary significantly with amount of scattering. For 1.0 vol.% ink absorbers, measured spectra do not change with low scattering. These results indicate that the method can be used for measuring absorption spectra of scattering liquid samples with optical properties similar to biological absorbers, particularly at wavelengths above 700 nm, which is difficult to accomplish with standard transmission spectrophotometry. PMID:27139871

  1. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database). PMID:25090334

  2. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Bean Seeds Investigated Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, G.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Perez-Reyes, M. C. J.; Martinez, E. Moreno

    2015-06-01

    A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in seed technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which could be useful for biostimulation processes, by light sources, in early stages of seed germination. In the present research photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and the Rosencwaig and Gersho model were used to determine the optical absorption coefficient () of five varieties of bean seeds ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of different productive cycles; the seeds were biostimulated by laser treatment to evaluate the effects of biostimulation pre-sowing. It was found that the bean varieties V1, V2, V4, and V5 were optically opaque in the visible spectrum; in the case of the V3 variety, this sample was optically transparent from 680 nm. The varieties of the studied bean seeds showed significant statistical differences in sizes and also in their optical absorption spectra. The biostimulation effects showed that the seed samples with a higher optical penetration length had a positive biostimulation, in the percentage of germination, obtaining an enhancement of 47 % compared to the control sample. The utility of PAS for the optical characterization of seeds has been demonstrated in this study of the laser biostimulation process of this kind of samples.

  3. The melanosome: threshold temperature for explosive vaporization and internal absorption coefficient during pulsed laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J

    1991-06-01

    The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum. PMID:1886936

  4. Highly Dynamic Ligand Binding and Light Absorption Coefficient of Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Jonathan; Ibáñez, Maria; Geiregat, Pieter; Nedelcu, Georgian; Walravens, Willem; Maes, Jorick; Martins, Jose C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Hens, Zeger

    2016-02-23

    Lead halide perovskite materials have attracted significant attention in the context of photovoltaics and other optoelectronic applications, and recently, research efforts have been directed to nanostructured lead halide perovskites. Collodial nanocrystals (NCs) of cesium lead halides (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit bright photoluminescence, with emission tunable over the entire visible spectral region. However, previous studies on CsPbX3 NCs did not address key aspects of their chemistry and photophysics such as surface chemistry and quantitative light absorption. Here, we elaborate on the synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs and their surface chemistry. In addition, the intrinsic absorption coefficient was determined experimentally by combining elemental analysis with accurate optical absorption measurements. (1)H solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize sample purity, elucidate the surface chemistry, and evaluate the influence of purification methods on the surface composition. We find that ligand binding to the NC surface is highly dynamic, and therefore, ligands are easily lost during the isolation and purification procedures. However, when a small amount of both oleic acid and oleylamine is added, the NCs can be purified, maintaining optical, colloidal, and material integrity. In addition, we find that a high amine content in the ligand shell increases the quantum yield due to the improved binding of the carboxylic acid. PMID:26786064

  5. Absorption coefficients of selected explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1-2.8 THz.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Yunqing; Zhao, Hongwei; Bastiaans, Glenn J; Zhang, X-C

    2007-09-17

    We have investigated the absorption spectra of seventeen explosives and related compounds (ERCs) by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.1-2.8 THz region. Most of these substances show characteristic absorption features in this frequency range. The measured absorption coefficients of these ERCs form a database, which is of great importance for biochemical, defense and security related applications. PMID:19547570

  6. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  7. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Pinegin, A V; Suslov, N A

    2012-01-31

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 - 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s - 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p - 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  8. Spectral absorption-coefficient data on HCFC-22 and SF6 for remote-sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Li, Z.; Nemtchinov, V.; Cherukuri, A.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral absorption-coefficients (cross-sections) kappa(sub nu) (/cm/atm) have been measured in the 7.62, 8.97, and 12.3 micrometer bands of HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and the 10.6 micrometer bands of SF6 employing a high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer. Temperature and total pressure have been varied to simulate conditions corresponding to tropospheric and stratospheric layers in the atmosphere. The kappa(sub nu) are compared with values measured by us previously using a tunable diode laser spectrometer and with the appropriate entries in HITRAN and GEISA, two of the databases known to the atmospheric scientist. The measured absolute intensities of the bands are compared with previously published values.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of acoustic streaming: absorption coefficient and acoustic field shape estimation.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Grucker, Daniel; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudiere, Eric

    2006-07-01

    In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to visualize acoustic streaming in liquids. A single-shot spin echo sequence (HASTE) with a saturation band perpendicular to the acoustic beam permits the acquisition of an instantaneous image of the flow due to the application of ultrasound. An average acoustic streaming velocity can be estimated from the MR images, from which the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and the bulk viscosity of different glycerol-water mixtures can be deduced. In the same way, this MRI method could be used to assess the acoustic field and time-average power of ultrasonic transducers in water (or other liquids with known physical properties), after calibration of a geometrical parameter that is dependent on the experimental setup. PMID:16650447

  10. A new method to retrieve spectral absorption coefficient of highly-scattering and weakly-absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrovsky, Leonid A.

    2016-03-01

    A significant uncertainty in the absorption coefficient of highly scattering dispersed materials is typical in the spectral ranges of very weak absorption. The traditional way to identify the main absorption and scattering characteristics of semi-transparent materials is based on spectral measurements of normal-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance for the material sample. Unfortunately this way cannot be used in the case of in vivo measurements of optical properties of biological tissues. A method suggested in the present paper is based on thermal response to the periodic radiative heating of the open surface of a semi-transparent material. It is shown that the period of a variation of the surface temperature is sensitive to the value of an average absorption coefficient in the surface layer. As a result, the monochromatic external irradiation combined with the surface temperature measurements can be used to retrieve the spectral values of absorption coefficient. Possible application of this method to porous semi-transparent ceramics is considered. An example problem is also solved to illustrate the applicability of this method to human skin. The approach suggested enables one to estimate an average absorption coefficient of human skin of a patient just before the thermal processing.

  11. Retrieval of phytoplankton and colored detrital matter absorption coefficients with remote sensing reflectance in an ultraviolet band.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping

    2015-02-01

    The light absorption of phytoplankton and colored detrital matter (CDM), which includes contribution of gelbstoff and detrital matters, has distinctive yet overlapping features in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible domain. The CDM absorption (a(dg)) increases exponentially with decreasing wavelength while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (a(ph)) generally decreases toward the shorter bands for the range of 350-450 nm. It has long been envisioned that including ocean color measurements in the UV range may help the separation of these two components from the remotely sensed ocean color spectrum. An attempt is made in this study to provide an analytical assessment of this expectation. We started with the development of an absorption decomposition model [quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA)-UV], analogous to the QAA, that partitions the total absorption coefficient using information at bands 380 and 440 nm. Compared to the retrieval results relying on the absorption information at 410 and 440 nm of the original QAA, our analyses indicate that QAA-UV can improve the retrieval of a(ph) and a(dg), although the improvement in accuracy is not significant for values at 440 nm. The performance of the UV-based algorithm is further evaluated with in situ measurements. The limited improvement observed with the field measurements highlights that the separation of a(dg) and a(ph) is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ocean color measurements and the estimated total absorption coefficient. PMID:25967770

  12. Variation of phytoplankton absorption coefficients in the northern South China Sea during spring and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Hong, H.; Shang, S.; Dai, M.; Lee, Z.

    2007-05-01

    We examined the temporal and spatial variabilities of phytoplankton absorption coefficients (αphλ)) and their relationships with physical processes in the northern South China Sea from two cruise surveys during spring (May 2001) and late autumn (November 2002). A large river plume induced by heavy precipitation in May stimulated a phytoplankton bloom on the inner shelf, causing significant changes in the surface water in αph values and B/R ratios (αph(440)/αph(675)). This was consistent with the observed one order of magnitude elevation of chlorophyll α and a shift from a pico/nano dominated phytoplankton community to one dominated by micro-algae. At the seasonal level, enhanced vertical mixing due to strengthened northeast monsoon in November has been observed to result in higher surface αph(675) (0.002-0.006 m-1 higher) and less pronounced subsurface maximum on the outer shelf/slope in November as compared that in May. Measurements of αph and B/R ratios from three transects in November revealed a highest surface αph(675) immediately outside the mouth of the Pearl River Estuary, whereas lower αph(675) and higher B/R ratios were featured in the outer shelf/slope waters, demonstrating the respective influence of the Pearl River plume and the oligotrophic nature of South China Sea water. The difference in spectral shapes of phytoplankton absorption (measured by B/R ratios and bathochromic shifts) on these three transects infers that picoprocaryotes are the major component of the phytoplankton community on the outer shelf/slope rather than on the inner shelf. In addition, a regional tuning of the phytoplankton absorption spectral model (Carder et al., 1999) demonstrated a greater spatial variation than seasonal variation in the lead parameter a0(λ). These results suggest that phytoplankton absorption properties in a coastal region such as the northern South China Sea are complex and region-based parameterization is mandatory in order for remote sensing

  13. Application of the Z-scan technique to determine the optical Kerr coefficient and two-photon absorption coefficient of magnetite nanoparticles colloidal suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivacqua, Marco; Espinosa, Daniel; Martins Figueiredo Neto, Antônio

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the occurrence of the optical Kerr effect and two-photon absorption when an oil-based magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles colloidal suspension is illuminated with high intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The frequency of the pulses is controlled and the Z-scan technique is employed in our measurements of the nonlinear optical Kerr coefficient (n2) and two-photon absorption coefficient (β). From these values it was possible to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility. We observed that increasing the pulse frequency, additional physical processes take place, increasing artificially the absolute values of n2 and β. The experimental conditions are discussed to assure the obtention of reliable values of these nonlinear optical parameters, which may be useful in all-optical switching and optical power limiting applications.

  14. Laboratory measurements of the ozone absorption coefficient in the wavelength region 339 to 362 nm at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciani, Marco; Disarra, Alcide; Fiocco, Giorgio

    1987-06-01

    Instrumentation for the absolute measurement of the ozone absorption coefficient in the Huggins bands at different temperatures was set up. Ozone is produced with an electrical discharge and stored cryogenically; differential absorption measurements are carried out in a slowly evolving mixture of ozone and molecular oxygen. Results in the region 339 to 362 nm at temperatures between minus 30 and plus 40 C are reported. Results support Katayama's (1979) model of the transitions giving rise to the Huggins absorption bands of ozone. For measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles by DIAL techniques, the results on the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient at the wavelength corresponding to the third harmonic of an NdYAG laser are stressed.

  15. Mass-energy absorption coefficient and backscatter factor ratios for kilovoltage x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.-M.; Seuntjens, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    For low-energy (up to 150 kV) x-rays, the ratio of mass-energy absorption coefficients for water to air, , and the backscatter factor B are used in the conversion of air kerma, measured free-in-air, to water kerma on the surface of a water phantom. For clinical radiotherapy, similar conversion factors are needed for the determination of the absorbed dose to biological tissues on (or near) the surface of a human body. We have computed the ratios and B factor ratios for different biological tissues including muscle, soft tissue, lung, skin and bone relative to water. The ratios were obtained by integrating the respective mass-energy absorption coefficients over the in-air primary photon spectra. We have also calculated the ratios at different depths in a water phantom in order to convert the measured in-phantom water kerma to the absorbed dose to various biological tissues. The EGS4/DOSIMETER Monte Carlo code system has been used for the simulation of the energy fluence at different depths in a water phantom irradiated by a kilovoltage x-ray beam of variable beam quality (HVL: 0.1 mm Al-5 mm Cu), field size and source-surface distance (SSD). The same code was also used in the calculation of the B factor ratios, soft tissue to water and bone to water. The results show that the B factor for bone differs from the B factor for water by up to 20% for a 100 kV beam (HVL: 2.65 mm Al) with a 100 field. On the other hand, the difference in the B factor between water and soft tissue is insignificant (well within 1% generally). This means that the B factors for water may be directly used to

  16. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION RATES AND CROP COEFFICIENTS FOR LOWBUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium angustifolium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) yield is strongly influenced by water availability; however, growers need more specific irrigation recommendations in order to optimize water use efficiency. Weighing lysimeters were used to determine actual evapotranspiration (ET) rates of lowbush bluebe...

  17. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wm. Hayden; Conner, Charles P.; Baines, Kevin H.

    1990-01-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH4 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum.

  18. Absorption coefficients for the 6190-A CH sub 4 band between 290 and 100 K with application to Uranus' atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, WM.H.; Conner, C.P.; Baines, K.H. JPL, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-05-01

    A novel laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy method allowing high sample control accuracy due to the small sample volume required has been used to obtain absorption coefficients for the CH{sub 4} 6190 A band as a function of temperature, from 290 to 100 K. The peak absorption coefficient is found to increase from 0.6 to 1.0/cm, and to be accompanied by significant band shape changes. When used to further constrain the Baines and Bergstrahl (1986) standard model of the Uranus atmosphere, the low-temperature data yield an excellent fit to the bandshape near the 6190 A band's minimum. 18 refs.

  19. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.

    1986-11-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of /sup 125/I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting.

  20. Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-07-14

    The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

  1. Re-evaluation of pulsed photothermal radiometric profiling in samples with spectrally varied infrared absorption coefficient.

    PubMed

    Majaron, Boris; Milanic, Matija

    2007-02-21

    Spectral variation of the sample absorption coefficient in mid-infrared (muIR) demands caution in photothermal radiometric measurements, because a constant muIR is regularly assumed in inverse analysis of the acquired signals. Adverse effects of such approximation were recently demonstrated in numerical simulations of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature profiling in soft biological tissues, utilizing a general-purpose optimization code in the reconstruction process. We present here an original reconstruction code, which combines a conjugate gradient minimization algorithm with non-negativity constraint to the sought temperature vector. For the same test examples as in the former report (hyper-Gaussian temperature profiles, InSb detector with 3-5 microm acquisition band, signal-to-noise ratio SNR=300) we obtain markedly improved reconstruction results, both when using a constant value mueff and when the spectral variation muIR(lambda) is accounted for in the analysis. By comparing the results, we find that the former approach introduces observable artefacts, especially in the superficial part of the profile (z<100 microm). However, the artefacts are much less severe than previously reported and are almost absent in the case of a deeper, single-lobed test profile. We demonstrate that the observed artefacts do not result from sub-optimal selection of mueff, and that they vary with specific realizations of white noise added to the simulated signals. The same holds also for a two-lobed test profile. PMID:17264372

  2. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal radiometry. I. Homogeneous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín

    2011-08-01

    Modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) has been widely used to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. The method is based on illuminating the sample with a plane light beam and measuring the infrared emission with an infrared detector. The amplitude and phase of the PTR voltage is recorded as a function of the modulation frequency and then fitted to the theoretical model. In this work, we test the ability of modulated PTR to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of homogeneous slabs. In order to eliminate the instrumental factor, self-normalization is used, i.e., the ratio of the PTR signal recorded at the rear and front surfaces. The influence of the multiple reflections of the light beam, the heat losses, and the transparency to infrared wavelengths are analyzed. Measurements performed on a wide variety of homogeneous materials, covering the whole range from transparent to opaque, confirm the validity of the method. In Part II of this work, the method is extended to multilayered materials.

  3. Noise-driven optical absorption coefficients of impurity doped quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-01-01

    We make an extensive investigation of linear, third-order nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients (ACs) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The noise invoked in the present study is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. A perpendicular magnetic field acts as a source of confinement and a static external electric field has been applied. The AC profiles have been studied as a function of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as optical intensity, electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, relaxation time, Al concentration, dopant potential, and noise strength take on different values. In addition, the role of mode of application of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the AC profiles has also been analyzed meticulously. The AC profiles often consist of a number of interesting observations such as one photon resonance enhancement, shift of AC peak position, variation of AC peak intensity, and bleaching of AC peak. However, presence of noise alters the features of AC profiles and leads to some interesting manifestations. Multiplicative noise brings about more complexity in the AC profiles than its additive counterpart. The observations indeed illuminate several useful aspects in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise. The findings are expected to be quite relevant from a technological perspective.

  4. An empirical determination of the dust mass absorption coefficient, κd, using the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher J. R.; Schofield, Simon P.; Gomez, Haley L.; Davies, Jonathan I.

    2016-06-01

    We use the published photometry and spectroscopy of 22 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to determine that the value of the dust mass absorption coefficient κd at a wavelength of 500 μm is kappa _{500} = 0.051^{+0.070}_{-0.026} m^{2 kg^{-1}}. We do so by taking advantage of the fact that the dust-to-metals ratio in the interstellar medium of galaxies appears to be constant. We argue that our value for κd supersedes that of James et al. - who pioneered this approach for determining κd - because we take advantage of superior data, and account for a number of significant systematic effects that they did not consider. We comprehensively incorporate all methodological and observational contributions to establish the uncertainty on our value, which represents a marked improvement on the oft-quoted `order-of-magnitude' uncertainty on κd. We find no evidence that the value of κd differs significantly between galaxies, or that it correlates with any other measured or derived galaxy properties. We note, however, that the availability of data limits our sample to relatively massive (109.7 < M⋆ < 1011.0 M⊙), high metallicity (8.61 < [ 12 + log_{10} fracOH ] < 8.86) galaxies; future work will allow us to investigate a wider range of systems.

  5. Accurate estimation of normal incidence absorption coefficients with confidence intervals using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuye, Cedric; Vanlanduit, Steve; Guillaume, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    When using optical measurements of the sound fields inside a glass tube, near the material under test, to estimate the reflection and absorption coefficients, not only these acoustical parameters but also confidence intervals can be determined. The sound fields are visualized using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). In this paper the influence of different test signals on the quality of the results, obtained with this technique, is examined. The amount of data gathered during one measurement scan makes a thorough statistical analysis possible leading to the knowledge of confidence intervals. The use of a multi-sine, constructed on the resonance frequencies of the test tube, shows to be a very good alternative for the traditional periodic chirp. This signal offers the ability to obtain data for multiple frequencies in one measurement, without the danger of a low signal-to-noise ratio. The variability analysis in this paper clearly shows the advantages of the proposed multi-sine compared to the periodic chirp. The measurement procedure and the statistical analysis are validated by measuring the reflection ratio at a closed end and comparing the results with the theoretical value. Results of the testing of two building materials (an acoustic ceiling tile and linoleum) are presented and compared to supplier data.

  6. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens. PMID:27256895

  7. Determination of the diffusion length and the optical self absorption coefficient using EBIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermazi, S.; Guermazi, H.; Mlik, Y.; El Jani, B.; Grill, C.; Toureille, A.

    2001-10-01

    We have developed a model of calculation of the induced current due to an electron beam. The expression for the electron beam induced current (EBIC) with an extended generation profile is obtained via the resolution of a steady state continuity equation by the Green function method, satisfying appropriated boundary conditions to the physical model. The generation profile takes into account the lateral diffusion, the effect of defects, dislocations and recombination surfaces besides the number of absorbed electrons and that of diffuse electrons as a function of the depth. In the case of a Schottky diode Au/GaAs obtained by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method, the theoretical induced current profile is compared to the experimental one and to theoretical profiles whose analytical expressions are given by van Roosbroeck and Bresse. The minority carriers diffusion length L_n = 2 μm and the optical self-absorption coefficient a=0.034 μm^{-1} can be deduced from the experimental current profile, measured by scanning electron microscopy. The theoretical curve, obtained from the proposed model is in a good agreement with the experimental one for surface recombination velocity 10^6 cm s^{-1} except for distances far from the depletion layer (x_0 > 2.3 μm) where the photocurrent produced by the multiple process of the reabsorbed recombination radiation is preponderant. Our results are in agreement with those obtained by other experimental techniques on the same samples.

  8. Effects of combined scattering and absorption coefficients on laser speckle contrast imaging values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksari, Kosar; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.

    2015-03-01

    Laser Speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a non-invasive or minimally invasive method for visualizing blood flow and perfusion in biological tissues. In LSCI the motion of scattering particles results in a reduction in global and regional speckle contrast. A variety of parameters can affect the calculated contrast values in LSCI techniques, including the optical properties of the fluid and surrounding tissue. In typical LSCI where the motion of blood is of interests, optical properties are influenced by hematocrit levels. In this work we considered the combined effects of both the scattering and absorption coefficients on LSCI measurements on a flow phantom. Fluid phantoms consisting of various concentrations of neutrally buoyant ~10 micron microspheres and India ink mixed with DI water were formulated to mimic the optical properties of whole blood with various levels of hematocrit. In these flow studies, it was found that an increase in μa and/or μs led to a decrease in contrast values when all other experimental parameters were held constant. The observed reduction in contrast due to optical property changes could easily be confused with a contrast reduction due to increased flow velocity. These results suggest that optical properties need to be considered when using LSCI to make flow estimates.

  9. Refinement of the aeronomically determined rate coefficient for the reaction of N2/+/ with O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    An earlier aeronomic determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction N2(+) + O yields NO(+) + N using Atmosphere Explorer data indicated a small increase in the rate coefficient with ion temperature, contrary to laboratory observations. This was incorrectly attributed to neglect of an increase in the N2(+) recombination rate with vibrational excitation. Recent aeronomical results have shown that the rate coefficient for charge exchange of O(+)(2D) with N2 is about an order of magnitude smaller at thermal temperatures than at energies greater than 0.5 eV (i.e., energies at which laboratory measurements have been made). It is shown that the use of the smaller charge exchange rate coefficient coupled with recent results on N2 quenching of O(+)(2D) yields a temperature dependence in excellent agreement with the laboratory results for the rate coefficient.

  10. ABSORBANCE, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT, AND APPARENT QUANTUM YIELD: A COMMENT ON AMBIGUITY IN THE USE OF THESE OPTICAL CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important optical terms such as "absorbance" and "absorption coefficient" are frequently used ambiguously in the current peer-reviewed literature. Since they are important terms that are required to derive other quantities such as the "apparent quantum yield" of photoprod...

  11. Linear absorption coefficient of beryllium in the 50-300-A wavelength range. [bandpass filter materials for ultraviolet astronomy instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Lewis, M.; Petre, R.

    1983-01-01

    Transmittances of thin-film filters fabricated for an extreme-UV astronomy sounding-rocket experiment yield values for the linear absorption coefficient of beryllium in the 50-300-A wavelength range, in which previous measurements are sparse. The inferred values are consistent with the lowest data previously published and may have important consequences for extreme-UV astronomers.

  12. Investigation of linear optical absorption coefficients in core-shell quantum dot (QD) luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimipour, Bahareh Alsadat; Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Ramezani, Ali Behjat

    2016-09-01

    The interlevel absorption coefficient of CdSe/ZnS and ZnS/CdSe core-shell Quantum Dot (QD) in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is reported. By considering the quantum confinement effects, the wave functions and eigenenergies of electrons in the nonperturebative system consists of a core-shell QD have been numerically calculated under the frame work of effective-mass approximation by solving a three-dimensional Schrӧdinger equation. And then the absorption coefficient is obtained under density matrix approximation considering in the polymer sheets of the concentrator including the core-shell QDs. The effect of the hetero-structure geometry upon the energy spectrum and absorption coefficient associated to interlevel transitions was also considered. The results show that the core-shell QDs can absorb the photons with higher energy in solar spectrum as compared to the inverted core-shell. And with a small shell layer diameter, the core-shell QDs produce larger linear absorption coefficients and consequently higher efficiency values, however it is inversed for inverted core-shell QDs. The work described here gives a detailed insight into the promise of QD-based LSCs and the optoelectronic devices applications.

  13. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  14. Coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficients: Decay rate in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Palchikov, Yu. V.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.

    2007-06-15

    Based on a master equation for the reduced density matrix of an open quantum collective system, the influence of coordinate-dependent microscopical diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a metastable state is treated. For various frictions and temperatures larger than a crossover temperature, the quasistationary decay rates obtained with the coordinate-dependent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients are compared with those obtained with the coordinate-independent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients and coordinate-independent and -dependent phenomenological sets of diffusion coefficients. Neglecting the coordinate dependence of diffusion coefficients, one can strongly overestimate or underestimate the decay rate at low temperature. The coordinate-dependent phenomenological diffusion coefficient in momentum are shown to be suitable for applications.

  15. Absorption coefficient of urban aerosol in Nanjing, west Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, B. L.; Wang, T. J.; Liu, J.; Ma, Y.; Yin, C. Q.; Li, S.; Xie, M.; Han, Y.; Zhu, J. L.; Yang, X. Q.; Fu, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols can significantly modulate short-wave solar radiation in the atmosphere, affecting regional and global climate. The aerosol absorption coefficient (AAC) is an indicator that assesses the impact of absorbing aerosols on radiative forcing. In this study, the near-surface AAC and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) in the urban area of Nanjing, China, are characterized on the basis of measurements in 2012 and 2013 using the seven-channel Aethalometer (model AE-31, Magee Scientific, USA). The AAC is estimated with direct and indirect corrections, which result in consistent temporal variations and magnitudes of AAC at 532 nm. The mean AAC at 532 nm is about 43.23 ± 28.13 M m-1 in the urban area of Nanjing, which is much lower than that in Pearl River Delta and the same as in rural areas (Lin'an) in Yangtze River Delta. The AAC in the urban area of Nanjing shows strong seasonality (diurnal variations); it is high in cold seasons (at rush hour) and low in summer (in the afternoon). It also shows synoptic and quasi-2-week cycles in response to weather systems. Its frequency distribution follows a typical log-normal pattern. The 532 nm AAC ranging from 15 to 65 M m-1 dominates, accounting for more than 72 % of the total data samples in the entire study period. Frequent high pollution episodes, such as those observed in June 2012 and in winter 2013, greatly enhanced AAC and altered its temporal variations and frequency distributions. These episodes are mostly due to local emissions and regional pollution. Air masses flowing from northern China to Nanjing can sometimes be highly polluted and lead to high AAC at the site. AAE at 660/470 nm from the Schmid correction (Schmid et al., 2006) is about 1.56, which might be more reasonable than from the Weingartner correction (Weingartner et al., 2003). Low AAEs mainly occur in summer, likely due to high relative humidity (RH) in the season. AAC increases with increasing AAE at a fixed aerosol loading. The RH

  16. Absorption coefficient of urban aerosol in Nanjing, west Yangtze River Delta of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, B. L.; Wang, T. J.; Liu, J.; Ma, Y.; Yin, C. Q.; Li, S.; Xie, M.; Han, Y.; Zhu, J. L.; Yang, X. Q.; Fu, C. B.

    2015-06-01

    Absorbing aerosols can significantly modulate shortwave solar radiation in the atmosphere, affecting regional and global climate. Aerosol absorption coefficient (AAC) is an indicator to assess the impact of absorbing aerosols on radiative forcing. In this study, the near-surface AAC and absorption angstrom exponent (AAE) in urban Nanjing, China, are characterized on the basis of measurements in 2012 and 2013 using the 7-channel Aethalometer (model AE-31, Magee Scientific, USA). The AAC is estimated with direct and indirect corrections, which show consistent temporal variations and magnitudes of AAC at 532 nm. The mean AAC at 532 nm is about 43.23 ± 28.13 M m-1 in urban Nanjing, which is much lower than that in Pearl River Delta and as the same as that in rural areas (Lin'an) in Yangtze River Delta. The AAC in urban Nanjing shows strong seasonality (diurnal variations), high in cold seasons (at rush hours) and low in summer (in afternoon). It also show synoptic and quasi-two-week cycles in response to weather systems. Its frequency distribution follows a typical lognormal pattern. The 532 nm-AAC ranging from 15 to 65 M m-1 dominates, accounting for more than 72% of the total data samples in the entire study period. Frequent high pollution episodes, such as those observed in June 2012 and in winter 2013, greatly enhanced AAC and altered its temporal variations and frequency distributions. These episodes are mostly due to local emissions and regional pollutions. Air masses from northern China to Nanjing can sometimes be highly polluted and lead to high AAC at the site. AAE at 660/470 nm from the Schmid correction (Schmid et al., 2006) is about 1.56, which might be more reasonable compared to that from the Weingartner correction (Weingartner et al., 2003). Low AAEs mainly appear in summer in response to the relative humidity (RH). AAC increases with increasing AAE at a fixed aerosol loading. The RH-AAC relationship is more complex. Overall, AAC peaks around RH values

  17. Anomalous atmospheric spectral features between 300 and 310 nm interpreted in light or new ozone absorption coefficient measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Bass, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Real structure is revealed, by an analysis of continuous scan data from the solar backscattered UV instrument on Nimbus 7, in the backscattered atmospheric albedo region between 300 and 310 nm where spectral anomalies have been reported in ground-based observation. The spectral anomalies are explainable as structure at the 1-5% level in the ozone absorption coefficient, as measured by Bass and Paur (1981). The new absorption coefficient measurements are judged to approach the 1%-level of accuracy in atmospheric radiation calculation, which should resolve discrepancies between different Dobson wavelength pairs and between different instruments and permit the more accurate analysis of such second-order effects as NO emission, SO2 absorption in polluted atmospheres, and Raman scattering effects.

  18. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  19. How to measure and predict the molar absorption coefficient of a protein.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. N.; Vajdos, F.; Fee, L.; Grimsley, G.; Gray, T.

    1995-01-01

    The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, of a protein is usually based on concentrations measured by dry weight, nitrogen, or amino acid analysis. The studies reported here suggest that the Edelhoch method is the best method for measuring epsilon for a protein. (This method is described by Gill and von Hippel [1989, Anal Biochem 182:319-326] and is based on data from Edelhoch [1967, Biochemistry 6:1948-1954]). The absorbance of a protein at 280 nm depends on the content of Trp, Tyr, and cystine (disulfide bonds). The average epsilon values for these chromophores in a sample of 18 well-characterized proteins have been estimated, and the epsilon values in water, propanol, 6 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), and 8 M urea have been measured. For Trp, the average epsilon values for the proteins are less than the epsilon values measured in any of the solvents. For Tyr, the average epsilon values for the proteins are intermediate between those measured in 6 M GdnHCl and those measured in propanol. Based on a sample of 116 measured epsilon values for 80 proteins, the epsilon at 280 nm of a folded protein in water, epsilon (280), can best be predicted with this equation: epsilon (280) (M-1 cm-1) = (#Trp)(5,500) + (#Tyr)(1,490) + (#cystine)(125) These epsilon (280) values are quite reliable for proteins containing Trp residues, and less reliable for proteins that do not. However, the Edelhoch method is convenient and accurate, and the best approach is to measure rather than predict epsilon. PMID:8563639

  20. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  1. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  2. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  3. I-scan thermal lens experiment in the pulse regime for measuring two-photon absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L.; Echevarria, L.; Fernandez, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present a new pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens method for pulse excitation aimed to the measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficient in optical materials. We develop a theoretical model based on the Fresnel diffraction approximation and their predictions are verified experimentally with samples of Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine B in ethanol solution. The principal advantage of this technique is that it does not require any mechanical movement during measurement. Below we perform the new type of thermal lens experiment in the pulse regime for the measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficient in transparent samples and we demonstrate the validity of theoretical predictions using an alternative method to the classical thermal lens technique.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the reflection coefficient and the distributions of Wigner's reaction matrix for irregular graphs with absorption.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, Michał; Hul, Oleh; Bauch, Szymon; Seba, Petr; Sirko, Leszek

    2008-05-01

    We present the results of an experimental and numerical study of the distribution of the reflection coefficient P(R) and the distributions of the imaginary P(v) and the real P(u) parts of the Wigner reaction K matrix for irregular fully connected hexagon networks (graphs) in the presence of strong absorption. In the experiment we used microwave networks, which were built of coaxial cables and attenuators connected by joints. In the numerical calculations experimental networks were described by quantum fully connected hexagon graphs. The presence of absorption introduced by attenuators was modeled by optical potentials. The distribution of the reflection coefficient P(R) and the distributions of the reaction K matrix were obtained from measurements and numerical calculations of the scattering matrix S of the networks and graphs, respectively. We show that the experimental and numerical results are in good agreement with the exact analytic ones obtained within the framework of random matrix theory. PMID:18643145

  5. Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Prasad

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients k(v) in the atmospheric window are reported for CFC-11 and CFC-12. Data obtained with a grating spectrometer are compared with NCAR cross sections and measurements of k(v) made with a tunable diode laser spectrometer at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights or layers in the atmosphere are presented. The results are suitable for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies.

  6. Rate coefficients of hydroxyl radical reactions with pesticide molecules and related compounds: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet

    2014-03-01

    Rate coefficients published in the literature on hydroxyl radical reactions with pesticides and related compounds are discussed together with the experimental methods and the basic reaction mechanisms. Recommendations are made for the most probable values. Most of the molecules whose rate coefficients are discussed have aromatic ring: their rate coefficients are in the range of 2×109-1×1010 mol-1 dm3 s-1. The rate coefficients show some variation with the electron withdrawing-donating nature of the substituent on the ring. The rate coefficients for triazine pesticides (simazine, atrazine, prometon) are all around 2.5×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. The values do not show variation with the substituent on the s-triazine ring. The rate coefficients for the non-aromatic molecules which have C=C double bonds or several C-H bonds may also be above 1×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1. However, the values for molecules without C=C double bonds or several C-H bonds are in the 1×107-1×109 mol-1 dm3 s-1 range.

  7. Effects of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on the thermal infrared remote sensing of the earth surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on thermal infrared spectral signatures measured from satellite sensors is investigated by comparing results from the atmospheric transmission and radiance codes LOWTRAN and MODTRAN and the accurate multiple scattering radiative transfer model ATRAD for different atmospheric profiles. The sensors considered include the operational NOAA AVHRR and two research instruments planned for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir-Mode) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). The difference in band transmittance is as large as 6 percent for some thermal bands within atmospheric windows and more than 30 percent near the edges of these atmospheric windows. The effect of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients on satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature can exceed 0.6 K. Quantitative comparison and factor analysis indicate that more accurate measurements of molecular absorption coefficients and better radiative transfer simulation methods are needed to achieve SST accuracy of 0.3 K, as required for global numerical models of climate, and to develop land-surface temperature algorithms at the 1-K accuracy level.

  8. Temperature anomaly of the coefficient of ultrasonic absorption by electrons of hybridized states of cobalt impurities in mercury selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevstovskikh, I. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Gudkov, V. V.; Mayakin, V. Yu.; Sarychev, M. N.; Andriichuk, M. D.; Paranchich, L. D.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of the interaction of ultrasound with donor d electrons of cobalt impurity atoms at low concentrations in mercury selenide crystals have been investigated. The temperature dependences of the electronic contribution to the absorption coefficient at a frequency of 53 MHz in crystals with cobalt concentrations from 1018 to 1020 cm-3 and in the undoped crystal have been observed experimentally. It has been found that crystals with impurities are characterized by an anomalous nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of the slow transverse wave in a narrow temperature range near 10 K. A smooth monotonic temperature dependence has been observed for longitudinal and fast transverse waves. Based on the developed theoretical interpretation, it has been established that the anomaly in the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of a slow transverse wave is associated with the hybridization of impurity d states in the conduction band of the crystal. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental dependences has made it possible to determine the parameters characterizing the hybridized electronic states.

  9. Mass Absorption Coefficient of Tungsten and Tantalum, 1450 eV to 2350 eV: Experiment, Theory, and Application

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary H.; Grantham, Steven; Tarrio, Charles; Paterson, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Levin, T. M.; Ankudinov, Alexei L.; Rehr, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The mass absorption coefficients of tungsten and tantalum were measured with soft x-ray photons from 1450 eV to 2350 eV using an undulator source. This region includes the M3, M4, and M5 absorption edges. X-ray absorption fine structure was calculated within a real-space multiple scattering formalism; the predicted structure was observed for tungsten and to a lesser degree tantalum as well. Separately, the effects of dynamic screening were observed as shown by an atomic calculation within the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation. Dynamic screening effects influence the spectra at the 25 % level and are observed for both tungsten and tantalum. We applied these results to characterize spatially-resolved spectra of a tungsten integrated circuit interconnect obtained using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The results indicate tungsten fiducial markers were deposited into silica trenches with a depths of 50 % and 60 % of the markers’ heights.

  10. Correlation between nasal membrane permeability and nasal absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Lin, Chih-Wei; Donovan, Maureen D

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between in vitro permeability (Papp) values obtained from isolated nasal tissues and the absorption rates (ka) of the same compounds following nasal administration in animals and humans. The Papp of a set of 11 drug compounds was measured using animal nasal explants and plasma time-concentration profiles for each of the same compounds following intravenous (IV) and intranasal (IN) administration were experimentally determined or obtained from literature reports. The plasma clearance was estimated from the IV plasma time-concentration profiles, and ka was determined from the IN plasma time-concentration profiles using a deconvolution approach. The level of correlation between Papp and ka was established using Pearson correlation analysis. A good correlation (r=0.77) representing a point-to-point relationship for each of the compounds was observed. This result indicates that the nasal absorption for many drug candidates can be estimated from a readily measured in vitro Papp value. PMID:23225081

  11. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  12. Effective absorption cross sections and photolysis rates of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romonosky, Dian E.; Ali, Nujhat N.; Saiduddin, Mariyah N.; Wu, Michael; Lee, Hyun Ji (Julie); Aiona, Paige K.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mass absorption coefficient (MAC) values were measured for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples produced by flow tube ozonolysis and smog chamber photooxidation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically: α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, farnesene, guaiacol, imidazole, isoprene, linalool, ocimene, p-xylene, 1-methylpyrrole, and 2-methylpyrrole. Both low-NOx and high-NOx conditions were employed during the chamber photooxidation experiments. MAC values were converted into effective molecular absorption cross sections assuming an average molecular weight of 300 g/mol for SOA compounds. The upper limits for the effective photolysis rates of SOA compounds were calculated by assuming unity photolysis quantum yields and convoluting the absorption cross sections with a time-dependent solar spectral flux. A more realistic estimate for the photolysis rates relying on the quantum yield of acetone was also obtained. The results show that condensed-phase photolysis of SOA compounds can potentially occur with effective lifetimes ranging from minutes to days, suggesting that photolysis is an efficient and largely overlooked mechanism of SOA aging.

  13. Backscattering and absorption coefficients for electrons: Solutions of invariant embedding transport equations using a method of convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.

    2014-05-21

    The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types of approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams.

  14. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  15. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  16. Quantum Calculation of Inelastic CO Collisions with H. III. Rate Coefficients for Ro-vibrational Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, L.; Balakrishnan, N.; Walker, K. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; van der Avoird, A.; Groenenboom, G. C.

    2015-11-01

    We present calculated rate coefficients for ro-vibrational transitions of CO in collisions with H atoms for a gas temperature range of 10 K ≤ T ≤ 3000 K, based on the recent three-dimensional ab initio H-CO interaction potential of Song et al. Rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=1,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =0,j\\prime transitions were obtained from scattering cross sections previously computed with the close-coupling (CC) method by Song et al. Combining these with the rate coefficients for vibrational v=1-5\\to v\\prime \\lt v quenching obtained with the infinite-order sudden approximation, we propose a new extrapolation scheme that yields the rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2-5,j=0-30\\to v\\prime ,j\\prime de-excitation. Cross sections and rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =1,j\\prime transitions calculated with the CC method confirm the effectiveness of this extrapolation scheme. Our calculated and extrapolated rates are very different from those that have been adopted in the modeling of many astrophysical environments. The current work provides the most comprehensive and accurate set of ro-vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients for the astrophysical modeling of the H-CO collision system. The application of the previously available and new data sets in astrophysical slab models shows that the line fluxes typically change by 20%-70% in high temperature environments (800 K) with an H/H2 ratio of 1; larger changes occur for lower temperatures.

  17. Experimental electron-impact excitation rate coefficients for lithium-like Si XII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, R.; Kolk, K.-H.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1993-07-01

    Absolute excitation rate coefficients have been determined experimentally for all excited states up to 1s25f of the lithium-like ion Si XII using a well diagnosed theta-pinch plasma. A new method has been developed to determine the most crucial quantity of these measurements, the absolute concentration of the silicon ions in the plasma. For this we made use of the fact that sufficiently high lying levels are in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium (PLTE) with the ground state of the next higher ionization stage. A theoretical population model has been developed to study the influence of the different processes that might contribute to the population of the different levels at our plasma parameters. For most levels the theoretical excitation rate coefficients were found to be in fair agreement with the theoretical ones. The error of the experimentally determined excitation rate coefficients is of the order of ±50%.

  18. Spatial variability of absorption coefficients over a biogeochemical gradient in a large and optically complex shallow lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Caitlin A. L.; Hunter, Peter D.; Tyler, Andrew N.; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Horváth, Hajnalka; Kovács, Attila W.; Vörös, Lajos; Preston, Tom; Présing, Mátyás.

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve robustness of remote sensing algorithms for lakes, it is vital to understand the variability of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and their mass-specific representations (SIOPs). In this study, absorption coefficients for particulate and dissolved constituents were measured at 38 stations distributed over a biogeochemical gradient in Lake Balaton, Hungary. There was a large range of phytoplankton absorption (aph(λ)) over blue and red wavelengths (aph(440) = 0.11-4.39 m-1, aph(675) = 0.048-2.52 m-1), while there was less variability in chlorophyll-specific phytoplankton absorption (a*ph(λ)) in the lake (a*ph(440) = 0.022 ± 0.0046 m2 mg-1, a*ph(675) = 0.010 ± 0.0020 m2 mg-1) and adjoining wetland system, Kis-Balaton (a*ph(440) = 0.017 ± 0.0015 m2 mg-1, a*ph(675) = 0.0088 ± 0.0017 m2 mg-1). However, in the UV, a*ph(350) significantly increased with increasing distance from the main inflow (Zala River). This was likely due to variable production of photoprotective pigments (e.g., MAAs) in response to the decreasing gradient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The slope of CDOM absorption (SCDOM) also increased from west to east due to larger terrestrial CDOM input in the western basins. Absorption by nonalgal particles (aNAP(λ)) was highly influenced by inorganic particulates, as a result of the largely mineral sediments in Balaton. The relative contributions to the absorption budget varied more widely than oceans with a greater contribution from NAP (up to 30%), and wind speed affected the proportion attributed to NAP, phytoplankton, or CDOM. Ultimately, these data provide knowledge of the heterogeneity of (S)IOPs in Lake Balaton, suggesting the full range of variability must be considered for future improvement of analytical algorithms for constituent retrieval in inland waters.

  19. RATE COEFFICIENTS FOR THE COLLISIONAL EXCITATION OF MOLECULES: ESTIMATES FROM AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, David A.

    2010-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is investigated as a tool for estimating rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of molecules. The performance of such a tool can be evaluated by testing it on a data set of collisionally induced transitions for which rate coefficients are already known: the network is trained on a subset of that data set and tested on the remainder. Results obtained by this method are typically accurate to within a factor of approx2.1 (median value) for transitions with low excitation rates and approx1.7 for those with medium or high excitation rates, although 4% of the ANN outputs are discrepant by a factor of 10 or more. The results suggest that ANNs will be valuable in extrapolating a data set of collisional rate coefficients to include high-lying transitions that have not yet been calculated. For the asymmetric top molecules considered in this paper, the favored architecture is a cascade-correlation network that creates 16 hidden neurons during the course of training, with three input neurons to characterize the nature of the transition and one output neuron to provide the logarithm of the rate coefficient.

  20. Measuring the acoustic absorption coefficient in biological tissue specimens using ultrasonic phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Zelenova, Z. V.; Brysev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens—porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues—by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses.

  1. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Barley Seeds Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Their Effects by Laser Biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Reyes, Ma. C.; Hernandez-Aguilar, C.; Dominguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno Martínez, E.

    2015-09-01

    Laser light as a biostimulator has been applied in agriculture, and some scientific reports evidence its usefulness. A knowledge about seed optical parameters is of great relevance in the biostimulation process, because information can be provided about the light absorption of seeds. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient (β ) of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy; these seeds were studied in two conditions: seeds in their natural color and seeds dyed with methylene blue. The seeds were biostimulated by a laser beam (650 nm wavelength) to evaluate the effects of pre-sowing biostimulation in natural mycobiota associated with different laser irradiation times (0 s, 60 s, 120 s, 240 s, and 480 s). The results of this research demonstrated changes in the optical parameters (absorption and penetration) that occur in the seeds by changing the natural condition to a dyed condition. The dyed seeds, by the methylene blue photosensitizer, become optically opaque, producing greater optical absorption at 650 nm which causes an increase in the effect of laser stimulation. The experimental results showed that the biggest mycobiota reduction (52 %) corresponded to dyed seeds irradiated with a laser for 120 s.

  2. Absorption coefficients and band strengths for the 703 nm and 727 bands of methane at 77 K

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.J.; Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    The technique of intracavity laser spectroscopy has been used to obtain methane absorption spectra for the vibrational overtone bands that occur around 703 nm and 727 nm. Absorption coefficients for the 690-742 nm range have been obtained for a sample temperature of 77 K at a spectral resolution of <0.02 cm{sup -1}. A new method of data analysis is utilized in obtaining the results. It involves deconvolving the many ILS spectral profiles that comprise the absorption bands and summing the results. Values averaged over 1 cm{sup -1} and 1 {Angstrom} intervals are provided. Band strengths also are obtained. The total intensities of the 703 and 727 nm bands are in reasonable agreement with previous laboratory determinations which were obtained for relatively high pressures of methane at room temperature using lower spectral resolution. The methane bands appear in the reflected sunlight spectra from the outer planets. Results averaged over 1 nm intervals are compared with other laboratory studies and with those derived from observations of the outer planets. The band profiles differ considerably from other laboratory results but are in good accord with the planetary observations. Laboratory spectra of methane at appropriate conditions are required for the proper interpretation of the observational data. Absorption spectra can provide some of the most sensitive diagnostic data on the atmospheres of those bodies.

  3. Kinetic models for coagulation processes: determination of rate coefficients in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, John A.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Pandit, Kirit; McMurray, Tom J.; Thomsen, Sharon L.

    1991-06-01

    Kinetic models of thermal damage in tissues can be used to describe histologic end points obtained with laser irradiation. In this study, thermographic measurements of skin surface temperature distributions during laser impingement were used to derive a temperature history for the lesion site. Lesions were evaluated at 48 h after laser irradiation to determine the radius of purpura formation. The temperature histories at the maximum radius of purpura formation (threshold temperatures) were analyzed and plotted on Arrhenius axes to estimate rate coefficients for the process. As expected, transient in vivo thermal history data yielded a noisy Arrhenius plot; however, estimates of the appropriate rate coefficients for purpura formation in vivo could be made.

  4. A specific absorption rate prediction concept for parallel transmission MR.

    PubMed

    Graesslin, Ingmar; Homann, Hanno; Biederer, Sven; Börnert, Peter; Nehrke, Kay; Vernickel, Peter; Mens, Giel; Harvey, Paul; Katscher, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a limiting factor in high-field MR. SAR estimation is typically performed by numerical simulations using generic human body models. However, SAR concepts for single-channel radiofrequency transmission cannot be directly applied to multichannel systems. In this study, a novel and comprehensive SAR prediction concept for parallel radiofrequency transmission MRI is presented, based on precalculated magnetic and electric fields obtained from electromagnetic simulations of numerical body models. The application of so-called Q-matrices and further computational optimizations allow for a real-time estimation of the SAR prior to scanning. This SAR estimation method was fully integrated into an eight-channel whole body MRI system, and it facilitated the selection of different body models and body positions. Experimental validation of the global SAR in phantoms demonstrated a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the predictions. An initial in vivo validation showed good qualitative agreement between simulated and measured amplitude of (excitation) radiofrequency field. The feasibility and practicability of this SAR prediction concept was shown paving the way for safe parallel radiofrequency transmission in high-field MR. PMID:22231647

  5. Whistler Emission and Absorption Coefficients from AN Anisotropic, Multi-Component Plasma Including Dielectric Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leid, Terrence Vincent

    The emission of electron cyclotron radiation parallel to the magnetic field direction near the fundamental frequency from a fully ionized, multi-component plasma, is investigated for finite (omega)(,p)/(omega)(,c) within the Klimontovich formalism. Each species may have T(,(PARLL)) different from T(,(PERP)) and may possess a loss cone. We use a bi- maxwellian with an analytic loss cone for each component. In addition, the source function for a multi-component plasma is calculated. We find that for a Maxwellian distribution function the emission coefficient is that of a system of shielded charges. It is shown that only in the case of a tenuous Maxwellian plasma is the source function the Rayleigh-Jeans blackbody intensity. For the case of the Maxwellian we present experimental evidence for finite density emission, (omega)('2)(,p)/(omega)('2) >> (beta). We have constructed a computer code that solves the radiative transfer equation. The resulting power spectra are used as an aid in extracting from experimental data the temperature and density of the various components of the TMX-Upgrade end cell plasma. The code compares both the Ellis-Tsakiris scheme for computing the emission coefficient for a multi-component plasma and the finite density multi -component emission coefficient. The Ellis- Tsakiris scheme estimates the emission coefficient by assuming. that each species radiates independently of each other.('1) Results are presented for the case of the TMX -Upgrade tandem mirror device. ('1)R. F. Ellis and G. D. Tsakiris, Nucl. Fusion 23, 1115 (1984).

  6. Low-Temperature Rate Coefficients of C2H with CH4 and CD4 from 154 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction C2H + CH4 yields C2H2 + CH3 and C2H + CD4 yields C2HD + CD3 are measured over the temperature range 154-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. Ethynyl radicals are produced by pulsed laser photolysis of C2H2 in a variable temperature flow cell, and a tunable color center laser probes the transient removal of C2H (Chi(exp 2) Sigma(+) (0,0,0)) in absorption. The rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H with CH4 and CD4 both show a positive temperature dependence over the range 154-359 K, which can be expressed as k(sub CH4) = (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp -11) exp((-491 +/- 12)/T) and k(sub CD4) = (8.7 +/- 1.8) x 10(exp -12) exp((-650 +/- 61)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1), respectively. The reaction of C2H + CH4 exhibits a significant kinetic isotope effect at 300 K of k(sub CH4)/k(sub CD4) = 2.5 +/- 0.2. Temperature dependent rate constants for C2H + C2H2 were also remeasured over an increased temperature range from 143 to 359 K and found to show a slight negative temperature dependence, which can be expressed as k(sub C2H2) = 8.6 x 10(exp -16) T(exp 1.8) exp((474 +/- 90)/T) cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1).

  7. Effect of quantum dot size and size distribution on the intersublevel transitions and absorption coefficients of III-V semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kabi, Sanjib; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2015-03-28

    The intersublevel absorption peak energy and absorption coefficient of non-uniform quantum dot (QD) ensembles are calculated analytically. The effect of size variations and size distribution of QDs on their energy states is analyzed. The dots are considered as a quantum box with finite potential at the barriers and the size distribution described by a Gaussian function. The influence of the aspect ratio (base to height ratio) of the QDs on the optical transitions is studied. Our model predicts the dot size (height and base) accurately to determine the absorption peaks and corresponding absorption coefficient. We also compute the absorption coefficient of the QD with different size distributions to verify the results calculated using this model with the reported experimental and other theoretical results.

  8. Global rate coefficients for ionization and recombination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Annaloro, Julien; Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Omaly, Pierre

    2012-07-15

    The flow field modeling of planetary entry plasmas, laser-induced plasmas, inductively coupled plasmas, arcjets, etc., requires to use Navier-Stokes codes. The kinetic mechanisms implemented in these codes involve global (effective) rate coefficients. These rate coefficients result from the excited states coupling during a quasi-steady state. In order to obtain these global rate coefficients over a wide electron temperature (T{sub e}) range for ionization and recombination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, the behavior of their excited states is investigated using a zero-dimensional (time-dependent) code. The population number densities of these electronic states are considered as independent species. Their relaxation is studied within the range 3000 K{<=}T{sub e}{<=}20 000 K and leads to the determination of the ionization (k{sub i}) and recombination (k{sub r}) global rate coefficients. Comparisons with existing data are performed. Finally, the ratio k{sub i}/k{sub r} is compared with the Saha equilibrium constant. This ratio increases more rapidly than the equilibrium constant for T{sub e}>15 000 K.

  9. Partial and total dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for W73+ to W56+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, S. P.; Badnell, N. R.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) is a key atomic process that affects the spectroscopic diagnostic modeling of tungsten, most of whose ionization stages will be found somewhere in the ITER fusion reactor: in the edge, divertor, or core plasma. Accurate DR data are sparse while complete DR coverage is unsophisticated (e.g., average-atom or Burgess General Formula), as illustrated by the large uncertainties that currently exist in the tungsten ionization balance. To this end, we present a series of partial final-state-resolved and total DR rate coefficients for W73+ to W56+ tungsten ions. This is part of a wider effort within The Tungsten Project to calculate accurate dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for the tungsten isonuclear sequence for use in collisional-radiative modeling of finite-density tokamak plasmas. The recombination rate coefficients have been calculated with autostructure using κ -averaged relativistic wave unctions in level resolution (intermediate coupling) and configuration resolution (configuration average). Comparison with previous calculations of total DR rate coefficients for W63+ and W56+ yield agreement to within 20% and 10%, respectively, at peak temperature. It is also seen that the Jüttner correction to the Maxwell distribution has a significant effect on the ionization balance of tungsten at the highest charge states, changing both the peak abundance temperatures and the ionization fractions of several ions.

  10. Excitation rate coefficient measurements of Cu xiii and Cu xvii ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datla, R. U.; Roberts, J. R.; Rowan, W. L.; Mann, J. B.

    1986-12-01

    The absolute excitation rate coefficients for Cu xiii and Cu xvii optically allowed transitions have been measured using the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) tokamak. Cu is injected by the laser-ablation method at a time when the plasma has attained steady-state temperature and density profiles. The absolute intensities of the magnetic-dipole-forbidden transitions within the Cu xiii 3s23p5 and the Cu xvii 3s23p ground configurations are measured. The intensities of optically allowed vacuum-ultraviolet lines within the 3p43d-3p5 transition array of Cu xiii and within the 3d-3p transition array of Cu xvii are measured with a 2.2-m grazing incidence spectrometer. This instrument is radiometrically calibrated in situ by using the branching-ratio technique. The absolute excitation rate coefficients are deduced from these measurements, assuming coronal equilibrium, optically thin line emission, and statistical population within the ground configuration. The experimental rate coefficients for these transition arrays are found to be 2.84×10-8 cm3 s-1 for Cu xiii at an electron temperature of 127 eV and 3.5×10-8 cm3 s-1 for Cu xvii at an electron temperature of 240 eV. These results are in good agreement with excitation rate coefficients computed in a distorted-wave approximation. The estimated uncertainty in the experimental values is +/-70%.

  11. Hydrocarbon rate coefficients for proton and electron impact ionization, dissociation, and recombination in a hydrogen plasma.

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, D.A.; Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.; Wang, Z.

    1999-07-21

    We estimate cross sections and rate coefficients for proton and electron impact ionization, dissociation, and recombination of neutral and ionized hydrocarbon molecules and fragments of the form C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup k}, x = 1-3, y = 1-6, k = 0,1 in a thermalized hydrogen-electron plasma.

  12. Absolute rate coefficients for photorecombination of beryllium-like and boron-like silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, D.; Becker, A.; Brandau, C.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report measured rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination of Si10+ forming Si9+ and of Si9+ forming Si8+, respectively. The measurements were performed using the electron-ion merged-beams technique at a heavy-ion storage ring. Electron-ion collision energies ranged from 0 to 50 eV for Si9+ and from 0 to 2000 eV for Si10+, thus, extending previous measurements for Si10+ (Orban et al 2010 Astrophys. J. 721 1603) to much higher energies. Experimentally derived rate coefficients for the recombination of Si9+ and Si10+ ions in a plasma are presented along with simple parameterizations. These rate coefficients are useful for the modeling of the charge balance of silicon in photoionized plasmas (Si9+ and Si10+) and in collisionally ionized plasmas (Si10+ only). In the corresponding temperature ranges, the experimentally derived rate coefficients agree with the latest corresponding theoretical results within the experimental uncertainties.

  13. Exact results on the temperature dependence of the specific equilibrium recombination rate coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two theorems based on Laplace transforms are used to relate threshold and high energy behavior to a temperature dependent variable. A recombination reaction involving electrically neutral species is presented to illustrate the dynamics of the activation energy and the associated rate coefficient. The distribution functions are shown to correspond with those predicted by Boltzmann's equations.

  14. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  15. Effects of Motility and Adsorption Rate Coefficient on Transport of Bacteria through Saturated Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    Camper, Anne K.; Hayes, Jason T.; Sturman, Paul J.; Jones, Warren L.; Cunningham, Alfred B.

    1993-01-01

    Three strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens with different motility rates and adsorption rate coefficients were injected into porous-medium reactors packed with l-mm-diameter glass spheres. Cell breakthrough, time to peak concentration, tailing, and cell recovery were measured at three interstitial pore velocities (higher than, lower than, and much lower than the maximal bacterial motility rate). All experiments were done with distilled water to reduce the effects of growth and chemotaxis. Contrary to expectations, motility did not result in either early breakthrough or early time to peak concentration at flow velocities below the motility rate. Bacterial size exclusion effects were shown to affect breakthrough curve shape at the very low flow velocity, but no such effect was seen at the higher flow velocity. The tendency of bacteria to adsorb to porous-medium surfaces, as measured by adsorption rate coefficients, profoundly influenced transport characteristics. Cell recoveries were shown to be correlated with the ratio of advective to adsorptive transport in the reactors. Adsorption rate coefficients were found to be better predictors of microbial transport phenomena than individual characteristics, such as size, motility, or porous-medium hydrodynamics. PMID:16349075

  16. Field calibration of multi-scattering correction factor for aethalometer aerosol absorption coefficient during CAPMEX Campaign, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C.; Park, R.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Filter-based instrument, such as aethalometer, is being widely used to measure equivalent black carbon(EBC) mass concentration and aerosol absorption coefficient(AAC). However, many other previous studies have poited that AAC and its aerosol absorption angstrom exponent(AAE) are strongly affected by the multi-scattering correction factor(C) when we retrieve AAC from aethalometer EBC mass concentration measurement(Weingartner et al., 2003; Arnott et al., 2005; Schmid et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2010). We determined the C value using the method given in Weingartner et al. (2003) by comparing 7-wavelngth aethalometer (AE-31, Magee sci.) to 3-wavelength Photo-Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3, DMT) at Gosan climate observatory, Korea(GCO) during Cheju ABC plume-asian monsoon experiment(CAPMEX) campaign(August and September, 2008). In this study, C was estimated to be 4.04 ± 1.68 at 532 nm and AAC retrieved with this value was decreased as approximately 100% as than that retrieved with soot case value from Weingartner et al (2003). We compared the AAC determined from aethalomter measurements to that from collocated Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measurements from January 2012 to December 2013 at GCO and found good agreement in both AAC and AAE. This result suggests the determination of site-specific C is crucially needed when we calculate AAC from aethalometer measurements.

  17. Determination of scattering coefficient considering wavelength and absorption dependence of anisotropy factor measured by polarized beam for biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.

  18. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Astrophysical Plasmas: The Absorption Coefficients and Gaunt Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihajlov, A. A.; Srećković, V. A.; Sakan, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    The electron-ion inverse Bremsstrahlung is considered here as a factor of the influence on the opacity of the different stellar atmospheres and other astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that this process can be successfully described in the frames of cut-off Coulomb potential model within the regions of the electron densities and temperatures. The relevant quantum mechanical method of the calculation of the corresponding spectral coefficient processes is described and discussed. The results obtained for the plasmas with the electron densities from 1014 c m -3 to 2ṡ1019 c m -3 and temperatures from 5ṡ103 K to 3ṡ104 K in the wavelength region 100 nm< λ<3000 nm are presented. Also, these results can be of interest for different laboratory plasmas.

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies of rate coefficients for the reaction O(3P)+CH3OH at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Chou, Shen-Long; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Xu, Shucheng; Xu, Z F; Lin, M C

    2005-06-22

    Rate coefficients of the reaction O((3)P) + CH(3)OH in the temperature range of 835-1777 K were determined using a diaphragmless shock tube. O atoms were generated by photolysis of SO(2) with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm or an ArF excimer laser at 193 nm; their concentrations were monitored via atomic resonance absorption excited by emission from a microwave-discharged mixture of O(2) and He. The rate coefficients determined for the temperature range can be represented by the Arrhenius equation, k(T) = (2.29 +/- 0.18) x 10(-10) exp[-(4210 +/- 100)T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); unless otherwise noted, all the listed errors represent one standard deviation in fitting. Combination of these and previous data at lower temperature shows a non-Arrhenius behavior described as the three-parameter equation, k(T) = (2.74 +/- 0.07) x 10(-18)T(2.25 +/- 0.13) exp[-(1500 +/- 90)T] cm(3)molecule(-1) s(-1). Theoretical calculations at the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)6-311 + G(3df,2p) level locate three transition states. Based on the energies computed with coupled clusters singles, doubles (triples) [CCSD(T)]/6-311 + G(3df,2p)B3LYP6-311 + G(3df,2p), the rate coefficients predicted with canonical variational transition state theory with small curvature tunneling corrections agree satisfactorily with the experimental observations. The branching ratios of two accessible reaction channels forming OH + CH(2)OH (1a) and OH + CH(3)O (1b) are predicted to vary strongly with temperature. At 300 K, reaction (1a) dominates, whereas reaction (1b) becomes more important than reaction (1a) above 1700 K. PMID:16035764

  20. Absorption coefficients of the methane-nitrogen binary ice system: Implications for Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, S.; Grundy, W. M.; Tegler, S. C.; Bergonio, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    The methane-nitrogen phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983. Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 9, 94-98) indicates that at temperatures relevant to the surfaces of icy dwarf planets like Pluto, two phases contribute to the methane absorptions: nitrogen saturated with methane N2 ‾ :CH4 and methane saturated with nitrogen CH4 ‾ :N2 . No optical constants are available so far for the latter component limiting construction of a proper model, in compliance with thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. New optical constants for solid solutions of methane diluted in nitrogen (N2 :CH4) and nitrogen diluted in methane (CH4 :N2) are presented at temperatures between 40 and 90 K, in the wavelength range 1.1-2.7 μm at different mixing ratios. These optical constants are derived from transmission measurements of crystals grown from the liquid phase in closed cells. A systematic study of the changes of methane and nitrogen solid mixtures spectral behavior with mixing ratio and temperature is presented.

  1. Measurement of 129Xe -Cs binary spin-exchange rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Kuzma, Nicholas N.; Happer, William

    2004-06-01

    We report the first measurement of the spin-exchange rate coefficient for binary collisions between Cs and 129Xe atoms in the temperature range 110rate 1/ T1 of 129Xe gas. We measured 1/ T1 of a thermally polarized Xe gas using the saturation-recovery of conventional nuclear magnetic resonance. We also directly measured the Cs atomic number density [Cs] by using Faraday rotation of the linear polarization of a probing laser beam passing through the sample. The measured rate coefficient is κ (9.4 T) = d (1/ T1 ) / d [Cs] = (2.81±0.2) × 10-16 cm3 /s , which is about a factor of 1.6 higher than the previously measured spin-exchange rate coefficient of 129Xe -Rb binary collisions. Using a calculated magnetic decoupling factor, we extrapolate our result to zero magnetic field: κ (0 T) = (4.1±0.3) × 10-16 cm3 /s .

  2. Unified Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficients of Silicon and Sulfur Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1995-07-01

    Total recombination rate coefficients for the astrophysically important Si and S ions, Si I, Si II, Si IX, S II, and S III, are obtained employing a new unified treatment developed for electron-ion recombination. The treatment incorporates both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination processes in the close coupling approximation from atomic collision theory, and the calculations are carried out using the R-matrix method as developed for the Opacity Project. All recombined states from the ground state to n = ∞ are considered. The states are divided into two groups, a low-n and a high-n group. Detailed partial photoionization cross sections into the ground state of the recombining ion, including autoionizing resonances due to coupling to excited states of the ion, are calculated for all bound states in the low-n group, and the Milne relation is used to calculate the corresponding contribution to the recombination rate coefficient. For the high-n group, collision strengths for dielectronic recombination, both detailed and resonance averaged, are obtained using the precise theory of Bell & Seaton. Total recombination rate coefficients are computed over a wide range of temperatures for practical purposes. A discussion of the atomic effects that determine the accuracy of the recombination rates is presented, in particular as a function of the increase in the eigenfunction expansion for the recombining ion, studied for e + Si X → Si IX. Comparison is made with earlier works.

  3. Transitions in genetic toggle switches driven by dynamic disorder in rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hang; Thill, Peter; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    In biochemical systems, intrinsic noise may drive the system switch from one stable state to another. We investigate how kinetic switching between stable states in a bistable network is influenced by dynamic disorder, i.e., fluctuations in the rate coefficients. Using the geometric minimum action method, we first investigate the optimal transition paths and the corresponding minimum actions based on a genetic toggle switch model in which reaction coefficients draw from a discrete probability distribution. For the continuous probability distribution of the rate coefficient, we then consider two models of dynamic disorder in which reaction coefficients undergo different stochastic processes with the same stationary distribution. In one, the kinetic parameters follow a discrete Markov process and in the other they follow continuous Langevin dynamics. We find that regulation of the parameters modulating the dynamic disorder, as has been demonstrated to occur through allosteric control in bistable networks in the immune system, can be crucial in shaping the statistics of optimal transition paths, transition probabilities, and the stationary probability distribution of the network.

  4. Transitions in genetic toggle switches driven by dynamic disorder in rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hang; Thill, Peter; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    In biochemical systems, intrinsic noise may drive the system switch from one stable state to another. We investigate how kinetic switching between stable states in a bistable network is influenced by dynamic disorder, i.e., fluctuations in the rate coefficients. Using the geometric minimum action method, we first investigate the optimal transition paths and the corresponding minimum actions based on a genetic toggle switch model in which reaction coefficients draw from a discrete probability distribution. For the continuous probability distribution of the rate coefficient, we then consider two models of dynamic disorder in which reaction coefficients undergo different stochastic processes with the same stationary distribution. In one, the kinetic parameters follow a discrete Markov process and in the other they follow continuous Langevin dynamics. We find that regulation of the parameters modulating the dynamic disorder, as has been demonstrated to occur through allosteric control in bistable networks in the immune system, can be crucial in shaping the statistics of optimal transition paths, transition probabilities, and the stationary probability distribution of the network. PMID:27155656

  5. Systematic study of Ge1-xSnx absorption coefficient and refractive index for the device applications of Si-based optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huong; Du, Wei; Ghetmiri, Seyed A.; Mosleh, Aboozar; Sun, Greg; Soref, Richard A.; Margetis, Joe; Tolle, John; Li, Baohua; Naseem, Hameed A.; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2016-03-01

    The absorption coefficient and refractive index of Ge1-xSnx alloys (x from 0% to 10%) were characterized for the wavelength range from 1500 to 2500 nm via spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature. By applying physical models to fit the obtained data, two empirical formulae with extracted constants and coefficients were developed: (1) Absorption coefficient. The absorption regarding Urbach tail, indirect and direct bandgap transitions were comprehensively taken into account; (2) refractive index. The Sellmeier coefficients associated with dispersion relationship were extracted. In these formulae, the Sn composition and strain percentage were the input parameters, by inputting which the spectral absorption coefficient and spectral refractive index can be obtained. Since the absorption coefficient is key information to determine the performance of the photodetectors including operation wavelength range, responsivity, and specific detectivity, and the refractive index is very useful for the design of the anti-reflection coating for photodetectors and the layer structure for waveguides, the developed formulae could simplify the optoelectronic device design process due to their parameter-based expressions.

  6. Radiative rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients for Ne-like selenium, Se XXV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Chen, C.Y. Huang, M.; Wang, Y.S.; Zou, Y.M.

    2011-07-15

    In this article we report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, electron impact collision strengths, and effective collision strengths for transitions among the 241 fine-structure levels arising from 2l{sup 8} and 2l{sup 7}n{sup '}l{sup '} (n{sup '{<=}}6 and l{sup '{<=}}n{sup '}-1) configurations of Ne-like Se XXV using the Flexible Atomic Code. Energy levels and radiative rates are calculated within the relativistic configuration-interaction method. Direct excitation collision strengths are calculated using the relativistic distorted-wave approximation and high-energy collision strengths are obtained in the relativistic plane-wave approximation. Resonance contributions through the relevant Na-like doubly-excited configurations 2l{sup 7}n'l'n''l'' (3{<=}n'{<=}7, l'{<=}n'-1, n'{<=}n''{<=}50, and l''{<=}8) are explicitly taken into account via the independent-process and isolated-resonance approximation using distorted waves. Resonant stabilizing transitions and possibly important radiative decays from the resonances toward low-lying autoionizing levels are considered. In addition, the resonance contributions from Na-like 2l{sup 6}3l'3l'''n''' (n'''=3-6) configurations are included and found to be predominant for many transitions among the singly-excited states in Ne-like Se XXV. We present the radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic quadrupole, electric octopole, and magnetic octopole transitions among the 241 levels. The effective collision strengths are reported for all 28920 transitions among the 241 levels over a wide temperature range up to 10 keV. To assess the reliability and accuracy of the present collisional data, we have performed a 27-state close-coupling calculation, employing the Dirac R-matrix theory. The results from the close-coupling calculation and the independent-process calculation for the identical target states are found to be in good agreement

  7. Determination of the Rate Coefficients of the SO2 plus O plus M yields SO3 plus M Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, S. M.; Cooke, J. A.; De Witt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Rate coefficients of the title reaction R(sub 31) (SO2 +O+M yields SO3 +M) and R(sub 56) (SO2 + HO2 yields SO3 +OH), important in the conversion of S(IV) to S(VI),were obtained at T =970-1150 K and rho (sub ave) = 16.2 micro mol/cubic cm behind reflected shock waves by a perturbation method. Shock-heated H2/ O2/Ar mixtures were perturbed by adding small amounts of SO2 (1%, 2%, and 3%) and the OH temporal profiles were then measured using laser absorption spectroscopy. Reaction rate coefficients were elucidated by matching the characteristic reaction times acquired from the individual experimental absorption profiles via simultaneous optimization of k(sub 31) and k(sub 56) values in the reaction modeling (for satisfactory matches to the observed characteristic times, it was necessary to take into account R(sub 56)). In the experimental conditions of this study, R(sub 31) is in the low-pressure limit. The rate coefficient expressions fitted using the combined data of this study and the previous experimental results are k(sub 31,0)/[Ar] = 2.9 10(exp 35) T(exp ?6.0) exp(?4780 K/T ) + 6.1 10(exp 24) T(exp ?3.0) exp(?1980 K/T ) cm(sup 6) mol(exp ?2)/ s at T = 300-2500 K; k(sub 56) = 1.36 10(exp 11) exp(?3420 K/T ) cm(exp 3)/mol/s at T = 970-1150 K. Computer simulations of typical aircraft engine environments, using the reaction mechanism with the above k(sub 31,0) and k(sub 56) expressions, gave the maximum S(IV) to S(VI) conversion yield of ca. 3.5% and 2.5% for the constant density and constant pressure flow condition, respectively. Moreover, maximum conversions occur at rather higher temperatures (?1200 K) than that where the maximum k(sub 31,0) value is located (approximately 800 K). This is because the conversion yield is dependent upon not only the k(sup 31,0) and k(sup 56) values (production flux) but also the availability of H, O, and HO2 in the system (consumption flux).

  8. Antimony orthophosphate glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices, low two-photon absorption coefficients, and ultrafast response

    SciTech Connect

    Falcao-Filho, E.L.; Araujo, Cid B. de; Bosco, C.A.C.; Maciel, G.S.; Acioli, L.H.; Nalin, M.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Antimony glasses based on the composition Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} were prepared and characterized. The samples present high refractive index, good transmission from 380 to 2000 nm, and high thermal stability. The nonlinear refractive index, n{sub 2}, of the samples was studied using the optical Kerr shutter technique at 800 nm. The third-order correlation signals between pump and probe pulses indicate ultrafast response (<100 fs) for all compositions. Enhancement of n{sub 2} was observed by adding lead oxide to the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} composition. Large values of n{sub 2}{approx_equal}10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/W and negligible two-photon absorption coefficients (smaller than 0.01 cm/GW) were determined for all samples. The glass compositions studied present appropriate figure-of-merit for all-optical switching applications.

  9. Friction coefficients and wear rates of different orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M V; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Rupérez, E; Manero, J M; Barrera, J M; Solano, E; Gil, F J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the nature of the orthodontic archwires on the friction coefficient and wear rate against materials used commonly as brackets (Ti-6Al-4V and 316L Stainless Steel). The materials selected as orthodontic archwires were ASI304 stainless steel, NiTi, Ti, TiMo and NiTiCu. The array archwire's materials selected presented very similar roughness but different hardness. Materials were chosen from lower and higher hardness degrees than that of the brackets. Wear tests were carried out at in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Results show a linear relationship between the hardness of the materials and the friction coefficients. The material that showed lower wear rate was the ASI304 stainless steel. To prevent wear, the wire and the brackets have high hardness values and in the same order of magnitude. PMID:23440428

  10. Electron-impact excitation rate-coefficients and polarization of subsequent emission for Ar+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipti; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Electron impact excitation in Ar+ ions has been studied by using fully relativistic distorted wave theory. Calculations are performed to obtain the excitation cross-sections and rate-coefficients for the transitions from the ground state 3p5 (J=3/2) to fine-structure levels of excited states 3p44s, 3p44p, 3p45s, 3p45p, 3p43d and 3p44d. Polarization of the radiation following the excitation has been calculated using the obtained magnetic sub-level cross-sections. Comparison of the present rate-coefficients is also done with the previously reported theoretical results for some unresolved fine structure transitions.

  11. Recommended Thermal Rate Coefficients for the C + H3+ Reaction and Some Astrochemical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissapragada, Shreyas; Buzard, Cam; Miller, Kenneth A.; O'Connor, Aodh; De Ruette, Nathalie; Urbain, Xavier; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2016-06-01

    We have incorporated our experimentally derived thermal rate coefficients for C + H3+ forming CH+ and CH2+ into a commonly used astrochemical model. We find that the Arrhenius-Kooij equation typically used in chemical models does not accurately fit our data and use instead a more versatile fitting formula. At a temperature of 10 K and a density of 104 cm-3, we find no significant differences in the predicted abundances, but at higher temperatures of 50, 100, and 300 K we find up to factor of 2 changes. Additionally, we find that the relatively small error on our measurements (~15%) significantly reduces the uncertainties on the predicted abundances compared to those obtained using the currently implemented Langevin rate coefficient with its estimated factor of 2 uncertainty.

  12. Rate-coefficients and polarization results for the electron-impact excitation of Ar+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Dipti, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    A fully relativistic distorted wave theory has been employed to study the electron impact excitation in Ar+ ion. Results have been obtained for the excitation cross-sections and rate-coefficients for the transitions from the ground state 3p5 (J = 3/2) to fine-structure levels of excited states 3p4 4 s, 3p4 4 p , 3p4 5 s, 3p4 5 p, 3p4 3 d and 3p4 4 d. Polarization of the radiation following the excitation has been calculated using the obtained magnetic sub-level cross-sections. Comparison of the present rate-coefficients is also done with the previously reported theoretical results for some unresolved fine structure transitions. Work is supported by DAE-BRNS Mumbai and CSIR, New Delhi.

  13. Experimental electron-impact excitation rate coefficients for beryllium-like Si XI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, R.; Kolk, K.-H.; Kunze, H.-J.

    1996-06-01

    Absolute excitation rate coefficients for a large number of levels (up to n = 4) of the singlet and triplet system of Si XI have been experimentally determined in a well-diagnosed theta-pinch plasma with the plasma spectroscopic method. The population of the metastable triplet ground state has been derived from the intensity of the intercombination line. A theoretical population model has been developed to investigate whether collisional coupling of the levels and cascading affected the measurements. The model has also been used to calculate line intensity ratios of strongly density or temperature dependent line pairs which can be used for plasma diagnostic purposes. The measured effective excitation rate coefficients are accurate to about ±50%. All of them, apart from the value for the 2s4s 3S1 level, agreed within the error margins with existing theoretical data.

  14. The rate coefficients of the chemi-ionization processes in slow Li*(n) + Na collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignjatović, Lj M.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Klyucharev, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    The semi-classical method for determining the rate coefficients of the chemi-ionization processes in slow non-symmetric atom-Rydberg atom collisions is applied to the Li*(n) + Na case. Calculated rate coefficients are compared with the existing experimental data from the literature. Obtained results have confirmed that resonant mechanism of non-elastic processes in atom-Rydberg atom collisions are fully applicable to non-symmetric chemi-ionization processes. The rate coefficients of such processes in Li*(n) + Na collisions are determined in the regions of principal quantum number and temperature 4 <= n <= 20 and 700 K <= T <= 1100 K which can be of interest for possible further experiments. Also, the potential curves of several lowest Σ states of the molecular ion LiNa+, as well as the values of the square of dipole matrix element for the transition between X2Σ+- and A2Σ+-states, are presented in this paper.

  15. Laboratory Studies of Low Temperature Rate Coefficients: The Atmospheric Chemistry of the Outer Planets and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogan, Denis

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory measurements have been carried out to determine low temperature chemical rate coefficients of ethynyl radical (C2H) for the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. This effort is directly related to the Cassini mission which will explore Saturn and Titan. A laser-based photolysis/infrared laser probe setup was used to measure the temperature dependence of kinetic rate coefficients from approx. equal to 150 to 350 K for C2H radicals with H2, C2H2, CH4, CD4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, neo-C5H12, C3H4 (methylacetylene and allene), HCN, and CH3CN. The results revealed discrepancies of an order of magnitude or more compared with the low temperature rate coefficients used in present models. A new Laval nozzle, low Mach number supersonic expansion kinetics apparatus has been constructed, resulting in the first measurements of neutral C2H radical kinetics at 90 K and permitting studies on condensable gases with insufficient vapor pressure at low temperatures. New studies of C 2H with acetylene have been completed.

  16. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  17. Integrating sphere-based photoacoustic setup for simultaneous absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements of biomedical liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Yolanda; Hondebrink, Erwin; Petersen, Wilma; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2015-03-01

    A method for simultaneously measuring the absorption coefficient μa and Grüneisen parameter Γ of biological absorbers in photoacoustics is designed and implemented using a coupled-integrating sphere system. A soft transparent tube with inner diameter of 0.58mm is used to mount the liquid absorbing sample horizontally through the cavity of two similar and adjacent integrating spheres. One sphere is used for measuring the sample's μa using a continuous halogen light source and a spectrometer fiber coupled to the input and output ports, respectively. The other sphere is used for simultaneous photoacoustic measurement of the sample's Γ using an incident pulsed light with wavelength of 750nm and a flat transducer with central frequency of 5MHz. Absolute optical energy and pressure measurements are not necessary. However, the derived equations for determining the sample's μa and Γ require calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions. Initial measurements are done with biological samples relevant to biomedical imaging such as human whole blood, joint and cyst fluids. Absorption of joint and cyst fluids is enhanced using a contrast agent like aqueous indocyanine green dye solution. For blood sample, measured values of μa = 0.580 +/- 0.016 mm-1 and Γ = 0.166 +/- 0.006 are within the range of values reported in literature. Measurements with the absorbing joint and cyst fluid samples give Γ values close to 0.12, which is similar to that of water and plasma.

  18. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), Scdm (units: nm-1), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving Scdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized dataset to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of Scdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  19. SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE DISTRIBUTIONS IN A HETEROGENEOUS MODEL OF THE HUMAN BODY AT RADIOFREQUENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electric field distribution of the rate of energy absorption referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR) in a biological body is a complex function of several exposure parameters such as frequency, intensity of the incident field, polarization, source to object configur...

  20. Light absorption coefficient measurement of SOA using a UV-Visible spectrometer connected with an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Jang, Myoseon

    2011-08-01

    A method for measuring an aerosol light absorption coefficient ( B a) has been developed using a conventional UV-visible spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere covering a wide range of wavelengths (280-800 nm). The feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated in both the transmittance mode (TUV-IS) and the reflective mode (RUV-IS) using the reference aerosol known for the cross-sectional area. The aerosol was collected on a conventional filter and measured for B a values. The resulting RUV-IS method was applied to measure light absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). SOA was produced through photooxidation of different precursor hydrocarbons such as toluene, d-limonene and α-pinene in the presence of NO x (60-70 ppb) and inorganic seed aerosol using a 2-m 3 indoor Teflon film chamber. Of the three precursor hydrocarbons, the B a value of toluene SOA (0.574 m 2 g -1 at 350 nm) was the highest compared with B a values for α-pinene SOA (0.029 m 2 g -1) and d-limonene SOA (0.038 m 2 g -1). When d-limonene SOA or toluene SOA was internally mixed with neutral [(NH 4) 2SO 4] or acidic inorganic seed (NH 4HSO 4:H 2SO 4 = 1:1 by mole), the SOA showed 2-3 times greater B a values at 350 nm than the SOA with no seed. Aerosol aging with a light source for this study reduced B a values of SOA (e.g., on average 10% for toluene SOA and 30% for d-limonene SOA within 4 h). Overall, weak absorption appeared for chamber-generated SOA over wavelengths ranging from 280 to 550 nm, which fall into the sunlight spectrum.

  1. Derivation of the chemical-equilibrium rate coefficient using scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering theory is applied to derive the equilibrium rate coefficient for a general homogeneous chemical reaction involving ideal gases. The reaction rate is expressed in terms of the product of a number of normalized momentum distribution functions, the product of the number of molecules with a given internal energy state, and the spin-averaged T-matrix elements. An expression for momentum distribution at equilibrium for an arbitrary molecule is presented, and the number of molecules with a given internal-energy state is represented by an expression which includes the partition function.

  2. The functional correlation between rainfall rate and extinction coefficient for frequencies from 3 to 10 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rainfall rate (R) obtained from radiometric brightness temperatures and the extinction coefficient (k sub e) is investigated by computing the values of k sub e over a wide range of rainfall rates, for frequencies from 3 to 25 GHz. The results show that the strength of the relation between the R and the k sub e values exhibits considerable variation for frequencies at this range. Practical suggestions are made concerning the selection of particular frequencies for rain measurements to minimize the error in R determinations.

  3. Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

  4. Laboratory investigation on the role of tubular shaped micro resonators phononic crystal insertion on the absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly

  5. Temperature dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radicals with dimethylbenzoquinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Wenger, John C.

    2015-10-01

    Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with two methylated benzoquinones have been measured at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 284-313 K using the relative rate method. The following Arrhenius expressions (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1) have been obtained: k(25DMBQ) = (8.59 ± 4.70) × 10-12exp[(228 ± 163)/T] and k(26DMBQ) = (5.11 ± 2.79) × 10-12exp[(399 ± 165)/T] for 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone (2,5DMBQ) and 2,6-dimethylbenzoquinone (2,6DMBQ), respectively, with corresponding values at 298 K: k(25DMBQ) = (2.05 ± 0.46) × 10-11 and k(26DMBQ) = (1.93 ± 0.12) × 10-11. The rate coefficients are compared to those reported for similar compounds and discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The results are also used to calculate atmospheric lifetimes for 2,5DMBQ and 2,6DMBQ with respect to reaction with OH radicals.

  6. Excitation rate coefficients and line ratios for the optical and ultraviolet transitions in S II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Wei; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1993-01-01

    New calculations are reported for electron excitation collision strengths, rate coefficients, transition probabilities, and line ratios for the astrophysically important optical and UV lines in S II. The collision strengths are calculated in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. The present calculations are more extensive than previous ones, including all transitions among the 12 lowest LS terms and the corresponding 28 fine-structure levels in the collisional-radiative model for S II. While the present rate coefficients for electron impact excitation are within 10-30 percent of the previous values for the low-lying optical transitions employed as density diagnostics of H II regions and nebulae, the excitation rates for the UV transitions 4S super 0 sub 3/2 - 4Psub 1/2,3/2,5/2 differ significantly from earlier calculations, by up to factor of 2. We describe temperature and density sensitive flux ratios for a number of UV lines. The present UV results are likely to be of interest in a more accurate interpretation of S II emission from the Io plasma torus in the magnetosphere of Jupiter, as well as other UV sources observed from the IUE, ASTRO 1, and the HST.

  7. Optimised geometry to calculate dose rate conversion coefficient for external exposure to photons.

    PubMed

    Askri, B; Manai, K; Trabelsi, A; Baccari, B

    2008-01-01

    A single-parameter geometry to describe soil is achieved for Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose rate in air for photon emitters from natural radionuclides. This optimised geometry based on physical assumptions consists of the soil part whose emitted radiation has a given minimum probability to reach the detector. This geometry was implemented in Geant4 toolkit and a significant reduction in computation time was achieved. Simulation tests have shown that for soil represented by a cylinder of 40 m radius and 1 m deep, >98% of the calculated dose rate conversion coefficients in air at 1 m above the ground is generated by only 6% of the soil volume in the case of uniform distribution of radioactivity, and >99.2% of the calculated dose rate for an exponential distribution. When the soil is represented by the entire optimised geometry, 99% of the conversion coefficients values are reached for a soil depth of 1 m and 100% for that of approximately 2 m. PMID:17959610

  8. On the accuracy of the rate coefficients used in plasma fluid models for breakdown in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtzanidis, Konstantinos; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-07-01

    The electrical breakdown of air depends on the balance between creation and loss of charged particles. In fluid models, datasets of the rate coefficients used are obtained either from fits to experimental data or by solutions of the Boltzmann equation. Here, we study the accuracy of the commonly used models for ionization and attachment frequencies and their impact on the prediction of the breakdown threshold for air. We show that large errors can occur depending on the model and propose the most accurate dataset available for modeling of air breakdown phenomena.

  9. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform laboratory measurements of reaction rate coefficients at low temperature. The reactions and temperatures of interest are those that are important in the chemistry of the hydrocarbon rich atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. In this stage of the study we are investigating reactions of ethynyl radicals, C2H, with acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4), and hydrogen (H2). In the previous status report from 24 Jan. 1992, we reported on the development of the experimental apparatus and the first, preliminary data for the C2H + C2H2 reaction.

  10. Calculation of the gain coefficient in cryogenically cooled Yb : YAG disks at high heat generation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Vadimova, O L; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Palashov, O V; Perevezentsev, E A; Khazanov, Efim A

    2013-03-31

    We have calculated the stored energy and gain coefficient in disk gain elements cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The problem has been solved with allowance for intense heat generation, amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic lasing, without averaging over any spatial coordinate. The numerical simulation results agree well with experimental data, in particular at high heat generation rates. Experimental data and theoretical analysis indicate that composite disk gain elements containing an undoped region can store considerably more energy due to suppression of amplified spontaneous emission and parasitic lasing. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  11. Influence of Diffraction Effects on the Result of Measuring the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrasound in Weakly Absorbing Liquids by the Pulse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsky, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of the influence of diffraction effects on the result of measuring the absorption coefficient of ultrasound in weakly absorbing liquids by the pulse method. Diffraction attenuation of an ultrasonic signal in a measuring cell using solid-state delay lines is calculated. It is shown that the use of delay lines of the ultrasonic signal leads to a considerable distortion of the measured absorption coefficient in the low-frequency range from the true value and can either overestimate or underestimate the results.

  12. Rate-equation model for quantitative concentration measurements in flames with picosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiechtner, G J; King, G B; Laurendeau, N M

    1995-02-20

    Measurement of radical concentrations is important in understanding the chemical kinetics involved in combustion. Application of optical techniques allows for the nonintrusive determination of specific radical concentrations. One of the most challenging problems for investigators is to obtain flame data that are independent of the collisional environment. We seek to obviate this difficulty by the use of picosecond pump-probe absorption spectroscopy. A picosecond pump-probe absorption model is developed by rate-equation analysis. Implications are discussed for a laser-pulse width that is much smaller than the excited-state lifetime of the absorbing atom or molecule. The possibility of quantitative, quenching-independent concentration measurements is discussed, and detection limits for atomic sodium and the hydroxyl radical are estimated. For a three-level absorber-emitter, the model leads to a novel pump-probe strategy, called dual-beam asynchronous optical sampling, that can be used to obtain both the electronic quenching-rate coefficient and the doublet mixing-rate coefficient during a single measurement. We discuss the successful demonstration of the technique in a companion paper [Appl. Opt. 34, XXX (1995)]. PMID:21037640

  13. Quantum-reflection model for Penning ionization rate coefficients in cold collisions of metastable helium and rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, A. S.

    2010-11-01

    A quantum-reflection model is employed to calculate the rate coefficient for the Penning ionization of rubidium by cold metastable helium atoms in unpolarized collisions. Various results for the p-wave transmission coefficient on a 1/R6 long-range potential are discussed. The dispersion coefficient for the interaction of these atoms is estimated as 3540 au. The calculated value of the rate coefficient is about four times lower than the recently measured value (Byron et al 2010a Phys. Rev. A 81 013405) for this process when both atoms are held in magneto-optical traps.

  14. A method to determine the acoustic reflection and absorption coefficients of porous media by using modal dispersion in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media. PMID:25480044

  15. Influence of the light propagation models on a linearized photoacoustic image reconstruction of the light absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of the optical properties of the tissues and blood by noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging may provide useful information for screening and early diagnosis of diseases. Linearized 2D image reconstruction algorithm based on PA wave equation and the photon diffusion equation (PDE) can reconstruct the image with computational cost smaller than a method based on 3D radiative transfer equation. However, the reconstructed image is affected by the differences between the actual and assumed light propagations. A quantitative capability of a linearized 2D image reconstruction was investigated and discussed by the numerical simulations and the phantom experiment in this study. The numerical simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and the 2D finite element calculation of the PDE were carried out. The phantom experiment was also conducted. In the phantom experiment, the PA pressures were acquired by a probe which had an optical fiber for illumination and the ring shaped P(VDF-TrFE) ultrasound transducer. The measured object was made of Intralipid and Indocyanine green. In the numerical simulations, it was shown that the linearized image reconstruction method recovered the absorption coefficients with alleviating the dependency of the PA amplitude on the depth of the photon absorber. The linearized image reconstruction method worked effectively under the light propagation calculated by 3D MC simulation, although some errors occurred. The phantom experiments validated the result of the numerical simulations.

  16. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity and Optical Absorption Coefficient of Solids Using PTR and PPE: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, R.; Mendioroz, A.; Apiñaniz, E.; Salazar, A.

    2012-11-01

    Modulated photothermal radiometry (PTR) and a modulated photopyroelectric (PPE) technique have been widely used to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. The method is based on illuminating the sample with a plane light beam and measuring the infrared emission with an infrared detector (PTR) or the electric voltage produced by a pyroelectric sensor in contact with the sample (PPE). The amplitude and phase of both photothermal signals are recorded as a function of the modulation frequency and then fitted to the theoretical model. In this work, we compare the ability of modulated PTR and PPE to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of homogeneous slabs. In order to eliminate the instrumental factor, self-normalization is used, i.e., the ratio of the photothermal signal recorded at the rear and front surfaces. The influence of the multiple reflections of the light beam and the transparency to infrared wavelengths are analyzed. Measurements performed on a wide variety of homogeneous materials, transparent and opaque, good and bad thermal conductors, confirm the validity of the method. The advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are discussed.

  17. Rate Coefficient Determinations for H + NO2 → OH + NO from High Pressure Flow Reactor Measurements.

    PubMed

    Haas, Francis M; Dryer, Frederick L

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction H + NO2 → OH + NO (R1) have been determined over the nominal temperature and pressure ranges of 737-882 K and 10-20 atm, respectively, from measurements in two different flow reactor facilities: one laminar and one turbulent. Considering the existing database of experimental k1 measurements, the present conditions add measurements of k1 at previously unconsidered temperatures between ∼820-880 K, as well as at pressures that exceed existing measurements by over an order of magnitude. Experimental measurements of NOx-perturbed H2 oxidation have been interpreted by a quasi-steady state NOx plateau (QSSP) method. At the QSSP conditions considered here, overall reactivity is sensitive only to the rates of R1 and H + O2 + M → HO2 + M (R2.M). Consequently, the ratio of k1 to k2.M may be extracted as a simple algebraic function of measured NO2, O2, and total gas concentrations with only minimal complication (within measurement uncertainty) due to treatment of overall gas composition M that differs slightly from pure bath gas B. Absolute values of k1 have been determined with reference to the relatively well-known, pressure-dependent rate coefficients of R2.B for B = Ar and N2. Rate coefficients for the title reaction determined from present experimental interpretation of both laminar and turbulent flow reactor results appear to be in very good agreement around a representative value of 1.05 × 10(14) cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) (1.74 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)). Further, the results of this study agree both with existing low pressure flash photolysis k1 determinations of Ko and Fontijn (J. Phys. Chem. 95 3984) near 760 K as well as a present fit to the theoretical expression of Su et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 106 8261). These results indicate that, over the temperature range considered in this study and up to at least 20 atm, net chemistry due to stabilization of the H-NO2 reaction intermediate to form isomers of HNO2 may proceed at

  18. Determination of the global recombination rate coefficient for the ISX-B Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The global recombination rate coefficient for hydrogen has been measured for the ISX-B tokamak vacuum vessel for various surface conditions. The measurements were performed by observing the rate of decrease of gas pressure in the vessel during a glow discharge. The parameters of the glow discharge and the complete experimental method are described. Previously published analytic and numerical models are used for data analysis. The effects of surface contamination on the results are described. For ''unclean'' wall conditions sigmak/sub r/ = 1.8 x 10/sup -28/ cm/sup 4//atom.s at 296 K and increases to sigmak/sub r/ = 4.4 x 10/sup -28/ cm/sup 4//atoms.s for ''clean'' conditions and remains constant until subsequent exposure to air.

  19. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  20. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, M; Torres-Silva, H

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) "inverse skin effect" shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source. PMID:16552096

  1. High-field measurement of the 129Xe-Cs binary spin-exchange rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Kuzma, Nicholas N.; Happer, William

    2004-03-01

    We report the first measurement of the binary spin-exchange rate coefficient κ in the ^129Xe-Cs system. Data were taken using ^129Xe NMR in glass cells containing isotopically enriched xenon gas at pressures on the order of atmospheres and a small amount of liquid Cs metal, in the temperature range from 120 to 140^rcC and at a magnetic field of 9.4 T. The contribution of CsXe van der Waals molecules to spin exchange should have been nearly eliminated by the high magnetic field, as confirmed by our measurements of the ^129Xe longitudinal relaxation time T1 in a series of cells with various densities of xenon. The Cs atomic number density [Cs] was controlled by the cell temperature, and was experimentally determined by analysis of the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized probe laser light. We measured κ = d (T_1-1)/d[Cs]= (2.81± 0.2) × 10-16 cm^3 s-1 . This is about 60% larger than the previously measured rate coefficient for the ^129Xe-Rb system(Y.-Y. Jau, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 66, 052710 (2002).), κ =d (T_1-1)/d[Rb]= (1.75± 0.12) × 10-16 cm^3 s-1 . A comparison with theory(Y.-Y. Jau, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022720 (2003).) will be discussed.

  2. Estimating Reaction Rate Coefficients Within a Travel-Time Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, R; Lu, C; Luo, Jian; Wu, Wei-min; Cheng, H.; Criddle, Craig; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2011-03-01

    A generalized, efficient, and practical approach based on the travel-time modeling framework is developed to estimate in situ reaction rate coefficients for groundwater remediation in heterogeneous aquifers. The required information for this approach can be obtained by conducting tracer tests with injection of a mixture of conservative and reactive tracers and measurements of both breakthrough curves (BTCs). The conservative BTC is used to infer the travel-time distribution from the injection point to the observation point. For advection-dominant reactive transport with well-mixed reactive species and a constant travel-time distribution, the reactive BTC is obtained by integrating the solutions to advective-reactive transport over the entire travel-time distribution, and then is used in optimization to determine the in situ reaction rate coefficients. By directly working on the conservative and reactive BTCs, this approach avoids costly aquifer characterization and improves the estimation for transport in heterogeneous aquifers which may not be sufficiently described by traditional mechanistic transport models with constant transport parameters. Simplified schemes are proposed for reactive transport with zero-, first-, nth-order, and Michaelis-Menten reactions. The proposed approach is validated by a reactive transport case in a two-dimensional synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and a field-scale bioremediation experiment conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The field application indicates that ethanol degradation for U(VI)-bioremediation is better approximated by zero-order reaction kinetics than first-order reaction kinetics.

  3. On the temperature dependence of the rate coefficient of formation of C2+ from C + CH+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, S.; Pastore, M.; Garcia, E.; Pacifici, L.; Laganà, A.

    2016-08-01

    We carry out quasi-classical trajectory calculations for the C + CH+→ C_2^+ + H reaction on an ad hoc computed high-level ab initio potential energy surface. Thermal rate coefficients at the temperatures of relevance in cold interstellar clouds are derived and compared with the assumed, temperature-independent estimates publicly available in kinetic data bases KIDA and UDfA. For a temperature of 10 K the data base value overestimates by a factor of 2 the one obtained by us (thus improperly enhancing the destruction route of CH+ in astrochemical kinetic models) which is seen to double in the temperature range 5-300 K with a sharp increase in the first 50 K. The computed values are fitted via the popular Arrhenius-Kooij formula and best-fitting parameters α = 1.32 × 10-9 cm3 s-1, β = 0.1 and γ = 2.19 K to be included in the online mentioned data bases are provided. Further investigation shows that the temperature dependence of the thermal rate coefficient better conforms to the recently proposed so-called `deformed Arrhenius' law by Aquilanti and Mundim.

  4. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the research are to measure low temperature laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions relevant to the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. These reactions are, for example, C2H + H2, CH4, C2H2, and other hydrocarbons which need to be measured at low temperatures, down to approximately 150 K. The results of this work are provided to NASA specialists who study modeling of the hydrocarbon chemistry of the outer planets. The apparatus for this work consists of a pulsed laser photolysis system and a tunable F-center probe laser to monitor the disappearance of C2H. A low temperature cell with a cryogenic circulating fluid in the outer jacket provides the gas handling system for this work. These elements have been described in detail in previous reports. Several new results are completed and the publications are just being prepared. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 has been measured with an improved apparatus down to 154 K. An Arrhenius plot indicates a clear increase in the rate coefficient at the lowest temperatures, most likely because of the long-lived (C4H3) intermediate. The capability to achieve the lowest temperatures in this work was made possible by construction of a new cell and addition of a multipass arrangement for the probe laser, as well as improvements to the laser system.

  5. Behavior of rate coefficients for ion-ion mutual neutralization, 300-550 K

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas M.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, A. A.

    2012-05-28

    Rate coefficients k{sub MN} have been measured for a number of anion neutralization reactions with Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +} over the temperature range 300-550 K. For the first time, the data set includes anions of radicals and other short-lived species. In the present paper, we review these results and make note of correlations with reduced mass, electron binding energy of the anion (equivalent to the electron affinity of the corresponding neutral), and temperature, and compare with expectations from absorbing sphere models. An intriguing result is that the data for diatomic anions neutralized by Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +} have k{sub MN} values close to 3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 300 K, a figure which is lower than those for all of the polyatomic anions at 300 K except for SF{sub 5}{sup -}+ Kr{sup +}. For the polyatomic anions studied here, neutralized by Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +}, the reduced mass dependence agrees with theory, on average, but we find a stronger temperature dependence of T{sup -0.9} than expected from the theoretical E{sup -0.5} energy dependence of the rate coefficient at thermal energies. The k{sub MN} show a weak dependence on the electron binding energy of the anion for the polyatomic species studied.

  6. Determining discharge-coefficient ratings for selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillis, G.M.; Swain, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges through 10 selected coastal control structures in Broward and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, are presently computed using the theoretical discharge-coefficient ratings developed from scale modeling, theoretical discharge coefficients, and some field calibrations whose accuracies for specific sites are unknown. To achieve more accurate discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures, field discharge measurements were taken with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler at the coastal control structures under a variety of flow conditions. These measurements were used to determine computed discharge-coefficient ratings for the coastal control structures under different flow regimes: submerged orifice flow, submerged weir flow, free orifice flow, and free weir flow. Theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged orifice and weir flows were determined at seven coastal control structures, and discharge ratings for free orifice and weir flows were determined at three coastal control structures. The difference between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings varied from structure to structure. The theoretical and computed dischargecoefficient ratings for submerged orifice flow were within 10 percent at four of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at two of the seven structures. The theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for submerged weir flow were within 10 percent at three of seven coastal control structures; however, differences greater than 20 percent were found at four of the seven coastal control structures. The difference between theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings for free orifice and free weir flows ranged from 5 to 32 percent. Some differences between the theoretical and computed discharge-coefficient ratings could be better defined with more data collected over a greater distribution of measuring conditions.

  7. Kramers-Moyal coefficients in the analysis and modeling of heart rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelczyc, M.; Żebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

    2009-09-01

    Modeling of recorded time series may be used as a method of analysis for heart rate variability studies. In particular, the extraction of the first two Kramers-Moyal coefficients has been used in this context. Recently, the method was applied to a wide range of signal analysis: from financial data to physiological and biological time series. Modeling of the signal is important for the prediction and interpretation of the dynamics underlying the process. The method requires the determination of the Markov time. Obtaining the drift and diffusion term of the Kramers-Moyal expansion is crucial for the modeling of the original time series with the Langevin equation. Both Tabar [Comput. Sci. Eng. 8, 54 (2006)] and T. Kuusela [Phys. Rev. E 69, 031916 (2004)] suggested that these terms may be used to distinguish healthy subjects from those with heart failure. The research groups applied a somewhat different methodology and obtained substantially different ranges of the Markov time. We show that the two studies may be considered consistent with each other as Kuusela analyzed 24 h recordings while Tabar analyzed daytime and nighttime recordings, separately. However, both groups suggested using the Langevin equation for modeling of time series which requires the fluctuation force to be a Gaussian. We analyzed heart rate variability recordings for ten young male (age 26-4+3y ) healthy subjects. 24 h recordings were analyzed and 6-h-long daytime and nighttime fragments were selected. Similar properties of the data were observed in all recordings but all the nighttime data and seven of the ten 24 h series exhibited higher-order, non-negligible Kramers-Moyal coefficients. In such a case, the reconstruction of the time series using the Langevin equation is impossible. The non-negligible higher-order coefficients are due to autocorrelation in the data. This effect may be interpreted as a result of a physiological phenomenon (especially occurring for nighttime data): respiratory

  8. Absolute absorption coefficient of C6H2 in the mid-UV range at low temperature; implications for the interpretation of Titan atmospheric spectra.

    PubMed

    Bénilan, Y; Bruston, P; Raulin, F; Courtin, R; Guillemin, J C

    1995-01-01

    The interpretation of mid-UV albedo spectra of planetary atmospheres, especially that of Titan, is the main goal of the SIPAT (Spectroscopie uv d'Interet Prebiologique dans l'Atmosphere de Titan) research program. This laboratory experiment has been developed in order to systematically determine the absorption coefficients of molecular compounds which are potential absorbers of scattered sunlight in planetary atmospheres, with high spectral resolution, and at various temperatures below room temperature. From photochemical modelling and experimental simulations, we may expect triacetylene (C6H2) to be present in the atmosphere of Titan, even though it has not yet been detected. We present here the first determination of the absolute absorption coefficient of that compound in the 200-300 nm range and at two temperatures (296 K and 233 K). The temperature dependence of the C6H2 absorption coefficient in that wavelength range is compared to that previously observed in the case of cyanoacetylene (HC3N). We then discuss the implications of the present results for the interpretation of Titan UV spectra, where it appears that large uncertainities can be introduced either by the presence of trace impurities in laboratory samples or by the variations of absorption coefficients with temperature. PMID:11538441

  9. Characterization of the reaction rate coefficient of DNA with the hydroxyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, J.R.; Ward, J.F.; Aguilera, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Using agarose gel electrophoresis, we have measured the yield of single-strand breaks (SSBs) induced by {sup 137}Cs {gamma} irradiation in a variety of plasmid DNA substrates ranging in size from 2.7 kb to 38 kb irradiated in aerobic aqueous solution in the presence of the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Under these conditions DNA SSBs are caused mainly by the hydroxyl radical. Using the competition between DMSO and DNA for the hydroxyl radical, we have estimated the rate coefficient for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with DNA. The results cannot be characterized by conventional steady-state competition kinetics. However, it is possible to describe the second-order rate constant for the reaction as a function of the scavenging capacity of the solution. The second-order rate constant increases with increasing scavenging capacity, rising from about 5x10{sup 8} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} to about 10{sup 10} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 10{sup 10} s{sup -1}. This dependence of the second-order rate constant on the scavenging capacity appears to be more pronounced for larger plasmids. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Impairment of jejunal absorption rate of carnosine by glycylglycine in man in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G C

    1976-01-01

    Using a double-lumen tube jejunal perfusion system in vivo, the mutual effects of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and glycylglycine on their respective absorption rates have been studied in six Zambian African adults. Data on the effect of the constituent amino-acids of carnosine on glycylglycine absorption rate have similarly been obtained. The solutions infused in each subject contained (A) carnosine (50 mmol l.-1), (B) carnosine (50 mmol l.-1) and glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), (C) glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), and (D) glycylglycine (50 mmol l.-1), L-histidine (50 mmol l.-1) and beta-alanine (50 mmol l.-1). Glycylglycine produced a significant impairment in the mean rate of histidine absorption from carnosine (P less than 0-01). However, carnosine did not have a significant effect on the mean rate of glycine absorption from glycylglycine. Mean rate of histidine absorption from solution D was significantly higher than that from solution A (P less than 0-01). Mean rate of glycine absorption from glycylglycine was not significantly different during infusion of solutions B, C, and D. The results are consistent with the concept that carnosine on glycylglycine is probably because the affinity of mechanism; the lack of influence of carnosine on glycylglycine is probably because the affinity of carnosine for the dipeptide uptake mechanism is relatively low. A gross difference has been shown between mean absorption rate of histidine from free L-histidine (solution D) (25-8 mmol h-1) and when it is given in the form of carnosine in the presence of another dipeptide (solution B) (8-7 mmol h-1); that emphasizes the complexity of amino acid and peptide interaction during absorption, which must be important in nutrition. PMID:773786

  11. Broadband Measurement of Black Carbon Absorption and Scattering Coefficients using a Supercontinuum Integrated Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sharma, N.; Arnold, I. J.; Moosmuller, H.; Arnott, P.; Mazzoleni, C.

    2012-12-01

    the Desert Research Institute, measuring absorption and scattering coefficients of kerosene soot and sodium chloride aerosols. As a reference system we used a commercial three-wavelength photoacoustic-nephelometer instrument (DMT Inc.). Here, we present the results of this laboratory intercomparison.

  12. Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients measured for selected H2O absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.; Giver, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    Intensities and N2 collision-broadening coefficients are measured for 62 water vapor absorption lines between 715 and 732 nm potentially applicable to laser remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. Absolute line strengths and widths were determined from spectra corrected for instrument resolution, air-path absorption and Lorentz and Doppler broadening for pure water vapor and water vapor-nitrogen mixtures in a multipass absorption cell with a base path length of 25 m (White cell). Line strengths are observed to range from 4 x 10 to the -25th to 4 x 10 to the -23rd kayser/molecule per sq cm, and collision broadening coefficients are found to be approximately equal to 0.1 kayser/atm.

  13. Revised rate coefficients for H2 and H- destruction by realistic stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Bhaskar; Khochfar, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that can destroy H2 and H- species is quintessential in governing the formation of the first stars, black holes and galaxies. In this study, we compute the reaction rate coefficients for H2 photodissociation by Lyman-Werner photons (11.2-13.6 eV) and H- photodetachment by 0.76 eV photons emanating from self-consistent stellar populations that we model using publicly available stellar synthesis codes. So far, studies that include chemical networks for the formation of molecular hydrogen take these processes into account by assuming that the source spectra can be approximated by a power-law dependence or a blackbody spectrum at 104 or 105 K. We show that using spectra generated from realistic stellar population models can alter the reaction rates for photodissociation, kdi, and photodetachment, kde, significantly. In particular, kde can be up to ˜2-4 orders of magnitude lower in the case of realistic stellar spectra suggesting that previous calculations have overestimated the impact that radiation has on lowering H2 abundances. In contrast to burst modes of star formation, we find that models with continuous star formation predict increasing kde and kdi, which makes it necessary to include the star formation history of sources to derive self-consistent reaction rates, and that it is not enough to just calculate J21 for the background. For models with constant star formation rate, the change in shape of the spectral energy distribution leads to a non-negligible late-time contribution to kde and kdi, and we present self-consistently derived cosmological reaction rates based on star formation rates consistent with observations of the high-redshift Universe.

  14. Functional adaptation in long bones: establishing in vivo values for surface remodeling rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Cowin, S C; Hart, R T; Balser, J R; Kohn, D H

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we describe a computational means, based on beam theory, for application of the theory of adaptive elasticity to examples of real bone geometries. The results of the animal experiments were taken from the literature, and each documented the temporal evolution of a change in bone shape after a significant change in the mechanical loading environment of the bone. For each of these studies, we establish preliminary estimates of the in vivo values of the surface remodeling rate coefficients--the key parameters in the theory of surface remodeling. Our preliminary parameter estimates are established by comparison of published animal experimental results with surface remodeling theory predictions generated by the computational method. PMID:4077864

  15. Temperature dependence of the atmospheric photolysis rate coefficient for NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shetter, Richard E.; Davidson, James A.; Cantrell, Christopher A.; Burzysnki, Norbert J., Jr.; Calvert, Jack G.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate values for the photolysis rate coefficient of NO2 (j1) are required for studies related to the observed imbalance in the photostationary state of O3, NO, and NO2 in the troposphere. Direct measurements of the temperature dependence of j1 at temperatures from -70 to 30 C were made in sunlight for relatively cloudless summer days in Boulder, Colorado. The ratios of j1 (30 C)/j1 (T C) for T = -10 C and -70 C, respectively, were 1.046 + or - 0.040 and 1.070 + or - 0.031. The j1 ratios were independent of solar zenith angle. Theoretical estimates of the temperature-dependent j1 ratios based upon recently reported cross section (sigma) and quantum yield (phi) data are more consistent with these experimental measurements than those based upon the currently accepted sigma and phi data.

  16. Determination of collisional quenching rate coefficient of N2(A^3σu^+ )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Yuusuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Itoh, Haruo

    2012-10-01

    We have previously determined the collisional quenching rate coefficient of N2(A^3σu^+ ) by an air pollutant gas [1-4]. In this paper we report the collisional quenching rate coefficient k' of N2(A^3σu^+ ) by p-xylene (C8H10), which was determined to be (6.5±0.9)x10-9 cm^3/s. In addition, through repeated experiments it was found that by-products of p-xylene were deposited on the cathode, similarly to the cases of m-xylene and o-xylene previously reported [4], and then the current-voltage curves consistently shifed to a higher-E/p0 region. To clarify the reason for this behavior, we confirmed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that these changes in the current-voltage curves were caused by the deposition of a thin film of by-product of decomposed xylene on the cathode surface. According to the results of AES, C atoms were detected in a sample exposed to an electrical discharge, and we confirmed that the deposit of C was thickest in the case of electrical discharge in p-xylene. According to the results of FTIR, it was found that CH2 and CH were obtained from the deposition of p-xylene. [4pt] [1] S. Suzuki, H. Itoh, H. Sekizawa and N. Ikuta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 62, No.8, 2692-2697 (1993)[0pt] [2] S. Suzuki, H. Itoh, H. Sekizawa and N. Ikuta, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 36, 4744-4746 (1997)[0pt] [3] S. Suzuki, T. Suzuki and H. Itoh, Cont. of HAKONE X Saga, Japan, 132-135 (2006)[0pt] [4] S. Suzuki, H. Itoh, Proc. of 30th ICPIG (Belfast, UK), A1-12 (2011)

  17. Distribution coefficients (Kd) and desorption rates of 137Cs and 241Am in Black Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Topcuoğlu, S; Güngör, N; Kirbaşoğlu, C

    2002-12-01

    The distribution coefficients (Kd) and desorption rates of 137Cs and 241Am radionuclides in bottom sediments at different locations in the Black Sea were studied under laboratory conditions. The Kd values were found to be 500 for 137Cs and 3800 for 241Am at the steady state and described exponential curves. Rapid uptake of the radionuclides occurred during the initial period and little accumulation happened after four days. The desorption rates for 137Cs in different bottom sediments were best described by a three-component exponential model. The desorption half-times of 137Cs ranged from 26 to 50 d at the slow components. However, the desorption rate of 241Am described one component for all sediment samples and desorption half-time was found to be 75 d. In general, the results showed that the 241Am radionuclide is more effectively transferred to bottom sediment and has longer turnover time than 137Cs under Black Sea conditions. PMID:12489734

  18. Recombination of W19 + ions with electrons: Absolute rate coefficients from a storage-ring experiment and from theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badnell, N. R.; Spruck, K.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2016-05-01

    Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated rate coefficients for the recombination of W19 +([Kr ] 4 d10 4 f9 ) ions with free electrons (forming W18 +) are presented. At low electron-ion collision energies, the merged-beam rate coefficient is dominated by strong, mutually overlapping, recombination resonances as already found previously for the neighboring charge-state ions W18 + and W20 +. In the temperature range where W19 + is expected to form in a collisionally ionized plasma, the experimentally derived recombination rate coefficient deviates by up to a factor of about 20 from the theoretical rate coefficient obtained from the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure database. The present calculations, which employ a Breit-Wigner redistributive partitioning of autoionizing widths for dielectronic recombination via multi-electron resonances, reproduce the experimental findings over the entire temperature range.

  19. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Laporta, V.; Celiberto, R.; Tennyson, J.

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  20. New potential energy surface for the HCS{sup +}–He system and inelastic rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Quintas-Sánchez, Ernesto; Tuckey, Philip

    2015-07-28

    A new high quality potential energy surface is calculated at a coupled-cluster single double triple level with an aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for the HCS{sup +}–He system. This potential energy surface is used in low energy quantum scattering calculations to provide a set of (de)-excitation cross sections and rate coefficients among the first 20 rotational levels of HCS{sup +} by He in the range of temperature from 5 K to 100 K. The paper discusses the impact of the new ab initio potential energy surface on the cross sections at low energy and provides a comparison with the HCO{sup +}–He system. The HCS{sup +}–He rate coefficients for the strongest transitions differ by factors of up to 2.5 from previous rate coefficients; thus, analysis of astrophysical spectra should be reconsidered with the new rate coefficients.

  1. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  2. OH{sup +} in astrophysical media: state-to-state formation rates, Einstein coefficients and inelastic collision rates with He

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Carrasco, Susana; Godard, Benjamin; Lique, François; Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo; Aoiz, F. Javier; Castillo, Jesús F.; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cernicharo, José

    2014-10-10

    The rate constants required to model the OH{sup +} observations in different regions of the interstellar medium have been determined using state of the art quantum methods. First, state-to-state rate constants for the H{sub 2}(v = 0, J = 0, 1) + O{sup +}({sup 4} S) → H + OH{sup +}(X {sup 3}Σ{sup –}, v', N) reaction have been obtained using a quantum wave packet method. The calculations have been compared with time-independent results to assess the accuracy of reaction probabilities at collision energies of about 1 meV. The good agreement between the simulations and the existing experimental cross sections in the 0.01-1 eV energy range shows the quality of the results. The calculated state-to-state rate constants have been fitted to an analytical form. Second, the Einstein coefficients of OH{sup +} have been obtained for all astronomically significant rovibrational bands involving the X {sup 3}Σ{sup –} and/or A {sup 3}Π electronic states. For this purpose, the potential energy curves and electric dipole transition moments for seven electronic states of OH{sup +} are calculated with ab initio methods at the highest level, including spin-orbit terms, and the rovibrational levels have been calculated including the empirical spin-rotation and spin-spin terms. Third, the state-to-state rate constants for inelastic collisions between He and OH{sup +}(X {sup 3}Σ{sup –}) have been calculated using a time-independent close coupling method on a new potential energy surface. All these rates have been implemented in detailed chemical and radiative transfer models. Applications of these models to various astronomical sources show that inelastic collisions dominate the excitation of the rotational levels of OH{sup +}. In the models considered, the excitation resulting from the chemical formation of OH{sup +} increases the line fluxes by about 10% or less depending on the density of the gas.

  3. Ar II Emission Processes and Emission Rate Coefficients in ASTRAL Helicon Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Gardner, A.; Kamar, O.; Kesterson, A.; Loch, S.; Munoz, J.; Ballance, C.

    2008-11-01

    Emission processes for Ar II line emission are described for low temperature plasmas (Te < 10 eV). It is found that Ar II emission results primarily from Ar ion ground state excitation rather than from any Ar neutral state. This suggests that Ar II emission results from stepping processes which includes ionization and then excitation of the neutral Ar atom filling the vacuum chamber. The Ar II emission rate coefficients are measured in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source using a 0.33 m monochromator and a CCD camera. ASTRAL produces Ar plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 1E11 -- 1E13 cm-3 and Te = 2 - 10 eV, B-field <= 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. RF compensated Langmuir probes are used to measure Te and ne. In this experiment, Ar II transitions are monitored as a function of Te while ne is kept constant. Experimental emission rates are obtained as a function of Te and compared to theoretical predictions. Theoretical predictions make use of the ADAS suite of codes as well as recent R-matrix electron-impact excitation calculations that includes pseudo-states contributions. Our collisional-radiative formalism assumes that the excited levels are in quasi-static equilibrium with the ground and metastable populations.

  4. Estimate of effective recombination rate and average selection coefficient for HIV in chronic infection

    PubMed Central

    Batorsky, Rebecca; Kearney, Mary F.; Palmer, Sarah E.; Maldarelli, Frank; Rouzine, Igor M.; Coffin, John M.

    2011-01-01

    HIV adaptation to a host in chronic infection is simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo algorithm that includes the evolutionary factors of mutation, positive selection with varying strength among sites, random genetic drift, linkage, and recombination. By comparing two sensitive measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the number of diverse sites measured in simulation to patient data from one-time samples of pol gene obtained by single-genome sequencing from representative untreated patients, we estimate the effective recombination rate and the average selection coefficient to be on the order of 1% per genome per generation (10−5 per base per generation) and 0.5%, respectively. The adaptation rate is twofold higher and fourfold lower than predicted in the absence of recombination and in the limit of very frequent recombination, respectively. The level of LD and the number of diverse sites observed in data also range between the values predicted in simulation for these two limiting cases. These results demonstrate the critical importance of finite population size, linkage, and recombination in HIV evolution. PMID:21436045

  5. Regression Splines in the Time-Dependent Coefficient Rates Model for Recurrent Event Data

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Leila D.; Cai, Jianwen; Zeng, Donglin; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Many epidemiologic studies involve the occurrence of recurrent events and much attention has been given for the development of modelling techniques that take into account the dependence structure of multiple event data. This paper presents a time-dependent coefficient rates model that incorporates regression splines in its estimation procedure. Such method would be appropriate in situations where the effect of an exposure or covariates changes over time in recurrent event data settings. The finite sample properties of the estimators are studied via simulation. Using data from a randomized community trial that was designed to evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on recurrent diarrheal episodes in small children, we model the functional form of the treatment effect on the time to the occurrence of diarrhea. The results describe how this effect varies over time. In summary, we observed a major impact of the vitamin A supplementation on diarrhea after 2 months of the dosage, with the effect diminishing after the third dosage. The proposed method can be viewed as a flexible alternative to the marginal rates model with constant effect in situations where the effect of interest may vary over time. PMID:18696748

  6. Subpicosecond IR transient absorption spectroscopy: measurement of internal conversion rates in DABCO vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glownia, J. H.; Misewich, J.; Sorokin, P. P.

    1987-09-01

    An apparatus combining subpicosecond 248.5 nm pump pulses with a time-resolved subpicosecond broadband infrared absorption spectroscopy probe has been utilized to measure an internal conversion rate in 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane vapor. A subpicosecond (⪅ 500 fs) internal conversion rate has been determined.

  7. Theory of absorption rate of carriers in fused silica under intense laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hongxiang; Xiang, Xia; Zheng, WG; Yuan, XD; Wu, SY; Jiang, XD; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Sun, Kai

    2010-11-15

    A quantum non-perturbation theory for phonon-assisted photon absorption of conduction band electron in intense laser was developed. By carrying out the calculation in fused silica at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared in terawatt intensity laser, we show that the Non-perturbation approach can make a uniform description of energy absorption rate at both short wavelengths and long wavelengths on TW / cm2 intensity laser.

  8. Unimolecular Decomposition Rate of the Criegee Intermediate (CH3)2COO Measured Directly with UV Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mica C; Chao, Wen; Takahashi, Kaito; Boering, Kristie A; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2016-07-14

    The unimolecular decomposition of (CH3)2COO and (CD3)2COO was measured by direct detection of the Criegee intermediate at temperatures from 283 to 323 K using time-resolved UV absorption spectroscopy. The unimolecular rate coefficient kd for (CH3)2COO shows a strong temperature dependence, increasing from 269 ± 82 s(-1) at 283 K to 916 ± 56 s(-1) at 323 K with an Arrhenius activation energy of ∼6 kcal mol(-1). The bimolecular rate coefficient for the reaction of (CH3)2COO with SO2, kSO2, was also determined in the temperature range 283 to 303 K. Our temperature-dependent values for kd and kSO2 are consistent with previously reported relative rate coefficients kd/kSO2 of (CH3)2COO formed from ozonolysis of tetramethyl ethylene. Quantum chemical calculations of kd for (CH3)2COO are consistent with the experiment, and the combination of experiment and theory for (CD3)2COO indicates that tunneling plays a significant role in (CH3)2COO unimolecular decomposition. The fast rates of unimolecular decomposition for (CH3)2COO measured here, in light of the relatively slow rate for the reaction of (CH3)2COO with water previously reported, suggest that thermal decomposition may compete with the reactions with water and with SO2 for atmospheric removal of the dimethyl-substituted Criegee intermediate. PMID:26985985

  9. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    PubMed

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  10. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  11. 3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.

  12. Evaluation of different indirect measures of rate of drug absorption in comparative pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L F; Keene, O N; Duquesnoy, C; Bye, A

    1994-02-01

    As indirect measures of rate of drug absorption (metrics), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) is confounded by extent of drug absorption and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) is a discrete variable, dependent on blood sampling frequency. Building on the work of Endrenyi et al., we have compared different metrics, including Cmax/area under the curve of concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC infinity), partial AUC from zero to tmax (AUCp), and Cmax.tmax with simulated experiments. Importantly, the performance of these metrics was assessed with the results of actual pharmacokinetic studies involving Glaxo drugs. The results of the simulated and real experiments were consistent and produced the following unambiguous findings: (1) Cmax/AUC infinity is a more powerful metric than Cmax in establishing bioequivalence when the formulations are truly bioequivalent; (2) Cmax/AUC infinity is more sensitive than Cmax at detecting differences in rate of absorption when they exist; and (3) the treatment ratios for AUCp, AUCp/AUC infinity, and Cmax.tmax are very imprecisely estimated and are of no practical value as measures of rate of absorption. Of the metrics examined, Cmax/AUC infinity is the most sensitive and powerful indirect measure of rate of drug absorption in comparative pharmacokinetic studies involving immediate-release dosage forms and should be used instead of Cmax in bioequivalence testing. PMID:8169791

  13. Determination of the carrier concentration in CdSe crystals from the effective infrared absorption coefficient measured by means of the photothermal infrared radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-contact method that allows to determine the carrier concentration in CdSe crystals is presented. The method relies on the measurement of the effective infrared absorption coefficient by means of the photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR). In order to obtain the effective infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, the frequency characteristics of the PTR signal were analyzed in the frame of a one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semitransparent crystals. The carrier concentrations were estimated using a theory introduced by Ruda and a recently proposed normalization procedure for the PTR signal. The deduced carrier concentrations of the investigated CdSe crystals are in reasonable agreement with those obtained using Hall measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other semiconductors with the carrier concentration in the range of 1014-1017 cm-3.

  14. Ionization cross sections and rate coefficients for CFCl3 molecule by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Satyendra; Kumar, Neeraj

    2013-09-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freons are important industrial material with wide-ranging applications as refrigerant, aerosol propellant and semiconductor etchant, etc. The large-scale industrial consumption is of particular environmental concern because of its potential for ozone destruction in the stratosphere. The present work reports the calculations for differential cross sections as a function of secondary/ ejected electron energy and the scattering angle in the ionization of CFCl3 by electron collision leading to the production of various cations viz. CCl3+,CFCl2+,CCl2+,CFCl+, CCl+, Cl+, CF+, F+, and C+ through direct and dissociative ionization processes at a fixed incident electron energy of 200 eV. A modified Jain-Khare semi-empirical formalism based on oscillator strength has been employed. To the best of our knowledge, no experimental and/or theoretical data is available for comparison of the present results for differential cross sections. The corresponding derived integral cross sections in terms of the partial ionization cross sections corresponding to these cations, in the energy range varying from ionization threshold to 1000 eV, revealed a reasonably good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. In addition to the differential and integral ionization cross sections, we have also calculated the ionization rate coefficients using the evaluated partial ionization cross sections and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution as a function of electron energy.

  15. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections and Rate Coefficients for Single Carbon Freon Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Satyendra; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-09-01

    Single carbon Freon molecules or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are important industrial material with wide-ranging applications as refrigerant, aerosol propellant and semiconductor etchant, etc. The large-scale industrial consumption is of particular environmental concern because of its potential for ozone destruction in the stratosphere. In the present work, we have extended and generalized the modified Jain-Khare (JK) semi-empirical formalism for the evaluation of the total ionization cross sections corresponding to the formation of the cations in the electron impact ionization of molecules to the electron impact ionization of single carbon freon molecules, viz. CFCl3, CF2Cl2 and CF3Cl. The integral partial and the total ionization cross sections as function of incident electron energy are evaluated in the energy range varying from ionization threshold to 1000 eV. In absence of available differential cross sections, the corresponding derived partial and total ionization cross sections revealed a reasonably good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. In addition to the differential and integral ionization cross sections, we have also calculated the ionization rate coefficients using the evaluated partial ionization cross sections and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution as a function of electron temperature/energy. The work is supported by DST, New Delhi, India.

  16. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  17. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranor, Walter L.; Alvarez, David A.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants ( kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient ( Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07 m 3 g -1 d -1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values ( n = 3) of anthracene and p, p'-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57 m 3 g -1 d -1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  18. Acceptor End-Capped Oligomeric Conjugated Molecules with Broadened Absorption and Enhanced Extinction Coefficients for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liu; Lu, Kun; Xia, Benzheng; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zaiyu; Deng, Dan; Fang, Jin; Zhu, Lingyun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2016-07-01

    Acceptor end-capping of oligomeric conjugated molecules is found to be an effective strategy for simultaneous spectral broadening, extinction coefficient enhancement, and energy level optimization, resulting in profoundly enhanced power conversion efficiencies (of 9.25% and 8.91%) compared to the original oligomers. This strategy is effective in overcoming the absorption disadvantage of oligomers and small molecules due to conjugation limitation. PMID:27172541

  19. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenu, Luigi; Forni, Daniele; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) was finally evaluated.

  20. Limitations arising from two-photon absorption of solvent in pulsed-laser thermal lens detection: determination of the two-photon absorption coefficient of ethanol at 266 nm.

    PubMed

    Abbas Ghaleb, Khalil; Georges, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Two-photon absorption of the solvent under pulsed-laser excitation at 266 nm produces a high background thermal lens signal interfering with the analyte signal. Discrimination of both solvent and analyte signals along with calibration of the photothermal response has allowed the determination of the two-photon absorption coefficient of ethanol. The obtained value, 3.0x10(-10) cm W-1, is close to the literature values obtained from transmittance measurements using picosecond or femtosecond laser pulses. PMID:16454917

  1. Remote Sensing of the Absorption Coefficients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the U.S. Southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.

  2. Long-pathlength infrared absorption measurements in the 8- to 14-{mu}m atmospheric window: Self-broadening coefficient data

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, T.J.; Shinn, J.

    1995-04-01

    The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and 14 {mu}m, this absorption can be attributed primarily to water vapor. It consists of (1) weak lines originating from the edge of the water vapor pure rotational band (at low wavenumbers) and the trailing P-branch of the v{sub 2} rovibrational band (at the high-wavenumber boundary of the window); and (2) the water vapor continuum absorption. The goal of our project has been to improve our quantitative and physical understanding of both of these absorption processes. Specifically, our immediate aims are to fill gaps in the experimental radiative transfer databases pertaining to the line parameters (i.e., line intensities and broadening coefficients) and to the self- and foreign-broadened water vapor continuum. To accomplish our goals, we have made long-pathlength absorption measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) (for the continuum and line measurements, at low resolution) and a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) (for the line measurements, at high resolution). These measurements were made on gas samples contained in a 400-m maximum pathlength Horn Pimentel multipass cell designed and constructed for this project.

  3. Exponential Sum Absorption Coefficients of Phosphine from 2750 to 3550/cm for Application to Radiative Transfer Analyses on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temma, T.; Baines, K. H.; Butler, R. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Sagui, L.; Kleiner, I.

    2006-01-01

    PH3 exponential sum k coefficients were computed between 2750 and 3550/cm (2.82-3.64 (microns), in view of future application to radiative transfer analyses of Jupiter and Saturn in a phosphine absorption band near 3 microns. The temperature and pressure of this data set cover the ranges from 80 to 350 K and from 10 (exp -3)to 10(exp 1) bars, respectively. Transmission uncertainty incurred by the use of the k coefficients is smaller than a few percent as long as the radiation is confined above an altitude of a few bars in the giant planets. In spectral regions of weak absorption at high pressures close to 10 bars, contributions from far wings of strong absorption lines must be carefully taken into account. Our data set helps map the three-dimensional distribution of PH3 on the giant planets, revealing their global atmospheric dynamics extending down to the deep interior. The complete k coefficient data set of this work is available at the Web site of the NASA Planetary Data System Atmospheres Node.

  4. Control of optical bandgap energy and optical absorption coefficient by geometric parameters in sub-10 nm silicon-nanodisc array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairuz Budiman, Mohd; Hu, Weiguo; Igarashi, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Isoda, Taiga; Itoh, Kohei M.; Yamashita, Ichiro; Murayama, Akihiro; Okada, Yoshitaka; Samukawa, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    A sub-10 nm, high-density, periodic silicon-nanodisc (Si-ND) array has been fabricated using a new top-down process, which involves a 2D array bio-template etching mask made of Listeria-Dps with a 4.5 nm diameter iron oxide core and damage-free neutral-beam etching (Si-ND diameter: 6.4 nm). An Si-ND array with an SiO2 matrix demonstrated more controllable optical bandgap energy due to the fine tunability of the Si-ND thickness and diameter. Unlike the case of shrinking Si-ND thickness, the case of shrinking Si-ND diameter simultaneously increased the optical absorption coefficient and the optical bandgap energy. The optical absorption coefficient became higher due to the decrease in the center-to-center distance of NDs to enhance wavefunction coupling. This means that our 6 nm diameter Si-ND structure can satisfy the strict requirements of optical bandgap energy control and high absorption coefficient for achieving realistic Si quantum dot solar cells.

  5. A review of lung-to-blood absorption rates for radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Bailey, M R

    2013-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and polonium (Type M) in ICRP Publication 71 but stated that the values were not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper reviews and evaluates published data from volunteer and laboratory animal experiments to estimate the HRTM absorption parameter values for short-lived radon progeny. Animal studies showed that lead ions have two phases of absorption: ∼10 % absorbed with a half-time of ∼15 min, the rest with a half-time of ∼10 h. The studies also indicated that some of the lead ions were bound to respiratory tract components. Bound fractions, f(b), for lead were estimated from volunteer and animal studies and ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Based on the evaluations of published data, the following HRTM absorption parameter values were derived for lead as a decay product of radon: f(r) = 0.1, s(r) = 100 d(-1), s(s) = 1.7 d(-1), f(b) = 0.5 and s(b) = 1.7 d(-1). Effective doses calculated assuming these absorption parameter values instead of a single absorption half-time of 10 h with no binding (as has generally been assumed) are only a few per cent higher. However, as there is some conflicting evidence on the absorption kinetics for radon progeny, dose calculations have been carried out for different sets of absorption parameter values derived from different studies. The results of these calculations are discussed. PMID:23887272

  6. Some new methods of determining and studying the absorptivity of a medium and the generalized angular coefficients of radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surinov, Y. A.; Sosnovyy, N. V.

    1975-01-01

    Local and average radiation functions, which represent purely geometric characteristics of the radiating system, are used to determine the absorptivity in a system of bodies separated by an attenuating medium.

  7. Quasi-random narrow-band model fits to near-infrared low-temperature laboratory methane spectra and derived exponential-sum absorption coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Moreno, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    Near-infrared 10/cm resolution spectra of methane obtained at various temperatures, pressures, and abundances are fit to a quasi-random narrow-band model. Exponential-sum absorption coefficients for three temperatures (112, 188, and 295 K), and 20 pressures from 0.0001 to 5.6 bars, applicable to the cold environments of the major planets, are then derived from the band model for the 230 wavelengths measured from 1.6 to 2.5 microns. RMS deviations between the laboratory and the exponential-sum synthetic transmissions are reported for the best fitting 50 wavelengths. Deviations relevant to broadband, 1-percent spectral resolution observations are also presented. The validity of exponential-sum coefficients derived from broadband (10/cm) transmission data is demonstrated via direct comparison with line-by-line calculations. The complete atlas of coefficients is available from the Planetary Data System-Planetary Atmospheres Discipline Node.

  8. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  9. Experimental and modeling study of thermal rate coefficients and cross sections for electron attachment to C(60).

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Albert A; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Schaffer, Linda C; Troe, Jürgen

    2010-05-21

    Thermal electron attachment to C(60) has been studied by relative rate measurements in a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe apparatus. The rate coefficients of the attachment k(1) are shown to be close to 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) with a small negative temperature coefficient. These results supersede measurements from the 1990s which led to much smaller values of k(1) with a large positive temperature coefficient suggesting an activation barrier. Theoretical modeling of k(1) in terms of generalized Vogt-Wannier capture theory shows that k(1) now looks more consistent with measurements of absolute attachment cross sections sigma(at) than before. The comparison of capture theory and experimental rate or cross section data leads to empirical correction factors, accounting for "intramolecular vibrational relaxation" or "electron-phonon coupling," which reduce k(1) below the capture results and which, on a partial wave-selected level, decrease with increasing electron energy. PMID:20499963

  10. Differing rates of cholesterol absorption among inbred mouse strains yield differing levels of HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Timothy J; Chellan, Bijoy; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2013-09-01

    Inbred strains of mice with differing susceptibilities to atherosclerosis possess widely varying plasma HDL levels. Cholesterol absorption and lipoprotein formation were compared between atherosclerosis-susceptible, low-HDL C57BL6/J mice and atherosclerosis-resistant, high-HDL FVBN/J mice. [(3)H]cholesterol and triglyceride appeared in the plasma of FVB mice gavaged with cholesterol in olive oil at a much higher rate than in C57 mice. The plasma cholesterol was found almost entirely as HDL-cholesterol in both strains. Inhibition of lipoprotein catabolism with Tyloxapol revealed that the difference in the rate of [(3)H]cholesterol appearance in the plasma was due entirely to a greater rate of chylomicron secretion from the intestine of the FVB mice. Lipid absorption into the 2nd quarter of the small intestine is greater in the FVB mice and indicates that this region may contain the factors that give rise to the differences in absorption observed between the two mouse strains. Additionally, ad libitum feeding prior to cholesterol gavage accentuates the absorption rate differences compared with fasting. The resultant remodeling of the increased levels of chylomicron in the plasma may contribute to increased plasma HDL. Intestinal gene expression analysis reveals several genes that may play a role in these differences, including microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and ABCG8. PMID:23812556

  11. Mechanism and rate of glucose absorption differ between an Australian honeyeater (Meliphagidae) and a lorikeet (Loriidae).

    PubMed

    Napier, Kathryn R; McWhorter, Todd J; Fleming, Patricia A

    2008-11-01

    Efficient mechanisms of glucose absorption are necessary for volant animals as a means of reducing mass during flight: they speed up gut transit time and require smaller volume and mass of gut tissue. One mechanism that may be important is absorption via paracellular (non-mediated) pathways. This may be particularly true for nectarivorous species which encounter large quantities of sugar in their natural diet. We investigated the extent of mediated and non-mediated glucose absorption in red wattlebirds Anthochaera carunculata (Meliphagidae) and rainbow lorikeets Trichoglossus haematodus (Loriidae) to test the hypothesis that paracellular uptake accounts for a significant proportion of total glucose uptake in these species. We found that routes of glucose absorption are highly dynamic in both species. In lorikeets, absorption of L-glucose (non-mediated uptake) is slower than that of D-glucose (mediated and non-mediated uptake), with as little as 10% of total glucose absorbed by the paracellular pathway initially (contrasting previous indirect estimates of approximately 80%). Over time, however, more glucose may be absorbed via the paracellular route. Glucose absorption by both mediated and non-mediated mechanisms in wattlebirds occurred at a faster rate than in lorikeets, and wattlebirds also rely substantially on paracellular uptake. In wattlebirds, we recorded higher bioavailability of L-glucose (96+/-3%) compared with D-glucose (57+/-2%), suggesting problems with the in vivo use of radiolabeled d-glucose. Further trials with 3-O-methyl-D-glucose revealed high bioavailability in wattlebirds (90+/-5%). This non-metabolisable glucose analogue remains the probe of choice for measuring uptake rates in vivo, especially in birds in which absorption and metabolism occur extremely rapidly. PMID:18978218

  12. Rate Coefficients of the HCl + OH → Cl + H2O Reaction from Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Junxiang; Li, Yongle; Guo, Hua; Xie, Daiqian

    2016-05-26

    Thermal rate coefficients at temperatures between 200 and 1000 K are calculated for the HCl + OH → Cl + H2O reaction on a recently developed permutation invariant potential energy surface, using ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD). Large deviations from the Arrhenius limit are found at low temperatures, suggesting significant quantum tunneling. Agreement with available experimental rate coefficients is generally satisfactory, although the deviation becomes larger at lower temperatures. The theory-experiment discrepancy is attributed to the remaining errors in the potential energy surface, which is known to slightly overestimate the barrier. In the deep tunneling region, RPMD performs better than traditional transition-state theory with semiclassical tunneling corrections. PMID:27149243

  13. Increased absorption rate of diclofenac from fast acting formulations containing its potassium salt.

    PubMed

    Reiner, V; Reiner, A; Reiner, G; Conti, M

    2001-11-01

    Diclofenac (CAS 15307-86-5) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug largely used, mainly to relief pain of various origin. Diclofenac is present on the market as free acid, as sodium salt (CAS 15307-79-6) and as potassium salt (CAS 15307-81-0). The last salification form has shown a prompter absorption rate and a faster onset of analgesic activity than the acid form and sodium salt. This paper extensively reviews three trials carried out on healthy volunteers, where potassium salt of diclofenac present in three fast-acting formulations, namely sachets (Trial 1), tablets (Trial 2) and oral drops (Trial 3), were compared to reference tablet formulations from the market. A very fast absorption rate was encountered with the three test formulations, with the peak reached in one case 5 min and in most cases within 10-15 min after dosing. The quick absorption rate of test formulations was attributed to the special combination of the salt of diclofenac with a dynamic buffering agent, namely bicarbonate, present in the test formulations and covered by an international patent. The prompt absorption of diclofenac from the new fast-acting formulations was accompanied by the presence of only one peak, whereas the reference formulations produced in most cases two peaks, as widely described in literature. This finding suggested the hypothesis that the absorption of test formulations should occur in a shorter tract of the gut. The faster absorption of diclofenac from the three fast-acting formulations is expected to produce a faster onset of analgesic action, which highlights these new formulations as particularly indicated to relief pain of any origin. PMID:11765589

  14. Measurement of erosion rate by absorption spectroscopy in a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoji; Yokota, Shigeru; Matsui, Makoto; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2005-08-15

    The erosion rate of a Hall thruster was estimated with the objective of building a real-time erosion rate monitoring system using a 1 kW class anode layer type Hall thruster. This system aids the understanding of the tradeoff between lifetime and performance. To estimate the flux of the sputtered wall material, the number density of the sputtered iron was measured by laser absorption spectroscopy using an absorption line from ground atomic iron at 371.9935 nm. An ultravioletAl{sub x}In{sub y}Ga{sub (1-x-y)}N diode laser was used as the probe. The estimated number density of iron was 1.1x10{sup 16} m{sup -3}, which is reasonable when compared with that measured by duration erosion tests. The relation between estimated erosion rate and magnetic flux density also agreed with that measured by duration erosion tests.

  15. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  16. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm.

    PubMed

    Ivascu, I R; Matei, C E; Patachia, M; Bratu, A M; Dumitras, D C

    2016-06-15

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8μm and power levels up to 4.7W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(20) line and 3.65cm(-1)atm(-1) at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications. PMID:27045783

  17. CO2 laser photoacoustic measurements of ethanol absorption coefficients within infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, I. R.; Matei, C. E.; Patachia, M.; Bratu, A. M.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2016-06-01

    Absorption coefficients of the ethanol vapors at atmospheric pressure and room temperature were measured by photoacoustic technique using a cw, line-tunable, frequency-stabilized CO2 laser as radiation source. The spectrum of the employed CO2 laser includes 54 lines with wavelengths in the infrared region of 9.2-10.8 μm and power levels up to 4.7 W. Measurements revealed a predominant absorption for ethanol within 9.4 μm band of the CO2 laser spectrum, where the highest values of the absorption coefficients were recorded: 3.68 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(20) line and 3.65 cm- 1 atm- 1 at 9R(22) line. The estimated detection range covers six orders of magnitude, from a minimum of 30 ppbV to a maximum of 4% concentration of ethanol in nitrogen, which proves the suitability of the photoacoustic technique for accurate measurements of the ethanol concentration in various applications.

  18. Rate- and Extent-Limiting Factors of Oral Drug Absorption: Theory and Applications.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-01

    The oral absorption of drugs has been represented by various concepts such as the absorption potential, the maximum absorbable dose, the biopharmaceutics classification system, and in vitro-in vivo correlation. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the theoretical relationships between these concepts. It shows how a simple analytical solution for the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa equation) can offer a theoretical base to tie together the various concepts, and discusses how this solution relates to the rate-limiting cases of oral drug absorption. The article introduces the Fa classification system as a framework in which all the above concepts were included, and discusses its applications for food effect prediction, active pharmaceutical ingredient form selection, formulation design, and biowaiver strategy. PMID:25712830

  19. Gas-phase rate coefficients of the reaction of ozone with four sesquiterpenes at 295 ± 2 K.

    PubMed

    Richters, Stefanie; Herrmann, Hartmut; Berndt, Torsten

    2015-05-01

    The rate coefficients of the reaction of ozone with the four atmospherically relevant sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-cedrene and isolongifolene were investigated at 295 ± 2 K and atmospheric pressure by at least two independent experimental investigations for each reaction. Relative rate experiments were carried out in a flow tube using two different experimental approaches with GC-MS detection (RR 1) and PTR-MS analysis (RR 2) as the analytical techniques. Absolute rate coefficients were determined in a stopped-flow experiment following the ozone depletion by means of UV spectroscopy. The average rate coefficients from the combined investigations representing the mean values of the different experimental methods are (unit: cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(O3+β-caryophyllene) = (1.1 ± 0.3) × 10(-14) (methods: RR 1, RR 2, absolute), k(O3+α-humulene) = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-14) (RR 1, RR 2), k(O3+α-cedrene) = (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-16) (RR 2, absolute) and k(O3+isolongifolene) = (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) (RR 2, absolute). The high ozonolysis rate coefficients for β-caryophyllene and α-humulene agree well with the results by Shu and Atkinson (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 1994, 26) and lead to short atmospheric lifetimes of about two minutes with respect to the ozone reaction. The relatively small rate coefficients for α-cedrene and isolongifolene differ from the available literature values by a factor of about 2.5-6. Possible reasons for the deviations are discussed. Finally, calibrated sesquiterpene FT-IR spectra were recorded for the first time. PMID:25866852

  20. The stabilization rate of a solution to the Cauchy problem for parabolic equation with lower order coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Vasilii

    2016-08-01

    In this report, we study sufficient conditions on the lower order coefficients of a parabolic equation guaranteeing the power rate of the uniform stabilization to zero of the solution to the Cauchy problem on every compact K in RN and for any bounded initial function.

  1. COMPARISON OF MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS BETWEEN FIELD-COLLECTED AND LABORATORY MICROCOSM MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two second-order transformation rate coefficients--kb, based on total plate counts, and kA, based on periphyton-colonized surface areas--were used to compare xenobiotic chemical transformation by laboratory-developed (microcosm) and by field-collected microbiota. Similarity of tr...

  2. Temperature dependence of the rate coefficient for charge exchange of metastable O/+//2D/ with N2. [in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Torr, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Using a data base of aeronomical parameters measured on board the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite, temperature dependence of the reaction rate coefficient is deduced for the charge exchange of O(+)(2D) with N2. The results indicate the Explorer values determined over the temperature range from 700 to 1900 K are not in conflict with laboratory measurements made at higher temperatures.

  3. Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Cosmic Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, D. W.; Gwinner, G.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2002-01-01

    Low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination mechanism for most ions in X-ray photoionized cosmic plasmas. Reliably modeling and interpreting spectra from these plasmas requires accurate low temperature DR rate Coefficients. Of particular importance are the DR rate coefficients for the iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII-Fe XXIV). These ions are predicted to play an important role in determining the thermal structure and line emission of X-ray photoionized plasmas, which form in the media surrounding accretion powered sources such as X-ray binaries (XRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cataclysmic variables (Savin et al., 2000). The need for reliable DR data of iron L-shell ions has become particularly urgent after the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton. These satellites are now providing high-resolution X-ray spectra from a wide range of X-ray photoionized sources. Interpreting the spectra from these sources requires reliable DR rate coefficients. However, at the temperatures relevant, for X-ray photoionized plasmas, existing theoretical DR rate coefficients can differ from one another by factors of two to orders of magnitudes.

  4. Do large rate coefficients for ion-polar neutral reactions have a serious effect on chemical models of dense clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, E.; Leung, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to incorporate large ion-polar neutral rate coefficients into existing gas phase reaction networks, it is necessary to utilize simplified theoretical treatments because of the significant number of rate coefficients needed. The authors have used two simple theoretical treatments: the locked dipole approach of Moran and Hamill for linear polar neutrals and the trajectory scaling approach of Su and Chesnavich for nonlinear polar neutrals. The former approach is suitable for linear species because in the interstellar medium these are rotationally relaxed to a large extent and the incoming charged reactants can lock their dipoles into the lowest energy configuration. The latter approach is a better approximation for nonlinear neutral species, in which rotational relaxation is normally less severe and the incoming charged reactants are not as effective at locking the dipoles. The treatments are in reasonable agreement with more detailed long range theories and predict an inverse square root dependence on kinetic temperature for the rate coefficient. Compared with the locked dipole method, the trajectory scaling approach results in rate coefficients smaller by a factor of approximately 2.5.

  5. Mass Loss Rates for Solar-like Stars Measured from Lyα Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. E.; Müller, H.-R.; Linsky, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    We present a number of mass loss rate measurements for solar-like stars with coronal winds, computed using a Lyα absorption technique. The collision between the solar wind and the interstellar wind seen by the Sun defines the large scale structure of our heliosphere. Similar structures, ``astrospheres,'' exist around other solar-like stars. The deceleration of the interstellar wind at the solar or stellar bow shock heats the interstellar material. Heated neutral hydrogen in the outer astrosphere (and/or heliosphere) produces a broad Lyα absorption profile that is often detectable in high resolution Hubble Space Telescope spectra. The amount of absorption is dependent upon the strength of the stellar wind. With guidance from hydrodynamic models of astrospheres, we use detected astrospheric Lyα absorption to estimate the stellar mass loss rates. For the solar-like GK stars in our sample, mass loss appears to increase with stellar activity, suggesting that young, active stars have stronger winds than old, inactive stars. However, Proxima Cen (M5.5 Ve) and λ And (G8 IV-III+M V) appear to be inconsistent with this relation.

  6. Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Cosmic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, D. W.; Gwinner, G.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

    2002-11-01

    Low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination mechanism for most ions in X-ray photoionized cosmic plasmas. Reliably modeling and interpreting spectra from these plasmas requires accurate low temperature DR rate coefficients. Of particular importance are the DR rate coefficients for the iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII -Fe XXIV). These ions are predicted to play an important role in determining the thermal structure and line emission of X-ray photoionized plasmas, which form in the media surrounding accretion powered sources such as X-ray binaries (XRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cataclysmic variables (Savin et al. 2000). The need for reliable DR data of iron L-shell ions has become particularly urgent after the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton. These satellites are now providing high-resolution X-ray spectra from a wide range of X-ray photoionized sources. Interpreting the spectra from these sources requires reliable DR rate coefficients. However, at the temperatures relevant for X-ray photoionized plasmas, existing theoretical DR rate coefficients can differ from one another by factors of two to orders of magnitudes. To address the need for accurate low temperature DR rate coefficients of the iron L-shell ions, we have initiated a program of measurements for DR via 2 to 2 core excitations using the heavy-ion Test Storage Ring located at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. To date measurements have been carried out for Fe XVIII (Savin et al. 1997, 1999), Fe XIX (Savin et al. 1999), Fe XX (Savin et al. 2002), Fe XXI, Fe XXII, and Fe XXIV. Here we review our work to date, discuss the implications of our results, and map out our future research efforts. This work was supported in part by NASA SARA Program grant NAG5-5261, the German Federal Minister for Education and Research (BMBF), and the German Research Council (DFG).

  7. Characterization of penetration depth as a function of optical fiber separation at various absorption and scatter coefficients for a noninvasive metabolic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMilo, Charles; Brukilacchio, Thomas; Soller, Babs R.; Soyemi, Olusola

    2004-06-01

    A visible-near IR (500-1,000nm) fiber optic sensor is under development that is intended to non-invasively assess muscle metabolism through the measurement of tissue pH and oxygen partial pressure. These parameters are calculated from the spectra of hemoglobin and myoglobin in muscle. The sensor consists of transmit (illumination) fibers and receive (detection) fibers that are coupled to a spectrometer. Light from the probe must penetrate below the surface of the skin and into a 5-10mm thick layer of muscle. A study was conducted to quantify the relationship between transmit and receive fiber separation and sensor penetration depth below the surface of the skin. A liquid phantom was created to replicate the absorption (μa) and reduced scatter coefficient (μs') profiles typically found in human blood and tissue. The phantom consisted of a solution of Intralipid and India ink in the appropriate concentrations to achieve desired reduced scatter coefficient and absorption profiles. The reduced scatter coefficient of the liquid phantom was achieved to an accuracy of +/-10% compared to previously published data. A fixed illumination fiber and translatable detector fiber were placed in the liquid phantom, and the fiber separation was varied from 3-40mm. Values of μa and μs' varied from 0.03-0.40 cm-1 and 5.0-15.0 cm-1 respectively. Results from the experiment demonstrate a strong correlation between penetration depth and fiber separation. Additionally, it was found that penetration depth was not substantially influenced by absorption and scatter concentration. As signal-to-noise is an important parameter in many non-invasive biomedical applications, the relative signal as a function of fiber separation was determined to follow an exponential relationship.

  8. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  9. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scattering sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.

  10. Determination of mass attenuation coefficient by numerical absorption calibration with Monte-Carlo simulations at 59.54 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrelle, D.; Mavon, C.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a numerical method in order to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of a sample with an unknown chemical composition at low energy. It is compared with two experimental methods: a graphic method and a transmission method. The method proposes to realise a numerical absorption calibration curve to process experimental results. Demineralised water with known mass attenuation coefficient (0.2066cm2g-1 at 59.54 keV) is chosen to confirm the method. 0.1964 ± 0.0350cm2g-1 is the average value determined by the numerical method, that is to say less than 5% relative deviation compared to more than 47% for the experimental methods.

  11. LABORATORY STUDY OF RATE COEFFICIENTS FOR H{sub 2}O:He INELASTIC COLLISIONS BETWEEN 20 AND 120 K

    SciTech Connect

    Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Fernández, J. M.; Montero, S.; Carmona-Novillo, E.; Hernández, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    State-to-state rate coefficients for ortho-H{sub 2}O:He and para-H{sub 2}O:He inelastic collisions in the 20-120 K thermal range are investigated by means of an improved experimental procedure. This procedure is based on the use of a kinetic master equation (MEQ) which describes the evolution of populations of H{sub 2}O rotational levels along a supersonic jet of H{sub 2}O highly diluted in helium. The MEQ is expressed in terms of experimental observables and rate coefficients for H{sub 2}O:He inelastic collisions. The primary experimental observables are the local number density and the populations of the rotational energy levels of H{sub 2}O, quantities which are determined along the jet with unprecedented accuracy by means of Raman spectroscopy with high space resolution. Sets of rate coefficients from the literature and from present close-coupling calculations using two different potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been tested against the experiment. The Green et al. rate coefficients are up to 50% too low compared to the experiment, while most rates calculated here from the Hodges et al. PES and the Patkowski et al. PES are much closer to the experimental values. Experimental rates with an estimated accuracy on the order of 10% have been obtained for ortho-H{sub 2}O:He and para-H{sub 2}O:He inelastic collisions between 20 and 120 K by scaling and averaging the theoretical rates to the experiment.

  12. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Elke; Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier; Desmet, Wim

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  13. Bias in Dobson total ozone measurements at high latitudes due to approximations in calculations of ozone absorption coefficients and air mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, G.; Evans, R. D.; Labow, G. J.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Dobson spectrophotometer is the primary standard instrument for ground-based measurements of total column ozone. The accuracy of its data depends on the knowledge of ozone absorption coefficients used for data reduction. We document an error in the calculations that led to the set of absorption coefficients currently recommended by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). This error has little effect because an empirical adjustment was applied to the original calculations before the coefficients were adopted by WMO. We provide evidence that this adjustment was physically sound. The coefficients recommended by WMO are applied in the Dobson network without correction for the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross sections. On the basis of data measured by Dobson numbers 80 and 82, which were operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory at the South Pole, we find that omission of temperature corrections may lead to systematic errors in Dobson ozone data of up to 4%. The standard Dobson ozone retrieval method further assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height. This approximation leads to errors in air mass calculations, which are particularly relevant at high latitudes where ozone measurements are performed at large solar zenith angles (SZA). At the South Pole, systematic errors caused by this approximation may exceed 2% for SZAs larger than 80°. The bias is largest when the vertical ozone distribution is distorted by the "ozone hole" and may lead to underestimation of total ozone by 4% at SZA = 85° (air mass 9). Dobson measurements at the South Pole were compared with ozone data from a collocated SUV-100 UV spectroradiometer and Version 8 overpass data from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Uncorrected Dobson ozone values tend to be lower than data from the two other instruments when total ozone is below 170 Dobson units or SZAs are larger than

  14. Rate Coefficients for Reactions of Ethynyl Radical (C2H) With HCN and CH3CN: Implications for the Formation of Comples Nitriles on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoobler, Ray J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H + HCN yields products and C2H + CH3CN yields products have been measured over the temperature range 262-360 K. These experiments represent an ongoing effort to accurately measure reaction rate coefficients of the ethynyl radical, C2H, relevant to planetary atmospheres such as those of Jupiter and Saturn and its satellite Titan. Laser photolysis of C2H2 is used to produce C2H, and transient infrared laser absorption is employed to measure the decay of C2H to obtain the subsequent reaction rates in a transverse flow cell. Rate constants for the reaction C2H + HCN yields products are found to increase significantly with increasing temperature and are measured to be (3.9-6.2) x 10(exp 13) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 297-360 K. The rate constants for the reaction C2H + CH3CN yields products are also found to increase substantially with increasing temperature and are measured to be (1.0-2.1) x 10(exp -12) cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) s(exp -1) over the temperature range of 262-360 K. For the reaction C2H + HCN yields products, ab initio calculations of transition state structures are used to infer that the major products form via an addition/elimination pathway. The measured rate constants for the reaction of C2H + HCN yields products are significantly smaller than values currently employed in photochemical models of Titan, which will affect the HC3N distribution.

  15. Specific absorption rate analysis of broadband mobile antenna with negative index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial-inspired printed mobile wireless antenna that can support most mobile applications such as GSM, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN frequency bands. The antenna consists of a semi-circular patch, a 50Ω microstrip feed line and metamaterial ground plane. The antenna occupies a very small space of 37 × 47 × 0.508 mm3, making it suitable for mobile wireless application. The perceptible novelty shown in this proposed antenna is that reduction of specific absorption rate using the negative index metamaterial ground plane. The proposed antenna reduced 72.11 and 75.53 % of specific absorption rate at 1.8 and 2.4 GHz, respectively.

  16. Absorption cross-section and decay rate of rotating linear dilaton black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Aslan, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.

  17. Energy transfer among CP29 chlorophylls: calculated Förster rates and experimental transient absorption at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Cinque, G; Croce, R; Holzwarth, A; Bassi, R

    2000-10-01

    The energy transfer rates between chlorophylls in the light harvesting complex CP29 of higher plants at room temperature were calculated ab initio according to the Förster mechanism (Förster T. 1948, Ann. Physik. 2:55-67). Recently, the transition moment orientation of CP29 chlorophylls was determined by differential linear dichroism and absorption spectroscopy of wild-type versus mutant proteins in which single chromophores were missing (Simonetto R., Crimi M., Sandonà D., Croce R., Cinque G., Breton J., and Bassi R. 1999. Biochemistry. 38:12974-12983). In this way the Q(y) transition energy and chlorophyll a/b affinity of each binding site was obtained and their characteristics supported by reconstruction of steady-state linear dichroism and absorption spectra at room temperature. In this study, the spectral form of individual chlorophyll a and b ligands within the protein environment was experimentally determined, and their extinction coefficients were also used to evaluate the absolute overlap integral between donors and acceptors employing the Stepanov relation for both the emission spectrum and the Stokes shift. This information was used to calculate the time-dependent excitation redistribution among CP29 chlorophylls on solving numerically the Pauli master equation of the complex: transient absorption measurements in the (sub)picosecond time scale were simulated and compared to pump-and-probe experimental data in the Q(y) region on the native CP29 at room temperature upon selective excitation of chlorophylls b at 640 or 650 nm. The kinetic model indicates a bidirectional excitation transfer over all CP29 chlorophylls a species, which is particularly rapid between the pure sites A1-A2 and A4-A5. Chlorophylls b in mixed sites act mostly as energy donors for chlorophylls a, whereas site B5 shows high and bidirectional coupling independent of the pigment hosted. PMID:11023879

  18. Strain Rate Effects on the Energy Absorption of Rapidly Manufactured Composite Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Brighton, Aaron M; Forrest, Mark; Starbuck, J Michael; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Fox, Bronwyn

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-static and intermediate rate axial crush tests were conducted on tubular specimens of Carbon/Epoxy (Toray T700/G83C) and Glass/Polypropylene (Twintex). The quasi-static tests were conducted at 10 mm/min (1.67x10-4 m/s); five different crush initiators were used. Tests at intermediate rates were performed at speeds of 0.25 m/s, 0.5 m/s, 0.75 m/s 1m/s, 2 m/s and 4 m/s. Quasi-static tests of tubular specimens showed high specific energy absorption (SEA) values with 86 kJ/kg for Carbon/Epoxy specimens. The specific energy absorption of the Glass/Polypropylene specimens was measured to be 29 kJ/kg. Results from the intermediate test rates showed that while a decrease in specific energy absorbed was observed as speeds increased, values did not fall below 55kj/kg for carbon specimens or 35 kJ/kg for the Glass/Polypropylene specimens. When compared with steel and aluminium, specific energy absorption values of 15 kJ/kg and 30 kJ/kg respectively, the benefits of using composite materials in crash structures are apparent.

  19. Normalized-constraint method for minimizing interparameter cross-talk in reconstructed images of spatially heterogeneous scattering and absorption coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yaling; Graber, Harry L.; Barbour, Randall L.

    2001-06-01

    In this report, we present a method to reduce the cross-talk problem in optical tomography. The method described is an extension of a previously reported perturbation formulation related to relative detector values, and employs a weight matrix scaling technique together with a constrained CGD method for imaging reconstruction. Results from numerical and experimental studies using DC measurement data demonstrate that the approach can effectively isolate absorption and scattering heterogeneities, even for complex combinations of perturbations in optical properties. The derive method is remarkably stable to errors originating from an insufficiently accurate estimate of properties of the reference medium.

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  1. Direct measurement and theoretical calculation of the rate coefficient for Cl + CH3 from T = 202 - 298 K.

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Walter A.; Harding, Lawrence B.; Stief, Louis J.; Parker, James F. , 1925-; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.

    2004-10-01

    The rate coefficient has been measured under pseudo-first-order conditions for the Cl + CH{sub 3} association reaction at T = 202, 250, and 298 K and P = 0.3-2.0 Torr helium using the technique of discharge-flow mass spectrometry with low-energy (12-eV) electron-impact ionization and collision-free sampling. Cl and CH{sub 3} were generated rapidly and simultaneously by reaction of F with HCl and CH{sub 4}, respectively. Fluorine atoms were produced by microwave discharge in an approximately 1% mixture of F{sub 2} in He. The decay of CH{sub 3} was monitored under pseudo-first-order conditions with the Cl-atom concentration in large excess over the CH{sub 3} concentration ([Cl]{sub 0}/[CH{sub 3}]{sub 0} = 9-67). Small corrections were made for both axial and radial diffusion and minor secondary chemistry. The rate coefficient was found to be in the falloff regime over the range of pressures studied. For example, at T = 202 K, the rate coefficient increases from 8.4 x 10{sup -12} at P = 0.30 Torr He to 1.8 x 10{sup -11} at P = 2.00 Torr He, both in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}. A combination of ab initio quantum chemistry, variational transition-state theory, and master-equation simulations was employed in developing a theoretical model for the temperature and pressure dependence of the rate coefficient. Reasonable empirical representations of energy transfer and of the effect of spin-orbit interactions yield a temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficient that is in excellent agreement with the present experimental results. The high-pressure limiting rate coefficient from the RRKM calculations is k{sub 2} = 6.0 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, independent of temperature in the range from 200 to 300 K.

  2. An efficient nonclassical quadrature for the calculation of nonresonant nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-08-01

    Nonclassical quadratures based on a new set of half-range polynomials, Tn(x) , orthogonal with respect to w(x) =e - x - b /√{ x } for x ∈ [ 0 , ∞) are employed in the efficient calculation of the nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data. The parameter b = B /√{kB T } in the weight function is temperature dependent and B is the Gamow factor. The polynomials Tn(x) satisfy a three term recurrence relation defined by two sets of recurrence coefficients, αn and βn. These recurrence coefficients define in turn the tridiagonal Jacobi matrix whose eigenvalues are the quadrature points and the weights are calculated from the first components of the eigenfunctions. For nonresonant nuclear reactions for which the astrophysical function can be expressed as a lower order polynomial in the relative energy, the convergence of the thermal average of the reactive cross section with this nonclassical quadrature is extremely rapid requiring in many cases 2-4 quadrature points. The results are compared with other libraries of nuclear reaction rate coefficient data reported in the literature.

  3. Imaging Breathing Rate in the CO2Absorption Band.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jin; Zhu, Zhen; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Following up on our previous work, we have developed one more non-contact method to measure human breathing rate. We have retrofitted our Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) imaging system with a narrow band-pass filter in the CO2absorption band (4.3 µm). This improves the contrast between the foreground (i.e., expired air) and background (e.g., wall). Based on the radiation information within the breath flow region, we get the mean dynamic thermal signal. This signal is quasi-periodic due to the interleaving of high and low intensities corresponding to expirations and inspirations respectively. We sample the signal at a constant rate and then determine the breathing frequency through Fourier analysis. We have performed experiments on 9 subjects at distances ranging from 6-8 ft. We compared the breathing rate computed by our novel method with ground-truth measurements obtained via a traditional contact device (PowerLab/4SP from ADInstruments with an abdominal transducer). The results show high correlation between the two modalities. For the first time, we report a Fourier based breathing rate computation method on a MWIR signal in the CO2absorption band. The method opens the way for desktop, unobtrusive monitoring of an important vital sign, that is, breathing rate. It may find widespread applications in preventive medicine as well as sustained physiological monitoring of subjects suffering from chronic ailments. PMID:17282279

  4. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  5. Absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for a double δ-doped GaAs MIGFET-like structure: Electric and magnetic field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.

  6. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. PMID:23021497

  7. Determination of methane emission rates on a biogas plant using data from laser absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Groth, Angela; Maurer, Claudia; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the work was to establish a method for emission control of biogas plants especially the observation of fugitive methane emissions. The used method is in a developmental stage but the topic is crucial to environmental and economic issues. A remote sensing measurement method was adopted to determine methane emission rates of a biogas plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An inverse dispersion model was used to deduce emission rates. This technique required one concentration measurement with an open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) downwind and upwind the source and basic wind information, like wind speed and direction. Different operating conditions of the biogas plant occurring on the measuring day (December 2013) could be represented roughly in the results. During undisturbed operational modes the methane emission rate averaged 2.8 g/s, which corresponds to 4% of the methane gas production rate of the biogas plant. PMID:25446786

  8. Measurement of Charge Transfer Rate Coefficient Between Ground-State N(2+) Ion and He at Electron-Volt Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge transfer rate coefficient for the reaction N(2+)(2p(sup 2)P(sup 0)) + He yields products is measured by recording the time dependence of the N(2+) ions stored in an ion trap. A cylindrical radio-frequency ion trap was used to store N(2+) ions produced by laser ablation of a solid titanium nitride target. The decay of the ion signals was analyzed by single exponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured rate coefficient is 8.67(0.76) x 10(exp -11)sq cm/s. The N(2+) ions were at a mean energy of 2.7 eV while He gas was at room temperature, corresponding to an equivalent temperature of 3.9 x 10(exp 3) K. The measured value is in good agreement with a recent calculation.

  9. Airborne Measurements of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients in the Planetary Boundary Layer above the Po Valley, Italy, during the PEGASOS Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, B.; Weingartner, E.; Gysel, M.; Tillmann, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Decesari, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gobbi, G. P.; Fierli, F.; Cairo, F.; Bucci, S.; Zanatta, M.; Größ, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by interacting with the incoming sunlight. The chemical composition and size of aerosol particles determine their potential to scatter and absorb radiation as well as their capability to take up water (Zieger et al., 2011). If particles are hygroscopic their optical properties will be altered at enhanced relative humidities (RH) due to the increase in size and change in index of refraction. It is known that RH but also the chemical composition of aerosols change with altitude (Morgan et al., 2010) which makes it very important to investigate optical properties at different heights. Within the Pan-European Gas-Aerosols-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) a set of instruments was installed on a Zeppelin to investigate changes of light scattering and absorption in the planetary boundary layer. In order to obtain the scattering properties, Mie calculations were performed for size distributions recorded with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and WELAS (optical size spectrometer). The index of refraction and the hygroscopicity of the aerosol particles were measured with the white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS). These measurements further allowed studying the RH-dependence of the optical properties. Moreover, a seven wavelength portable aethalometer was employed to determine the light absorption properties of the aerosol. In this work we will present vertical profiles of scattering and absorption coefficients measured during Zeppelin flights of the PEGASOS campaigns in Italy in 2012. Additionally comparisons with ground based measurements from nephelometers and aethalometers, as well as remote sensing results will be shown. W.T. Morgan et al., Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: Airborne measurements in North-Western Europe, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(2010), pp. 8151-8171.P. Zieger et al., Comparison of ambient aerosol

  10. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  11. Elementary stage rate coefficients of heterogeneous catalytic recombination of dissociated air on thermal protective surfaces from ab initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchachenko, A. A.; Kroupnov, A. A.; Kovalev, V. L.

    2015-08-01

    Elementary stage rate coefficients of the full system of kinetic equations describing heterogeneous catalytic recombination of the dissociated air on the surfaces of thermal protective ceramic coatings of β-cristobalite and α-Al2O3 are determined using the quantum-mechanical calculations within the framework of cluster models and literature data. Both the impact and associative recombination processes of adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen atoms are taken into account.

  12. Rate coefficient for H + O2 + M = HO2 + M evaluated from shock tube measurements of induction times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shock tube experiments measured hydrogen-air induction times near the second explosion limit. By matching these experimental results with numerically predicted induction times, the rate coefficient for the reaction H + O2 + M = HO2 + M was evaluated as k-sub 4,N2 = 3.3 (plus or minus .6) x 10 to the 15 cm to the 6th/sq mole/s.

  13. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

  14. Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Greening, Gage J; Istfan, Raeef; Higgins, Laura M; Balachandran, Kartik; Roblyer, Darren; Pierce, Mark C; Muldoon, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880 μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc. PMID:25387084

  15. Specific absorption rate calculations of magnetite, using a modified linear response model for applications in magnetic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández S, A. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Cano, M. E. E-mail: meduardo2001@hotmail.com; Torres-Arenas, J.

    2014-11-07

    Currently the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by magnetic nanoparticles is studied for biomedical applications of cancer thermotherapy. Several experiments are conduced following the framework of the Rosensweig model, in order to estimate their specific absorption rate. Nevertheless, this linear approximation involves strong simplifications which constrain their accuracy and validity range. The main aim of this work is to incorporate the deviation of the sphericity assumption in particles shapes, to improve the determination of their specific absorption rate. The correction to the effective particles volume is computed as a measure of the apparent amount of magnetic material, interacting with the external AC magnetic field. Preliminary results using the physical properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, exhibit an important correction in their estimated specific absorption rate, as a function of the apparent mean particles radius. Indeed, we have observed using a small deviation (6% of the apparent radius), up to 40% of the predicted specific absorption rate by the Rosensweig linear approximation.

  16. Relationship between the Averaged Deposition Rate Coefficients for Colloids in a Single Pore and Various Pore-scale Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Raoof, A.

    2014-12-01

    The colloid deposition behavior observed at the Darcy scale represents an average of the processes occurring at the pore scale. Hence, a better understanding of the processes occurring at the Darcy scale can be obtained by studying colloid transport at the pore-scale and then upscaling the results. In this study, we have developed a mathematical model to simulate the transport of colloids in a cylindrical pore by considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid-soil surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, the bulk, diffusion and potential regions, based on the dominant processes acting in each of these regions. In the bulk region, colloid transport is governed by advection and diffusion; whereas in the diffusion region, colloid mobility due to diffusion is retarded by hydrodynamic wall effects. Colloid-solid interaction forces dominate the transport in the potential region where colloid deposition occurs and are calculated using DLVO theory. The expressions for mass transfer rate coefficients between the diffusion and potential regions have been derived for different DLVO energy profiles. These are incorporated in the pore-scale equations in the form of a boundary condition at the diffusion-potential region interface. The model results are used to obtain the colloid breakthrough curve at the end of a long pore, and then it is fitted with 1D advection-dispersion-adsorption model so as to determine the averaged attachment and detachment rate coefficients at the scale of a single pore. A sensitivity analysis of the model to six pore-scale parameters (colloid and wall surface potentials, solution ionic strength, average pore-water velocity, colloid radius, and pore radius) is carried out so as to find the relation between the averaged deposition rate coefficients at pore scale vs the pore-scale parameters. We found an hyper exponential relation between the colloid attachment

  17. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of the nitrate radical with (Z)-3-hexenol (`leaf alcohol`) and its isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrang, C.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Canosa-Mas, C. E.; Vaughan, S.; Wayne, R. P.

    2003-04-01

    The nitrate radical, NO_3, is a key species in the night-time tropospheric oxidation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those emitted by living vegetation. In addition to the VOC emissions from intact plants, it is well known that wounding induces the release of a series of C_6 aldehydes and C_6 alcohols, as can be readily sensed in the odour of freshly mown grass. Large emissions of the "leaf alcohol", (Z)-3-hexenol, have been observed after wounding, during drying, and following pathogen attack, while (Z)-2-hexenol has been reported as an emission from clipped clover. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of the nitrate radical with these two isomeric compounds have been measured using the discharge-flow technique at room temperature. Because of the relatively low volatility of these compounds, it is necessary to employ low concentrations of NO_3 in order to determine the kinetics satisfactorily. To this end, we used a technique not hitherto applied in kinetic experiments on NO_3: that of off-axis continuous-wave cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CW CEAS) for the detection of NO_3, using a broadband absorption line at λ = 662 nm. A noise-equivalent detection sensitivity of 5.5 × 10^9 molecule cm-3 for the nitrate radical (Kasyutich et al., Appl. Phys. B, 2002, 75, 755--761) enabled us to work with the hexenol compounds in excess over NO_3. The rate coefficients were determined to be (2.80 ± 0.12) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1 and (1.36 ± 0.08) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, for (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-2-hexenol. The rate constant for reaction with (Z)-3-hexenol lies within the combined error limits of the single measurement of the rate coefficient using relative rate methods of (2.72 ± 0.83) × 10-13 cm^3 molecule-1 s-1 (Atkinson et al., Int. J. Chem. Kinetics, 1995, 27, 941--955). However, for (Z)-3-hexenol there is some evidence for upward curvature of the second-order plot at longer contact times, and

  18. Mean absorption coefficient of H2O-air-MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Salem, D.; Teulet, Ph; Béji, L.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Under the local thermodynamic equilibrium hypothesis, the mean absorption coefficients (MACs) were calculated for H2O-air-MgCl2/CaCl2/NaCl thermal plasmas in a temperature range from 300 to 30 000 K and at atmospheric pressure. The MACs were computed under the hypothesis of isothermal plasmas which allows a good description of the radiation absorbed in cold regions. In this study, we took into account the absorption radiation resulting from the atomic continuum, molecular continuum, atomic lines and some molecular bands. Free-free transitions (bremsstrahlung) and free-bound (electron-ion recombination and electron attachment) or bound-free transitions in terms of absorption were considered for the calculation of atomic continuum. For bound-bound transitions, natural, resonance, van der Waals, Stark and Doppler effects were taken into account for the line broadenings while the escape factors were used to treat the self-absorption of the resonance lines. Molecular continuum was considered for the main molecules (H2, O2, N2, OH, NO, H2O, N2O, NO2, O3, NO3 and N2O5) whereas we studied only diatomic systems O2, N2, NO and N_2^+ for the absorption of molecular bands. The influence of the proportion of MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl in a water-air mixture was analysed as the effect of the strong self-absorbed resonance lines of the alkaline salts (Ca, Ca+, Na, Na+, Mg, Mg+, Cl and Cl+). Our results show that a low concentration of alkaline salts (less than 1% in molar proportions) in the plasma increased the MACs at low temperatures (T < 10 000 K) due to the resonance lines mainly localized in the near-UV and visible spectral regions in opposition to hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen species for which 90% of them exist in ultraviolet. In addition to the atomic and molecular continuum, the absorption radiation of molecular bands is important at low temperatures.

  19. ABSORPTION DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT ACROSS TROUT GILLS AS RELATED TO OCTANOL-WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all 14C labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water ...

  20. Present knowledge about specific absorption rates inside a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, J.; Gabriel, C.

    1995-02-01

    We have compiled results of scientific investigations about the relationship between external field-strengths and specific absorption rates inside the human body. The data were normalized to SAR-values that form the basis for current safety standards. Results were compared to exposure limits given in these standard. This comparison should serve as a reference for the selection of reliable reference levels for personal protection against thermal effects in radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The need to measure and monitor ankle/wrist currents to protect some exposed workers is explained. The study has also highlighted a scarcity of dosimetric data at frequencies below 3 MHz. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Simulating the formation of massive seed black holes in the early Universe - II. Impact of rate coefficient uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate how uncertainties in the chemical and cooling rate coefficients relevant for a metal-free gas influence our ability to determine the critical ultraviolet field strength required to suppress H2 cooling in high-redshift atomic cooling haloes. The suppression of H2 cooling is a necessary prerequisite for the gas to undergo direct collapse and form an intermediate mass black hole. These black holes can then act as seeds for the growth of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) observed at redshifts z ˜ 6. The viability of this model for SMBH formation depends on the critical ultraviolet field strength, Jcrit: if this is too large, then too few seeds will form to explain the observed number density of SMBHs. We show in this paper that there are five key chemical reactions whose rate coefficients are uncertain enough to significantly affect Jcrit. The most important of these is the collisional ionization of hydrogen by collisions with other hydrogen atoms, as the rate for this process is very poorly constrained at the low energies relevant for direct collapse. The total uncertainty introduced into Jcrit by this and the other four reactions could in the worst case approach a factor of five. We also show that the use of outdated or inappropriate values for the rates of some chemical reactions in previous studies of the direct collapse mechanism may have significantly affected the values of Jcrit determined by these studies.

  2. The absorption efficiency and respiration rate of the Florida lancelet, Branchiostoma floridae.

    PubMed

    Nash, Troy R; Ruppert, Edward E; Colacino, James M

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigates some aspects of the digestive biology and physiological energetics of the Florida lancelet, Branchiostoma floridae. Florida lancelets are able to remove 47.2-56.9% of the energy from a diet of mixed algae. The respiration rate is 0.100mL O(2) (STPD) h(-1) g(-1) (wet), which estimates a metabolic rate of 0.248 J h(-1), at an average body mass of 0.125 g (wet). Published values of the chlorophyll a concentration in its natural habitat indicate that a 125 mg lancelet would need to filter 0.018-0.031 L h(-1) to remove sufficient food to support its resting metabolism. The filtration rate of lancelets has been reported as 0.138 L h(-1), indicating that the actual filtration rate is 4-7 times greater than the filtration rate needed to meet resting metabolic demands. It appears that lancelets have the potential to be raised in aquaculture, because their absorption efficiency and respiration rate are comparable to suspension-feeding invertebrates that have been successfully aquacultured. PMID:19758577

  3. Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Vodacek, Anthony; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Blough, Neil V.

    1995-10-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed

  4. Analyzing total optical absorption coefficient of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of noise with special emphasis on electric field, magnetic field and confinement potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Arghya Pratim; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-12-01

    We make an extensive investigation of total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. The TOAC profiles have been monitored against incident photon energy with special emphasis on the roles played by the electric field, magnetic field, and the dot confinement potential. Presence of impurity also influences the TOAC profile. In general, presence of noise causes enhancement of TOAC over that of noise-free condition. However, the interplay between the noise and the quantities like electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential and impurity potential bring about rich subtleties in the TOAC profiles. The said subtleties are often manifested by the alterations in TOAC peak intensity, extent of TOAC peak bleaching, and value of saturation intensity. The findings reveal some technologically relevant aspects of TOAC for the doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise.

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2C=CH2: OH radicals, Cl atoms and O3 rate coefficients, oxidation end-products and IR spectra.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Spitieri, Christina S; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Lendar, Maria; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2015-10-14

    The rate coefficients for the gas phase reactions of OH radicals, k1, Cl atoms, k2, and O3, k3, with 3,3,3-trifluoro-2(trifluoromethyl)-1-propene ((CF3)2C=CH2, hexafluoroisobutylene, HFIB) were determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure employing the relative rate method and using two atmospheric simulation chambers and a static photochemical reactor. OH and Cl rate coefficients obtained by both techniques were indistinguishable, within experimental precision, and the average values were k1 = (7.82 ± 0.55) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k2 = (3.45 ± 0.24) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at 95% level of confidence and include the estimated systematic uncertainties. An upper limit for the O3 rate coefficient was determined to be k3 < 9.0 × 10(-22) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). In global warming potential (GWP) calculations, radiative efficiency (RE) was determined from the measured IR absorption cross-sections and treating HFIB both as long (LLC) and short (SLC) lived compounds, including estimated lifetime dependent factors in the SLC case. The HFIB lifetime was estimated from kinetic measurements considering merely the OH reaction, τOH = 14.8 days and including both OH and Cl chemistry, τeff = 10.3 days. Therefore, GWP(HFIB,OH) and GWP(HFIB,eff) were estimated to be 4.1 (LLC) and 0.6 (SLC), as well as 2.8 (LLC) and 0.3 (SLC) for a hundred year time horizon. Moreover, the estimated photochemical ozone creation potential (ε(POCP)) of HFIB was calculated to be 4.60. Finally, HCHO and (CF3)2C(O) were identified as final oxidation products in both OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation, while HC(O)Cl was additionally observed in the Cl-initiated oxidation. PMID:26372403

  6. A simple parameterization of ozone infrared absorption for atmospheric heating rate calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    A simple parameterization of ozone absorption in the 9.6-micron region which is suitable for two- and three-dimensional stratospheric and tropospheric models is presented. The band is divided into two parts, a brand center region and a band wing region, grouping together regions for which the temperature dependence of absorption is similar. Each of the two regions is modeled with a function having the form of the Goody random model, with pressure and temperature dependent band parameters chosen by empirically fitting line-by-line equivalent widths for pressures between 0.25 and 1000 mbar and ozone absorber amounts between 1.0 x 10 to the -7th and 1.0 cm atm. The model has been applied to calculations of atmospheric heating rates using an absorber amount weighted mean pressure and temperature along the inhomogeneous paths necessary for flux computations. In the stratosphere, maximum errors in the heating rates relative to line-by-line calculations are 0.1 K/d, or 5 percent of the peak cooling at the stratopause. In the troposphere the errors are at most 0.005 K/d.

  7. Comparison of the light absorption coefficient and carbon measures for remote aerosols: An independent analysis of data from the IMPROVE network—I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, H. Dale

    Using the IMPROVE network aerosol data from rural or remote sites across the United States, the ratio of the optically measured light absorption coefficient ( σa) to the elemental carbon measured by Thermal/Optical Reflectance (TOR) analysis consistently indicates an absorption efficiency that is twice the accepted value of 10m 2g -1. Correlations between σa and the TOR carbon strongly suggest that the discrepancy is due to an underevaluation of light-absorbing carbon rather than to an overestimation of σa or a real, higher value of the absorption efficiency. In particular, past doubts about the accuracy and precision of the IMPROVE σa measurement are here shown to be unsupported by the IMPROVE data. The large empirical correction that is applied to this σa measurement, for multiple scattering effects due to filter mass loading, is given a new explanation as the effect of an increasing forward scattering fraction as sample thickness increases. The old explanation of shadowing by overlying particles in the sample is rejected as having just the opposite effect to that needed to explain the correction. The use of a diffuse source rather than a laser beam is indicated as a way to avoid the large empirical correction of σa. Modelling of the light absorption by TOR carbon measurements, at twelve remote sites over a wide portion of the western United States, suggests the following errors in the current interpretation of TOR analysis for these sites: (1) The pyrolysis correction, based upon optical reflectance monitoring, appears to be largely wrong; and (2) The carbon evolving between 450 and 550°C in a pure helium atmosphere, currently interpreted as organic and therefore non-light-absorbing, appears to be as strongly light-absorbing as elemental carbon. However, the present analysis indicates that for a large majority (˜90%) of samples the light-absorbing carbons, as reinterpreted herein, are not only measured accurately by TOR, they are also reasonably well

  8. An inversion model based on salinity and remote sensing reflectance for estimating the phytoplankton absorption coefficient in the Saint Lawrence Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Xie, Huxiang

    2015-10-01

    The inversion of individual inherent optical properties (IOPs) is very challenging in optically complex waters and within the violet spectral range (i.e., 380-450 nm) due to the strong light attenuation caused by chromophoric dissolved organic matter, nonalgal particulates, and phytoplankton. Here we present a technique to better discriminate light absorption contributions due to phytoplankton based on a hybrid model (QAA-hybrid) that combines regional Saint Lawrence System estimates of IOPs derived from a quasi-analytical algorithm (hereafter QAA-SLE) and empirical relationships between salinity and IOPs. Preliminary results in the Saint Lawrence System during May 2000 and April 2001 showed that QAA-hybrid estimates of phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 443 nm have a smaller bias with respect to in situ measurements (root-mean-square deviation, RMSD = 0.156) than those derived from QAA-SLE (RMSD = 0.341). These results were valid for surface waters (i.e., 0-5 m depth) of the lower estuary with a salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration range of 22-28 psu and 2.1-13.8 mg m-3, respectively.

  9. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater. PMID:27120652

  10. Non-Gaussian dynamics from a simulation of a short peptide: Loop closure rates and effective diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portman, John J.

    2003-02-01

    Intrachain contact formation rates, fundamental to the dynamics of biopolymer self-organization such as protein folding, can be monitored in the laboratory through fluorescence quenching measurements. The common approximations for the intrachain contact rate given by the theory of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten (SSS) [J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4350 (1980)] and Wilemski-Fixman (WF) [J. Chem. Phys. 60, 878 (1973)] are shown to be complementary variational bounds: The SSS and WF approximations are lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the mean first contact times. As reported in the literature, the SSS approximation requires an effective diffusion coefficient 10 to 100 times smaller than expected to fit experimentally measured quenching rates. An all atom molecular dynamics simulation of an eleven residue peptide sequence in explicit water is analyzed to investigate the source of this surprising parameter value. The simulated diffusion limited contact time is ≈6 ns for a reaction radius of 4 Å for solvent viscosity corresponding to that of water at 293 K and 1 atm (η=1.0 cP). In analytical work, the polymer is typically modeled by a Gaussian chain of effective monomers. Compared to Gaussian dynamics, the simulated end-to-end distance autocorrelation has a much slower relaxation. The long time behavior of the distance autocorrelation function can be approximated by a Gaussian model in which the monomer diffusion coefficient D0 is reduced to D0/6. This value of the diffusion coefficient brings the mean end-to-end contact time from analytical approximations and simulation into agreement in the sense that the SSS and WF approximations bracket the simulated mean first contact time.

  11. Gravity field and solar component of the precession rate and nutation coefficients of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, C.; Reimond, S.; Souchay, J.; Baur, O.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is first to determine the gravity field of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and second to derive the solar component of the precession rate and nutation coefficients of the spin-axis of the comet nucleus, i.e. without the direct, usually larger, effect of outgassing. The gravity field and related moments of inertia are obtained from two polyhedra, which are provided by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) and NAVigation CAMera (NAVCAM) experiments on Rosetta, and are based on the assumption of uniform density for the comet nucleus. We also calculate the forced precession rate as well as the nutation coefficients on the basis of Kinoshita's theory of rotation of the rigid Earth and adapted it to be able to indirectly include the effect of outgassing on the rotational parameters. The second degree denormalized Stokes coefficients of comet 67P/C-G turn out to be (bracketed numbers refer to second shape model) C20 ≃ -6.74 [-7.93] × 10-2, C22 ≃ 2.60 [2.71] × 10-2, consistent with normalized principal moments of inertia A/MR2 ≃ 0.13 [0.11], B/MR2 ≃ 0.23 [0.22], with polar moment c = C/MR2 ≃ 0.25, depending on the choice of the polyhedron model. The obliquity between the rotation axis and the mean orbit normal is ε ≃ 52°, and the precession rate only due to solar torques becomes dot{ψ }in [20,30] arcsec yr^{-1}. Oscillations in longitude caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun turn out to be of the order of Δψ ≃ 1 arcmin, and oscillations in obliquity can be estimated to be of the order of Δε ≃ 0.5 arcmin.

  12. Evaluation of the factors controlling the time-dependent inactivation rate coefficients of bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    Static and dynamic batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature and the presence of sand on the inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1. The experimental data suggested that the inactivation process can be satisfactorily represented by a pseudo-first-order expression with time-dependent rate coefficients. The time-dependent rate coefficients were used to determine pertinent thermodynamic properties required for the analysis of the molecular processes involved in the inactivation of each bacteriophage. A combination of high temperature and the presence of sand appears to produce the greatest disruption to the surrounding protein coat of MS2. However, the lower activation energies for PRD1 indicate a weaker dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Instead, the presence of air-liquid and air-solid interfaces appears to produce the greatest damage to specific viral components that are related to infection. These results indicate the importance of using thermodynamic parameters based on the time-dependent inactivation model to better predict the inactivation of viruses in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  13. Evapotranspiration rates and crop coefficients for a restored marsh in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, J.Z.; Anderson, F.E.; Snyder, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface renewal method was used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) for a restored marsh on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA. ET estimates for the marsh, together with reference ET measurements from a nearby climate station, were used to determine crop coefficients over a 3-year period during the growing season. The mean ET rate for the study period was 6 mm day-1, which is high compared with other marshes with similar vegetation. High ET rates at the marsh may be due to the windy, semi-arid Mediterranean climate of the region, and the permanently flooded nature of the marsh, which results in very low surface resistance of the vegetation. Crop coefficient (Kc) values for the marsh ranged from 0.73 to 1.18. The mean Kc value over the entire study period was 0-95. The daily Kc values for any given month varied from year to year, and the standard deviation of daily Kc values varied between months. Although several climate variables were undoubtedly responsible for this variation, our analysis revealed that wind direction and the temperature of standing water in the wetland were of particular importance in determining ET rates and Kc values.

  14. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients in some Cr, Co and Fe compounds around the absorption edge and the validity of the mixture rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgut, U.; Simsek, O.; Büyükkasap, E.

    2007-08-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients for elements Cr, Co and Fe and compounds CrCl_{2}, CrCl_{3}, Cr_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}K_{2}SO_{4}\\cdot24H_{2}O, CoO, CoCl_{2}, Co(CH_{3}COO)_{2}, FePO_{4}, FeCl_{3}\\cdot6H_{2}O, Fe(SO_{4})_{2}NH_{4}\\cdot12H_{2}O were measured at different energies between 4.508 and 14.142 keV using secondary excitation method. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr were chosen as secondary exciters. 59.5 keV γ-rays emitted from a ^{241}Am annular source were used to excite a secondary exciter and K_{α}(K-L_{3}, L_{2}) lines emitted by the secondary exciter were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. It was observed that mixture rule method is not a suitable method for determination of the mass attenuation coefficients of compounds, especially at an energy that is near the absorption edge. The obtained values were compared with theoretical values.

  15. Determining phenomenological rate coefficients from a time-dependent, multiple-well master equation: "species reduction" at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    In this article we discuss at length the determination of phenomenological rate coefficients from the solution to a time-dependent, multiple-well master equation. Both conservative and non-conservative formulations are considered. The emphasis is placed on how to handle the situation when a CSE (chemically significant eigenvalue of the transition matrix) merges with the quasi-continuum of IEREs (internal energy relaxation eigenvalues), indicating that one or more chemical reactions begin to take place on vibrational-rotational relaxation time scales. The methodology is illustrated with four examples. PMID:23435763

  16. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV. PMID:27440743

  17. Effective light absorption and absolute electron transport rates in the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Milán; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Larkum, Anthony W D; Schreiber, Ulrich; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the electron turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption cross-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based absolute electron transport rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. Absolute values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. Absolute electron transport rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 electrons PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly affect light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative electron transport rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate absolute electron transport rates in corals. PMID:25146689

  18. Gas-Phase Reaction Pathways and Rate Coefficients for the Dichlorosilane-Hydrogen and Trichlorosilane-Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Walch, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA Ames Research Center's Integrated Process Team on Device/Process Modeling and Nanotechnology our goal is to create/contribute to a gas-phase chemical database for use in modeling microelectronics devices. In particular, we use ab initio methods to determine chemical reaction pathways and to evaluate reaction rate coefficients. Our initial studies concern reactions involved in the dichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H2--H2) and trichlorosilane-hydrogen (SiCl2H-H2) systems. Reactant, saddle point (transition state), and product geometries and their vibrational harmonic frequencies are determined using the complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure method with the correlation consistent polarized valence double-zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ). Reaction pathways are constructed by following the imaginary frequency mode of the saddle point to both the reactant and product. Accurate energetics are determined using the singles and doubles coupled-cluster method that includes a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations (CCSD(T)) extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Using the data from the electronic structure calculations, reaction rate coefficients are obtained using conventional and variational transition state and RRKM theories.

  19. Calculation of State Specific Rate Coefficients for Non-Equilibrium Hypersonics Applications: from H(Psi) = E(Psi) to k(T) = A *exp(-E(sub a)/RT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David; Chaban, Galina; Panesi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Development of High-Fidelity Physics-Based Models to describe hypersonic flight through the atmospheres of Earth and Mars is underway at NASA Ames Research Center. The goal is to construct chemistry models of the collisional and radiative processes that occur in the bow shock and boundary layers of spacecraft during atmospheric entry that are free of empiricism. In this talk I will discuss our philosophy and describe some of our progress. Topics to be covered include thermochemistry, internal energy relaxation, collisional dissociation and radiative emission and absorption. For this work we start by solving the Schrodinger equation to obtain accurate interaction potentials and radiative properties. Then we invoke classical mechanics to compute state-specific heavy particle collision cross sections and reaction rate coefficients. Finally, phenomenological rate coefficients and relaxation times are determined from master equation solutions.

  20. On the time dependence of rate coefficients of irreversible reactions between reactants with anisotropic reactivity in liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Doktorov, Alexander B.

    2016-08-01

    Time dependence of the rate coefficients of sterically specific reactions is analyzed theoretically. Generally, such reactions exhibit a non-trivial dependence of their rate constant on the steric factor, f < 1, which is defined as the fraction of reactive surface area. Notably, the rate constant of a diffusion-controlled reaction is proportional not to f but, counter-intuitively, to √{ f } due to partial averaging of the reaction anisotropy by translational diffusion. Here we demonstrate that the effective steric factor of a diffusion-influenced reaction is strongly time-dependent, increasing from f to √{ f } . When reactants have several active sites, these sites "interfere" each other in the sense that the rate constant depends on their relative positions. We demonstrate that such an interference effect is strongly time-dependent as well: it is absent at t = 0 but builds up with time. We argue that the outlined effects are also of importance for calculating the fluorescence quenching rate constants.

  1. Fe /Fe oxide nanocomposite particles with large specific absorption rate for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Q.; Baker, I.; Loudis, J. A.; Liao, Y.; Hoopes, P. J.; Weaver, J. B.

    2007-06-01

    Using a water-in-oil microemulsion with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide as the surfactant, iron was reduced to form a metallic core on which a passivating oxide shell was grown. Transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and heating measurements were used to characterize these monodispersed magnetic Fe /Fe3O4 composite nanoparticles with respect to the possible application for magnetic hyperthermia treatments of cancer. The aim is to utilize the fact that an iron core (high saturation magnetization) will give a greater heating effect than iron oxide, while the iron oxide coating will allow the nanoparticles to be observed using magnetic resonance imaging so that therapy can be effectively monitored and targeted. The largest specific absorption rate obtained was 345W/g under an alternating magnetic field of 150Oe at 250kHz.

  2. Specific absorption rate in models of man and monkey at 225 and 2000 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.G.; Griner, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Full-size models of a man and a rhesus monkey were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation at 225 MHz. The model of man was also exposed to 2000 MHz. Specific absorption rates (SARs) were measured in partial-body sections, such as the arms, legs, etc., using gradient-layer calorimeters. Also, front-surface thermographic images were obtained to qualitatively show the heating patterns. For all of the configurations used, the SAR in the limbs was much higher than in the torso. Agreement (whole-body SARs) with spheroidal models was better for both models at 225 MHz than at 2000 MHz. These results indicate that in the frequency range two orders of magnitude above whole-body resonance, SAR in the limbs significantly contributes to the whole-body average SAR.

  3. Design of Miniaturized Double-Negative Material for Specific Absorption Rate Reduction in Human Head

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a double-negative triangular metamaterial (TMM) structure, which exhibits a resounding electric response at microwave frequency, was developed by etching two concentric triangular rings of conducting materials. A finite-difference time-domain method in conjunction with the lossy-Drude model was used in this study. Simulations were performed using the CST Microwave Studio. The specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction technique is discussed, and the effects of the position of attachment, the distance, and the size of the metamaterials on the SAR reduction are explored. The performance of the double-negative TMMs in cellular phones was also measured in the cheek and the tilted positions using the COMOSAR system. The TMMs achieved a 52.28% reduction for the 10 g SAR. These results provide a guideline to determine the triangular design of metamaterials with the maximum SAR reducing effect for a mobile phone. PMID:25350398

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticles with High Specific Absorption Rate at Low Alternating Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Kekalo, K.; Baker, I.; Meyers, R.; Shyong, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for use in the hyperthermia treatment of tumors. These particles consist of 2–4 nm crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 gathered in 20–40 nm aggregates with a coating of carboxymethyl-dextran, producing a zetasize of 110–120 nm. Despite their very low saturation magnetization (1.5–6.5 emu/g), the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the nanoparticles is 22–200 W/g at applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) with strengths of 100–500 Oe at a frequency of 160 kHz. PMID:26884816

  5. Quasi-static magnetic measurements to predict specific absorption rates in magnetic fluid hyperthermia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coral, D. F.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; de Sousa, M. E.; Muraca, D.; Lassalle, V.; Nicolás, P.; Ferreira, M. L.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the issue on whether dynamic magnetic properties of polydispersed magnetic colloids modeled using physical magnitudes derived from quasi-static magnetic measurement can be extrapolated to analyze specific absorption rate data acquired at high amplitudes and frequencies of excitation fields is addressed. To this end, we have analyzed two colloids of magnetite nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and chitosan in water displaying, under a radiofrequency field, high and low specific heat power release. Both colloids are alike in terms of liquid carrier, surfactant and magnetic phase composition but differ on the nanoparticle structuring. The colloid displaying low specific dissipation consists of spaced magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 4.8 nm inside a large chitosan particle of 52.5 nm. The one displaying high specific dissipation consists of clusters of magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 9.7 nm inside a chitosan particle of 48.6 nm. The experimental evaluation of Néel and Brown relaxation times (˜10-10 s and 10-4 s, respectively) indicate that the nanoparticles in both colloids magnetically relax by Néel mechanism. The isothermal magnetization curves analysis for this mechanism show that the magnetic nanoparticles behave in the interacting superparamagnetic regime. The specific absorption rates were determined calorimetrically at 260 kHz and up to 52 kA/m and were well modeled within linear response theory using the anisotropy density energy retrieved from quasi-static magnetic measurement, validating their use to predict heating ability of a given polydispersed particle suspension. Our findings provide new insight in the validity of quasi-static magnetic characterization to analyze the high frequency behavior of polydispersed colloids within the framework of the linear response and Wohlfarth theories and indicate that dipolar interactions play a key role being their strength larger for the colloid displaying higher dissipation, i

  6. Collisional quenching reaction rate coefficients of N2 (A3Σu+) by C2F6 and C3F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Kuboaki, Masaru; Itoh, Haruo

    2015-09-01

    The collisional quenching reaction rate coefficient of N2 (A3Σu+) by various air pollutant gases were determined from the measurement of the effective lifetime of N2 (A3Σu+) in pure N2 (5-nine) with a small amount of air pollutant gases as an admixture. Derivation of the rate coefficient was performed the waveform analysis of the transient ionization current after turning off the UV light in the Townsend discharge. In this paper, we report that the obtained collisional quenching reaction rate coefficients of N2 (A3Σu+) by C2F6 and C3F8 are (2.3 +/- 1.8) × 10-15 cm3/s and (1.6 +/- 0.8) × 10-14 cm3/s, respectively. Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the rate coefficient and the mass number of their quenching molecular gases. Firstly, it is confirmed that the rate coefficient take large value with an increase in the mass number of the quenching gases. Secondly, if H atom is included in the gas molecules such as CH4, C2F6 and C3F8 the rate coefficient take large value, but if the molecules including F atom such as C2F6 and C3F8 instead of H atom in this study, more smaller values of the collisional quenching reaction rate coefficient are observed.

  7. Aerosol absorption coefficient and Equivalent Black Carbon by parallel operation of AE31 and AE33 aethalometers at the Zeppelin station, Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m

  8. Correlation Between Bacterial Attachment Rate Coefficients and Hydraulic Conductivity and its Effect on Field-Scale Bacterial Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Dong, Hailiang; Xie, YuLong

    2007-06-01

    It has been widely observed in field experiments that the apparent rate of bacterial attachment, particularly as parameterized by the collision efficiency in filtration-based models, decreases with transport distance (i.e., exhibits scale-dependency). This effect has previously been attributed to microbial heterogeneity; that is, variability in cell-surface properties within a single monoclonal population. We demonstrate that this effect could also be interpreted as a field-scale manifestation of local-scale correlation between physical heterogeneity (hydraulic conductivity variability) and reaction heterogeneity (attachment rate coefficient variability). A field-scale model of bacterial transport developed for the South Oyster field research site located near Oyster, Virginia, and observations from field experiments performed at that site, are used as the basis for this study. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of bacterial transport were performed under four alternative scenarios: 1) homogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) and attachment rate coefficient (Kf), 2) heterogeneous K, homogeneous Kf, 3) heterogeneous K and Kf with local correlation based on empirical and theoretical relationships, and 4) heterogeneous K and Kf without local correlation. The results of the 3D simulations were analyzed using 1D model approximations following conventional methods of field data analysis. An apparent decrease with transport distance of effective collision efficiency was observed only in the case where the local properties were both heterogeneous and correlated. This effect was observed despite the fact that the local collision efficiency was specified as a constant in the 3D model, and can therefore be interpreted as a scale effect associated with the local correlated heterogeneity as manifested at the field scale.

  9. OH-initiated degradation of a series of hexenols in the troposphere. Rate coefficients at 298 K and 1 atm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibilisco, Rodrigo G.; Santiago, Ana N.; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2013-10-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals with three C6 unsaturated alcohols at 298 K and atmospheric pressure were investigated using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with GC-FID detection of organic compounds. Rate coefficients (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1) of k1(OH + (E)-CH2OHCHdbnd CH(CH2)2CH3) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10-10, k2(OH + (E)-CH2OHCH2CHdbnd CHCH2CH3) = (1.2 ± 0.2) × 10-10 and k3(OH + (Z)-CH2OHCH2CHdbnd CHCH2CH3) = (1.4 ± 0.3) × 10-10 were obtained by the relative rate method using methyl methacrylate and (E)-2-buten-1-ol as references. Rate coefficients were compared with previous determinations and reactivity trends were developed and rationalized in terms of the effect and position of substituents in the unsaturated alcohol. A correlation between the reactivity of unsaturated alcohols toward OH radicals and the energy of the HOMO of the unsaturated alcohol is presented. Additionally, product identification under atmospheric conditions was performed for the first time for these unsaturated C6 alcohols by the GC-MS technique. Butanal was observed as the main degradation product of OH with (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, in accordance with the decomposition of the 2,3-hydroxyalcoxy radicals formed. On the basis of our kinetic measurements, tropospheric lifetimes of the studied unsaturated compounds are estimated.

  10. Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.

    1958-01-01

    An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.

  11. Evaluation of Compton attenuation and photoelectric absorption coefficients by convolution of scattering and primary functions and counts ratio on energy spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Mansour; Asgari, Afrouz; Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rezaei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of Compton attenuation and the photoelectric absorption coefficients were explored at various depths. Methods: A new method was proposed for estimating the depth based on the convolution of two exponential functions, namely convolution of scattering and primary functions (CSPF), which the convolved result will conform to the photopeak region of energy spectrum with the variable energy-window widths (EWWs) and a theory on the scattering cross-section. The triple energy-windows (TEW) and extended triple energy-windows scatter correction (ETEW) methods were used to estimate the scattered and primary photons according to the energy spectra at various depths due to a better performance than the other methods in nuclear medicine. For this purpose, the energy spectra were employed, and a distinct phantom along with a technetium-99 m source was simulated by Monte Carlo method. Results: The simulated results indicate that the EWW, used to calculate the scattered and primary counts in terms of the integral operators on the functions, was proportional to the depth as an exponential function. The depth will be calculated by the combination of either TEW or ETEW and proposed method resulting in the distinct energy-window. The EWWs for primary photons were in good agreement with those of scattered photons at the same as depths. The average errors between these windows for both methods TEW, and ETEW were 7.25% and 6.03% at different depths, respectively. The EWW value for functions of scattered and primary photons was reduced by increasing the depth in the CSPF method. Conclusions: This coefficient may be an index for the scattering cross-section. PMID:26170567

  12. Cross sections and rate coefficients for inner-shell excitation of Li-like ions with 6 < Z < 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Kato, T.

    1996-07-01

    Excitation cross sections and rate coefficients by electron impact were calculated for the 1s22s-1s2s2p, 1s22s-1s2s2 and 1s22s-1s2p2 transitions of the Li-like ions (C IV, N V, O VI, Ne VIII, Mg X, Al XI, Si XII, S XIV, Ar XVI, Ca XVIII, Ti XX, Fe XXIV, Ni XXVI, Zn XXVIII, Ge XXX, Se XXXII, Kr XXXIV and Mo XXXX) in the Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange including relativistic effects and configuration interaction. Level energies, mixing coefficients and transition wavelengths and probabilities were also computed. Calculations performed by the 1/Z perturbation theory and Coulomb-Born approximation are compared with the R-matrix method and the distorted-wave approximation were Z is the nuclear charge. Formulae obtained for the angular factors of n-electron atomic system allow one to generalize this method to an arbitrary system of highly charged ions.

  13. Experimental determination of the absorption cross-section and molar extinction coefficient of CdSe and CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Protasenko, Vladimir; Bacinello, Daniel; Kuno, Masaru

    2006-12-21

    Absorption cross-sections and corresponding molar extinction coefficients of solution-based CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs) are determined. Chemically grown semiconductor NWs are made via a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) synthesis, employing low melting Au/Bi bimetallic nanoparticle "catalysts" to induce one-dimensional (1D) growth. Resulting wires are highly crystalline and have diameters between 5 and 12 nm as well as lengths exceeding 10 microm. Narrow diameters, below twice the corresponding bulk exciton Bohr radius of each material, place CdSe and CdTe NWs within their respective intermediate to weak confinement regimes. Supporting this are solution linear absorption spectra of NW ensembles showing blue shifts relative to the bulk band gap as well as structure at higher energies. In the case of CdSe, the wires exhibit band edge emission as well as strong absorption/emission polarization anisotropies at the ensemble and single-wire levels. Analogous photocurrent polarization anisotropies have been measured in recently developed CdSe NW photodetectors. To further support fundamental NW optical/electrical studies as well as to promote their use in device applications, experimental absorption cross-sections are determined using correlated transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible extinction spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Measured CdSe NW cross-sections for 1 microm long wires (diameters, 6-42 nm) range from 6.93 x 10(-13) to 3.91 x 10(-11) cm2 at the band edge (692-715 nm, 1.73-1.79 eV) and between 3.38 x 10(-12) and 5.50 x 10(-11) cm2 at 488 nm (2.54 eV). Similar values are obtained for 1 microm long CdTe NWs (diameters, 7.5-11.5 nm) ranging from 4.32 x 10(-13) to 5.10 x 10(-12) cm2 at the band edge (689-752 nm, 1.65-1.80 eV) and between 1.80 x 10(-12) and 1.99 x 10(-11) cm2 at 2.54 eV. These numbers compare well with previous theoretical estimates of CdSe/CdTe NW cross-sections far to the blue of the

  14. Cigarette smoking and rate of gastric emptying: effect on alcohol absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R D; Horowitz, M; Maddox, A F; Wishart, J M; Shearman, D J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of cigarette smoking on alcohol absorption and gastric emptying. DESIGN--Randomised crossover study. SETTING--Research project in departments of medicine and nuclear medicine. SUBJECTS--Eight healthy volunteers aged 19-43 who regularly smoked 20-35 cigarettes a day and drank small amounts of alcohol on social occasions. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects drank 400 ml of a radiolabelled nutrient test meal containing alcohol (0.5 g/kg), then had their rates of gastric emptying measured. Test were carried out (a) with the subjects smoking four cigarettes an hour and (b) with the subjects not smoking, having abstained for seven days or more. The order of the tests was randomised and the tests were conducted two weeks apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Peak blood alcohol concentrations, absorption of alcohol at 30 minutes, amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes, and times taken for 50% of the meal to leave the proximal stomach and total stomach. RESULTS--Smoking was associated with reductions in (a) peak blood alcohol concentrations (median values in non-smoking versus smoking periods 13.5 (range 8.7-22.6) mmol/l v 11.1 (4.3-13.5) mmol/l), (b) area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (264 x 10(3) (0-509 x 10(3)) mmol/l/min v 140 x 10(3)) (0-217 x 10(3) mmol/l/min), and (c) amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes (39% (5-86%) v 23% (0-35%)). In addition, smoking slowed both the 50% gastric emptying time (37 (9-83) minutes v 56 (40-280) minutes) and the intragastric distribution of the meal. There was a close correlation between the amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes and the area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (r = 0.91; p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION--Cigarette smoking slows gastric emptying and as a consequence delays alcohol absorption. PMID:1991182

  15. NON-EQUILIBRIUM H{sub 2} FORMATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: ENERGY EXCHANGES, RATE COEFFICIENTS, AND SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, C. M.; Longo, S.; D'Introno, R.; Galli, D.; Tennyson, J.

    2012-03-01

    Energy exchange processes play a crucial role in the early universe, affecting the thermal balance and the dynamical evolution of the primordial gas. In the present work we focus on the consequences of a non-thermal distribution of the level populations of H{sub 2}: first, we determine the excitation temperatures of vibrational transitions and the non-equilibrium heat transfer; second, we compare the modifications to chemical reaction rate coefficients with respect to the values obtained assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium; and third, we compute the spectral distortions to the cosmic background radiation generated by the formation of H{sub 2} in vibrationally excited levels. We conclude that non-equilibrium processes cannot be ignored in cosmological simulations of the evolution of baryons, although their observational signatures remain below current limits of detection. New fits to the equilibrium and non-equilibrium heat transfer functions are provided.

  16. CO2(ν2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived From Coincidental Fort Collins Lidar and SABER Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilov, A.; Kutepov, A.; She, C.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(ν2) vibrational levels in collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, neither the rate coefficient of this process (k(CO2-O)) nor the atomic oxygen concentrations ([O]) in the MLT are well known. The discrepancy between k(CO2-O) measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements is of about factor of 2.5. At the same time, the discrepancy between [O] in the MLT measured by different instruments is of the same order of magnitude. In this work we combine temperature data from a ground based lidar with limb radiances from a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate k(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41N, 255E) as ground truth of the SABER/TIMED nearly simultaneous (±10 minutes ) and common volume (within ±1 degree in latitude, ±2 degrees in longitude) observations. We used ALI-ARMS non-LTE research code designed to calculate the non-equilibrium radiance in planetary atmospheres to retrieve the product of k(CO2-O) x [O] from 15 μm CO2 limb radiance measured by SABER. The values retrieved for all overlapping measurements were then used to estimate the k(CO2-O) rate coefficient and its possible variation range by utilizing the [O] values measured by the SABER and other instruments.

  17. K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os ( Z = 76) derived from new mass attenuation coefficient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Necati; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydın, Gökhan; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Cengiz, Erhan

    2007-08-01

    The K-shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios were derived from new mass attenuation coefficients measured using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for Tm, Yb elements being Tm 2O 3, Yb 2O 3 compounds and pure Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os. The measurements, in the region 56-77 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the K α1 , K α2 , K β1 and K β2 X- rays from different secondary source targets (Yb, Ta, Os, W, Re and Ir, etc.) excited by the 123.6 keV γ-photons from an 57Co annular source and detected by an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. Experimental results have been compared with theoretically calculated values. The measured values of Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os are reported here for the first time.

  18. H + O3 Fourier-transform infrared emission and laser absorption studies of OH(X2Pi) radical - An experimental dipole moment function and state-to-state Einstein A coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.

    1990-01-01

    FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.

  19. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  20. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. It is shown that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  1. Determining Free-Radical Propagation Rate Coefficients with High-Frequency Lasers: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kockler, Katrin B; Haehnel, Alexander P; Junkers, Thomas; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the polymerization mechanisms and kinetics of academically and industrially relevant monomers is mandatory for the precision synthesis of tailor-made polymers. The IUPAC-recommended pulsed-laser polymerization-size exclusion chromatography (PLP-SEC) approach is the method of choice for the determination of propagation rate coefficients and the associated Arrhenius parameters for free radical polymerization processes. With regard to specific monomer classes-such as acrylate-type monomers, which are very important from a materials point of view-high laser frequencies of up to 500 Hz are mandatory to prevent the formation of mid-chain radicals and the occurrence of chain-breaking events by chain transfer, if industrially relevant temperatures are to be reached and wide temperature ranges are to be explored (up to 70 °C). Herein the progress and state-of-the-art of high-frequency PLP-SEC with pulse repetition rates of 500 Hz is reported, with a critical collection of to-date investigated 500 Hz data as well as future perspectives for the field. PMID:26479174

  2. Rate coefficients from quantum and quasi-classical cumulative reaction probabilities for the S(1D) + H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambrina, P. G.; Lara, Manuel; Menéndez, M.; Launay, J.-M.; Aoiz, F. J.

    2012-10-01

    Cumulative reaction probabilities (CRPs) at various total angular momenta have been calculated for the barrierless reaction S(1D) + H2 → SH + H at total energies up to 1.2 eV using three different theoretical approaches: time-independent quantum mechanics (QM), quasiclassical trajectories (QCT), and statistical quasiclassical trajectories (SQCT). The calculations have been carried out on the widely used potential energy surface (PES) by Ho et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 4124 (2002), 10.1063/1.1431280] as well as on the recent PES developed by Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 9213 (2009), 10.1021/jp903790h]. The results show that the differences between these two PES are relatively minor and mostly related to the different topologies of the well. In addition, the agreement between the three theoretical methodologies is good, even for the highest total angular momenta and energies. In particular, the good accordance between the CRPs obtained with dynamical methods (QM and QCT) and the statistical model (SQCT) indicates that the reaction can be considered statistical in the whole range of energies in contrast with the findings for other prototypical barrierless reactions. In addition, total CRPs and rate coefficients in the range of 20-1000 K have been calculated using the QCT and SQCT methods and have been found somewhat smaller than the experimental total removal rates of S(1D).

  3. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  4. Rotational (de-)excitation of HNS by He: three-dimensional potential energy surface and collision rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajili, Y.; Abdallah, D. Ben; Al-Mogren, M. Mogren; Francisco, J. S.; Hochlaf, M.

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the HNS-He interacting system in Jacobi coordinates is mapped using high-level ab initio theory. These computations are performed at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster method with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)-F12) in conjunction with the augmented correlation-consistent aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The 3D-PES is incorporated into quantum dynamical computations to treat the nuclear motions, where HNS is considered as a rigid rotator colliding with He. Cross-sections for transitions among the first twenty nine rotational levels of HNS (up to jKaKc = 92,8) are calculated using the quantum exact close-coupling method for total energies <1000 cm-1 and using the coupled state approximation for higher energies. Collisional rate constants for temperatures ranging from 5 to 200 K are deduced. A clear propensity rule in favour of Δj = -2 rotational transitions is observed. These rate coefficients are of great importance for the detection of HNS in interstellar medium.

  5. Evaluation of the Factors that Control the Time-Dependent Inactivation Rate Coefficients of Bacteriophage MS2 and PRD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2004-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted under both static and dynamic conditions to study the effects of temperature and the presence of sand on the inactivation process of viruses. The male--specific RNA coliphage, MS2, and the Salmonella typhimurium phage, PRD1, were used as model viruses for this study. Over 100 oven--baked borosilicate glass bottles with or without Monterey sand were filled with a low--ionic--strength phosphate buffered saline solution containing both bacteriophage and incubated at temperatures of 4o, 15o, or 25oC. The results of the batch experiments indicate that the inactivation process can be represented by a pseudo first-order expression with time--dependent rate coefficients. A combination of high temperature and the presence of sand appears to produce the greatest disruption to the surrounding protein coat of MS2. However, for PRD1, the lower activation energies derived from Arrhenius plots indicate a weaker dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Furthermore, the presence of an air--liquid--solid interface in the dynamic batch experiment containing sand produces the greatest damage to specific viral components of PRD1 that are required for infection. These results indicate the use of thermodynamic parameters based on the pseudo first--order inactivation expression allows better prediction of the inactivation of viruses in the environment.

  6. EFFECTS OF COVAPORS ON ADSORPTION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC VAPORS ADSORBED ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON FROM FLOWING AIR

    SciTech Connect

    G. WOOD

    2000-12-01

    Published breakthrough time, adsorption rate, and capacity data for components of organic vapor mixtures adsorbed from flows through fixed activated carbon beds have been analyzed. Capacities (as stoichiometric centers of constant pattern breakthrough curves) yielded stoichiometric times {tau}, which are useful for determining elution orders of mixture components. We also calculated adsorption rate coefficients k{sub v} of the Wheeler (or, more general Reaction Kinetic) breakthrough curve equation, when not reported, from breakthrough times and {tau}. Ninety-five k{sub v} (in mixture)/ k{sub v} (single vapor) ratios at similar vapor concentrations were calculated and averaged for elution order categories. For 43 first-eluting vapors the average ratio (1.07) was statistically no different (0.21 standard deviation) than unity, so that we recommend using the single-vapor k{sub v} for such. Forty-seven second-eluting vapor ratios averaged 0.85 (0.24 standard deviation), also not significantly different from unity; however, other evidence and considerations lead us recommend using k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.85 k{sub v} (single vapor). Five third- and fourth-eluting vapors gave an average of 0.56 (0.16 standard deviation) for a recommended k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.56 k{sub v} (single vapor) for such.

  7. Specific absorption rate in electrically coupled biological samples between metal plates.

    PubMed

    Joines, W T; Blackman, C F; Spiegel, R J

    1986-01-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) in a biological sample irradiated by electromagnetic fields between the metal plates of a transmission line can be altered significantly by the spacing of the metal plates and the distance between neighboring samples. The SAR in spherical biological samples is calculated for a number of neighboring sample arrangements and metal-plate spacings by using the method of images and induced dipole coupling. For a decrease in metal-plate spacing, the derived equations predict an increase in SAR within a sample and a decrease in SAR with a decrease in neighboring-sample spacing. The calculations are compared with measurements made with the aid of an array of 1-in radius metal hemispheres on the lower plate of two parallel plates (thus forming an image system). The hemisphere on which measurements are taken is insulated from the metal plate and is connected via a coaxial center conductor to an HP 3582A spectrum analyzer that measures the voltage and hence the electric field intensity at the hemisphere. Measurements made at a frequency where wavelength is large compared with sample size (48 Hz) are in good agreement with calculations. PMID:3741491

  8. On the reliable measurement of specific absorption rates and intrinsic loss parameters in magnetic hyperthermia materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeboer, R. R.; Southern, P.; Pankhurst, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical application of magnetic hyperthermia, the heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field is used as a cancer treatment. The heating ability of the particles is quantified by the specific absorption rate (SAR), an extrinsic parameter based on the clinical response characteristic of power delivered per unit mass, and by the intrinsic loss parameter (ILP), an intrinsic parameter based on the heating capacity of the material. Even though both the SAR and ILP are widely used as comparative design parameters, they are almost always measured in non-adiabatic systems that make accurate measurements difficult. We present here the results of a systematic review of measurement methods for both SAR and ILP, leading to recommendations for a standardised, simple and reliable method for measurements using non-adiabatic systems. In a representative survey of 50 retrieved datasets taken from published papers, the derived SAR or ILP was found to be more than 5% overestimated in 24% of cases and more than 5% underestimated in 52% of cases.

  9. Assessment of specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the head from a TETRA handset.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter; Khalid, Mohammed; Mann, Simon

    2003-12-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) from a representative TETRA handset have been performed in an anatomically realistic model of the head. TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a modern digital private mobile radio system designed to meet the requirements of professional users, such as the police and fire brigade. The current frequency allocations in the UK are 380-385 MHz and 390-395 MHz for the public sector network. A comprehensive set of calculations of SAR in the head was performed for positions of the handset in front of the face and at both sides of the head. The representative TETRA handset considered. operating at 1 W in normal use, will show compliance with both the ICNIRP occupational and public exposure restrictions. The handset with a monopole antenna operating at 3 W in normal use will show compliance with both the ICNIRP occupational and public exposure restrictions. The handset with a helical antenna operating at 3 W in normal use will show compliance with the ICNIRP occupational exposure restriction but will be over the public exposure restriction by up to approximately 50% if kept in the position of maximum SAR for 6 min continuously. PMID:14703166

  10. A Prototype RF Dosimeter for Independent Measurement of the Average Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) During MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stralka, John P; Bottomley, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To develop a scanner-independent dosimeter for measuring the average radio frequency (RF) power deposition and specific absorption rates (SAR) for human MRI exposure. Materials and Methods A prototype dosimeter has a transducer with orthogonal conducting loops surrounding a small signal-generating MRI sample. The loops contain resistors whose values are adjusted to load the scanner’s MRI coils equivalent to an average head or body during MRI. The scanner adjusts its power output to normal levels during setup, using the MRI sample. Following calibration, the total power and average SAR deposited in the transducer are measured from the root-mean-square (rms) power induced in the transducer during MRI. Results A 1.5 Tesla head transducer was adjusted to elicit the same load as the average of nine adult volunteers. Once adjusted, the transducer loads other head coils the same as the head does. The dosimeter is calibrated at up to 20 W total deposited power and 4.5 W/kg SAR in the average head, with about 5% accuracy. Conclusion This dosimeter provides a simple portable means of measuring the power deposited in a body-equivalent sample load, independent of the scanner. Further work will develop SAR dosimetry for the torso and for higher fields. PMID:17969145

  11. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  12. Absorption coefficients and frequency shifts measurement in the spectral range of 1071.88-1084.62 cm-1 vs. pressure for chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) using tunable CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif

    2013-02-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.

  13. A neural network-based four-band model for estimating the total absorption coefficients from the global oceanic and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Cui, Tingwei; Quan, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    this study, a neural network-based four-band model (NNFM) for the global oceanic and coastal waters has been developed in order to retrieve the total absorption coefficients a(λ). The applicability of the quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) and NNFM models is evaluated by five independent data sets. Based on the comparison of a(λ) predicted by these two models with the field measurements taken from the global oceanic and coastal waters, it was found that both the QAA and NNFM models had good performances in deriving a(λ), but that the NNFM model works better than the QAA model. The results of the QAA model-derived a(λ), especially in highly turbid waters with strong backscattering properties of optical activity, was found to be lower than the field measurements. The QAA and NNFM models-derived a(λ) could be obtained from the MODIS data after atmospheric corrections. When compared with the field measurements, the NNFM model decreased by a 0.86-24.15% uncertainty (root-mean-square relative error) of the estimation from the QAA model in deriving a(λ) from the Bohai, Yellow, and East China seas. Finally, the NNFM model was applied to map the global climatological seasonal mean a(443) for the time range of July 2002 to May 2014. As expected, the a(443) value around the coastal regions was always larger than the open ocean around the equator. Viewed on a global scale, the oceans at a high latitude exhibited higher a(443) values than those at a low latitude.

  14. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated. PMID:20962406

  15. Potential chlorofluorocarbon replacements: OH reaction rate constants between 250 and 315 K and infrared absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, N.L.; Medhurst, L.J.; Nelson, H.H.

    1993-12-20

    The authors measured the rate constant for reactions of the OH radical with several potential chlorofluorocarbon replacements over the temperature range 251-314 K using laser photolysis laser-induced fluorescence techniques. The compounds studied and Arrhenius parameters determined from fits to the measured rate constants are as follows: CHF{sub 2}OCHF{sub 2} (E 134), k(T) = (5.4 {+-} 3.5) x 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} exp [({minus}3.1 {+-} 0.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1})/RT]; CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 3} (FC 236fa), k(T) = (2.0 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} exp [({minus}1.8 {+-} 0.3 kcal mol{sup {minus}1})/RT]; CF{sub 3}CHFCHF{sub 2} (FC 236ea), k(T) = (2.0 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} exp [({minus}2.0 {+-} 0.3 kcal mol{sup {minus}1})/RT]; and CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CH{sub 2}F (FC 236cb), k(T) = (2.6 {+-} 1.6) x 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1} exp [({minus}2.2 {+-} 0.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1})/RT]. The measured activation energies (2-3 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}) are consistent with a mechanism of H atom abstraction. The tropospheric lifetimes, estimated from the measured OH reaction rates, and measured integrated infrared absorption cross sections over the range 770 to 1430 cm{sup {minus}1} suggest that E 134 and FC 236fa may have significant global warming potential, while FC 236ea and FC 236cb do not. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Relative rate coefficient measurements of OH radical reactions with (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol and (E)-3-hexen-1-ol under simulated atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirone, Silvina A.; Barrera, Javier A.; Taccone, Raúl A.; Cometto, Pablo M.; Lane, Silvia I.

    2014-03-01

    The relative rate technique was used to determine the rate coefficients of the reactions of OH radicals with (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol (k1), and (E)-3-hexen-1-ol (k2), at (296 ± 2) K and (750 ± 10) Torr of N2 or pure air. The reactions were investigated using a 200 L Teflon reaction chamber and a gas chromatograph coupled with flame-ionization detection. The following rate coefficients were derived, in units of cm3 mol-1 s-1: k1 = (1.1 ± 0.4) × 10-10 and k2 = (0.8 ± 0.1) × 10-10. This is the first experimental determination of k1 and k2. A comparison between the experimental rate coefficients (kexp) and the calculated rate coefficients using the structure-activity relationship (SAR) method (kSAR), for the reaction of different unsaturated alcohols with OH radicals is presented. The atmospheric lifetimes of the studied alcohols were estimated considering the rate coefficients of their reactions with OH and NO3 radicals. The radiative efficiencies (REs) were obtained from the infrared spectra of the two hexenols and the global warming potentials (GWPs) were then estimated. Atmospheric implications of the alcohols emission are briefly discussed.

  17. Statistical-theoretical investigation of the thermal rate coefficient and branching ratio for the reaction O + HCN. -->. products

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Parrish, C.; Brown, N.J.

    1986-07-17

    Using the BAC-MP4 potential surface parameters of Melius and Binkley, we have predicted the thermal rate coefficients for the two reactions: O + HCN ..-->.. NCO + H (a) and O + HCN ..-->.. NH + CO (b). Several levels of approximation are used in the theoretical treatment: a, canonical theory; b, canonical theory with Wigner tunneling correction; c, microcanonical theory (energy conserving); d, microcanonical/J-conservative theory (conserves both energy and angular momentum); e, microcanonical/J-conservative theory with one-dimensional tunneling. At high temperature the available experimental results are predicted accurately by even the crudest theoretical treatment (canonical theory). At lower temperature the theoretical predictions using the basic BAC-MP4 parameters are too low. However, adjustments to the BAC-MP4 energy barriers within their stated error limits lead to satisfactory agreement with experiment over the entire temperature range where experimental results are available (500 to 2500 K). The most important results of the investigation concern the dependence of the predictions on the level of approximation. Each successive refinement in the theory produces larger values of k/sub b/. The details of the theoretical treatment and comparisons with experiment are described in detail.

  18. Investigation of Relationships Between Transverse Relaxation Rate, Diffusion Coefficient, and Labeled Cell Concentration in Ischemic Rat Brain Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Athiraman, Hemanthkumar; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guang Liang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Wang, Lei; Arbab, Ali S.; Li, Qingjiang; Panda, Swayam; Ledbetter, Karen; Rad, Ali M.; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    MRI has been used to evaluate labeled cell migration and distribution. However, quantitative determination of labeled cell concentration using MRI has not been systematically investigated. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between labeled cell concentration and MRI parameters of transverse relaxation rate, R2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in vitro in phantoms and in vivo in rats after stroke. Significant correlations were detected between iron concentration or labeled cell concentration and MRI measurements of R2, ADC, and ADC×R2 in vitro. In contrast, in vivo labeled cell concentration did not significantly correlate with R2, ADC, and ADC×R2. A major factor for the absence of a significant correlation between labeled cell concentration and MRI measurements in vivo may be attributed to background effects of ischemic tissue. By correcting the background effects caused by ischemic damage, ΔR2 (difference in R2 values in the ischemic tissue with and without labeled cells) exhibited a significant correlation to labeled cell concentration. Our study suggests that MRI parameters have the potential to quantitatively determine labeled cell concentration in vivo. PMID:19107898

  19. C02(nu2)-0 Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental Fort Collins Lidar and SABER Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C. Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(V2) vibrational levels in collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, neither the rate coefficient of this process (k(CO2O)) nor the atomic oxygen concentrations ([O]) in the MLT are well known. The discrepancy between k(CO2O) measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements is of about factor of 2.5. At the same time, the discrepancy between [O] in the MLT measured by different instruments is of the same order of magnitude. In this work we used a synergy of a ground based lidar and satellite infrared radiometer to make a further step in understanding of the physics of the region. In this study we apply the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado for retrieving the product of k(CO2-O) x [O] from the limb radiances in the 15 micron channel measured by the SABER/TIMED instrument for nearly simultaneous common volume measurements of both instruments within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude and +/-10 minutes in time. We derive k(CO2-O) and its possible variation range from the retrieved product by utilizing the [O] values measured by the SABER and other instruments.

  20. The formation of linear aggregates in magnetic hyperthermia: implications on specific absorption rate and magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Saville, Steven L; Qi, Bin; Baker, Jonathon; Stone, Roland; Camley, Robert E; Livesey, Karen L; Ye, Longfei; Crawford, Thomas M; Mefford, O Thompson

    2014-06-15

    The design and application of magnetic nanoparticles for use as magnetic hyperthermia agents has garnered increasing interest over the past several years. When designing these systems, the fundamentals of particle design play a key role in the observed specific absorption rate (SAR). This includes the particle's core size, polymer brush length, and colloidal arrangement. While the role of particle core size on the observed SAR has been significantly reported, the role of the polymer brush length has not attracted as much attention. It has recently been reported that for some suspensions linear aggregates form in the presence of an applied external magnetic field, i.e. chains of magnetic particles. The formation of these chains may have the potential for a dramatic impact on the biomedical application of these materials, specifically the efficiency of the particles to transfer magnetic energy to the surrounding cells. In this study we demonstrate the dependence of SAR on magnetite nanoparticle core size and brush length as well as observe the formation of magnetically induced colloidal arrangements. Colloidally stable magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated to form linear aggregates in an alternating magnetic field. The length and distribution of the aggregates were dependent upon the stabilizing polymer molecular weight. As the molecular weight of the stabilizing layer increased, the magnetic interparticle interactions decreased therefore limiting chain formation. In addition, theoretical calculations demonstrated that interparticle spacing has a significant impact on the magnetic behavior of these materials. This work has several implications for the design of nanoparticle and magnetic hyperthermia systems, while improving understanding of how colloidal arrangement affects SAR. PMID:24767510

  1. Quantifying intra- and extracellular aggregation of iron oxide nanoparticles and its influence on specific absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Hurley, Katie R; Bischof, John C; Haynes, Christy L; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-09-21

    A promising route to cancer treatment is hyperthermia, facilitated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). After exposure to an alternating external magnetic field, SPIONs generate heat, quantified by their specific absorption rate (SAR, in W g(-1) Fe). However, without surface functionalization, commercially available, high SAR SPIONs (EMG 308, Ferrotec, USA) aggregate in aqueous suspensions; this has been shown to reduce SAR. Further reduction in SAR has been observed for SPIONs in suspensions containing cells, but the origin of this further reduction has not been made clear. Here, we use image analysis methods to quantify the structures of SPION aggregates in the extra- and intracellular milieu of LNCaP cell suspensions. We couple image characterization with nanoparticle tracking analysis and SAR measurements of SPION aggregates in cell-free suspensions, to better quantify the influence of cellular uptake on SPION aggregates and ultimately its influence on SAR. We find that in both the intra- and extracellular milieu, SPION aggregates are well-described by a quasifractal model, with most aggregates having fractal dimensions in the 1.6-2.2 range. Intracellular aggregates are found to be significantly larger than extracellular aggregates and are commonly composed of more than 10(3) primary SPION particles (hence they are "superaggregates"). By using high salt concentrations to generate such superaggregates and measuring the SAR of suspensions, we confirm that it is the formation of superaggregates in the intracellular milieu that negatively impacts SAR, reducing it from above 200 W g(-1) Fe for aggregates composed of fewer than 50 primary particles to below 50 W g(-1) for superaggregates. While the underlying physical mechanism by which aggregation leads to reduction in SAR remains to be determined, the methods developed in this study provide insight into how cellular uptake influences the extent of SPION aggregation, and enable estimation of the

  2. Absorption coefficient, transition probability, and collision-broadening frequency of dimethylether at He-Xe laser 3.51-micron wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegman, A. E.; Wang, S. C.

    1970-01-01

    Absorptivity, transition probability and collision broadening frequency of dimethylether at 3.51 micron He-Xe laser wavelength, noting pressure dependence, transition lifetime and saturation intensity

  3. Rotational excitation of AlCl induced by its collision with helium: cross sections and collisional rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamboundom, Mama; Tchakoua, Théophile; Nsangou, Mama

    2016-04-01

    In this work, inelastic rotational collision of AlCl with helium was studied. The CCSD(T) method was used for the computation of an accurate two dimensional potential energy surface (PES). In the calculation of the PES, Al-Cl bond was frozen at the experimental value 4.02678 a0. The aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets of Dunning was used throughout the computational process. This basis was completed with a set of 3s3p2d2f1g bond functions placed at mid-distance between the center of mass of AlCl and He atom for a better description of the van der Waals interaction energy. The PES of AlCl-He was found to have a global minimum at (R=8.65 a0, θ=0 degree), a local minimum at (R=7.45 a0, θ=82 degree) and a saddle point at (R=7.9 a0, θ=56 degree). The depths of the minima were 20.2 cm^{-1} and 19.8 cm^{-1} respectively for θ=0 and 84 degrees. The height of the saddle point with respect to the global minimum was 1.3 cm^{-1}. The PES, the result of an analytical fit, was expanded in terms of Legendre polynomials, then used for the evaluation of state-to-state rotational integral cross sections for the collision of AlCl with He in the close coupling approach. The collisional cross sections for the transitions occurring among the 17 first rotational levels of AlCl were calculated for kinetic energies up to 4000 cm^{-1}. Collisional rate coefficients between these rotational levels were computed for low and moderate kinetic temperatures ranging from 30 to 500 K. A propensity rule that favors odd Δ j transitions was found.

  4. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    PubMed Central

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001). Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID

  5. Direct measurement and theoretical calculation of the rate coefficient for Cl+CH3 in the range from T=202-298 K.

    PubMed

    Parker, James K; Payne, Walter A; Cody, Regina J; Nesbitt, Fred L; Stief, Louis J; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Harding, Lawrence B

    2007-02-15

    The rate coefficient has been measured under pseudo-first-order conditions for the Cl+CH3 association reaction at T=202, 250, and 298 K and P=0.3-2.0 Torr helium using the technique of discharge-flow mass spectrometry with low-energy (12-eV) electron-impact ionization and collision-free sampling. Cl and CH3 were generated rapidly and simultaneously by reaction of F with HCl and CH4, respectively. Fluorine atoms were produced by microwave discharge in an approximately 1% mixture of F2 in He. The decay of CH3 was monitored under pseudo-first-order conditions with the Cl-atom concentration in large excess over the CH3 concentration ([Cl]0/[CH3]0=9-67). Small corrections were made for both axial and radial diffusion and minor secondary chemistry. The rate coefficient was found to be in the falloff regime over the range of pressures studied. For example, at T=202 K, the rate coefficient increases from 8.4x10(-12) at P=0.30 Torr He to 1.8x10(-11) at P=2.00 Torr He, both in units of cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A combination of ab initio quantum chemistry, variational transition-state theory, and master-equation simulations was employed in developing a theoretical model for the temperature and pressure dependence of the rate coefficient. Reasonable empirical representations of energy transfer and of the effect of spin-orbit interactions yield a temperature- and pressure-dependent rate coefficient that is in excellent agreement with the present experimental results. The high-pressure limiting rate coefficient from the RRKM calculations is k2=6.0x10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, independent of temperature in the range from 200 to 300 K. PMID:17253663

  6. Survey on Different Samsung with Nokia Smart Mobile Phones in the Specific Absorption Rate Electrical Field of Head.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Alinejad, Azim; Keramati, Hassan; Bay, Abotaleb; Avazpour, Moayed; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Moradi, Bigard; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The use of smart phones is increasing in the world. This excessive use, especially in the last two decades, has created too much concern on the effects of emitted electromagnetic fields and specific absorption rate on human health. In this descriptive-analytical study of the electric field resulting from smart phones of Samsung and Nokia by portable measuring device, electromagnetic field, Model HI-3603-VDT/VLF, were measured. Then, head absorption rate was calculated in these two mobiles by ICNIRP equation. Finally, the comparison of specific absorption rate, especially between Samsung and Nokia smart phones, was conducted by T-Test statistics analysis. The mean of electric field for Samsung and Nokia smart mobile phones was obtained 1.8 ±0.19 v/m  and 2.23±0.39 v/m , respectively, while the range of the electric field was obtained as 1.56-2.21 v/m and 1.69-2.89 v/m for them, respectively. The mean of specific absorption rate in Samsung and Nokia was obtained 0.002 ± 0.0005 W/Kg and 0.0041±0.0013 W/Kg at the frequency of 900 MHz and 0.004±0.001 W/Kg and 0.0062±0.0002 W/Kg at the frequency of 1800 MHz respectively. The ratio of mean electronic field to guidance in the Samsung mobile phone at the frequency of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz was 4.36% and 3.34%, while was 5.62% and 4.31% in the Nokia mobile phone, respectively. The ratio of mean head specific absorption rate in smart mobile phones of Samsung and Nokia in the guidance level at the frequency of 900 was 0.15% and 0.25%, respectively, while was 0.23 %and 0.38% at the frequency of 1800 MHz, respectively. The rate of specific absorption of Nokia smart  mobile phones at the frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz  was significantly higher than Samsung (p value <0.05). Hence, we can say that in a fixed period, health risks of Nokia smart phones is higher than Samsung smart mobile phone. PMID:27157169

  7. The effect of N2/+/ recombination on the aeronomic determination of the charge exchange rate coefficient of O/+//2D/ with N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Orsini, N.

    1978-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer (AE) data are reexamined in the light of new laboratory measurements of the N2(+) recombination rate coefficient alpha. The new measurements support earlier measurements which yielded values of alpha significantly lower than the AE values. It is found that the values for alpha determined from the satellite data can be reconciled with the laboratory measurements, if the charge exchange rate coefficient for O(+)(2D) with N2 is less than one-quarter of that derived in the laboratory by Rutherford and Vroom (1971).

  8. Skin dose rate conversion factors after contamination with radiopharmaceuticals: influence of contamination area, epidermal thickness and percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Covens, P; Berus, D; Caveliers, V; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Verellen, D

    2013-06-01

    Skin contamination with radiopharmaceuticals can occur during biomedical research and daily nuclear medicine practice as a result of accidental spills, after contact with bodily fluids of patients or by inattentively touching contaminated materials. Skin dose assessment should be carried out by repeated quantification to map the course of the contamination together with the use of appropriate skin dose rate conversion factors. Contamination is generally characterised by local spots on the palmar surface of the hand and complete decontamination is difficult as a result of percutaneous absorption. This specific issue requires special consideration as to the skin dose rate conversion factors as a measure for the absorbed dose rate to the basal layer of the epidermis. In this work we used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the contamination area, the epidermal thickness and the percutaneous absorption on the absorbed skin dose rate conversion factors for a set of 39 medical radionuclides. The results show that the absorbed dose to the basal layer of the epidermis can differ by up to two orders of magnitude from the operational quantity Hp(0.07) when using an appropriate epidermal thickness in combination with the effect of percutaneous absorption. PMID:23519114

  9. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with (1-/sup 14/C)glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused (3-/sup 3/H)glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation. That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery.

  10. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P. E-mail: peter@astro.su.se

    2014-06-01

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  11. Measuring the Absorption Rate of CO2 in Nonaqueous CO2-Binding Organic Liquid Solvents with a Wetted-Wall Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Paul M; Zheng, Feng; Heldebrant, David J; Zwoster, Andy; Whyatt, Greg; Freeman, Charles M; Bearden, Mark D; Koech, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    The kinetics of the absorption of CO2 into two nonaqueous CO2-binding organic liquid (CO2 BOL) solvents were measured at T=35, 45, and 55 °C with a wetted-wall column. Selected CO2 loadings were run with a so-called "first-generation" CO2 BOL, comprising an independent base and alcohol, and a "second-generation" CO2 BOL, in which the base and alcohol were conjoined. Liquid-film mass-transfer coefficient (k'g ) values for both solvents were measured to be comparable to values for monoethanolamine and piperazine aqueous solvents under a comparable driving force, in spite of far higher solution viscosities. An inverse temperature dependence of the k'g value was also observed, which suggests that the physical solubility of CO2 in organic liquids may be making CO2 mass transfer faster than expected. Aspen Plus software was used to model the kinetic data and compare the CO2 absorption behavior of nonaqueous solvents with that of aqueous solvent platforms. This work continues our development of the CO2 BOL solvents. Previous work established the thermodynamic properties related to CO2 capture. The present paper quantitatively studies the kinetics of CO2 capture and develops a rate-based model. PMID:26377774

  12. AUGMENTATION OF SULFATE ION ABSORPTION FROM THE RATE LUNG BY HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of heavy metal cations in enhancing the absorption of sulfate ions from the airways of the rat lung was studied. The cations investigated included Cd(2+), Co(2+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+). The cations exhibited differing efficacies. Co(2+), Hg(2+), Cd...

  13. Calculations of Solar Shortwave Heating Rates due to Black Carbon and Ozone Absorption Using in Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Swartz, W. H.; Spackman, J. R.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Aikin, K. C.; Shetter, R. E.; Bui, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    Results for the solar heating rates in ambient air due to absorption by black-carbon (BC) containing particles and ozone are presented as calculated from airborne observations made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in January-February 2006. The method uses airborne in situ observations of BC particles, ozone and actinic flux. Total BC mass is obtained along the flight track by summing the masses of individually detected BC particles in the range 90 to 600-nm volume-equivalent diameter, which includes most of the BC mass. Ozone mixing ratios and upwelling and partial downwelling solar actinic fluxes were measured concurrently with BC mass. Two estimates used for the BC wavelength-dependent absorption cross section yielded similar heating rates. For mean altitudes of 16.5, 17.5, and 18.5 km (0.5 km) in the tropics, average BC heating rates were near 0.0002 K/d. Observed BC coatings on individual particles approximately double derived BC heating rates. Ozone heating rates exceeded BC heating rates by approximately a factor of 100 on average and at least a factor of 4, suggesting that BC heating rates in this region are negligible in comparison.

  14. OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Infrared Spectrum, and Global Warming Potential of (CF3)2CFCH═CHF (HFO-1438ezy(E)).

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Burkholder, James B

    2016-08-25

    Rate coefficients, k(T), for the OH radical + (E)-(CF3)2CFCH═CHF ((E)-1,3,4,4,4-pentafluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1-butene, HFO-1438ezy(E)) gas-phase reaction were measured using pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-LIF) between 214 and 380 K and 50 and 450 Torr (He or N2 bath gas) and with a relative rate method at 296 K between 100 and 400 Torr (synthetic air). Over the range of pressures included in this study, no pressure dependence in k(T) was observed. k(296 K) obtained using the two techniques agreed to within ∼3% with (3.26 ± 0.26) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (2σ absolute uncertainty) obtained using the PLP-LIF technique. k(T) displayed non-Arrhenius behavior that is reproduced by (7.34 ± 0.30) × 10(-19)T(2) exp[(481 ± 10)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). With respect to OH reactive loss, the atmospheric lifetime of HFO-1438ezy(E) is estimated to be ∼36 days and HFO-1438ezy(E) is considered a very short-lived substance (VSLS) (the actual lifetime will depend on the time and location of the HFO-1438ezy(E) emission). On the basis of the HFO-1438ezy(E) infrared absorption spectrum measured in this work and its estimated lifetime, a radiative efficiency of 0.306 W m(-2) ppb(-1) (well-mixed gas) was calculated and its 100-year time-horizon global warming potential, GWP100, was estimated to be 8.6. CF3CFO, HC(O)F, and CF2O were identified using infrared spectroscopy as stable end products in the oxidation of HFO-1438ezy(E) in the presence of O2. Two additional fluorinated products were observed and theoretical calculations of the infrared spectra of likely degradation products are presented. The photochemical ozone creation potential of HFO-1438ezy(E) was estimated to be ∼2.15. PMID:27482844

  15. Evaluation of different partial AUCs as indirect measures of rate of drug absorption in comparative pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, C; Lacey, L F; Keene, O N; Bye, A

    1998-10-01

    The performance of different partial AUCs, including partial AUC from zero to t(max) of the reference formulation (AUC(r)) and partial AUC from zero to tmax of test or reference formulation, whichever occurs earliest (AUC(e), as indirect measures of rate of absorption have been evaluated using simulated experiments. The performance of these metrics relative to C(max), t(max) and C(max)/AUC(infinity) was further assessed using the results of actual studies involving a Glaxo drug. The normalised metrics AUC(r)/AUC(infinity) and AUC(e)/AUC(infinity) have also been evaluated. Our provisional conclusions were: (1) AUC(r)/AUC(infinity) and AUC(e)/AUC(infinity) had greater statistical power than C(max) and the non-normalised partial AUCs at detecting true differences in rate of absorption. Using real data, the performance of AUC(e)/AUC(infinity) was poor, however, the performance of AUC(r)/AUC(infinity) was good; (2) C(max)/AUC(infinity) was more precisely estimated than AUC(r)/AUC(infinity) or AUC(e)/AUC(infinity) and may be a superior metric for assessing absorption rates of highly variable drugs. PMID:9795077

  16. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  17. The dependence of rate coefficients and product yields upon fluence, intensity, and time in unimolecular reactions induced by monochromatic infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, M.; Humbert, P.; van den Bergh, H.

    1980-07-01

    The influence of the three parameters (with two degrees of freedom) fluence, intensity, and time on rate coefficients and product yields in collisionless Unimolecular Reactions Induced by Monochromatic Infrared Radiation (URIMIR) is discussed in some detail in terms of the recently proposed logarithmic reactant fluence plots. Model calculations for several archetypes of such plots are presented, based on solutions of the Pauli master equation and solutions of the quantum mechanical equations of motion for spectra involving many states at each level of excitation. Linear diagrams, turnups, and turnovers are found and are discussed systematically. Experimental examples re-evaluated from the literature and new measurements on the laser induced decomposition of CF2HCl are reported which nicely illustrate the various theoretical possibilities. Steady state rate coefficients for six molecules are evaluated and summarized. In some situations the intrinsic nonlinear intensity dependence of the steady state rate coefficients and deviations from simple fluence dependence of the product yields both before and at steady state are shown to be important theoretically and experimentally. The role of the reducibility of the rate coefficient matrix is discussed in connection with turnovers and with the strong influence of initial temperature that is found in the laser induced decomposition of CF2HCl.

  18. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  19. Determination of state-to-state electron-impact rate coefficients between Ar excited states: a review of combined diagnostic experiments in afterglow plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Carbone, Emile; Pu, Yi-Kang; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Electron-impact excitation processes play an important role in low-temperature plasma physics. Cross section and rate coefficient data for electron-impact processes from the ground state to excited states or between two excited states are required for both diagnostics and modeling works. However, the collisional processes between excited states are much less investigated than the ones involving the ground state due to various experimental challenges. Recently, a method for determining electron excitation rate coefficients between Ar excited states in afterglow plasmas was successfully implemented and further developed to obtain large sets of collisional data. This method combines diagnostics for electron temperature, electron density, and excited species densities and kinetic modeling of excited species, from which the electron excitation rate coefficients from one of the 1s states to the other 1s states or to one of 2p or 3p states are determined (states are in Paschen’s notation). This paper reviews the above method—namely the combined diagnostics and modeling in afterglow plasmas. The results from other important approaches, including electron-beam measurement of cross sections, laser pump-probe technique for measuring rate coefficients, and theoretical calculations by R-matrix and distorted-wave models are also discussed. From a comparative study of these results, a fitted mathematical expression of excitation rate coefficients is obtained for the electron temperature range of 1–5 eV, which can be used for the collisional-radiative modeling of low-temperature Ar plasmas. At last, we report the limitations in the present dataset and give some suggestions for future work in this area.

  20. Low temperature rate coefficients of the H + CH(+) → C(+) + H2 reaction: New potential energy surface and time-independent quantum scattering.

    PubMed

    Werfelli, Ghofran; Halvick, Philippe; Honvault, Pascal; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Stoecklin, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    The observed abundances of the methylidyne cation, CH(+), in diffuse molecular clouds can be two orders of magnitude higher than the prediction of the standard gas-phase models which, in turn, predict rather well the abundances of neutral CH. It is therefore necessary to investigate all the possible formation and destruction processes of CH(+) in the interstellar medium with the most abundant species H, H2, and e(-). In this work, we address the destruction process of CH(+) by hydrogen abstraction. We report a new calculation of the low temperature rate coefficients for the abstraction reaction, using accurate time-independent quantum scattering and a new high-level ab initio global potential energy surface including a realistic model of the long-range interaction between the reactants H and CH(+). The calculated thermal rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental data in the range 50 K-800 K. However, at lower temperatures, the experimental rate coefficient takes exceedingly small values which are not reproduced by the calculated rate coefficient. Instead, the latter rate coefficient is close to the one given by the Langevin capture model, as expected for a reaction involving an ion and a neutral species. Several recent theoretical works have reported a seemingly good agreement with the experiment below 50 K, but an analysis of these works show that they are based on potential energy surfaces with incorrect long-range behavior. The experimental results were explained by a loss of reactivity of the lowest rotational states of the reactant; however, the quantum scattering calculations show the opposite, namely, a reactivity enhancement with rotational excitation. PMID:26395702

  1. A linear relationship between the Hall carrier concentration and the effective absorption coefficient measured by means of photothermal radiometry in IR semi-transparent n-type CdMgSe mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, M.; Maliński, M.; Firszt, F.; Pelzl, J.; Ludwig, A.; Marasek, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we demonstrate the ability to measure the effective infrared absorption coefficient in semiconductors by a photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR) experiment, and its correlation with the Hall carrier concentration. The amplitude and phase of the PTR signal were measured for Cd1-xMgxSe mixed crystals, with the magnesium content varying from x = 0 to x = 0.15. The PTR experiments were performed at room temperature in thermal reflection and transmission configurations using a mercury cadmium telluride infrared detector. The PTR data were analyzed in the frame of the one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semi-transparent crystals. Based on the variation of the normalized PTR phase and amplitude on the modulation frequency, the thermal diffusivity and the effective infrared absorption coefficient were obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to experimental data and compared with the Hall carrier concentration determined by supplementary Hall experiments. A linear relationship between the effective infrared absorption coefficient and the Hall carrier concentration was found which is explained in the frame of the Drude theory. The uncertainty of the measured slope was 6%. The value of the slope depends on (1) the sample IR absorption spectrum and (2) the spectral range of the infrared detector. It has to be pointed out that this method is suitable for use in an industrial environment for a fast and contactless carrier concentration measurement. This method can be used for the characterization of other semiconductors after a calibration procedure is carried out. In addition, the PTR technique yields information on the thermal properties in the same experiment.

  2. A simplified method for calculating the atmospheric heating rate by absorption of solar radiation in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, T.; Helmle, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the atmospheric heating rate by absorption of solar radiation by O3, H2O, and CO2 are reported. The method needs only seven parameters for each molecule and is particularly useful for heating calculations in three-dimensional global circulation models below 80 km. Applying the formula to the observed distributions of O3, H2O, and CO2 produces reasonable latitudinal and seasonal variations in the heating rate. The calculated heating rate, however, is sensitive to the global distributions of the absorbing gases, and uncertainties in the O3 distribution above approximately 50 km and the H2O distribution below approximately 20 km may seriously affect the global distributions of the heating rate in these regions.

  3. Cross sections and rate coefficients for excitation of Δn = 1 transitions in Li-like ions with 6 < Z < 42.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Kato, T.

    Excitation cross sections and rate coefficients by electron impact were calculated for the 1s22s - 1s2s2p, 1s22s - 1s2s2 and 1s22s - 1s2p2 transitions of the Li-like ions (C IV, N V, O VI, Ne VIII, Mg X, Al XI, Si XII, S XIV, Ar XVI, Ca XVIII, Ti XX, Fe XXIV, Ni XXVI, Zn XXVIII, Ge XXX, Se XXXII, Kr XXXIIV and Mo XXXX) by a Coulomb-Born approximation with exchange and including relativistic effects and configuration interactions. Level energies, mixing coefficients and transition wavelengths and probabilities were also computed.

  4. Modifying the high rate algal pond light environment and its effects on light absorption and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-03-01

    The combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) for wastewater treatment and commercial algal production is considered to be an economically viable option. However, microalgal photosynthesis and biomass productivity is constrained in HRAPs due to light limitation. This paper investigates how the light climate in the HRAP can be modified through changes in pond depth, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and light/dark turnover rate and how this impacts light absorption and utilisation by the microalgae. Wastewater treatment HRAPs were operated at three different pond depth and HRT during autumn. Light absorption by the microalgae was most affected by HRT, significantly decreasing with increasing HRT, due to increased internal self-shading. Photosynthetic performance (as defined by Pmax, Ek and α), significantly increased with increasing pond depth and decreasing HRT. Despite this, increasing pond depth and/or HRT, resulted in decreased pond light climate and overall integrated water column net oxygen production. However, increased light/dark turnover was able to compensate for this decrease, bringing the net oxygen production in line with shallower ponds operated at shorter HRT. On overcast days, modelled daily net photosynthesis significantly increased with increased light/dark turnover, however, on clear days such increased turnover did not enhance photosynthesis. This study has showed that light absorption and photosynthetic performance of wastewater microalgae can be modified through changes to pond depth, HRT and light/dark turnover. PMID:25514661

  5. Operation of a low temperature absorption chiller at rating point and at reduced evaporator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, R.; Biermann, W.; Reimann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The returned fifteen ton Solar Absorption Machine (SAM) 015 chiller was given a cursory visual inspection, some obvious problems were remedied, and then it was placed on a test stand to get a measure of dirty performance. It was then given a standard acid clean, the water side of the tubes was brushed clean, and then the machine was retested. The before and after cleaning data were compared to equivalent data taken before the machine was shipped. The second part of the work statement was to experimentally demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating the chiller at evaporator temperatures below 0(0)C (32(0)F) and identify any operational problems.

  6. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  7. Determination of the photolysis rate coefficient of monochlorodimethyl sulfide (MClDMS) in the atmosphere and its implications for the enhancement of SO2 production from the DMS + Cl2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Copeland, G; Lee, E P F; Williams, R G; Archibald, A T; Shallcross, D E; Dyke, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the photolysis rate coefficient of CH3SCH2Cl (MClDMS) in the lower atmosphere has been determined and has been used in a marine boundary layer (MBL) box model to determine the enhancement of SO2 production arising from the reaction DMS + Cl2. Absorption cross sections measured in the 28000-34000 cm(-1) region have been used to determine photolysis rate coefficients of MClDMS in the troposphere at 10 solar zenith angles (SZAs). These have been used to determine the lifetimes of MClDMS in the troposphere. At 0° SZA, a photolysis lifetime of 3-4 h has been obtained. The results show that the photolysis lifetime of MClDMS is significantly smaller than the lifetimes with respect to reaction with OH (≈ 4.6 days) and with Cl atoms (≈ 1.2 days). It has also been shown, using experimentally derived dissociation energies with supporting quantum-chemical calculations, that the dominant photodissocation route of MClDMS is dissociation of the C-S bond to give CH3S and CH2Cl. MBL box modeling calculations show that buildup of MClDMS at night from the Cl2 + DMS reaction leads to enhanced SO2 production during the day. The extra SO2 arises from photolysis of MClDMS to give CH3S and CH2Cl, followed by subsequent oxidation of CH3S. PMID:24280000

  8. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  9. Variable food absorption by Antarctic krill: Relationships between diet, egestion rate and the composition and sinking rates of their fecal pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Schmidt, K.; Fielding, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Geissler, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of food processing by zooplankton affects both their energy budgets and the biogeochemical fate of their fecal pellets. We sampled 40 schools of krill across the Scotia Sea during spring, summer and autumn and found that in all 3 seasons, every aspect of their absorption and defecation varied greatly. The C content of fecal pellets varied from 0.85% to 29% of their dry mass (median 9.8%) and C egestion rates varied 75-fold. C:N mass ratios of pellets ranged from 4.9 to 13.2 (median 7.8), higher than values of 3.9 in the krill and 5.4 in their food, pointing to enhanced uptake of N. Pellet sinking rates equated to 27-1218 m d -1 (median 304 m d -1), being governed mainly by pellet diameter (80-600 μm, mean 183 μm) and density (1.038-1.391 g cm -3, mean 1.121 g cm -3). Pellets showed little loss of C or N in filtered seawater over the first 2 days and were physically robust. When feeding rates were low, slow gut passage time and high absorption efficiency resulted in low egestion rates of pellets that were low in C and N content. These pellets were compact, dense and fast-sinking. Conversely, in good feeding conditions much food tended to pass quickly through the gut and was not efficiently absorbed, producing C and N-rich, slow-sinking pellets. Such "superfluous feeding" probably maximises the absolute rates of nutrient absorption. Food composition was also important: diatom-rich diets depressed the C content of the pellets but increased their sinking rates, likely due to silica ballasting. So depending on how krill process food, their pellets could represent both vehicles for rapid export and slow sinking, C and N-rich food sources for pelagic scavengers. C egestion rates by krill averaged 3.4% of summer primary production (and ingestion rates would be 2-10-fold higher than this) so whatever the fate of the pellets, krill are an important re-packager within the food web. While salp pellets tend to sink faster than those of krill, it is the latter

  10. New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gilard, Olivier; Quadri, Gianandrea; Caussanel, Matthieu; Duval, Herve; Reynaud, Francois

    2010-11-15

    A new theoretical approach is proposed to explain the dose, dose rate and temperature sensitivity of the radiation-induced absorption (RIA) in glasses. In this paper, a {beta}{sup th}-order dispersive kinetic model is used to simulate the growth of the density of color centers in irradiated glasses. This model yields an explanation for the power-law dependence on dose and dose rate usually observed for the RIA in optical fibers. It also leads to an Arrhenius-like relationship between the RIA and the glass temperature during irradiation. With a very limited number of adjustable parameters, the model succeeds in explaining, with a good agreement, the RIA growth of two different optical fiber references over wide ranges of dose, dose rate and temperature.

  11. Communication: Rigorous quantum dynamics of O + O{sub 2} exchange reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface substantiate the negative temperature dependence of rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yaqin; Sun, Zhigang E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Xie, Daiqian; Dawes, Richard E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu

    2014-08-28

    The kinetics and dynamics of several O + O{sub 2} isotope exchange reactions have been investigated on a recently determined accurate global O{sub 3} potential energy surface using a time-dependent wave packet method. The agreement between calculated and measured rate coefficients is significantly improved over previous work. More importantly, the experimentally observed negative temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is for the first time rigorously reproduced theoretically. This negative temperature dependence can be attributed to the absence in the new potential energy surface of a submerged “reef” structure, which was present in all previous potential energy surfaces. In addition, contributions of rotational excited states of the diatomic reactant further accentuate the negative temperature dependence.

  12. Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegers, Frits E.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…

  13. Rotationally inelastic dynamics of LiH (X(1)Σ(+), v = 0) in collisions with Ar: State-to-state inelastic rotational rate coefficients.

    PubMed

    Niane, Aliou; Dath, Cheikh Amadou Bamba; Faye, Ndèye Arame Boye; Hammami, Kamel; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study of rotational collision of LiH(X(1)Σ(+),v = 0, J) with Ar has been carried out. The ab initio potential energy surface (PES) describing the interaction between the Ar atom and the rotating LiH molecule has been calculated very accurately and already discussed in our previous work [Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 993 (2012) 20-25]. This PES is employed to evaluate the de-excitation cross sections. The ab initio PES for the LiH(X(1)Σ(+))-Ar((1)S) Van der waals system is calculated at the coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] approximation for a LiH length fixed to an experimental value of 3.0139 bohrs. The basis set superposition error (BSSE) is corrected and the bond functions are placed at mid-distance between the center of mass of LiH and the Ar atom. The cross sections are then derived in the close coupling (CC) approach and rate coefficients are inferred by averaging these cross sections over a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies. The 11 first rotational levels of rate coefficients are evaluated for temperatures ranging from 10 to 300 K. We notice that the de-excitation rate coefficients appear large in the order 10(-10) cm(-3) s(-1) and show very low temperature dependence. The rate coefficients magnify significantly the propensity toward ∆ J = -1 transitions. These results confirm the same propensity already noted for the cross sections. PMID:24808997

  14. Cyanides/isocyanides abundances in the interstellar medium - IV. Temperature dependence of SiCN/SiNC rate coefficients and astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Vera, M.; Lique, F.; Kłos, J.; Dumouchel, F.; Rubayo Soneira, J.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate determination of collisional rate coefficients is an essential step in the estimation of the SiCN and SiNC abundances in the interstellar and circumstellar media. In this paper, we carry out calculations of rate coefficients for the rotational (de-)excitation of SiCN and SiNC molecules in collision with He. The calculations are based on new two-dimensional potential energy surfaces obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations. Coupled-States quantum approximation was used in the scattering calculations to obtain collisional (de-)excitation cross-sections of SiCN and SiNC by He. The spin-orbit coupling and Λ-doublet splitting of SiCN and SiNC levels were taken into account explicitly. Rate coefficients for transitions among the first 92 rotational levels of SiCN and SiNC were calculated for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. Moderate differences exist between the rate coefficients of both isomers. Subsequently, the new collisional data are used to simulate the excitation of SiCN and SiNC in the circumstellar gas. We obtain the brightness and excitation temperatures of selected lines frequently observed towards the circumstellar envelopes and we find that local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are not fulfilled for these species. Radiative transfer calculations are then needed in order to accurately determine their abundances. Our results also show that previous estimations of the cyanides/isocyanides abundance ratios were incorrect and the present calculations show that SiCN, the most stable isomer, is more abundant than SiNC. This shows again the evidence of selective cyanide chemistry.

  15. High Repetition Rate and Frequency Stabilized Ho:YLF Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, M.; Petzar, Pau; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    High repetition rate operation of an injection seeded Ho:YLF laser has been demonstrated. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy reaches 5.8mJ and the optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W.

  16. Absorbed Dose Rates in Tissue from Prompt Gamma Emissions from Near-thermal Neutron Absorption.

    PubMed

    Schwahn, Scott O

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency's Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment. PMID:26313590

  17. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  18. Modeling X-Ray Photoionized Plasmas: Ion Storage Ring Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination Rate Coefficients for L-Shell Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, D. W.; Badnell, N. R.; Bartsch, T.; Brandau, C.; Chen, M. H.; Grieser, M.; Gwinner, G.; Hoffknecht, A.; Kahn, S. M.; Linkemann, J.

    2000-01-01

    Iron L-shell ions (Fe XVII to Fe XXIV) play an important role in determining the line emission and thermal and ionization structures of photoionized gases. Existing uncertainties in the theoretical low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for these ions significantly affects our ability to model and interpret observations of photoionized plasmas. To help address this issue, we have initiated a laboratory program to produce reliable low temperature DR rates. Here, we present some of our recent results and discuss some of their astrophysical implications.

  19. Enhancement of specific absorption rate by exchange coupling of the core-shell structure of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadatare, M. R.; Meshram, J. V.; Gurav, K. V.; Hyeok Kim, Jin; Pawar, S. H.

    2016-03-01

    Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe2O4) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.

  20. Rate and composition control by atomic absorption spectroscopy for the coevaporation of high T sub c superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C. ); Missert, N.; Mooij, J.E.; Rosenthal, P.; Matijasevic, V.; Beasley, M.R.; Hammond, R.H. )

    1989-02-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy has been used to control the deposition rates during coevaporation processes with multiple electron-beam sources. This technique is material specific and thus allows the deposition rate of each component to be controlled independently. Because only a light beam is needed to interact with the vapor stream, the sampling region can be selected to be very close to the substrate for precise control of the film composition. With its high sensitivity and no limitations on operation pressure, this technique offers some unique advantages for the preparation of high Tc superconducting films by coevaporation in a high oxygen partial pressure environment. The performance of a multi-source deposition controller and the resultant film properties are presented.

  1. Measurements of the Coefficient of Restitution of Quartz Sand on Basalt: Implications for Abrasion Rates on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, M.; Bridges, N. T.; Benzit, M.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the rates at which rocks abrade from the impact of saltating sand provides important input into estimating the age and degree of modification of arid surfaces on Earth and Mars. Previous work has relied on measuring mass loss rates in the field and the laboratory. The susceptibility of rocks and other natural materials has been quantified on a relative scale from laboratory studies.

  2. Heating rates in furnace atomic absorption using the L'vov platform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koirtyohann, S.R.; Giddings, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rate profiles for the furnace tube wall, the furnace atmosphere, and a L'vov platform were established for a range of conditions in a cyclically heated graphite atomizer. The tube wall profile was made by direct observation with a recording optical pyrometer. The sodium line reversal method was used to establish the heating rate of the furnace atmosphere, and appearance temperatures for a series metals of differing volatility was used to establish platform profiles. The tube wall heating rate was nearly linear at 2240??C s- until the desired temperature was reached after which the temperature remained constant. The furnace atmosphere reached a given temperature 0.2-0.4 s later than the tube wall through most of the atomize cycle. The platform lagged the tube wall 0.5-0.8 s. Under typical operating conditions the furnace atmosphere was 100-200??C cooler than the tube wall and at nearly constant temperature when the analyte vaporized from the platform. The L'vov platform causes the cyclically heated commercial furnace to approximate the behavior of a constant temperature furnace during atomization. ?? 1984.

  3. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film. PMID:22434120

  4. Aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetite nanoparticles: Colloidal stability, specific absorption rate, and transverse relaxivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saville, Steven Lee

    The design, functionalization, characterization, and applications of magnetic nanoparticles have garnered significant interest over the past several decades. While this area has garnered increasing attention, several questions remain unanswered about the stability of these systems and it's influence on their biomedical applications. To help answer these questions about the stability of these, a novel tri(nitroDOPA) terminated polymer based ligand has been developed for the stabilization of magnetite nanoparticles. The synthesis involves a process in which ethylene oxide is polymerized using a trivinyl initiator, modified with carboxylic acid using a free radical addition of mercaptoundecanoic acid, and then functionalized with nitroDOPA using N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. This polymer has displayed robust adhesion even in harsh chemical environments, out performing many polymers used today for the stabilization of magnetite. Along these same lines, the effects of instability of these systems were analyzed in both MRI and magnetic hyperthermia applications. It is widely known that formation of linear aggregates (i.e. chains) occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. In this work the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate and heating rate in magnetic hyperthermia of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles are examined. The results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal

  5. Transfer coefficients for L-valine and the rate of incorporation of L-(1-/sup 14/C) valine into proteins in normal adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kirikae, M.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    An autoradiographic method for the measurement of the rate of valine incorporation into brain proteins is described. The transfer coefficients for valine into and out of the brain and the rate of valine incorporation into normal rat brain proteins are given. The valine incorporation and the transfer constants of valine between different biological compartments are provided for 14 gray matter and 2 white matter structures of an adult rat brain. The rate of valine incorporation varies between 0.52 +/- 0.19 nmol/g/min in white matter and 1.94 +/- 0.47 in inferior colliculus (gray matter). Generally, the rate of valine incorporation is about three to four times higher in the gray matter than in the white matter structures.

  6. Communication: Rate coefficients of the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction from ring polymer molecular dynamics on a highly accurate potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2015-09-01

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations are performed to calculate rate constants for the title reaction on the recently constructed potential energy surface based on permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) neural-network (NN) fitting [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)]. By inspecting convergence, 16 beads are used in computing free-energy barriers at 300 K ≤ T ≤ 1000 K, while different numbers of beads are used for transmission coefficients. The present RPMD rates are in excellent agreement with quantum rates computed on the same potential energy surface, as well as with the experimental measurements, demonstrating further that the RPMD is capable of producing accurate rates for polyatomic chemical reactions even at rather low temperatures.

  7. Re-evaluation of the reaction rate coefficient of CH3Br + OH with implications for the atmospheric budget of methyl bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E. J. K.; Joelsson, L. M. T.; Heimdal, J.; Johnson, M. S.; Nielsen, O. J.

    2013-12-01

    The reaction rate coefficient k(CH3Br + OH) has been determined in the temperature range 298-373 K, using pulse radiolysis/UV kinetic spectroscopy, and at 298 K using a relative rate method. The Arrhenius expression obtained from a fit to the experimental results is (2.9 ± 0.9) × 10-12 exp(-(1230 ± 125)/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which is greater than the expression currently recommended. The relative rate experiments give k(298 K) = (4.13 ± 0.63) × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The results of the absolute and relative rate experiments indicate that the source budget of atmospheric CH3Br should be reinvestigated, as was recently done for CH3Cl.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N double quantum wells operating at 1.55 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhlaoui, Hassen

    2015-04-07

    In the present paper, the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes between the ground and the first excited states in double GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1−x)}N quantum wells are studied theoretically. The electronic energy levels and their corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger-Poisson equations self-consistently within the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes can be red- and blue-shifted through varying the left quantum well width and the aluminum concentration x{sub b2} of the central barrier, respectively. These structural parameters are found to present optimum values for carrying out the transition of 0.8 eV (1.55 μm). Furthermore, we show that the desired transition can also be achieved by replacing the GaN in the left quantum well with Al{sub y}Ga{sub (1−y)}N and by varying the aluminum concentration y{sub Al}. The obtained results give a new degree of freedom in optoelectronic device applications such as optical fiber telecommunications operating at (1.55 μm)

  9. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25 μm absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-07-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400-1840 cm-1 and 3440-3970 cm-1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with those in HITRAN-2012. Maximum systematic differences do not exceed 4% for intensities (1600 cm-1 band) and 7% for self-broadening coefficients (3600 cm-1 band). For many lines however significant disagreements were detected with the HITRAN-2012 data, exceeding the average uncertainty of the retrieval. In addition, water vapour line parameters for 5300 cm-1 (1.9 μm) band reported by us in 2005 were also compared with HITRAN-2012, and show average differences of 4-5% for both intensities and half-widths.

  10. A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF MASS TRANSFER RATE COEFFICIENTS WITH APPLICATION TO PURGING AND BATCH EXPERIMENTS. (R825825)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding o...

  11. Dual-energy X-ray analysis using synchrotron computed tomography at 35 and 60 keV for the estimation of photon interaction coefficients describing attenuation and energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Stewart; Schleich, Nanette

    2015-05-01

    A novel method for dual-energy X-ray analysis (DEXA) is tested using measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient μ. The key is a mathematical model that describes elemental cross sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The model is combined with the mixture rule to describe μ for materials, using the same polynomial coefficients. Materials are characterized by their electron density Ne and statistical moments Rk describing their distribution of elements, analogous to the concept of effective atomic number. In an experiment with materials of known density and composition, measurements of μ are written as a system of linear simultaneous equations, which is solved for the polynomial coefficients. DEXA itself involves computed tomography (CT) scans at two energies to provide a system of non-linear simultaneous equations that are solved for Ne and the fourth statistical moment R4. Results are presented for phantoms containing dilute salt solutions and for a biological specimen. The experiment identifies 1% systematic errors in the CT measurements, arising from third-harmonic radiation, and 20-30% noise, which is reduced to 3-5% by pre-processing with the median filter and careful choice of reconstruction parameters. DEXA accuracy is quantified for the phantom as the mean absolute differences for Ne and R4: 0.8% and 1.0% for soft tissue and 1.2% and 0.8% for bone-like samples, respectively. The DEXA results for the biological specimen are combined with model coefficients obtained from the tabulations to predict μ and the mass energy absorption coefficient at energies of 10 keV to 20 MeV. PMID:25931101

  12. The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Valente, Angelica; Carrillo, Andres E; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kenny, Glen P; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the absorption and metabolism pharmacokinetics of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration and the effects on human thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Twenty healthy adults were randomly distributed into oral (capsule) and skin (gel) groups and treated with 10 mg kg(-1) L-menthol (ORALMENT; SKINMENT) or control (lactose capsule: ORALCON; water application: SKINCON) in a random order on two different days. Levels of serum L-menthol increased similarly in ORALMENT and SKINMENT (p > 0.05). L-menthol glucuronidation was greater in ORALMENT than SKINMENT (p < 0.05). Cutaneous vasoconstriction, rectal temperature and body heat storage showed greater increase following SKINMENT compared to ORALMENT and control conditions (p < 0.05). Metabolic rate increased from baseline by 18% in SKINMENT and 10% in ORALMENT and respiratory exchange ratio decreased more in ORALMENT (5.4%) than SKINMENT (4.8%) compared to control conditions (p < 0.05). Levels of plasma adiponectin and leptin as well as heart rate variability were similar to control following either treatment (p > 0.05). Participants reported no cold, shivering, discomfort, stress or skin irritation. We conclude that a single L-menthol skin administration increased thermogenesis and metabolic rate in humans. These effects are minor following L-menthol oral administration probably due to faster glucuronidation and greater blood menthol glucuronide levels. PMID:26429629

  13. Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.

  14. EXTENSION OF THE INVERSE ADDING-DOUBLING METHOD TO THE MEASUREMENT OF WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING COEFFICIENTS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.

  15. Rate Coefficient for the (4)Heμ + CH4 Reaction at 500 K: Comparison between Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Donald J; Fleming, Donald G; Li, Yongle; Li, Jun; Suleimanov, Yury V; Guo, Hua

    2016-03-01

    The rate constant for the H atom abstraction reaction from methane by the muonic helium atom, Heμ + CH4 → HeμH + CH3, is reported at 500 K and compared with theory, providing an important test of both the potential energy surface (PES) and reaction rate theory for the prototypical polyatomic CH5 reaction system. The theory used to characterize this reaction includes both variational transition-state (CVT/μOMT) theory (VTST) and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) calculations on a recently developed PES, which are compared as well with earlier calculations on different PESs for the H, D, and Mu + CH4 reactions, the latter, in particular, providing for a variation in atomic mass by a factor of 36. Though rigorous quantum calculations have been carried out for the H + CH4 reaction, these have not yet been extended to the isotopologues of this reaction (in contrast to H3), so it is important to provide tests of less rigorous theories in comparison with kinetic isotope effects measured by experiment. In this regard, the agreement between the VTST and RPMD calculations and experiment for the rate constant of the Heμ + CH4 reaction at 500 K is excellent, within 10% in both cases, which overlaps with experimental error. PMID:26484648

  16. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  17. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 % body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0 % BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0 % BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % and 6.0 % BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57 % BW/day. PMID:26597852

  18. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  19. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  20. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  1. Correlation Between Heterogeneous Bacterial Attachment Rate Coefficients and Hydraulic Conductivity and Impacts on Field-Scale Bacterial Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2002-10-28

    In granular porous media, bacterial transport is often modeled using the advection-dispersion transport equation, modified to account for interactions between the bacteria and grain surfaces (attachment and detachment) using a linear kinetic reaction model. In this paper we examine the relationships among the parameters of the above model in the context of bacterial transport for bioaugmentation. In this context, we wish to quantify the distance to which significant concentrations of bacteria can be transported, as well as the uniformity with which they can be distributed within the subsurface. Because kinetic detachment rates (Kr) are typically much smaller than corresponding attachment rates (Kf), the attachment rate exerts primary control on the distance of bacterial transport. Hydraulic conductivity (K) also plays a significant role because of its direct relationship to the advective velocity and its typically high degree of spatial variability at field scales. Because Kf is related to the velocity, grain size, and porosity of the medium, as is K, we expect that there exists correlation between these two parameters. Previous investigators have assumed a form of correlation between Kf and ln(K) based in part on reparameterization of clean-bed filtration equations in terms of published relations between grain size, effective porosity, and ln(K). The hypotheses examined here are that (1) field-scale relationships between K and Kf can be developed by combining a number of theoretical and empirical results in the context of a heterogeneous aquifer flow model (following a similar approach to previous investigators with some extensions), and (2) correlation between K and Kf will enhance the distance of field-scale bacterial transport in granular aquifers. We test these hypotheses using detailed numerical models and observations of field-scale bacterial transport in a shallow sandy aquifer within the South Oyster Site near Oyster, Virginia, USA.

  2. Structures for attaching or sealing a space between components having different coefficients or rates of thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Pecchioli, Mario

    2005-06-28

    A structure for attaching together or sealing a space between a first component and a second component that have different rates or amounts of dimensional change upon being exposed to temperatures other than ambient temperature. The structure comprises a first attachment structure associated with the first component that slidably engages a second attachment structure associated with the second component, thereby allowing for an independent floating movement of the second component relative to the first component. The structure can comprise split rings, laminar rings, or multiple split rings.

  3. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, E.; Collantes, J. M.; Garcia, J. A.; Plazaola, F.; Mornet, S.; Couillaud, F.; Sandre, O.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m-1. In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles.

  4. Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

    2010-08-01

    A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

  5. Development of a carbonate absorption-based process for post-combustion CO2 capture: The role of biocatalyst to promote CO2 absorption rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Ye, X.; Zhang, Z.; Khodayari, A.; Djukadi, T.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is described. IVCAP employs potassium carbonate (PC) as a solvent, uses waste or low quality steam from the power plant for CO2 stripping, and employs a biocatalyst, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, for promoting the CO2 absorption into PC solution. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the activity of CA enzyme mixed in PC solutions in a stirred tank reactor system under various temperatures, CA dosages, CO2 loadings, CO2 partial pressures, and the presence of major flue gas contaminants. It was demonstrated that CA enzyme is an effective biocatalyst for CO2 absorption under IVCAP conditions. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre. PMID:11591231

  7. Analyte-receptor binding kinetics for biosensor applications. An analysis of the influence of the fractal dimension on the binding rate coefficient.

    PubMed

    Sadana, A

    1998-01-01

    The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of antigen (analyte), in solution with antibody (receptor) immobilized on a biosensor surface, is analyzed within a fractal framework. Most of the data presented is adequately described by a single-fractal analysis. This was indicated by the regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot. A single example of a dual-fractal analysis is also presented. It is of interest to note that the binding-rate coefficient (k) and the fractal dimension (Df) both exhibit changes in the same and in the reverse direction for the antigen-antibody systems analyzed. Binding-rate coefficient expressions, as a function of the Df developed for the antigen-antibody binding systems, indicate the high sensitivity of the k on the Df when both a single- and a dual-fractal analysis are used. For example, for a single-fractal analysis, and for the binding of antibody Mab 0.5 beta in solution to gp120 peptide immobilized on a BIAcore biosensor, the order of dependence on the Df was 4.0926. For a dual-fractal analysis, and for the binding of 25-100 ng/mL TRITC-LPS (lipopolysaccharide) in solution with polymyxin B immobilized on a fiberoptic biosensor, the order of dependence of the binding-rate coefficients, k1 and k2, on the fractal dimensions, Df1 and Df2, were 7.6335 and -11.55, respectively. The fractional order of dependence of the k(s) on the Df(s) further reinforces the fractal nature of the system. The k(s) expressions developed as a function of the Df(s) are of particular value, since they provide a means to better control biosensor performance, by linking it to the heterogeneity on the surface, and further emphasize, in a quantitative sense, the importance of the nature of the surface in biosensor performance. PMID:9779572

  8. A study in normal human volunteers to compare the rate and extent of levothyroxine absorption from Synthroid and Levoxine.

    PubMed

    Berg, J A; Mayor, G H

    1992-12-01

    Numerous branded and generic formulations of levothyroxine (LT4) sodium tablets are currently available. Results from previous studies attempting to examine the comparative bioavailability of these formulations are difficult to interpret because of subject heterogeneity, single time-point blood sampling, varying degrees of hypothyroidism, and other factors. This study was devised to compare the rate and extent of absorption of LT4 from different LT4 sodium tablet formulations, in a simple model using a single-dose two-way single-blind, randomized cross-over design in 30 normal, healthy, nonpregnant, female subjects. This design controlled for many factors that limited previous LT4 bioavailability studies. Subjects were given a single 600 micrograms dose of LT4 as either Synthroid (Boots Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL) tablets (formulation A) or Levoxine tablets (Daniels Pharmaceuticals, St. Petersburg, FL; formulation B). Measurements of baseline-corrected total T4 serum concentrations determined at multiple time points demonstrated statistically significant differences between the two formulations at the 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, and 18.00 hour sampling times. Statistically significant differences for area under the curve (AUC) (0 to 48 hours) (formulation A, 159.9 +/- 9.4 micrograms-hour/dL; formulation B, 193.4 +/- 10.1 micrograms-hour/dL) and maximum peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (formulation A, 5.91 +/- .34; formulation B, 7.12 +/- .32) also were demonstrated. Furthermore, the ratio of the baseline-corrected total T4 concentrations (B/A x 100) were 120.9% for AUC and 120.5% for Cmax. These data demonstrate that the administration of Synthroid and Levoxine result in a significantly different rate and extent of absorption of LT4, and therefore these two formulations cannot be considered bioequivalent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1487553

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2-5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20-40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110-120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99-164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (<250 Oe). This may extend MNP hyperthermia therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2–5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20–40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110–120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99–164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (<250 Oe). This may extend MNP hyperthermia therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue. PMID:25825545

  11. Relative kinetic measurements of rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with a series of methyl alkyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Nicole; Zhong, Xiaoyin; Kirschbaum, Stefan; Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian; Benter, Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Relative kinetic studies have been performed on the reactions of Cl atoms with a series of methyl alkyl esters in a 405-liter borosilicate glass chamber at (298 ± 3) K and one atmosphere of synthetic air using in situ FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the reactants. Rate coefficients (in units of cm 3 molecule -1 s -1) were determined for the following compounds: methyl acetate (2.48 ± 0.58) × 10 -12; methyl propanoate (1.68 ± 0.36) × 10 -11; methyl butanoate (4.77 ± 0.87) × 10 -11; methyl pentanoate (7.84 ± 1.15) × 10 -11; methyl hexanoate (1.09 ± 0.31) × 10 -10; methyl heptanoate (1.56 ± 0.37) × 10 -10; methyl cyclohexane carboxylate (3.32 ± 0.76) × 10 -10; methyl-2-methyl butanoate (9.41 ± 1.39) × 10 -11. In addition rate coefficients (in units of 10 -11 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1) have been obtained for the reactions of OH radicals with the following compounds: methyl butanoate (3.55 ± 0.71), methyl pentanoate (5.41 ± 1.08), and methyl-2-methyl butanoate (4.08 ± 0.82). Using the kinetic rate data tropospheric lifetimes for the methyl alkyl esters with respect to their reactions with OH, and Cl have been estimated for typical ambient air concentrations of these oxidants.

  12. Synthetic modeling of a fluid injection-induced fault rupture with slip-rate dependent friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, Luca; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Poro-elastic stress and effective stress reduction associated with deep underground fluid injection can potentially trigger shear rupture along pre-existing faults. We modeled an idealized CO2 injection scenario, to assess the effects on faults of the first phase of a generic CO2 aquifer storage operation. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to evaluate the stress and pressure perturbations induced by fluid injection and the response of a nearby normal fault. Slip-rate dependent friction and inertial effects have been aken into account during rupture. Contact elements have been used to take into account the frictional behavior of the rupture plane. We investigated different scenarios of injection rate to induce rupture on the fault, employing various fault rheologies. Published laboratory data on CO2-saturated intact and crushed rock samples, representative of a potential target aquifer, sealing formation and fault gouge, have been used to define a scenario where different fault rheologies apply at different depths. Nucleation of fault rupture takes place at the bottom of the reservoir, in agreement with analytical poro-elastic stress calculations, considering injection-induced reservoir inflation and the tectonic scenario. For the stress state here considered, the first triggered rupture always produces the largest rupture length and slip magnitude, correlated with the fault rheology. Velocity weakening produces larger ruptures and generates larger magnitude seismic events. Heterogeneous faults have been considered including velocity-weakening or velocity strengthening sections inside and below the aquifer, while upper sections being velocity-neutral. Nucleation of rupture in a velocity strengthening section results in a limited rupture extension, both in terms of maximum slip and rupture length. For a heterogeneous fault with nucleation in a velocity-weakening section, the rupture may propagate into the overlying velocity

  13. Electron-Iron Recombination Rate Coefficients and Photoionization Cross Section for S XIV and SXV for X-ray and UV modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2008-03-01

    The inverse process of photoionization and electron-ion recombination of (h +SXIV SXV+e) and (h +SXV SXVI +e) are studied in details using ab into unified method that provides self-consistent sets of results for these processes. Results are presented for large number of fine structure levels where n 10 and 0 l 9; 98 levels for Li-likes S XIV with 1/2 J 17/2 and 188 levels for He-like S XV with 0 J 10. Photoionization cross section, :PI, of the levels of both S XIV and SXV decay smoothly in the lower region. However, narrow and high peak autoionizing Rhydberg series resonances belonging to various excited core levels appear in the high energy region and enhance the background cross section of the excited levels. The resonance series of n=2 core levels dominate while they become weaker with higher n. The prominent feature is the enhacement of the background cross section at n=2 core thresholds due to K-shell ionization leaving the ion in excited 2p states. PI also show wide PEG (photo-excitation-of-core) resonances at the photon energies that equal to the core excitation energies, Level-specific photoionization cross sections, PI(nSLJ), and recombination rate coefficients, σRC(nSLJ),are obtained for the first time for these ions. Currently available results correspond to photoionization for 18 terms with missing features and to only total recombination rate coefficients. Present σRc(nSLJ) incorporates both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR), and show a "bump" or "shoulder" in the high temperature region due to DR dominace. The total unified recombination rate coefficients show good agreement with the available RR, and DR rates. Recombination rates photoelectron energy are presented for the astrophysical and laboratory plasma applications. Total recombination rates for H-like S XVI are given for completeness. The The results should be accurate within 10-15% based on the unified method that includes important atomic effects such as

  14. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The...

  15. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The...

  16. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The...

  17. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The...

  18. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The...

  19. Altitude Variation of the CO2(V2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient in Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A.; Kutepov, A.; She, C.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(v2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, the k(CO2-O) values measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements vary from 1.5 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s through 9.0 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s that requires further studying. In this work we used synergistic data from a ground based lidar and a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate k(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 N, 255E) as ground truth of the SABER/TIMED nearly simultaneous ( +/-10 minutes) and common volume (within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude) observations. For each altitude in 80-110 km interval we estimate an 'optimal" value of k(CO2-O) needed to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated 15 micron CO2 radiance and that measured by the SABER/TIMED instrument. The k(CO2-O) obtained in this way varies in altitude from 3.5 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s at 80 km to 5.2 x 10(exp -12)cu cm/s for altitudes above 95 km. We discuss this variation of the rate constant and its impact on temperature retrievals from 15 pm radiance measurements and on the energy budget of MLT.

  20. Altitude Variation of the CO2 (V2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient in Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilovi, Artem; Kutepov, Alexander; She, Chiao-Yao; Smith, Anne K.; Pesnell, William Dean; Goldberg, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (mlt), the quenching of CO2(N2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, the k(CO2-O) values measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements vary from 1.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second through 9.0 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second that requires further studying. In this work we used synergistic data from a ground based lidar and a satellite infrared radiometer to estimate K(CO2-O). We used the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the colorado state university narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at fort collins, colorado (41N, 255E) as ground truth of the saber/timed nearly simultaneous (plus or minus 10 minutes) and common volume (within plus or minus 1 degree in latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees in longitude) observations. For each altitude in 80-110 km interval we estimate an "optimal" value of K(CO2-O) needed to minimize the discrepancy between the simulated 15 mm CO2 radiance and that measured by the saber/timed instrument. The K(CO2-O) obtained in this way varies in altitude from 3.5 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters per second at 80 km to 5.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic centimeters pers second for altitudes above 95 km. We discuss this variation of the rate constant and its impact on temperature retrievals from 15 mm radiance measurements and on the energy budget of mlt.

  1. The calculation of quenching rate coefficients of O2 Herzberg states in collisions with CO2, CO, N2, O2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The removal rates of Herzberg states of molecular oxygen O2(cΣu-, v = 0-16), O2(AΔu, v = 0-11), O2(AΣu+, v = 0-10) in the collisions with ground-state CO2, CO, N2, O2 molecules are calculated according to analytical expressions. The study includes a consideration of intramolecular electron energy transfers without and with vibrational excitation of target molecules and intermolecular processes. The preliminary calculations show important role of electronic-vibrational energy transfer processes in the quenching O2(AΣu+, v) + CO2; O2(cΣu-, v) + CO2, CO, N2; O2(AΔu, v) + O2. Reasonable agreement of the calculated rate coefficients with data of laser experimental measurements is obtained.

  2. Radiation damping effects on L-shell photoionization cross-sections of O-like Fe XIX and N-like recombination rate coefficients for Fe XX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Keenan, F. P.; Bell, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    Photoionization cross-sections out of the fine-structure levels (2s22p4 3P2,0,1) of the O-like Fe ion FeXIX have been reinvestigated. Data for photoionization out of each of these fine-structure levels have been obtained, where the calculations have been performed with and without the inclusion of radiation damping on the resonance structure in order to assess the importance of this process. Recombination rate coefficients are determined using the Milne relation, for the case of an electron recombining with N-like Fe ions (FeXX) in the ground state to form O-like Fe (FeXIX) existing in each of the fine-structure ground-state levels. Recombination rates are presented over a temperature range ~4.0<=logTe<=7.0, of importance to the modelling of X-ray emission plasmas.

  3. Analytic expressions for perturbations and partial derivatives of range and range rate of a spacecraft with respect to the coefficient of the second harmonic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgevic, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Closed-form analytic expressions for the time variations of instantaneous orbital parameters and of the topocentric range and range rate of a spacecraft moving in the gravitational field of an oblate large body are derived using a first-order variation of parameters technique. In addition, the closed-form analytic expressions for the partial derivatives of the topocentric range and range rate are obtained, with respect to the coefficient of the second harmonic of the potential of the central body (J sub 2). The results are applied to the motion of a point-mass spacecraft moving in the orbit around the equatorially elliptic, oblate sun, with J sub 2 approximately equal to .000027.

  4. Computational Study of the Rate Coefficients for the Reactions of NO2 with CH3NHNH, CH3NNH2, and CH2NHNH2.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tani, Hiroumi; Daimon, Yu; Terashima, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Norihiko; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2015-07-16

    The reactions of NO2 with cis-/trans-CH3NHNH, CH3NNH2 and CH2NHNH2 have been studied theoretically by quantum chemical calculations and steady-state unimolecular master equation analysis based on RRKM theory. The barrier heights for the roaming transition states between nitro (RNO2) and nitrite (RONO) isomerization reactions and those for the concerted HONO and HNO2 elimination reactions from RNO2 and RONO, affect the pressure dependences of the product-specific rate coefficients. At ambient temperature and pressure, the dominant product of the reactions of NO2 with cis-/trans-CH3NHNH and CH2NHNH2 would be expected to be HONO with trans-CH3NNH and CH2NNH2, respectively, whereas it is CH3N(NH2)NO2 for CH3NNH2 + NO2. The product-specific rate coefficients for the titled and related reactions on the same potential energy surfaces were proposed for kinetics modeling. PMID:25970048

  5. Ring polymer molecular dynamics fast computation of rate coefficients on accurate potential energy surfaces in local configuration space: Application to the abstraction of hydrogen from methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-04-01

    To fast and accurately compute rate coefficients of the H/D + CH4 → H2/HD + CH3 reactions, we propose a segmented strategy for fitting suitable potential energy surface (PES), on which ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations are performed. On the basis of recently developed permutation invariant polynomial neural-network approach [J. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 204302 (2015)], PESs in local configuration spaces are constructed. In this strategy, global PES is divided into three parts, including asymptotic, intermediate, and interaction parts, along the reaction coordinate. Since less fitting parameters are involved in the local PESs, the computational efficiency for operating the PES routine is largely enhanced by a factor of ˜20, comparing with that for global PES. On interaction part, the RPMD computational time for the transmission coefficient can be further efficiently reduced by cutting off the redundant part of the child trajectories. For H + CH4, good agreements among the present RPMD rates and those from previous simulations as well as experimental results are found. For D + CH4, on the other hand, qualitative agreement between present RPMD and experimental results is predicted.

  6. Using Sulfur Hexafluoride to Quantify the Gas Leakage Rate within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) and the Diffusion Coefficient of the Crushed Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, J.; Costa, M.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Pangle, L. A.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the biological processes taking place on an experimental hillslope with vegetation, it is important to know the amount of gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide being produced and consumed. When studying the gas exchange rates in a closed system like the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO), one must take into account gas that is being lost or gained from other sources. Aside from biogeochemical processes, gas concentrations in the LEO atmosphere may change due to leakage to the outside environment and diffusion into the soil. To quantify these fluxes, two constants must be determined experimentally: the gas leakage constant L and the coefficient of diffusion for the hillslope soil. To accomplish this, a tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride, was injected into the sealed east bay chamber and syringes were used to take samples periodically from the airspace and from the hillslope soil. The relative sulfur hexafluoride concentrations were then analyzed with a SRI 8610c gas chromatograph. By analyzing both the the airspace concentration decay as well as the concentration in the soil, the chamber's leakage constant was determined to be and the soil diffusion coefficient was also determined. Once these values are experimentally quantified, they can be used in equations to quantify the rate of gas leakage and soil diffusion of more important gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen.

  7. Co2(nu2)-o Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental SABER-TIMED and Fort Collins Lidar Observations of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(nu2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, k(sub VT),and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve k(sub VT) in the altitude region85-105 km from the coincident SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 micron radiation. The averaged k(sub VT) value obtained in this work is 6.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations.However, the retrieved k(sub VT) also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 1 +/-1 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 90 km to 7.9 +/- 1.2 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 micron radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the non-thermal oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.

  8. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed.

  9. Evaluation of time-resolved multi-distance methods to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads in vivo: Optical parameters dependences on geometrical structures of the models used to calculate reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanifuji, T.

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved multi-distance measurements are studied to retrieve absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads, which have enough depth sensitivity to determine the optical parameters in superficial tissues and brain separately. Measurements were performed by putting the injection and collection fibers on the left semi-sphere of the forehead, with the injection fiber placed toward the temporal region, and by moving the collection fiber between 10 and 60 mm from the central sulcus. It became clear that optical parameters of the forehead at all collection fibers were reasonably determined by selecting the appropriate visibility length of the geometrical head models, which is related to head surface curvature at each position.

  10. Toward Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning: Correlation Between Measured and Simulated Specific Absorption Rate Changes Caused by Phase Steering in Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, H. Petra; Ciampa, Silvia; Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Steggerda-Carvalho, Eva J.; Stam, Gerard van; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Bardati, Fernando; Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hyperthermia is the clinical application of heat, in which tumor temperatures are raised to 40°C to 45°C. This proven radiation and chemosensitizer significantly improves clinical outcome for several tumor sites. Earlier studies of the use of pre-treatment planning for hyperthermia showed good qualitative but disappointing quantitative reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) can be used more reliably for online adaptive treatment planning during locoregional hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: This study included 78 treatment sessions for 15 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. At the start of treatments, temperature rise measurements were performed with 3 different antenna settings optimized for each patient, from which the absorbed power (specific absorption rate [SAR]) was derived. HTP was performed based on a computed tomography (CT) scan in treatment position with the bladder catheter in situ. The SAR along the thermocouple tracks was extracted from the simulated SAR distributions. Correlations between measured and simulated (average) SAR values were determined. To evaluate phase steering, correlations between the changes in simulated and measured SAR values averaged over the thermocouple probe were determined for all 3 combinations of antenna settings. Results: For 42% of the individual treatment sessions, the correlation coefficient between measured and simulated SAR profiles was higher than 0.5, whereas 58% showed a weak correlation (R of <0.5). The overall correlation coefficient between measured and simulated average SAR was weak (R=0.31; P<.001). The measured and simulated changes in average SAR after adapting antenna settings correlated much better (R=0.70; P<.001). The ratio between the measured and simulated quotients of maximum and average SARs was 1.03 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), indicating that HTP can also correctly predict the relative amplitude of

  11. The emission coefficient of uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (Temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range (200 A - 6000 A). The results are compared to theory and other measurements. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also given.

  12. Rate-based modeling of reactive absorption of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S into aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, M.A.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1998-10-01

    A general framework was developed to model the transport processes that take place during reactive absorption when both rate- and equilibrium-controlled reactions occur in the liquid phase. This framework was applied to the selective absorption of H{sub 2}S from fuel gas containing CO{sub 2} using aqueous methyldiethanolamine. A rate-based distillation column module was used for the column integration. The Maxwell-Stefan and enhancement factor theories were utilized. In packed columns, CO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by diffusion with fast chemical reactions; in trayed columns it is controlled primarily by physical absorption. Gas-film resistance is never significant for CO{sub 2} absorption. For H{sub 2}S absorption, gas- and liquid-film resistances are important, and diffusion of bisulfide controls the liquid-film resistance. Heat effects produce temperatures bulges that can cause equilibrium pinches at the maximum temperature. This phenomenon gives an optimum packing height for the H{sub 2}S removal. Trayed columns are more selective than packed columns for H{sub 2}S removal, primarily because of the larger number of liquid-film mass transfer units.

  13. Parallel Transmission Pulse Design with Explicit Control for the Specific Absorption Rate in the Presence of Radiofrequency Errors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adrian; Schiavi, Emanuele; Eryaman, Yigitcan; Herraiz, Joaquin L.; Gagoski, Borjan; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L.; Guerin, Bastien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A new framework for the design of parallel transmit (pTx) pulses is presented introducing constraints for local and global specific absorption rate (SAR) in the presence of errors in the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain. Methods The first step is the design of a pTx RF pulse with explicit constraints for global and local SAR. Then, the worst possible SAR associated with that pulse due to RF transmission errors (“worst-case SAR”) is calculated. Finally, this information is used to re-calculate the pulse with lower SAR constraints, iterating this procedure until its worst-case SAR is within safety limits. Results Analysis of an actual pTx RF transmit chain revealed amplitude errors as high as 8% (20%) and phase errors above 3° (15°) for spokes (spiral) pulses. Simulations show that using the proposed framework, pulses can be designed with controlled “worst-case SAR” in the presence of errors of this magnitude at minor cost of the excitation profile quality. Conclusion Our worst-case SAR-constrained pTx design strategy yields pulses with local and global SAR within the safety limits even in the presence of RF transmission errors. This strategy is a natural way to incorporate SAR safety factors in the design of pTx pulses. PMID:26147916

  14. Determination of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant from the frequency dependence of the specific absorption rate in a frozen ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Nathaniel; Perkins-Harbin, Emily; Aho, Brandon; Wang, Lihua; Kumon, Ronald; Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Tackett, Ronald; Therapeutic Biomaterials Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal suspensions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, known as ferrofluids, are promising candidates for the mediation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). In such materials, the dissipation of heat occurs as a result of the relaxation of the particles in an applied ac magnetic field via the Brownian and Neel mechanisms. In order to isolate and study the role of the Neel mechanism in this process, the sample can be frozen, using liquid nitrogen, in order to suppress the Brownian relaxation. In this experiment, dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized via co-precipitation and characterized via transmission electron microscopy and dc magnetization are used as MFH mediators over the temperature range between -70 °C to -10 °C (Brownian-suppressed state). Heating the nanoparticles using ac magnetic field (amplitude ~300 Oe), the frequency dependence of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is calculated between 150 kHz and 350 kHz and used to determine the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the sample. We would like to thank Fluxtrol, Inc. for their help with this project

  15. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  16. Estimation of variability of specific absorption rate with physical description of children exposed to electromagnetic field in the VHF band.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, T; Watanabe, S

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing concern regarding the effects of electromagnetic waves on the health of humans. The safety of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is evaluated by the specific absorption rate (SAR). In recent years, SAR has been estimated by numerical simulation using fine-resolution and anatomically realistic reference whole-body voxel models of people of various ages. The variation in SAR with a change in the physical features of a real person is hardly studied, although every person has different physical features. In this study, in order to estimate the individual variability in SAR of persons, we obtained considerable 3D body shape data from actual three-year-old children and developed several homogeneous models of these children. The variability in SAR of the homogeneous models of three-year-old children for whole-body exposure to RF electromagnetic fields in the very high frequency (VHF) band calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method has been described. PMID:19964253

  17. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current. PMID:18595805

  18. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the current density and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue is analyzed by the transmission line modeling method, and the current density and SAR as a function of frequency, output voltage, output power, and coil dimension are calculated. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The results of simulation analysis show SARs to be very small at any given transmission conditions, about 2-14 mW/kg, compared to the basic restrictions of the International Commission on nonionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP; 2 W/kg), while the current density divided by the ICNIRP's basic restrictions gets smaller as the frequency rises and the output voltage falls. It is possible to transfer energy below the ICNIRP's basic restrictions when the frequency is over 250 kHz and the output voltage is under 24 V. Also, the parts of the biological tissue that maximized the current density differ by frequencies; in the low frequency is muscle and in the high frequency is skin. The boundary is in the vicinity of the frequency 600-1000 kHz. PMID:18232363

  19. Multimodal Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Unusually Enhanced Specific Absorption Rate for Synergetic Cancer Therapeutics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Nanasaheb D; Bohara, Raghvendra A; Malgras, Victor; Tofail, Syed A M; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-06-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy frequently face trade off between a high magnetization saturation and their good colloidal stability, high specific absorption rate (SAR), and most importantly biological compatibility. This necessitates the development of new nanomaterials, as MFH and MRI are considered to be one of the most promising combined noninvasive treatments. In the present study, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) SPMNPs for efficient cancer hyperthermia therapy and MRI application. The superparamagnetic nanomaterial revealed excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility. A high SAR of 390 W/g was observed due to higher colloidal stability leading to an increased Brownian and Neel's spin relaxation. Cell viability of PEG capped nanoparticles is up to 80% on different cell lines tested rigorously using different methods. PEG coating provided excellent hemocompatibility to human red blood cells as PEG functionalized SPMNPs reduced hemolysis efficiently compared to its uncoated counterpart. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia of SPMNPs resulted in cancer cell death up to 80%. Additionally, improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the PEG capped La1-xSrxMnO3 formulation in aqueous medium compared to the bare LSMO. Taken together, PEG capped SPMNPs can be useful for diagnosis, efficient magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and multimodal cancer treatment as the amphiphilicity of PEG can easily be utilized to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. PMID:27197993

  20. Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

    2009-05-01

    In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. PMID:19194889