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Sample records for absorption resonance raman

  1. Theoretical studies on absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra of Coumarin 343 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenpeng; Cao, Zexing; Zhao, Yi

    2012-03-01

    The vibrationally resolved spectral method and quantum chemical calculations are employed to reveal the structural and spectral properties of Coumarin 343 (C343), an ideal candidate for organic dye photosensitizers, in vacuum and solution. The results manifest that the ground-state energies are dominantly determined by different placements of hydrogen atom in carboxylic group of C343 conformations. Compared to those in vacuum, the electronic absorption spectra in methanol solvent show a hyperchromic property together with the redshift and blueshift for the neutral C343 isomers and their deprotonated anions, respectively. From the absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra, it is found that the maximal absorption and emission come from low-frequency modes whereas the high-frequency modes have high Raman activities. The detailed spectra are further analyzed for the identification of the conformers and understanding the potential charge transfer mechanism in their photovoltaic applications.

  2. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3 and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Lead metal was vaporized and trapped in solid xenon at 12K. Electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra were recorded of the resulting matrix, which was shown to contain Pb2, Pb3, and possibly Pb4 molecular species. The vibrational frequency for Pb2 is determined to be 108/cm for the ground state, with a dissociation energy of 82000/cm. Ad3h symmetry is indicated for the Pb3 species, with nu sub 1=117/cm and nu sub 2 = 96 /cm. The existence of Pb4 is suggested by a fundamental and overtone of 111/cm spacing.

  3. Absorption and resonance Raman characteristics of β-carotene in water-ethanol mixtures, emulsion and hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Suhr, Christian; Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Roth, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    Absorption or resonance Raman scattering are often used to identify and even quantify carotenoids in situ. We studied the absorption spectra, the Raman spectra and their resonance behavior of β-carotene in different molecular environments set up as mixtures from lipid (emulsion) and non-polar (ethanol) solvents and a polar component (water) with regard to their application as references for in situ measurement. We show how both absorption profiles and resonance spectra of β-carotene strongly depend on the molecular environment. Most notably, our data suggests that the characteristic bathochromic absorption peak of J-aggregates does not contribute to carotenoid resonance conditions, and show how the Raman shift of the C=C stretching mode is dependent on both, the molecular environment and the excitation wavelength. Overall, the spectroscopic data collected here is highly relevant for the interpretation of in situ spectroscopic data in terms of carotenoid identification and quantification by resonance Raman spectroscopy as well as the preparation of reference samples. In particular, our data promotes careful consideration of appropriate molecular environment for reference samples.

  4. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3, and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    Matrix isolation techniques are used to investigate the spectra of lead molecules and, in particular, to obtain resonance Raman spectra of lead vapors isolated in solid xenon matrices. The presence of Pb2 is confirmed by the visible adsorption, and Raman spectra yield a vibrational frequency for the ground state of 108 per cm and a dissociation energy of 8200 per cm. A second resonance Raman progression indicates a Pb3 species of D3h symmetry. Finally, two additional Raman features at approximately 111 per cm spacing are evidence for a third species, tentatively identified as Pb4.

  5. Absorption and resonance Raman study of the pyromellitic diahydride anion via density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, T.; Pawlikowski, M.

    2000-05-01

    The electronic structure of the low-energy states of the pyromellitic diahydride (PMDA) anion is investigated in terms of the VWN (Vosco-Wilk-Nusair) the BP (Becke-Perdew) and the B3LYP density functional (DF) methods employed with 6-31G * basis sets. All the methods are shown to reproduce correctly the absorption and resonance Raman spectra in the region corresponding to the low-energy 1 2Au→1 2B3g transition. The discrepancies between the theory and experiment are attributed to a (weak) Dushinsky effect predominately due to a mixing of the ν3=1593 cm -1 and ν4=1342 cm -1 vibrations in the 1 2B3 g state of the PMDA radical.

  6. A multimode vibronic treatment of absorption, resonance Raman, and hyper-Rayleigh scattering of excitonically coupled molecular dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers Kelley, Anne

    2003-08-01

    The linear absorption spectra, resonance Raman excitation profiles and depolarization dispersion curves, and hyper-Rayleigh scattering profiles are calculated for excitonically coupled homodimers of a model electron donor-acceptor "push-pull" conjugated chromophore as a function of dimer geometry. The vibronic eigenstates of the dimer are calculated by diagonalizing the matrix of transition dipole couplings among the vibronic transitions of the constituent monomers. The absorption spectra show the usual red- or blueshifted transitions for J-type or H-type dimers, respectively. When the electronic coupling is large compared with the vibronic width of the monomer spectrum, the dimer absorption spectra exhibit simple Franck-Condon progressions having reduced vibronic intensities compared with the monomer, and the resonance Raman excitation profiles are shifted but otherwise only weakly perturbed. When the coupling is comparable to the vibronic width, the H-dimer absorption spectra exhibit irregular vibronic frequency spacings and intensity patterns and the effects on the Raman excitation profiles are larger. There is strong dispersion in the Raman depolarization ratios for dimer geometries in which both transitions carry oscillator strength. The first hyperpolarizabilities are somewhat enhanced in J-dimers and considerably reduced in H-dimers. These effects on the molecular β will amplify the effects of dimerization on the ground-state dipole moment in electro-optic materials formed from chromophore-doped polymers that must be electric field poled to obtain the net alignment needed for a macroscopic χ(2).

  7. Alcohol-catalyzed photoreduction of iron-porphyrin complexes revealed by resonance raman and absorption spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, T.; Fidler, V.; Ozaki, Y.; Kitagawa, T.

    1990-06-01

    Photoreduction of Fe III(OEP) (2-MeIm) (OEP is octaethylporphyrin; 2-MeIm is 2-methylimidazole) was found to be catalyzed by a trace amount of MeOH present in Ch 2Cl 2 as a stabilizer. The absence of either 2-MeIm or MeOH in the CH 2Cl 2 solution of Fe III(OEP) X (X is Cl -, Br - or I -) leads to no photoreduction. The presence of MeOH in the Fe III(OEP) (2-MeIm) solution results in the appearance of a new absorption band at 585 nm, and when Raman scattering was excited at 590 nm, a new Raman band appeared at 524 cm -. This band exhibited an upshift by 4 cm - with 54Fe(OEP) (2-MeIm)(CH 3OH) and a downshift by 12 cm -1 with 56Fe(OEP)(2-MeIm) (CD 3OD) and was therefore assigned to the Fe III-MeOH stretching vibration. The excitation profile of this band gave a peak around 585 nm and accordingly, the new absorption band at 584 nm was assigned to a charge-transfer (CT) band from MeOH to the Fe III ion. It was most unexpected that the photoreduction did not occur upon laser illumination within the CT band.

  8. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films.

    PubMed

    Scholz, R; Gisslén, L; Schuster, B-E; Casu, M B; Chassé, T; Heinemeyer, U; Schreiber, F

    2011-01-07

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A(g)-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  9. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.; Gisslén, L.; Schuster, B.-E.; Casu, M. B.; Chassé, T.; Heinemeyer, U.; Schreiber, F.

    2011-01-01

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A_g-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  10. Cross section of resonant Raman scattering of light by polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdyugin, V. V.; Burshteyn, K. Ya.; Shorygin, P. P.

    1987-03-01

    An experimental study is presented of the resonant Raman spectra of beta carotene. Absolute differential cross sections are obtained for the most intensive Raman spectral lines with excitation at the absorption maximum. A theoretical analysis is presented of the variation in absolute differential cross section as a function of a number of conjunct double bonds in the polyenes.

  11. Heme Structural Perturbation of PEG-Modified Horseradish Peroxidase C in Aromatic Organic Solvents Probed by Optical Absorption and Resonance Raman Dispersion Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing; Al-Azzam, Wasfi; Griebenow, Kai; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    The heme structure perturbation of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified horseradish peroxidase (HRP-PEG) dissolved in benzene and toluene has been probed by resonance Raman dispersion spectroscopy. Analysis of the depolarization ratio dispersion of several Raman bands revealed an increase of rhombic B1g distortion with respect to native HRP in water. This finding strongly supports the notion that a solvent molecule has moved into the heme pocket where it stays in close proximity to one of the heme's pyrrole rings. The interactions between the solvent molecule, the heme, and the heme cavity slightly stabilize the hexacoordinate high spin state without eliminating the pentacoordinate quantum mixed spin state that is dominant in the resting enzyme. On the contrary, the model substrate benzohydroxamic acid strongly favors the hexacoordinate quantum mixed spin state and induces a B2g-type distortion owing to its position close to one of the heme methine bridges. These results strongly suggest that substrate binding must have an influence on the heme geometry of HRP and that the heme structure of the enzyme-substrate complex (as opposed to the resting state) must be the key to understanding the chemical reactivity of HRP. PMID:12719258

  12. Dual-excitation wavelength resonance Raman explosives detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; Sluch, Mikhail; Wu, Hai-Shan; Martin, Robert; McCormick, William; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian E.

    2013-05-01

    Deep-ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (DUVRRS) is a promising approach to stand-off detection of explosive traces due to: 1) resonant enhancement of Raman cross-section, 2) λ-4-cross-section enhancement, and 3) fluorescence and solar background free signatures. For trace detection, these signal enhancements more than offset the small penetration depth due to DUV absorption. A key challenge for stand-off sensors is to distinguish explosives, with high confidence, from a myriad of unknown background materials that may have interfering spectral peaks. To address this, we are developing a stand-off explosive sensor using DUVRRS with two simultaneous DUV excitation wavelengths. Due to complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth, significant amplitude variation is observed between corresponding Raman bands with different excitation wavelengths. These variations with excitation wavelength provide an orthogonal signature that complements the traditional Raman signature to improve specificity relative to single-excitation-wavelength techniques. As part of this effort, we are developing two novel CW DUV lasers, which have potential to be compact, and a compact dual-band high throughput DUV spectrometer, capable of simultaneous detection of Raman spectra in two spectral windows. We have also developed a highly sensitive algorithm for the detection of explosives under low signal-to-noise situations.

  13. Resonant enhancement of Raman scattering in metamaterials with hybrid electromagnetic and plasmonic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D.; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-06-01

    A tri-layer metamaterial perfect absorber of light, consisting of (Al/ZnS/Al) films with the top aluminum layer patterned as an array of circular disk nanoantennas, is investigated for resonantly enhancing Raman scattering from C60 fullerene molecules deposited on the metamaterial. The metamaterial is designed to have resonant bands due to plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances at the Raman pump frequency (725 nm) as well as Stokes emission bands. The Raman scattering from C60 on the metamaterial with resonantly matched bands is measured to be enhanced by an order of magnitude more than C60 on metamaterials with off-resonant absorption bands peaking at 1090 nm. The Raman pump is significantly enhanced due to the resonance with a propagating surface plasmon band, while the highly impedance-matched electromagnetic resonance is expected to couple out the Raman emission efficiently. The nature and hybridization of the plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances to form compound resonances are investigated by numerical simulations.

  14. Progress on Raman laser for sodium resonance fluorescence lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Steven X.; Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Bai, Yingxin; Konoplev, Oleg; Fahey, Molly E.; Numata, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    We are developing a Q-switched narrow linewidth intra-cavity Raman laser for a space based sodium lidar application. A novel Raman laser injection seeding scheme is proposed and is experimentally verified. A Q-switched, diode pumped, c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has been designed to emit a fundamental wavelength at 1066.6 nm. This fundamental wavelength is used as the pump in an intra-cavity Raman conversion in a Gd0.2Y0.8VO4 composite material. By tuning the temperature of the crystal, we tuned the Raman shifting to the desired sodium absorption line. A diode end pumped, T-shaped laser cavity has been built for experimental investigation. The fundamental pump laser cavity is a twisted mode cavity to eliminate the spatial hole burning for effective injection seeding. The Raman laser cavity is a linear standing wave cavity because Raman gain medium does not suffer spatial hole burning as traditional laser gain medium. The linewidth and temporal profile of the Raman laser is experimentally investigated with narrow and broadband fundamental pump emission. We have, for the first time, demonstrated an injection seeded, high peak power, narrow linewidth intra-cavity Raman laser for potential use in a sodium resonance fluorescence lidar.

  15. Pre-resonance Raman spectra of some simple gases. [sulfur oxides, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    The pre-resonance Raman spectra of SO2, N2O, and H2S were investigated using the 4880 A, 4727 A, and 4579 A lines of the argon ion laser. Although these molecules have electronic absorption bands in the near ultraviolet, none exhibit any pre-resonance enhancement within our experimental error of + or - 10%. Possible explanations taking into account the current theories for resonance Raman are discussed.

  16. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  17. UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy of amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhl, Martin; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Schmitt, Heike; Lenarz, Thomas; Morgner, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Resonant enhancement of Raman signals is a useful method to increase sensitivity in samples with low concentration such as biological tissue. The investigation of resonance profiles shows the optimal excitation wavelength and yields valuable information about the molecules themselves. However careful characterization and calibration of all experimental parameters affecting quantum yield is required in order to achieve comparability of the single spectra recorded. We present an experimental technique for measuring the resonance profiles of different amino acids. The absorption lines of these molecules are located in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. One limitation for broadband measurement of resonance profiles is the limited availability of Raman filters in certain regions of the UV for blocking the Rayleigh scattered light. Here, a wavelength range from 244.8 nm to 266.0 nm was chosen. The profiles reveal the optimal wavelength for recording the Raman spectra of amino acids in aqueous solutions in this range. This study provides the basis for measurements on more complex molecules such as proteins in the human perilymph. The composition of this liquid in the inner ear is essential for hearing and cannot be analyzed non-invasively so far. The long term aim is to implement this technique as a fiber based endoscope for non-invasive measurements during surgeries (e. g. cochlear implants) making it available as a diagnostic tool for physicians. This project is embedded in the interdisciplinary cluster of excellence "Hearing for all" (H4A).

  18. Resonance and Variable Temperature Raman Studies of Chloroperoxidase and Methemoglobin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remba, Ronald David

    1980-12-01

    Raman spectra of the heme proteins chloroperoxidase and methemoglobin, chemically and temperature modified, are obtained for laser excitation near the Soret absorption band. Numerous biochemical and physical results are obtained. The following observations for chloroperoxidase have been made. The scattered intensity for resonance (406.7 nm) excitation is at least twenty times that for near resonance (457.9 nm) excitation. In resonance only totally symmetric modes are enhanced. The positions of marker band I ((TURN) 1370 cm(' -1)) for both the native and reduced enzymes are lower than expected for high-spin heme proteins indicating a strongly electron donating axial ligand. From shifts in spin-sensitive Raman peaks as the temperature is lowered, a high-spin to low-spin transition of the heme iron is inferred. Raman spectra of chloroperoxidase liganded with small ions indicate that there is a second anion binding site near the heme. Photo-dissociation of CO from reduced chloroperoxidase is observed. The position of marker band I in the CO complex indicates that electron density is transferred from the heme onto the CO. The resonance Raman spectra of chloroperoxidase and cytochrome P-450 are nearly identical and are very different from those of horseradish peroxidase and cytochrome c. These results, particularly for the reduced enzymes, indicate that the heme sites in chloroperoxidase and P -450 are essentially the same. Raman spectra of a number of methemoglobins complexed with various small ions are obtained as a function of temperature in the region of spin-sensitive marker band (II) ((TURN) 1500 cm('-1)) for laser excitation near the Soret absorption band. For certain ligands, H(,2)O, N(,3)('-), OCN('-), OH('-) and SCN('-), the iron spin state changes from high spin to low spin with decreasing temperature. The relative spin concentrations are monitored by measuring the Raman intensity ratio, I(,h)/I(,1), of the high-spin and low -spin versions of marker band (II

  19. Negative refraction with low absorption using Raman transitions with magnetoelectric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2010-07-15

    We suggest a scheme for obtaining negative refraction that does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same transition frequency. The key idea of the scheme is to obtain a strong electric response by using far-off-resonant Raman transitions. We propose to use a pair of electric-dipole Raman transitions and utilize magneto-electric cross coupling to achieve a negative index of refraction without requiring negative permeability. The interference of the two Raman transitions allows tunable negative refraction with low absorption.

  20. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  1. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  2. Resonant Raman scattering background in XRF spectra of binary samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Leani, Juan José

    2015-02-01

    In x-ray fluorescence analysis, spectra present singular characteristics produced by the different scattering processes. When atoms are irradiated with incident energy lower and close to an absorption edge, scattering peaks appear due to an inelastic process known as resonant Raman scattering. In this work we present theoretical calculations of the resonant Raman scattering contributions to the background of x-ray fluorescence spectra of binary samples of current technological or biological interest. On one hand, a binary alloy of Fe with traces of Mn (Mn: 0.01%, Fe: 99.99%) was studied because of its importance in the stainless steels industries. On the second hand a pure sample of Ti with V traces (Ti: 99%, V: 1%) was analyzed due to the current relevance in medical applications. In order to perform the calculations the Shiraiwa and Fujino's model was used to calculate characteristic intensities and scattering interactions. This model makes certain assumptions and approximations to achieve the calculations, especially in the case of the geometrical conditions and the incident and take-off beams. For the binary sample studied in this work and the considered experimental conditions, the calculations show that the resonant Raman scattering background is significant under the fluorescent peak, affects the symmetry of the peaks and, depending on the concentrations, overcomes the enhancements contributions (secondary fluorescence).

  3. Resonant stimulation of Raman scattering from single-crystal thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hisao; Marutani, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Naoki; Hiramatsu, Toru; Ishizumi, Atsushi; Sasaki, Fumio; Hotta, Shu

    2013-12-01

    Amplified Raman scattering was observed from single crystals of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers (TPCOs). Under ns-pulsed excitation, the TPCO crystals exhibited amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at resonant absorption wavelengths. With increasing excitation wavelength to the 0-0 absorption edge, the stimulated resonant Raman peaks appeared both in the 0-1 and 0-2 ASE band regions. When the excitation wavelength coincided with the 0-1 ASE band energy, the Raman peaks selectively appeared in the 0-2 ASE band. Such unusual enhancement of the 0-2 Raman scattering was ascribed to resonant stimulation via vibronic coupling with electronic transitions in the uniaxially oriented TPCO molecules.

  4. Temperature dependence of the hydrated electron's excited-state relaxation. I. Simulation predictions of resonance Raman and pump-probe transient absorption spectra of cavity and non-cavity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zho, Chen-Chen; Farr, Erik P.; Glover, William J.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2017-08-01

    We use one-electron non-adiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations to explore the temperature dependence of both the ground-state structure and the excited-state relaxation dynamics of the hydrated electron. We compare the results for both the traditional cavity picture and a more recent non-cavity model of the hydrated electron and make definite predictions for distinguishing between the different possible structural models in future experiments. We find that the traditional cavity model shows no temperature-dependent change in structure at constant density, leading to a predicted resonance Raman spectrum that is essentially temperature-independent. In contrast, the non-cavity model predicts a blue-shift in the hydrated electron's resonance Raman O-H stretch with increasing temperature. The lack of a temperature-dependent ground-state structural change of the cavity model also leads to a prediction of little change with temperature of both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the hydrated electron following photoexcitation. This is in sharp contrast to the predictions of the non-cavity model, where both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time are expected to decrease significantly with increasing temperature. These simulation-based predictions should be directly testable by the results of future time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Finally, the temperature-dependent differences in predicted excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the two models also lead to different predicted pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy of the hydrated electron as a function of temperature. We perform such experiments and describe them in Paper II [E. P. Farr et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074504 (2017)], and find changes in the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time with temperature that match well with the predictions of the non-cavity model. In particular, the experiments

  5. Resonance Raman of BCC and normal skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Boydston-White, Susie; Wu, Binlin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pei, Zhe; Sordillo, Laura; Beckman, Hugh; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    The Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal human skin tissues were analyzed using 532nm laser excitation. RR spectral differences in vibrational fingerprints revealed skin normal and cancerous states tissues. The standard diagnosis criterion for BCC tissues are created by native RR biomarkers and its changes at peak intensity. The diagnostic algorithms for the classification of BCC and normal were generated based on SVM classifier and PCA statistical method. These statistical methods were used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from skin tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 79% compared with pathological reports.

  6. Resonant Raman Auger effect in Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armen, Brad; Levin, Jon

    1996-05-01

    The L_3-M_4,5M_4,5 spectator Auger process in xenon is investigated from the viewpoint of radiationless resonant Raman scattering. Calculations for spectator cross sections and electron spectra are presented as functions of incident photon energy near the L3 edge. These calculations are based on the lowest-order scattering theory(T. Åberg, Phys. Scr. T41, 71 (1992).) which has proved successful in the interpretation of argon ion yields coincident with K-L_2,3L_2,3 decay.footnote G. B. Armen, J. C. Levin, and I. A. Sellin , Phys Rev A 53, 1 (1996).

  7. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in malaria research.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don

    2006-10-01

    In recent years, the field of Raman spectroscopy has witnessed a surge in technological development, with the incorporation of ultrasensitive, charge-coupled devices, improved laser sources and precision Rayleigh-filter systems. This has led to the development of sensitive confocal micro-Raman spectrometers and imaging spectrometers that are capable of obtaining high spatial-resolution spectra and images of subcellular components within single living cells. This review reports on the application of resonance micro-Raman spectroscopy to the study of malaria pigment (hemozoin), a by-product of hemoglobin catabolization by the malaria parasite, which is an important target site for antimalarial drugs. The review aims to briefly describe recent studies on the application of this technology, elucidate molecular and electronic properties of the malaria pigment and its synthetic analog beta-hematin, provide insight into the mechanism of hemozoin formation within the food vacuole of the parasite, and comment on developing strategies for using this technology in drug-screening protocols.

  8. Spatial correlation between chemical and topological defects in vitreous silica: UV-resonance Raman study

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M., E-mail: makina.saito@elettra.eu; D’Amico, F.; Bencivenga, F.

    2014-06-28

    A spatial correlation between chemical and topological defects in the tetrahedron network in vitreous silica produced by a fusion process of natural quartz crystals was found by synchrotron-based UV resonance Raman experiments. Furthermore, a quantitative correlation between these defects was obtained by comparing visible Raman and UV absorption spectra. These results indicate that in vitreous silica produced by the fusion process the topological defects disturb the surrounding tetrahedral silica network and induce further disorder regions with sub nanometric sizes.

  9. Preventing Raman Lasing in High-Q WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A generic design has been conceived to suppress the Raman effect in whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). Although it is possible to exploit the Raman effect (even striving to maximize the Raman gain to obtain Raman lasing), the present innovation is intended to satisfy a need that arises in applications in which the Raman effect inhibits the realization of the full potential of WGM resonators as frequency-selection components. Heretofore, in such applications, it has been necessary to operate high-Q WGM resonators at unattractively low power levels to prevent Raman lasing. (The Raman-lasing thresholds of WGM optical resonators are very low and are approximately proportional to Q(sup -2)). Heretofore, two ways of preventing Raman lasting at high power levels have been known, but both entail significant disadvantages: A resonator can be designed so that the optical field is spread over a relatively large mode volume to bring the power density below the threshold. For any given combination of Q and power level, there is certain mode volume wherein Raman lasing does not start. Unfortunately, a resonator that has a large mode volume also has a high spectral density, which is undesirable in a typical photonic application. A resonator can be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium, where the Raman spectrum is narrower and, therefore, the Raman gain is lower. However, liquid-helium cooling is inconvenient. The present design overcomes these disadvantages, making it possible to operate a low-spectral-density (even a single-mode) WGM resonator at a relatively high power level at room temperature, without risk of Raman lasing.

  10. Resonance Raman scattering of β-carotene solution excited by visible laser beams into second singlet state.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luyao; Shi, Lingyan; Secor, Jeff; Alfano, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to use self-absorption correction to determine the Raman enhancement of β-carotene. The Raman spectra of β-carotene solutions were measured using 488nm, 514nm, 532nm and 633nm laser beams, which exhibited significant resonance Raman (RR) enhancement when the laser energy approaches the electronic transition energy from S 0 to S 2 state. The Raman intensity and the actual resonance Raman gain without self-absorption from S 2 state by β-carotene were also obtained to evaluate the effect of self-absorption on RR scattering. Moreover, we observed the Raman intensity strength followed the absorption spectra. Our study found that, although 488nm and 514nm pumps seemed better for stronger RR enhancement, 532nm would be the optimum Raman pump laser with moderate RR enhancement due to reduced fluorescence and self-absorption. The 532nm excitation will be helpful for applying resonance Raman spectroscopy to investigate biological molecules in tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous-wave deep ultraviolet sources for resonance Raman explosive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; Martin, Robert; Sluch, Mikhail; McCormick, William; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian

    2015-05-01

    A promising approach to stand-off detection of explosive traces is using resonance Raman spectroscopy with Deepultraviolet (DUV) light. The DUV region offers two main advantages: strong explosive signatures due to resonant and λ- 4 enhancement of Raman cross-section, and lack of fluorescence and solar background. For DUV Raman spectroscopy, continuous-wave (CW) or quasi-CW lasers are preferable to high peak powered pulsed lasers because Raman saturation phenomena and sample damage can be avoided. In this work we present a very compact DUV source that produces greater than 1 mw of CW optical power. The source has high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency, greater than 5 %, as it is based on second harmonic generation (SHG) of a blue/green laser source using a nonlinear crystal placed in an external resonant enhancement cavity. The laser system is extremely compact, lightweight, and can be battery powered. Using two such sources, one each at 236.5 nm and 257.5 nm, we are building a second generation explosive detection system called Dual-Excitation-Wavelength Resonance-Raman Detector (DEWRRED-II). The DEWRRED-II system also includes a compact dual-band high throughput DUV spectrometer, and a highly-sensitive detection algorithm. The DEWRRED technique exploits the DUV excitation wavelength dependence of Raman signal strength, arising from complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We show sensor measurements from explosives/precursor materials at different standoff distances.

  12. Subwavelength total acoustic absorption with degenerate resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Meng, Chong; Fu, Caixing; Li, Yong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental realization of perfect sound absorption by sub-wavelength monopole and dipole resonators that exhibit degenerate resonant frequencies. This is achieved through the destructive interference of two resonators' transmission responses, while the matching of their averaged impedances to that of air implies no backscattering, thereby leading to total absorption. Two examples, both using decorated membrane resonators (DMRs) as the basic units, are presented. The first is a flat panel comprising a DMR and a pair of coupled DMRs, while the second one is a ventilated short tube containing a DMR in conjunction with a sidewall DMR backed by a cavity. In both examples, near perfect absorption, up to 99.7%, has been observed with the airborne wavelength up to 1.2 m, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the composite absorber. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  13. Cytochrome c at charged interfaces studied by resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Peter

    1991-05-01

    The effect of electrostatic fields on the structure of cytochrome c bound to charged interfaces was studied by resonance Raman and surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. Binding of this heme protein to the Ag electrode or heteropolytungstates which may be regarded as simple model systems for biological interfaces establishes an equilibrium between two conformational states (I II). In state I the structure and the redox potential are the same as for the uncomplexed cytochrome c. In state II however the heme pocket assumes an open structure and the axial iron Met80 bond is weakened leading to thennal coordination equilibrium between the fivecoordinated high spin and the sixcoordinated low spin configuration. These structural changes are accompanied by a decrease of the redox potential by 420 mV. The structural rearrangement of the heme pocket in state II is presumably initiated by the dissociation of the internal salt bridge of Lys13 due to electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged surfaces of the model systems. From detailed Raman spectroscopic studies characteristic spectral properties of the states I and II were identified. Based on these findings the interactions of cytochrome c with phospholipid vesicles as well as with its physiological reaction partner cytocbrome c oxidase were analysed. A systematic study of the cytochmme c/phospholipid system by varying the lipid composition and the temperature revealed mutual structural changes in both the lipid and the protein structure.

  14. UV Resonant Raman Spectrometer with Multi-Line Laser Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Kohel, James M.; Kirby, James P.; Morookian, John Michael; Pelletier, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A Raman spectrometer employs two or more UV (ultraviolet) laser wavel engths to generate UV resonant Raman (UVRR) spectra in organic sampl es. Resonant Raman scattering results when the laser excitation is n ear an electronic transition of a molecule, and the enhancement of R aman signals can be several orders of magnitude. In addition, the Ra man cross-section is inversely proportional to the fourth power of t he wavelength, so the UV Raman emission is increased by another fact or of 16, or greater, over visible Raman emissions. The Raman-scatter ed light is collected using a high-resolution broadband spectrograph . Further suppression of the Rayleigh-scattered laser light is provi ded by custom UV notch filters.

  15. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    nitramines (e.g., RDX , HMX ) and aromatic compounds (e.g., DNT, TATB, TNT). 1. Types of Explosives and Chemical Composition Due to stability...resonance Raman spectra of TNT, RDX , HMX , and PETN using 40 UV wavelengths from 210 to 280 nm using a 90 collection geometry [32]. This study includes...Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition . Other than

  16. Deep ultraviolet resonant Raman imaging of a cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi; Smith, Nicholas Isaac; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of deep ultraviolet (DUV) Raman imaging of a cell. Nucleotide distributions in a HeLa cell were observed without any labeling at 257 nm excitation with resonant bands attributable to guanine and adenine. Obtained images represent DNA localization at nucleoli in the nucleus and RNA distribution in the cytoplasm. The presented technique extends the potential of Raman microscopy as a tool to selectively probe nucleic acids in a cell with high sensitivity due to resonance.

  17. Transform analysis of the resonance Raman excitation profile of lycopene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, L. C.

    1992-10-01

    The resonance Raman excitation profiles (RREPs) of the ν 1, ν 2 and ν 3 vibrations of lycopene in acetone, ethyl alcohol, toluene and carbon disulphide solvents have been analyzed using the transform method for calculating resonance Raman excitation profiles. The tests show excellent agreement between the calculated and observed profiles for the ν 2 and ν 3 RREPs, but greater difference between experiment and theory occurs for the ν 1 RREP, especially in carbon disulphide solvent.

  18. Recoilless Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mössbauer, Rudolf L.

    It is a high distinction to be permitted to address you on the subject of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption of gamma radiation. The methods used in this special branch of experimental physics have recently found acceptance in many areas of science. I take the liberty to confine myself essentially to the work which I was able to carry out in the years 1955-1958 at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, and which finally led to establishment of the field of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption. Many investigators shared in the preparations of the basis for the research we are concerned with in this lecture. As early as the middle of the last century Stokes observed, in the case of fluorite, the phenomenon now known as fluorescence - namely, that solids, liquids, and gases under certain conditions partially absorb incident electromagnetic radiation which immediately is reradiated. A special case is the so-called resonance fluorescence, a phenomenon in which the re-emitted and the incident radiation both are of the same wavelength. The resonance fluorescence of the yellow D lines of sodium in sodium vapour is a particularly notable and exhaustively studied example. In this optical type of resonance fluorescence, light sources are used in which the atoms undergo transitions from excited states to their ground states (Fig. 1.1). The light quanta emitted in these transitions (A → B) are used to initiate the inverse process of resonance absorption in the atoms of an absorber which are identical with the radiating atoms. The atoms of the absorber undergo a transition here from the ground state (B) to the excited state (A), from which they again return to the ground state, after a certain time delay, by emission of fluorescent light.

  19. Quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in Atlantic salmon by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2006-02-01

    Two major carotenoids species found in salmonids muscle tissues are astaxanthin and cantaxanthin. They are taken up from fish food and are responsible for the attractive red-orange color of salmon filet. Since carotenoids are powerful antioxidants and biomarkers of nutrient consumption, they are thought to indicate fish health and resistance to diseases in fish farm environments. Therefore, a rapid, accurate, quantitative optical technique for measuring carotenoid content in salmon tissues is of economic interest. We demonstrate the possibility of using fast, selective, quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in salmon muscle tissues, employing resonance Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing strong Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue laser excitation, we are able to characterize quantitatively the concentrations of carotenoids in salmon muscle tissue. To validate the technique, we compared Raman data with absorption measurements of carotenoid extracts in acetone. A close correspondence was observed in absorption spectra for tissue extract in acetone and a pure astaxanthin solution. Raman results show a linear dependence between Raman and absorption data. The proposed technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoid levels in fish muscle tissues and may be attractive for the fish farm industry to assess the dietary status of salmon, risk for infective diseases, and product quality control.

  20. Excited-state structure and electronic dephasing time of Nile blue from absolute resonance Raman intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Mary K.; Mathies, Richard A.

    1992-06-01

    Absolute resonance Raman cross sections are measured for Nile blue 690 perchlorate dissolved in ethylene glycol with excitation at 514, 531, and 568 nm. These values and the absorption spectrum are modeled using a time-dependent wave packet formalism. The excited-state equilibrium geometry changes are quantitated for 40 resonance Raman active modes, seven of which (590, 1141, 1351, 1429, 1492, 1544, and 1640 cm-1 ) carry 70% of the total resonance Raman intensity. This demonstrates that in addition to the prominent 590 and 1640 cm-1 modes, a large number of vibrational degrees of freedom are Franck-Condon coupled to the electronic transition. After exposure of the explicit vibrational progressions, the residual absorption linewidth is separated into its homogeneous [350 cm-1 half-width at half-maximum (HWHM)] and inhomogeneous (313 cm-1 HWHM) components through an analysis of the absolute Raman cross sections. The value of the electronic dephasing time derived from this study (25 fs) compares well to previously published results. These data should be valuable in multimode modeling of femtosecond experiments on Nile blue.

  1. Resonance raman spectroscopy of an ultraviolet-sensitive insect rhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.; Deng, H.; Rath, P.

    1987-11-17

    The authors present the first visual pigment resonance Raman spectra from the UV-sensitive eyes of an insect, Ascalaphus macaronius (owlfly). This pigment contains 11-cis-retinal as the chromophore. Raman data have been obtained for the acid metarhodopsin at 10/sup 0/C in both H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O. The C=N stretching mode at 1660 cm/sup -1/ in H/sub 2/O shifts to 1631 cm/sup -1/ upon deuteriation of the sample, clearly showing a protonated Schiff base linkage between the chromophore and the protein. The structure-sensitive fingerprint region shows similarities to the all-trans-protonated Schiff base of model retinal chromophores, as well as to themore » octopus acid metarhodopsin and bovine metarhodopsin I. Although spectra measured at -100/sup 0/C with 406.7-nm excitation, to enhance scattering from rhodopsin (lambda/sub max/ 345 nm), contain a significant contribution from a small amount of contaminants (cytochrome(s) and/or accessory pigment) in the sample, the C=N stretch at 1664 cm/sup -1/ suggests a protonated Schiff base linkage between the chromophore and the protein in rhodopsin as well. For comparison, this mode also appears at approx. 1660 cm/sup -1/ in both the vertebrate (bovine) and the invertebrate (octopus) rhodopsins. These data are particularly interesting since the absorption maximum of 345 nm for rhodopsin might be expected to originate from an unprotonated Schiff base linkage. That the Schiff base linkage in the owlfly rhodopsin, like in bovine and in octopus, is protonated suggests that a charged chromophore is essential to visual transduction.« less

  2. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  3. Resonant indirect optical absorption in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the indirect and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to indirect excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and indirect valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.

  4. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Pavel A; Baranov, Denis G; Milichko, Valentin A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Samusev, Anton K; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-05-05

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions.

  5. Red-excitation resonance Raman analysis of the nu(Fe=O) mode of ferryl-oxo hemoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, Kenichiro; Mukai, Masahiro; Shimada, Hideo; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Ogura, Takashi

    2008-11-05

    The Raman excitation profile of the nuFe O mode of horseradish peroxidase compound II exhibits a maximum at 580 nm. This maximum is located within an absorption band with a shoulder assignable to an oxygen-to-iron charge transfer band on the longer wavelength side of the alpha-band. Resonance Raman bands of the nuFe O mode of various ferryl-oxo type hemoproteins measured at 590 nm excitation indicate that many hemoproteins in the ferryl-oxo state have an oxygen-to-iron charge transfer band in the visible region. Since this red-excited resonance Raman technique causes much less photochemical damage in the proteins relative to blue-excited resonance Raman spectroscopy, it produces a higher signal-to-noise ratio and thus represents a powerful tool for investigations of ferryl-oxo intermediates of hemoproteins.

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared and Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Bacteriorhodopsin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, Thomas Nixon

    Fourier transform infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure and function of the light-activated, transmembrane proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin, from the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a 27,000 dalton integral membrane protein consisting of 248 amino acids with a retinylidene chromophore. Absorption of a photon leads to the translocation of one or two protons from the inside of the cell to the outside. Resonance Raman spectroscopy allows for the study of the configuration of retinal in bR and its photointermediates by the selective enhancement of vibrational modes of the chromophore. This technique was used to determine that the chromophore is attached to lysine-216 in both the bR _{570} and the M _{412} intermediates. In bR with tyrosine-64 selectively nitrated or aminated, the chromophore appears to have the same configuration in that bR _{570} (all- trans) and M _{412} (13- cis) states as it does in unmodified bR. Polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) permits the study of the direction of transition dipole moments arising from molecular vibrations of the protein and the retinal chromophore. The orientation of alpha helical and beta sheet components was determined for bR with the average helical tilt found to lie mostly parallel to the membrane normal. The beta sheet structures also exhibit an IR linear dichroism for the amide I and amide II bands which suggest that the peptide backbone is mostly perpendicular to the membrane plane although it is difficult to determine whether the bands originate from sheet or turn components. The orientation of secondary structure components of the C-1 (residues 72-248) and C-2 (residues 1-71) fragments were also investigated to determine the structure of these putative membrane protein folding intermediates. Polarized, low temperature FTIR -difference spectroscopy was then used to investigate the structure of bR as it undergoes

  7. Intricate Resonant Raman Response in Anisotropic ReS2.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Amber; Simpson, Jeffrey R; Wang, Yuanxi; Rhodes, Daniel; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Balicas, Luis; Dubey, Madan; Crespi, Vincent H; Terrones, Mauricio; Hight Walker, Angela R

    2017-10-11

    The strong in-plane anisotropy of rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) offers an additional physical parameter that can be tuned for advanced applications such as logic circuits, thin-film polarizers, and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. ReS 2 also presents advantages for optoelectronics, as it is both a direct-gap semiconductor for few-layer thicknesses (unlike MoS 2 or WS 2 ) and stable in air (unlike black phosphorus). Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful characterization techniques to nondestructively and sensitively probe the fundamental photophysics of a 2D material. Here, we perform a thorough study of the resonant Raman response of the 18 first-order phonons in ReS 2 at various layer thicknesses and crystal orientations. Remarkably, we discover that, as opposed to a general increase in intensity of all of the Raman modes at excitonic transitions, each of the 18 modes behave differently relative to each other as a function of laser excitation, layer thickness, and orientation in a manner that highlights the importance of electron-phonon coupling in ReS 2 . In addition, we correct an unrecognized error in the calculation of the optical interference enhancement of the Raman signal of transition metal dichalcogenides on SiO 2 /Si substrates that has propagated through various reports. For ReS 2 , this correction is critical to properly assessing the resonant Raman behavior. We also implemented a perturbation approach to calculate frequency-dependent Raman intensities based on first-principles and demonstrate that, despite the neglect of excitonic effects, useful trends in the Raman intensities of monolayer and bulk ReS 2 at different laser energies can be accurately captured. Finally, the phonon dispersion calculated from first-principles is used to address the possible origins of unexplained peaks observed in the Raman spectra, such as infrared-active modes, defects, and second-order processes.

  8. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-L; Liu, H-N; Tan, P-H

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption.

    PubMed

    Garbuny, M; Pechersky, M J

    1976-05-01

    The coherence properties and power levels of lasers available at present lend themselves to the remote operation of mechanical engines by resonance absorption in a working gas. Laser radiation is capable of producing extremely high temperatures in a gas. Limits to the achievable temperatures in the working gas of an engine are imposed by the solid walls and by loss of resonance absorption due to thermal saturation, bleaching, and dissociation. However, it is shown that by proper control of the laser beam in space, time, and frequency, as well as by choice of the absorbing gas, these limits are to a great extent removed so that very high temperatures are indeed attainable. The working gas is largely monatomic, preferably helium with the addition of a few volume percent of an absorber. Such a gas mixture, internally heated, permits an optimization of the expansion ratio, with resulting thermal efficiencies and work ratios, not achievable in conventional engines. A relationship between thermal efficiency and work ratio is derived that is quite general for the optimization condition. The performance of laser piston engines, turbines, and the Stirling cycle based on these principles is discussed and compared with conventional engine operation. Finally, a brief discussion is devoted to the possibility and concepts for the direct conversion of selective vibrational or electronic excitation into mechanical work, bypassing the translational degrees of freedom.

  10. A transform from absorption to Raman excitation profile. A time-dependent approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Y.; Yeo, Robert C. K.

    1994-04-01

    An alternative time-frame approach, which is canonically conjugate to the energy-frame approach, for implementing the transform relations for calculating Raman excitation profiles directly from the optical absorption spectrum is presented. Practical and efficient fast Fourier transformation in the time frame replaces the widely used Chan and Page algorithm for evaluating the Hilbert transform in the energy frame. The time-frame approach is applied to: (a) a two-mode model which illustrates the missing mode effect in both absorption and Raman excitation profiles, (b) carotene, in which both the absorption spectrum and the Raman excitation profile show vibrational structure and (c) hexamethylbenzene: TCNE electron donor—acceptor complex where the same spectra are structureless and the Raman excitation profile for the 168 cm -1 mode poses a problem for the energy-frame approach. A similar time-frame approach can be used for the inverse transform from the Raman excitation profile to the optical absorption spectrum.

  11. Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.M.

    1988-11-10

    The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Two-Photon Infrared Resonance Can Enhance Coherent Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, Andrew J.; Hokr, Brett; Yi, Zhenhuan; Yuan, Luqi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter we present a new technique for attaining efficient low-background coherent Raman scattering where the Raman coherence is mediated by a tunable infrared laser in two-photon resonance with a chosen vibrational transition. In addition to the traditional benefits of conventional coherent Raman schemes, this approach offers a number of advantages including potentially higher emission intensity, reduction of nonresonant four-wave mixing background, preferential excitation of the anti-Stokes field, and simplified phase matching conditions. In particular, this is demonstrated in gaseous methane along the ν1 (A1) and ν3 (T2) vibrational levels using an infrared field tuned between 1400 and 1600 cm-1 and a 532-nm pump field. This approach has broad applications, from coherent light generation to spectroscopic remote sensing and chemically specific imaging in microscopy.

  13. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Chirality Enriched Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hight Walker, A. R.; Piao, Y.; Simpson, J. R.; Lindsay, M.; Streit, J. K.; Ao, G.; Zheng, M.; Fagan, J. A.

    Relative intensities of resonant Raman RBM and G modes of 11 chirality-enriched SWCNT species were established under second-order excitation. Results demonstrate an under-recognized complexity in evaluation of Raman spectra for assignment of (n,m) population distributions. Strong chiral angle and mod dependencies affect the intensity ratio of RBM/G modes and can result in misleading interpretations. We report 5 new (n,m) values for chirality-dependent G+ and G- Raman peak positions and intensity ratios, extending the available data to cover smaller diameters down to (5,4). The Raman spectral library sufficiently decouples G peaks from multiple species and enables fundamental characterization in mixed chirality samples. Our results on dispersive properties of the D modes will also be discussed. Probing defects is crucial to evaluate SWCNT quality and to understand the photophysics behind defect-induced optoelectronic features. Using high-quality, chirality-enriched semiconducting SWCNTs and tunable lasers, our results show a non-dispersive D band throughout the resonant window within the same (n,m). Our results were validated by multiple (n,m) samples and intentional covalent surface functionalization generating D peaks with increased intensity, which remain non-dispersive.

  14. Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring using Resonance Raman Spectroscopy during Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-27

    saturation measurements using resonance Raman intravital micros- copy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H488 H495. 14. Ward KR, Ivatury RR, Barbee...Nighswander-Rempel SP, Kupriyanov VV, Shaw RA. Relative contribu- tions of hemoglobin and myoglobin to near-infrared spectroscopic images of cardiac tissue...DC, Shapiro NI. The microcirculation image quality score: development and preliminary evaluation of a proposed approach to grading quality of image

  15. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and the preterm infant carotenoid status.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gary M; Chan, Melissa M; Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor; Ermakova, Maia; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul; Rau, Carrie

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to validate the noninvasive resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) method in infants in comparison with the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and to evaluate the carotenoid status in preterm infants fed with mother's milk or formula. In the first phase of the study, resonance Raman measurements were made on male term infants' skin and correlated with tissue harvested at the time of circumcision. Each baby's foreskin was weighed, enzymatically digested, and the total carotenoids were extracted and quantitated by the HPLC. Next, to evaluate the carotenoid status of preterm infants (BW <1500 g), the skin and serum carotenoids in infants fed with either human milk or preterm formula were studied from the start of feedings and every 2 weeks until hospital discharge. Skin carotenoids were measured by RRS and the serum total carotenoids by HPLC. Foreskin carotenoid levels measured by RRS correlated with HPLC measurements of total serum carotenoids (R = 0.52, P < 0.01, n = 16). Forty preterm infants were studied for their carotenoid status. Thirty-two infants were fed mother's milk, whereas 8 were fed a preterm infant formula that was not enriched with carotenoids. The gestation and birth weight of the 2 feeding groups were similar. The infants fed human milk had a higher serum total carotenoid concentration and skin Raman counts than formula-fed infants. The skin Raman counts and total serum carotenoid correlated (R = 0.44, P = 0.01). The human milk-fed infants' serum total carotenoid concentrations and Raman values did not change during the study period; however, the formula-fed group's total serum and skin carotenoid decreased significantly during the study. RRS of infant's skin reliably assesses total carotenoid status noninvasively. Human milk-fed preterm infants have higher serum and skin carotenoids than formula-fed infants suggesting that formula-fed infants may benefit from carotenoid supplementation.

  16. Excited-state structure and isomerization dynamics of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin from resonance Raman intensities.

    PubMed Central

    Loppnow, G R; Mathies, R A

    1988-01-01

    Resonance Raman excitation profiles have been measured for the bovine visual pigment rhodopsin using excitation wavelengths ranging from 457.9 to 647.1 nm. A complete Franck-Condon analysis of the absorption spectrum and resonance Raman excitation profiles has been performed using an excited-state, time-dependent wavepacket propagation technique. This has enabled us to determine the change in geometry upon electronic excitation of rhodopsin's 11-cis-retinal protonated Schiff base chromophore along 25 normal coordinates. Intense low-frequency Raman lines are observed at 98, 135, 249, 336, and 461 cm-1 whose intensities provide quantitative, mode-specific information about the excited-state torsional deformations that lead to isomerization. The dominant contribution to the width of the absorption band in rhodopsin results from Franck-Condon progressions in the 1,549 cm-1 ethylenic normal mode. The lack of vibronic structure in the absorption spectrum is shown to be caused by extensive progressions in low-frequency torsional modes and a large homogeneous linewidth (170 cm-1 half-width) together with thermal population of low-frequency modes and inhomogeneous site distribution effects. The resonance Raman cross-sections of rhodopsin are unusually weak because the excited-state wavepacket moves rapidly (approximately 35 fs) and permanently away from the Franck-Condon geometry along skeletal stretching and torsional coordinates. PMID:3416032

  17. Localized magnetoplasmons in quantum dots: Magneto-optical absorption, Raman scattering, and inelastic electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, M. S.

    We investigate a one-component, quasi-zero dimensional, quantum plasma exposed to a parabolic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. If the size of such a system as can be realized in the semiconducting quantum dots is on the order of the de-Broglie wavelength, the electronic and optical properties become highly tunable. Then the quantum size effects challenge the observation of many-particle phenomena such as the magneto-optical absorption, Raman intensity, and electron-energy-loss spectrum. An exact analytical solution of the problem leads us to infer that these many-particle phenomena are, in fact, dictated by the generalized Kohn's theorem in the long-wavelength limit. Maneuvering the confinement and/or the magnetic field furnishes the resonance energy capable of being explored with the FIR, Raman, or electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. This implies that either of these probes should be competent in observing the localized magnetoplasmons in the system. A deeper insight into the physics of quantum dots is paving the way for their implementation in such diverse fields as quantum computing and medical imaging.

  18. Plasmon-Induced Magnetic Resonance Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Zhang, Yuejiao; Shih, Tien-Mo; Yang, Weimin; Hu, Shu; Hu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianfeng; Ren, Bin; Mao, Bingwei; Yang, Zhilin; Tian, Zhongqun

    2018-04-11

    Plasmon-induced magnetic resonance has shown great potentials in optical metamaterials, chemical (bio)-sensing, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Here, we have theoretically and experimentally revealed (1) a correspondence of the strongest near-field response to the far-field scattering valley and (2) a significant improvement in Raman signals of probing molecules by the plasmon-induced magnetic resonance. These revelations are accomplished by designing a simple and practical metallic nanoparticle-film plasmonic system that generates magnetic resonances at visible-near-infrared frequencies. Our work may provide new insights for understanding the enhancement mechanism of various plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies and also helps further explore light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.

  19. Brain metastasis detection by resonant Raman optical biopsy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pu, Yang; Li, Zhongwu; Liu, Yulong; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Wei; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    Resonant Raman (RR) spectroscopy provides an effective way to enhance Raman signal from particular bonds associated with key molecules due to changes on a molecular level. In this study, RR is used for detection of human brain metastases of five kinds of primary organs of lung, breast, kidney, rectal and orbital in ex-vivo. The RR spectra of brain metastases cancerous tissues were measured and compared with those of normal brain tissues and the corresponding primary cancer tissues. The differences of five types of brain metastases tissues in key bio-components of carotene, tryptophan, lactate, alanine and methyl/methylene group were investigated. The SVM-KNN classifier was used to categorize a set of RR spectra data of brain metastasis of lung cancerous tissues from normal brain tissue, yielding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at 100% and 75%, respectively. The RR spectroscopy may provide new moleculebased optical probe tools for diagnosis and classification of brain metastatic of cancers.

  20. Resonant-Raman Intensities of N-layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Henrique; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Lorchat, Ettienne; Fernique, François; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Berciaud, Stéphane; Wirtz, Ludger

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have interesting optical and electronic properties that make them good candidates for nano-engineering applications. Raman spectroscopy provides information about the vibrational modes and optical spectrum at the same time: when the laser energy is close to an electronic transition, the intensity is increased due to resonance. We investigate these effects combining different ab initio methods: we obtain ground-state and vibrational properties from density functional theory and the optical absorption spectrum using GW corrections and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to account for the excitonic effects which are known to play an important role in TMDs. Using a quasi-static finite differences approach, we calculate the dielectric susceptibility for different light polarizations and different phonon modes in order to determine the Raman tensor of TMDs, in particular of multi-layer and bulk MoTe2. We explain recent experimental results for the splitting of high-frequency modes and deviations from the non-resonant Raman model. We also give a brief outlook on possible improvements of the methodology.

  1. Resonance Raman spectra of the copper-sulfur chromophores in Achromobacter cycloclastes nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Dooley, D M; Moog, R S; Liu, M Y; Payne, W J; LeGall, J

    1988-10-15

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy at ambient temperature and 77 K has been used to probe the structures of the copper sites in Achromobacter cycloclastes nitrite reductase. This enzyme contains three copper ions per protein molecule and has two principal electronic absorption bands with lambda max values of 458 and 585 nm. Comparisons between the resonance Raman spectra of nitrite reductase and blue copper proteins establish that both the 458 and 585 nm bands are associated with Cu(II)-S(Cys) chromophores. A histidine ligand probably is also present. Different sets of vibrational frequencies are observed with 457.9 nm (ambient) or 476.1 nm (77 K) excitation as compared with 590 nm (ambient) or 593 nm (77 K) excitation. Excitation profiles indicate that the 458 and 585 nm absorption bands are associated with separate [Cu(II)-S(Cys)N(His)] sites or with inequivalent and uncoupled cysteine ligands in the same site. The former possibility is considered to be more likely.

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors on Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiangcai; Lin, Weihua; Cao, En; Xu, Xuefeng; Liang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaofang

    2017-01-01

    The performance of chemical reactions has been enhanced immensely with surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensors. In this review, the principle and application of SPR sensors are introduced and summarized thoroughly. We introduce the mechanism of the SPR sensors and present a thorough summary about the optical design, including the substrate and excitation modes of the surface plasmons. Additionally, the applications based on SPR sensors are described by the Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy in plasmon-driven surface catalytic reactions and the measurement of refractive index sensing, especially. PMID:29212139

  3. Stimulated resonant x-ray Raman scattering with incoherent radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weninger, Clemens; Rohringer, Nina

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical study on stimulated electronic Raman scattering in neon by resonant excitation with an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). This study is in support of the recent experimental demonstration [C. Weninger , Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)] of stimulated x-ray Raman scattering. Focusing the broadband XFEL pulses into a cell of neon gas at atmospheric pressure a strong inelastic x-ray scattering signal in the forward direction was observed, as the x-ray energy was varied across the region of core-excited Rydberg states and the K edge. The broadband and intrinsically incoherent x-ray pulses from the XFEL lead to a rich, structured line shape of the scattered radiation. We present a generalized Maxwell-Liouville-von Neumann approach to self-consistently solve for the amplification of the scattered radiation along with the time evolution of the density matrix of the atomic and residual ionic system. An in-depth analysis of the evolution of the emission spectra as a function of the Raman gain is presented. Furthermore, we propose the use of statistical methods to obtain high-resolution scattering data beyond the lifetime broadening despite pumping with incoherent x-ray pulses.

  4. Multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gołasa, K., E-mail: Katarzyna.Golasa@fuw.edu.pl; Grzeszczyk, M.; Wysmołek, A.

    2014-03-03

    Optical emission spectrum of a resonantly (λ = 632.8 nm) excited molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is studied at liquid helium temperature. More than 20 peaks in the energy range spanning up to 1400 cm{sup −1} from the laser line, which are related to multiphonon resonant Raman scattering processes, are observed. The attribution of the observed lines involving basic lattice vibrational modes of MoS{sub 2} and both the longitudinal (LA(M)) and the transverse (TA(M) and/or ZA(M)) acoustic phonons from the vicinity of the high-symmetry M point of the MoS{sub 2} Brillouin zone is proposed.

  5. Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Sun, Yi; Pu, Yang; Boydston-White, Susie; Liu, Yulong; Alfano, Robert R.

    2012-11-01

    The resonance Raman (RR) spectra of six types of human brain tissues are examined using a confocal micro-Raman system with 532-nm excitation in vitro. Forty-three RR spectra from seven subjects are investigated. The spectral peaks from malignant meningioma, stage III (cancer), benign meningioma (benign), normal meningeal tissues (normal), glioblastoma multiforme grade IV (cancer), acoustic neuroma (benign), and pituitary adenoma (benign) are analyzed. Using a 532-nm excitation, the resonance-enhanced peak at 1548 cm-1 (amide II) is observed in all of the tissue specimens, but is not observed in the spectra collected using the nonresonance Raman system. An increase in the intensity ratio of 1587 to 1605 cm-1 is observed in the RR spectra collected from meningeal cancer tissue as compared with the spectra collected from the benign and normal meningeal tissue. The peak around 1732 cm-1 attributed to fatty acids (lipids) are diminished in the spectra collected from the meningeal cancer tumors as compared with the spectra from normal and benign tissues. The characteristic band of spectral peaks observed between 2800 and 3100 cm-1 are attributed to the vibrations of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) groups. The ratio of the intensities of the spectral peaks of 2935 to 2880 cm-1 from the meningeal cancer tissues is found to be lower in comparison with that of the spectral peaks from normal, and benign tissues, which may be used as a distinct marker for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal meningeal tissues. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and the support vector machine are used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from meningeal tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% when two principal components are used.

  6. Novel micro-Raman setup with tunable laser excitation for time-efficient resonance Raman microscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Stürzl, Ninette; Lebedkin, Sergei; Klumpp, Stefanie; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred M

    2013-05-07

    We describe a micro-Raman setup allowing for efficient resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), i.e., mapping of Raman spectra as a function of tunable laser excitation wavelength. The instrument employs angle-tunable bandpass optical filters which are integrated into software-controlled Raman and laser cleanup filter devices. These automatically follow the excitation laser wavelength and combine tunability with high bandpass transmission as well as high off-band blocking of light. Whereas the spectral intervals which can be simultaneously acquired are bandpass limited to ~350 cm(-1), they can be tuned across the spectrum of interest to access all characteristic Raman features. As an illustration of performance, we present Raman mapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs): (i) in a small volume of water-surfactant dispersion as well as (ii) after deposition onto a substrate. A significant improvement in the acquisition time (and efficiency) is demonstrated compared to previous RRS implementations. These results may help to establish (micro) Raman spectral mapping as a routine tool for characterization of SWNTs as well as other materials with a pronounced resonance Raman response in the visible-near-infrared spectral region.

  7. Plasmon resonances, anomalous transparency, and reflectionless absorption in overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyakov, A.; Sternberg, N.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of the surface and standing wave resonances and their coupling in the configuration of the overdense plasma slab with a single diffraction grating are studied, using impedance matching techniques. Analytical criteria and exact expressions are obtained for plasma and diffraction grating parameters which define resonance conditions for absolute transparency in the ideal plasma and reflectionless absorption in a plasma with dissipation.

  8. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with increasing age. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, play an important role as well in the protection of skin from UV and short-wavelength visible radiation. Lutein and lycopene may also have protective function for cardiovascular health, and lycopene may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Motivated by the growing importance of carotenoids in health and disease, and recognizing the lack of any accepted noninvasive technology for the detection of carotenoids in living human tissue, we explore resonance Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach for noninvasive, laser optical carotenoid detection. We review the main results achieved recently with the Raman detection approach. Initially we applied the method to the detection of macular carotenoid pigments, and more recently to the detection of carotenoids in human skin and mucosal tissues. Using skin carotenoid Raman instruments, we measure the carotenoid response from the stratum corneum layer of the palm of the hand for a population of 1375 subjects and develope a portable skin Raman scanner for field studies. These experiments reveal that carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status. They show that people with high oxidative stress, like smokers, and subjects with high sunlight exposure, in general, have reduced skin carotenoid levels, independent of their dietary carotenoid consumption. We find the Raman technique to be precise, specific, sensitive, and well suitable for clinical as well as

  9. Status of miniature integrated UV resonance fluorescence and Raman sensors for detection and identification of biochemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, William F.; Bhartia, Rohit; Taspin, Alexandre; Lane, Arthur; Conrad, Pamela; Sijapati, Kripa; Reid, Ray D.

    2005-11-01

    Laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) is the most sensitive method of detection of biological material including microorganisms, virus', and cellular residues. LINF is also a sensitive method of detection for many non-biological materials as well. The specificity with which these materials can be classified depends on the excitation wavelength and the number and location of observation wavelengths. Higher levels of specificity can be obtained using Raman spectroscopy but a much lower levels of sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy has traditionally been employed in the IR to avoid fluorescence. Fluorescence rarely occurs at wavelength below about 270nm. Therefore, when excitation occurs at a wavelength below 250nm, no fluorescence background occurs within the Raman fingerprint region for biological materials. When excitation occurs within electronic resonance bands of the biological target materials, Raman signal enhancement over one million typically occurs. Raman sensitivity within several hundred times fluorescence are possible in the deep UV where most biological materials have strong absorption. Since the Raman and fluorescence emissions occur at different wavelength, both spectra can be observed simultaneously, thereby providing a sensor with unique sensitivity and specificity capability. We will present data on our integrated, deep ultraviolet, LINF/Raman instruments that are being developed for several applications including life detection on Mars as well as biochemical warfare agents on Earth. We will demonstrate the ability to discriminate organic materials based on LINF alone. Together with UV resonance Raman, higher levels of specificity will be demonstrated. In addition, these instruments are being developed as on-line chemical sensors for industrial and municipal waste streams and product quality applications.

  10. Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Isaeva, Elmira A; Isaeva, A A

    We discuss the results of experimental studies of competition of absorption and scattering of laser radiation propagating in dispersive media with resonant absorption. As media under study, use is made of a suspension of polystyrene particles in solutions of rhodamine 6G in ethylene glycol probed by laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm. It is found that an increase in the dye concentration leads to an increase in optical transmittance of suspensions and an increase in speckle modulation of the forward-scattered radiation. We interpret these features as a manifestation of Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonance absorption.

  11. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source.

    PubMed

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R

    2013-09-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years.

  12. A new on-axis micro-spectrophotometer for combining Raman, fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy with macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Pompidor, Guillaume; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of X-ray diffraction experiments with optical methods such as Raman, UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy greatly enhances and complements the specificity of the obtained information. The upgraded version of the in situ on-axis micro-spectrophotometer, MS2, at the macromolecular crystallography beamline X10SA of the Swiss Light Source is presented. The instrument newly supports Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopy, in addition to the previously available UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence modes. With the recent upgrades of the spectral bandwidth, instrument stability, detection efficiency and control software, the application range of the instrument and its ease of operation were greatly improved. Its on-axis geometry with collinear X-ray and optical axes to ensure optimal control of the overlap of sample volumes probed by each technique is still unique amongst comparable facilities worldwide and the instrument has now been in general user operation for over two years. PMID:23955041

  13. Solvatochromism of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone: An electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Kumar, Venkatraman; Rajkumar, Nagappan; Umapathy, Siva, E-mail: umapathy@ipc.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-01-14

    Solvent effects play a vital role in various chemical, physical, and biological processes. To gain a fundamental understanding of the solute-solvent interactions and their implications on the energy level re-ordering and structure, UV-VIS absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopic, and density functional theory calculation studies on 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in different solvents of diverse solvent polarity has been carried out. The solvatochromic analysis of the absorption spectra of PQ in protic dipolar solvents suggests that the longest (1n-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 1} state) and the shorter (1π-π{sup 1}*; S{sub 2} state) wavelength band undergoes a hypsochromic and bathochromic shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bondmore » weakening and strengthening, respectively. It also indicates that hydrogen bonding plays a major role in the differential solvation of the S{sub 2} state relative to the ground state. Raman excitation profiles of PQ (400–1800 cm{sup −1}) in various solvents followed their corresponding absorption spectra therefore the enhancements on resonant excitation are from single-state rather than mixed states. The hyperchromism of the longer wavelength band is attributed to intensity borrowing from the nearby allowed electronic transition through vibronic coupling. Computational calculation with C{sub 2ν} symmetry constraint on the S{sub 2} state resulted in an imaginary frequency along the low-frequency out-of-plane torsional modes involving the C=O site and therefore, we hypothesize that this mode could be involved in the vibronic coupling.« less

  14. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of octopus rhodopsin and its photoproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.; Pande, A.; Yue, K.T.

    1987-08-11

    The authors report here the resonance Raman spectra of octopus rhodopsin and its photoproducts, bathorhodopsin and acid metarhodopsin. These studies were undertaken in order to make comparisons with the well-studied bovine pigments, so as to understand the similarities and the differences in pigment structure and photochemical processes between vertebrates and invertebrates. The flow method was used to obtain the Raman spectrum of rhodopsin at 13 /sup 0/C. The bathorhodopsin spectrum was obtained by computer subtraction of the spectra containing different photostationary mixtures of rhodopsin, isorhodopsin, hypsorhodopsin, and bathorhodopsin, obtained at 12 K using the pump-probe technique and from measurements atmore » 80 K. Like their bovine counterparts, the Schiff base vibrational mode appears at approx. 1660 cm/sup -1/ in octopus rhodopsin and the photoproducts, bathorhodopsin and acid metarhodopsin, suggesting a proteonated Schiff base linkage between the chromophore and the protein. Differences between the Raman spectra of octopus rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin indicate that the formation of bathorhodopsin is associated with chromophore isomerization. This inference is substantiated by the chromophore chemical extraction data which show that, like the bovine system, octopus rhodopsin is an 11-cis pigment, while the photoproducts contain an all-trans pigment, in agreement with the previous work. The octopus rhodopsin and bathorhodopsin spectra show marked differences from their bovine counterparts in other respects, however. The differences are most dramatic in the structure-sensitive fingerprint and the HOOP regions. Thus, it appears that although the two species differ in the specific nature of the chromophore-protein interactions, the general process of visual transduction is the same.« less

  15. New Feature Observed in the Raman Resonance Excitation Profiles of (6 , 5) -Enriched, Selectively Bundled SWCNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hight Walker, A. R.; Simpson, J. R.; Roslyak, O.; Haroz, E.; Telg, H.; Duque, J. G.; Crochet, J. J.; Piryatinski, A.; Doorn, S. K.

    Understanding the photophysics of exciton behavior in single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles remains important for opto-electronic device applications. We report resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) measurements on (6 , 5) -enriched SWCNTs, dispersed in aqueous solutions and separated using density gradient ultracentrifugation into fractions of increasing bundling. Near-IR to UV absorption spectroscopy shows a redshift and broadening of the main excitonic transitions with increasing bundling. A continuously tunable dye laser coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer affords measurement of Raman resonance excitation profiles (REPs) over a range of wavelengths covering the (6 , 5) -E22 range (505 to 585) nm. REPs of both the radial breathing mode (RBM) and G-band reveal a redshifting and broadening of the (6 , 5) E22 transition energy with increasing bundling. Additionally, we observe an unexpected peak in the REP of bundled SWCNTs, which is shifted lower in energy than the main E22 and is anomalously narrow. We compare these observations to a theoretical model that examines the origin of this peak in relation to bundle polarization-enhanced exciton response.

  16. Stand-off detection of explosives vapors by resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ida; Ceco, Ema; Ehlerding, Anneli; Östmark, Henric

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a system for stand-off vapor detection based on Resonant Raman spectroscopy, RRS. The system is a step towards a RRS LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system, capable of detecting vapors from explosives and explosives precursors at long distances. The current system was used to detect the vapor of nitromethane and mononitrotoluene outdoors in the open air, at a stand-off distance of 11-13 meters. Also, the signal dependence upon irradiation wavelength and sample concentration was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. A tunable Optical Parametric Oscillator pumped by an Nd:YAG laser, with a pulse length of 6 ns, was operated in the UV range of interest, 210-400 nm, illuminating the sample vapor. The backscattered Raman signal was collected by a telescope and a roundto- slit optical fiber was used to transmit collected light to the spectrometer with minimum losses. A gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) registered the spectra. The nitromethane cross section was resonance enhanced more than a factor 30 700, when measured at 220 nm, compared to the 532 nm value. The results show that a decrease in concentration can have a positive effect on the sensitivity of the system, due to a decrease in absorption and selfabsorption in the sample.

  17. Transient Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Light-Driven Sodium-Ion-Pump Rhodopsin from Indibacter alkaliphilus.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kousuke; Kikukawa, Takashi; Nakashima, Hiroki; Yamaryo, Haruki; Saito, Yuta; Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Demura, Makoto; Unno, Masashi

    2017-05-04

    Sodium-ion-pump rhodopsin (NaR) is a microbial rhodopsin that transports Na + during its photocycle. Here we explore the photocycle mechanism of NaR from Indibacter alkaliphilus with transient absorption and transient resonance Raman spectroscopy. The transient absorption data indicate that the photocycle of NaR is K (545 nm) → L (490 nm)/M (420 nm) → O 1 (590 nm) → O 2 (560 nm) → NaR, where the L and M are formed as equilibrium states. The presence of K, L, M, and O intermediates was confirmed by the resonance Raman spectra with 442 and 532 nm excitation. The main component of the transient resonance Raman spectra was due to L which contains a 13-cis retinal protonated Schiff base. The presence of an enhanced hydrogen out-of-plane band as well as its sensitivity to the H/D exchange indicate that the retinal chromophore is distorted near the Schiff base region in L. Moreover, the retinal Schiff base of the L state forms a hydrogen bond that is stronger than that of the dark state. These observations are consistent with a Na + pumping mechanism that involves a proton transfer from the retinal Schiff base to a key aspartate residue (Asp116 in Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2) in the L/M states.

  18. Laser Radar Study Using Resonance Absorption for Remote Detection Of Air Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, Takashi

    1973-01-01

    A laser radar using resonance absorption has an advantage of increased detection range and sensitivity compared with that achieved by Raman or resonance back scattering. In this paper, new laser radar system using resonance absorption is proposed and results obtained from this laser radar system are discussed. NO2, SO2 gas has an absorption spectrum at 4500 A and 3000 A respectively as shown in Fig. 1. A laser light including at least a set of an absorption peak (lambda)1 and a valley (lambda)2 is emitted into a pollutant atmosphere. The light reflected with a topographical reflector or an atmospheric Mie scattering as distributed reflectors is received and divided into two wavelength components (lambda)1 and (lambda)2. The laser radar system used in the investigation is shown in Fig', 2 and consists of a dye laser transmitter, an optical receiver with a special monochrometer and a digital processer. Table 1 shows the molecular constants of NO2, and SO2 and the dye laser used in this experiment. In this system, the absolute concentration of the pollutant gas can be measured in comparison with a standard gas cell. The concentration of NO2, SO2 as low as 0.1 ppm have been measured at 100 m depth resolution. For a 1 mJ laser output, the observable range of this system achieved up to 300 m using the distributed Mie reflector. The capability and technical limitation of the system will be discussed in detail.

  19. Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Haisheng; Liu, Ansheng; Nicolaescu, Remus; Paniccia, Mario; Cohen, Oded; Hak, Dani

    2004-09-01

    We fabricated a low-loss (˜0.22dB/cm) rib waveguide (WG) in silicon-on-insulator with a small effective core area of ˜1.57μm2 and measured the stimulated Raman scattering gain in the WG. We obtained 2.3dB Raman gain in a 4.8-cm-long S-shaped WG using a 1455nm pump laser with a cw power of 0.9W measured before the WG. In addition, we observed nonlinear dependence of Raman gain and optical propagation loss as a function of the pump power. Our study shows that this mainly is due to two-photon absorption (TPA) induced free carrier absorption in the silicon WG. We experimentally determined the TPA induced free carrier lifetime of 25ns, which agrees well with our modeling.

  20. Resonant Terahertz Absorption Using Metamaterial Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited RESONANT TERAHERTZ...Second Reader: James H. Newman THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting... public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Sensor Research Lab at the Naval Postgraduate

  1. High-sensitivity explosives detection using dual-excitation-wavelength resonance-Raman detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; McCormick, William B.; Wu, Hai-Shan; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert V.; Lemoff, Brian

    2014-05-01

    A key challenge for standoff explosive sensors is to distinguish explosives, with high confidence, from a myriad of unknown background materials that may have interfering spectral peaks. To meet this challenge a sensor needs to exhibit high specificity and high sensitivity in detection at low signal-to-noise ratio levels. We had proposed a Dual-Excitation- Wavelength Resonance-Raman Detector (DEWRRED) to address this need. In our previous work, we discussed various components designed at WVHTCF for a DEWRRED sensor. In this work, we show a completely assembled laboratory prototype of a DEWRRED sensor and utilize it to detect explosives from two standoff distances. The sensor system includes two novel, compact CW deep-Ultraviolet (DUV) lasers, a compact dual-band high throughput DUV spectrometer, and a highly-sensitive detection algorithm. We choose DUV excitation because Raman intensities from explosive traces are enhanced and fluorescence and solar background are not present. The DEWRRED technique exploits the excitation wavelength dependence of Raman signal strength, arising from complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We show measurements from >10 explosives/pre-cursor materials at different standoff distances. The sensor showed high sensitivity in explosive detection even when the signalto- noise ratio was close to one (~1.6). We measured receiver-operating-characteristics, which show a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique as compared to a single-excitation-wavelength technique. Our measurements also show improved specificity using the amplitude variation information in the dual-excitation spectra.

  2. Absorption of acoustic waves by sunspots. II - Resonance absorption in axisymmetric fibril models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical calculations of acoustic waves scattered by sunspots which concentrate on the absorption at the magnetohydrodynamic Alfven resonance are extended to the case of a flux-tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. The model is based on a flux-tubes of varying radius that are highly structured, translationally invariant, and axisymmetric. The absorbed fractional energy is determined for different flux-densities and subphotospheric locations with attention given to the effects of twist. When the flux is highly concentrated into annuli efficient absorption is possible even when the mean magnetic flux density is low. The model demonstrates low absorption at low azimuthal orders even in the presence of twist which generally increases the range of wave numbers over which efficient absorption can occur. Resonance absorption is concluded to be an efficient mechanism in monolithic sunspots, fibril sunspots, and plage fields.

  3. Femtosecond transient absorption, Raman, and electrochemistry studies of tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine in water solutions.

    PubMed

    Abramczyk, H; Brozek-Płuska, B; Kurczewski, K; Kurczewska, M; Szymczyk, I; Krzyczmonik, P; Błaszczyk, T; Scholl, H; Czajkowski, W

    2006-07-20

    Ultrafast time-resolved electronic spectra of the primary events induced in the copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine Cu(tsPc)4-) in aqueous solution has been measured by femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy. The primary events initiated by the absorption of a photon occurring within the femtosecond time scale are discussed on the basis of the electron transfer mechanism between the adjacent phthalocyanine rings proposed recently in our laboratory. The femtosecond transient absorption results are compared with the low temperature emission spectra obtained with Raman spectroscopy and the voltammetric curves.

  4. Elucidation of chemical reactions by two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Brian Paul

    It has been shown for many systems, including photosynthetic complexes, molecule-semiconductor interfaces, and bulk heterojunctions, that interaction between electronic and nuclear dynamics may heavily influence chemical mechanisms. Four-wave-mixing spectroscopies (i.e. transient absorption, two-dimensional spectroscopy) provide some insight into such non-equilibrium processes but are limited by the single "population time" available in these types of experiments. In this dissertation, two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy (2DRR) is developed to obtain new information regarding chemical reactions that possess time coincident electronic and nuclear evolution. These new insights can only be acquired through higher-order techniques possessing two "population times". Specifically, the coherent reaction mechanism in triiodide photodissociation and structural heterogeneity in myoglobin are investigated. All multidimensional spectroscopies have roots in the off-resonant multidimensional Raman techniques developed from the late 1980's to the early 2000's. Throughout their development these experiments were plagued with technical challenges that eventually halted further use. In this dissertation it is shown through rigorous experimental tests that the technical challenges of the past are obviated for 2DRR, which is done under electronically resonant conditions. The key is that under electronic resonance the harmonic character of vibrational modes contributes to the signal. Under off-resonant conditions signal generation depends on much weaker effects. Upon absorption of light ranging from 250 to 500 nm triiodide photodissociates into diiodide and radical iodine on the same time scale as the period of triiodide's symmetric stretch, impulsively initiating coherence in the stretching coordinate of diiodide. In this dissertation, the sensitivity of 2DRR to coherent reaction mechanisms is shown by directly measuring, for the first time, how the nonequilibrium geometry of

  5. High-performance dispersive Raman and absorption spectroscopy as tools for drug identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Andrey, Sam; Nogas, Paul; Roy, Andrew; Pawluczyk, Romuald

    2009-02-01

    Due to increasing availability of pharmaceuticals from many sources, a need is growing to quickly and efficiently analyze substances in terms of the consistency and accuracy of their chemical composition. Differences in chemical composition occur at very low concentrations, so that highly sensitive analytical methods become crucial. Recent progress in dispersive spectroscopy with the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays, permits for signal integration along a long (up to 12 mm long) entrance slit of a spectrometer, thereby increasing signal to noise ratio and improving the ability to detect small concentration changes. This is achieved with a non-scanning, non-destructive system. Two different methods using P&P Optica high performance spectrometers were used. High performance optical dispersion Raman and high performance optical absorption spectroscopy were employed to differentiate various acetaminophen-containing drugs, such as Tylenol and other generic brands, which differ in their ingredients. A 785 nm excitation wavelength was used in Raman measurements and strong Raman signals were observed in the spectral range 300-1800 cm-1. Measurements with the absorption spectrometer were performed in the wavelength range 620-1020 nm. Both Raman and absorption techniques used transmission light spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings and provided sufficient spectral differences, often structural, allowing for drug differentiation.

  6. IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekal', N. D.; Motevich, I. G.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine adsorbed on a silver hydrosol and on the surface of a silver electrode for different potentials. Based on quantum chemical calculations, for the first time we have assigned the vibrations in the berberine molecule according to vibrational mode. The effect of the potential of the silver electrode on the geometry of sorption of the molecule on the surface is considered, assuming a short-range mechanism for enhancement of Raman scattering.

  7. Optical and biological properties of plasma-treated Neurospora crassa spores as studied by absorption, circular dichroism, and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-11-01

    We studied the effect of plasma treatment on the optical, structural and biological properties of Neurospora crassa ( N. crassa) spores. An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in aqueous solution. The APPJ treatment of N. crassa spores in water significantly reduced the viability of spores. The reduction in the spore viability can be attributed to the reactive species from the plasma itself and those derived from the reaction of plasma radicals with aqueous solution. These structural modifications were contingent on the medium in which N. crassa spores were suspended; plasma treatment of N. crassa spores in PBS did not significantly affect the viability of spores as compared with N. crassa spores in water. Scanning electron microscopy images and circular dichroism spectra indicated that the spore cell wall was damaged by plasma treatment. The optical absorption spectrum of untreated N. crassa spores exhibited two resonance absorption bands at approximately λ1 ≈ 260 nm and λ2 ≈ 472 nm, originating from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and β-carotene. The Raman spectrum of untreated N. crassa spores exhibited three main peaks at 1519, 1157 and 1006 cm -1, attributed to β-carotene inside the cell wall. The Raman spectra showed that the APPJ treatment of N. crassa spores in water caused degradation of β-carotene, affecting the viability of spores.

  8. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

  9. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves in transition anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihong

    2017-11-27

    We study the mode conversion and resonant absorption phenomena occurring in a slab of a stratified anisotropic medium, optical axes of which are tilted with respect to the direction of inhomogeneity, using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation. When the tilt angle is zero, mode conversion occurs if the longitudinal component of the permittivity tensor, which is the one in the direction of inhomogeneity in the non-tilted case, varies from positive to negative values within the medium, while the transverse component plays no role. When the tilt angle is nonzero, the wave transmission and absorption show an asymmetry under the sign change of the incident angle in a range of the tilt angle, while the reflection is always symmetric. We calculate the reflectance, the transmittance and the absorptance for several configurations of the permittivity tensor and find that resonant absorption is greatly enhanced when the medium from the incident surface to the resonance region is hyperbolic than when it is elliptic. For certain configurations, the transmittance and absorptance curves display sharp peaks at some incident angles determined by the tilt angle.

  10. Resonance-Raman spectro-electrochemistry of intermediates in molecular artificial photosynthesis of bimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Linda; Guthmuller, Julien; Rabelo de Moraes, Inês; Kupfer, Stephan; Krieck, Sven; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Rau, Sven; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2014-05-25

    The sequential order of photoinduced charge transfer processes and accompanying structure changes were analyzed by UV-vis and resonance-Raman spectroscopy of intermediates of a Ru(ii) based photocatalytic hydrogen evolving system obtained by electrochemical reduction.

  11. Subpicosecond resonance Raman spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy- and oxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, R; el-Sayed, M A

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present the resonance Raman spectrum of the carbonmonoxy- (HbCO) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) photointermediates on a 800-900 fs timescale. In the case of HbCO, the frequencies of the so-called core-size markers (1500-1650 cm-1) are characteristic of a deoxylike photoproduct in a high spin state (S = 2) with a partially domed heme. The spectrum of the HbO2 photointermediate, on the other hand, is different, and may be characteristic of an excited-state species. These results are discussed in terms of a reaction scheme previously presented by Petrich, J. W., C. Poyart, and J. L. Martin (1988. Biochemistry. 27:4049-4060) and compared with those obtained in the literature on a 30-40 ps timescale. In both molecules a distinct downshift of the v4 mode was observed with respect to the equilibrium value, which is indicative of an elevated temperature of the heme after photodissociation. PMID:2248996

  12. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque detection by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Boydston-White, Susie; Weisberg, Arel; Wang, Wubao; Sordillo, Laura A.; Perotte, Adler; Tomaselli, Vincent P.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Pei, Zhe; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-12-01

    A clear correlation has been observed between the resonance Raman (RR) spectra of plaques in the aortic tunica intimal wall of a human corpse and three states of plaque evolution: fibrolipid plaques, calcified and ossified plaques, and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VPs). These three states of atherosclerotic plaque lesions demonstrated unique RR molecular fingerprints from key molecules, rendering their spectra unique with respect to one another. The vibrational modes of lipids, cholesterol, carotenoids, tryptophan and heme proteins, the amide I, II, III bands, and methyl/methylene groups from the intrinsic atherosclerotic VPs in tissues were studied. The salient outcome of the investigation was demonstrating the correlation between RR measurements of VPs and the thickness measurements of fibrous caps on VPs using standard histopathology methods, an important metric in evaluating the stability of a VP. The RR results show that VPs undergo a structural change when their caps thin to 66 μm, very close to the 65-μm empirical medical definition of a thin cap fibroatheroma plaque, the most unstable type of VP.

  13. Resonant Raman scattering of controlled molecular weight polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schen, M. A.; Chien, J. C. W.; Perrin, E.; Lefrant, S.; Mulazzi, E.

    1988-12-01

    Polyacetylene, (CH)x, films of 500, 5300, 10 500, and 100 000 Daltons number average molecular weights (Mn ) were synthesized using the titanium tetra-n-butoxide/triethyl aluminum-catalyst/cocatalyst system and examined using resonant Raman scattering techniques. Before isomerization, trans segments are found to exist mainly as short, isolated sequences independent of Mn. After thermal isomerization, theoretical analysis of the RRS spectra using the Brivio, Mulazzi model indicate the ratio of long trans conjugated segments (N≥30) to short trans conjugated segments (N≤30) is significantly larger for 100 000 Dalton polymer in comparison to polymer of 10 500 Mn and below. For samples below 10 500 Daltons, no clear relationship between actual polymer molecular weight and G is observed. Optimization of the isomerization conditions for 100 000 Dalton polymer results in trans-(CH)x with a G=0.80. These results suggest that not until very long molecular chains are obtained can samples composed principally of long conjugated segments be obtained. It is proposed that defects which arise during and after the polymerization limit the content of long segments. Ambient, short term oxidation of 100 000 Mn polymer shows a decrease in G from 0.80 to 0.70. Low level chain oxidation or doping is shown to preferentially occur within long conjugated segments.

  14. Resonance Raman and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra of LH2 antenna complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Ectothiorhodospira sp. excited in the Qx and Qy transitions.

    PubMed

    Chumanov, G; Picorel, R; Ortiz de Zarate, I; Cotton, T M; Seibert, M

    2000-05-01

    Well-resolved vibrational spectra of LH2 complex isolated from two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Ectothiorhodospira sp., were obtained using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) exciting into the Qx and the Qy transitions of bacteriochlorophyll a. High-quality SERRS spectra in the Qy region were accessible because the strong fluorescence background was quenched near the roughened Ag surface. A comparison of the spectra obtained with 590 nm and 752 nm excitation in the mid- and low-frequency regions revealed spectral differences between the two LH2 complexes as well as between the LH2 complexes and isolated bacteriochlorophyll a. Because peripheral modes of pigments contribute mainly to the low-frequency spectral region, frequencies and intensities of many vibrational bands in this region are affected by interactions with the protein. The results demonstrate that the microenvironment surrounding the pigments within the two LH2 complexes is somewhat different, despite the fact that the complexes exhibit similar electronic absorption spectra. These differences are most probably due to specific pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions within the LH2 complexes, and the approach might be useful for addressing subtle static and dynamic structural variances between pigment-protein complexes from different sources or in complexes altered chemically or genetically.

  15. Coherent Raman scattering with incoherent light for a multiply resonant mixture: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Jason C.; Ulness, Darin J.; Stimson, Michael J.; Albrecht, A. C.

    1998-02-01

    The theory for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) with broadband incoherent light is presented for a multiply resonant, multicomponent mixture of molecules that exhibits simultaneous multiple resonances with the frequencies of the driving fields. All possible pairwise hyperpolarizability contributions to the signal intensity are included in the theoretical treatment-(resonant-resonant, resonant-nonresonant, and nonresonant-nonresonant correlations between chromophores) and it is shown how the different types of correlations manifest themselves as differently behaved components of the signal intensity. The Raman resonances are modeled as Lorentzians in the frequency domain, as is the spectral density of the incoherent light. The analytic results for this multiply resonant mixture are presented and applied to a specific binary mixture. These analytic results will be used to recover frequencies and dephasing times in a series of experiments on multiply resonant mixtures.

  16. Influence of polarity of solvents on IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenko, S. A.; Danyaeva, Y. S.; Maximova, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of numerical calculations of IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid in polar and nonpolar solutions are presented. The dependence of the change in the total energy and the dipole moment of the molecule on the characteristics of the solvents was investigated using the two solvation models. Spectral bands and the corresponding structural groups of the molecule are found, the characteristics of which are most vulnerable to solvents.

  17. Wavelength modulated surface enhanced (resonance) Raman scattering for background-free detection.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Bavishna B; Steuwe, Christian; Mazilu, Michael; Dholakia, Kishan; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2013-05-21

    Spectra in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are always accompanied by a continuum emission called the 'background' which complicates analysis and is especially problematic for quantification and automation. Here, we implement a wavelength modulation technique to eliminate the background in SERS and its resonant version, surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS). This is demonstrated on various nanostructured substrates used for SER(R)S. An enhancement in the signal to noise ratio for the Raman bands of the probe molecules is also observed. This technique helps to improve the analytical ability of SERS by alleviating the problem due to the accompanying background and thus making observations substrate independent.

  18. Stand-off detection of vapor phase explosives by resonance enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlerding, Anneli; Johansson, Ida; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric

    2010-10-01

    Stand-off measurements on nitromethane (NM), 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT in vapor phase using resonance Raman spectroscopy have been performed. The Raman cross sections for NM, DNT and TNT in vapor phase have been measured in the wavelength range 210-300 nm under laboratory conditions, in order to estimate how large resonance enhancement factors can be achieved for these explosives. The measurements show that the signal is greatly enhanced, up to 250.000 times for 2,4-DNT and 60.000 times for 2,4,6-TNT compared to the non-resonant signal at 532 nm. For NM the resonance enhancement enabled realistic outdoor measurements in vapor phase at 13 m distance. This all indicate a potential for resonance Raman spectroscopy as a stand-off technique for detection of vapor phase explosives.

  19. Enhancement of Raman scattering in dielectric nanostructures with electric and magnetic Mie resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizyuk, Kristina; Hasan, Mehedi; Krasnok, Alex; Alú, Andrea; Petrov, Mihail

    2018-02-01

    Resonantly enhanced Raman scattering in dielectric nanostructures has been recently proven to be an efficient tool for nanothermometry and for the experimental determination of their mode composition. In this paper we develop a rigorous analytical theory based on the Green's function approach to calculate the Raman emission from crystalline high-index dielectric nanoparticles. As an example, we consider silicon nanoparticles which have a strong Raman response due to active optical phonon modes. We relate enhancement of Raman signal emission to the Purcell effect due to the excitation of Mie modes inside the nanoparticles. We also employ our numerical approach to calculate inelastic Raman emission in more sophisticated geometries, which do not allow a straightforward analytical form of the Green's function. The Raman response from a silicon nanodisk has been analyzed with the proposed method, and the contribution of various Mie modes has been revealed.

  20. Resonance Raman Probes for Organelle-Specific Labeling in Live Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Pliss, Artem; Lim, Chang-Keun; Heo, Jeongyun; Kim, Sehoon; Rzhevskii, Alexander; Gu, Bobo; Yong, Ken-Tye; Wen, Shangchun; Prasad, Paras N.

    2016-06-01

    Raman microspectroscopy provides for high-resolution non-invasive molecular analysis of biological samples and has a breakthrough potential for dissection of cellular molecular composition at a single organelle level. However, the potential of Raman microspectroscopy can be fully realized only when novel types of molecular probes distinguishable in the Raman spectroscopy modality are developed for labeling of specific cellular domains to guide spectrochemical spatial imaging. Here we report on the design of a next generation Raman probe, based on BlackBerry Quencher 650 compound, which provides unprecedentedly high signal intensity through the Resonance Raman (RR) enhancement mechanism. Remarkably, RR enhancement occurs with low-toxic red light, which is close to maximum transparency in the biological optical window. The utility of proposed RR probes was validated for targeting lysosomes in live cultured cells, which enabled identification and subsequent monitoring of dynamic changes in this organelle by Raman imaging.

  1. Photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, M; Klusmann, W; Gattermann, H; Massig, G; Peters, R

    1979-10-30

    Individual species of the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin, a retinal-protein complex of Halobacteria, were studied in aqueous suspensions of the "purple membrane" at room temperature by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with flow systems. Two pronounced deuterium shifts were found in the RR spectra of the all-trans complex BR-570 in H2O-D2O suspensions. The first is ascribed to C=NH+ (C=ND+) stretching vibrations of the protonated Schiff base which links retinal to opsin. The second is assigned tentatively to an "X-H" ("X-D") bending mode, where "X" is an atom which carries an exchangeable proton. A RR spectrum of the 13-cis-retinal complex "BR-548" could be deduced from spectra of the dark-adapted purple membrane. The RR spectrum of the M-412 intermediate was monitored in a double-beam pump-probe experiment. The main vibrational features of the intermediate M' in the reaction M-412 in equilibrium hv M' leads to delta BR-570 could be deduced from a photostationary mixture of M-412 and M'. Difference procedures were applied to obtain RR spectra of the L-550 intermediate and of two new long-lived species, R1'-590 and R2-550. From kinetic data it is suggested that T1'-590 links the proton-translocating cycle to the "13-cis" cycle of BR-548. The protonation and isomeric states of the different species are discussed in light of the new spectroscopic and kinetic data. It is found that conformational changes during the photochemical cycle play an important role.

  2. Potential drug - nanosensor conjugates: Raman, infrared absorption, surface - enhanced Raman, and density functional theory investigations of indolic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.

    2017-05-01

    An extremely important aspect of planning cancer treatment is not only the drug efficiency but also a number of challenges associated with the side effects and control of this process. That is why it is worth paying attention to the promising potential of the gold nanoparticles combined with a compound treated as a potential drug. This work presents Raman (RS), infrared absorption (IR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopic investigations of N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) and α-methyl-DL-tryptophan, regarding as anti breast cancer agents. The experimental spectroscopic analysis was supported by the quantum-chemical calculations based on the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP 6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The studied compounds were adsorbed onto two colloidal gold nanosensors synthesized by a chemical reduction method using sodium borohydride (SB) and trisodium citrate (TC), respectively. Its morphology characteristics were obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been suggested that the NH moiety from the aromatic ring, a well-known proton donor, causes the formation of hydrogen bonds with the negatively charged gold surface.

  3. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  4. Resonance Raman signature of intertube excitons in compositionally-defined carbon nanotube bundles.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jeffrey R; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Duque, Juan G; Hároz, Erik H; Crochet, Jared J; Telg, Hagen; Piryatinski, Andrei; Walker, Angela R Hight; Doorn, Stephen K

    2018-02-12

    Electronic interactions in low-dimensional nanomaterial heterostructures can lead to novel optical responses arising from exciton delocalization over the constituent materials. Similar phenomena have been suggested to arise between closely interacting semiconducting carbon nanotubes of identical structure. Such behavior in carbon nanotubes has potential to generate new exciton physics, impact exciton transport mechanisms in nanotube networks, and place nanotubes as one-dimensional models for such behaviors in systems of higher dimensionality. Here we use resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe intertube interactions in (6,5) chirality-enriched bundles. Raman excitation profiles for the radial breathing mode and G-mode display a previously unobserved sharp resonance feature. We show the feature is evidence for creation of intertube excitons and is identified as a Fano resonance arising from the interaction between intratube and intertube excitons. The universality of the model suggests that similar Raman excitation profile features may be observed for interlayer exciton resonances in 2D multilayered systems.

  5. Self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering using plasmon waveguide resonance for surface and bulk sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiu-mei; Gao, Ran; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2018-01-01

    Surface plasmon-coupled emission has been widely used in fluorescence imaging, biochemical sensing, and enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering for simultaneous detection of surface and bulk effects by using plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) based surface plasmon-coupled emission has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Raman scattering was captured on the prism side in Kretschmann-surface plasmon-coupled emission. The distinct penetration depths (δ) of the evanescent field for the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes result in different detected distances of the Raman signal. The experimental results demonstrate that the self-referenced directional enhanced Raman scattering of the TE and TM modes based on the PWR can detect and distinguish the surface and bulk effects simultaneously, which appears to have potential applications in researches of chemistry, medicine, and biology.

  6. Performance comparison of single and dual-excitation-wavelength resonance-Raman explosives detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; Martin, Robert; Witt, Kenneth; McCormick, William; Wu, Hai-Shan; Sluch, Mikhail; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy is a very useful approach for standoff detection of explosive traces. Using two simultaneous excitation wavelengths improves the specificity and sensitivity to standoff explosive detection. The High Technology Foundation developed a highly compact prototype of resonance Raman explosives detector. In this work, we discuss the relative performance of a dual-excitation sensor compared to a single-excitation sensor. We present trade space analysis comparing three representative Raman systems with similar size, weight, and power. The analysis takes into account, cost, spectral resolution, detection/identification time and the overall system benefit.

  7. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  8. Identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject using resonant raman signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor); Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods and systems of the present invention identify the presence of and/or the concentration of a selected analyte in a subject by: (a) illuminating a selected region of the eye of a subject with an optical excitation beam, wherein the excitation beam wavelength is selected to generate a resonant Raman spectrum of the selected analyte with a signal strength that is at least 100 times greater than Raman spectrums generated by non-resonant wavelengths and/or relative to signals of normal constituents present in the selected region of the eye; (b) detecting a resonant Raman spectrum corresponding to the selected illuminated region of the eye; and (c) identifying the presence, absence and/or the concentration of the selected analyte in the subject based on said detecting step. The apparatus may also be configured to be able to obtain biometric data of the eye to identify (confirm the identity of) the subject.

  9. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: The bK(590) intermediate.

    PubMed

    Terner, J; Hsieh, C L; Burns, A R; El-Sayed, M A

    1979-07-01

    We have combined microbeam and flow techniques with computer subtraction methods to obtain the resonance Raman spectrum of the short lived batho-intermediate (bK(590)) of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of the spectra obtained in (1)H(2)O and (2)H(2)O, as well as the fact that the bK(590) intermediate shows large optical red shifts, suggests that the Schiff base linkage of this intermediate is protonated. The fingerprint region of the spectrum of bK(590), sensitive to the isomeric configuration of the retinal chromophore, does not resemble the corresponding region of the parent bR(570) form. The resonance Raman spectrum of bK(590) as well as the spectra of all of the other main intermediates in the photoreaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are discussed and compared with resonance Raman spectra of published model compounds.

  10. Rejection of fluorescence background in resonance and spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary J; Knorr, Florian; Pagba, Cynthia V; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2011-05-18

    Raman spectroscopy is often plagued by a strong fluorescent background, particularly for biological samples. If a sample is excited with a train of ultrafast pulses, a system that can temporally separate spectrally overlapping signals on a picosecond timescale can isolate promptly arriving Raman scattered light from late-arriving fluorescence light. Here we discuss the construction and operation of a complex nonlinear optical system that uses all-optical switching in the form of a low-power optical Kerr gate to isolate Raman and fluorescence signals. A single 808 nm laser with 2.4 W of average power and 80 MHz repetition rate is split, with approximately 200 mW of 808 nm light being converted to < 5 mW of 404 nm light sent to the sample to excite Raman scattering. The remaining unconverted 808 nm light is then sent to a nonlinear medium where it acts as the pump for the all-optical shutter. The shutter opens and closes in 800 fs with a peak efficiency of approximately 5%. Using this system we are able to successfully separate Raman and fluorescence signals at an 80 MHz repetition rate using pulse energies and average powers that remain biologically safe. Because the system has no spare capacity in terms of optical power, we detail several design and alignment considerations that aid in maximizing the throughput of the system. We also discuss our protocol for obtaining the spatial and temporal overlap of the signal and pump beams within the Kerr medium, as well as a detailed protocol for spectral acquisition. Finally, we report a few representative results of Raman spectra obtained in the presence of strong fluorescence using our time-gating system.

  11. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas.

    PubMed

    Britun, Nikolay; Michiels, Matthieu; Snyders, Rony

    2015-12-01

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called "dynamic source triggering," between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  12. Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cocaine in oral fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Valentina; Montalvo, Gemma; Ruiz, Carmen García; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V.; Ahmed, Yasmine; Lednev, Igor K.

    2018-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying cocaine in oral fluid is of significant importance for practical forensics. Up to date, mainly destructive methods or biochemical tests have been used, while spectroscopic methods were only applied to pretreated samples. In this work, the possibility of using resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect cocaine in oral fluid without pretreating samples was tested. It was found that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy with 239-nm excitation allows for the detection of cocaine in oral fluid at 10 μg/mL level. Further method development will be needed for reaching the practically useful levels of cocaine detection.

  13. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. [thermodynamic feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Pechersky, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    Basic tutorial article on the thermodynamic feasibility of laser engines at the present state of the art. Three main options are considered: (1) laser power applied externally to a heat reservoir (boiler approach); (2) internal heating of working fluid by resonance absorption; and (3) direct conversion of selective excitation into work. Only (2) is considered practically feasible at present. Basic concepts and variants, efficiency relations, upper temperature limits of laser engines, selection of absorbing gases, engine walls, bleaching, thermodynamic cycles of optimized laser engines, laser-powered turbines, laser heat pumps are discussed. Photon engines and laser dissociation engines are also considered.

  14. Unveiling the Aggregation of Lycopene in Vitro and in Vivo: UV-Vis, Resonance Raman, and Raman Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Mika; Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Zhang, Leilei; Hashimoto, Hideki; Genkawa, Takuma; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-08-31

    The present study investigates the structure of lycopene aggregates both in vitro and in vivo using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Raman spectroscopies. The electronic absorption bands of the J- and H-aggregates in vitro shift to lower and higher energies, respectively, compared to that of the lycopene monomer. Along with these results, the frequencies of the ν 1 Raman bands were shifted to lower and higher frequencies, respectively. By plotting the frequencies of the ν 1 Raman band against the S 0 → S 2 transition energy, a linear relationship between the data set with different aggregation conformations can be obtained. Therefore, the band positions depending on the different conformations can be explained based on the idea that the effective conjugated C═C chain lengths within lycopene molecules are different due to the environmental effect (site-shift effect) caused by the aggregation conformation. Applying this knowledge to the in vivo measurement of a tomato fruit sample, the relationship between the aggregation conformation of lycopene and the spectral patterns observed in the UV-vis as well as Raman spectra in different parts of tomato fruits was discussed in detail. The results showed that the concentration of lycopene (particularly that of the J-aggregate) specifically increased, whereas that of chlorophyll decreased, with ripening. Furthermore, Raman imaging indicated that lycopene with different aggregate conformations was distributed inhomogeneously, even within one sample. The layer formation in tomato tissues with high concentrations of J- and H-aggregates was successfully visualized. In this manner, the presence of lycopene distributions with different aggregate conformations was unveiled in vivo.

  15. Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator for low frequency absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Passive acoustic liners, used in aeronautic engine nacelles to reduce radiated fan noise, have a quarter-wavelength behavior, because of perforated sheets backed by honeycombs (with one or two degrees of freedom). However, their acoustic absorption ability is naturally limited to medium and high frequencies because of constraints in thickness. The low ratio "plate thickness/hole diameter" generates impedance levels dependent on the incident sound pressure level and the grazing mean flow (by a mechanism of nonlinear dissipation through vortex shedding), which penalises the optimal design of liners. The aim of this paper is to overcome this problem by a concept called LEONAR ("Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator"), in which a perforated plate is coupled with tubes of variable lengths inserted in a limited volume of a back cavity. To do this, experimental and theoretical studies, using different types of liners (material nature, hole diameter, tube length, cavity thickness) are described in this paper. It is shown that the impedance can be precisely determined with an analytical approach based on parallel transfer matrices of tubes coupled to the cavity. Moreover, the introduction of tubes in a cavity of a conventional resonator generates a significant shift in the frequency range of absorption towards lower frequencies or allows a reduction of cavity thickness. The impedance is practically independent of sound pressure level because of a high ratio "tube length/tube hole diameter". Finally, a test led in an aeroacoustic bench suggests that a grazing flow at a bulk Mach number of 0.3 has little impact on the impedance value. These first results allow considering these resonators with linear behavior as an alternative to classical resonators, in particular, as needed for future Ultra High Bypass Ratio engines with shorter and thinner nacelles.

  16. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

  17. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Robert P.; Olbright, Gregory R.; Brennan, Thomas M.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer.

  18. Resonance Raman investigation of the photoreduction of methylviologen with Ru(bpy) 2+3 and proflavine as sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Martin; Hester, Ronald E.

    1982-01-01

    Reduced methylviologen (MV +) is detected by conventional resonance Raman spectroscopy in photoreactions of Ru(bpy) 2+3 or proflavine (PFH +) with MV 2+ Using apparatus for modulated excitation resonance Raman (MERR) spectroscopy, the irreversible MV + production with PFH + as sensitizer is traced back to triplet-triplet annihilation with simultaneous destruction of PFH +.

  19. UV resonance Raman finds peptide bond-Arg side chain electronic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhavya; Asher, Sanford A

    2011-05-12

    We measured the UV resonance Raman excitation profiles and Raman depolarization ratios of the arginine (Arg) vibrations of the amino acid monomer as well as Arg in the 21-residue predominantly alanine peptide AAAAA(AAARA)(3)A (AP) between 194 and 218 nm. Excitation within the π → π* peptide bond electronic transitions result in UVRR spectra dominated by amide peptide bond vibrations. The Raman cross sections and excitation profiles indicate that the Arg side chain electronic transitions mix with the AP peptide bond electronic transitions. The Arg Raman bands in AP exhibit Raman excitation profiles similar to those of the amide bands in AP which are conformation specific. These Arg excitation profiles distinctly differ from the Arg monomer. The Raman depolarization ratios of Arg in monomeric solution are quite simple with ρ = 0.33 indicating enhancement by a single electronic transition. In contrast, we see very complex depolarization ratios of Arg in AP that indicate that the Arg residues are resonance enhanced by multiple electronic transitions.

  20. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Extreme Nanowires and Other 1D Systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David C.; Spencer, Joseph H.; Sloan, Jeremy; McDonnell, Liam P.; Trewhitt, Harrison; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Faulques, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly describes how nanowires with diameters corresponding to 1 to 5 atoms can be produced by melting a range of inorganic solids in the presence of carbon nanotubes. These nanowires are extreme in the sense that they are the limit of miniaturization of nanowires and their behavior is not always a simple extrapolation of the behavior of larger nanowires as their diameter decreases. The paper then describes the methods required to obtain Raman spectra from extreme nanowires and the fact that due to the van Hove singularities that 1D systems exhibit in their optical density of states, that determining the correct choice of photon excitation energy is critical. It describes the techniques required to determine the photon energy dependence of the resonances observed in Raman spectroscopy of 1D systems and in particular how to obtain measurements of Raman cross-sections with better than 8% noise and measure the variation in the resonance as a function of sample temperature. The paper describes the importance of ensuring that the Raman scattering is linearly proportional to the intensity of the laser excitation intensity. It also describes how to use the polarization dependence of the Raman scattering to separate Raman scattering of the encapsulated 1D systems from those of other extraneous components in any sample. PMID:27168195

  1. Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

    2012-06-01

    We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

  2. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy of black dyes on textiles.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Smith, John R Lindsay; Moore, John N

    2010-10-10

    Resonance Raman and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded from samples of cotton, viscose, polyester, nylon, and acrylic textile swatches dyed black with one of seven single dyes, a mixture of two dyes, or one of seven mixtures of three dyes. The samples generally gave characteristic Raman spectra of the dyes, demonstrating that the technique is applicable for the forensic analysis of dyed black textiles. Survey studies of the widely used dye Reactive Black 5 show that essentially the same Raman spectrum is obtained on bulk sampling from the dye in solution, on viscose, on cotton at different uptakes, and on microscope sampling from the dye in cotton threads and single fibres. The effects of laser irradiation on the Raman bands and emission backgrounds from textile samples with and without dye are also reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo macular pigment measurements: a comparison of resonance Raman spectroscopy and heterochromatic flicker photometry

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, R E; Anderson, R S; Stevenson, M R; Zlatkova, M B; Chakravarthy, U

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether two methods of measuring macular pigment—namely, heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS)—yield comparable data. Methods Macular pigment was measured using HFP and RRS in the right eye of 107 participants aged 20–79 years. Correlations between methods were sought and regression models generated. RRS was recorded as Raman counts and HFP as macular pigment optical density (MPOD). The average of the top three of five Raman counts was compared with MPOD obtained at 0.5° eccentricity, and an integrated measure (spatial profile; MPODsp) computed from four stimulus sizes on HFP. Results The coefficient of variation was 12.0% for MPODsp and 13.5% for Raman counts. MPODsp exhibited significant correlations with Raman counts (r = 0.260, p = 0.012), whereas MPOD at 0.5° did not correlate significantly (r = 0.163, p = 0.118). MPODsp was not significantly correlated with age (p = 0.062), whereas MPOD at 0.5° was positively correlated (p = 0.011). Raman counts showed a significant decrease with age (p = 0.002) and were significantly lower when pupil size was smaller (p = 0.015). Conclusions Despite a statistically significant correlation, the correlations were weak, with those in excess of 90% of the variance between MPODsp and Raman counts remaining unexplained, meriting further research. PMID:16825281

  4. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trapmore » and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.« less

  5. Nonlinear THz absorption and cyclotron resonance in InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Kate; Yu, Shukai; Talbayev, Diyar

    The emergence of coherent high-field terahertz (THz) sources in the past decade has allowed the exploration of nonlinear light-matter interaction at THz frequencies. Nonlinear THz response of free electrons in semiconductors has received a great deal of attention. Such nonlinear phenomena as saturable absorption and self-phase modulation have been reported. InSb is a narrow-gap (bandgap 0.17 eV) semiconductor with a very low electron effective mass and high electron mobility. Previous high-field THz work on InSb reported the observation of ultrafast electron cascades via impact ionization. We study the transmission of an intense THz electric field pulse by an InSb wafer at different incident THz amplitudes and 10 K temperature. Contrary to previous reports, we observe an increased transmission at higher THz field. Our observation appears similar to the saturable THz absorption reported in other semiconductors. Along with the increased absorption, we observe a strong modulation of the THz phase at high incident fields, most likely due to the self-phase modulation of the THz pulse. We also study the dependence of the cyclotron resonance on the incident THz field amplitude. The cyclotron resonance exhibits a lower strength and frequency at the higher incident THz field. The work at Tulane was supported by the Louisiana Board of Regents through the Board of Regents Support Fund Contract No. LEQSF(2012-15)-RD-A-23 and through the Pilot Funding for New Research (PFund) Contract No. LEQSF-EPS(2014)-PFUND-378.

  6. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Silica Whispering-Gallery Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to have robust spectroscopic sensors for sensitive detection and chemical analysis of organic and molecular compounds. The solution is to use silica sphere optical resonators to provide surface-enhanced spectroscopic signal. Whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators made from silica microspheres were used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) without coupling to a plasmonic mechanism. Large Raman signal enhancement is observed by exclusively using 5.08-micron silica spheres with 785-nm laser excitation. The advantage of this non-plasmonic approach is that the active substrate is chemically inert silica, thermally stable, and relatively simple to fabricate. The Raman signal enhancement is broadly applicable to a wide range of molecular functional groups including aliphatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and esters. Applications include trace organic analysis, particularly for in situ planetary instruments that require robust sensors with consistent response.

  7. Enhancement of multiple-phonon resonant Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Vincent, Roger; Cherns, David; Dan, Nguyen Huy; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2008-08-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal diffusion. Experimental results show that the features of their non-resonant spectra are similar to Raman spectra from Co-doped ZnO materials investigated previously. Under resonant conditions, however, there is a strong enhancement of multiple-phonon Raman scattering processes. Longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon overtones up to eleventh order are observed. The modes become more obvious when the Co concentration diffused into ZnO nanorods goes to an appropriate value. This phenomenon is explained due to the shift of the band-gap energy and also due to the decrease in the intensity of near-band-edge luminescence. Our observation is in agreement with the prediction [J. F. Scott, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1209 (1970)] that the number of LO-phonon lines in ZnO is higher than that observed for CdS.

  8. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the theory of resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy as it applies to beta-carotene and lycopene pigments (found in tomatoes and carrots, respectively). Also discusses an experiment which demonstrates the theoretical principles involved. The experiment has been tested over a three-year period and has received excellent acceptance by physical…

  9. Evidence of Intertube Excitons Observed in the Raman Resonance Excitation Profiles of (6 , 5) -Enriched SWCNT Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Roslyak, O.; Haroz, E.; Telg, H.; Duque, J. G.; Crochet, J. J.; Piryatinkski, A.; Doorn, S. K.

    Understanding the photophysics of exciton behavior in single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles remains important for opto-electronic device applications. We report resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) measurements on (6 , 5) -enriched SWCNTs, dispersed in aqueous solutions and separated using density gradient ultracentrifugation into fractions of increasing bundle size. Near-IR to UV absorption spectroscopy demonstrates a redshift and broadening of the main excitonic transitions with bundling. A continuously tunable dye laser coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer affords measurement of Raman resonance excitation profiles (REPs) over a range of wavelengths, (505 to 585) nm, covering the (6 , 5) -E22S excitation. REPs of both the radial breathing mode (RBM) and GLO+reveal a redshifting and broadening of the (6 , 5) E22S transition energy with increasing bundle size. Most interestingly, we observe an additional peak in both the RBM and GLO+REPs of bundled SWCNTs, which is shifted lower in energy than the main E22S and is anomalously narrow. We attribute this additional peak to a transverse, intertube exciton.

  10. Preliminary identification of unicellular algal genus by using combined confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with PCA and DPLS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Ping; Fang, Shaoxi; Li, Zhe; Tang, Peng; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong; Tlili, Chaker; Wang, Deqiang

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of algae and dominant alga plays important roles in ecological and environmental fields since it can be used to forecast water bloom and control its potential deleterious effects. Herein, we combine in vivo confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis methods to preliminary identify the three algal genera in water blooms at unicellular scale. Statistical analysis of characteristic Raman peaks demonstrates that certain shifts and different normalized intensities, resulting from composition of different carotenoids, exist in Raman spectra of three algal cells. Principal component analysis (PCA) scores and corresponding loading weights show some differences from Raman spectral characteristics which are caused by vibrations of carotenoids in unicellular algae. Then, discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification method is used to verify the effectiveness of algal identification with confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA and DPLS could handle the preliminary identification of dominant alga for forecasting and controlling of water blooms.

  11. Resonance Raman spectra of organic molecules absorbed on inorganic semiconducting surfaces: Contribution from both localized intramolecular excitation and intermolecular charge transfer excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, ChuanXiang; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: liangwz@xmu.edu.cn; Liang, WanZhen, E-mail: yizhao@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: liangwz@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-10-21

    The time-dependent correlation function approach for the calculations of absorption and resonance Raman spectra (RRS) of organic molecules absorbed on semiconductor surfaces [Y. Zhao and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044108 (2011)] is extended to include the contribution of the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitation from the absorbers to the semiconducting nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that the bidirectionally interfacial CT significantly modifies the spectral line shapes. Although the intermolecular CT excitation makes the absorption spectra red shift slightly, it essentially changes the relative intensities of mode-specific RRS and causes the oscillation behavior of surface enhanced Raman spectra withmore » respect to interfacial electronic couplings. Furthermore, the constructive and destructive interferences of RRS from the localized molecular excitation and CT excitation are observed with respect to the electronic coupling and the bottom position of conductor band. The interferences are determined by both excitation pathways and bidirectionally interfacial CT.« less

  12. Time Resolved Resonance Raman Conference Royal Institution, London United Kingdom,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Royal Institution, London U. K. Pell Laboratories 1 urray Hill, New Jersey 07974 S he purpose of the conference was to brinq together a group of...Pdman crosrsection. _ $ 1EELI- This dcunant has been eyptoved Lf ? p bli7: r:lease and sale; Us D I tibution is uAiAt. r - ., ~~- rw r- r -w-r 2. Raman...bacteriorhodopsin are closesly connected with the polyenes since the bacteriorhodopsin chro-ophose consists of a protonated shift base polyene. It is of interest to

  13. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configurationmore » of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.« less

  14. Mechanisms of resonant low frequency Raman scattering from metallic nanoparticle Lamb modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, A.; Lermé, J.; Gehan, H.; Margueritat, J.; Mermet, A.

    2017-05-01

    The low frequency Raman scattering from gold nanoparticle bimodal assemblies with controlled size distributions has been studied. Special care has been paid to determining the size dependence of the Raman intensity corresponding to the quadrupolar Lamb mode. Existing models based on a microscopic description of the scattering mechanism in small particles (bond polarizability, dipole induced dipole models) predict, for any Raman-active Lamb modes, an inelastic intensity scaling as the volume of the nanoparticle. Surprisingly experimental intensity ratios are found to be anomalously much greater than theoretical ones, calling into question this scaling law. To explain these discrepancies, a simple mechanism of Raman scattering, based on the density fluctuations in the nanoparticles induced by the Lamb modes, is introduced. This modeling, in which the nanoparticle is described as an elastic isotropic continuous medium—as in Lamb theory, successfully explains the major features exhibited by low frequency Raman modes. Moreover this model provides a unified picture for any material, suitable for handling both small and large size ranges, as well as non-resonant and resonant excitation conditions in the case of metallic species.

  15. Detection of aniline oligomers on polyaniline-gold interface using resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Dybal, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-22

    In situ deposited conducting polyaniline films prepared by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in aqueous media of various acidities on gold and silicon supports were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman bands were found in the spectra of polyaniline films produced in the solutions of weak acids or in water on gold surface. These bands were weak for the films prepared in solutions of a strong acid on a gold support. The same bands are present in the Raman spectra of the reaction intermediates deposited during aniline oxidation in water or aqueous solutions of weak or strong acids on silicon removed from the reaction mixture at the beginning of the reaction. Such films are formed by aniline oligomers adsorbed on the surface. They were detected on the polyaniline-gold interface using resonance Raman scattering on the final films deposited on gold. The surface resonance Raman spectroscopy of the monolayer of oligomers found in the bulk polyaniline film makes this method advantageous in surface science, with many applications in electrochemistry, catalysis, and biophysical, polymer, or analytical chemistry.

  16. Resonance Raman spectroscopic and density functional theory study of p-nitroacetophenone (PNAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Kemei; Ma, Yufang; Zheng, Xuming; Li, Haiyang

    2007-03-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of p-nitroacetophenone(PNAP) have been obtained in resonance with the charge-transfer (CT) band using 252.7, 266 and 273.9 nm in methanol solvent. The spectra indicate that the Franck-Condon region photodissociation dynamics have multidimensional character with motion mainly along the C dbnd O stretching ν8(1691 cm -1) and the benzene ring stretch ν10(1593 cm -1). A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and the results for PNAP were compared with nitrobenzene and aceptophenone. Our results indicate that -NO 2 is more photoactive than -COCH 3. The isomerization process of PNAP takes place somewhere after the wave packet leaves the Franck-Condon region.

  17. Fully ab initio calculation of the resonant one-phonon Raman intensity of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, Sven; Wirtz, Ludger

    We developed a fully ab initio, many-body perturbation theory approach for the calculation of resonant, one-phonon Raman spectra. Our general approach is applicable to any material and here we present its application to the case of graphene. Our diagrammatic, first-principles approach allows us to go beyond and improve on an earlier theoretical study by Basko, which relied on an analytical calculation in certain limits. We investigate the dependence of the G peak intensity on both the excitation energy and Fermi level. Furthermore, our method allows us to identify the relevant electronic quantum pathways and to demonstrate the importance of the contributions from non-resonant electronic transitions. We also applied our approach to the calculation of the resonant one-phonon Raman spectrum of MoS2, with our results being in good agreement with experimental data. SR acknowledges financial support from the National Research Fund (FNR) Luxembourg.

  18. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch modemore » frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.« less

  19. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.

  20. Rotamer-Specific Photoisomerization of Difluorostilbenes from Transient Absorption and Transient Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Quick, M; Dobryakov, A L; Ioffe, I N; Berndt, F; Mahrwald, R; Ernsting, N P; Kovalenko, S A

    2018-01-25

    Photoisomerization of 2,2'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-difluorostilbene (F2, F3, F4, respectively) in n-hexane, perfluoro-n-hexane, and acetonitrile is studied with broadband transient absorption (TA) and femtosecond stimulated Raman (FSR) spectroscopy and by DFT/TDDFT calculations. F2 and F3 possess three rotamers (rotational isomers) each, while F4 has one single conformation only. These differences are reflected in TA and FSR spectra. Thus F4 reveals a monoexponential decay of TA with τ 1 = 172 ps in n-hexane, as expected for a single species. For F2 and F3, the decays are biexponential in all solvents, corresponding to two distinctly discerned rotamers or rotamer fractions. Specifically, for F2 in n-hexane, τ 1 = 357 ps (83%) and τ 2 = 62 ps (17%), and for F3 in the same solvent, τ 1 = 222 ps (57%), and τ 2 = 81 ps (43%). The weights in brackets agree with theoretically estimated ground-state abundances of the rotamers. Furthermore, a global fit of the TA and FSR data allows us to extract the spectra of the pure rotamers. The Raman spectra of S 0 and S 1 are in qualitative agreement with calculations.

  1. Optical Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy of Multiple Shocked Liquid Benzene to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, S.

    2005-07-01

    Liquid benzene samples were multiply shocked to peak pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa to examine physical and chemical changes in benzene. A xenon flashlamp was used to probe the visible spectrum of benzene for loses in transmitted light intensity caused by changes in the electronic structure (absorption) or a possible liquid to solid phase transition (scattering). Raman spectroscopy was used to corroborate transmission measurements by examining changes in the benzene vibrational modes. The C-C symmetric ring breathing mode (992 cm-1), C-H symmetric stretch (3061 cm-1), along with several weaker modes at 607 cm-1, 1178 cm-1, 1586 cm-1, and 1606 cm-1 were monitored during shock loading. An EOS was developed to calculate the temperature of the shock compressed benzene. The present work has demonstrated that liquid benzene remains unchanged during multiple shock loading up to 10 GPa. Work supported by ONR and DOE.

  2. Development of a fiber based Raman probe compatible with interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Rube, Martin; Cox, Benjamin; Melzer, Andreas; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for discriminating between normal and abnormal tissue types. Fiber based Raman probes have demonstrated its potential for in vivo disease diagnostics. Combining Raman spectroscopy with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) opens up new avenues for MR guided minimally invasive optical biopsy. Although Raman probes are commercially available, they are not compatible with a MRI environment due to the metallic components which are used to align the micro-optic components such as filters and lenses at the probe head. Additionally they are not mechanically compatible with a typical surgical environment as factors such as sterility and length of the probe are not addressed in those designs. We have developed an MRI compatible fiber Raman probe with a disposable probe head hence maintaining sterility. The probe head was specially designed to avoid any material that would cause MR imaging artefacts. The probe head that goes into patient's body had a diameter <1.5 mm so that it is compatible with biopsy needles and catheters. The probe has been tested in MR environment and has been proven to be capable of obtaining Raman signal while the probe is under real-time MR guidance.

  3. Polarization-Dependent Ti 2p-Resonant X-ray Raman Scattering from Ti2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Nobuo; Adachi, Jun-ichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Sato, Hitoshi; Uozumi, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    Detailed resonant X-ray emission spectra (XES) and these polarization dependences of Ti2O3 were obtained by excitation at the Ti 2p absorption edge. About 100 XES spectra were observed in different polarization configurations. X-ray Raman scattering spectra showed two types of crystal field (dd) excitations as well as charge-transfer (CT) excitations. Bulk states of the powder sample were obtained by the XES measurement, which is the photon-in/photon-out method. Partial photon yields (PPYs) of some elementary excitations were extracted from the XES spectra. The CT excitations were hidden in total electron yield spectra, but these were revealed by PPY measurements. Symmetry information of these excitations was acquired on the basis of polarization dependences.

  4. Characterization of DNA isolated from normal and cancerous ovarian tissues by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaojie; Vinson, Michael A.; Malins, Donald C.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2000-05-01

    We report significant differences in UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of DNA samples from normal and cancerous tissues. The four bases of DNA, adenosine, thymine, guanosine and cytidine, can be enhanced in UVRR spectra, and their intensities are very sensitive to base stacking and DNA H-bonding. 14 DNA samples from patients at different stages of ovarian cancer, 5 from normal, 2 from primary, 3 from metastasis primary and 4 from distant metastasis tumor tissues, were characterized by 257, 238, 229, 220 and 210 nm-excited UVRR spectra. Raman spectral difference between normal and tumor DNA could be readily detected.

  5. Resonant Raman scattering of double wall carbon nanotubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Lijie; Zhou, Zhenping; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liu, Dongfang; Yuan, Huajun; Song, Li; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jianxiong; Liu, Lifeng; Zhou, Weiya; Wang, Gang; Xie, Sishen; Tan, Pingheng

    2003-11-01

    Resonant Raman spectra of double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), with diameters from 0.4 to 3.0 nm, were investigated with several laser excitations. The peak position and line shape of Raman bands were shown to be strongly dependent on the laser energies. With different excitations, the diameter and chirality of the DWCNTs can be discussed in detail. We show that tubes (the inner or outer layers of DWCNTs) with all kinds of chiralities could be synthesized, and a DWCNT can have any combination of chiralities of the inner and outer tubes.

  6. Analytical model for atomic resonant attosecond transient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariker, C.; Kjellson, T.; Lindroth, E.; Argenti, L.

    2017-04-01

    Recent advancements in ultrafast laser technology have made it possible to probe electron dynamics in highly excited atomic states that autoionize on a femtosecond timescale, thus giving insight into the dynamics of Auger decay and its interference with the continuum. These experiments provide a stringent test for time-resolved analytical models of autoionization. Here we present a finite-pulse, multi-photon perturbative model which is used in conjunction with ab-initio structure calculations to predict the attosecond transient absorption spectrum (ATAS) of an atom above the ionization threshold. We apply this model to compute the ATAS of argon in the vicinity of the 3s-1 4 p resonance as a function of the time delay between an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and an infrared (IR) pulse, as well as of the angle between their polarization. We show that by modulating the parameters of the IR pulse it is possible to control the dipolar coupling between neighboring states and hence the lineshape of the 3s-1 4 p resonance. NSF Grant No. 1607588.

  7. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  8. Resonance Raman signature of intertube excitons in compositionally-defined carbon nanotube bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Duque, Juan G.

    Electronic interactions in low-dimensional nanomaterial heterostructures can lead to novel optical responses arising from exciton delocalization over the constituent materials. Similar phenomena have been suggested to arise between closely interacting semiconducting carbon nanotubes of identical structure. Such behavior in carbon nanotubes has potential to generate new exciton physics, impact exciton transport mechanisms in nanotube networks, and place nanotubes as one-dimensional models for such behaviors in systems of higher dimensionality. Here we use resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe intertube interactions in (6,5) chirality-enriched bundles. Raman excitation profiles for the radial breathing mode and G-mode display a previously unobserved sharp resonance feature.more » We show the feature is evidence for creation of intertube excitons and is identified as a Fano resonance arising from the interaction between intratube and intertube excitons. The universality of the model suggests that similar Raman excitation profile features may be observed for interlayer exciton resonances in 2D multilayered systems.« less

  9. Resonance Raman signature of intertube excitons in compositionally-defined carbon nanotube bundles

    DOE PAGES

    Simpson, Jeffrey R.; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Duque, Juan G.; ...

    2018-02-12

    Electronic interactions in low-dimensional nanomaterial heterostructures can lead to novel optical responses arising from exciton delocalization over the constituent materials. Similar phenomena have been suggested to arise between closely interacting semiconducting carbon nanotubes of identical structure. Such behavior in carbon nanotubes has potential to generate new exciton physics, impact exciton transport mechanisms in nanotube networks, and place nanotubes as one-dimensional models for such behaviors in systems of higher dimensionality. Here we use resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe intertube interactions in (6,5) chirality-enriched bundles. Raman excitation profiles for the radial breathing mode and G-mode display a previously unobserved sharp resonance feature.more » We show the feature is evidence for creation of intertube excitons and is identified as a Fano resonance arising from the interaction between intratube and intertube excitons. The universality of the model suggests that similar Raman excitation profile features may be observed for interlayer exciton resonances in 2D multilayered systems.« less

  10. Cancer imaging using Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Stefan; Wall, Matthew A.; Huang, Ruimin

    2017-01-01

    The unique spectral signatures and biologically inert compositions of surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman scattering (SE(R)RS) nanoparticles make them promising contrast agents for in vivo cancer imaging. Subtle aspects of their preparation can shift their limit of detection by orders of magnitude. In this protocol, we present the optimized, step-by-step procedure for generating reproducible SERRS nanoparticles with femtomolar (10−15 M) limits of detection. We introduce several applications of these nanoprobes for biomedical research, with a focus on intraoperative cancer imaging via Raman imaging. A detailed account is provided for successful intravenous administration of SERRS nanoparticles such that delineation of cancerous lesions may be achieved without the need for specific biomarker targeting. The time estimate for this straightforward, yet comprehensive protocol from initial de novo gold nanoparticle synthesis to SE(R)RS nanoparticle contrast-enhanced preclinical Raman imaging in animal models is ~96 h. PMID:28686581

  11. Characterization and discrimination of human breast cancer and normal breast tissues using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Smith, Jason; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Xin; Alfano, Robert R.

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide breast cancer incidence has increased by more than twenty percent in the past decade. It is also known that in that time, mortality due to the affliction has increased by fourteen percent. Using optical-based diagnostic techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, has been explored in order to increase diagnostic accuracy in a more objective way along with significantly decreasing diagnostic wait-times. In this study, Raman spectroscopy with 532-nm excitation was used in order to incite resonance effects to enhance Stokes Raman scattering from unique biomolecular vibrational modes. Seventy-two Raman spectra (41 cancerous, 31 normal) were collected from nine breast tissue samples by performing a ten-spectra average using a 500-ms acquisition time at each acquisition location. The raw spectral data was subsequently prepared for analysis with background correction and normalization. The spectral data in the Raman Shift range of 750- 2000 cm-1 was used for analysis since the detector has highest sensitivity around in this range. The matrix decomposition technique nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) was then performed on this processed data. The resulting leave-oneout cross-validation using two selective feature components resulted in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 92.6%, 100% and 96.0% respectively. The performance of NMF was also compared to that using principal component analysis (PCA), and NMF was shown be to be superior to PCA in this study. This study shows that coupling the resonance Raman spectroscopy technique with subsequent NMF decomposition method shows potential for high characterization accuracy in breast cancer detection.

  12. Solution and solid trinitrotoluene (TNT) photochemistry: persistence of TNT-like ultraviolet (UV) resonance Raman bands.

    PubMed

    Gares, Katie L; Bykov, Sergei V; Godugu, Bhaskar; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-01-01

    We examined the 229 nm deep-ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectra of solution and solid-state trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its solution and solid-state photochemistry. Although TNT photodegrades with a solution quantum yield of ϕ ∼ 0.015, the initial photoproducts show DUVRR spectra extraordinarily similar to pure TNT, due to the similar photoproduct enhancement of the -NO2 stretching vibrations. This results in TNT-like DUVRR spectra even after complete TNT photolysis. These ultraviolet resonance Raman spectral bands enable DUVRR of trace as well as DUVRR standoff TNT detection. We determined the structure of various initial TNT photoproducts by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Similar TNT DUVRR spectra and photoproducts are observed in the solution and solid states.

  13. Fully reflective deep ultraviolet to near infrared spectrometer and entrance optics for resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, B.; Bäckström, J.; Budelmann, D.; Maeser, R.; Rübhausen, M.; Klein, M. V.; Schoeffel, E.; Mihill, A.; Yoon, S.

    2005-07-01

    We present the design and performance of a new triple-grating deep ultraviolet to near-infrared spectrometer. The system is fully achromatic due to the use of reflective optics. The minimization of image aberrations by using on- and off- axis parabolic mirrors as well as elliptical mirrors yields a strong stray light rejection with high resolution over a wavelength range between 165 and 1000nm. The Raman signal is collected with a reflective entrance objective with a numerical aperture of 0.5, featuring a Cassegrain-type design. Resonance Raman studies on semiconductors and on correlated compounds, such as LaMnO3, highlight the performance of this instrument, and show diverse resonance effects between 1.96 and 5.4eV.

  14. Photogenerated radical intermediates of vitamin K 1: a time-resolved resonance Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, G.; Umapathy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Quinones play a vital role in the process of electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. It is of interest to investigate the photochemical reactions involving quinones with a view to elucidating the structure-function relationships in the biological processes. Resonance Raman spectra of radical anions and the time-resolved resonance Raman spectra of vitamin K 1 (model compound for Q A in Rhodopseudomonas viridis, a bacterial photosynthetic reception center) are presented. The photochemical intermediates of vitamin K 1, viz. radical anion, ketyl radical and o-quinone methide have been identified. The vibrational assignments of all these intermediates are made on the basis of comparison with our earlier TR3 studies on radical anions of naphthoquinone and menaquinone.

  15. The Detection of Protein via ZnO Resonant Raman Scattering Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Guiye; Yang, Guoliang; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Yichun

    2008-03-01

    Detecting protein with high sensitivity and specificity is essential for disease diagnostics, drug screening and other application. Semiconductor nanoparticles show better properties than organic dye molecules when used as markers for optical measurements. We used ZnO nanoparticles as markers for detecting protein in resonant Raman scattering measurements. The highly sensitive detection of proteins was achieved by an antibody-based sandwich assay. A probe for the target protein was constructed by binding the ZnO/Au nanoparticles to a primary antibody by eletrostatic interaction between Au and the antibody. A secondary antibody, which could be specifically recognized by target protein, was attached to a solid surface. The ZnO/Au-antibody probe could specifically recognize and bind to the complex of the target protein and secondary antibody. Our measurements using the resonant Raman scattering signal of ZnO nanoparticles showed good selectivity and sensitivity for the target protein.

  16. Quantitative surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of phthalocyanine-labelled oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Macaskill, A.; Chernonosov, A. A.; Koval, V. V.; Lukyanets, E. A.; Fedorova, O. S.; Smith, W. E.; Faulds, K.; Graham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of phthalocyanine labels for the surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) detection of oligonucleotides is reported. Three phthalocyanine-labelled oligonucleotides were assessed, each containing a different metal centre. Detection limits for each labelled oligonucleotide were determined using two excitation frequencies where possible. Limits of detection as low as 2.8 × 10−11 mol. dm−3 were obtained which are comparable to standard fluorescently labelled probes used in previous SERRS studies. The identification of two phthalocyanine-labelled oligonucleotides without separation was also demonstrated indicating their suitability for multiplexing. This study extends the range of labels suitable for quantitative surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering with silver nanoparticles and offers more flexibility and choice when considering SERRS for quantitative DNA detection. PMID:17289751

  17. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  18. Femtosecond coherent nuclear dynamics of excited tetraphenylethylene: Ultrafast transient absorption and ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, Surajit; Roy, Khokan; Umapathy, Siva

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast torsional dynamics plays an important role in the photoinduced excited state dynamics. Tetraphenylethylene (TPE), a model system for the molecular motor, executes interesting torsional dynamics upon photoexcitation. The photoreaction of TPE involves ultrafast internal conversion via a nearly planar intermediate state (relaxed state) that further leads to a twisted zwitterionic state. Here, we report the photoinduced structural dynamics of excited TPE during the course of photoisomerization in the condensed phase by ultrafast Raman loss (URLS) and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. TA measurements on the S1 state reveal step-wise population relaxation from the Franck-Condon (FC) state → relaxed state → twisted state, while the URLS study provides insights on the vibrational dynamics during the course of the reaction. The TA spectral dynamics and vibrational Raman amplitudes within 1 ps reveal vibrational wave packet propagating from the FC state to the relaxed state. Fourier transformation of this oscillation leads to a ˜130 cm-1 low-frequency phenyl torsional mode. Two vibrational marker bands, Cet=Cet stretching (˜1512 cm-1) and Cph=Cph stretching (˜1584 cm-1) modes, appear immediately after photoexcitation in the URLS spectra. The initial red-shift of the Cph=Cph stretching mode with a time constant of ˜400 fs (in butyronitrile) is assigned to the rate of planarization of excited TPE. In addition, the Cet=Cet stretching mode shows initial blue-shift within 1 ps followed by frequency red-shift, suggesting that on the sub-picosecond time scale, structural relaxation is dominated by phenyl torsion rather than the central Cet=Cet twist. Furthermore, the effect of the solvent on the structural dynamics is discussed in the context of ultrafast nuclear dynamics and solute-solvent coupling.

  19. Femtosecond coherent nuclear dynamics of excited tetraphenylethylene: Ultrafast transient absorption and ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Surajit; Roy, Khokan; Umapathy, Siva

    2018-01-14

    Ultrafast torsional dynamics plays an important role in the photoinduced excited state dynamics. Tetraphenylethylene (TPE), a model system for the molecular motor, executes interesting torsional dynamics upon photoexcitation. The photoreaction of TPE involves ultrafast internal conversion via a nearly planar intermediate state (relaxed state) that further leads to a twisted zwitterionic state. Here, we report the photoinduced structural dynamics of excited TPE during the course of photoisomerization in the condensed phase by ultrafast Raman loss (URLS) and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. TA measurements on the S 1 state reveal step-wise population relaxation from the Franck-Condon (FC) state → relaxed state → twisted state, while the URLS study provides insights on the vibrational dynamics during the course of the reaction. The TA spectral dynamics and vibrational Raman amplitudes within 1 ps reveal vibrational wave packet propagating from the FC state to the relaxed state. Fourier transformation of this oscillation leads to a ∼130 cm -1 low-frequency phenyl torsional mode. Two vibrational marker bands, C et =C et stretching (∼1512 cm -1 ) and C ph =C ph stretching (∼1584 cm -1 ) modes, appear immediately after photoexcitation in the URLS spectra. The initial red-shift of the C ph =C ph stretching mode with a time constant of ∼400 fs (in butyronitrile) is assigned to the rate of planarization of excited TPE. In addition, the C et =C et stretching mode shows initial blue-shift within 1 ps followed by frequency red-shift, suggesting that on the sub-picosecond time scale, structural relaxation is dominated by phenyl torsion rather than the central C et =C et twist. Furthermore, the effect of the solvent on the structural dynamics is discussed in the context of ultrafast nuclear dynamics and solute-solvent coupling.

  20. Two-Dimensional Resonance Raman Signatures of Vibronic Coherence Transfer in Chemical Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenkun; Molesky, Brian P; Cheshire, Thomas P; Moran, Andrew M

    2017-11-02

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in condensed phase systems. 2DRR spectroscopy is motivated by knowledge of non-equilibrium effects that cannot be detected with traditional resonance Raman spectroscopy. For example, 2DRR spectra may reveal correlated distributions of reactant and product geometries in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this chapter, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide. We show that signatures of "vibronic coherence transfer" in the photodissociation process can be targeted with particular 2DRR pulse sequences. Key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopy techniques are also addressed. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest that it will be a valuable tool for elucidating ultrafast chemical reaction mechanisms.

  1. Maximizing the electromagnetic and chemical resonances of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2014-08-26

    Although surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has previously been performed with nucleic acids, the measured intensities for each nucleic acid have varied significantly depending on the SERS substrate and excitation wavelength. We have demonstrated that the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism, also known as the chemical enhancement of SERS, is responsible for the discrepancies previously reported in literature. The electronic states of cytosine and guanine attached to silver atoms are computationally calculated and experimentally measured to be in the visible range, which leads to a resonance Raman effect at the corresponding maximum wavelengths. The resulting SERS measurements are in good agreement with the simulated values, in which cytosine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 532 nm and guanine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 785 nm. An atomic layer of aluminum oxide is deposited on substrates to prevent charge-transfer, and corresponding measurements show weaker Raman signals caused by the suppression of the chemical resonance. These findings suggest the optimal SERS signal can be achieved by tuning the excitation wavelength to match both the electromagnetic and chemical resonances, paving the way for future single molecule detection of nucleic acids other than adenine.

  2. Silver Nanoparticle-Enhanced Resonance Raman Sensor of Chromium(III) in Seawater Samples.

    PubMed

    Ly, Nguyễn Hoàng; Joo, Sang-Woo

    2015-04-29

    Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Tris-EDTA), upon binding Cr(III) in aqueous solutions at pH 8.0 on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was found to provide a sensitive and selective Raman marker band at ~563 cm-1, which can be ascribed to the metal-N band. UV-Vis absorption spectra also supported the aggregation and structural change of EDTA upon binding Cr(III). Only for Cr(III) concentrations above 500 nM, the band at ~563 cm-1 become strongly intensified in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra. This band, due to the metal-EDTA complex, was not observed in the case of 50 mM of K+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Na+, Cu2+, NH4+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ ions. Seawater samples containing K, Mg, Ca, and Na ion concentrations higher than 8 mM also showed the characteristic Raman band at ~563 cm-1 above 500 nM, validating our method. Our approach may be useful in detecting real water samples by means of AgNPs and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Time-domain calculations of the polarized Raman spectra, the transient infrared absorption anisotropy, and the extent of delocalization of the OH stretching mode of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hajime

    2006-08-03

    The polarized Raman spectrum and the time dependence of the transient infrared (TRIR) absorption anisotropy are calculated for the OH stretching mode of liquid water (neat liquid H2O) by using time-domain formulations, which include the effects of both the diagonal frequency modulations (of individual oscillators) induced by the interactions between the dipole derivatives and the intermolecular electric field, and the off-diagonal (intermolecular) vibrational coupling described by the transition dipole coupling (TDC) mechanism. The IR spectrum of neat liquid H2O and the TRIR anisotropy of a liquid mixture of H2O/HDO/D2O are also calculated. It is shown that the calculated features of these optical signals, including the temperature dependence of the polarized Raman and IR spectra, are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the frequency separation between the isotropic and anisotropic components of the polarized Raman spectrum and the rapid decay (approximately 0.1 ps) of the TRIR anisotropy of the OH stretching mode of neat liquid H2O are mainly controlled by the resonant intermolecular vibrational coupling described by the TDC mechanism. Comparing with the time evolution of vibrational excitations, it is suggested that the TRIR anisotropy decays in the time needed for the initially localized vibrational excitations to delocalize over a few oscillators. It is also shown that the enhancement of the dipole derivatives by the interactions with surrounding molecules is an important factor in generating the spectral profiles of the OH stretching Raman band. The time-domain behavior of the molecular motions that affect the spectroscopic features is discussed.

  4. Tunable absorption enhancement in electric split-ring resonators-shaped graphene arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Jiajia; Zhou, Zigang; Yi, Zao; Ye, Xin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a wavelength-tunable absorber consisting of electric split-ring resonators (eSRRs)-shaped graphene arrays deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate in the far-infrared and terahertz regions. The simulation results exhibit that two resonance modes are supported by the structure. In terms of the resonance at longer wavelength, the light absorption declines while the period a or length L increases. However, absorption contrarily improves with enlargement of incident angle under the transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. And in terms of resonance at shorter wavelengths, absorption enhances with increasing length L and incident angle θ. Generally, the light absorption enhances with Fermi level E F of graphene, accompanied by blue shift. The aforementioned results unquestionably provide a distinctive source of inspiration for how to design and manufacture devices related to absorption such as filters, spatial light modulator and sensors.

  5. Resonant electronic Raman scattering of below-gap states in molecular-beam epitaxy grown and liquid-encapsulated Czochralski grown GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluegel, B.; Rice, A. D.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2018-05-01

    Resonant electronic Raman (ER) scattering is used to compare the below-gap excitations in molecular-beam epitaxially grown GaAs and in undoped semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The measurement geometry was designed to eliminate common measurement artifacts caused by the high optical transmission below the fundamental absorption edge. In epitaxial GaAs, ER is a clear Raman signal from the two-electron transitions of donors, eliminating an ambiguity encountered in previous results. In semi-insulating GaAs, ER occurs in a much broader dispersive band well below the bound exciton energies. The difference in the two materials may be due to the occupation of the substrate acceptor states in the presence of the midgap state EL2.

  6. Resonant electronic Raman scattering of below-gap states in molecular-beam epitaxy grown and liquid-encapsulated Czochralski grown GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, B.; Rice, A. D.; Mascarenhas, A.

    Resonant electronic Raman (ER) scattering is used to compare the below-gap excitations in molecular-beam epitaxially grown GaAs and in undoped semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The measurement geometry was designed to eliminate common measurement artifacts caused by the high optical transmission below the fundamental absorption edge. In epitaxial GaAs, ER is a clear Raman signal from the two-electron transitions of donors, eliminating an ambiguity encountered in previous results. In semi-insulating GaAs, ER occurs in a much broader dispersive band well below the bound exciton energies. Furthermore, the difference in the two materials may be due to the occupation of the substrate acceptormore » states in the presence of the midgap state EL2.« less

  7. Enhancing Raman signals through electromagnetic hot zones induced by magnetic dipole resonance of metal-free nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Chuan; Lee, Yang-Chun; Chang, Sih-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Yao; Ma, Dai-Liang; Lin, Bo-Cheng; Chen, Hsuen-Li

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that the large area of electromagnetic field hot zone induced through magnetic dipole resonance of metal-free structures can greatly enhance Raman scattering signals. The magnetic resonant nanocavities, based on high-refractive-index silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), were designed to resonate at the wavelength of the excitation laser of the Raman system. The well-dispersed SiNPs that were not closely packed displayed significant magnetic dipole resonance and gave a Raman enhancement per unit volume of 59 347. The hot zones of intense electric field were generated not only within the nonmetallic NPs but also around them, even within the underlying substrate. We observed experimentally that gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces presenting very few SiNPs (coverage: <0.3%) could display significantly enhanced (>50%) Raman signals. In contrast, the Raman signals of the underlying substrates were not enhanced by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), even though these NPs displayed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon. A comparison of the areas of the electric field hot zones (E 2 > 10) generated by SiNPs undergoing magnetic dipole resonance with the electric field hot spots (E 2 > 10) generated by AuNPs undergoing LSPR revealed that the former was approximately 70 times that of the latter. More noteworthily, the electromagnetic field hot zone generated from the SiNP is able to extend into the surrounding and underlying media. Relative to metallic NPs undergoing LSPR, these nonmetallic NPs displaying magnetic dipole resonance were more effective at enhancing the Raman scattering signals from analytes that were underlying, or even far away from, them. This application of magnetic dipole resonance in metal-free structures appears to have great potential for use in developing next-generation techniques for Raman enhancement.

  8. Resonance Raman spectra of bacteriorhodopsin's primary photoproduct: evidence for a distorted 13-cis retinal chromophore.

    PubMed Central

    Braiman, M; Mathies, R

    1982-01-01

    We have obtained the resonance Raman spectrum of bacteriorhodopsin's primary photoproduct K with a novel low-temperature spinning sample technique. Purple membrane at 77 K is illuminated with spatially separated actinic (pump) and probe laser beams. The 514-nm pump beam produces a photostationary steady-state mixture of bacteriorhodopsin and K. This mixture is then rotated through the red (676 nm) probe beam, which selectively enhances the Raman scattering from K. The essential advantage of our successive pump-and-probe technique is that it prevents the fluorescence excited by the pump beam from masking the red probe Raman scattering. K exhibits strong Raman lines at 1516, 1294, 1194, 1012, 957, and 811 cm-1. The effects of C15 deuteration on K's fingerprint lines correlate well with those seen in 13-cis model compounds, indicating that K has a 13-cis chromophore. However, the presence of unusually strong "low-wavenumber" lines at 811 and 957 cm-1, attributable to hydrogen out-of-plane wags, indicates that the protein holds the chromophore in a distorted conformation after trans leads to cis isomerization. PMID:6281770

  9. Neurotransmitter measurement with a fiber optic probe using pulsed ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, H. Georg; Greek, L. Shane; Blades, Michael W.; Bree, Alan V.; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    1997-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to investigate the chemistry associated with brain activity. These techniques generally fall into two categories: fast techniques with species restricted sensitivity and slow techniques with generally unrestricted species sensitivity. Therefore, a need exists for a fast non-invasive technique sensitive to a wide array of biologically relevant compounds in order to measure chemical brain events in real time. The work presented here describes the progress made toward the development of a novel neurotransmitter probe. A fiber-optic linked Raman and tunable ultraviolet resonance Raman system was assembled with custom designed optical fiber probes. Probes of several different geometries were constructed and their working curves obtained in aqueous mixtures of methyl orange and potassium nitrate to determine the best probe configuration given particular sample characteristics. Using this system, the ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra of some neurotransmitters were measured with a fiber-optic probe and are reported here for the first time. The probe has also been used to measure neurotransmitter secretions obtained from depolarized rat pheochromocytoma cells.

  10. Resonant Raman detectors for noninvasive assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia R.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Bernstein, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoid antioxidants form an important part of the human body's anti-oxidant system and are thought to play an important role in disease prevention. Studies have shown an inverse correlation between high dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of certain cancers, heart disease and degenerative diseases. For example, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are present in high concentrations in the human retina, are thought to prevent age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. We have developed various clinical prototype instruments, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that are able to measure carotenoid levels directly in the tissue of interest. At present we use the Raman technology to quantify carotenoid levels in the human retina, in skin, and in the oral cavity. We use resonant excitation of the π-conjugated molecules in the visible wavelength range and detect the molecules' carbon-carbon stretch frequencies. The spectral properties of the various carotenoids can be explored to selectively measure in some cases individual carotenoid species linked ot the prevention of cancer, in human skin. The instrumentation involves home-built, compact, high-throughput Raman systems capable of measuring physiological carotenoid concentrations in human subjects rapidly and quantitatively. The instruments have been demonstrated for field use and screening of tissue carotenoid status in large populations. In Epidemiology, the technology holds promise as a novel, noninvasive and objective biomarker of fruit and vegetable uptake.

  11. Distinguishing Individual DNA Bases in a Network by Non-Resonant Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xianbiao; Wang, Huifang; Zhang, Yao; Jiang, Song; Hu, Chunrui; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Yi; Dong, Zhenchao

    2017-05-08

    The importance of identifying DNA bases at the single-molecule level is well recognized for many biological applications. Although such identification can be achieved by electrical measurements using special setups, it is still not possible to identify single bases in real space by optical means owing to the diffraction limit. Herein, we demonstrate the outstanding ability of scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-controlled non-resonant tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) to unambiguously distinguish two individual complementary DNA bases (adenine and thymine) with a spatial resolution down to 0.9 nm. The distinct Raman fingerprints identified for the two molecules allow to differentiate in real space individual DNA bases in coupled base pairs. The demonstrated ability of non-resonant Raman scattering with super-high spatial resolution will significantly extend the applicability of TERS, opening up new routes for single-molecule DNA sequencing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Simulations of resonant Raman response in bundles of semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piryatinski, Andrei; Doorn, Stephen; Haroz, Erik; Telg, Hagen; Duque, Juan; Crochet, Jared; Simpson, J. R.; Hight Walker, A. R.; LANL Collaboration; Fordham Collaboration; NIST Collaboration

    This work is motivated by an experimental study of resonant Raman spectroscopy under E22 excitation, which shows a new, sharp feature associated with bundling in (6,5) semiconductor carbon nanotubes. In order to provide an insight into the experimental data, we model Raman excitation spectra using our modified discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The calculations account for the exciton states polarized along and across the nanotube axis that are characterized by a small energy splitting. Strong polarization of the nanotubes forming the bundle results in the exciton state mixing whose spectroscopic signatures such as peaks positions, line widths, and depolarization ratio are calculated and compared to the experiment. Furthermore, the effects of the energy and structural disorder, as well as structural defects within the bundle are also examined and compared with the experimental data.

  13. Simulations of resonant Raman response in bundles of semiconductor carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Doorn, Stephen; Haroz, Erik; Duque, Juan; Crochet, Jared; Telg, Hagen; Hight Walker, Angela; Simpson, Jeffrey; Piryatinski, Andrei

    This work is motivated by experimental study of resonant Raman response associated with E22 exciton state coupled to G+-mode vibrational mode in bundles of (6,5) semiconductor carbon nanotubes. In order to provide an insight into experimental data, we model Raman excitation spectra using our modified discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The calculations account for the exciton states polarized along and across the nanotube axis that are characterized by a small energy splitting. Strong polarization of the nanotubes forming the bundle results in the exciton state mixing whose spectroscopic signatures such as peaks positions, line widths, and depolarization ratio are calculated and compared to the experiment. Furthermore, the effects of the energy and structural disorder, as well as structural defects within the bundle are also examined and compared with the experimental data.

  14. Interaction of proflavine with DNA studied by colloid surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, E.; Séquaris, J.-M.

    1986-03-01

    The interaction of the mutagenic highly fluourescing proflavine (3,6-diaminoacridine: PF) dye with calf thymus DNA has been studied by Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS). Since the Ag-colloids almost completely quenche the strong fluorescence it is possible to obtain excellent vibrational spectra in a wide frequency range providing valuable information about the intercalation. The intercalation does not affect the vibrational frequencies of the proflavine dye. On the other hand, intensity changes are observed in some of the ring- and NH 2-modes of proflavine upon intercalation. This Raman hypochromism is characteristic for ring stacking interactions and in the SERRS spetroscopy for an additional effects of the dye orientation to the surface.

  15. Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators.

    PubMed

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-15

    We demonstrate efficient Raman lasing with CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode resonators. Continuous-wave emission threshold is shown to be possible below 1 microW with a 5mm cavity, which is to our knowledge orders of magnitude lower than in any other Raman source. Low-threshold lasing is made possible by the ultrahigh optical quality factor of the cavity, of the order of Q=5x10(10). Stokes components of up to the fifth order were observed at a pump power of 160 microW, and up to the eighth order at 1 mW. A lasing threshold of 15 microW was also observed in a 100 microm CaF2 microcavity. Potential applications are discussed.

  16. First-principles modeling of resonant Raman scattering for the understanding of phonons and electrons in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Yan, Jia-An; Sumpter, Bobby

    Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool that can probe both phonons and electrons of the materials. First-principles modeling is important in aiding the understanding of experimental data. Raman modeling is typically based on the classical Placzek approximation and limited to the non-resonant condition, and thus the laser energy dependence of Raman intensities could not be captured. Here we showed that resonant Raman scattering could be captured by upgrading the classical approach, i.e., by calculating the dynamic dielectric tensor at the laser energy instead of the commonly used static value at zero energy. Our method was successfully applied to recently synthesized atomically precise graphene nanoribbons, and revealed the photon-energy-dependent Raman intensity of the radial breathing like mode (RBLM), which explained experimental observations that RBLM can be only observed in certain laser energies. Additionally, we also explored anisotropic 2D material, ReS2, and found that the angle-resolved Raman polarization dependence of its Raman modes is sensitive to the laser energy, as confirmed by recent experiments. The intricate electron-phonon coupling could lead to no simple rule for using Raman polarization dependence to determine the crystalline orientation. LL is supported by Eugene P. Wigner Fellowship at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNMS (a DOE Office of Science User Facility).

  17. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  18. Photolytic interruptions of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle examined by time-resolved resonance raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grieger, I; Atkinson, G H

    1985-09-24

    An investigation of the photolytic conditions used to initiate and spectroscopically monitor the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle utilizing time-resolved resonance Raman (TR3) spectroscopy has revealed and characterized two photoinduced reactions that interrupt the thermal pathway. One reaction involves the photolytic interconversion of M-412 and M', and the other involves the direct photolytic conversion of the BR-570/K-590 photostationary mixture either to M-412 and M' or to M-like intermediates within 10 ns. The photolytic threshold conditions describing both reactions have been quantitatively measured and are discussed in terms of experimental parameters.

  19. Resonance Raman study of a two-chromophore system. The 2:1 complex of hexamethylbenzene with tetracyanoethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark Britt, B.; McHale, Jeanne L.

    1997-05-01

    Raman excitation profiles are presented for the 2:1 electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) in cyclohexane. Though the absorption and Raman spectra of the 1:1 and 2:1 complexes are similar, distinct differences are found in the Raman excitation profiles (REPs) of vibrational modes common to both systems. REPs of the 2:1 complex show intensity cancellation that is taken as evidence for interference of two charge-transfer excited states. The implications of the observed spectra concerning excited state electron delocalization are considered.

  20. In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; McClane, Robert W.; Zhao, Da-You; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2002-06-01

    We have used resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy as a novel, noninvasive, in vivo optical technique to measure the concentration of the macular carotenoid pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in the living human retina of young and elderly adults. Using a backscattering geometry and resonant molecular excitation in the visible wavelength range, we measure the Raman signals originating from the single- and double-bond stretch vibrations of the π-conjugated molecule's carbon backbone. The Raman signals scale linearly with carotenoid content, and the required laser excitation is well below safety limits for macular exposure. Furthermore, the signals decline significantly with increasing age in normal eyes. The Raman technique is objective and quantitative and may lead to a new method for rapid screening of carotenoid pigment levels in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the United States.

  1. Extreme absorption enhancement in ZnTe:O/ZnO intermediate band core-shell nanowires by interplay of dielectric resonance and plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kui-Ying; Li, Jing; Chen, Xuanhu; Xu, Yang; Tu, Xuecou; Ren, Fang-Fang; Du, Qingguo; Fu, Lan; Kang, Lin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhang, Rong; Wu, Peiheng; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-08-08

    Intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are conceptual and promising for next generation high efficiency photovoltaic devices, whereas, IB impact on the cell performance is still marginal due to the weak absorption of IB states. Here a rational design of a hybrid structure composed of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell nanowires (NWs) with Al bowtie nanoantennas is demonstrated to exhibit strong ability in tuning and enhancing broadband light response. The optimized nanowire dimensions enable absorption enhancement by engineering leaky-mode dielectric resonances. It maximizes the overlap of the absorption spectrum and the optical transitions in ZnTe:O intermediate-band (IB) photovoltaic materials, as verified by the enhanced photoresponse especially for IB states in an individual nanowire device. Furthermore, by integrating Al bowtie antennas, the enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling enables the notable improvement in the absorption of ZnTe:O/ZnO core-shell single NW, which was demonstrated by the profound enhancement of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering. The marriage of dielectric and metallic resonance effects in subwavelength-scale nanowires opens up new avenues for overcoming the poor absorption of sub-gap photons by IB states in ZnTe:O to achieve high-efficiency IBSCs.

  2. Size dependent Raman and absorption studies of single walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by pulse laser deposition at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Saurabh; Singhal, Sonal; Vankar, V. D.; Shukla, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this article, size dependent correlation of acoustic states is established for radial breathing mode (RBM). Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are synthesized along with carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles by pulse laser deposition at room temperature. Ferrocene is used as a catalyst for growth of SWCNTs. Various studies such as HR-TEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and NIR-Absorption spectroscopy are utilized to confirm the presence of SWCNTs in the as-synthesized and purified samples. RBM of SWCNTs can be differentiated here from Raman modes of carbon encapsulated iron nanoparticles by comparing their line shape asymmetry as well as oscillator strength. Furthermore, a quantum confinement model is proposed for RBM. It is invoked here that RBM is manifestation of quantum confinement of acoustic phonons. Well reported analytical relation of RBM is utilized to explore the nature of phonons responsible for RBM on the basis of quantum confinement model. Diameters of SWCNTs estimated by Raman studies are found to be in reasonably good agreement with that of NIR-absorption studies.

  3. Resonance Raman spectroscopy for human cancer detection of key molecules with clinical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Li, Jiyou; Zhou, Lixin; He, Jingsheng; Sun, Yi; Pu, Yang; Zhu, Ke; Liu, Yulong; Li, Qingbo; Cheng, Gangge; Alfano, Robert R.

    2013-03-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) has the potential to reveal the differences between cancerous and normal breast and brain tissues in vitro. This differences caused by the changes of specific biomolecules in the tissues were displayed in resonance enhanced of vibrational fingerprints. It observed that the changes of reduced collagen contents and the number of methyl may show the sub-methylation of DNA in cancer cells. Statistical theoretical models of Bayesian, principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for distinguishing cancer from normal based on the RR spectral data of breast and meninges tissues yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 80% and 90.9%, and specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the RR spectroscopic technique could be applied as clinical optical pathology tool with a high accuracy and reliability.

  4. Resonant behaviour of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. I - Connection formulae at the resonant surfaces. II - Absorption of sound waves by sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1991-01-01

    The present method of addressing the resonance problems that emerge in such MHD phenomena as the resonant absorption of waves at the Alfven resonance point avoids solving the fourth-order differential equation of dissipative MHD by recourse to connection formulae across the dissipation layer. In the second part of this investigation, the absorption of solar 5-min oscillations by sunspots is interpreted as the resonant absorption of sounds by a magnetic cylinder. The absorption coefficient is interpreted (1) analytically, under certain simplifying assumptions, and numerically, under more general conditions. The observed absorption coefficient magnitude is explained over suitable parameter ranges.

  5. High-Pressure Synchrotron Infrared Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy of ζ-N_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoryanz, E.; Goncharov, A. F.; Mao, H. K.; Hemley, R. J.

    2000-03-01

    Infrared mid-IR and Raman spectra of high-pressure, low-temperature phases of solid nitrogen have been measured to above 40 GPa. The transition to the lower-symmetry ordered phase ζ at 21 GPa, reported by Schiferl et al. [1]. has been confirmed. We observe three Raman-active and two IR components of the nu2 stretching mode (disk-like molecules) and only one Raman-active component of the nu1 mode (sphere-like molecules). All the vibron modes increase frequency with pressure. The structure of ζ-N2 phase is discussed. [1] Schiferl et al., J. Phys. Chem., 89, 2324 (1985).

  6. Experimental Detection of the Intrinsic Difference in Raman Optical Activity of a Photoreceptor Protein under Preresonance and Resonance Conditions.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Shojiro; Hara, Miwa; Shingae, Takahito; Kumauchi, Masato; Hoff, Wouter D; Unno, Masashi

    2015-09-21

    Raman optical activity (ROA) is an advanced technique capable of detecting structural deformations of light-absorbing molecules embedded in chromophoric proteins. Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy is widely used to enhance the band intensities. However, theoretical work has predicted that under resonance conditions the ROA spectrum resembles the shape of the RR spectrum. Herein, we use photoactive yellow protein (PYP) to measure the first experimental data on the effect of changing the excitation wavelength on the ROA spectra of a protein. We observe a close similarity between the shape of the RR spectrum and the resonance ROA spectrum of PYP. Furthermore, we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction concerning the ratio of the amplitudes of the ROA and Raman spectra. Our data demonstrate that selecting an appropriate excitation wavelength is a key factor for extracting structural information on a protein active site using ROA spectroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. X-Ray Absorption Measured in the Resonant Auger Scattering Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Hikosaka, Y.; Shigemasa, E.; Kaneyasu, T.

    2008-08-15

    We report both experimental and theoretical studies on x-ray absorption measured in the resonant Auger scattering mode of gas phase carbon monoxide near the O1s{yields}2{pi} region. Both experiment and theory display a crucial difference between the x-ray absorption profiles obtained in the conventional and resonant scattering modes. Lifetime vibrational interference is the main source of the difference. It is demonstrated that such interference, which arises from a coherent excitation to overlapping intermediate levels, ruins the idea for obtaining x-ray absorption spectra in a lifetime broadening free regime.

  8. Ab initio calculation of resonant Raman intensities of transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Henrique; Reichardt, Sven; Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger

    Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize optical and vibrational properties of materials. Its computational simulation is important for the interpretation of experimental results. Two approaches are the bond polarizability model and density functional perturbation theory. However, both are known to not capture resonance effects. These resonances and quantum interference effects are important to correctly reproduce the intensities as a function of laser energy as, e.g., reported for the case of multi-layer MoTe21.We present two fully ab initio approaches that overcome this limitation. In the first, we calculate finite difference derivatives of the dielectric susceptibility with the phonon displacements2. In the second we calculate electron-light and electron-phonon matrix elements from density functional theory and use them to evaluate expressions for the Raman intensity derived from time-dependent perturbation theory. These expressions are implemented in a computer code that performs the calculations as a post-processing step. We compare both methods and study the case of triple-layer MoTe2. Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR).

  9. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of human brain metastasis of lung cancer analyzed by blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hui; Pu, Yang; Cheng, Gangge; Yu, Xinguang; Zhou, Lixin; Lin, Dongmei; Zhu, Ke; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy offers a novel Optical Biopsy method in cancer discrimination by a means of enhancement in Raman scattering. It is widely acknowledged that the RR spectrum of tissue is a superposition of spectra of various key building block molecules. In this study, the Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of human metastasis of lung cancerous and normal brain tissues excited by a visible selected wavelength at 532 nm are used to explore spectral changes caused by the tumor evolution. The potential application of RR spectra human brain metastasis of lung cancer was investigated by Blind Source Separation such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components (PCs). The results show significant RR spectra difference between human metastasis of lung cancerous and normal brain tissues analyzed by PCA. To evaluate the efficacy of for cancer detection, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier is utilized to calculate the sensitivity, and specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to evaluate the performance of this criterion. Excellent sensitivity of 0.97, specificity (close to 1.00) and the Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.99 values are achieved under best optimal circumstance. This research demonstrates that RR spectroscopy is effective for detecting changes of tissues due to the development of brain metastasis of lung cancer. RR spectroscopy analyzed by blind source separation may have potential to be a new armamentarium.

  10. High intersubband absorption in long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector based on waveguide resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanliao; Chen, Pingping; Ding, Jiayi; Yang, Heming; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhou, Xiaohao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid structure consisting of periodic gold stripes and an overlaying gold film has been proposed as the optical coupler of a long-wave quantum well infrared photodetector. Absorption spectra and field distributions of the structure at back-side normal incidence are calculated by the finite difference time-domain method. The results indicate that the intersubband absorption can be greatly enhanced based on the waveguide resonance as well as the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode. With the optimized structural parameters of the periodic gold stripes, the maximal intersubband absorption can exceed 80%, which is much higher than the SPP-enhanced intersubband absorption (<50%) and about 6 times the one of the standard device. The relationship between the structural parameters and the waveguide resonant wavelength is derived. Other advantages of the efficient optical coupling based on waveguide resonance are also discussed.

  11. Perfect and broadband acoustic absorption by critically coupled sub-wavelength resonators.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, V; Theocharis, G; Richoux, O; Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Pagneux, V

    2016-01-19

    Perfect absorption is an interdisciplinary topic with a large number of applications, the challenge of which consists of broadening its inherently narrow frequency-band performance. We experimentally and analytically report perfect and broadband absorption for audible sound, by the mechanism of critical coupling, with a sub-wavelength multi-resonant scatterer (SMRS) made of a plate-resonator/closed waveguide structure. In order to introduce the role of the key parameters, we first present the case of a single resonant scatterer (SRS) made of a Helmholtz resonator/closed waveguide structure. In both cases the controlled balance between the energy leakage of the several resonances and the inherent losses of the system leads to perfect absorption peaks. In the case of the SMRS we show that systems with large inherent losses can be critically coupled using resonances with large leakage. In particular, we show that in the SMRS system, with a thickness of λ/12 and diameter of λ/7, several perfect absorption peaks overlap to produce absorption bigger than 93% for frequencies that extend over a factor of 2 in audible frequencies. The reported concepts and methodology provide guidelines for the design of broadband perfect absorbers which could contribute to solve the major issue of noise reduction.

  12. Perfect and broadband acoustic absorption by critically coupled sub-wavelength resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-García, V.; Theocharis, G.; Richoux, O.; Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Pagneux, V.

    2016-01-01

    Perfect absorption is an interdisciplinary topic with a large number of applications, the challenge of which consists of broadening its inherently narrow frequency-band performance. We experimentally and analytically report perfect and broadband absorption for audible sound, by the mechanism of critical coupling, with a sub-wavelength multi-resonant scatterer (SMRS) made of a plate-resonator/closed waveguide structure. In order to introduce the role of the key parameters, we first present the case of a single resonant scatterer (SRS) made of a Helmholtz resonator/closed waveguide structure. In both cases the controlled balance between the energy leakage of the several resonances and the inherent losses of the system leads to perfect absorption peaks. In the case of the SMRS we show that systems with large inherent losses can be critically coupled using resonances with large leakage. In particular, we show that in the SMRS system, with a thickness of λ/12 and diameter of λ/7, several perfect absorption peaks overlap to produce absorption bigger than 93% for frequencies that extend over a factor of 2 in audible frequencies. The reported concepts and methodology provide guidelines for the design of broadband perfect absorbers which could contribute to solve the major issue of noise reduction.

  13. Perfect and broadband acoustic absorption by critically coupled sub-wavelength resonators

    PubMed Central

    Romero-García, V.; Theocharis, G.; Richoux, O.; Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Pagneux, V.

    2016-01-01

    Perfect absorption is an interdisciplinary topic with a large number of applications, the challenge of which consists of broadening its inherently narrow frequency-band performance. We experimentally and analytically report perfect and broadband absorption for audible sound, by the mechanism of critical coupling, with a sub-wavelength multi-resonant scatterer (SMRS) made of a plate-resonator/closed waveguide structure. In order to introduce the role of the key parameters, we first present the case of a single resonant scatterer (SRS) made of a Helmholtz resonator/closed waveguide structure. In both cases the controlled balance between the energy leakage of the several resonances and the inherent losses of the system leads to perfect absorption peaks. In the case of the SMRS we show that systems with large inherent losses can be critically coupled using resonances with large leakage. In particular, we show that in the SMRS system, with a thickness of λ/12 and diameter of λ/7, several perfect absorption peaks overlap to produce absorption bigger than 93% for frequencies that extend over a factor of 2 in audible frequencies. The reported concepts and methodology provide guidelines for the design of broadband perfect absorbers which could contribute to solve the major issue of noise reduction. PMID:26781863

  14. Surface plasmon resonance induced enhancement of photoluminescence and Raman line intensity in SnS quantum dot-Sn nanoparticle hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Gandhimathi, R.

    2018-07-01

    In this article, we report on enhancement in photoluminescence and Raman line intensity of SnS quantum dots embedded in a mesh of Sn nanostructures. SnS nanoparticles synthesized by homogenous precipitation method show strong quantum confinement with a band gap of ∼2.7 eV (blue shift of ∼1 eV compared to bulk SnS particles). The optical band gap of SnS quantum dots is controlled by varying the pH (∼0 to 2.25), ageing time (24 to 144 h) and molarity (0 to 2 M) of the precursors. These SnS nanoparticles are embedded in a mesh of Sn nanostructures which are synthesized from tin chloride by using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The Sn nanostructures have a morphology dependent, tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR), ranging from UV (∼295 nm) to visible region (∼400 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the SnS-Sn nanohybrids, the excitons are strongly coupled with plasmons leading to a shift in the excitonic binding energy (∼400 meV). The pure SnS quantum dots have a very weak photoluminescence peak at ∼560 nm and Raman shift of low intensity at 853.08 cm‑1, 1078.17 cm‑1, 1255.60 cm‑1, 1466.91 cm‑1. The coupling of SnS nanoparticles with Sn nanoparticles results in strong exciton-plasmon interactions leading to enhanced photoluminescence and Raman line intensity. The nanohybrids formed using Sn nanosheets whose SPR matches with absorption onset of the SnS nanoparticles shows an enhancement of ∼104 times higher than pure SnS nanoparticles. Thus, Sn nanosheet with surface plasmon resonance in visible region (400 nm) like Au and Ag is a promising material for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, plasmon assisted fluorescence imaging and for enhancing the emission intensity of semiconductors with weak emission intensity.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance induced enhancement of photoluminescence and Raman line intensity in SnS quantum dot-Sn nanoparticle hybrid structure.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Anita R; Gandhimathi, R

    2018-04-27

    In this article, we report on enhancement in photoluminescence and Raman line intensity of SnS quantum dots embedded in a mesh of Sn nanostructures. SnS nanoparticles synthesized by homogenous precipitation method show strong quantum confinement with a band gap of ∼2.7 eV (blue shift of ∼1 eV compared to bulk SnS particles). The optical band gap of SnS quantum dots is controlled by varying the pH (∼0 to 2.25), ageing time (24 to 144 h) and molarity (0 to 2 M) of the precursors. These SnS nanoparticles are embedded in a mesh of Sn nanostructures which are synthesized from tin chloride by using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The Sn nanostructures have a morphology dependent, tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR), ranging from UV (∼295 nm) to visible region (∼400 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the SnS-Sn nanohybrids, the excitons are strongly coupled with plasmons leading to a shift in the excitonic binding energy (∼400 meV). The pure SnS quantum dots have a very weak photoluminescence peak at ∼560 nm and Raman shift of low intensity at 853.08 cm -1 , 1078.17 cm -1 , 1255.60 cm -1 , 1466.91 cm -1 . The coupling of SnS nanoparticles with Sn nanoparticles results in strong exciton-plasmon interactions leading to enhanced photoluminescence and Raman line intensity. The nanohybrids formed using Sn nanosheets whose SPR matches with absorption onset of the SnS nanoparticles shows an enhancement of ∼10 4 times higher than pure SnS nanoparticles. Thus, Sn nanosheet with surface plasmon resonance in visible region (400 nm) like Au and Ag is a promising material for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, plasmon assisted fluorescence imaging and for enhancing the emission intensity of semiconductors with weak emission intensity.

  16. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study of the photodissociation dynamics of acetophenone in cyclohexane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yufang; Pei, Kemei; Zheng, Xuming; Li, Haiyang

    2007-11-01

    Resonance Raman spectra were acquired for acetophenone using 228.7, 239.5, and 245.9 nm excitations in cyclohexane solution. The spectra display overtones of the benzene ring C-C stretch (1578 cm -1) and the carbonyl C dbnd O stretch (1671 cm -1) modes and their combination bands with other five vibrational modes. A preliminary resonance Raman intensity analysis was done and these results for acetophenone were compared to the those previously reported for 2-hydroxyacetophenone. The differences between the vibrational reorganizational energies for acetophenone relative to those of 2-hydroxyacetophenone were briefly discussed.

  17. Through tissue imaging of a live breast cancer tumour model using handheld surface enhanced spatially offset resonance Raman spectroscopy (SESORRS).

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Fay; Jamieson, Lauren E; Mabbott, Samuel; Plakas, Konstantinos; Shand, Neil C; Detty, Michael R; Graham, Duncan; Faulds, Karen

    2018-04-21

    In order to improve patient survival and reduce the amount of unnecessary and traumatic biopsies, non-invasive detection of cancerous tumours is of imperative and urgent need. Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) can be used as an ex vivo cancer tumour model, to model in vivo nanoparticle (NP) uptake by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Surface enhanced spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SESORS) combines both surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) to yield enhanced Raman signals at much greater sub-surface levels. By utilizing a reporter that has an electronic transition in resonance with the laser frequency, surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) yields even greater enhancement in Raman signal. Using a handheld SORS spectrometer with back scattering optics, we demonstrate the detection of live breast cancer 3D MTS containing SERRS active NPs through 15 mm of porcine tissue. False color 2D heat intensity maps were used to determine tumour model location. In addition, we demonstrate the tracking of SERRS-active NPs through porcine tissue to depths of up to 25 mm. This unprecedented performance is due to the use of red-shifted chalcogenpyrylium-based Raman reporters to demonstrate the novel technique of surface enhanced spatially offset resonance Raman spectroscopy (SESORRS) for the first time. Our results demonstrate a significant step forward in the ability to detect vibrational fingerprints from a tumour model at depth through tissue. Such an approach offers significant promise for the translation of NPs into clinical applications for non-invasive disease diagnostics based on this new chemical principle of measurement.

  18. Structural parameter effect of porous material on sound absorption performance of double-resonance material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Tian, Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Nie, J. K.; Wang, G. K.; Liu, X. S.

    2017-06-01

    In view of the noise feature and service environment of urban power substations, this paper explores the idea of compound impedance, fills some porous sound-absorption material in the first resonance cavity of the double-resonance sound-absorption material, and designs a new-type of composite acoustic board. We conduct some acoustic characterizations according to the standard test of impedance tube, and research on the influence of assembly order, the thickness and area density of the filling material, and back cavity on material sound-absorption performance. The results show that the new-type of acoustic board consisting of aluminum fibrous material as inner structure, micro-porous board as outer structure, and polyester-filled space between them, has good sound-absorption performance for low frequency and full frequency noise. When the thickness, area density of filling material and thickness of back cavity increase, the sound absorption coefficient curve peak will move toward low frequency.

  19. Control of acoustic absorption in one-dimensional scattering by resonant scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, A.; Theocharis, G.; Richoux, O.; Romero-García, V.; Pagneux, V.

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally report perfect acoustic absorption through the interplay of the inherent losses and transparent modes with high Q factor. These modes are generated in a two-port, one-dimensional waveguide, which is side-loaded by isolated resonators of moderate Q factor. In symmetric structures, we show that in the presence of small inherent losses, these modes lead to coherent perfect absorption associated with one-sided absorption slightly larger than 0.5. In asymmetric structures, near perfect one-sided absorption is possible (96%) with a deep sub-wavelength sample ( λ / 28 , where λ is the wavelength of the sound wave in the air). The control of strong absorption by the proper tuning of the radiation leakage of few resonators with weak losses will open possibilities in various wave-control devices.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of the electronically excited state. 4. Nanosecond and picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of carotenoid excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Dallinger, R.F.; Farquharson, S.; Woodruff, W.H.

    Resonance Raman and electronic absorption spectra are reported for the S/sub 0/ and T/sub 1/ states of the carotenoids ..beta..-carotene, zeaxanthin, echinenone, canthaxanthin, dihydroxylycopene, astaxanthin, decapreno(C/sub 50/)-..beta..-carotene, ..beta..-apo-8'-carotenal, and ethyl ..beta..-apo-8'-carotenoate. The results reveal qualitatively similar ground-state spectra and similar frequency shifts in all observed resonance Raman modes between S/sub 0/ and T/sub 1/, regardless of carotenoid structure. Examinations of the relationship of the putative C--C and C==C frequencies in S/sub 0/ and T/sub 1/ reveals anomalous shifts to lower frequency in the ''single-bond'' mode upon electronic excitation. These shifts may be due to molecular distortions in the excited statemore » which force changes in molecular motions comprising the observed modes. However, another possibility requiring no distortion is that the interaction (off-diagonal) force constants connecting the C--C and C==C modes change sign upon electronic excitation. This latter phenomenon may provide a unitary explanation for the ''anomalous'' frequency shifts in the C--C and C==C modes, both in the T/sub 1/ states of carotenoids and in the S/sub 1/ states of simpler polyenes, without postulating large, unpredicted structural changes upon excitation or general errors in existing vibrational or theoretical analyses. Resonance Raman and absorbance studies with 35-ps time resolution suggest that S/sub 1/ lifetime (of the /sup 1/B/sub u/ and/or the /sup 1/A/sub g/* states) of ..beta..-carotene in benzene is less than 1 ps.« less

  1. Intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave Ti:sapphire ring laser and application in resonance Raman spectroscopy of heme protein dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchter, Scott C.; Williams, Curtis; Schulte, Alfons; Alekel, Theodore, III; Mizell, Gregory J.; Fay, William R.

    1995-04-01

    Noncritical temperature-tuned phase-matching and large nonlinear coefficients make potassium niobate an attractive material for frequency doubling tuneable near-infrared radiation. We have mounted a KNbO3 crystal intracavity in an argon ion pumped, continuous wave Ti:Sapphire ring laser to increase the power level of the second harmonic. Wavelength selection at the fundamental frequency is accomplished with a birefringent filter. By using the crystal orientation that defines the d32 coefficient of KNbO3 we have obtained a blue second harmonic output tuneable from 425-445 nm. The laser is also characterized by the narrow linewidth of the Ti:Sapphire ring oscillator and good temporal stability. A continuous wave, frequency doubled Ti:sapphire laser is well suited to excite the resonance Raman spectrum in heme proteins with strong absorption bands in the range of 400 to 450 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of such a setup for Raman studies of ligand binding to myoglobin. The Raman bands yield information on the reaction dynamics and on conformational changes near the linkage between the heme and the protein. In particular, a shift of the stretch frequency of the iron- histidine bond with high pressure may be attributed to a protein conformational change.

  2. Key hydride vibrational modes in [NiFe] hydrogenase model compounds studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Shafaat, Hannah S; Weber, Katharina; Petrenko, Taras; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-11-05

    Hydrogenase proteins catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons. While many enzymatic states of the [NiFe] hydrogenase have been studied extensively, there are multiple catalytically relevant EPR-silent states that remain poorly characterized. Analysis of model compounds using new spectroscopic techniques can provide a framework for the study of these elusive states within the protein. We obtained optical absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of (dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)Fe(CO)(3) and [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H)Fe(CO)(3)][BF(4)], which are structural and functional model compounds for the EPR-silent Ni-SI and Ni-R states of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. The studies presented here use RR spectroscopy to probe vibrational modes of the active site, including metal-hydride stretching vibrations along with bridging ligand-metal and Fe-CO bending vibrations, with isotopic substitution used to identify key metal-hydride modes. The metal-hydride vibrations are essentially uncoupled and represent isolated, localized stretching modes; the iron-hydride vibration occurs at 1530 cm(-1), while the nickel-hydride vibration is observed at 945 cm(-1). The significant discrepancy between the metal-hydride vibrational frequencies reflects the slight asymmetry in the metal-hydride bond lengths. Additionally, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were carried out to obtain theoretical RR spectra of these compounds. On the basis of the detailed comparison of theory and experiment, the dominant electronic transitions and significant normal modes probed in the RR experiments were assigned; the primary transitions in the visible wavelengths represent metal-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands. Inherent properties of metal-hydride vibrational modes in resonance Raman spectra and DFT calculations are discussed together with the prospects of observing such vibrational modes in metal-hydride-containing proteins. Such a

  3. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules using near field photon induced forces without resonant electronic enhancement gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Huang, Fei; Nowak, Derek; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2016-06-01

    We report on stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules, excited without resonant electronic enhancement gain, and recorded using near field photon induced forces. Photon-induced interaction forces between the sharp metal coated silicon tip of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a sample resulting from stimulated Raman excitation were detected. We controlled the tip to sample spacing using the higher order flexural eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever, enabling the tip to come very close to the sample. As a result, the detection sensitivity was increased compared with previous work on Raman force microscopy. Raman vibrational spectra of azobenzene thiol and l-phenylalanine were measured and found to agree well with published results. Near-field force detection eliminates the need for far-field optical spectrometer detection. Recorded images show spatial resolution far below the optical diffraction limit. Further optimization and use of ultrafast pulsed lasers could push the detection sensitivity towards the single molecule limit.

  4. Resonant Two-Magnon Raman Scattering in Cuprate Antiferromagnetic Insulators and Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Klein, M. V.

    1996-03-01

    We present results of low-temperature two-magnon resonance Raman excitation profile measurements for single layer Sr_2CuO_2Cl2 and bilayer YBa_2Cu_3O6 + δ antiferromagnets over the excitation region from 1.65 to 3.05 eV. These data reveal composite structure of the B_1g two-magnon line shape peaked at ~ 2.7J and ~ 4J and strong nonmonotonic dependence of the scattering intensity on excitation energy. Resonant magnetic scattering contributes also to A_1g and B_2g channels. We analyze these data using the triple resonance theory of Chubukov and Frenkel(A. Chubukov and D. Frenkel, Phys. Rev. Lett.74), 3057 (1995). and deduce information about magnetic interaction (J and J_⊥) and band parameters (NN hopping t and charge transfer gap 2Δ) in these antiferromagnets.(G. Blumberg et. al.), Preprint cond-mat/9511080. The ~ 3J spin superexchange excitation persists upon hole doping and is present in superconductors, proving the universality of the short wavelength magnetic excitations in the cuprate superconducting metals and the parent antiferromagnetic insulators.(G. Blumberg et. al.), Phys. Rev. B 49, 13 295 (1994).

  5. Microwave Resonator Measurements of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients: A Preliminary Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design study examined the feasibility of using microwave resonator measurements to improve the accuracy of atmospheric absorption coefficients and refractivity between 18 and 35 GHz. Increased accuracies would improve the capability of water vapor radiometers to correct for radio signal delays caused by Earth's atmosphere. Calibration of delays incurred by radio signals traversing the atmosphere has applications to both deep space tracking and planetary radio science experiments. Currently, the Cassini gravity wave search requires 0.8-1.0% absorption coefficient accuracy. This study examined current atmospheric absorption models and estimated that current model accuracy ranges from 5% to 7%. The refractivity of water vapor is known to 1% accuracy, while the refractivity of many dry gases (oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) are known to better than 0.1%. Improvements to the current generation of models will require that both the functional form and absolute absorption of the water vapor spectrum be calibrated and validated. Several laboratory techniques for measuring atmospheric absorption and refractivity were investigated, including absorption cells, single and multimode rectangular cavity resonators, and Fabry-Perot resonators. Semi-confocal Fabry-Perot resonators were shown to provide the most cost-effective and accurate method of measuring atmospheric gas refractivity. The need for accurate environmental measurement and control was also addressed. A preliminary design for the environmental control and measurement system was developed to aid in identifying significant design issues. The analysis indicated that overall measurement accuracy will be limited by measurement errors and imprecise control of the gas sample's thermodynamic state, thermal expansion and vibration- induced deformation of the resonator structure, and electronic measurement error. The central problem is to identify systematic errors because random errors can be reduced by averaging

  6. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast,more » the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.« less

  7. Optical pathology study of human abdominal aorta tissues using confocal micro resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Boydston-White, Susie; Wang, Wubao; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Weisberg, Arel; Tomaselli, Vincent P.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic technique has a high potential for label-free and in-situ detection of biomedical lesions in vivo. This study evaluates the ability of RR spectroscopy method as an optical histopathology tool to detect the atherosclerotic plaque states of abdominal aorta in vitro. This part demonstrates the RR spectral molecular fingerprint features from different sites of the atherosclerotic abdominal aortic wall tissues. Total 57 sites of five pieces aortic samples in intimal and adventitial wall from an autopsy specimen were examined using confocal micro Raman system of WITec 300R with excitation wavelength of 532nm. The preliminary RR spectral biomarkers of molecular fingerprints indicated that typical calcified atherosclerotic plaque (RR peak at 964cm-1) tissue; fibrolipid plaque (RR peaks at 1007, 1161, 1517 and 2888cm-1) tissue, lipid pool with the fatty precipitation cholesterol) with collagen type I (RR peaks at 864, 1452, 1658, 2888 and 2948cm-1) in the soft tissue were observed and investigated.

  8. Characterization of carotenoids in soil bacteria and investigation of their photodegradation by UVA radiation via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar B N, Vinay; Kampe, Bernd; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-07-07

    A soil habitat consists of an enormous number of pigmented bacteria with the pigments mainly composed of diverse carotenoids. Most of the pigmented bacteria in the top layer of the soil are photoprotected from exposure to huge amounts of UVA radiation on a daily basis by these carotenoids. The photostability of these carotenoids depends heavily on the presence of specific features like a carbonyl group or an ionone ring system on its overall structure. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive and powerful techniques to detect and characterize these carotenoids and also monitor processes associated with them in their native system at a single cell resolution. However, most of the resonance Raman profiles of carotenoids have very minute differences, thereby making it extremely difficult to confirm if these differences are attributed to the presence of different carotenoids or if it is a consequence of their interaction with other cellular components. In this study, we devised a method to overcome this problem by monitoring also the photodegradation of the carotenoids in question by UVA radiation wherein a differential photodegradation response will confirm the presence of different carotenoids irrespective of the proximities in their resonance Raman profiles. Using this method, the detection and characterization of carotenoids in pure cultures of five species of pigmented coccoid soil bacteria is achieved. We also shed light on the influence of the structure of the carotenoid on its photodegradation which can be exploited for use in the characterization of carotenoids via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  10. Resonant behavior of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. IV - Total resonant absorption and MHD radiating eigenmodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1993-01-01

    Resonant absorption of MHD waves on a nonuniform flux tube is investigated as a driven problem for a 1D cylindrical equilibrium. The variation of the fractional absorption is studied as a function of the frequency and its relation to the eigenvalue problem of the MHD radiating eigenmodes of the nonuniform flux tube is established. The optimal frequencies producing maximal fractional absorption are determined and the condition for total absorption is obtained. This condition defines an impedance matching and is fulfilled for an equilibrium that is fine tuned with respect to the incoming wave. The variation of the spatial wave solutions with respect to the frequency is explained as due to the variation of the real and imaginary parts of the dispersion relation of the MHD radiating eigenmodes with respect to the real driving frequency.

  11. Characterizing millisecond intermediates in hemoproteins using rapid-freeze-quench resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The combination of rapid freeze quenching (RFQ) with resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy represents a unique tool with which to investigate the nature of short-lived intermediates formed during the enzymatic reactions of metalloproteins. Commercially available equipment allows trapping of intermediates within a millisecond to second time scale for low-temperature RR analysis resulting in the direct detection of metal-ligand vibrations and porphyrin skeletal vibrations in hemoproteins. This chapter briefly discusses RFQ-RR studies carried out previously in our laboratory and presents, as a practical example, protocols for the preparation of RFQ samples of the reaction of metmyoglobin with nitric oxide (NO) under anaerobic conditions. Also described are important controls and practical procedures for the analysis of these samples by low-temperature RR spectroscopy.

  12. Fingerprinting redox and ligand states in haemprotein crystal structures using resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kekilli, Demet; Dworkowski, Florian S N; Pompidor, Guillaume; Fuchs, Martin R; Andrew, Colin R; Antonyuk, Svetlana; Strange, Richard W; Eady, Robert R; Hasnain, S Samar; Hough, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    It is crucial to assign the correct redox and ligand states to crystal structures of proteins with an active redox centre to gain valid functional information and prevent the misinterpretation of structures. Single-crystal spectroscopies, particularly when applied in situ at macromolecular crystallography beamlines, allow spectroscopic investigations of redox and ligand states and the identification of reaction intermediates in protein crystals during the collection of structural data. Single-crystal resonance Raman spectroscopy was carried out in combination with macromolecular crystallography on Swiss Light Source beamline X10SA using cytochrome c' from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. This allowed the fingerprinting and validation of different redox and ligand states, identification of vibrational modes and identification of intermediates together with monitoring of radiation-induced changes. This combined approach provides a powerful tool to obtain complementary data and correctly assign the true oxidation and ligand state(s) in redox-protein crystals.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of magneto-phonon resonances in graphene and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goler, Sarah; Yan, Jun; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Pinczuk, Aron

    2012-08-01

    The magneto-phonon resonance or MPR occurs in semiconductor materials when the energy spacing between Landau levels is continuously tuned to cross the energy of an optical phonon mode. MPRs have been largely explored in bulk semiconductors, in two-dimensional systems and in quantum dots. Recently there has been significant interest in the MPR interactions of the Dirac fermion magneto-excitons in graphene, and a rich splitting and anti-crossing phenomena of the even parity E2g long wavelength optical phonon mode have been theoretically proposed and experimentally observed. The MPR has been found to crucially depend on disorder in the graphene layer. This is a feature that creates new venues for the study of interplays between disorder and interactions in the atomic layers. We review here the fundamentals of MRP in graphene and the experimental Raman scattering works that have led to the observation of these phenomena in graphene and graphite.

  14. Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering in 83Bi for 88.034 keV γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Sharma, Veena; Mehta, D.; Singh, Nirmal

    2007-11-01

    The Rayleigh, Compton and K-shell radiative resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for the 88.034 keV γ-rays have been measured in the 83Bi (K-shell binding energy = 90.526 keV) element. The measurements have been performed at 130° scattering angle using reflection-mode geometrical arrangement involving the 109Cd radioisotope as photon source and an LEGe detector. Computer simulations were exercised to determine distributions of the incident and emission angles, which were further used in evaluation of the absorption corrections for the incident and emitted photons in the target. The measured cross-sections for the Rayleigh scattering are compared with the modified form-factors (MFs) corrected for the anomalous-scattering factors (ASFs) and the S-matrix calculations; and those for the Compton scattering are compared with the Klein-Nishina cross-sections corrected for the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock incoherent scattering function S(x, Z). The ratios of the measured KL2, KL3, KM and KN2,3 radiative resonant Raman scattering cross-sections are found to be in general agreement with those of the corresponding measured fluorescence transition probabilities.

  15. Hollow Au/Ag nanostars displaying broad plasmonic resonance and high surface-enhanced Raman sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Leis, Adianez; Torreggiani, Armida; Garcia-Ramos, Jose Vicente; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Bimetallic Au/Ag hollow nanostar (HNS) nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared in this work. These nanoplatforms were obtained by changing the experimental conditions (concentration of silver and chemical reductors, hydroxylamine and citrate) and by using Ag nanostars as template nanoparticles (NPs) through galvanic replacement. The goal of this research was to create bimetallic Au/Ag star-shaped nanoparticles with advanced properties displaying a broader plasmonic resonance, a cleaner exposed surface, and a high concentration of electromagnetic hot spots on the surface provided by the special morphology of nanostars. The size, shape, and composition of Ag as well as their optical properties were studied by extinction spectroscopy, hyperspectral dark field microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Finally, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these HNS was investigated by using thioflavin T, a biomarker of the β-amyloid fibril formation, responsible for Alzheimer's disease. Lucigenin, a molecule displaying different SERS activities on Au and Ag, was also used to explore the presence of these metals on the NP surface. Thus, a relationship between the morphology, plasmon resonance and SERS activity of these new NPs was made.Bimetallic Au/Ag hollow nanostar (HNS) nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared in this work. These nanoplatforms were obtained by changing the experimental conditions (concentration of silver and chemical reductors, hydroxylamine and citrate) and by using Ag nanostars as template nanoparticles (NPs) through galvanic replacement. The goal of this research was to create bimetallic Au/Ag star-shaped nanoparticles with advanced properties displaying a broader plasmonic resonance, a cleaner exposed surface, and a high concentration of electromagnetic hot spots on the surface provided by the special morphology of nanostars

  16. Investigation of the effect of Alfven resonance absorption on fast wave current drive in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alava, M. J.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Hellsten, T.

    The use of frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency of minority ion species or second harmonic of majority species has been proposed for fast wave current drive in order to reduce or to avoid ion cyclotron damping. For these scenarios, the Alfven resonance can appear on the high field side of a tokamak. The presence of this resonance causes parasitic absorption competing with the electron Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping responsible for the fast wave current drive. In the present study, the mode conversion at the Alfven resonance is shown to be of the order of 5 to 10 percent in the current drive scenarios for the planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) experiment. However, if the single pass absorption in the center can be made sufficiently high, the conversion at the Alfven resonance becomes negligible.

  17. Omnidirectional and broadband absorption enhancement from trapezoidal Mie resonators in semiconductor metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pala, Ragip A.; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2016-09-19

    Light trapping in planar ultrathin-film solar cells is limited due to a small number of optical modes available in the thin-film slab. A nanostructured thin-film design could surpass this limit by providing broadband increase in the local density of states in a subwavelength volume and maintaining efficient coupling of light. Here we report a broadband metasurface design, enabling efficient and broadband absorption enhancement by direct coupling of incoming light to resonant modes of subwavelength scale Mie nanoresonators defined in the thin-film active layer. Absorption was investigated both theoretically and experimentally in prototypes consisting of lithographically patterned, two-dimensional periodic arrays ofmore » silicon nanoresonators on silica substrates. A crossed trapezoid resonator shape of rectangular cross section is used to excite broadband Mie resonances across visible and near-IR spectra. Our numerical simulations, optical absorption measurements and photocurrent spectral response measurements demonstrate that crossed trapezoidal Mie resonant structures enable angle-insensitive, broadband absorption. A short circuit current density of 12.0 mA/cm 2 is achieved in 210 nm thick patterned Si films, yielding a 4-fold increase compared to planar films of the same thickness. As a result, it is suggested that silicon metasurfaces with Mie resonator arrays can provide useful insights to guide future ultrathin-film solar cell designs incorporating nanostructured thin active layers.« less

  18. Porogranular materials composed of elastic Helmholtz resonators for acoustic wave absorption.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stéphane; Nennig, Benoit; Job, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the acoustic absorption of granular porous media made of non-cohesive piles of spherical shells is presented. These shells are either rigid or elastic, possibly drilled with a neck (Helmholtz resonators), and either porous or impervious. A description is given of acoustic propagation through these media using the effective medium models proposed by Johnson (rigid particles) and Boutin (rigid Helmholtz resonators), which are extended to the configurations studied in this work. A solution is given for the local equation of elasticity of a shell coupled to the viscous flow of air through the neck and the micropores. The models and the simulations are compared to absorption spectra measured in reflection in an impedance tube. The effective medium models and the measurements show excellent agreement for configurations made of rigid particles and rigid Helmholtz resonators that induce an additional peak of absorption at low frequency. A shift of the Helmholtz resonance toward low frequencies, due to the softness of the shells is revealed by the experiments for elastic shells made of soft elastomer and is well reproduced by the simulations. It is shown that microporous shells enhance and broaden acoustic absorption compared to stiff or elastic resonators.

  19. Resonant absorption induced fast melting studied with mid-IR QCLs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Lv, Yankun; Ji, Youxin; Tang, Xiaoliang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a pump-probe setup based on two mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to investigate the melting and crystallization of materials through resonant absorption. A combination of pump and probe beams fulfills the two-color synchronous detection. Furthermore, narrow linewidth advances the accuracy of measurements and the character of broad tuning range of QCLs enables wide applications in various sample and multiple structures. 1-Eicosene was selected as a simple model system to verify the feasibility of this method. A pulsed QCL was tuned to the absorption peak of CH 2 bending vibration at 1467 cm -1 to resonantly heat the sample. The other QCL in continuous mode was tuned to 1643 cm -1 corresponding the C=C stretching vibration to follow the fast melting dynamics. By monitoring the transmission intensity variation of pump and probe beams during pump-probe experiments, the resonant absorption induced fast melting and re-crystallization of 1-Eicosene can be studied. Results show that the thermal effect and melting behaviors strongly depend on the pump wavelength (resonant or non-resonant) and energy, as well as the pump time. The realization and detection of melting and recrystallization can be performed in tens of milliseconds, which improves the time resolution of melting process study based on general mid-infrared spectrum by orders of magnitude. The availability of resonant heating and detections based on mid-infrared QCLs is expected to enable new applications in melting study.

  20. Resonance Raman study on photoreduction of cytochrome c oxidase: distinction of cytochromes a and a3 in the intermediate oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Ogura, T; Yoshikawa, S; Kitagawa, T

    1985-12-17

    Occurrence of photoreduction of bovine cytochrome c oxidase was confirmed with the difference absorption spectra and oxygen consumption measurements for the enzyme irradiated with laser light at 406.7, 441.6, and 590 nm. The resonance Raman spectra were obtained under the same experimental conditions as those adopted for the measurements of oxygen consumption and difference absorption spectra. The photoreduction was more effective upon irradiation at shorter wavelengths and was irreversible under anaerobic conditions. However, upon aeration into the cell, the original oxidized form was restored. It was found that aerobic laser irradiation produces a photo steady state of the catalytic dioxygen reduction and that the Raman scattering from this photo steady state probes cytochrome a2+ and cytochrome a3(3)+ separately upon excitations at 441.6 and 406.7 nm, respectively. The enzyme was apparently protected from the photoreduction in the spinning cell with the spinning speed between 1 and 1500 rpm. These results were explained satisfactorily with the reported rate constant for the electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 (0.58 s-1) and a comparable photoreduction rate of cytochrome a. The anaerobic photoreduction did give Raman lines at 1666 and 214 cm-1, which are characteristic of the ferrous high-spin cytochrome a3(2)+, but they were absent under aerobic photoreduction. The formyl CH = O stretching mode of the a3 heme was observed at 1671 cm-1 for a2+a3(2)+CO but at 1664 cm-1 for a2+a3(2)+CN-, indicating that the CH = O stretching frequency reflects the pi back-donation to the axial ligand similar to the oxidation state marker line (v4).

  1. Resonant Raman scattering in single crystal of congruent LiTaO 3 : Effect of excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Kumar, Shailendra; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A. K.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2011-12-01

    Large dispersion in the peak position of the OH - stretching mode (˜687.9 and ˜2167.7 cm -1/eV for fundamental and 3rd harmonic, respectively) is observed by Resonance Raman studies in congruent lithium tantalate single crystal under varying excitation energies. This is explained by considering the involvement of multiple LO phonons in the interaction with OH - stretching vibration and the resonantly excited electrons. The intensity of the peaks is also found to vary with the excitation energy. FWHM increases with the increase in excitation energy because of individual contributions of the increasing number of resonance steps to the broadening.

  2. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  3. Characterization of lipid oxidation process of beef during repeated freeze-thaw by electron spin resonance technology and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingmin; Xie, Yunfei; Xi, Jinzhong; Guo, Yahui; Qian, He; Cheng, Yuliang; Chen, Yi; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-15

    In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize lipid oxidation of beef during repeated freeze-thaw (RFT). Besides the conventional indexes including peroxide values (PV), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and acid values (AV) were evaluated, the radical and molecular structure changes were also measured by ESR and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that PV, TBARS and AV were increased (P<0.05) after RFT. This suggested that lipid oxidation was occurred during RFT. With the increase of radical signal intensity, lower oxidation stability was presented by ESR. Raman intensity of ν(CC) stretching region (1655cm -1 ) was decreased during RFT. Furthermore, lower Raman intensity ratio of I 1655 /I 1442 , I 1655 /I 1745 that determine total unsaturation was also observed. Significant correlations (p<0.01) were obtained among conventional methods, ESR and Raman spectroscopy. Our result has proved that ESR and Raman spectroscopy showed great potential in characterizing lipid oxidation process of beef during RFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface origin and control of resonance Raman scattering and surface band gap in indium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Brazzini, Tommaso; Ager, Joel W.

    2016-06-01

    Resonance Raman scattering measurements were performed on indium nitride thin films under conditions where the surface electron concentration was controlled by an electrolyte gate. As the surface condition is tuned from electron depletion to accumulation, the spectral feature at the expected position of the (E 1, A 1) longitudinal optical (LO) near 590 cm-1 shifts to lower frequency. The shift is reversibly controlled with the applied gate potential, which clearly demonstrates the surface origin of this feature. The result is interpreted within the framework of a Martin double resonance, where the surface functions as a planar defect, allowing the scattering of long wavevector phonons. The allowed wavevector range, and hence the frequency, is modulated by the electron accumulation due to band gap narrowing. A surface band gap reduction of over 500 meV is estimated for the conditions of maximum electron accumulation. Under conditions of electron depletion, the full InN bandgap (E g  =  0.65 eV) is expected at the surface. The drastic change in the surface band gap is expected to influence the transport properties of devices which utilize the surface electron accumulation layer.

  5. Coal thickness gauge using RRAS techniques, part 1. [radiofrequency resonance absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollwitz, W. L.; King, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A noncontacting sensor having a measurement range of 0 to 6 in or more, and with an accuracy of 0.5 in or better is needed to control the machinery used in modern coal mining so that the thickness of the coal layer remaining over the rock is maintained within selected bounds. The feasibility of using the radiofrequency resonance absorption (RRAS) techniques of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the basis of a coal thickness gauge is discussed. The EMR technique was found, by analysis and experiments, to be well suited for this application.

  6. Non-resonant microwave absorption in high-T c thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durny, R.; Dulcic, A.; Crepeau, R. H.; Freed, J. H.; Kus, P.

    1990-11-01

    Magnetic-field-dependent non-resonant microwave absorption in thin film samples of various high- Tc superconductors is reported. Complex types of signals were observed as the temperature was lowered from Tc to ≈ 10 K. Possible correlation between the thin film quality and the occurrence of the signals is suggested.

  7. Microwave resonance lamp absorption technique for measuring temperature and OH number density in combustion environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempert, Walter R.

    1988-01-01

    A simple technique for simultaneous determination of temperature and OH number density is described, along with characteristic results obtained from measurements using a premixed, hydrogen air flat flame burner. The instrumentation is based upon absorption of resonant radiation from a flowing microwave discharge lamp, and is rugged, relatively inexpensive, and very simple to operate.

  8. A Novel Approach to Resonant Absorption of the Fast Magnetohydrodynamic Eigenmodes of a Coronal Arcade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Jain, Rekha

    2018-05-01

    The arched field lines forming coronal arcades are often observed to undulate as magnetohydrodynamic waves propagate both across and along the magnetic field. These waves are most likely a combination of resonantly coupled fast magnetoacoustic waves and Alfvén waves. The coupling results in resonant absorption of the fast waves, converting fast wave energy into Alfvén waves. The fast eigenmodes of the arcade have proven difficult to compute or derive analytically, largely because of the mathematical complexity that the coupling introduces. When a traditional spectral decomposition is employed, the discrete spectrum associated with the fast eigenmodes is often subsumed into the continuous Alfvén spectrum. Thus fast eigenmodes become collective modes or quasi-modes. Here we present a spectral decomposition that treats the eigenmodes as having real frequencies but complex wavenumbers. Using this procedure we derive dispersion relations, spatial damping rates, and eigenfunctions for the resonant, fast eigenmodes of the arcade. We demonstrate that resonant absorption introduces a fast mode that would not exist otherwise. This new mode is heavily damped by resonant absorption, travelling only a few wavelengths before losing most of its energy.

  9. Magneto-optical absorption and cyclotron-phonon resonance in graphene monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Phong, Tran Cong

    2018-03-01

    The optical absorption power by Dirac fermions in a graphene monolayer subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field is calculated using a projection operator technique. The electron-optical phonon interaction with optical deformation potential is taken into account. By varying the photon frequency (energy), we observe in the absorption power a series of cyclotron-phonon resonance (CPR) peaks (i.e., the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance). It is seen that the resonant photon energy is linearly proportional to the square root of the magnetic field. Also, the half width at half maximum (HWHM) of CPR peaks depends on the magnetic field by the law HWHM = 7.42 √{B } but does not depend on the temperature. In particular, the magnetic field and temperature dependences of the position and HWHM of CPR peaks are in good agreement with those obtained recently by the perturbation theory and an experiment in graphene.

  10. Excitonic resonance effects and Davydov splitting in circularly polarized Raman spectra of few-layer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghun; Kim, Kangwon; Lee, Jae-Ung; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2017-12-01

    Few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is investigated using circularly polarized Raman spectroscopy with up to eight excitation energies. The main E2\\text{g}1 and A 1g modes near 250 cm-1 appear as a single peak in the Raman spectrum taken without consideration of polarization but are resolved by using circularly polarized Raman scattering. The resonance behaviors of the E2\\text{g}1 and A 1g modes are examined. Firstly, both the E2\\text{g}1 and A 1g modes are enhanced near resonances with the exciton states. The A 1g mode exhibits Davydov splitting for trilayers or thicker near some of the exciton resonances. The low-frequency Raman spectra show shear and breathing modes involving rigid vibrations of the layers and also exhibit strong dependence on the excitation energy. An unidentified peak at ~19 cm-1 that does not depend on the number of layers appears near resonance with the B exciton state at 1.96 eV (632.8 nm). The strengths of the intra- and inter-layer interactions are estimated by comparing the mode frequencies and Davydov splitting with the linear chain model, and the contribution of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction to the inter-layer interaction turns out to be about 34% of the nearest-neighbor interaction. Fano resonance is observed for 1.58 eV excitation, and its origin is found to be the interplay between two-phonon scattering and indirect band transition.

  11. Polarized micro Raman spectroscopy of bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hyerim; Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2009-03-01

    The frequency of Raman 2D band of the graphite depends on the excitation laser energy. This phenomenon is explained with double resonance Raman process. In polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy of single layer graphene, Raman G band (˜1586 cm-1) is isotropic, and 2D band (˜2686 cm-1) strongly depends on relative polarizations of the incident and scattered photons. This strong polarization dependence originates from inhomogeneous optical absorption and emission mediated by resonant electron-phonon interaction. In bi-layer graphene, Raman 2D band can be decomposed into four Lorenztian peaks which can be interpreted in terms of the four transition paths in the double resonance Raman process. We investigated the polarization dependence of each Lorenztian peak in the Raman 2D band of bi-layer graphene for different excitation laser energies. Strong polarization dependence of the Raman 2D band, similar to the case of single layer graphene, is observed. The excitation energy dependence of the polarized Raman scattering is analyzed in terms of the band structure of bi-layer graphene.

  12. Detailed evaluation of the performance of microfluidic T mixers using fluorescence and ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masca, Sergiu I.; Rodriguez-Mendieta, Iñigo R.; Friel, Claire T.; Radford, Sheena E.; Smith, D. Alastair

    2006-05-01

    A reliable device that produces efficient mixing with a short dead time has enormous utility in the kinetic analysis of biochemical and chemical processes. We have designed two different T mixers that use moderate flow rates (0.2-0.4ml/s), can monitor reactions up to several milliseconds, and achieve mixing times as low as 20μs. The two mixers are easy to build and dismantle, reliable, and can perform hundreds of experiments without blocking. The first mixer comprises a stainless steel block, containing a microchannel, glued to a quartz cuvette, containing a 200×200μm2 observation channel defining a conventional T mixer. The reactions are monitored by imaging the length of the observation channel onto a charge-coupled device camera. In the second mixer the entire T (200×200μm2 internal cross section) is contained within a 40-mm-long quartz cuvette. We have adopted a novel approach to controlling the entrance channel bore by inserting a stainless steel wire in order to increase the linear speed of the impinging fluids. Using a dye to visualize the flow profile inside the second T mixer, it was shown that in this T geometry segregation of the reactants is observed in the junction between the inlet channels and the observation channel (T junction) and mixing occurs entirely in the observation channel. We thoroughly tested the two mixers through several kinetic reactions using both fluorescence and ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy measurements. We show that both mixers provide efficient mixing with nominal dead times (using 1:10 v /v dilution), calculated using the quenching of the fluorescence of N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide by N-bromosuccinimide, of 200±20 and 100±10μs, for each mixer, respectively. However, the ability to monitor within the inlet channels and the entire observation channel of the second mixer shows that this standard approach to estimating the dead time is artifactual, since it relies on assuming a constant flow speed throughout the

  13. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  14. High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy on Ti II VUV Resonance Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Lm; Fedchak, Ja; Lawler, Je

    2000-06-01

    The neutral hydrogen regions of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of our Galaxy and distant galaxies produce simple absorption spectra because most metals are singly ionized and in their ground fine structure level. Elemental abundance measurements and other studies of the ISM rely on accurate atomic oscillator strengths (f-values) for a few key lines in the second spectra of Ti and other metals. The Ti II VUV resonance lines at 1910.6 and 1910.9 Åare important in absorption line systems in which quasars provide the continuum and the ISM of intervening galaxies is observed. Some of these absorption line systems are redshifted to the visible and observed with ground based telescopes. We report the first laboratory measurement of these Ti II VUV resonance lines. Using High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy, we determined f-values for the 1910 Ålines relative to well-known Ti II resonance lines at 3067 and 3384 ÅContinuum radiation from an Aladdin Storage Ring bending magnet at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) is passed through a discharge plasma containing Ti^+. The transmitted light is analyzed by our 3m vacuum echelle spectrometer equipped with VUV sensitive CCD array. The resolving power of our spectrometer/detector array is 300,000. F-values are determined to within 10%.

  15. Tunable absorption resonances in the ultraviolet for InP nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Anttu, Nicklas; Nylund, Gustav; Samuelson, Lars; Lehmann, Sebastian; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2014-11-17

    The ability to tune the photon absorptance spectrum is an attracting way of tailoring the response of devices like photodetectors and solar cells. Here, we measure the reflectance spectra of InP substrates patterned with arrays of vertically standing InP nanowires. Using the reflectance spectra, we calculate and analyze the corresponding absorptance spectra of the nanowires. We show that we can tune absorption resonances for the nanowire arrays into the ultraviolet by decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. When we compare our measurements with electromagnetic modeling, we generally find good agreement. Interestingly, the remaining differences between modeled and measured spectra are attributed to a crystal-phase dependence in the refractive index of InP. Specifically, we find indication of significant differences in the refractive index between the modeled zinc-blende InP nanowires and the measured wurtzite InP nanowires in the ultraviolet. We believe that such crystal-phase dependent differences in the refractive index affect the possibility to excite optical resonances in the large wavelength range of 345 < λ < 390 nm. To support this claim, we investigated how resonances in nanostructures can be shifted in wavelength by geometrical tuning. We find that dispersion in the refractive index can dominate over geometrical tuning and stop the possibility for such shifting. Our results open the door for using crystal-phase engineering to optimize the absorption in InP nanowire-based solar cells and photodetectors.

  16. Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.

  17. UV Resonance Raman Elucidation of the Terminal and Internal Peptide Bond Conformations of Crystalline and Solution Oligoglycines.

    PubMed

    Bykov, Sergei V; Asher, Sanford A

    2010-11-30

    Spectroscopic investigations of macromolecules generally attempt to interpret the measured spectra in terms of the summed contributions of the different molecular fragments. This is the basis of the local mode approximation in vibrational spectroscopy. In the case of resonance Raman spectroscopy independent contributions of molecular fragments require both a local mode-like behavior and the uncoupled electronic transitions. Here we show that the deep UV resonance Raman spectra of aqueous solution phase oligoglycines show independent peptide bond molecular fragment contributions indicating that peptide bonds electronic transitions and vibrational modes are uncoupled. We utilize this result to separately determine the conformational distributions of the internal and penultimate peptide bonds of oligoglycines. Our data indicate that in aqueous solution the oligoglycine terminal residues populate conformations similar to those found in crystals (3(1)-helices and β-strands), but with a broader distribution, while the internal peptide bond conformations are centered around the 3(1)-helix Ramachandran angles.

  18. Transmission Loss and Absorption of Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels With Embedded Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of embedded resonators on the diffuse field sound transmission loss and absorption of composite corrugated core sandwich panels has been evaluated experimentally. Two 1.219 m × 2.438 m panels with embedded resonator arrangements targeting frequencies near 100 Hz were evaluated using non-standard processing of ASTM E90-09 acoustic transmission loss and ASTM C423-09a room absorption test measurements. Each panel is comprised of two composite face sheets sandwiching a corrugated core with a trapezoidal cross section. When inlet openings are introduced in one face sheet, the chambers within the core can be used as embedded acoustic resonators. Changes to the inlet and chamber partition locations allow this type of structure to be tuned for targeted spectrum passive noise control. Because the core chambers are aligned with the plane of the panel, the resonators can be tuned for low frequencies without compromising the sandwich panel construction, which is typically sized to meet static load requirements. Absorption and transmission loss performance improvements attributed to opening the inlets were apparent for some configurations and inconclusive for others.

  19. Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of manganese centers in aluminium lead borate glasses.

    PubMed

    SivaRamaiah, G; LakshmanaRao, J

    2012-12-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al(2)O(3)+75H(3)BO(3)+(20-x)PbO+xMnSO(4) (where x=0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO(4)) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g≈2.0 has been attributed to Mn(2+) centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g≈3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn(2+) ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to (5)E(g)→(5)T(2g) transition of Mn(3+)centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a hydroxide ligand at the iron center of ribonucleotide reductase by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoeberg, B.; Sanders-Loehr, J.; Loehr, T.M.

    1987-07-14

    The resonance Raman spectrum of protein B2 of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli shows several features related to its oxo-bridged binuclear iron center. A peak at 492 cm/sup -1/ is assigned to the symmetric stretch of the Fe-O-Fe moiety on the basis of its 13-cm/sup -1/ shift to lower energy upon /sup 18/O substitution. The /sup 18/O species shows an additional peak at 731 cm/sup -1/, which is a good candidate for the asymmetric stretch of the Fe-O-Fe moiety. Its exact location in the /sup 16/O species is obscured by the presence of a protein tryptophan vibration at 758 cm/supmore » -1/. A third resonance-enhanced peak at 598 cm/sup -1/ is identified as an Fe-OH vibration on the basis of its 24-cm/sup -1/ shift to lower energy in H/sub 2//sup 18/O, its 2-cm/sup -1/ shift to lower energy in D/sub 2/O, and its pH-dependent intensity. A hydrogen-bonded ..mu..-oxo bridge similar to that in hemerythrin is suggested by the unusually low frequency for the Fe-O-Fe symmetric stretch and the 3-cm/sup -1/ shift to higher energy of nu/sub s/ (Fe-O-Fe), an Fe-O-Fe angle of 138/sup 0/ can be calculated. This small angle suggests that the iron center consists of a tribridged core as in hemerythrin. A model for the binuclear iron center of ribonucleotide reductase is presented in which the hydroxide ligand sites provide an explanation for the half-of-sites reactivity of the enzyme.« less

  1. Elucidating Peptide and Protein Structure and Dynamics: UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oladepo, Sulayman A.; Xiong, Kan; Hong, Zhenmin; Asher, Sanford A.

    2011-01-01

    UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) is a powerful method that has the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to incisively monitor biomolecular structure and dynamics in solution. In this perspective, we highlight applications of UVRR for studying peptide and protein structure and the dynamics of protein and peptide folding. UVRR spectral monitors of protein secondary structure, such as the Amide III3 band and the Cα-H band frequencies and intensities can be used to determine Ramachandran Ψ angle distributions for peptide bonds. These incisive, quantitative glimpses into conformation can be combined with kinetic T-jump methodologies to monitor the dynamics of biomolecular conformational transitions. The resulting UVRR structural insight is impressive in that it allows differentiation of, for example, different α-helix-like states that enable differentiating π- and 310- states from pure α-helices. These approaches can be used to determine the Gibbs free energy landscape of individual peptide bonds along the most important protein (un)folding coordinate. Future work will find spectral monitors that probe peptide bond activation barriers that control protein (un)folding mechanisms. In addition, UVRR studies of sidechain vibrations will probe the role of side chains in determining protein secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. PMID:21379371

  2. Combining fibre optic Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance measurement for tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candefjord, Stefan; Nyberg, Morgan; Jalkanen, Ville; Ramser, Kerstin; Lindahl, Olof A.

    2010-12-01

    Tissue characterization is fundamental for identification of pathological conditions. Raman spectroscopy (RS) and tactile resonance measurement (TRM) are two promising techniques that measure biochemical content and stiffness, respectively. They have potential to complement the golden standard--histological analysis. By combining RS and TRM, complementary information about tissue content can be obtained and specific drawbacks can be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate approach to compare RS and TRM information. The approach was evaluated on measurements at the same points on porcine abdominal tissue. The measurement points were divided into five groups by multivariate analysis of the RS data. A regression analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the RS and TRM data. TRM identified one group efficiently (area under ROC curve 0.99). The RS data showed that the proportion of saturated fat was high in this group. The regression analysis showed that stiffness was mainly determined by the amount of fat and its composition. We concluded that RS provided additional, important information for tissue identification that was not provided by TRM alone. The results are promising for development of a method combining RS and TRM for intraoperative tissue characterization.

  3. Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Evaluation of Skin Carotenoids as a Biomarker of Carotenoid Status for Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Susan T.; Cartmel, Brenda; Scarmo, Stephanie; Jahns, Lisa; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method that has been developed to assess carotenoid status in human tissues including human skin in vivo. Skin carotenoid status has been suggested as a promising biomarker for human studies. This manuscript describes research done relevant to the development of this biomarker, including its reproducibility, validity, feasibility for use in field settings, and factors that affect the biomarker such as diet, smoking, and adiposity. Recent studies have evaluated the response of the biomarker to controlled carotenoid interventions, both supplement-based and dietary [e.g., provision of a high-carotenoid fruit and vegetable (F/V)-enriched diet], demonstrating consistent response to intervention. The totality of evidence supports the use of skin carotenoid status as an objective biomarker of F/V intake, although in the cross-sectional setting, diet explains only some of the variation in this biomarker. However, this limitation is also a strength in that skin carotenoids may effectively serve as an integrated biomarker of health, with higher status reflecting greater F/V intake, lack of smoking, and lack of adiposity. Thus, this biomarker holds promise as both a health biomarker and an objective indicator of F/V intake, supporting its further development and utilization for medical and public health purposes. PMID:23823930

  4. Resonance Raman detection of the heme Fe(II)-NO/2-nitrovinyl species in myoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Androulla; Pinakoulaki, Eftychia

    2018-01-01

    The six-coordinate heme Fe(II)-NO/2-nitrovinyl species in myoglobin has been detected and characterized by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The Fe(II)-14NO and 15N-O stretching frequencies of the ferrous heme nitrosyl/2-nitrovinyl species are detected at 560 and 1587 cm-1, frequencies that are similar to those observed in the Mb heme Fe(II)-NO species. For the 2-nitrovinyl (Ca=CbNO2) moiety, which is formed upon H-abstraction from the -CbH2 group, the νs(NO2) is observed at 1322 cm-1, the νas(NO2) at 1516 cm-1 and the ν(Ca=Cb14NO2)/ ν(Ca=Cb15NO2) at 1623/1615 cm-1. The frequencies of the 2-nitrovinyl are largely unaffected by NO2-/NO binding to the heme Fe(II)/(III). The properties of the six-coordinate heme Fe(II)-NO/2-nitrovinyl species are compared to those of six-coordinate heme Fe(II)-NO and the five-coordinate heme Fe(II)-NO species isolated from meat products.

  5. Resonance Raman studies of the HOOP modes in octopus bathorhodopsin with deuterium-labeled retinal chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.; Manor, D.; Weng, G.

    1991-05-07

    Resonance Raman spectra of the hydrogen out-of-plane (HOOP) vibrational modes in the retinal chromophore of octopus bathorhodopsin with deuterium label(s) along the polyene chain have been obtained. In clear contrast with bovine bathorhodopsin's HOOP modes, there are only two major HOOP bands at 887 and 940 cm{sup {minus}1} for octopus bathorhodopsin. On the basis of their isotopic shifts upon deuterium labeling, the authors have assigned the band at 887 cm{sup {minus}1} to C{sub 10}H and C{sub 14}H HOOP modes, and the band at 940 cm{sup {minus}1} to C{sub 11}H{double bond}C{sub 12}H A{sub u}-like HOOP mode. They found also that themore » C{sub 10}H and C{sub 14}H HOOP wags are also similar to those in the model-compound studies. However, they have found that the interaction between the C{sub 7}H and C{sub 8}H HOOP internal coordinates of the chromophore in octopus bathorhodopsin is different from that of the chromophore in solution. The twisted nature of the chromophore, semiquantitatively discussed here, likely affects the {lambda}{sub max} of the chromophore and its enthalpy. The nature of the HOOP modes of octopus bathorhodopsin differs substantially from those found in bovine bathorhodopsin.« less

  6. Sensitive molecular diagnostics using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan; McKenzie, Fiona; MacRae, Douglas; Ricketts, Alastair; Dougan, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) is an analytical technique with several advantages over competitive techniques in terms of improved sensitivity and multiplexing. We have made great progress in the development of SERRS as a quantitative analytical method, in particular for the detection of DNA. SERRS is an extremely sensitive and selective technique which when applied to the detection of labelled DNA sequences allows detection limits to be obtained which rival, and in most cases, are better than fluorescence. Here the conditions are explored which will enable the successful detection of DNA using SERRS. The enhancing surface which is used is crucial and in this case suspensions of nanoparticles were used as they allow quantitative behaviour to be achieved and allow analogous systems to current fluorescence based systems to be made. The aggregation conditions required to obtain SERRS of DNA are crucial and herein we describe the use of spermine as an aggregating agent. The nature of the label which is used, be it fluorescent, positively or negatively charged also effects the SERRS response and these conditions are again explored here. We have clearly demonstrated the ability to identify the components of a mixture of 5 analytes in solution by using two different excitation wavelengths and also of a 6-plex using data analysis techniques. These conditions will allow the use of SERRS for the detection of target DNA in a meaningful diagnostic assay.

  7. Studying protein structural changes based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Pin; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yih, Jenq-Nan; Lin, G.-Y.; Chang, Guan L.

    2004-06-01

    The ability to recognize the conformational changes and structural variations of a protein when immobilized in a solid surface is of great importance in a variety of applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing is an appropriate technique for investigating interfacial phenomena, and enables the conformational changes of proteins to be monitored through the variation in the SPR angle shift. Meanwhile, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system can also assist in clarifying the changes in protein structure. The present study utilizes a 1 mM CrO3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) to induce conformational changes of human serum albumin (HSA). Monitoring the corresponding SPR angle shifts and the SPR reflectivity spectrum enables the relationships between the conformational changes of the surface-immobilized protein and the thickness and dielectric constants of the protein layer to be estimated. The experimental SPR results indicate that the Cr6+ ions cause significant conformational change of the protein. It is established that the ions are not merely absorbed into the protein as a result of electrostatic forces, but that complex protein refolding events also take place. Furthermore, the data acquired from the SERS system yield valuable information regarding the changes which take place in the protein structure.

  8. Structural and functional properties of hemoglobins from unicellular organisms as revealed by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobins have been discovered in organisms from virtually all kingdoms. Their presence in unicellular organisms suggests that the gene for hemoglobin is very ancient and that the hemoglobins must have functions other than oxygen transport, in view of the fact that O2 delivery is a diffusion-controlled process in these organisms. Based on sequence alignment, three groups of hemoglobins have been characterized in unicellular organisms. The group-one hemoglobins, termed truncated hemoglobins, consist of proteins with 110-140 amino acid residues and a novel two-over-two alpha-helical sandwich motif. The group-two hemoglobins, termed flavohemoglobins, consist of a hemoglobin domain, with a classical three-over-three alpha-helical sandwich motif, and a flavin-containing reductase domain that is covalently attached to it. The group-three hemoglobins consist of myoglobin-like proteins that have high sequence homology and structural similarity to the hemoglobin domain of flavohemoglobins. In this review, recent resonance Raman studies of each group of these proteins are presented. Their implications are discussed in the context of the structural and functional properties of these novel hemoglobins.

  9. Redox State of Cytochromes in Frozen Yeast Cells Probed by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Okotrub, Konstantin A; Surovtsev, Nikolay V

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is a well-established technique used for the long-term storage of biological materials whose biological activity is effectively stopped under low temperatures (suspended animation). Since most biological methods do not work in a low-temperature frozen environment, the mechanism and details of the depression of cellular activity in the frozen state remain largely uncharacterized. In this work, we propose, to our knowledge, a new approach to study the downregulation of the redox activity of cytochromes b and c in freezing yeast cells in a contactless, label-free manner. Our approach is based on cytochrome photobleaching effects observed in the resonance Raman spectra of live cells. Photoinduced and native redox reactions that contributed to the photobleaching rate were studied over a wide temperature range (from -173 to +25 °C). We found that ice formation influences both the rate of cytochrome redox reactions and the balance between the reduced and oxidized cytochromes. We demonstrate that the temperature dependence of native redox reaction rates can be well described by the thermal activation law with an apparent energy of 32.5 kJ/mol, showing that the redox reaction rate is ∼10(15) times slower at liquid nitrogen temperature than at room temperature. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative methods for structural characterization of proteins based on deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shashilov, Victor A; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Popova, Ludmila A; Lednev, Igor K

    2010-09-01

    Here we report on novel quantitative approaches for protein structural characterization using deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy. Specifically, we propose a new method combining hydrogen-deuterium (HD) exchange and Bayesian source separation for extracting the DUVRR signatures of various structural elements of aggregated proteins including the cross-beta core and unordered parts of amyloid fibrils. The proposed method is demonstrated using the set of DUVRR spectra of hen egg white lysozyme acquired at various stages of HD exchange. Prior information about the concentration matrix and the spectral features of the individual components was incorporated into the Bayesian equation to eliminate the ill-conditioning of the problem caused by 100% correlation of the concentration profiles of protonated and deuterated species. Secondary structure fractions obtained by partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) were used as the initial guess for the Bayessian source separation. Advantages of the PLS and LS-SVMs methods over the classical least squares calibration (CLSC) are discussed and illustrated using the DUVRR data of the prion protein in its native and aggregated forms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Absorption cross sections of some atmospheric molecules for resonantly scattered O I 1304-A radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption cross sections for O2, N2, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO have been measured at each of the lines of the atomic oxygen triplet at 1302, 1305, and 1306 A. Radiation resonantly scattered from oxygen atoms at a temperature of about 300 K was used for the line source. Absorber temperatures were also near 300 K. Direct application of the Lambert-Beer absorption equation yielded pressure-dependent cross sections for carbon monoxide at each line of the O I triplet. Reasons for this apparent dependence are presented and discussed.

  12. Time-resolved infrared and resonance Raman studies of benzil. Vibrational analysis and structures of the excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Misao; Iwata, Koichi; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2003-12-01

    Structures of the S 1 and T 1 states of benzil are examined based on the experimental results from nanosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and picosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Nanosecond time-resolved infrared spectra of the T 1 state of benzil as well as its three isotopically substituted analogues were measured in carbon tetrachloride. The observed infrared bands of T 1 benzil were assigned based on the frequency shifts on isotopic ( 18O, and deuteration) substitutions. The infrared band at 1312 cm -1 is assigned to the CO anti-symmetric stretch vibration. An infrared band that has large contribution from the central C-C stretch is not observed. Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectra of the S 1 state of benzil were also measured. It has been reported that after the photoexcitation, the benzil molecule shows an ultrafast conformational change in the S 1 state. The observed resonance Raman bands are attributable to the vibrations of the relaxed form of the S 1 state. By comparing the Raman and infrared spectra of the S 0, S 1, and T 1 states of benzil, the structures of benzil in the excited states are discussed. Upon going from the S 0 state to the S 1 or T 1 state, the bond order of the CO bond decreases while that of the central C-C bond increases. Although several ground-state bands appear in both the infrared and Raman spectra, there is no band observed simultaneously in the infrared and Raman spectra of the T 1 state, except for bands attributable to the phenyl ring vibrations. We conclude that T 1 benzil has the inversion center that arises from the trans-planar structure. The spectral pattern of the resonance Raman scattering of the relaxed S 1 state is very similar to that of the T 1 state. This implies that the molecular structure of the relaxed S 1 state is similar to that of the T 1 state. The structure of the relaxed form of the S 1 state is also considered to be trans-planar.

  13. Asymmetric resonance Raman excitation profiles and violation of the Condon approximation in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorn, Stephen; Duque, Juan; Telg, Hagen; Chen, Hang; Swan, Anna; Haroz, Erik; Kono, Junichiro; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming

    2012-02-01

    DNA wrapping-based ion exchange chromatography and density gradient ultracentrifugation provide nanotube samples highly enriched in single chiralities. We present resonance Raman excitation profiles for the G-band of several single chirality semiconducting and metallic species. The expected incoming and outgoing resonance peaks are observed in the profiles, but contrary to long-held assumptions, the outgoing resonance is always significantly weaker than the ingoing resonance peak. This strong asymmetry in the profiles arises from a violation of the Condon approximation [1]. Results will be discussed in the context of theoretical models that suggest significant coordinate dependence in the transition dipole (non-Condon effects). The generality of the behavior across semiconducting and metallic types, nanotube family, phonon mode, and Eii will be demonstrated. [4pt] [1] J. Duque et. al., ACS Nano, 5, 5233 (2011).

  14. Structure and reactivity of thiazolium azo dyes: UV-visible, resonance Raman, NMR, and computational studies of the reaction mechanism in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Moore, John N

    2013-03-07

    UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, allied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been used to study the structure, bonding, and alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of the cationic thiazloium azo dye, 2-[2-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-3-methyl-thiazolium (1a), along with a series of six related dyes with different 4-dialkylamino groups and/or other phenyl ring substituents (2a-c, 3a-c) and the related isothiazolium azo dye, 5-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-2-methyl-isothiazolium (4). These diazahemicyanine dyes are calculated to have a similar low-energy structure that is cis, trans at the (iso)thiazolium-azo group, and for which the calculated Raman spectra provide a good match with the experimental data; the calculations on these structures are used to assign and discuss the transitions giving rise to the experimental spectra, and to consider the bonding and its variation between the dyes. UV-visible, Raman, and NMR spectra recorded from minutes to several weeks after raising the pH of an aqueous solution of 1a to ca. 11.5 show that the dominant initial step in the reaction is loss of diethylamine to produce a quinonimine (ca. hours), with subsequent reactions occurring on longer time scales (ca. days to weeks); kinetic analyses give a rate constant of 2.6 × 10(-2) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) for reaction of 1a with OH(-). UV-visible spectra recorded on raising the pH of the other dyes in solution show similar changes that are attributed to the same general reaction mechanism, but with different rate constants for which the dependence on structure is discussed.

  15. Infrared, Raman and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of SiO2:C Nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Dariya; Vorliček, Vladimir; Kalabukhova, Ekaterina; Sitnikov, Aleksandr; Vasin, Andrii; Kysil, Dmytro; Sevostianov, Stanislav; Tertykh, Valentyn; Nazarov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    Optical and magnetic properties of SiO 2 :C nanopowders obtained by chemical and thermal modification of fumed silica were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), echo-detected EPR and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Two overlapping signals of Lorentzian lineshape were detected in CW EPR spectra of the initial SiO 2 :C. The EPR signal at g = 2.0055(3) is due to the silicon dangling bonds, which vanishes after thermal annealing, and the second EPR signal at g = 2.0033(3) was attributed to the carbon-related defect (CRD). The annealing of the SiO 2 :C samples gives rise to the increase of the CRD spin density and shift to the higher g-values due to the appearance of the oxygen in the vicinity of the CRD. Based on the temperature-dependent behavior of the CRD EPR signal intensity, linewidth and resonance field position we have attributed it to the spin system with non-localized electrons hopping between neighboring carbon dangling bonds, which undergo a strong exchange interaction with a localized spin system of carbon nanodots. The observed motional narrowing of the CRD EPR signal in the temperature interval from 4 to 20 K indicates that electrons are mobile at 4 K which can be explained by a quantum character of the conductivity in the vicinity of the carbon layer. The electrons trapped in quantum wells move from one carbon nanodot to another by hopping process through the energy barrier. The fact that echo-detected EPR signal at g = 2.0035(3) was observed in SiO 2 :C sample annealed at T ann  ≥ 700 °C serves as evidence that non-localized electrons coexist with localized electrons that have the superhyperfine interaction with surrounding 13 C and 29 Si nuclei located at the SiO 2 :C interface. The presence of the superhyperfine interaction of CRD with 1 H nuclei indicates the existence of hydrogenated regions in SiO 2 :C sample.

  16. Broadband perfect infrared absorption by tuning epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole resonances of multilayer ITO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Cheng, Qiang; Song, Jinlin; Lu, Lu; Jia, Zhihao; Li, Junwei

    2018-01-01

    We numerically investigate the broadband perfect infrared absorption by tuning epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and epsilon-near-pole (ENP) resonances of multilayer indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs). The monolayer ITO NWs array shows intensive absorption at ENZ and ENP wavelengths for p polarization, while only at the ENP wavelength for s polarization. Moreover, the ENP resonances are almost omnidirectional and the ENZ resonances are angularly dependent. Therefore, the absorption bandwidth is broader for p polarization than that for s polarization when polarized waves are incident obliquely. The ENZ resonances can be tuned by altering the doping concentration and volume filling factor of ITO NWs. However, the ENP resonances only can be tuned by changing the doping concentration of ITO NWs, and volume filling factor impacts little on the ENP resonances. Based on the strong absorption properties of each layer at their own ENP and ENZ resonances, the tuned absorption of the bilayer ITO NWs with the different doping concentrations can be broader and stronger. Furthermore, multilayer ITO NWs can achieve broadband perfect absorption by controlling the doping concentration, volume filling factor, and length of the NWs in each layer. This study has the potential to apply to applications requiring efficient absorption and energy conversion.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  18. Determination of retinal chromophore structure in bacteriorhodopsin with resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, S O; Lugtenburg, J; Mathies, R A

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the vibrational spectrum of the retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin with isotopic derivatives provides a powerful "structural dictionary" for the translation of vibrational frequencies and intensities into structural information. Of importance for the proton-pumping mechanism is the unambiguous determination of the configuration about the C13=C14 and C=N bonds, and the protonation state of the Schiff base nitrogen. Vibrational studies have shown that in light-adapted BR568 the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated and both the C13=C14 and C=N bonds are in a trans geometry. The formation of K625 involves the photochemical isomerization about only the C13=C14 bond which displaces the Schiff base proton into a different protein environment. Subsequent Schiff base deprotonation produces the M412 intermediate. Thermal reisomerization of the C13=C14 bond and reprotonation of the Schiff base occur in the M412------O640 transition, resetting the proton-pumping mechanism. The vibrational spectra can also be used to examine the conformation about the C--C single bonds. The frequency of the C14--C15 stretching vibration in BR568, K625, L550 and O640 argues that the C14--C15 conformation in these intermediates is s-trans. Conformational distortions of the chromophore have been identified in K625 and O640 through the observation of intense hydrogen out-of-plane wagging vibrations in the Raman spectra (see Fig. 2). These two intermediates are the direct products of chromophore isomerization. Thus it appears that following isomerization in a tight protein binding pocket, the chromophore cannot easily relax to a planar geometry. The analogous observation of intense hydrogen out-of-plane modes in the primary photoproduct in vision (Eyring et al., 1982) suggests that this may be a general phenomenon in protein-bound isomerizations. Future resonance Raman studies should provide even more details on how bacterio-opsin and retinal act in concert to produce an

  19. Single-Cell Growth Rates in Photoautotrophic Populations Measured by Stable Isotope Probing and Resonance Raman Microspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gordon T.; Suter, Elizabeth A.; Li, Zhuo Q.; Chow, Stephanie; Stinton, Dallyce; Zaliznyak, Tatiana; Beaupré, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    A new method to measure growth rates of individual photoautotrophic cells by combining stable isotope probing (SIP) and single-cell resonance Raman microspectrometry is introduced. This report explores optimal experimental design and the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative responses of Raman spectra to cellular isotopic composition. Resonance Raman spectra of isogenic cultures of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., grown in 13C-bicarbonate revealed linear covariance between wavenumber (cm−1) shifts in dominant carotenoid Raman peaks and a broad range of cellular 13C fractional isotopic abundance. Single-cell growth rates were calculated from spectra-derived isotopic content and empirical relationships. Growth rates among any 25 cells in a sample varied considerably; mean coefficient of variation, CV, was 29 ± 3% (σ/x¯), of which only ~2% was propagated analytical error. Instantaneous population growth rates measured independently by in vivo fluorescence also varied daily (CV ≈ 53%) and were statistically indistinguishable from single-cell growth rates at all but the lowest levels of cell labeling. SCRR censuses of mixtures prepared from Synechococcus sp. and T. pseudonana (a diatom) populations with varying 13C-content and growth rates closely approximated predicted spectral responses and fractional labeling of cells added to the sample. This approach enables direct microspectrometric interrogation of isotopically- and phylogenetically-labeled cells and detects as little as 3% changes in cellular fractional labeling. This is the first description of a non-destructive technique to measure single-cell photoautotrophic growth rates based on Raman spectroscopy and well-constrained assumptions, while requiring few ancillary measurements. PMID:28824580

  20. Resonance lamp absorption measurement of OH number density and temperature in expansion tube scramjet engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempert, Walter R.; Trucco, Richard E.; Bittner, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we report results of hydroxyl radical and static temperature measurements performed in the General Applied Science Laboratories-NASA HYPULSE expansion tube facility using the microwave resonance lamp absorption technique. Data were obtained as part of a series of hydrogen/air and hydrogen/oxygen combustion tests at stagnation enthalpies corresponding to Mach 17 flight speeds. Data from a representative injector configuration is compared to a full Navier-Stokes CFD solution.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced absorption in two-dimensional materials via Fano-resonant photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenyi; Klots, Andrey; Bolotin, Kirill I.

    2015-05-04

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in optoelectronics has attracted much attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. However, the low optical absorption of 2D materials arising from their atomic thickness limits the maximum attainable external quantum efficiency. For example, in the visible and near-infrared regimes monolayer MoS{sub 2} and graphene absorb only ∼10% and 2.3% of incoming light, respectively. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the use of Fano-resonant photonic crystals to significantly boost absorption in atomically thin materials. Using graphene as a test bed, we demonstrate that absorption in the monolayer thick material can be enhanced to 77%more » within the telecommunications band, the highest value reported to date. We also show that the absorption in the Fano-resonant structure is non-local, with light propagating up to 16 μm within the structure. This property is particularly beneficial in harvesting light from large areas in field-effect-transistor based graphene photodetectors in which separation of photo-generated carriers only occurs ∼0.2 μm adjacent to the graphene/electrode interface.« less

  3. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Lu, M.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, the Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process. PMID:25589290

  4. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; ...

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, themore » Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process.« less

  5. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  6. Properties of mixed metal-dielectric nanogratings for application in resonant absorption, sensing, and display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannin, Alexander L.; Wenner, Brett R.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Allen, Monica S.; Magnusson, Robert

    2017-12-01

    We treat fundamental resonance effects in hybridized metal-dielectric elements that may find applications in absorption, sensing, and displays. The hybrid structures support guided-mode resonance (GMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) operating independently or in unison. Numerical simulations of periodic resonant films coated in gold that effectively combine principles of both resonance effects show viability of absorbers with equalized spectra and hybrid waveguides. The experimentally measured spectra show qualitative agreement with theoretical models. We introduce a hybrid GMR/SPR refractive-index sensor consisting of a thin aluminum film integrated with a subwavelength silicon-dioxide grating. The sensor operates between the Rayleigh wavelengths of the cover and the substrate. A GMR is excited by TE-polarized light and is subsequently attenuated by the Rayleigh anomaly as the cover index increases. In transverse-magnetic-polarized light, it operates as a Rayleigh sensor with sharp spectral features that would be easily monitored with a spectrum analyzer. As a final device example, we present simulation results pertaining to a one-dimensional color filter utilizing SPR, GMR, and the Rayleigh anomaly and convert it into a polarization insensitive two-dimensional device. With dual periods along orthogonal directions, two resonant peaks are induced within the visible spectrum for unpolarized input light rendering a color-mixing effect. The output color of the dual pixel is tunable with the input polarization state.

  7. Nonlinear Stimulated Raman Exact Passage by Resonance-Locked Inverse Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorier, V.; Gevorgyan, M.; Ishkhanyan, A.; Leroy, C.; Jauslin, H. R.; Guérin, S.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an exact and robust stimulated Raman process for nonlinear quantum systems driven by pulsed external fields. The external fields are designed with closed-form expressions from the inverse engineering of a given efficient and stable dynamics. This technique allows one to induce a controlled population inversion which surpasses the usual nonlinear stimulated Raman adiabatic passage efficiency.

  8. Quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation: X-ray crystallographic, resonance Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis of a Rieske-type demethylase.

    PubMed

    Daughtry, Kelly D; Xiao, Youli; Stoner-Ma, Deborah; Cho, Eunsun; Orville, Allen M; Liu, Pinghua; Allen, Karen N

    2012-02-08

    Herein, the structure resulting from in situ turnover in a chemically challenging quaternary ammonium oxidative demethylation reaction was captured via crystallographic analysis and analyzed via single-crystal spectroscopy. Crystal structures were determined for the Rieske-type monooxygenase, stachydrine demethylase, in the unliganded state (at 1.6 Å resolution) and in the product complex (at 2.2 Å resolution). The ligand complex was obtained from enzyme aerobically cocrystallized with the substrate stachydrine (N,N-dimethylproline). The ligand electron density in the complex was interpreted as proline, generated within the active site at 100 K by the absorption of X-ray photon energy and two consecutive demethylation cycles. The oxidation state of the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy throughout X-ray data collection in conjunction with resonance Raman spectra collected before and after diffraction data. Shifts in the absorption band wavelength and intensity as a function of absorbed X-ray dose demonstrated that the Rieske center was reduced by solvated electrons generated by X-ray photons; the kinetics of the reduction process differed dramatically for the liganded complex compared to unliganded demethylase, which may correspond to the observed turnover in the crystal.

  9. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules using near field photon induced forces without resonant electronic enhancement gain

    SciTech Connect

    Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Huang, Fei; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H., E-mail: hkwick@uci.edu

    We report on stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules, excited without resonant electronic enhancement gain, and recorded using near field photon induced forces. Photon-induced interaction forces between the sharp metal coated silicon tip of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a sample resulting from stimulated Raman excitation were detected. We controlled the tip to sample spacing using the higher order flexural eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever, enabling the tip to come very close to the sample. As a result, the detection sensitivity was increased compared with previous work on Raman force microscopy. Raman vibrational spectra of azobenzene thiol andmore » l-phenylalanine were measured and found to agree well with published results. Near-field force detection eliminates the need for far-field optical spectrometer detection. Recorded images show spatial resolution far below the optical diffraction limit. Further optimization and use of ultrafast pulsed lasers could push the detection sensitivity towards the single molecule limit.« less

  10. Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; Hermelink, Antje; Lasch, Peter; Bambery, Keith R; Webster, Grant T; Khiavi, Mehdi Asghari; Cooke, Brian M; Deed, Samantha; Naumann, Dieter; McNaughton, Don

    2009-06-01

    Our goal is to produce a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool for malaria using resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect small inclusions of haemozoin in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells. In pursuit of this aim we serendipitously discovered a partial dark-field effect generated by our experimental setup, which helps identify in thick blood films potential parasites that are normally difficult to see with conventional bright-field microscopy. The haemozoin deposits 'light up' and these can be selectively targeted with the Raman microscope to confirm the presence or absence of haemozoin by the strong 1569 cm(-1) band, which is a marker for haemozoin. With newly developed imaging Raman microscopes incorporating ultra-sensitive rapid readout CCDs it is possible to obtain spectra with a good signal-to-noise ratio in 1 second. Moreover, images from a smear of potentially infected cells can be recorded and analysed with multivariate methods. The reconstructed images show what appear to be sub-micron-inclusions of haemozoin in some cells indicating that the technique has potential to identify low pigmented forms of the parasite including early trophozoite-stage infected cells. Further work is required to unambiguously confirm the presence of such forms through systematic staining but the results are indeed promising and may lead to the development of a new Raman-based malaria diagnostic.

  11. An Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Study of Cisplatin and Transplatin Interactions with Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiafeng; Aioub, Mena; El-Sayed, Mostafa A; Barry, Bridgette A

    2017-09-28

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy is a label-free method to define biomacromolecular interactions with anticancer compounds. Using UVRR, we describe the binding interactions of two Pt(II) compounds, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and its isomer, transplatin, with nucleotides and genomic DNA. Cisplatin binds to DNA and other cellular components and triggers apoptosis, whereas transplatin is clinically ineffective. Here, a 244 nm UVRR study shows that purine UVRR bands are altered in frequency and intensity when mononucleotides are treated with cisplatin. This result is consistent with previous suggestions that purine N7 provides the cisplatin-binding site. The addition of cisplatin to DNA also causes changes in the UVRR spectrum, consistent with binding of platinum to purine N7 and disruption of hydrogen-bonding interactions between base pairs. Equally important is that transplatin treatment of DNA generates similar UVRR spectral changes, when compared to cisplatin-treated samples. Kinetic analysis, performed by monitoring decreases of the 1492 cm -1 band, reveals biphasic kinetics and is consistent with a two-step binding mechanism for both platinum compounds. For cisplatin-DNA, the rate constants (6.8 × 10 -5 and 6.5 × 10 -6 s -1 ) are assigned to the formation of monofunctional adducts and to bifunctional, intrastrand cross-linking, respectively. In transplatin-DNA, there is a 3.4-fold decrease in the rate constant of the slow phase, compared with the cisplatin samples. This change is attributed to generation of interstrand, rather than intrastrand, adducts. This longer reaction time may result in increased competition in the cellular environment and account, at least in part, for the lower pharmacological efficacy of transplatin.

  12. Non-destructive studies of fuel pellets by neutron resonance absorption radiography and thermal neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Vogel, S. C.; Mocko, M.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Yuan, V.; Nelson, R. O.; Brown, D. W.; Feller, W. B.

    2013-09-01

    Many isotopes in nuclear materials exhibit strong peaks in neutron absorption cross sections in the epithermal energy range (1-1000 eV). These peaks (often referred to as resonances) occur at energies specific to particular isotopes, providing a means of isotope identification and concentration measurements. The high penetration of epithermal neutrons through most materials is very useful for studies where samples consist of heavy-Z elements opaque to X-rays and sometimes to thermal neutrons as well. The characterization of nuclear fuel elements in their cladding can benefit from the development of high resolution neutron resonance absorption imaging (NRAI), enabled by recently developed spatially-resolved neutron time-of-flight detectors. In this technique the neutron transmission of the sample is measured as a function of spatial location and of neutron energy. In the region of the spectra that borders the resonance energy for a particular isotope, the reduction in transmission can be used to acquire an image revealing the 2-dimensional distribution of that isotope within the sample. Provided that the energy of each transmitted neutron is measured by the neutron detector used and the irradiated sample possesses neutron absorption resonances, then isotope-specific location maps can be acquired simultaneously for several isotopes. This can be done even in the case where samples are opaque or have very similar transmission for thermal neutrons and X-rays or where only low concentrations of particular isotopes are present (<0.1 atom% in some cases). Ultimately, such radiographs of isotope location can be utilized to measure isotope concentration, and can even be combined to produce three-dimensional distributions using tomographic methods. In this paper we present the proof-of-principle of NRAI and transmission Bragg edge imaging performed at Flight Path 5 (FP5) at the LANSCE pulsed, moderated neutron source of Los Alamos National Laboratory. A set of urania mockup

  13. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B P; Saini, G S S

    2016-02-15

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum theory of the far-off-resonance continuous-wave Raman laser: Heisenberg-Langevin approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, P. A.; Murphy, S. K.; Meng, L. S.; Carlsten, J. L.; Ralph, T. C.; White, A. G.; Brasseur, J. K.

    2003-07-01

    We present the quantum theory of the far-off-resonance continuous-wave Raman laser using the Heisenberg-Langevin approach. We show that the simplified quantum Langevin equations for this system are mathematically identical to those of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator in the time domain with the following associations: pump ↔ pump, Stokes ↔ signal, and Raman coherence ↔ idler. We derive analytical results for both the steady-state behavior and the time-dependent noise spectra, using standard linearization procedures. In the semiclassical limit, these results match with previous purely semiclassical treatments, which yield excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analytical time-dependent results predict perfect photon statistics conversion from the pump to the Stokes and nonclassical behavior under certain operational conditions.

  15. Visualization of astaxanthin localization in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by combined confocal resonance Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Briviba, Karlis; Bornemann, Rainer; Lemmer, Ulrich

    2006-11-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in plants and seafood, exhibits antiproliferative, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We show that astaxanthin delivered with tetrahydrofuran is effectively taken up by cultured colon adenocarcinoma cells and is localized mostly in the cytoplasm as detected by confocal resonance Raman and broad-band fluorescence microspectroscopy image analysis. Cells incubated with beta-carotene at the same concentration as astaxanthin (10 microM) showed about a 50-fold lower cellular amount of beta-carotene, as detected by HPLC. No detectable Raman signal of beta-carotene was found in cells, but a weak broad-band fluorescence signal of beta-carotene was observed. beta-Carotene, like astaxanthin, was localized mostly in the cytoplasm. The heterogeneity of astaxanthin and beta-carotene cellular distribution in cells of intestinal origin suggests that the possible defense against reactive molecules by carotenoids in these cells may also be heterogeneous.

  16. Dynamic high pressure induced strong and weak hydrogen bonds enhanced by pre-resonance stimulated Raman scattering in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Fabing; Gong, Nan; Li, Zhanlong; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2017-12-11

    355 nm pulsed laser is employed to excite pre-resonance forward stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) of liquid water at ambient temperature. Due to the shockwave induced dynamic high pressure, the obtained Raman spectra begin to exhibit double peaks distribution at 3318 and 3373 cm -1 with the input energy of 17 mJ,which correspond with OH stretching vibration with strong and weak hydrogen (H) bonds. With laser energy rising from 17 to 27 mJ, the Stokes line at 3318 cm -1 shifts to 3255 and 3230 cm -1 because of the high pressure being enlarged. When the energy is up to 32 mJ, only 3373 cm -1 peak exists. The strong and weak H bond exhibit quite different energy dependent behaviors.

  17. Whistlers, Helicons, Lower Hybrid Waves: the Physics of RF Wave Absorption Without Cyclotron Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsker, R. I.

    2014-10-01

    In hot magnetized plasmas, two types of linear collisionless absorption processes are used to heat and drive noninductive current: absorption at ion or electron cyclotron resonances and their harmonics, and absorption by Landau damping and the transit-time-magnetic-pumping (TTMP) interactions. This tutorial discusses the latter process, i.e., parallel interactions between rf waves and electrons in which cyclotron resonance is not involved. Electron damping by the parallel interactions can be important in the ICRF, particularly in the higher harmonic region where competing ion cyclotron damping is weak, as well as in the Lower Hybrid Range of Frequencies (LHRF), which is in the neighborhood of the geometric mean of the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies. On the other hand, absorption by parallel processes is not significant in conventional ECRF schemes. Parallel interactions are especially important for the realization of high current drive efficiency with rf waves, and an application of particular recent interest is current drive with the whistler or helicon wave at high to very high (i.e., the LHRF) ion cyclotron harmonics. The scaling of absorption by parallel interactions with wave frequency is examined and the advantages and disadvantages of fast (helicons/whistlers) and slow (lower hybrid) waves in the LHRF in the context of reactor-grade tokamak plasmas are compared. In this frequency range, both wave modes can propagate in a significant fraction of the discharge volume; the ways in which the two waves can interact with each other are considered. The use of parallel interactions to heat and drive current in practice will be illustrated with examples from past experiments; also looking forward, this tutorial will provide an overview of potential applications in tokamak reactors. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. A resonant absorption line in the ASCA spectrum of NGC 985?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Fiore, F.; Brandt, N.; Reynolds, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analyses of the ASCA observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 985. The 0.6-10keV spectrum of this source is complex: large residuals are evident below 1keV when fitting the spectrum with a power-law model. Fitting a warm absorber model to the 0.6-2.5keV spectrum gives α=1.12+/-0.04, LogNWAH=21.97+/-0.08 and LogU=0.06+/-0.09, but the residuals continue to show a deficit of counts between 0.9 and 1keV. Adding an absorption line improves the fit, and the energy of the line is consistent with that of Kα NeIX-X resonant absorption lines. Hence, we confirm the presence of an ionized absorber along the line of sight to this source and interpret the further 1keV spectral feature as the first detection of a strong resonant absorption line associated with this system. The extrapolation of this model above 2.5keV produces large positive residuals above 3-4keV. Fitting the data with a broken power law plus warm absorber model gives an acceptable χ2 and Δα~0.5. A narrow iron line at 6.4keV (quasar frame) of equivalent width 138+64-110eV is also present in the ASCA data.

  19. Ultrafast two-photon absorption generated free-carrier modulation in a silicon nanoplasmonic resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast all-optical modulation in Ag/HfO2/Si/HfO2/Ag metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) nanoring resonators through two-photon absorption photogenerated free-carriers is studied using self-consistent 3-D finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The self-consistent FDTD simulations incorporate the two-photon absorption, free carrier absorption, and plasma dispersion effects in silicon. The nanorings are aperture coupled to Ag/HfO2/Si(100nm)/HfO2/Ag MISIM waveguides by 300nm wide and 50nm deep apertures. The effects of pump pulse energy, HfO2 spacer thickness, and device footprint on the modulation characteristics are studied. Nanoring radius is varied between 540nm and 1μm, the HfO2 spacer thickness is varied between 10nm and 20nm, and the pump pulse energy is explored up to 60pJ. Modulation amplitude, switching time, average generated carrier density, and wavelength resonant shift is studied for each of the device configurations. In a compact device footprint of only 1.4μm2, a 13.1dB modulation amplitude was obtained with a switching time of only 2ps using a modest pump pulse energy of 16.0pJ. The larger bandwidth associated with more compact nanorings and thinner spacer layers is shown to result in increased modulation amplitude.

  20. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films by Resonant Photothermal Bending Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, Toshie; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Hori, Yasuro; Nonomura, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    A resonant photothermal bending spectroscopy (PBS) is demonstrated for the measurement of absorption coefficient spectra in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (μc-3C-SiC:H) films. The resonant vibration technique utilized in PBS establishes the sensitivity as α d˜ 5× 10-5 in a vacuum measurement. Appling resonant PBS to μc-Si:H films, a new extra absorption coefficient αex spectrum is observed from 0.6 to 1.2 eV. The αex spectrum has a peak at ˜1.0 eV, and the localized states inducing the αex are located ˜0.35 eV below the conduction band edge of μc-Si:H. A possible explanation for the observed localized state is that an oxidation produces weak bonds at the grain boundaries and/or amorphous silicon tissues. In μc-3C-SiC:H film, an optical band-gap energy of ˜2.2 eV was demonstrated assuming an indirect optical transition. The temperature coefficient of the optical band-gap energy was ˜2.3× 10-4 eV K-1. The αex spectrum of μc-3C-SiC:H film is plateau-shaped and its magnitude is in accord with an increase in grain size.

  1. Deep Ultraviolet Laser Diode for UV-Resonance Enhanced Raman Identification of Biological Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-31

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD) ( Controlling DARPA Office) ARPA Order Q51 1/00 Issued by U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command Under Contract No...documented in a wide range of books, research papers and monographs well described in McCreery14. Raman spectroscopy offers a non -contact method of...magnitude non -linear increase in intensity. High levels of chemical specificity can be obtained using Raman spectroscopy without sample preparation, contact

  2. Raman lasing in As₂S₃ high-Q whispering gallery mode resonators.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Francis; Rochette, Martin; Godbout, Nicolas; Peter, Yves-Alain

    2013-12-01

    We report the first observation of a nonlinear process in a chalcogenide microresonator. Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering leading to laser oscillation is observed in microspheres made of As₂S₃. The coupled pump power threshold is as low as 13 μW using a pump wavelength of 1550 nm. The quality factor of the chalcogenide microresonator is also the highest ever reported with Q>7×10(7).

  3. The study of dispersive 'b'-mode in monolayer MoS2 in temperature dependent resonant Raman scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutrowska-Girzycka, Joanna; Jadczak, Joanna; Bryja, Leszek

    2018-07-01

    We report on resonant Raman scattering studies of monolayer MoS2 as a function of the excitation laser energy (1.959-2.033 eV) and temperature (T = 7-295 K). In complementary reflectivity contrast experiments we determined the temperature evolution of the A exciton and trion resonances. We focus our studies on the dispersive, second order 'b' mode related to the resonant two phonon Raman process of successive emissions of the acoustic LA and TA phonons at K points. We found that when excitation laser energy is tuned across the A exciton level this mode shifts almost linearly to lower frequency with the rate equal -83 and -71 cm-1/eV at T = 7 and 295 K, respectively, which is about two times higher rate than those reported in the previous studies of monolayer MoS2 but very close the relevant rate recorded for bulk MoS2. We interpret this effect as related to the difference of concentration of two dimensional electron gas. We also determined, using excitation with the He-Ne laser the temperature shifts of the Raman peaks of dispersive 'b' and dispersionless E‧ and A1‧ modes. We found that absolute value of the temperature coefficient of 'b' mode, equals 3.5 × 10-2 cm-1/K, is much higher than those of E‧ and A1‧ modes, equal 0.4 × 10-2 and 0.8 × 10-2 cm-1/K, respectively.

  4. Nitric oxide concentration measurements in atmospheric pressure flames using electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, N.; Kulatilaka, W. D.; Naik, S. V.; Laurendeau, N. M.; Lucht, R. P.; Kuehner, J. P.; Roy, S.; Katta, V. R.; Gord, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    We report the application of electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (ERE-CARS) for measurements of nitric oxide concentration ([NO]) in three different atmospheric pressure flames. Visible pump (532 nm) and Stokes (591 nm) beams are used to probe the Q-branch of the Raman transition. A significant resonance enhancement is obtained by tuning an ultraviolet probe beam (236 nm) into resonance with specific rotational transitions in the (v’=0, v”=1) vibrational band of the A2Σ+-X2Π electronic system of NO. ERE-CARS spectra are recorded at various heights within a hydrogen-air flame producing relatively low concentrations of NO over a Hencken burner. Good agreement is obtained between NO ERE-CARS measurements and the results of flame computations using UNICORN, a two-dimensional flame code. Excellent agreement between measured and calculated NO spectra is also obtained when using a modified version of the Sandia CARSFT code for heavily sooting acetylene-air flames (φ=0.8 to φ=1.6) on the same Hencken burner. Finally, NO concentration profiles are measured using ERE-CARS in a laminar, counter-flow, non-premixed hydrogen-air flame. Spectral scans are recorded by probing the Q1 (9.5), Q1 (13.5) and Q1 (17.5) Raman transitions. The measured shape of the [NO] profile is in good agreement with that predicted using the OPPDIF code, even without correcting for collisional effects. These comparisons between [NO] measurements and predictions establish the utility of ERE-CARS for detection of NO in flames with large temperature and concentration gradients as well as in sooting environments.

  5. Resonance Raman spectra of an O2-binding H-NOX domain reveal heme relaxation upon mutation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Rosalie; Boon, Elizabeth M; Marletta, Michael A; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-09-15

    Resonance Raman spectra were measured for the wild type Heme-Nitric oxide/OXygen binding domain from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX WT) and three other Tt H-NOX proteins containing mutations at key conserved residues to determine the heme conformation in solution. The most dramatic changes in heme conformation occurred in the O2-bound forms, and the single Tt H-NOX P115A mutation was sufficient to generate a significant relaxation of the chromophore. Clear evidence of heme relaxation in the Tt H-NOX I5L, P115A, and I5L/P115A mutants in solution is demonstrated by the observation of reduced resonance Raman intensities for several out-of-plane low frequency modes (e.g., gamma11, gamma12, gamma13, and gamma15) in the 400-750 cm(-1) region known to be sensitive to ruffling and saddling deformations, as well as increased vibrational frequencies for the core heme skeletal stretching modes, nu3, nu2, and nu10. In addition, all three mutants exhibited some degree of heme conformational heterogeneity based on several broad skeletal markers (e.g., nu10) in the high frequency region. These results are comparable to those observed by Olea et al. for Tt H-NOX P115A in crystal form, where four different heme structures were determined from a single unit cell. On the basis of the resonance Raman spectra, it is clear that the actual heme conformation for Tt H-NOX P115A in solution is considerably more relaxed than that of the WT protein, with increased flexibility within the protein pocket, allowing for rapid sampling of alternate conformations.

  6. A combined experimental and theoretical spectroscopic protocol for determination of the structure of heterogeneous catalysts: developing the information content of the resonance Raman spectra of M1 MoVO x .

    PubMed

    Kubas, Adam; Noak, Johannes; Trunschke, Annette; Schlögl, Robert; Neese, Frank; Maganas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Absorption and multiwavelength resonance Raman spectroscopy are widely used to investigate the electronic structure of transition metal centers in coordination compounds and extended solid systems. In combination with computational methodologies that have predictive accuracy, they define powerful protocols to study the spectroscopic response of catalytic materials. In this work, we study the absorption and resonance Raman spectra of the M1 MoVO x catalyst. The spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in conjunction with the independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator model (IMDHO), which allows for detailed bandshape predictions. For this purpose cluster models with up to 9 Mo and V metallic centers are considered to represent the bulk structure of MoVO x . Capping hydrogens were used to achieve valence saturation at the edges of the cluster models. The construction of model structures was based on a thorough bonding analysis which involved conventional DFT and local coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) methods. Furthermore the relationship of cluster topology to the computed spectral features is discussed in detail. It is shown that due to the local nature of the involved electronic transitions, band assignment protocols developed for molecular systems can be applied to describe the calculated spectral features of the cluster models as well. The present study serves as a reference for future applications of combined experimental and computational protocols in the field of solid-state heterogeneous catalysis.

  7. Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wenyi; Klotz, Andrey; Yang, Yuanmu; ...

    2015-05-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in optoelectronics has attracted much attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. For instance, graphenebased devices have been employed for applications such as ultrafast and broadband photodetectors and modulators while transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) based photodetectors can be used for ultrasensitive photodetection. However, the low optical absorption of 2D materials arising from their atomic thickness limits the maximum attainable external quantum efficiency. For example, in the visible and NIR regimes monolayer MoS 2 and graphene absorb only ~10% and 2.3% of incoming light, respectively. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the use of Fano-resonantmore » photonic crystals to significantly boost absorption in atomically thin materials. Using graphene as a test bed, we demonstrate that absorption in the monolayer thick material can be enhanced to 77% within the telecommunications band, the highest value reported to date. We also show that the absorption in the Fano-resonant structure is non-local, with light propagating up to 16 μm within the structure. This property is particularly beneficial in harvesting light from large areas in field-effect-transistor based graphene photodetectors in which separation of photo-generated carriers only occurs ~0.2 μm adjacent to the graphene/electrode interface.« less

  8. Perfect absorption of low-frequency sound waves by critically coupled subwavelength resonant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Houyou; Cheng, Ying; Tao, Jiancheng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    The perfect absorption (PA) for low-frequency audible sound waves has been achieved by critically coupling the inherent loss factor to the inherent leakage factor of a system, which is constructed by attaching a deep-subwavelength lossy resonant plate (LRP) to a backed rigid wall closely. We have certified it by using the graphical method in the complex frequency plane. By coupling the LRP to an air cavity in front of the rigid wall, the high efficient (>80%) low-frequency broadband absorption is obtained from 99.1 Hz to 294.8 Hz. Here, the thickness of LRP is only 1/13.5 of the relevant wavelength at 294.8 Hz. The impedance analyses further demonstrate that the impedances are perfectly matched between the system and the surrounding background medium at PA.

  9. Resonant tube for measurement of sound absorption in gases at low frequency/pressure ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a resonant tube for measuring sound absorption in gases, with specific emphasis on the vibrational relaxation peak of N2, over a range of frequency/pressure ratios from 0.1 to 2500 Hz/atm. The experimental background losses measured in argon agree with the theoretical wall losses except at few isolated frequencies. Rigid cavity terminations, external excitation, and a differential technique of background evaluation were used to minimize spurious contributions to the background losses. Room temperature measurements of sound absorption in binary mixtures of N2-CO2 in which both components are excitable resulted in the maximum frequency/pressure ratio in Hz/atm of 0.063 + 123m for the N2 vibrational relaxation peak, where m is mole percent of added CO2; the maximum ratio for the CO2 peak was 34,500 268m where m is mole percent of added N2.

  10. Near-IR Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Archaerhodopsin 3: Effects of Transmembrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Saint Clair, Erica C.; Ogren, John I.; Mamaev, Sergey; Russano, Daniel; Kralj, Joel M.; Rothschild, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Archaerhodopsin 3 (AR3) is a light driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense that has been used as a genetically targetable neuronal silencer and an effective fluorescent sensor of transmembrane potential. Unlike the more extensively studied bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum, AR3 readily incorporates into the plasma membrane of both E. coli and mammalian cells. Here, we used near-IR resonance Raman confocal microscopy to study the effects of pH and membrane potential on the AR3 retinal chromophore structure. Measurements were performed both on AR3 reconstituted into E. coli polar lipids and in vivo in E. coli expressing AR3 in the absence and presence of a negative transmembrane potential. The retinal chromophore structure of AR3 is in an all-trans configuration almost identical to BR over the entire pH range from 3–11. Small changes are detected in the retinal ethylenic stretching frequency and Schiff Base (SB) hydrogen bonding strength relative to BR which may be related to a different water structure near the SB. In the case of the AR3 mutant D95N, at neutral pH an all-trans retinal O-like species (Oall-trans) is found. At higher pH a second 13-cis retinal N-like species (N13-cis) is detected which is attributed to a slowly decaying intermediate in the red-light photocycle of D95N. However, the amount of N13-cis detected is less in E. coli cells but is restored upon addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) or sonication, both of which dissipate the normal negative membrane potential. We postulate that these changes are due to the effect of membrane potential on the N13-cis to M13-cis levels accumulated in the D95N red-light photocycle and on a molecular level by the effects of the electric field on the protonation/deprotonation of the cytoplasmic accessible SB. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed fluorescence dependence of AR3 and other microbial rhodopsins on transmembrane potential

  11. Recent Results of Search for Solar Axions Using Resonant Absorption by 83Kr nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbin, A. V.; Drachnev, I. S.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrilyuk, Yu M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Muratova, V. N.; Panashenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    A search for resonant absorption of the solar axion by 83Kr nuclei was performed using the proportional counter installed inside the low-background setup at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The obtained model independent upper limit on the combination of isoscalar and isovector axion-nucleon couplings |g 3 - g 0| ≤ 8.4 × 10-7 allowed us to set the new upper limit on the hadronic axion mass of mA ≤ 65 eV (95% C.L.) with the generally accepted values S=0.5 and z=0.56.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of riboflavin on nanostructured Ag surfaces: The role of excitation wavelength, plasmon resonance and molecular resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šubr, Martin; Kuzminova, Anna; Kylián, Ondřej; Procházka, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Optimization of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensors for (bio)analytical applications has received much attention in recent years. For optimum sensitivity, both the nanostructure fabrication process and the choice of the excitation wavelength used with respect to the specific analyte studied are of crucial importance. In this contribution, detailed SERS intensity profiles were measured using gradient nanostructures with the localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR) condition varying across the sample length and using riboflavin as the model biomolecule. Three different excitation wavelengths (633 nm, 515 nm and 488 nm) corresponding to non-resonance, pre-resonance and resonance excitation with respect to the studied molecule, respectively, were tested. Results were interpreted in terms of a superposition of the enhancement provided by the electromagnetic mechanism and intrinsic properties of the SERS probe molecule. The first effect was dictated mainly by the degree of spectral overlap between the LSPR band, the excitation wavelength along with the scattering cross-section of the nanostructures, while the latter was influenced by the position of the molecular resonance with respect to the excitation wavelength. Our experimental findings contribute to a better understanding of the SERS enhancement mechanism.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of riboflavin on nanostructured Ag surfaces: The role of excitation wavelength, plasmon resonance and molecular resonance.

    PubMed

    Šubr, Martin; Kuzminova, Anna; Kylián, Ondřej; Procházka, Marek

    2018-05-15

    Optimization of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensors for (bio)analytical applications has received much attention in recent years. For optimum sensitivity, both the nanostructure fabrication process and the choice of the excitation wavelength used with respect to the specific analyte studied are of crucial importance. In this contribution, detailed SERS intensity profiles were measured using gradient nanostructures with the localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR) condition varying across the sample length and using riboflavin as the model biomolecule. Three different excitation wavelengths (633 nm, 515 nm and 488 nm) corresponding to non-resonance, pre-resonance and resonance excitation with respect to the studied molecule, respectively, were tested. Results were interpreted in terms of a superposition of the enhancement provided by the electromagnetic mechanism and intrinsic properties of the SERS probe molecule. The first effect was dictated mainly by the degree of spectral overlap between the LSPR band, the excitation wavelength along with the scattering cross-section of the nanostructures, while the latter was influenced by the position of the molecular resonance with respect to the excitation wavelength. Our experimental findings contribute to a better understanding of the SERS enhancement mechanism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Broadening the absorption bandwidth of metamaterial absorber by coupling three dipole resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Dinh Qui; Le, Dinh Hai; Dinh, Hong Tiep; Trinh, Thi Giang; Yue, Liyang; Le, Dac Tuyen; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2018-03-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigated the metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on ring and dish structures in GHz region. It found that the combined structure of ring and dish (RD) exhibit dual-band absorption peaks at 8.6 and 15.6 GHz. By replacing the ring to the structure of split-ring and dish (SRD), the first magnetic resonance peak is shifted from 8.6 to 14.0 GHz. The physical mechanism of magnetic resonance frequencies was elucidated using simple LC circuit model. We achieved a broadband MMA with bandwidth of 3.7 GHz by arranging four SRD structures into a super unit-cell. The experimental results are good agreement with both the numerical simulation and calculation.

  15. Ultrafast laser control of autoionizing resonances observed in attosecond transient absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Harkema, Nathan; Sandhu, Arvinder

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond and femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses can be used to probe electron dynamics in high-lying excited states that autoionize on a femtosecond timescale, thus providing information on the process of Auger decay and its interference with the continua. Here we utilize XUV pulses in connection with infrared (IR) pulses to perform attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of the impulsive response of argon autoionizing Rydberg states in the vicinity of the 3s-1 4 p resonance. We show that by tuning the time delay and field polarization of IR pulse, it is possible to control the dipolar coupling between neighboring states and hence the spectral line shape of the resonance, such as the transition between Breit-Wigner to Beutler-Fano profiles. NSF Grant No. PHY-1505556.

  16. Electromagnetically-induced-absorption resonance with high contrast and narrow width in the Hanle configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Tumaikin, A. M.; Yudin, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The method for observing the high-contrast and narrow-width resonances of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the Hanle configuration under counter-propagating pump and probe light waves is proposed. Here, as an example, we study a ‘dark’ type of atomic dipole transition {{F}\\text{g}}={1}\\to {{F}\\text{e}}={1} in D1 line of 87Rb, where usually the electromagnetically induced transparency can be observed. To obtain the EIA signal one should properly choose the polarizations of light waves and intensities. In contrast to regular schemes for observing EIA signals (under a single traveling light wave in the Hanle configuration or under a bichromatic light field consisting of two traveling waves), the proposed scheme allows one to use buffer gas for significantly improving the properties of the resonance. Also the dramatic influence of atomic transition openness on the contrast of the resonance is revealed, which is advantageous in comparison with cyclic atomic transitions. The nonlinear resonances in a probe-wave transmitted signal with contrast close to 100% and sub-kHz widths can be obtained. The results are interesting in high-resolution spectroscopy, nonlinear and magneto-optics.

  17. Rocket-borne instrumentation using the resonant absorption technique to study the geocoronal and interplanetary helium emissions.

    PubMed

    Crifo, J F; Fahr, H J; Seidi, P; Wulf-Mathies, C

    1979-09-01

    A rocket payload able to perform a thorough and independent analysis of the He I 58.43340-nm geocoronal and interplanetary emissions is presented. It includes a sun-pointed resonant absorption spectrometer and a sky-scanning resonant absorption photometer. Both incorporate a similar helium resonance cell of original design featuring a most flexible pressure scanning capability and an accurate pressure measuring device, so that scanning by wavelength bandpasses from 20 down to 1 pm can be achieved. A description of the design and calibration of the instrument is given, followed by an indication of its successful operation in flight.

  18. Optical pathology of human brain metastasis of lung cancer using combined resonance Raman and spatial frequency spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Pu, Yang; Cheng, Gangge; Zhou, Lixin; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Ke; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has become widely used for diagnostic purpose of breast, lung and brain cancers. This report introduced a new approach based on spatial frequency spectra analysis of the underlying tissue structure at different stages of brain tumor. Combined spatial frequency spectroscopy (SFS), Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic method is used to discriminate human brain metastasis of lung cancer from normal tissues for the first time. A total number of thirty-one label-free micrographic images of normal and metastatic brain cancer tissues obtained from a confocal micro- Raman spectroscopic system synchronously with examined RR spectra of the corresponding samples were collected from the identical site of tissue. The difference of the randomness of tissue structures between the micrograph images of metastatic brain tumor tissues and normal tissues can be recognized by analyzing spatial frequency. By fitting the distribution of the spatial frequency spectra of human brain tissues as a Gaussian function, the standard deviation, σ, can be obtained, which was used to generate a criterion to differentiate human brain cancerous tissues from the normal ones using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. This SFS-SVM analysis on micrograph images presents good results with sensitivity (85%), specificity (75%) in comparison with gold standard reports of pathology and immunology. The dual-modal advantages of SFS combined with RR spectroscopy method may open a new way in the neuropathology applications.

  19. Controlling successive ionic layer absorption and reaction cycles to optimize silver nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the paper strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Wansun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates why a silver nanoparticle (SNP)-induced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) paper chip fabricated at low successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) cycles leads to a high SERS enhancement factor (7 × 108) with an inferior nanostructure and without generating a hot spot effect. The multi-layered structure of SNPs on cellulose fibers, verified by magnified scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by a computational simulation method, was hypothesized as the reason. The pattern of simulated local electric field distribution with respect to the number of SILAR cycles showed good agreement with the experimental Raman intensity, regardless of the wavelength of the excitation laser sources. The simulated enhancement factor at the 785-nm excitation laser source (2.8 × 109) was 2.5 times greater than the experimental enhancement factor (1.1 × 109). A 532-nm excitation laser source exhibited the highest maximum local electric field intensity (1.9 × 1011), particularly at the interparticle gap called a hot spot. The short wavelength led to a strong electric field intensity caused by strong electromagnetic coupling arising from the SNP-induced local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects through high excitation energy. These findings suggest that our paper-based SILAR-fabricated SNP-induced LSPR model is valid for understanding SNP-induced LSPR effects.

  20. Single-order, subwavelength resonant nanograting as a uniformly hot substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuegong; Braun, Gary B; Liu, Sheng; Sciortino, Paul F; Koefer, Bob; Tombler, Thomas; Moskovits, Martin

    2010-05-12

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity and the optical reflectance of a subwavelength gold nanograting fabricated entirely using top down technologies on silicon wafers are presented. The grating consists of 120 nm gold cladding on top of parallel silica nanowires constituting the grating's lines, with gaps between nanowires <10 nm wide at their narrowest point. The grating produces inordinately intense SERS and shows very strong polarization dependence. Reflectance measurements for the optimized grating indicate that (when p-polarization is used and at least one of the incident electric field components lies across the grating lines) the reflectance drops to <1% at resonance, indicating that essentially all of the radiant energy falling on the surface is coupled into the grating. The SERS intensity and the reflectance at resonance anticorrelate predicatively, suggesting that reflectance measurements can provide a nondestructive, wafer-level test of SERS efficacy. The SERS performance of the gratings is very uniform and reproducible. Extensive measurements on samples cut from both the same wafer and from different wafers, produce a SERS intensity distribution function that is similar to that obtained for ordinary Raman measurements carried out at multiple locations on a polished (100) silicon wafer.

  1. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of 2H-labelled spheroidenes in petroleum ether and in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centre.

    PubMed

    Kok, P; Köhler, J; Groenen, E J; Gebhard, R; van der Hoef, I; Lugtenburg, J; Farhoosh, R; Frank, H A

    1997-03-01

    As a step towards the structural analysis of the carotenoid spheroidene in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centre, we present the resonance Raman spectra of 14-2H, 15-2H, 15'-2H, 14'-2H, 14,15'-2H2 and 15-15'-2H2 spheroidenes in petroleum ether and, except for 14,15'-2H2 spheroidene, in the Rb. sphaeroides R26 reaction center (RC). Analysis of the spectral changes upon isotopic substitution allows a qualitative assignment of most of the vibrational bands to be made. For the all-trans spheroidenes in solution the resonance enhancement of the Raman bands is determined by the participation of carbon carbon stretching modes in the centre of the conjugated chain, the C9 to C15' region. For the RC-bound 15,15'-cis spheroidenes, enhancement is determined by the participation of carbon-carbon stretching modes in the centre of the molecule, the C13 to C13' region. Comparison of the spectra in solution and in the RC reveals evidence for an out-of-plane distortion of the RC-bound spheroidene in the central C14 to C14' region of the carotenoid. The characteristic 1240 cm-1 band in the spectrum of the RC-bound spheroidene has been assigned to a normal mode that contains the coupled C12-C13 and C13'-C12' stretch vibrations.

  2. Anharmonic resonance absorption of short laser pulses in clusters: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Linear resonance (LR) absorption of an intense 800 nm laser light in a nano-cluster requires a long laser pulse >100 fs when Mie-plasma frequency ( ω M ) of electrons in the expanding cluster matches the laser frequency (ω). For a short duration of the pulse, the condition for LR is not satisfied. In this case, it was shown by a model and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)] that electrons absorb laser energy by anharmonic resonance (AHR) when the position-dependent frequency Ω [ r ( t ) ] of an electron in the self-consistent anharmonic potential of the cluster satisfies Ω [ r ( t ) ] = ω . However, AHR remains to be a debate and still obscure in multi-particle plasma simulations. Here, we identify AHR mechanism in a laser driven cluster using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By analyzing the trajectory of each MD electron and extracting its Ω [ r ( t ) ] in the self-generated anharmonic plasma potential, it is found that electron is outer ionized only when AHR is met. An anharmonic oscillator model, introduced here, brings out most of the features of MD electrons while passing the AHR. Thus, we not only bridge the gap between PIC simulations, analytical models, and MD calculations for the first time but also unequivocally prove that AHR process is a universal dominant collisionless mechanism of absorption in the short pulse regime or in the early time of longer pulses in clusters.

  3. Mapping the amide I absorption in single bacteria and mammalian cells with resonant infrared nanospectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassarre, L.; Giliberti, V.; Rosa, A.; Ortolani, M.; Bonamore, A.; Baiocco, P.; Kjoller, K.; Calvani, P.; Nucara, A.

    2016-02-01

    Infrared (IR) nanospectroscopy performed in conjunction with atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a novel, label-free spectroscopic technique that meets the increasing request for nano-imaging tools with chemical specificity in the field of life sciences. In the novel resonant version of AFM-IR, a mid-IR wavelength-tunable quantum cascade laser illuminates the sample below an AFM tip working in contact mode, and the repetition rate of the mid-IR pulses matches the cantilever mechanical resonance frequency. The AFM-IR signal is the amplitude of the cantilever oscillations driven by the thermal expansion of the sample after absorption of mid-IR radiation. Using purposely nanofabricated polymer samples, here we demonstrate that the AFM-IR signal increases linearly with the sample thickness t for t \\gt 50 nm, as expected from the thermal expansion model of the sample volume below the AFM tip. We then show the capability of the apparatus to derive information on the protein distribution in single cells through mapping of the AFM-IR signal related to the amide-I mid-IR absorption band at 1660 cm-1. In Escherichia Coli bacteria we see how the topography changes, observed when the cell hosts a protein over-expression plasmid, are correlated with the amide I signal intensity. In human HeLa cells we obtain evidence that the protein distribution in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus is uneven, with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm.

  4. Distribution and absorption of local anesthetics in inferior alveolar nerve block: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ay, Sinan; Küçük, Dervisşhan; Gümüş, Cesur; Kara, M Isa

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and absorption of local anesthetic solutions in inferior alveolar nerve block using magnetic resonance imaging. Forty healthy volunteers were divided into 4 groups and injected with 1.5 mL for inferior alveolar nerve block and 0.3 mL for lingual nerve block. The solutions used for the different groups were 2% lidocaine, 2% lidocaine with 0.125 mg/mL epinephrine, 4% articaine with 0.006 mg/mL epinephrine, and 4% articaine with 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All subjects had axial T2-weighted and fat-suppressed images at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection. The localization, area, and intensity (signal characteristics) of the solutions were analyzed and onset and duration times of the anesthesia were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to the intensity and area of the solutions at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after injection, but differences were found within each group. No between-group differences were found on magnetic resonance imaging in the distribution and absorption of lidocaine with or without epinephrine and articaine with 0.006 and 0.012 mg/mL epinephrine. All solutions were noticeably absorbed at 120 minutes after injection. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sound Absorption of a 2DOF Resonant Liner with Negative Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Cataldi, P.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an experimental study conducted to determine the effect of negative bias flow on the sound absorption of a two degree-of-freedom liner. The backwall for the liner was designed to act as a double-Helmholtz resonator so as to act as a hard wall at all frequencies except at its resonant frequencies. The effect of bias flow is investigated for a buried septum porosity of 2% and 19.5% for bias flow orifice Mach numbers up to 0.311. The bias flow appears to modify the resistance and reactance of the backwall alone at lower frequencies up to about 2 kHz, with marginal effects at higher frequencies. Absorption coefficients close to unity are achieved for a frequency range of 500 - 4000 Hz for the overall liner for a septum porosity of 2% and orifice Mach number of 0.128. Insertion loss tests performed in a flow duct facility for grazing flow Mach numbers up to 0.2 and septum Mach numbers up to 0.15 showed that negative bias flow can increase insertion loss by as much as 10 dB at frequencies in the range of 500 D 1400 Hz compared to no grazing flow. The effectiveness of the negative bias flow is diminished as the grazing flow velocity is increased.

  6. Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697

  7. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Joshua R., E-mail: joshua.hendrickson.4@us.af.mil; Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabricationmore » result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.« less

  8. Oxidative damage in DNA bases revealed by UV resonant Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Francesco; Cammisuli, Francesca; Addobbati, Riccardo; Rizzardi, Clara; Gessini, Alessandro; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Rossi, Barbara; Pascolo, Lorella

    2015-03-07

    We report on the use of the UV Raman technique to monitor the oxidative damage of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP) and DNA (plasmid vector) solutions. Nucleotide and DNA aqueous solutions were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to produce Fenton's reaction and induce oxidative damage. UV Raman spectroscopy is shown to be maximally efficient to reveal changes in the nitrogenous bases during the oxidative mechanisms occurring on these molecules. The analysis of Raman spectra, supported by numerical computations, revealed that the Fenton's reaction causes an oxidation of the nitrogenous bases in dATP, dGTP and dCTP solutions leading to the production of 2-hydroxyadenine, 8-hydroxyguanine and 5-hydroxycytosine. No thymine change was revealed in the dTTP solution under the same conditions. Compared to single nucleotide solutions, plasmid DNA oxidation has resulted in more radical damage that causes the breaking of the adenine and guanine aromatic rings. Our study demonstrates the advantage of using UV Raman spectroscopy for rapidly monitoring the oxidation changes in DNA aqueous solutions that can be assigned to specific nitrogenous bases.

  9. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  10. Estimating nanoparticle optical absorption with magnetic resonance temperature imaging and bioheat transfer simulation.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Christopher J; Fuentes, David; Elliott, Andrew M; Schwartz, Jon; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason

    2014-02-01

    Optically activated nanoparticle-mediated heating for thermal therapy applications is an area of intense research. The ability to characterise the spatio-temporal heating potential of these particles for use in modelling under various exposure conditions can aid in the exploration of new approaches for therapy as well as more quantitative prospective approaches to treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate an inverse solution to the heat equation using magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) feedback, for providing optical characterisation of two types of nanoparticles (gold-silica nanoshells and gold nanorods). The optical absorption of homogeneous nanoparticle-agar mixtures was measured during exposure to an 808 nm laser using real-time MRTI. A coupled finite element solution of heat transfer was registered with the data and used to solve the inverse problem. The L2 norm of the difference between the temperature increase in the model and MRTI was minimised using a pattern search algorithm by varying the absorption coefficient of the mixture. Absorption fractions were within 10% of literature values for similar nanoparticles. Comparison of temporal and spatial profiles demonstrated good qualitative agreement between the model and the MRTI. The weighted root mean square error was <1.5 σMRTI and the average Dice similarity coefficient for ΔT = 5 °C isotherms was >0.9 over the measured time interval. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using an indirect method for making minimally invasive estimates of nanoparticle absorption that might be expanded to analyse a variety of geometries and particles of interest.

  11. Shifting of infrared radiation using rotational raman resonances in diatomic molecular gases

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for shifting the frequency of infrared radiation from a CO.sub.2 laser by stimulated Raman scattering in either H.sub.2 or D.sub.2. The device of the preferred embodiment comprises an H.sub.2 Raman laser having dichroic mirrors which are reflective for 16 .mu.m radiation and transmittive for 10 .mu.m, disposed at opposite ends of an interaction cell. The interaction cell contains a diatomic molecular gas, e.g., H.sub.2, D.sub.2, T.sub.2, HD, HT, DT and a capillary waveguide disposed within the cell. A liquid nitrogen jacket is provided around the capillary waveguide for the purpose of cooling. In another embodiment the input CO.sub.2 radiation is circularly polarized using a Fresnel rhomb .lambda./4 plate and applied to an interaction cell of much longer length for single pass operation.

  12. Observing random walks of atoms in buffer gas through resonant light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Mitsui, Takahisa

    2016-07-01

    Using resonant light absorption, random-walk motions of rubidium atoms in nitrogen buffer gas are observed directly. The transmitted light intensity through atomic vapor is measured, and its spectrum is obtained, down to orders of magnitude below the shot-noise level to detect fluctuations caused by atomic motions. To understand the measured spectra, the spectrum for atoms performing random walks in a Gaussian light beam is computed, and its analytical form is obtained. The spectrum has 1 /f2 (f is frequency) behavior at higher frequencies, crossing over to a different, but well-defined, behavior at lower frequencies. The properties of this theoretical spectrum agree excellently with the measured spectrum. This understanding also enables us to obtain the diffusion constant, the photon cross section of atoms in buffer gas, and the atomic number density from a single spectral measurement. We further discuss other possible applications of our experimental method and analysis.

  13. Resonance Raman imaging for detecting and monitoring molecular pathological changes in human brain tumors related to Warburg effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Zhu, Ke; Zhang, Chunyuan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Xinguang; Hu, Hailong; Cheng, Gangge; Wu, Binlin; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R.

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the research is to determine the prognostic molecular pathological changes in components and composition, for human brain glioma gradings in comparison with normal tissues in three-dimensional Raman imaging profiles by visible Resonance Raman (VRR) imaging. VRR images from twenty-five specimens including three healthy tissues, one normal control, and twenty-one glioma tissues of grades II, II-III and III-IV with histology examination were measured and investigated using WITec300R confocal micro Raman imaging system with laser excitation of 532nm. Two-dimensional RR spectral mappings performed in 20μm x 20μm generated 400 images which integrated the intensity of the specific biochemical bonds as the third dimension. The three-dimension (3D) map demonstrated the spatial distributions of three selected sets of RR spectra of molecular biomarkers, and revealed significant differences in the spectra between normal and glioma tissues of different grades due to the composition changes in key molimageecules. These RR molecular spectral fingerprints have displayed: a clear enhancement of RR vibrational modes at 1129-1131cm-1 and 2934cm-1 which are supposed to be arising from lipoproteins; evident decreased RR vibrational modes at 1442cm-1 and 2854cm-1 which are from saturated fatty acids bonds in all-grades of glioma brain tissues compared with normal tissues; and the enhanced RR spectral modes of 1129 cm-1 and 2938cm-1 which suggest contribution from lactate. These findings may provide a novel proof for anaerobic glycolysis metabolic process in brain glioma cancer tissues that has been explained by Warburg effects.

  14. Sound Absorption of a 2DOF Resonant Liner with Negative Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Cataldi, P.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.; Jones, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an experimental study conducted to determine the effect of negative bias flow on the sound absorption of a two degree-of-freedom liner. The backwall for the liner was designed to act as a double-Helmholtz resonator so as to act as a hard wall at all frequencies except at its resonant frequencies. All normal incident impedance data presented herein was acquired in an impedance tube. The effect of bias flow is investigated for a buried septum porosity of 2% and 19.5% for bias flow orifice mach numbers up to 03 11. As a porous backwall is needed for the flow to pass through, the effect of bias flow on this backwall all had to be evaluated first. The bias flow appears to modify the resistance and reactance of the backwall alone at lower frequencies up to about 2 kHz, with marginal effects at higher frequencies. Absorption coefficients close to unity are achieved for a frequency range of 500-4000 Hz for the overall liner for a septum porosity of 2% and orifice mach number of 0.128. Insertion loss tests performed in a flow duct facility for grazing flow Mach numbers up to 0.2 and septum mach numbers up to 0.15 showed that negative bias flow can increase insertion loss by as much as 10 dB at frequencies in the range of 500 - 1400 Hz compared to no grazing flow. The effectiveness of the negative bias flow is diminished as the grazing flow velocity is increased.

  15. Temperature determination of resonantly excited plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Van de Broek, Bieke; Grandjean, Didier; Trekker, Jesse; Ye, Jian; Verstreken, Kris; Maes, Guido; Borghs, Gustaaf; Nikitenko, Sergey; Lagae, Liesbet; Bartic, Carmen; Temst, Kristiaan; Van Bael, Margriet J

    2011-09-05

    The fields of bioscience and nanomedicine demand precise thermometry for nanoparticle heat characterization down to the nanoscale regime. Since current methods often use indirect and less accurate techniques to determine the nanoparticle temperature, there is a pressing need for a direct and reliable element-specific method. In-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to determine the thermo-optical properties of plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. With EXAFS, the direct determination of the nanoparticle temperature increase upon laser illumination is possible via the thermal influence on the gold lattice parameters. More specifically, using the change of the Debye-Waller term representing the lattice disorder, the temperature increase is selectively measured within the plasmonic branched nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. In addition, the signal intensity shows that the nanoparticle concentration in the beam more than doubles during laser illumination, thereby demonstrating that photothermal heating is a dynamic process. A comparable temperature increase is measured in the nanoparticle suspension using a thermocouple. This good correspondence between the temperature at the level of the nanoparticle and at the level of the suspension points to an efficient heat transfer between the nanoparticle and the surrounding medium, thus confirming the potential of branched gold nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. This work demonstrates that X-ray absorption spectroscopy-based nanothermometry could be a valuable tool in the fast-growing number of applications of plasmonic nanoparticles, particularly in life sciences and medicine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Doppler-free satellites of resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption on the D 2 lines of alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.; Staedter, D.; Akulshin, A. M.

    2006-11-01

    The peculiarities of intra-Doppler structures that are observed in the atomic absorption spectrum of alkali metals with the help of two independent lasers have been studied. These structures accompany ultranarrow coherent resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption. With the D 2 line of rubidium taken as an example, it is shown that, in the scheme of unidirectional waves, the maximum number of satellite resonances caused by optical pumping selective with respect to the atomic velocity is equal to seven, while only six resonances are observed in the traditional scheme of saturated absorption with counterpropagating waves of the same frequency. The spectral position of the resonances and their polarity depend on the frequency of the saturating radiation, while their number and relative amplitude depend also on the experimental geometry. These features are of general character and should show themselves in the absorption spectrum on the D 2 lines of all alkali metals. An explanation of these features is given. The calculated spectral separations between the resonances are compared to the experimental ones, and their possible application is discussed.

  17. Resonance Raman and excitation energy dependent charge transfer mechanism in halide-substituted hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-wook; Jain, Sagar M; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2015-02-24

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) are materials with attractive properties for optoelectronics. They made a recent introduction in the photovoltaics world by methylammonium (MA) lead triiodide and show remarkably improved charge separation capabilities when chloride and bromide are added. Here we show how halide substitution in OMHPs with the nominal composition CH3NH3PbI2X, where X is I, Br, or Cl, influences the morphology, charge quantum yield, and local interaction with the organic MA cation. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence data demonstrate that halide substitution affects the local structure in the OMHPs with separate MAPbI3 and MAPbCl3 phases. Raman spectroscopies as well as theoretical vibration calculations reveal that this at the same time delocalizes the charge to the MA cation, which can liberate the vibrational movement of the MA cation, leading to a more adaptive organic phase. The resonance Raman effect together with quantum chemical calculations is utilized to analyze the change in charge transfer mechanism upon electronic excitation and gives important clues for the mechanism of the much improved photovoltage and photocurrent also seen in the solar cell performance for the materials when chloride compounds are included in the preparation.

  18. Rapid analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green in fish muscles with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Wansong; Pei, Lu; Lai, Keqiang; Rasco, Barbara A; Huang, Yiqun

    2015-02-15

    Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) coupled with gold nanospheres was applied for rapid analysis of the hazardous substances malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in fish muscle tissues. The lowest concentration of MG that could be detected was 0.5ngmL(-1) with high linear correlation (R(2)=0.970-0.998) between MG concentration and intensities of characteristic Raman peaks. A simplified sample preparation method taking less than 1h for recovering MG and LMG in fish fillets was developed for SERRS analysis, and 4-8 samples could be handled in parallel. MG and LMG could be detected in extracts of tilapia fish fillets at as low as 2ngg(-1) with SERRS and a simple principle component analysis method. For six other fish species, the lowest detectable concentration of MG ranged from 1ngg(-1) to 10ngg(-1). This study provides a new sensitive approach for the detection of trace amounts of the prohibited drugs MG and LMG in muscle food, which has the potential for rapidly screening a large number of samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical investigation of the hyper-Raman scattering in hexagonal semiconductors under two-photon excitation near resonance with the An=2 exciton level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, L. E.

    2018-04-01

    The hyper-Raman scattering of light by LO-phonons under two-photon excitation near resonance with the An=2 exciton level in the wurtzite semiconductors A2B6 was theoretically investigated, taking into account the influence of the complex structure of the top valence band.

  20. Detection and imaging of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm communities by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Bodelón, Gustavo; Montes-García, Verónica; López-Puente, Vanesa; Hill, Eric H.; Hamon, Cyrille; Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Costas, Celina; Celiksoy, Sirin; Pérez-Juste, Ignacio; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Porta, Andrea La; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria in nature exist as biofilms, which support intercellular signaling processes such as quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism that allows bacteria to monitor and respond to cell density and changes in the environment. Because QS and biofilms are involved in the ability of bacteria to cause disease, there is a need for the development of methods for the non-invasive analysis of QS in natural bacterial populations. Here, by using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy, we report rationally designed nanostructured plasmonic substrates for the in-situ, label-free detection of a QS signaling metabolite in growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and microcolonies. The in situ, non-invasive plasmonic imaging of QS in biofilms provides a powerful analytical approach for studying intercellular communication on the basis of secreted molecules as signals. PMID:27500808

  1. Redox reactions of cytochrome c in isolated mitochondria exposed to blue or red lasers using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael L.; Gonzalez, Cherry C.; Noojin, Gary D.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2018-02-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy of cytochrome c was used to follow reduction/oxidation (redox) states of isolated mitochondria in response to blue or red laser exposure. Mitochondria were isolated from hTERT-RPE1 cells and were kept in a buffer formulation known to be conducive to electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Using either pyruvate or succinate as substrates for ETC, we found differences in the redox responses of cytochrome c for different exposure laser irradiance and excitation wavelength. We anticipate that the proposed new method will be valuable in the study of metabolic processes in mitochondria in response to low level laser exposure, and thus aid in elucidating the mechanism(s) of photobiomodulation.

  2. Empirical Equation Based Chirality (n, m) Assignment of Semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Resonant Raman Scattering Data

    PubMed Central

    Arefin, Md Shamsul

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a technique for the chirality (n, m) assignment of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes by solving a set of empirical equations of the tight binding model parameters. The empirical equations of the nearest neighbor hopping parameters, relating the term (2n− m) with the first and second optical transition energies of the semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes, are also proposed. They provide almost the same level of accuracy for lower and higher diameter nanotubes. An algorithm is presented to determine the chiral index (n, m) of any unknown semiconducting tube by solving these empirical equations using values of radial breathing mode frequency and the first or second optical transition energy from resonant Raman spectroscopy. In this paper, the chirality of 55 semiconducting nanotubes is assigned using the first and second optical transition energies. Unlike the existing methods of chirality assignment, this technique does not require graphical comparison or pattern recognition between existing experimental and theoretical Kataura plot. PMID:28348319

  3. Fibrillation mechanism of a model intrinsically disordered protein revealed by 2D correlation deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Topilina, Natalya I; Takor, Gaius A; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Welch, John T; Uversky, Vladimir N; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-05-14

    Understanding of numerous biological functions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is of significant interest to modern life science research. A large variety of serious debilitating diseases are associated with the malfunction of IDPs including neurodegenerative disorders and systemic amyloidosis. Here we report on the molecular mechanism of amyloid fibrillation of a model IDP (YE8) using 2D correlation deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. YE8 is a genetically engineered polypeptide, which is completely unordered at neutral pH yet exhibits all properties of a fibrillogenic protein at low pH. The very first step of the fibrillation process involves structural rearrangements of YE8 at the global structure level without the detectable appearance of secondary structural elements. The formation of β-sheet species follows the global structural changes and proceeds via the simultaneous formation of turns and β-strands. The kinetic mechanism revealed is an important new contribution to understanding of the general fibrillation mechanism proposed for IDP.

  4. The first detection of the 3A g- state in carotenoids using resonance-Raman excitation profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, Kentaro; Sashima, Tokutake; Koyama, Yasushi

    2002-04-01

    The singlet 3Ag- state that had been theoretically predicted in shorter polyenes [P. Tavan and K. Schulten J. Chem. Phys. 85 (1986) 6602; Phys. Rev. B 36 (1987) 4337] was first identified in bacterial carotenoids by measurements of resonance-Raman excitation profiles. It is almost overlapped with the 1Bu+ state in spheroidene (the number of conjugated double bonds, n=10), and located in-between the 1Bu+ and 1Bu- states in lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin (n=11-13). The slopes when the 2Ag--, 1Bu-- and 3Ag--state energies were expressed as linear functions of 1/(2n+1) exhibited the ratio of 2:3.1:3.8 in excellent agreement with that theoretically predicted, 2:3.1:3.7.

  5. Resonance Raman spectroscopic investigation of the light-harvesting chromophore in escherichia coli photolyase and Vibrio cholerae cryptochrome-1.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Olga; Cecala, Christine; Gopal, Anand; Cortazar, Frank; McDowell-Buchanan, Carla; Sancar, Aziz; Gindt, Yvonne M; Schelvis, Johannes P M

    2007-03-27

    Photolyases and cryptochromes are flavoproteins that belong to the class of blue-light photoreceptors. They usually bind two chromophores: flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which forms the active site, and a light-harvesting pigment, which is a 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate polyglutamate (MTHF) in most cases. In Escherichia coli photolyase (EcPhr), the MTHF cofactor is present in substoichiometric amounts after purification, while in Vibrio cholerae cryptochrome-1 (VcCry1) the MTHF cofactor is bound more strongly and is present at stoichiometric levels after purification. In this paper, we have used resonance Raman spectroscopy to monitor the effect of loss of MTHF on the protein-FAD interactions in EcPhr and to probe the protein-MTHF interactions in both EcPhr and VcCry1. We find that removal of MTHF does not perturb protein-FAD interactions, suggesting that it may not affect the physicochemical properties of FAD in EcPhr. Our data demonstrate that the pteridine ring of MTHF in EcPhr has different interactions with the protein matrix than that of MTHF in VcCry1. Comparison to solution resonance Raman spectra of MTHF suggests that the carbonyl of its pteridine ring in EcPhr experiences stronger hydrogen bonding and a more polar environment than in VcCry1, but that hydrogen bonding to the pteridine ring amine hydrogens is stronger in VcCry-1. These differences in hydrogen bonding may account for the higher binding affinity of MTHF in VcCry1 compared to EcPhr.

  6. Coherent Raman detected electron spin resonance spectroscopy of metalloproteins: linking electron spin resonance and magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Stephen J; Wolverson, Daniel; Thomson, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    The simultaneous excitation of paramagnetic molecules with optical (laser) and microwave radiation in the presence of a magnetic field can cause an amplitude, or phase, modulation of the transmitted light at the microwave frequency. The detection of this modulation indicates the presence of coupled optical and ESR transitions. The phenomenon can be viewed as a coherent Raman effect or, in most cases, as a microwave frequency modulation of the magnetic circular dichroism by the precessing magnetization. By allowing the optical and magnetic properties of a transition metal ion centre to be correlated, it becomes possible to deconvolute the overlapping optical or ESR spectra of multiple centres in a protein or of multiple chemical forms of a particular centre. The same correlation capability also allows the relative orientation of the magnetic and optical anisotropies of each species to be measured, even when the species cannot be obtained in a crystalline form. Such measurements provide constraints on electronic structure calculations. The capabilities of the method are illustrated by data from the dimeric mixed-valence Cu(A) centre of nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR) from Paracoccus pantotrophus.

  7. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  8. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  9. Quantum Interference Effects in Resonant Raman Spectroscopy of Single- and Triple-Layer MoTe2 from First-Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Henrique P. C.; Reichardt, Sven; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Berciaud, Stéphane; Wirtz, Ludger

    2017-04-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of resonant Raman spectroscopy in single- and triple-layer MoTe$_2$. Raman intensities are computed entirely from first principles by calculating finite differences of the dielectric susceptibility. In our analysis, we investigate the role of quantum interference effects and the electron-phonon coupling. With this method, we explain the experimentally observed intensity inversion of the $A^\\prime_1$ vibrational modes in triple-layer MoTe2 with increasing laser photon energy. Finally, we show that a quantitative comparison with experimental data requires the proper inclusion of excitonic effects.

  10. Coronal heating by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves - Importance of the global mode and scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, Richard S.; Davila, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the MHD equations for a fully compressible, low-beta, resistive plasma are used to study the resonance absorption process for the heating of coronal active region loops. Comparisons with more approximate analytic models show that the major predictions of the analytic theories are, to a large extent, confirmed by the numerical computations. The simulations demonstrate that the dissipation occurs primarily in a thin resonance layer. Some of the analytically predicted features verified by the simulations are (a) the position of the resonance layer within the initial inhomogeneity; (b) the importance of the global mode for a large range of loop densities; (c) the dependence of the resonance layer thickness and the steady-state heating rate on the dissipation coefficient; and (d) the time required for the resonance layer to form. In contrast with some previous analytic and simulation results, the time for the loop to reach a steady state is found to be the phase-mixing time rather than a dissipation time. This disagreement is shown to result from neglect of the existence of the global mode in some of the earlier analyses. The resonant absorption process is also shown to behave similar to a classical driven harmonic oscillator.

  11. Structural characterization of titania by X-ray diffraction, photoacoustic, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kadam, R M; Rajeswari, B; Sengupta, Arijit; Achary, S N; Kshirsagar, R J; Natarajan, V

    2015-02-25

    A titania mineral (obtained from East coast, Orissa, India) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), Raman and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. XRD studies indicated the presence of rutile (91%) and anatase (9%) phases in the mineral. Raman investigation supported this information. Both rutile and anatase phases have tetragonal structure (rutile: space group P4(2)/mnm, a=4.5946(1) Å, c=2.9597(1) Å, V=62.48(1) (Å)(3), Z=2; anatase: space group I4(1)/amd, 3.7848(2) Å, 9.5098(11) Å, V=136.22(2) (Å)(3), Z=4). The deconvoluted PAS spectrum showed nine peaks around 335, 370, 415,485, 555, 605, 659, 690,730 and 785 nm and according to the ligand field theory, these peaks were attributed to the presence of V(4+), Cr(3+), Mn(4+) and Fe(3+) species. EPR studies revealed the presence of transition metal ions V(4+)(d(1)), Cr(3+)(d(3)), Mn(4+)(d(3)) and Fe(3+)(d(5)) at Ti(4+) sites. The EPR spectra are characterized by very large crystal filed splitting (D term) and orthorhombic distortion term (E term) for multiple electron system (s>1) suggesting that the transition metal ions substitute the Ti(4+) in the lattice which is situated in distorted octahedral coordination of oxygen. The possible reasons for observation of unusually large D and E term in the EPR spectra of transition metal ions (S=3/2 and 5/2) are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  13. Optical resonance-enhanced absorption-based near-field immunochip biosensor for allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Maier, Irene; Morgan, Michael R A; Lindner, Wolfgang; Pittner, Fritz

    2008-04-15

    An optical immunochip biosensor has been developed as a rapid method for allergen detection in complex food matrixes, and its application evaluated for the detection of the egg white allergens, ovalbumin and ovomucoid. The optical near-field phenomenon underlying the basic principle of the sensor design is called resonance-enhanced absorption (REA), which utilizes gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as signal transducers in a highly sensitive interferometric setup. Using this approach, a novel, simple, and rapid colorimetric solid-phase immunoassay on a planar chip substrate was realized in direct and sandwich assay formats, with a detection system that does not require any instrumentation for readout. Semiquantitative immunochemical responses are directly visible to the naked eye of the analyst. The biosensor shows concentration-dependent color development by capturing antibody-functionalized Au NPs on allergen-coated chips and has a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. To establish a rapid method, we took advantage of the physicochemical microenvironment of the Au NP-antibody bioconjugate to be bound directly over an interacting poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) interlayer by an immobilized antigen. In the direct assay format, a coating time with allergen of only 5 min under "soft" nondenaturing conditions was sufficient for accurate reproducibility and sensitivity. In conclusion, the REA-based immunochip sensor is easy to fabricate, is reproducible and selective in its performance, has minimal technical requirements, and will enable high-throughput screening of affinity binding interactions in technological and medical applications.

  14. Detectors for the gamma-ray resonant absorption (GRA) method of explosives detection in cargo: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartsky, David; Goldberg, Mark B.; Engler, Gideon; Shor, Asher; Goldschmidt, Aharon; Feldman, Gennady; Bar, Doron; Orion, Itzhak; Wielopolski, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) is an automatic-decision radiographic screening technique that combines high radiation penetration with very good sensitivity and specificity to nitrogenous explosives. The method is particularly well-suited to inspection of large, massive objects (since the resonant γ-ray probe is at 9.17 MeV) such as aviation and marine containers, heavy vehicles and railroad cars. Two kinds of γ-ray detectors have been employed to date in GRA systems: 1) Resonant-response nitrogen-rich liquid scintillators and 2) BGO detectors. This paper analyses and compares the response of these detector-types to the resonant radiation, in terms of single-pixel figures of merit. The latter are sensitive not only to detector response, but also to accelerator-beam quality, via the properties of the nuclear reaction that produces the resonant-γ-rays. Generally, resonant detectors give rise to much higher nitrogen-contrast sensitivity in the radiographic image than their non-resonant detector counterparts and furthermore, do not require proton beams of high energy-resolution. By comparison, the non-resonant detectors have higher γ-detection efficiency, but their contrast sensitivity is very sensitive to the quality of the accelerator beam. Implications of these detector/accelerator characteristics for eventual GRA field systems are discussed.

  15. Nonlinear absorption of Sb-based phase change materials due to the weakening of the resonant bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wei, Jingsong; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-03-01

    The current study proposes a model based on the weakening of the resonant bond to explore the giant optical nonlinear saturable absorption of Sb-based phase change materials. In order to analyze the weakening of resonant bond effectively, we take the Sb2Te3 as an example. First-principle calculations show that both the Born effective charge and optical dielectric constant of crystalline Sb2Te3 in the 300 K to 500 K temperature range monotonically decrease with the temperature, indicating a weakening of the resonant bond. This weakening induces a decline in the absorption coefficient at a rate of 103 m-1 K-1, which results in a nonlinear saturable absorption coefficient in the order of 10-2 m/W. The nonlinear absorption characteristics of the crystalline Sb, Sb7Te3, and Sb2Te3 thin films at 405 nm laser wavelength are measured via z-scan technique using nanosecond laser pulses to validate the above-proposed model. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical prediction.

  16. Multiband and Broadband Absorption Enhancement of Monolayer Graphene at Optical Frequencies from Multiple Magnetic Dipole Resonances in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Tang, Chaojun; Chen, Jing; Xie, Ningyan; Tang, Huang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Park, Gun-sik

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that a suspended monolayer graphene has a weak light absorption efficiency of about 2.3% at normal incidence, which is disadvantageous to some applications in optoelectronic devices. In this work, we will numerically study multiband and broadband absorption enhancement of monolayer graphene over the whole visible spectrum, due to multiple magnetic dipole resonances in metamaterials. The unit cell of the metamaterials is composed of a graphene monolayer sandwiched between four Ag nanodisks with different diameters and a SiO2 spacer on an Ag substrate. The near-field plasmon hybridizations between individual Ag nanodisks and the Ag substrate form four independent magnetic dipole modes, which result into multiband absorption enhancement of monolayer graphene at optical frequencies. When the resonance wavelengths of the magnetic dipole modes are tuned to approach one another by changing the diameters of the Ag nanodisks, a broadband absorption enhancement can be achieved. The position of the absorption band in monolayer graphene can be also controlled by varying the thickness of the SiO2 spacer or the distance between the Ag nanodisks. Our designed graphene light absorber may find some potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors.

  17. Microwave resonant and zero-field absorption study of doped magnetite prepared by a co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Aphesteguy, Juan Carlos; Jacobo, Silvia E; Lezama, Luis; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Schegoleva, Nina N

    2014-06-19

    Fe3O4 and ZnxFe3-xO4 pure and doped magnetite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution (Series A) or in a water-ethyl alcohol mixture (Series B) by the co-precipitation method. Only one ferromagnetic resonance line was observed in all cases under consideration indicating that the materials are magnetically uniform. The shortfall in the resonance fields from 3.27 kOe (for the frequency of 9.5 GHz) expected for spheres can be understood taking into account the dipolar forces, magnetoelasticity, or magnetocrystalline anisotropy. All samples show non-zero low field absorption. For Series A samples the grain size decreases with an increase of the Zn content. In this case zero field absorption does not correlate with the changes of the grain size. For Series B samples the grain size and zero field absorption behavior correlate with each other. The highest zero-field absorption corresponded to 0.2 zinc concentration in both A and B series. High zero-field absorption of Fe3O4 ferrite magnetic NPs can be interesting for biomedical applications.

  18. Resonant Raman and FTIR spectra of carbon doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Araki, K.; Suzuki, K.; Sawaki, N.; Yamashita, K.; Honda, Y.; Amano, H.

    2015-03-01

    Intentionally carbon (C) doped (0 0 0 1)GaN was grown using C2H2 on a sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Optical spectra of the heavily doped samples were investigated at room temperature. In Raman spectra excited by the 325 nm line of a He-Cd laser, multiple LO phonon scattering signals up to 7th order were observed, and the A1(LO) phonon energy was determined to be 737.5 cm-1 (91.45 meV). In infrared reflectance spectra, on the other hand, a local vibration mode was found at 777.5 cm-1, which is attributed to a Ga-C bond in the GaN matrix suggesting that the C sits on an N site (CN). In spite of the strong suggestion of CN, the samples did not show p-type conduction. Possible origin of the carrier compensation is discussed in relation to the enhancement of defect related yellow luminescence in the photoluminescence spectra.

  19. Resonant Raman spectra of grades of human brain glioma tumors reveal the content of tryptophan by the 1588 cm-1 mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Cheng-hui; Zhou, Lixin; Zhu, Ke; Liu, Yulong; Zhang, Lin; Boydston-White, Susie; Cheng, Gangge; Pu, Yang; Bidyut, Das; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    RR spectra of brain normal tissue, gliomas in low grade I and II, and malignant glioma tumors in grade III and IV were measured using a confocal micro Raman spectrometer. This report focus on the relative contents of tryptophan (W) in various grades of brain glioma tumors by the intrinsic molecular resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy method using the 1588cm-1 of tryptophan mode by 532 nm excitation. The RR spectra of key fingerprints of tryptophan, with a main vibrational mode at 1588cm-1 (W8b), were observed. It was found that tryptophan contribution was accumulated in grade I to IV gliomas and the mode of 1588cm-1 in grade III and IV malignant gliomas were enhanced by resonance.

  20. Coordination of Fe, Ga and Ge in high pressure glasses by Moessbauer, Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and geological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Henderson, G. S.; Herzberg, C. T.; Crozier, E. D.; Osborne, M. D.; Scarfe, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    For some time, it has been recognized that the structure of silicate liquids has a great bearing on such magma properties as viscosity, diffusivity, and thermal expansion and on the extrapolation of thermodynamic quantities outside of the experimentally measurable range. In this connection it is vital to know if pressure imposes changes in melt structure similar to the pressure-induced reconstructive transformations in crystals. In the present study on 1 bar and high pressure glasses, an investigation is conducted regarding the coordination of Fe(3+) in Fe silicate glasses by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is employed to explore the coordinations of Ge(4+) in GeO2 glasses and of Ga(3+) in NaGa silicate glasses, while the coordination of Ga(3+) in NaGaSiO4 glasses is studied with the aid of methods of X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Coordination of Fe, Ga and Ge in high pressure glasses by Moessbauer, Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Henderson, G. S.; Crozier, E. D.; Osborne, M. D.; Scarfe, C. M.

    1984-07-01

    For some time, it has been recognized that the structure of silicate liquids has a great bearing on such magma properties as viscosity, diffusivity, and thermal expansion and on the extrapolation of thermodynamic quantities outside of the experimentally measurable range. In this connection it is vital to know if pressure imposes changes in melt structure similar to the pressure-induced reconstructive transformations in crystals. In the present study on 1 bar and high pressure glasses, an investigation is conducted regarding the coordination of Fe(3+) in Fe silicate glasses by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is employed to explore the coordinations of Ge(4+) in GeO2 glasses and of Ga(3+) in NaGa silicate glasses, while the coordination of Ga(3+) in NaGaSiO4 glasses is studied with the aid of methods of X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Probing the electronic structure of β,β‧-fused quinoxalino porphyrins and tetraazaanthracene-bridged bis-porphyrins with resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Anastasia B. S.; Gordon, Keith C.; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2012-12-01

    A number of π-extended porphyrins and bis-porphyrins were characterised by resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, using both B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Single porphyrin species, incorporating a β,β'-fused quinoxalino unit, and tetraazaanthracene-bridged bis-porphyrins were investigated. Geometry optimisation predicted all species were planar with respect to the porphyrin core(s). Comparison of experimental with simulated vibrational spectra, obtained via DFT calculations [B3LYP/6-31G(d)], verified the modelling; demonstrated by a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between experimental and calculated band positions of less than 10 cm-1. Simulated electronic transitions obtained via time-dependent DFT [TD-DFT, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d)] lay within 0.4 eV of experimental bands and calculations showed perturbation of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) following substitution of the porphyrin core. The nature of transitions that were investigated experimentally via resonance Raman enhancement showed consistency with the character of calculated transitions. A wavepacket analysis of the resonance Raman intensities provided electronic parameters, such as reorganisation energy, as well as normal mode displacements (Δi) that were also consistent with the nature of the specific vibrational modes and probed optical transitions. The largest vibrational reorganisation value obtained was for the Bsh band of compound (1). This result is consistent with the greater electron density shift of the transition found from DFT and resonance Raman and also the less symmetrical nature of (1).

  3. Near-Resonant Raman Amplification in the Rotational Quantum Wave Packets of Nitrogen Molecular Ions Generated by Strong Field Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Yao, Jinping; Chen, Jinming; Xu, Bo; Chu, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2018-02-01

    The generation of laserlike narrow bandwidth emissions from nitrogen molecular ions (N2+ ) generated in intense near- and mid infrared femtosecond laser fields has aroused much interest because of the mysterious physics underlying such a phenomenon. Here, we perform a pump-probe measurement on the nonlinear interaction of rotational quantum wave packets of N2+ generated in midinfrared (e.g., at a wavelength centered at 1580 nm) femtosecond laser fields with an ultrashort probe pulse whose broad spectrum overlaps both P - and R -branch rotational transition lines between the electronic states N2+(B2Σu+,v'=0 ) and N2+(X2Σg+,v =0 ) . The results indicate the occurrence of highly efficient near-resonant stimulated Raman scattering in the quantum wave packets of N2+ ions generated in strong laser fields in the midinfrared region, of which the underlying mechanism is different from that of the air lasers generated in atmospheric environment when pumping with 800 nm intense pulses.

  4. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, Nabil M.

    1987-01-01

    The third phase of research will focus on the propagation and energy extraction of the pump and SERS beams in a variety of configurations including oscillator structures. In order to address these questions a numerical code capable of allowing for saturation and full transverse beam evolution is required. The method proposed is based on a discretized propagation energy extraction model which uses a Kirchoff integral propagator coupled to the three level Raman model already developed. The model will have the resolution required by diffraction limits and will use the previous density matrix results in the adiabatic following limit. Owing to its large computational requirements, such a code must be implemented on a vector array processor. One code on the Cyber is being tested by using previously understood two-level laser models as guidelines for interpreting the results. Two tests were implemented: the evolution of modes in a passive resonator and the evolution of a stable state of the adiabatically eliminated laser equations. These results show mode shapes and diffraction losses for the first case and relaxation oscillations for the second one. Finally, in order to clarify the computing methodology used to exploit the speed of the Cyber's computational speed, the time it takes to perform both of the computations previously mentioned to run on the Cyber and VAX 730 must be measured. Also included is a short description of the current laser model (CAVITY.FOR) and a flow chart of the test computations.

  5. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Leona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 μm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France). PMID:19667181

  6. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  7. Anti-Stokes resonant x-ray Raman scattering for atom specific and excited state selective dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Josefsson, Ida; Rajkovic, Ivan

    Here, ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics of matter govern rate and selectivity of chemical reactions, as well as phase transitions and efficient switching in functional materials. Since x-rays determine electronic and structural properties with elemental, chemical, orbital and magnetic selectivity, short pulse x-ray sources have become central enablers of ultrafast science. Despite of these strengths, ultrafast x-rays have been poor at picking up excited state moieties from the unexcited ones. With time-resolved anti-Stokes resonant x-ray Raman scattering (AS-RXRS) performed at the LCLS, and ab initio theory we establish background free excited state selectivity in addition to the elemental, chemical, orbitalmore » and magnetic selectivity of x-rays. This unparalleled selectivity extracts low concentration excited state species along the pathway of photo induced ligand exchange of Fe(CO)5 in ethanol. Conceptually a full theoretical treatment of all accessible insights to excited state dynamics with AS-RXRS with transform-limited x-ray pulses is given—which will be covered experimentally by upcoming transform-limited x-ray sources.« less

  8. Detection of DNA Sequences Refractory to PCR Amplification Using a Biophysical SERRS Assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy)

    PubMed Central

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M.; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction – based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage. PMID:25502338

  9. Detection of DNA sequences refractory to PCR amplification using a biophysical SERRS assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy).

    PubMed

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction - based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage.

  10. Anti-Stokes resonant x-ray Raman scattering for atom specific and excited state selective dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Josefsson, Ida; Rajkovic, Ivan; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics of matter govern rate and selectivity of chemical reactions, as well as phase transitions and efficient switching in functional materials. Since x-rays determine electronic and structural properties with elemental, chemical, orbital and magnetic selectivity, short pulse x-ray sources have become central enablers of ultrafast science. Despite of these strengths, ultrafast x-rays have been poor at picking up excited state moieties from the unexcited ones. With time-resolved anti-Stokes resonant x-ray Raman scattering (AS-RXRS) performed at the LCLS, and ab initio theory we establish background free excited state selectivity in addition to the elemental, chemical, orbitalmore » and magnetic selectivity of x-rays. This unparalleled selectivity extracts low concentration excited state species along the pathway of photo induced ligand exchange of Fe(CO)5 in ethanol. Conceptually a full theoretical treatment of all accessible insights to excited state dynamics with AS-RXRS with transform-limited x-ray pulses is given—which will be covered experimentally by upcoming transform-limited x-ray sources.« less

  11. A new concept of efficient therapeutic drug monitoring using the high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry and the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yanlong; Fuss, Harald; Lademann, Jürgen; Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C.; Jung, Sora; Esser, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a new therapeutic drug monitoring approach has been tested based on the combination of CaF molecular absorption using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry (HR-CSAS) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). HR-CSAS with mini graphite tube was successfully tested for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring of the fluorine-containing drug capecitabine in sweat samples of cancer patients: It showed advantageous features of high selectivity (no interference from Cl), high sensitivity (characteristic mass of 0.1 ng at CaF 583.069 nm), low sample consumption (down to 30 nL) and fast measurement (no sample pretreatment and less than 1 min of responding time) in tracing the fluorine signal out of capecitabine. However, this technique has the disadvantage of the total loss of the drug's structure information after burning the sample at very high temperature. Therefore, a new concept of combining HR-CSAS with a non-destructive spectroscopic method (SERS) was proposed for the sensitive sensing and specific identification of capecitabine. We tested and succeed in obtaining the molecular characteristics of the metabolite of capecitabine (named 5-fluorouracil) by the non-destructive SERS technique. With the results shown in this work, it is demonstrated that the combined spectroscopic technique of HR-CSAS and SERS will be very useful in efficient therapeutic drug monitoring in the future.

  12. Resonantly enhanced multiple exciton generation through below-band-gap multi-photon absorption in perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Aurora; Tong, Yu; Feucht, Julius; Yao, En-Ping; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S; Feldmann, Jochen

    2018-04-17

    Multi-photon absorption and multiple exciton generation represent two separate strategies for enhancing the conversion efficiency of light into usable electric power. Targeting below-band-gap and above-band-gap energies, respectively, to date these processes have only been demonstrated independently. Here we report the combined interaction of both nonlinear processes in CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals. We demonstrate nonlinear absorption over a wide range of below-band-gap excitation energies (0.5-0.8 E g ). Interestingly, we discover high-order absorption processes, deviating from the typical two-photon absorption, at specific energetic positions. These energies are associated with a strong enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity by up to 10 5 . The analysis of the corresponding energy levels reveals that the observed phenomena can be ascribed to the resonant creation of multiple excitons via the absorption of multiple below-band-gap photons. This effect may open new pathways for the efficient conversion of optical energy, potentially also in other semiconducting materials.

  13. Mapping of Low-Frequency Raman Modes in CVD-Grown Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Layer Number, Stacking Orientation and Resonant Effects

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Hanlon, Damien; Hallam, Toby; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-01-01

    Layered inorganic materials, such as the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have attracted much attention due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. Reliable synthesis and characterization of these materials must be developed if these properties are to be exploited. Herein, we present low-frequency Raman analysis of MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Raman spectra are acquired over large areas allowing changes in the position and intensity of the shear and layer-breathing modes to be visualized in maps. This allows detailed characterization of mono- and few-layered TMDs which is complementary to well-established (high-frequency) Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. This study presents a major stepping stone in fundamental understanding of layered materials as mapping the low-frequency modes allows the quality, symmetry, stacking configuration and layer number of 2D materials to be probed over large areas. In addition, we report on anomalous resonance effects in the low-frequency region of the WS2 Raman spectrum. PMID:26766208

  14. Evidence of dithionite contribution to the low-frequency resonance Raman spectrum of reduced and mixed-valence cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Centeno, J A

    1992-02-01

    The resonance Raman spectra of deoxygenated solutions of mixed-valence cyanide-bound and fully reduced cytochrome oxidase derivatives that have been reduced in the presence of aqueous or solid sodium dithionite exhibit two new low-frequency lines centered at 474 and 590 cm-1. These lines were not observed when the reductant system was changed to a solution containing ascorbate and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). Under enzyme turnover conditions, the addition of dithionite to the reoxidized protein (the 428-nm or "oxygenated" form) increases the intensity of these lines, while reoxidation and rereduction of the enzyme in the presence of ascorbate/TMPD resulted in the absence of both lines. Our data suggest that both lines must have contributions from species formed from aqueous dithionite, presumably the SO2 species, since these two lines are also observed in the Raman spectrum of a solution of aqueous dithionite, but not in the spectrum of an ascorbate/TMPD solution. Since heme metal-ligand stretch vibrations are expected to appear in the low-frequency region from 215 to 670 cm-1, our results indicate that special care should be exercised during the interpretation of the cytochrome a3 resonance Raman spectrum.

  15. Vibrational effects in x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering using a semiclassical scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Mathias P.

    2017-12-01

    A method is presented for describing vibrational effects in x-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) using a combination of the classical Franck-Condon (FC) approximation and classical trajectories run on the core-excited state. The formulation of RIXS is an extension of the semiclassical Kramers-Heisenberg formalism of Ljungberg et al. [Phys. Rev. B 82, 245115 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.245115] to the resonant case, retaining approximately the same computational cost. To overcome difficulties with connecting the absorption and emission processes in RIXS, the classical FC approximation is used for the absorption, which is seen to work well provided that a zero-point-energy correction is included. In the case of core-excited states with dissociative character, the method is capable of closely reproducing the main features for one-dimensional test systems, compared to the quantum-mechanical formulation. Due to the good accuracy combined with the relatively low computational cost, the method has great potential of being used for complex systems with many degrees of freedom, such as liquids and surface adsorbates.

  16. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  17. Comparison of high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy as novel process analytical tools for drug quantification in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stillhart, Cordula; Kuentz, Martin

    2012-02-05

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are complex mixtures in which drug quantification can become a challenging task. Thus, a general need exists for novel analytical methods and a particular interest lies in techniques with the potential for process monitoring. This article compares Raman spectroscopy with high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology (URT) for drug quantification in SEDDS. The model drugs fenofibrate, indomethacin, and probucol were quantitatively assayed in different self-emulsifying formulations. We measured ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the bulk formulation containing drug at different concentrations. The formulations were also studied by Raman spectroscopy. We used both, an in-line immersion probe for the bulk formulation and a multi-fiber sensor for measuring through hard-gelatin capsules that were filled with SEDDS. Each method was assessed by calculating the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP) as well as the limit of quantification (LOQ) and the mean recovery. Raman spectroscopy led to excellent calibration models for the bulk formulation as well as the capsules. The RSEP depended on the SEDDS type with values of 1.5-3.8%, while LOQ was between 0.04 and 0.35% (w/w) for drug quantification in the bulk. Similarly, the analysis of the capsules led to RSEP of 1.9-6.5% and LOQ of 0.01-0.41% (w/w). On the other hand, ultrasound attenuation resulted in RSEP of 2.3-4.4% and LOQ of 0.1-0.6% (w/w). Moreover, ultrasound velocity provided an interesting analytical response in cases where the drug strongly affected the density or compressibility of the SEDDS. We conclude that ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy constitute suitable methods for drug quantification in SEDDS, which is promising for their use as process analytical technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resonant Raman scattering study of BexZn1-xO thin films grown on sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Chao; Su, Long-Xing; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Jian-Feng; Shen, Zheng-Chuan; Feng, Yu-Hua; Wu, Tian-Zhun; Tang, Zi-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of BexZn1-xO alloy materials were studied using 325 nm Laser. The research showed that the Raman spectra of BexZn1-xO alloys presents a dual-mode vibration. Compare BexZn1-xO alloy with ZnO single crystal, the A1 (LO) phonon vibration mode of BexZn1-xO alloy moved to the larger wave number direction. The position of A1 (LO) phonon vibration modes of Be0.08Zn0.92O and Be0.12Zn0.88O was 580 cm-1 and 582 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy was employed for Be0.12Zn0.88O, and the phonon mode frequency shift with temperature was studied in detail. Finally, the stability of the polar and nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloy materials was studied using resonance Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the A1 (LO) phonon mode frequency of polar BexZn1-xO alloy remained in the same position, while the nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloys moved nearly 3.5 cm-1 to larger direction after being placed in the air for two years. The reason may be that the stability of the nonpolar BexZn1-xO alloy is relatively poor upon interaction with molecule such as H2O, O2 in the air.

  19. Enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect by biocompatible metal clustering based on ZnO nanorods in Raman measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghwa; Lee, Seung Ho; Paulson, Bjorn; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Jun Ki

    2018-06-20

    The development of size-selective and non-destructive detection techniques for nanosized biomarkers has many reasons, including the study of living cells and diagnostic applications. We present an approach for Raman signal enhancement on biocompatible sensing chips based on surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A sensing chip was fabricated by forming a ZnO-based nanorod structure so that the Raman enhancement occurred at a gap of several tens to several hundred nanometers. The effect of coffee-ring formation was eliminated by introducing the porous ZnO nanorods for the bio-liquid sample. A peculiarity of this approach is that the gold sputtered on the ZnO nanorods initially grows at their heads forming clusters, as confirmed by secondary electron microscopy. This clustering was verified by finite element analysis to be the main factor for enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). This clustering property and the ability to adjust the size of the nanorods enabled the signal acquisition points to be refined using confocal based Raman spectroscopy, which could be applied directly to the sensor chip based on the optimization process in this experiment. It was demonstrated by using common cancer cell lines that cell growth was high on these gold-clad ZnO nanorod-based surface-enhanced Raman substrates. The porosity of the sensing chip, the improved structure for signal enhancement, and the cell assay make these gold-coated ZnO nanorods substrates promising biosensing chips with excellent potential for detecting nanometric biomarkers secreted by cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  1. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part II. Hydrophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm(-1). Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm(-1). The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm(-1). The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm(-1)) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin.

  2. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part II. Hydrophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm -1. Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm -1. The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm -1. The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm -1) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin.

  3. Water in the hydration shell of halide ions has significantly reduced Fermi resonance and moderately enhanced Raman cross section in the OH stretch regions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Singh, Ajay K; Mondal, Jahur A; Sarkar, Sisir K

    2013-08-22

    Water in the presence of electrolytes plays an important role in biological and industrial processes. The properties of water, such as the intermolecular coupling, Fermi resonance (FR), hydrogen-bonding, and Raman cross section were investigated by measuring the Raman spectra in the OD and OH stretch regions in presence of alkali halides (NaX; X = F, Cl, Br, I). It is observed that the changes in spectral characteristics by the addition of NaX in D2O are similar to those obtained by the addition of H2O in D2O. The spectral width decreases significantly by the addition of NaX in D2O (H2O) than that in the isotopically diluted water. Quantitative estimation, on the basis of integrated Raman intensity, revealed that the relative Raman cross section, σ(H)/σ(b) (σ(H) and σ(b) are the average Raman cross section of water in the first hydration shell of X(-) and in bulk, respectively), in D2O and H2O is higher than those in the respective isotopically diluted water. These results suggest that water in the hydration shell has reduced FR and intermolecular coupling compared to those in bulk. In the isotopically diluted water, the relative Raman cross section increases with increase in size of the halide ions (σ(H)/σ(b) = 0.6, 1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 for F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-), respectively), which is assignable to the enhancement of Raman cross section by charge transfer from halide ions to the hydrating water. Nevertheless, the experimentally determined σ(H)/σ(b) is lower than the calculated values obtained on the basis of the energy of the charge transfer state of water. The weak enhancement of σ(H)/σ(b) signifies that the charge transfer transition in the hydration shell of halide ions causes little change in the OD (OH) bond lengths of hydrating water.

  4. Room temperature exciton-polariton resonant reflection and suppressed absorption in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakov, A. S.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundin, W. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the optical properties of periodic InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well systems with different numbers of periods. A resonant increase in the optical reflection and simultaneous suppression of the optical absorption have been revealed experimentally at room temperature when the Bragg and exciton resonances were tuned to each other. Numerical modeling with a single set of parameters gave a quantitatively accurate fit of the experimental reflection and transmission spectra in a wide wavelength range and various angles of the light incidence. The model included both exciton resonance and non-resonant band-to-band transitions in the InGaN quantum wells, as well as Rayleigh light scattering in the GaN buffer layer. The analysis also involved x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence data. It allowed us to determine the key parameters of the structure. In particular, the radiative broadening of the InGaN QW excitons was evaluated as 0.20 ± 0.02 meV.

  5. Resonant Cavity Enhanced On-Chip Raman Spectrometer Array with Precisely Positioned Metallic Nano-Gaps for Single Molecule Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    the nanogaps are engraved on. Simulations show that smaller diameters of the nanowires should provide higher enhancement factors for SERS signal...Inverted Microscope with lasers of wavelengths of 512 to 633 nm as the excitation source. The signal was collected and analyzed by a 50cm Spectrometer...the optical path which can selectively pass the Raman signals and reject the excitation lasers . Figure 2.12 Custom built Raman microscope for the

  6. Complex Resonance Absorption Structure in the X-Ray Spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Behar, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Brinkman, A. C.; Boller, Th.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Starling, R.; Liedahl, D. A.; Clavel, J.

    2000-01-01

    The luminous infrared-loud quasar IRAS 13349+2438 was observed with the XMM - Newton Observatory as part of the Performance Verification program. The spectrum obtained by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) exhibits broad (FWHM - 1400 km/s) absorption lines from highly ionized elements including hydrogen- and helium-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and several iron L - shell ions (Fe XVII - XX). Also shown in the spectrum is the first astrophysical detection of a broad absorption feature around lambda = 16 - 17 A identified as an unresolved transition array (UTA) of 2p - 3d inner-shell absorption by iron M-shell ions in a much cooler medium; a feature that might be misidentified as an O VII edge when observed with moderate resolution spectrometers. No absorption edges are clearly detected in the spectrum. We demonstrate that the RGS spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438 exhibits absorption lines from two distinct regions, one of which is tentatively associated with the medium that produces the optical/UV reddening.

  7. A combined experimental and theoretical spectroscopic protocol for determination of the structure of heterogeneous catalysts: developing the information content of the resonance Raman spectra of M1 MoVOx † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01771e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kubas, Adam; Noak, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Absorption and multiwavelength resonance Raman spectroscopy are widely used to investigate the electronic structure of transition metal centers in coordination compounds and extended solid systems. In combination with computational methodologies that have predictive accuracy, they define powerful protocols to study the spectroscopic response of catalytic materials. In this work, we study the absorption and resonance Raman spectra of the M1 MoVOx catalyst. The spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in conjunction with the independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator model (IMDHO), which allows for detailed bandshape predictions. For this purpose cluster models with up to 9 Mo and V metallic centers are considered to represent the bulk structure of MoVOx. Capping hydrogens were used to achieve valence saturation at the edges of the cluster models. The construction of model structures was based on a thorough bonding analysis which involved conventional DFT and local coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) methods. Furthermore the relationship of cluster topology to the computed spectral features is discussed in detail. It is shown that due to the local nature of the involved electronic transitions, band assignment protocols developed for molecular systems can be applied to describe the calculated spectral features of the cluster models as well. The present study serves as a reference for future applications of combined experimental and computational protocols in the field of solid-state heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:28989667

  8. Facile Fabrication of a Silver Nanoparticle Immersed, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Imposed Paper Platform through Successive Ionic Layer Absorption and Reaction for On-Site Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wansun; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2015-12-23

    We introduce a novel, facile, rapid, low-cost, highly reproducible, and power-free synthesizable fabrication method of paper-based silver nanoparticle (AgNP) immersed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform, known as the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The rough and porous properties of the paper led to direct synthesis of AgNPs on the surface as well as in the paper due to capillary effects, resulting in improved plasmon coupling with interparticles and interlayers. The proposed SERS platform showed an enhancement factor of 1.1 × 10(9), high reproducibility (relative standard deviation of 4.2%), and 10(-12) M rhodamine B highly sensitive detection limit by optimizing the SILAR conditions including the concentration of the reactive solution (20/20 mM/mM AgNO3/NaBH4) and the number of SILAR cycles (six). The applicability of the SERS platform was evaluated using two samples including human cervical fluid for clinical diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, associated with cervical cancer, and a malachite green (MG) solution for fungicide and parasiticide in aquaculture, associated with human carcinogenesis. The AgNP-immersed SERS-functionalized platform using the SILAR technique allowed for high chemical structure sensitivity without additional tagging or chemical modification, making it a good alternative for early clinical diagnosis of HPV infection and detection of MG-activated human carcinogenesis.

  9. Interstellar absorption in the Mg II resonance line k2 and h2 emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2 A) IUE spectra for the long wavelength range (1800-3000 A) have been studied. It is shown that narrow interstellar Mg II lines are seen in the center of the k2 and h2 emissions from nearby stars with large rotational velocities. For all observed stars, the radial velocity of the central k3 absorption component in the rest system of the star is strongly correlated with the mirror image of the radial velocity of the stars; this shows that a major fraction if not all of the k3 absorption is due to interstellar absorption in the solar neighborhood. The violet to red asymmetry of the k2 emission also correlates with the radial velocities of the star; this shows that the shift of k3 is due to the velocity shift of the local interstellar cloud with respect to the star.

  10. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, M.; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.; Yamamoto, I.; Imamura, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-04-01

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4, m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L23 and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimes of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.

  11. Occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film studied by core-absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, M., E-mail: kamada@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Hideshima, T.; Azuma, J.

    2016-04-15

    Unoccupied and occupied electronic structures of an L-cysteine film have been studied by absorption and resonant photoelectron spectroscopies. Core absorptions at S-L, C-K, N-K, and O-K levels indicate that the lower unoccupied states are predominantly composed of oxygen-2p, carbon-2p, and sulfur-4s+3d orbitals, while higher unoccupied states may be attributed dominantly to nitrogen-np (n ≥ 3), oxygen-np (n ≥ 3), and sulfur-ns+md (n ≥ 4,  m ≥ 3) orbitals. Resonant photoelectron spectra at S-L{sub 23} and O-K levels indicate that the highest occupied state is originated from sulfur-3sp orbitals, while oxygen-2sp orbitals contribute to the deeper valence states. The delocalization lifetimesmore » of the oxygen-1s and sulfur-2p excited states are estimated from a core-hole clock method to be about 9 ± 1 and 125 ± 25 fs, respectively.« less

  12. Using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy to study the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Bao-Sheng; Li, Gai-Xia; Han, Rong

    2016-08-01

    At different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K), the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The first method studied changes in the fluorescence of BSA on addition of gliclazide, and the latter two methods studied the spectral change in gliclazide while BSA was being added. The results indicated that the quenching mechanism between BSA and gliclazide was static. The binding constant (Ka ), number of binding sites (n), thermodynamic parameters, binding forces and Hill's coefficient were calculated at three temperatures. Values for the binding constant obtained using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy were much greater than those obtained from fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, indicating that methods monitoring gliclazide were more accurate and reasonable. In addition, the results suggest that other residues are involved in the reaction and the mode 'point to surface' existed in the interaction between BSA and gliclazide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. UV resonance Raman studies on the activation mechanism of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D(2) synthase by a divalent cation, Mg(2+).

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yoshiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Mori, Seiji; Kohzuma, Takamitsu

    2010-03-01

    The Mg(2+) ion-assisted activation mechanism of the active site Tyr8 of a human hematopoietic prostaglandin D(2) synthase (H-PGDS) was studied by ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. Addition of Mg(2+) to the native H-PGDS at pH 8.0 resulted in the Y8a Raman band of Tyr8 shifting from 1615cm(-1) to 1600cm(-1). This large shift to lower energy of the tyrosine Y8a vibrational mode is caused by the deprotonation of the tyrosine phenol group promoted by binding of Mg(2+). Upon subsequent addition of glutathione (GSH), the Mg(2+)/H-PGDS solution showed the Tyr8 Raman band shifted to 1611cm(-1), which is 11cm(-1) higher than the frequency of the Mg(2+) complex of H-PGDS, but 4cm(-1) lower than the Mg(2+) free enzyme. These UVRR observations suggest that the deprotonated Tyr8 in the presence of Mg(2+) is re-protonated by the abstraction of H(+) from the thiol group of GSH, and that the re-protonated Tyr8 species forms a hydrogen bond with the thiolate anion of GSH. Density functional theory calculations on several model complexes of p-cresol were also performed, which suggested that the pK(a) and vibrational frequencies of the Tyr8 phenol group are affected by the degree and structure of hydration of the Tyr8 residue. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of surface plasmon resonance of Sn nanoparticles and nanosheets on the photoluminescence and Raman spectra of SnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Gandhimathi, R.

    2018-04-01

    We report on enhancement of photoluminescence of SnS quantum dots by embedding them in a mesh of Sn nanostructures. SnS quantum dots with band gap ˜2.7 eV are embedded in a mesh of Sn nanostructures, that are synthesized from tin chloride solution using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The synthesized Sn nanostructures have a morphology dependent, tunable surface plasmon resonance ranging from UV region (295 nm) to visible region (400 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the SnS-Sn nanohybrids, the excitons are strongly coupled with plasmons leading to a shift in the excitonic binding energy (˜ 400 meV). Due to the influence of Sn nanoparticles on the SnS quantum dots, the photoluminescence and Raman line intensity is enhanced by an order of ˜103 The enhancement is more pronounced for Sn nanosheets due to the large surface area and visible light surface plasmon resonance.

  15. Optical absorption of suspended graphene based metal plasmonic grating in the visible range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. X.; Chen, B. B.; Yang, J. B.; He, X.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2018-05-01

    We employ finite-difference time-domain ( FDTD) method and Raman spectroscopy to study the properties of graphene, which is suspended on a gold/SiO2/Si grating structure with different trench depth of SiO2 layer. The absorption enhancement of suspended graphene and plasmonic resonance of metal grating are investigated in the visible range using 2D FDTD method. Moreover, it is found that the intensity of the Raman features depends very sensitively on the trench depth of SiO2 layer. Raman enhancement in our experiments is attributed to the enhanced optical absorption of graphene by near-field coupling based metal plasmonic grating. The enhanced absorption of suspended graphene modulated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) offers a potential application for opto-electromechanical devices.

  16. Three-photon absorption process in organic dyes enhanced by surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohanoschi, Ion

    2006-07-01

    Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of sigma3' are small (10-81 cm6s 2/photon2), therefore, 3PA excitation requires high irradiances to induce the promotion of electrons from the ground state to the final excited state. To overcome this obstacle, specific molecules that exhibit large 3PA cross-section must be designed. Thus far, there is a lack of systematic studies that correlate 3PA processes with the molecular structure of organic compounds. In order to fill the existent gap in 3PA molecular engineering, in this dissertation we have investigated the structure/property relationship for a new family of fluorene derivatives with very high three-photon absorption cross-sections. We demonstrated that the symmetric intramolecular charge transfer as well as the pi-electron conjugation length enhances the 3PA cross-section of fluorene derivatives. In addition, we showed that the withdrawing electron character of the attractor groups in a pull-pull geometry proved greater 3PA cross-section. After looking for alternative ways to enhance the effective sigma 3' of organic molecules, we investigated the enhancement of two- and three-photon absorption processes by means of Surface Plasmon. We demonstrated an enhancement of the effective two- and three-photon absorption cross-section of an organic compound of 480 and 30 folds

  17. Symmetry-adapted tight-binding calculations of the totally symmetric A1 phonons of single-walled carbon nanotubes and their resonant Raman intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Valentin N.; Lambin, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    The atomistic calculations of the physical properties of perfect single-walled carbon nanotubes based on the use of the translational symmetry of the nanotubes face increasing computational difficulties for most of the presently synthesized nanotubes with up to a few thousand atoms in the unit cell. This difficulty can be circumvented by use of the helical symmetry of the nanotubes and a two-atom unit cell. We present the results of such symmetry-adapted tight-binding calculations of the totally symmetric A1 phonons (the RBM and the G-band modes) and their resonant Raman intensity for several hundred nanotubes. In particular, we show that (1) the frequencies and the resonant Raman intensity of the RBM and the G-band modes show diameter and chirality dependence and family patterns, (2) the strong electron- A1LO phonon interactions in metallic nanotubes lead to Kohn anomalies at the zone center, (3) the G-band consists of a subband due to A1LO phonons of semiconducting tubes centered at ∼1593 cm -1, a subband of A1TO phonons at ∼1570 cm -1, and a subband of A1LO phonons of metallic tubes at ∼1540 cm -1. The latter prediction confirms previous theoretical results but disagrees with the commonly adopted assignment of the G-band features.

  18. Identifying Cu( ii )–amyloid peptide binding intermediates in the early stages of aggregation by resonance Raman spectroscopy: a simulation study

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Hao; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Sibei; ...

    2017-10-31

    The aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides plays a crucial role in the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Experimental evidence shows that copper ion is an aggregation-prone species with the ability to coordinately bind to Aβ and further induce the formation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. However, the detailed structures of Cu(II)–Aβ complexes have not been illustrated, and the kinetics and dynamics of the Cu(II) binding are not well understood. Two Cu(II)–Aβ complexes have been proposed to exist under physiological conditions, and another two might exist at higher pH values. By using ab initio simulations for the spontaneous resonance Ramanmore » and time domain stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy signals, we obtained the characteristic Raman vibronic features of each complex. Finally, these signals contain rich structural information with high temporal resolution, enabling the characterization of transient states during the fast Cu–Aβ binding and interconversion processes.« less

  19. Imaging Plasmon Hybridization of Fano Resonances via Hot-Electron-Mediated Absorption Mapping.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Li, Yi; Cortés, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A

    2018-06-13

    The inhibition of radiative losses in dark plasmon modes allows storing electromagnetic energy more efficiently than in far-field excitable bright-plasmon modes. As such, processes benefiting from the enhanced absorption of light in plasmonic materials could also take profit of dark plasmon modes to boost and control nanoscale energy collection, storage, and transfer. We experimentally probe this process by imaging with nanoscale precision the hot-electron driven desorption of thiolated molecules from the surface of gold Fano nanostructures, investigating the effect of wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Spatially resolved absorption maps allow us to show the contribution of each element of the nanoantenna in the hot-electron driven process and their interplay in exciting a dark plasmon mode. Plasmon-mode engineering allows control of nanoscale reactivity and offers a route to further enhance and manipulate hot-electron driven chemical reactions and energy-conversion and transfer at the nanoscale.

  20. Genetic engineering combined with deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy for structural characterization of amyloid-like fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Topilina, Natalya I; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Welch, John T; Lednev, Igor K

    2008-05-07

    Elucidating the structure of the cross-beta core in large amyloid fibrils is a challenging problem in modern structural biology. For the first time, a set of de novo polypeptides was genetically engineered to form amyloid-like fibrils with similar morphology and yet different strand length. Differential ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy allowed for separation of the spectroscopic signatures of the highly ordered beta-sheet strands and turns of the fibril core. The relationship between Raman frequencies and Ramachandran dihedral angles of the polypeptide backbone indicates the nature of the beta-sheet and turn structural elements.

  1. Resonance Energy Transfer between Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Molecules Using Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-21

    intensity changes. Greater sensitivity over single-pass measurements make this technique for observing absorption spectra more desireable. The absorber...resulting in a resolution (A) of about 0.037 A. The signal was focused onto an array of 500 detector elements in the vidicon. Because the width of each... detector is only 0.001 inch, there is a "cross talk" effect 5 between adjacent elements which lowers the resolution to about 0.074 A. Under this

  2. Vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle at room temperature: picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.

  3. Resonant silicon nanoparticles for enhancement of light absorption and photoluminescence from hybrid perovskite films and metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Tiguntseva, E; Chebykin, A; Ishteev, A; Haroldson, R; Balachandran, B; Ushakova, E; Komissarenko, F; Wang, H; Milichko, V; Tsypkin, A; Zuev, D; Hu, W; Makarov, S; Zakhidov, A

    2017-08-31

    Recently, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising types of materials for thin-film photovoltaic and light-emitting devices because of their low-cost and potential for high efficiency. Further boosting their performance without detrimentally increasing the complexity of the architecture is critically important for commercialization. Despite a number of plasmonic nanoparticle based designs having been proposed for solar cell improvement, inherent optical losses of the nanoparticles reduce photoluminescence from perovskites. Here we use low-loss high-refractive-index dielectric (silicon) nanoparticles for improving the optical properties of organo-metallic perovskite (MAPbI 3 ) films and metasurfaces to achieve strong enhancement of photoluminescence as well as useful light absorption. As a result, we observed experimentally a 50% enhancement of photoluminescence intensity from a perovskite layer with silicon nanoparticles and 200% enhancement for a nanoimprinted metasurface with silicon nanoparticles on top. Strong increase in light absorption is also demonstrated and described by theoretical calculations. Since both silicon nanoparticle fabrication/deposition and metasurface nanoimprinting techniques are low-cost, we believe that the developed all-dielectric approach paves the way to novel scalable and highly effective designs of perovskite based metadevices.

  4. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  5. Probing ultrafast ππ*/nπ* internal conversion in organic chromophores via K-edge resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Myhre, R. H.; Cryan, J. P.

    Many photoinduced processes including photosynthesis and human vision happen in organic molecules and involve coupled femtosecond dynamics of nuclei and electrons. Organic molecules with heteroatoms often possess an important excited-state relaxation channel from an optically allowed ππ* to a dark nπ* state. The ππ*/nπ* internal conversion is difficult to investigate, as most spectroscopic methods are not exclusively sensitive to changes in the excited-state electronic structure. Here, we report achieving the required sensitivity by exploiting the element and site specificity of near-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a hole forms in the n orbital during ππ*/nπ* internal conversion, the absorption spectrummore » at the heteroatom K-edge exhibits an additional resonance. We demonstrate the concept using the nucleobase thymine at the oxygen K-edge, and unambiguously show that ππ*/nπ* internal conversion takes place within (60 ± 30) fs. Furthermore, high-level-coupled cluster calculations confirm the method’s impressive electronic structure sensitivity for excited-state investigations.« less

  6. Probing ultrafast ππ*/nπ* internal conversion in organic chromophores via K-edge resonant absorption

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Myhre, R. H.; Cryan, J. P.; ...

    2017-06-22

    Many photoinduced processes including photosynthesis and human vision happen in organic molecules and involve coupled femtosecond dynamics of nuclei and electrons. Organic molecules with heteroatoms often possess an important excited-state relaxation channel from an optically allowed ππ* to a dark nπ* state. The ππ*/nπ* internal conversion is difficult to investigate, as most spectroscopic methods are not exclusively sensitive to changes in the excited-state electronic structure. Here, we report achieving the required sensitivity by exploiting the element and site specificity of near-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As a hole forms in the n orbital during ππ*/nπ* internal conversion, the absorption spectrummore » at the heteroatom K-edge exhibits an additional resonance. We demonstrate the concept using the nucleobase thymine at the oxygen K-edge, and unambiguously show that ππ*/nπ* internal conversion takes place within (60 ± 30) fs. Furthermore, high-level-coupled cluster calculations confirm the method’s impressive electronic structure sensitivity for excited-state investigations.« less

  7. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced light absorption and wavelength tuneable in gold-coated iron oxide spherical nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasri, Thananchai; Chingsungnoen, Artit

    2018-06-01

    Surface plasmon in nano-sized particles, such as gold, silver, copper and their composites, has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its possible uses in many applications, especially in life sciences. It is desirable for application devices with a tenability of surface plasmon wavelength and optical properties enhancement. This article presents enhanced optical light absorption and tunable wavelength in gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au core-shell) nanoparticles embedded in water using the theoretical method of discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The absorption spectra in the wavelengths from 350 to 900 nm were found to be the spectra obtained from Fe3O4@Au core-shell nanoparticles, and when compared with pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the surface plasmon resonance can be enhanced and tuned over the entire visible spectrum (viz. 350-800 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum by varying the Au shell thickness (2-5 nm). Similarly, the Faraday rotation spectra can also be obtained.

  8. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV absorption, 1H and 13C NMR) and theoretical (in B3LYP/6-311++G** level) studies on alkali metal salts of caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Świsłocka, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The effect of some metals on the electronic system of benzoic and nicotinic acids has recently been investigated by IR, Raman and UV spectroscopy [1-3]. Benzoic and nicotinic acids are regarded model systems representing a wide group of aromatic ligands which are incorporated into enzymes. In this work the FT-IR (in solid state and in solution), FT-Raman, UV absorption and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) and its salts with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium were registered, assigned and analyzed. The effect of alkali metals on the electronic system of ligands was discussed. Studies of differences in the number and position of bands from the IR, Raman, UV absorption spectra and chemical shifts from NMR spectra allowed to conclude on the distribution of electronic charge in the molecules, the delocalization energy of π electrons and the reactivity of ligands in metal complexes. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G** basis set. Bond lengths, angles and dipole moments for the optimized structures of caffeic acid and lithium, sodium, potassium caffeinates were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resonant absorption and amplification of circularly-polarized waves in inhomogeneous chiral media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seulong; Kim, Kihong

    2016-01-25

    It has been found that in the media where the dielectric permittivity ε or the magnetic permeability μ is near zero and in transition metamaterials where ε or μ changes from positive to negative values, there occur a strong absorption or amplification of the electromagnetic wave energy in the presence of an infinitesimally small damping or gain and a strong enhancement of the electromagnetic fields. We attribute these phenomena to the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations and its inverse process. In this paper, we study analogous phenomena occurring in chiral media theoretically using the invariant imbedding method. In uniform isotropic chiral media, right-circularly-polarized and left-circularly-polarized waves are the eigen-modes of propagation with different effective refractive indices n(+) and n(-), whereas in the chiral media with a nonuniform impedance variation, they are no longer the eigenmodes and are coupled to each other. We find that both in uniform chiral slabs where either n(+) or n(-) is near zero and in chiral transition metamaterials where n(+) or n(-) changes from positive to negative values, a strong absorption or amplification of circularly-polarized waves occurs in the presence of an infinitesimally small damping or gain. We present detailed calculations of the mode conversion coefficient, which measures the fraction of the electromagnetic wave energy absorbed into the medium, for various configurations of ε and μ with an emphasis on the influence of a nonuniform impedance. We propose possible applications of these phenomena to linear and nonlinear optical devices that react selectively to the helicity of the circular polarization.

  10. Symmetry Breaking in Platinum Acetylide Chromophores Studied by Femtosecond Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    hand, studies per- formed in conjugated dendrimers have pointed out the impor- tance of conformational changes that may strongly influence the 2PA...Absorption in Dendrimers . J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 7540−7543. (37) Leng, W.; Bazan, G. C.; Kelley, A. M. Solvent Effects on Resonance Raman and Hyper

  11. Resonance Raman study on the structure of the active sites of microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes LM2 and LM4.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, P; Greinert, R; Stier, A; Taniguchi, H

    1989-12-08

    The isozymes 2 and 4 of rabbit microsomal cytochrome P-450 (LM2, LM4) have been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Based on high quality spectra, a vibrational assignment of the porphyrin modes in the frequency range between 100-1700 cm-1 is presented for different ferric states of cytochrome P-450 LM2 and LM4. The resonance Raman spectra are interpreted in terms of the spin and ligation state of the heme iron and of heme-protein interactions. While in cytochrome P-450 LM2 the six-coordinated low-spin configuration is predominantly occupied, in the isozyme LM4 the five-coordinated high-spin form is the most stable state. The different stability of these two spin configurations in LM2 and LM4 can be attributed to the structures of the active sites. In the low-spin form of the isozymes LM4 the protein matrix forces the heme into a more rigid conformation than in LM2. These steric constraints are removed upon dissociation of the sixth ligand leading to a more flexible structure of the active site in the high-spin form of the isozyme LM4. The vibrational modes of the vinyl groups were found to be characteristic markers for the specific structures of the heme pockets in both isozymes. They also respond sensitively to type-I substrate binding. While in cytochrome P-450 LM4 the occupation of the substrate-binding pocket induces conformational changes of the vinyl groups, as reflected by frequency shifts of the vinyl modes, in the LM2 isozyme the ground-state conformation of these substituents remain unaffected, suggesting that the more flexible heme pocket can accommodate substrates without imposing steric constraints on the porphyrin. The resonance Raman technique makes structural changes visible which are induced by substrate binding in addition and independent of the changes associated with the shift of the spin state equilibrium: the high-spin states in the substrate-bound and substrate-free enzyme are structurally different. The formation of the inactive form

  12. Room temperature lasing unraveled by a strong resonance between gain and parasitic absorption in uniaxially strained germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shashank; Nam, Donguk; Vuckovic, Jelena; Saraswat, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible on-chip light source is the holy grail of silicon photonics and has the potential to alleviate the key scaling issues arising due to electrical interconnects. Despite several theoretical predictions, a sustainable, room temperature laser from a group-IV material is yet to be demonstrated. In this work, we show that a particular loss mechanism, inter-valence-band absorption (IVBA), has been inadequately modeled until now and capturing its effect accurately as a function of strain is crucial to understanding light emission processes from uniaxially strained germanium (Ge). We present a detailed model of light emission in Ge that accurately models IVBA in the presence of strain and other factors such as polarization, doping, and carrier injection, thereby revising the road map toward a room temperature Ge laser. Strikingly, a special resonance between gain and loss mechanisms at 4%-5% 〈100 〉 uniaxial strain is found resulting in a high net gain of more than 400 cm-1 at room temperature. It is shown that achieving this resonance should be the goal of experimental work rather than pursuing a direct band gap Ge.

  13. Tunable plasmon-induced absorption effects in a graphene-based waveguide coupled with graphene ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pei-Nian; Xia, Sheng-Xuan; Fu, Guang-Lai; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Qin, Meng; Zhai, Xiang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a structure composed of two graphene waveguides and dual coupled graphene ring resonators (GRRs) to achieve a plasmon-induced absorption (PIA) effect. A three-level plasmonic system and a temporal coupled mode theory (CMT) are utilized to verify the simulation results. Moreover, a double-window-PIA effect can be conveniently attained by introducing another GRR with proper parameters to meet more specific acquirement in optical modulation process. The pronounced PIA resonances can be tuned in a number of ways, such as by adjusting the coupling distance between the GRRs and the couplings between the GRR and the waveguide, and tuning the radius and the Fermi energy of the GRRs. Besides, the produced PIA effect shows a high group delay up to - 1 . 87 ps, exhibiting a particularly prominent fast-light feature. Our results have potential applications in the realization of THz-integrated spectral control and graphene plasmonic devices such as sensors, filters, ultra-fast optical switches and so on.

  14. Coronal heating by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves: The effect of viscous stress tensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The time-dependent linearized magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations for a fully compressible, low-beta, viscoresistive plasma are solved numerically using an implicit integration scheme. The full viscosity stress tensor (Braginskii 1965) is included with the five parameters eta(sub i) i = 0 to 4. In agreement with previous studies, the numerical simulations demonstrate that the dissipation on inhomogeneities in the background Alfven speed occurs in a narrow resonant layer. For an active region in the solar corona the values of eta(sub i) are eta(sub o) = 0.65 g/cm/s, eta(sub 1) = 3.7 x 10(exp -12) g/cm/s, eta(sub 2) = 4 eta(sub 1), eta(sub 3) = 1.4 x 10(exp -6) g/cm/s, eta(sub 4) = 2 eta(sub 3), with n = 10(exp 10)/cu cm, T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K, and B = 100 G. When the Lundquist number S = 10(exp 4) and R(sub 1) much greater than S (where R(sub 1) is the dimensionless shear viscous number) the width of the resistive dissipation layer d(sub r) is 0.22a (where a is the density gradient length scale) and d(sub r) approximately S(exp -1/3). When S much greater than R(sub 1) the shear viscous dissipation layer width d(sub r) scales as R(sub 1)(exp -1/3). The shear viscous and the resistive dissipation occurs in an overlapping narrow region, and the total heating rate is independent of the value of the dissipation parameters in agreement with previous studies. Consequently, the maximum values of the perpendicular velocity and perpendicular magnetic field scale as R(sub 1)(exp -1/3). It is evident from the simulations that for solar parameters the heating due to the compressive viscosity (R(sub 0) = 560) is negligible compared to the resistive and the shear viscous (R(sub 1)) dissipation and it occurs in a broad layer of order a in width. In the solar corona with S approximately equals 10(exp 4) and R(sub 1) approximately equals 10(exp 14) (as calculated from the Braginskii expressions), the shear viscous resonant heating is of comparable magnitude to the resistive resonant

  15. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  16. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a hode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  17. Intensity enhancement and selective detection of proximate solvent molecules by molecular near-field effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Rintaro; Kano, Hideaki; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.

    2008-07-01

    A new molecular phenomenon associated with resonance hyper-Raman (HR) scattering in solution has been discovered. Resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-lycopene in various solvents exhibited several extra bands that were not assignable to the solute but were unequivocally assigned to the solvents. Neat solvents did not show detectable HR signals under the same experimental conditions. Similar experiments with all-trans-retinal did not exhibit such enhancement either. All-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-lycopene have thus been shown to induce enhanced HR scattering of solvent molecules through a novel molecular effect that is not associated with all-trans-retinal. We call this new effect the "molecular near-field effect." In order to explain this newly found effect, an extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering is developed where the vibronic interaction including the proximate solvent molecule (intermolecular vibronic coupling) is explicitly introduced in the solute hyperpolarizability tensor. The potential of "molecular near-field HR spectroscopy," which selectively detects molecules existing in the close vicinity of a HR probe in complex chemical or biological systems, is discussed.

  18. Raman and fluorescence contributions to the resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, F.; Fujiwara, H.; Berner, G.; Yamasaki, A.; Niwa, H.; Kiuchi, H.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Gabel, J.; Kirilmaz, O.; Sekiyama, A.; Miyawaki, J.; Harada, Y.; Suga, S.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Ti 3 d carriers at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures by high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS), with special focus on the roles of overlayer thickness and oxygen vacancies. Our measurements show the existence of interfacial Ti 3 d electrons already below the critical thickness for conductivity. The (total) interface charge carrier density increases up to a LaAlO3 overlayer thickness of 6 unit cells before it levels out. Furthermore, we observe strong Ti 3 d charge carrier doping by oxygen vacancies. The RIXS data combined with photoelectron spectroscopy and transport measurements indicate the simultaneous presence of localized and itinerant charge carriers. At variance with previous interpretations, we show that in our excitation energy dependent RIXS measurements the amounts of localized and itinerant Ti 3 d electrons in the ground state do not scale with the intensities of the Raman and fluorescence peaks, respectively. Rather, we attribute the observation of either Raman components or fluorescence signal to the specific nature of the intermediate state reached in the RIXS excitation process.

  19. Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes in nuclear resonant vibrational, Raman and infrared spectroscopies: Comparisons of density functional theory and experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Guo, Yisong; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Case, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared, Raman, and nuclear resonant vibrational (NRVS) spectroscopies have been used to address the Fe-H bonding in trans-Fe(H)(CO) iron hydride compound, Fe(H)(CO)(dppe)2, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. H and D isotopomers of the compound, with the selective substitution at the metal-coordinated hydrogen, have been considered in order to address the Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes. Experimental results are compared to the normal mode analysis by the density functional theory (DFT). The results are that (i) the IR spectrum does not clearly show Fe–H stretching or bending modes; (ii) Fe–H stretching modes are clear but weak in the Raman spectrum, and Fe–H bending modes are weak; (iii) NRVS 57Fe spectroscopy resolves Fe-H bending clearly, but Fe–H or Fe–D stretching is above its experimentally resolved frequency range. DFT caclulations (with no scaling of frequencies) show intensities and peak locations that allow unambigous correlations between observed and calculated features, with frequency errors generally less than 15 cm−1. Prospects for using these techniques to unravel vibrational modes of protein active sites are discussed. PMID:21322496

  20. Functional Single-Cell Approach to Probing Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Soil Communities by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy with 15N2 Labeling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Yang, Kai; Li, Hong-Zhe; Zhang, Han; Su, Jian-Qiang; Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin, Francis L; Ren, Bin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-17

    Nitrogen (N) fixation is the conversion of inert nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to bioavailable N essential for all forms of life. N 2 -fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs), which play a key role in global N cycling, remain largely obscure because a large majority are uncultured. Direct probing of active diazotrophs in the environment is still a major challenge. Herein, a novel culture-independent single-cell approach combining resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with 15 N 2 stable isotope probing (SIP) was developed to discern N 2 -fixing bacteria in a complex soil community. Strong RR signals of cytochrome c (Cyt c, frequently present in diverse N 2 -fixing bacteria), along with a marked 15 N 2 -induced Cyt c band shift, generated a highly distinguishable biomarker for N 2 fixation. 15 N 2 -induced shift was consistent well with 15 N abundance in cell determined by isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. By applying this biomarker and Raman imaging, N 2 -fixing bacteria in both artificial and complex soil communities were discerned and imaged at the single-cell level. The linear band shift of Cyt c versus 15 N 2 percentage allowed quantification of N 2 fixation extent of diverse soil bacteria. This single-cell approach will advance the exploration of hitherto uncultured diazotrophs in diverse ecosystems.

  1. Ground-state IVR of jet-cooled p-alkylphenols and p-alkylanilines studied by stimulated emission ion dip and stimulated Raman-UV optical double-resonance spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebata, T.; Ito, M.

    1992-04-16

    This paper reports the intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) of the jet-cooled p-alkylphenols and p-alkylanilines in S{sub 0} state by using stimulated emission ion dip and stimulated raman-UV optical double-resonance spectroscopy. The IVR rate constants of several vibrational levels localized in the benzene ring are estimated. 31 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Circular dichroism and UV resonance Raman study of the impact of alcohols on the Gibbs free energy landscape of an α-helical peptide†

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Kan; Asher, Sanford A

    2010-01-01

    We used CD and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the impact of alcohols on the conformational equilibria and relative Gibbs free energy landscapes along the Ramanchandran Ψ-coordinate of a mainly poly-ala peptide, AP of sequence AAAAA(AAARA)3A. 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) most stabilizes the α-helical-like conformations, followed by ethanol, methanol and pure water. The π-bulge conformation is stabilized more than the α-helix, while the 310-helix is destabilized due to the alcohol increased hydrophobicity. Turns are also stabilized by alcohols. We also found that while TFE induces more α-helices, it favors multiple, shorter helix segments. PMID:20225890

  3. Development of thin-film tunable band-pass filters based hyper-spectral imaging system applied for both surface enhanced Raman scattering and plasmon resonance Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iga, Mitsuhiro; Kakuryu, Nobuyuki; Tanaami, Takeo; Sajiki, Jiro; Isozaki, Katsumi; Itoh, Tamitake

    2012-10-01

    We describe the development of a hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) system composed of thin-film tunable band-pass filters (TF-TBPFs) and its application to inhomogeneous sample surfaces. Compared with existing HSI systems, the system has a simpler optical arrangement and has an optical transmittance of up to 80% owing to polarization independence. The HSI system exhibits a constant spectral resolution over a spectral window of 80 nm (530 to 610 nm) and tunable spectral resolution from 1.5 to 3.0 nm, and requires only 5.4 s per measurement. Plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from inhomogeneous surfaces dispersed with Ag nanoparticles (NP) have been measured with the HSI system. The measurement of multiple Ag NPs is consistent with conventional isolated NP measurements as explained by the electromagnetic mechanism of SERS, demonstrating the validity of the HSI system.

  4. Surface-enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) of single-walled carbon nanotubes absorbed on the Ag-coated anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, X. Y.; Zhou, Z. P.; Tan, P. H.; Song, L.; Liu, L. F.; Zhao, X. W.; Luo, S. D.; Yan, X. Q.; Liu, D. F.; Wang, J. X.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, Z. X.; Yuan, H. J.; Zhou, W. Y.; Xie, S. S.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we developed a new kind of substrate, the silver-coated anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), to investigate the characters of surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) of the dilute single-walled carbon nanotubes. Homogeneous Ag-coated AAO substrate was obtained by decomposing the AgNO 3 on the surface of AAO. single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were directly grown onto this substrate through floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). SERRS of SWNTs was carried out using several different wavelength lasers. The bands coming from metallic SWNTs were significantly enhanced. The two SERRS mechanisms, the “electromagnetic” and “chemical” mechanism, were mainly responsible for the experiment results.

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Resonance Raman (UVRR) Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for Study of the Kinetics of Formation and Structural Characterization of Tau Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gayathri

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic studies of tau fibril formation in vitro most commonly employ spectroscopic probes such as thioflavinT fluorescence and laser light scattering or negative stain transmission electron microscopy. Here, I describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as complementary probes for studies of tau aggregation. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and UVRR) to secondary structure content allows for measurement of conformational changes that occur when the intrinsically disordered protein tau transforms into cross-β-core containing fibrils. AFM imaging serves as a gentle probe of structures populated over the time course of tau fibrillization. Together, these assays help further elucidate the structural and mechanistic complexity inherent in tau fibril formation.

  6. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Silver Film Surface Modification by Ion Bombardment Decreases Surface Plasmon Resonance Absorption.

    PubMed

    Fryauf, David M; Diaz Leon, Juan J; Phillips, Andrew C; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2017-05-10

    Silver thin films covered with dielectric films serving as protective coatings are desired for telescope mirrors, but durable coatings have proved elusive. As part of an effort to develop long-lived protected-silver mirrors, silver thin films were deposited by electron beam evaporation using a physical vapor deposition system at the University of California Observatories Astronomical Coatings Lab. The silver films were later covered with a stack of dielectric films utilizing silicon nitride and titanium dioxide deposited by ion-assisted electron beam evaporation to fabricate protected mirrors. In-situ argon ion bombardment was introduced after silver deposition and prior to the deposition of dielectric films to assess its effects on the performance of the mirrors. We found that ion bombardment of the silver influenced surface morphology and reflectivity, and these effects correlated with time between silver deposition and ion bombardment. The overall reflectivity at wavelengths in the range of 350-800 nm was found to improve due to ion bombardment, which was qualitatively interpreted as a result of decreased surface plasmon resonance coupling. We suggest that the observed decrease in coupling is caused by silver grain boundary pinning due to ion bombardment suppressing silver surface diffusion, forming smoother silver-dielectric interfaces.

  8. Radiofrequency penetration and absorption in the human body: limitations to high-field whole-body nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Röschmann, P

    1987-01-01

    This study presents experimental results about the effective depth of penetration and about the radiofrequency (rf) power absorption in humans as a function of frequency. The frequency range investigated covers 10 up to 220 MHz. For the main part, the results were derived from bench measurements of the quality factor Q, and of the resonance frequency shift due to the loading of the coil. Different types of head-, body-, and surface coils were investigated loaded with volunteers or metallic phantoms. For spin-echo imaging at 2 T (85 MHz), the local specific absorption rate (SAR) was found to be approximately equal to 0.05 W/kg using a pi pulse of 1-ms duration and pulse repetition time TR = 1 s. Measurements of the quality factor Q as a function of frequency show that the SAR depends upon the frequency f according to approximately f2.15. The effective depth of rf penetration as derived drops from 17 cm at 85 MHz to 7 cm at 220 MHz. Head imaging with B1 penetrating from practically all sides into the object should be possible up to 220 MHz (5 T) with SAR values staying within the local limit of 2 W/kg as set by the FDA. Whole-body imaging of large subjects as well as surface coil imaging is depth limited above 100-MHz frequency. Perturbation methods are applied in order to separate the total rf power deposition in the patient into dielectric and magnetic contributions. The observed effects due to interactions of rf magnetic fields with biological tissue contradict predictions based on homogeneous tissue models. A refined tissue model with regions of high electrical conductivity, subdivided by quasi-insulating adipose layers, provides a rationale for a better understanding of the underlying processes. At frequencies below 100 MHz, the rf power deposition in patients is apparently more evenly distributed over the exposed body volume than currently assumed.

  9. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  10. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  11. Multimodal Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles with Unusually Enhanced Specific Absorption Rate for Synergetic Cancer Therapeutics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Nanasaheb D; Bohara, Raghvendra A; Malgras, Victor; Tofail, Syed A M; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-06-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) cancer therapy frequently face trade off between a high magnetization saturation and their good colloidal stability, high specific absorption rate (SAR), and most importantly biological compatibility. This necessitates the development of new nanomaterials, as MFH and MRI are considered to be one of the most promising combined noninvasive treatments. In the present study, we investigated polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) SPMNPs for efficient cancer hyperthermia therapy and MRI application. The superparamagnetic nanomaterial revealed excellent colloidal stability and biocompatibility. A high SAR of 390 W/g was observed due to higher colloidal stability leading to an increased Brownian and Neel's spin relaxation. Cell viability of PEG capped nanoparticles is up to 80% on different cell lines tested rigorously using different methods. PEG coating provided excellent hemocompatibility to human red blood cells as PEG functionalized SPMNPs reduced hemolysis efficiently compared to its uncoated counterpart. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia of SPMNPs resulted in cancer cell death up to 80%. Additionally, improved MRI characteristics were also observed for the PEG capped La1-xSrxMnO3 formulation in aqueous medium compared to the bare LSMO. Taken together, PEG capped SPMNPs can be useful for diagnosis, efficient magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and multimodal cancer treatment as the amphiphilicity of PEG can easily be utilized to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs.

  12. Observation of ultrahigh-energy electrons by resonance absorption of high-power microwaves in a pulsed plasma.

    PubMed

    Rajyaguru, C; Fuji, T; Ito, H; Yugami, N; Nishida, Y

    2001-07-01

    The interaction of high power microwave with collisionless unmagnetized plasma is studied. Investigation on the generation of superthermal electrons near the critical layer, by the resonance absorption phenomenon, is extended to very high microwave power levels (eta=E(2)(0)/4 pi n(e)kT(e) approximately 0.3). Here E0, n(e), and T(e) are the vacuum electric field, electron density, and electron temperature, respectively. Successive generation of electron bunches having maximum energy of about 2 keV, due to nonlinear wave breaking, is observed. The electron energy epsilon scales as a function of the incident microwave power P, according to epsilon proportional to P0.5 up to 250 kW. The two-dimensional spatial distribution of high energy electrons reveals that they are generated near the critical layer. However, the lower energy component is again produced in the subcritical density region indicating the possibility of other electron heating mechanisms.

  13. Anionic and cationic redox and interfaces in batteries: Advances from soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to resonant inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanli; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2018-06-01

    Recent advances in battery science and technology have triggered both the challenges and opportunities on studying the materials and interfaces in batteries. Here, we review the recent demonstrations of soft X-ray spectroscopy for studying the interfaces and electrode materials. The focus of this review is on the recently developed mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (mRIXS) as a powerful probe of battery chemistry with superior sensitivity. Six different channels of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS) are introduced for different experimental purposes. Although conventional sXAS channels remain effective tools for quantitative analysis of the transition-metal states and surface chemistry, we elaborate the limitations of sXAS in both cationic and anionic redox studies. Particularly, based on experimental findings in various electrodes, we show that sXAS is unreliable for studying oxygen redox. We then demonstrate the mRIXS as a reliable technique for fingerprinting oxygen redox and summarize several crucial observations. We conclude that mRIXS is the tool-of-choice to study both the practical issue on reversibility of oxygen redox and the fundamental nature of bulk oxygen states. We hope this review clarifies the popular misunderstanding on oxygen sXAS results of oxide electrodes, and establishes a reliable technique for detecting oxygen redox through mRIXS.

  14. Directed assembly of binary monolayers with a high protein affinity: infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

    PubMed

    Du, Xuezhong; Wang, Yuchun

    2007-03-08

    Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques have been employed to investigate human serum albumin (HSA) binding to binary monolayers of zwitterionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DOMA). At the air-water interface, the favorable electrostatic interaction between DPPC and DOMA leads to a dense chain packing. The tilt angle of the hydrocarbon chains decreases with increasing mole fraction of DOMA (X(DOMA)) in the monolayers at the surface pressure 30 mN/m: DPPC ( approximately 30 degrees ), X(DOMA) = 0.1 ( approximately 15 degrees ), and X(DOMA) = 0.3 ( approximately 0 degrees ). Negligible protein binding to the DPPC monolayer is observed in contrast to a significant binding to the binary monolayers. After HSA binding, the hydrocarbon chains at X(DOMA) = 0.1 undergo an increase in tilt angle from 15 degrees to 25 approximately 30 degrees , and the chains at X(DOMA) = 0.3 remain almost unchanged. The two components in the monolayers deliver through lateral reorganization, induced by the protein in the subphase, to form multiple interaction sites favorable for protein binding. The surfaces with a high protein affinity are created through the directed assembly of binary monolayers for use in biosensing.

  15. Molecular near-field antenna effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering: Intermolecular vibronic intensity borrowing of solvent from solute through dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o, E-mail: hhama@nctu.edu.tw

    2014-05-28

    We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene (β-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute β-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of β-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of β-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of themore » observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of β-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute–solvent dipole–dipole and dipole–quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole–dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole–quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.« less

  16. Chirality, Metallicity, and Transition Dependent Asymmetries in Resonance Raman Excitation Profiles of Chirality-Enriched Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorn, Stephen; Duque, Juan; Telg, Hagen; Haroz, Erik; Tu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ming

    2014-03-01

    Access to carbon nanotube samples enriched in single chiralities allows the observation of new photophysical behaviors obscured or difficult to demonstrate in mixed-chirality ensembles. Recent examples include the observation of strongly asymmetric G-band excitation profiles resulting from non-Condon effects1 and the unambiguous demonstration of Raman interference effects.2 We present here our most recent results demonstrating the generality of the non-Condon behavior to include metallic species (specifically several armchair chiralities). Additionally, the Eii dependence in non-Condon behavior with excitations from E11 thru E44 for both RBM and G modes will be discussed. 1. J.G. Duque, et. al., ACS Nano, 5, 5233 (2011). 2. J.G. Duque, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117404 (2012).

  17. Binding of Amphipathic Cell Penetrating Peptide p28 to Wild Type and Mutated p53 as studied by Raman, Atomic Force and Surface Plasmon Resonance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Sara; Santini, Simona; Yamada, Tohru; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Beattie, Craig W; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Mutations within the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the tumor suppressor p53 are found in >50% of human cancers and may significantly modify p53 secondary structure impairing its function. p28, an amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide, binds to the DBD through hydrophobic interaction and induces a posttranslational increase in wildtype and mutant p53 restoring functionality. We use mutation analyses to explore which elements of secondary structure may be critical to p28 binding. Molecular modeling, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) were used to identify which secondary structure of site-directed and naturally occurring mutant DBDs are potentially altered by discrete changes in hydrophobicity and the molecular interaction with p28. We show that specific point mutations that alter hydrophobicity within non-mutable and mutable regions of the p53 DBD alter specific secondary structures. The affinity of p28 was positively correlated with the β-sheet content of a mutant DBD, and reduced by an increase in unstructured or random coil that resulted from a loss in hydrophobicity and redistribution of surface charge. These results help refine our knowledge of how mutations within p53-DBD alter secondary structure and provide insight on how potential structural alterations in p28 or similar molecules improve their ability to restore p53 function. Raman spectroscopy, AFS, SPR and computational modeling are useful approaches to characterize how mutations within the p53DBD potentially affect secondary structure and identify those structural elements prone to influence the binding affinity of agents designed to increase the functionality of p53. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of alkali metal vapor interaction with alkene-based anti-relaxation coating

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, O. Yu., E-mail: otretiak@genphys.ru; Balabas, M. V.; Blanchard, J. W.

    2016-03-07

    The use of anti-relaxation coatings in alkali vapor cells yields substantial performance improvements compared to a bare glass surface by reducing the probability of spin relaxation in wall collisions by several orders of magnitude. Some of the most effective anti-relaxation coating materials are alpha-olefins, which (as in the case of more traditional paraffin coatings) must undergo a curing period after cell manufacturing in order to achieve the desired behavior. Until now, however, it has been unclear what physicochemical processes occur during cell curing, and how they may affect relevant cell properties. We present the results of nondestructive Raman-spectroscopy and magnetic-resonancemore » investigations of the influence of alkali metal vapor (Cs or K) on an alpha-olefin, 1-nonadecene coating the inner surface of a glass cell. It was found that during the curing process, the alkali metal catalyzes migration of the carbon-carbon double bond, yielding a mixture of cis- and trans-2-nonadecene.« less

  19. Unified analysis of optical absorption spectra of carotenoids based on a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Chiasa; Saito, Keisuke; Yoshizawa, Masayuki; Molnár, Péter; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-05-03

    The chemical structures of the carotenoid molecules are very simple and one might think that the electronic feature of it is easily predicted. However, it still has so much unknown information except the correlation between the electronic energy state and the length of effective conjugation chain of carotenoids. To investigate the electronic feature of the carotenoids, the most essential method is measuring the optical absorption spectra, but simulating it from the resonance Raman spectra is also the effective way. From this reason, we studied the optical absorption spectra as well as resonance Raman spectra of 15 different kinds of cyclic carotenoid molecules, recorded in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions at room temperature. The whole band shapes of the absorption spectra of all these carotenoid molecules were successfully simulated based on a stochastic model using Brownian oscillators. The parameters obtained from the simulation made it possible to discuss the intermolecular interaction between carotenoids and solvent THF molecules quantitatively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-01

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (–PO32−–Zr4+–) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A520nm/A650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP. PMID:27754349

  1. Visual and Plasmon Resonance Absorption Sensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Based on the High Affinity between Phosphate and Zr(IV).

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Halawa, Mohamed Ibrahim; Xu, Guobao

    2016-10-12

    Zr(IV) can form phosphate and Zr(IV) (-PO₃ 2- -Zr 4+ -) complex owing to the high affinity between Zr(IV) with phosphate. Zr(IV) can induce the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while adenosine triphosphate(ATP) can prevent Zr(IV)-induced aggregation of AuNPs. Herein, a visual and plasmon resonance absorption (PRA)sensor for ATP have been developed using AuNPs based on the high affinity between Zr(IV)with ATP. AuNPs get aggregated in the presence of certain concentrations of Zr(IV). After the addition of ATP, ATP reacts with Zr(IV) and prevents AuNPs from aggregation, enabling the detection of ATP. Because of the fast interaction of ATP with Zr(IV), ATP can be detected with a detection limit of 0.5 μM within 2 min by the naked eye. Moreover, ATP can be detected by the PRA technique with higher sensitivity. The A 520nm / A 650nm values in PRA spectra increase linearly with the concentrations of ATP from 0.1 μM to 15 μM (r = 0.9945) with a detection limit of 28 nM. The proposed visual and PRA sensor exhibit good selectivity against adenosine, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. The recoveries for the analysis of ATP in synthetic samples range from 95.3% to 102.0%. Therefore, the proposed novel sensor for ATP is promising for real-time or on-site detection of ATP.

  2. Parametric Investigation of Holographic Gratings and Optical Phase Conjugation Through Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Saturable Absorptive/Resonant/Nonresonant Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-26

    WAVE MIXING IN SATURABLE ABSORPTIVEIRESONANTINONRESONANT SYSTEMS I Final Report Putcha Venkateswarlu November 26, 1991 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE GRANT...and Optical Phase Conjugation Through Degenerate Four Wave Mixin2 in Saturable Absorptive/Resonant/Nonresonant System DAAL03-87-G-0078 6. AUTHOR(S) P...author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other

  3. Two-photon absorption resonance in 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniewicz, Andrzej; Delysse, Stéphane; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Kajzar, François

    1998-04-01

    A two-photon absorption spectrum of 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) in tetrahydrofuran solution has been studied by the Kerr ellipsometry technique. The spectral shape and amplitude of the imaginary part of the dominant molecular hyperpolarizability term Im( γXXXX) is compared with the relevant linear absorption spectrum within a simple two-level model. Agreement between the measured γXXXX=2.0×10 -48 m 5 V -2 and calculated γXXXX=(1.2-1.5)×10 -48 m 5 V -2 two-photon absorption molecular hyperpolarizabilties in the vicinity of the two-photon resonance transition is satisfactory.

  4. Laboratory investigation on the role of tubular shaped micro resonators phononic crystal insertion on the absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, I.; Kusuma, J. I.; Harjana; Kristiani, R.; Hanina, R.

    2016-02-01

    This paper emphasizes the influence of tubular shaped microresonators phononic crystal insertion on the sound absorption coefficient of profiled sound absorber. A simple cubic and two different bodies centered cubic phononic crystal lattice model were analyzed in a laboratory test procedure. The experiment was conducted by using transfer function based two microphone impedance tube method refer to ASTM E-1050-98. The results show that sound absorption coefficient increase significantly at the mid and high-frequency band (600 - 700 Hz) and (1 - 1.6 kHz) when tubular shaped microresonator phononic crystal inserted into the tested sound absorber element. The increment phenomena related to multi-resonance effect that occurs when sound waves propagate through the phononic crystal lattice model that produce multiple reflections and scattering in mid and high-frequency band which increases the sound absorption coefficient accordingly

  5. Structure-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance characteristics and surface enhanced Raman scattering performances of quasi-periodic nanoarrays: Measurements and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Zhou, Jun, E-mail: zhoujun@nbu.edu.cn; Rippa, Massimo

    A set of periodic and quasi-periodic Au nanoarrays with different morphologies have been fabricated by using electron beam lithography technique, and their optical properties have been examined experimentally and analyzed theoretically by scanning near-field optical microscope and finite element method, respectively. Results present that the localized surface plasmon resonance of the as-prepared Au nanoarrays exhibit the structure-depended characteristics. Comparing with the periodic nanoarrays, the quasi-periodic ones demonstrate stronger electric field enhancement, especially for Thue-Morse nanoarray. Meanwhile, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecular labeled nanoarrays show that the quasi-periodic nanoarrays exhibit distinct SERS enhancement, for example,more » a higher enhancement factor of ∼10{sup 7} is obtained for the Thue-Morse nanoarray consisted of square pillars of 100 nm size. Therefore, it is significant to optimally design and fabricate the chip-scale quasi-periodic nanoarrays with high localized electric field enhancement for SERS applications in biosensing field.« less

  6. Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles-based localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensor for sensitive detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue; Chen, Yanhua; Qin, Meihong; Chen, Yang; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Tian, Yuan

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles were prepared based on the reduction of the metal salts HAuCl4 and AgNO3 at the surface of seed particles. Due to the synergistic effect between Au and Ag, the hybrid nanoparticles are particularly stable and show excellent performances on the detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole). The binding of target molecule at the surface of Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles was demonstrated based on both localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. The LSPR intensity is directly proportional to the methimazole concentration in the range of 0.10-3.00×10(-7) mol L(-1). The SERS spectrum can be applied in identification of methimazole molecule. The LSPR coupled with SERS based on the Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles would be very attractive for the quantitative determination and qualitative analysis of the analytes in medicines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants as revealed using circular dichroism and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Nishiya, Ken; Miura, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu

    2016-11-01

    The acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of the mutated form of human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been investigated to clarify the relationship between mutations in SOD1 and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ala4 → Val (A4V) and Gly93 → Ala (G93A) mutants, which are representative ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, have been found to exhibit both the denaturation and the gain of pro-oxidant activity after incubation in the apo-form at a physiological condition of 37 °C and pH 7.4 and the rebinding of Cu2+. These characteristics are similar to those previously reported for the His43 → Arg (H43R) mutant. UV-resonance Raman spectra indicated that the coordination structure of the Cu-binding site catalyzing the oxidation reaction is the same among the denatured A4V, G93A, and H43R. Since wild-type SOD1 does not exhibit the denaturation in its apo-form at 37 °C and pH 7.4, the instability of the protein structure due to mutation can be considered as a significant factor that induces the denaturation and the subsequent pro-oxidant activity.

  8. The Importance of Slag Structure to Boron Removal from Silicon during the Refining Process: Insights from Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Guoyu; Wang, Zhi; Gong, Xuzhong; Sun, Liyuan

    2017-12-01

    Slag structure plays an important role in determining the relative ease of boron removal from silicon. Correlation between slag structure and boron removal thermodynamics was experimentally studied by Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using CaO-SiO2-Na2O slags with different optical basicities (0.6 to 0.71). Optimization of slag depolymerization leads to efficient removal of boron. The extent of nonbridged oxygen content (NBO/T) and boron removal gradually increased with an increase in optical basicity from 0.6 to 0.66: B2O3 derived from boron oxidation captured nonbridging oxygens of Q 0(Si), Q 1(Si), and Q 2(Si), and was incorporated into the silicate network in the form of Q 3(Si and B). When optical basicity increased to 0.71, NBO/T rapidly increased and boron removal decreased considerably. Quick depolymerization of Q 3(Si and B) deteriorated the stability of boron. Various structural forms of boron in the silicate network were successfully detected: the BO3 trihedrons [3]B-3Si, [3]B-2Si-1NBO, and BO3 (nonring), and the BO4 tetrahedrons BO4 (1B, 3Si) and BO4 (0B, 4Si). BO4 (1B, 3Si) was the main structure contributing to the increase of boron capacity; BO3 (nonring), detected under higher optical basicity conditions, may cause deterioration of boron removal by suppressing its oxidation.

  9. Raman spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  10. Barium Nitrate Raman Laser Development for Remote Sensing of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Christopher L.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of anthropogenic emissions upon the earth's environment, scientists require remote sensing techniques which are capable of providing range-resolved measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the concentrations of several chemical constituents of the atmosphere. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is a very promising method to measure concentration profiles of chemical species such as ozone and water vapor as well as detect the presence of aerosols and clouds. If a suitable DIAL system could be deployed in space, it would provide a global data set of tremendous value. Such systems, however, need to be compact, reliable, and very efficient. In order to measure atmospheric gases with the DIAL technique, the laser transmitter must generate suitable on-line and off-line wavelength pulse pairs. The on-line pulse is resonant with an absorption feature of the species of interest. The off-line pulse is tuned so that it encounters significantly less absorption. The relative backscattered power for the two pulses enables the range-resolved concentration to be computed. Preliminary experiments at NASA LaRC suggested that the solid state Raman shifting material, Ba(NO3)2, could be utilized to produce these pulse pairs. A Raman oscillator pumped at 532 nm by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser can create first Stokes laser output at 563 nm and second Stokes output at 599 nm. With frequency doublers, UV output at 281 nm and 299 nm can be subsequently obtained. This all-solid state system has the potential to be very efficient, compact, and reliable. Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2, has previously been performed in both the visible and the infrared. The first Raman oscillator in the visible region was investigated in 1986 with the configurations of plane-plane and unstable telescopic resonators. However, most of the recent research has focused on the development of infrared sources for eye-safe lidar applications.

  11. Determination of the quasi-TE mode (in-plane) graphene linear absorption coefficient via integration with silicon-on-insulator racetrack cavity resonators.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Iain F; Clark, Nicholas; Hussein, Siham; Towlson, Brian; Whittaker, Eric; Milosevic, Milan M; Gardes, Frederic Y; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Halsall, Matthew P; Vijayaraghaven, Aravind

    2014-07-28

    We examine the near-IR light-matter interaction for graphene integrated cavity ring resonators based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) race-track waveguides. Fitting of the cavity resonances from quasi-TE mode transmission spectra reveal the real part of the effective refractive index for graphene, n(eff) = 2.23 ± 0.02 and linear absorption coefficient, α(gTE) = 0.11 ± 0.01dBμm(-1). The evanescent nature of the guided mode coupling to graphene at resonance depends strongly on the height of the graphene above the cavity, which places limits on the cavity length for optical sensing applications.

  12. Development of program package for investigation and modeling of carbon nanostructures in diamond like carbon films with the help of Raman scattering and infrared absorption spectra line resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, David B.; Hovhannisyan, Levon; Mantashyan, Paytsar A.

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of complex spectra is an actual problem for modern science. The work is devoted to the creation of a software package, which analyzes spectrum in the different formats, possesses by dynamic knowledge database and self-study mechanism, performs automated analysis of the spectra compound based on knowledge database by application of certain algorithms. In the software package as searching systems, hyper-spherical random search algorithms, gradient algorithms and genetic searching algorithms were used. The analysis of Raman and IR spectrum of diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were performed by elaborated program. After processing the data, the program immediately displays all the calculated parameters of DLC.

  13. Measurements of Rayleigh, Compton and resonant Raman scattering cross-sections for 59.536 keV γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prem; Mehta, D.; Singh, N.; Puri, S.; Shahi, J. S.

    2004-09-01

    The K-L and K-M resonant Raman scattering (RRS) cross-sections have been measured for the first time at the 59.536 keV photon energy in the 70Yb ( BK=61.332 keV), 71Lu ( BK=63.316 keV) and 72Hf ( BK=65.345 keV) elements; BK being the K-shell binding energy. The K-L and K-M RRS measurements have been performed at the 59° and 133° angles, respectively, to avoid interference of the Compton-scatter peak. The Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross-sections for the 59.536 keV γ-rays have also been measured at both the angles in the atomic region 1⩽ Z⩽92. Measurements were performed using the reflection-mode geometrical arrangements involving the 241Am radioisotope as photon source and planar Si(Li) and HPGe detectors. Ratios of the K-M and K-L RRS cross-sections in Yb, Lu and Hf are in general lower than that of the fluorescent Kβ 1,3,5 (K-M) and Kα (K-L) X-ray transition probabilities. Theoretical Rayleigh scattering cross-sections based on the modified form-factors (MFs) corrected for the anomalous scattering factors (ASFs) and the S-matrix calculations are on an average ˜15% and ˜6% higher, respectively, at the 133° angle and exhibit good agreement with the measured data at the 59° angle. Larger deviations ˜30% and ˜20%, respectively, are observed at the 133° angle for the 64Gd, 66Dy, 67Ho and 70Yb elements having the K-shell binding energy in vicinity of the incident photon energy. The measured Compton scattering cross-sections are in general agreement with those calculated using the Klein-Nishina cross-sections and the incoherent scattering function.

  14. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2007-05-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein.

  15. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kruglik, Sergei G.; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H.

    2007-01-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR3) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR3 measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron–ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron–histidine band around 217 cm−1 as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the “oxygen cage” properties of this oxygen sensor protein. PMID:17446273

  16. Membrane Disruption Mechanism of a Prion Peptide (106-126) Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Sahoo, Prasana K; Dalzini, Annalisa; Hayati, Zahra; Aryal, Chinta M; Teng, Peng; Cai, Jianfeng; Rodriguez Gutierrez, Humberto; Song, Likai

    2017-05-18

    A fragment of the human prion protein spanning residues 106-126 (PrP106-126) recapitulates many essential properties of the disease-causing protein such as amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity. PrP106-126 has an amphipathic characteristic that resembles many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Therefore, the toxic effect of PrP106-126 could arise from a direct association of monomeric peptides with the membrane matrix. Several experimental approaches are employed to scrutinize the impacts of monomeric PrP106-126 on model lipid membranes. Porous defects in planar bilayers are observed by using solution atomic force microscopy. Adding cholesterol does not impede defect formation. A force spectroscopy experiment shows that PrP106-126 reduces Young's modulus of planar lipid bilayers. We use Raman microspectroscopy to study the effect of PrP106-126 on lipid atomic vibrational dynamics. For phosphatidylcholine lipids, PrP106-126 disorders the intrachain conformation, while the interchain interaction is not altered; for phosphatidylethanolamine lipids, PrP106-126 increases the interchain interaction, while the intrachain conformational order remains similar. We explain the observed differences by considering different modes of peptide insertion. Finally, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that PrP106-126 progressively decreases the orientational order of lipid acyl chains in magnetically aligned bicelles. Together, our experimental data support the proposition that monomeric PrP106-126 can disrupt lipid membranes by using similar mechanisms found in AMPs.

  17. Membrane Disruption Mechanism of a Prion Peptide (106-126) Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jianjun; Sahoo, Prasana K.; Dalzini, Annalisa; Hayati, Zahra; Aryal, Chinta M.; Teng, Peng; Cai, Jianfeng; Gutierrez, Humberto Rodriguez; Song, Likai

    2018-01-01

    A fragment of the human prion protein spanning residues 106-126 (PrP106-126) recapitulates many essential properties of the disease-causing protein such as amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity. PrP106-126 has an amphipathic characteristic that resembles many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Therefore, the toxic effect of PrP106-126 could arise from a direct association of monomeric peptides with membrane matrix. Several experimental approaches are employed to scrutinize the impacts of monomeric PrP106-126 on model lipid membranes. Porous defects in planar bilayers are observed by using solution atomic force microscopy. Adding cholesterol does not impede defect formation. Force spectroscopy experiment shows that PrP106-126 reduces Young’s modulus of planar lipid bilayers. We use Raman microspectroscopy to study the effect of PrP106-126 on lipid vibrational dynamics. For phosphatidylcholine lipids, PrP106-126 disorders the intra-chain conformation, while the inter-chain interaction is not altered; for phosphatidylethanolamine lipids, PrP106-126 increases the inter-chain interaction, while the intra-chain conformational order remains similar. We explain the observed differences by considering different modes of peptide insertion. Finally, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that PrP106-126 progressively decreases the orientational order of lipid acyl chains in magnetically aligned bicelles. Together, our experimental data support the proposition that monomeric PrP106-126 can disrupt lipid membranes by using similar mechanisms found in AMPs. PMID:28459565

  18. Resonance Raman studies of Escherichia coli cytochrome bd oxidase. Selective enhancement of the three heme chromophores of the "as-isolated" enzyme and characterization of the cyanide adduct.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Osborne, J P; Kahlow, M A; Kaysser, T M; Hil, J J; Gennis, R B; Loehr, T M

    1995-09-26

    Cytochrome bd oxidase is a terminal bacterial oxidase containing three cofactors: a low-spin heme (b558), a high-spin heme (b595), and a chlorin d. The center of dioxygen reduction has been proposed to be at a dinuclear b595/d site, whereas b558 is mainly involved in transferring electrons from ubiquinone. One of the unique functional features of this enzyme is its resistance to high concentrations of cyanide (Ki in the millimolar range). With the appropriate selection of laser lines, the ligation and spin states of the b558, b595, and d hemes can be probed selectively by resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy. Wavelengths between 400 and 500 nm predominantly excite the rR spectra of the b558 and b595 chromophores. Spectra obtained within this interval show a mixed population of spin and ligation states arising from b558 and b595, with the former more strongly enhanced at higher energy. Red excitation wavelengths (590-650 nm) generate rR spectra characteristic of chlorins, indicating the selective enhancement of the d heme. These rR results reveal that cytochrome bd oxidase "as isolated" contains the b558 heme in a six-coordinate low-spin ferric state, the b595 heme in a five-coordinate high-spin (5cHS) ferric state, and the d heme in a mixture of oxygenated (FeIIO2 <--> FeIIIO2-; d650) and ferryl-oxo (FeIV = O; d680) states. However, the rR spectra of these two chlorin species indicate that they are both in the 5cHS state, suggesting that the d heme is lacking a strongly coordinated sixth ligand.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Optical absorption, electron spin resonance, and electron spin echo studies of the photoionization of tetramethylbenzidine in cationic and anionic synthetic vesicles: comparison with analogous micellar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.S.W.; Kevan, L.

    1983-09-07

    The photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in dihexadecylphosphate anionic vesicles and in dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride cationic vesicles has been studied by optical absorption and electron spin resonance in liquid and frozen solutions. The TMB cation has been observed to be stabilized in both types of vesicles. The photoionization efficiency is about twofold greater in the cationic vesicles compared to the anionic vesicles. Shifts in the optical absorption maximum between micellar and vesicle solutions indicate that TMB is in a less polar environment in the vesicle systems. Electron spin echo modulation spectrometry has been used to detect TMB cation-water interactions that are foundmore » to be weaker than in previously studied micellar solutions. This is consistent with the optical absorption results and with an asymmetric solubilization site for TMB and TMB/sup +/ within the vesicular structure. A new absorption in the photoionized vesicles is assigned to a nonparamagnetic diamine-diimine charge-transfer complex between two TMB cations in the same vesicle. This complex is not formed in micellar systems. 5 figures.« less

  20. Excitonic Resonant Emission–Absorption of Surface Plasmons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Chip-Level Electronic–Photonic Integrated Circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Zhuan; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhou, Haiqing; ...

    2016-04-19

    The monolithic integration of electronics and photonics has attracted enormous attention due to its potential applications. A major challenge to this integration is the identification of suitable materials that can emit and absorb light at the same wavelength. In this paper we utilize unique excitonic transitions in WS 2 monolayers and show that WS 2 exhibits a perfect overlap between its absorption and photoluminescence spectra. By coupling WS 2 to Ag nanowires, we then show that WS 2 monolayers are able to excite and absorb surface plasmons of Ag nanowires at the same wavelength of exciton photoluminescence. This resonant absorptionmore » by WS 2 is distinguished from that of the ohmic propagation loss of silver nanowires, resulting in a short propagation length of surface plasmons. Our demonstration of resonant optical generation and detection of surface plasmons enables nanoscale optical communication and paves the way for on-chip electronic–photonic integrated circuits.« less

  1. Design and performance of BOREAS, the beamline for resonant X-ray absorption and scattering experiments at the ALBA synchrotron light source

    DOE PAGES

    Barla, Alessandro; Nicolas, Josep; Cocco, Daniele; ...

    2016-10-07

    The optical design of the BOREAS beamline operating at the ALBA synchrotron radiation facility is described. BOREAS is dedicated to resonant X-ray absorption and scattering experiments using soft X-rays, in an unusually extended photon energy range from 80 to above 4000 eV, and with full polarization control. Its optical scheme includes a fixed-included-angle, variable-line-spacing grating monochromator and a pair of refocusing mirrors, equipped with benders, in a Kirkpatrick–Baez arrangement. It is equipped with two end-stations, one for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and the other for resonant magnetic scattering. In conclusion, the commissioning results show that the expected beamline performance ismore » achieved both in terms of energy resolution and of photon flux at the sample position.« less

  2. Microcavity Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrak, Benjamin J.

    Raman scattering can accurately identify molecules by their intrinsic vibrational frequencies, but its notoriously weak scattering efficiency for gases presents a major obstacle to its practical application in gas sensing and analysis. This work explores the use of high finesse (≈50 000) Fabry-Perot microcavities as a means to enhance Raman scattering from gases. A recently demonstrated laser ablation method, which carves out a micromirror template on fused silica--either on a fiber tip or bulk substrates-- was implemented, characterized, and optimized to fabricate concave micromirror templates ˜10 mum diameter and radius of curvature. The fabricated templates were coated with a high-reflectivity dielectric coating by ion-beam sputtering and were assembled into microcavities ˜10 mum long and with a mode volume ˜100 mum 3. A novel gas sensing technique that we refer to as Purcell enhanced Raman scattering (PERS) was demonstrated using the assembled microcavities. PERS works by enhancing the pump laser's intensity through resonant recirculation at one longitudinal mode, while simultaneously, at a second mode at the Stokes frequency, the Purcell effect increases the rate of spontaneous Raman scattering by a change to the intra-cavity photon density of states. PERS was shown to enhance the rate of spontaneous Raman scattering by a factor of 107 compared to the same volume of sample gas in free space scattered into the same solid angle subtended by the cavity. PERS was also shown capable of resolving several Raman bands from different isotopes of CO2 gas for application to isotopic analysis. Finally, the use of the microcavity to enhance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) from CO2 gas was demonstrated.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of sputtered metal-graphene and metal-oxide-graphene interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Gajek, Marcin; Freitag, Marcus; Kuroda, Marcelo; Perebeinos, Vasili; Raoux, Simone

    2012-02-01

    In this talk, we report our recent development in sputtering deposition of magnetic and non-magnetic metal and metal-oxide thin films on graphene for applications in spintronics and nanoeleoctronics. TEM and SEM images demonstrate homogeneous coverage, uniform thickness, and good crystallinity of the sputtered films. Raman spectroscopy shows that the structure of the underlying graphene is well preserved, and the spectral weight of the defect D mode is comparable to that of the e-beam evaporated samples. Most significantly, we report the first observation of graphene-enhanced surface excitations of crystalline materials. Specifically, we discover two pronounced dispersive Raman modes at the interface of graphene and the nickel-oxide and cobalt-oxide films which we attribute to the strong light absorption and high-order resonant scattering process in the graphene layer. We will present the frequency-dependent, polarization-dependent Raman data of these two modes and discuss their microscopic origin.

  4. In Situ Raman Analysis of CO₂-Assisted Drying of Fruit-Slices.

    PubMed

    Braeuer, Andreas Siegfried; Schuster, Julian Jonathan; Gebrekidan, Medhanie Tesfay; Bahr, Leo; Michelino, Filippo; Zambon, Alessandro; Spilimbergo, Sara

    2017-05-15

    This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and 313 K. The Raman spectra reveal: (i) the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and (ii) the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: 532 nm and 785 nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the 532 nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules. It was found that the absorption of CO₂ into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve.

  5. In Situ Raman Analysis of CO2—Assisted Drying of Fruit-Slices

    PubMed Central

    Braeuer, Andreas Siegfried; Schuster, Julian Jonathan; Gebrekidan, Medhanie Tesfay; Bahr, Leo; Michelino, Filippo; Zambon, Alessandro; Spilimbergo, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and 313 K. The Raman spectra reveal: (i) the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and (ii) the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: 532 nm and 785 nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the 532 nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules. It was found that the absorption of CO2 into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve. PMID:28505120

  6. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  7. Absorption spectra of localized surface plasmon resonance observed in an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell fabricated by a near ultraviolet femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    Absorption spectra based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were obtained with an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell. The spectrometer cell was fabricated into an optical glass fiber by focusing a near UV (NUV) femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 400 nm with an energy of 30 μJ. The laser beam was focused from two directions opposite to each other to fabricate a through-hole spectrometer cell. A diameter of the cell was approximately 3 μm, and the length was approximately 62.5 μm, which was nearly equal to the core diameter of the optical fiber. Liquid solution of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with a diameter of 5-10 nm was injected into the spectrometer cell with its volume of 0.4 pL. The absorption peak centered at 518 nm was observed. An increase of absorption associated with the increase of the number of nanoparticles was in agreement with the numerical calculation based on the Lambert-Beer law.

  8. Resonance lamp absorption technique for simultaneous determination of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions in combustion environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Gregory, Ray W.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, easy to implement, line-of-sight absorption instrument which utilizes a low pressure water vapor microwave discharge cell as the light source, has been developed to make simultaneous measurements of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions. The design, theory, and capability of the instrument are discussed. Results of the measurements obtained on a methane/air flat flame burner are compared with those obtained using a single-frequency, tunable dye laser system.

  9. A robust and effective time-independent route to the calculation of Resonance Raman spectra of large molecules in condensed phases with the inclusion of Duschinsky, Herzberg-Teller, anharmonic, and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Egidi, Franco; Bloino, Julien; Cappelli, Chiara; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present an effective time-independent implementation to model vibrational resonance Raman (RR) spectra of medium-large molecular systems with the inclusion of Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects and a full account of the possible differences between the harmonic potential energy surfaces of the ground and resonant electronic states. Thanks to a number of algorithmic improvements and very effective parallelization, the full computations of fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands can be routinely performed for large systems possibly involving more than two electronic states. In order to improve the accuracy of the results, an effective inclusion of the leading anharmonic effects is also possible, together with environmental contributions under different solvation regimes. Reduced-dimensionality approaches can further enlarge the range of applications of this new tool. Applications to imidazole, pyrene, and chlorophyll a1 in solution are reported, as well as comparisons with available experimental data. PMID:26550003

  10. Raman Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Derek J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews mainly quantitative analytical applications in the field of Raman spectrometry. Includes references to other reviews, new and analytically untested techniques, and novel sampling and instrument designs. Cites 184 references. (CS)

  11. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  12. Nickel complexes of o-amidochalcogenophenolate(2-)/o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonate(1-) pi-radical: synthesis, structures, electron spin resonance, and x-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Hsu, I-Jui; Lee, Chien-Ming; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Wang, Tze-Yuan; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2003-06-16

    The preparation of complexes trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (1), cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (2), trans-[Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (3), and [Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-S-)(2)](-) (4) by oxidative addition of 2-aminophenyl dichalcogenides to anionic [Ni(CO)(SePh)(3)](-) proves to be a successful approach in this direction. The cis arrangement of the two tellurium atoms in complex 2 is attributed to the intramolecular Te.Te contact interaction (Te.Te contact distance of 3.455 A). The UV-vis electronic spectra of complexes 1 and 2 exhibit an intense absorption at 936 and 942 nm, respectively, with extinction coefficient epsilon > 10000 L mol(-)(1) cm(-)(1). The observed small g anisotropy, the principal g values at g(1) = 2.036, g(2) = 2.062, and g(3) = 2.120 for 1 and g(1) = 2.021, g(2) = 2.119, and g(3) = 2.250 for 2, respectively, indicates the ligand radical character accompanied by the contribution of the singly occupied d orbital of Ni(III). The X-ray absorption spectra of all four complexes show L(III) peaks at approximately 854.5 and approximately 853.5 eV. This may indicate a variation of contribution of the Ni(II)-Ni(III) valence state. According to the DFT calculation, the unpaired electron of complex 1 and 2 is mainly distributed on the 3d(xz)() orbital of the nickel ion and on the 4p(z)() orbital of selenium (tellurium, 5p(z)()) as well as the 2p(z)() orbital of nitrogen of the ligand. On the basis of X-ray structural data, UV-vis absorption, electron spin resonance, magnetic properties, DFT computation, and X-ray absorption (K- and L-edge) spectroscopy, the monoanionic trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) and cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) complexes are appositely described as a resonance hybrid form of Ni(III)-bis(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-)) and Ni(II)-(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-))-(o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonato(1-) pi-radical; i.e., complexes 1 and 2 contain delocalized oxidation levels of the nickel ion and ligands.

  13. Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kast, Rachel E; Tucker, Stephanie C; Killian, Kevin; Trexler, Micaela; Honn, Kenneth V; Auner, Gregory W

    2014-09-01

    There is a need in prostate cancer diagnostics and research for a label-free imaging methodology that is nondestructive, rapid, objective, and uninfluenced by water. Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature, which can be scaled from micron-level regions of interest in cells to macroscopic areas of tissue. It can be used for applications ranging from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics to basic science laboratory testing. This work describes the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy and complementary techniques including surface enhanced Raman scattering, resonance Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, stimulated Raman scattering, and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Clinical applications of Raman spectroscopy to prostate cancer will be discussed, including screening, biopsy, margin assessment, and monitoring of treatment efficacy. Laboratory applications including cell identification, culture monitoring, therapeutics development, and live imaging of cellular processes are discussed. Potential future avenues of research are described, with emphasis on multiplexing Raman spectroscopy with other modalities.

  14. Off-Resonant Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Section Enhancement of an Organic Chromophore on Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sivapalan, Sean T.; Vella, Jarrett H.; Yang, Timothy K.; Dalton, Matthew J.; Haley, Joy E.; Cooper, Thomas M.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Tan, Loon-Seng; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-plasmon-initiated interference effects of polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods on the two-photon absorption of an organic chromophore were investigated. With polyelectrolyte bearing gold nanorods of 2,4,6 and 8 layers, the role of the plasmonic fields as function of distance on such effects was examined. An unusual distance dependence was found: enhancements in the two-photon cross-section were at a minimum at an intermediate distance, then rose again at a further distance. The observed values of enhancement were compared to theoretical predictions using finite element analysis and showed good agreementdue to constructive and destructive interference effects. PMID:23687561

  15. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  16. NARROW LINE ABSORPTION IN CACO3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBONATES), (*CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, (*ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CALCITE), (*CALCITE, RADIATION EFFECTS), ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE, SINGLE CRYSTALS , NEUTRONS, X RAYS, GAMMA RAYS, IONS, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE.

  17. Novel Raman Techniques for Imaging and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Perry S.

    Raman scattering spectroscopy is extensively demonstrated as a label-free, chemically selective sensing and imaging technique for a multitude of chemical and biological applications. The ability to detect "fingerprint" spectral signatures of individual molecules, without the need to introduce chemical labelers, makes Raman scattering a powerful sensing technique. However, spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering traditionally suffers from inherently weak signals due to small Raman scattering cross-sections. Thus, considerable efforts have been put forth to find pathways towards enhancing Raman signals to bolster sensitivity for detecting small concentrations of molecules or particles. The development of coherent Raman techniques that can offer orders of magnitude increase in signal have garnered significant interest in recent years for their application in imaging; such techniques include coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering. Additionally, methods to enhance the local field of either the pump or generated Raman signal, such as through surface enhanced Raman scattering, have been investigated for their orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and single molecule sensing capability. The work presented in this dissertation describes novel techniques for performing high speed and highly sensitive Raman imaging as well as sensing applications towards bioimaging and biosensing. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is combined with holography to enable recording of high-speed (single laser shot), wide field CARS holograms which can be used to reconstruct the both the amplitude and the phase of the anti-Stokes field therefore allowing 3D imaging. This dissertation explores CARS holography as a viable label-free bio-imaging technique. A Raman scattering particle sensing system is also developed that utilizes wave guide properties of optical fibers and ring-resonators to perform enhanced particle sensing. Resonator

  18. Revealing the electronic ground state of ReNiO3 combining Ni-L3 x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Balandesh, Shadi; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Sawatzky, George; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Thorsten

    Rare-earth nickelates ReNiO3 attract a lot of interest thanks to their intriguing physical properties like sharp metal to insulator transition, unusual magnetic order and expected superconductivity in nickelate-based heterostructures. Full understanding of these materials, however, is hampered by the difficulties in describing their electronic ground state (GS). Taking a NdNiO3 thin film as a representative example, we reveal with x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations, providing strong evidence for abundant O 2p holes in the GS of these materials. Using an Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that these distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the O 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy, with O 2p states extending across the Fermi level.

  19. Characterization of CuHal-intercalated carbon nanotubes with x-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron and resonant photoemission spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhezinskaya, M.; Generalov, A.; Vinogdradov, A.; Eliseev, A.

    2013-04-01

    Encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with inner channels filled by different compounds present the new class of composite materials. Such CNTs give opportunity to form 1D nanocrystals as well as quantum nanowires with new physical and chemical properties inside the tubes. The present study is aimed to characterize the possible chemical interaction between CuHal (Hal=I, Cl, Br) and SWCNTs in CuHal@SWCNTs and electronic structure of the latter using high-resolution near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy combined with high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The present study has shown that there is a chemical interaction between the filler and π-electron subsystem of CNTs which is accompanied by changes of the atomic and electronic structure of the filler during the encapsulating it inside CNTs.

  20. Enhanced Raman scattering of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Joseph R.

    The results presented in this thesis, originate from the aspiration to develop an identification algorithm for Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis (S. enterica), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus globigii ( B. globigii), and Bacillus megaterium ( B. megaterium) using "enhanced" Raman scattering. We realized our goal, with a method utilizing an immunoassay process in a spectroscopic technique, and the direct use of the enhanced spectral response due to bacterial surface elements. The enhanced Raman signal originates from Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and/or Morphological Dependent Resonances (MDR's). We utilized a modified Lee-Meisel colloidal production method to produce a SERS active substrate, which was applied to a SERS application for the amino acid Glycine. The comparison indicates that the SERS/FRACTAL/MDR process can produce an increase of 107 times more signal than the bulk Raman signal from Glycine. In the extension of the Glycine results, we studied the use of SERS related to S. enterica, where we have shown that the aromatic amino acid contribution from Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and Tryptophan produces a SERS response that can be used to identify the associated SERS vibrational modes of a S. enterica one or two antibody complexes. The "fingerprint" associated with the spectral signature in conjunction with an enhanced Raman signal allows conclusions to be made: (1) about the orientation of the secondary structure on the metal; (2) whether bound/unbound antibody can be neglected; (3) whether we can lower the detection limit. We have lowered the detection limit of S. enterica to 106 bacteria/ml. We also show a profound difference between S. enterica and E. coli SERS spectra even when there exists non-specific binding on E. coli indicating a protein conformation change induced by the addition of the antigen S. enterica. We confirm TEM imagery data, indicating that the source of the aromatic amino acid SERS response is originating from

  1. Gold nanoparticles propulsion from surface fueled by absorption of femtosecond laser pulse at their surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenyu; Qian, Wei; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2006-10-18

    Femtosecond laser irradiation of assembled nanoprisms on a quartz substrate at their strong absorbing surface plasmon resonance frequency causes their propulsion from the substrate. SEM and AFM show that the particles fly while keeping their prismatic shape, but they decrease in size by an amount that can be calculated assuming atomic sublimation. Several mechanisms are mentioned, but the sublimation mechanism, which rapidly builds up pressure under the particle and propels it away from substrate, is discussed in detail. From the kinetic energy given to the flying nanoparticle, an initial velocity of approximately 160 m/s ( approximately 360 miles/h) is calculated. The dependence of the observed flying mechanism on the rate of energy deposition (i.e., with nanosecond vs femtosecond laser pulses) is discussed.

  2. Experimental observation of left polarized wave absorption near electron cyclotron resonance frequency in helicon antenna produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.

    2013-01-15

    Asymmetry in density peaks on either side of an m = +1 half helical antenna is observed both in terms of peak position and its magnitude with respect to magnetic field variation in a linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. The plasma is produced by powering the m = +1 half helical antenna with a 2.5 kW, 13.56 MHz radio frequency source. During low magnetic field (B < 100 G) operation, plasma density peaks are observed at critical magnetic fields on either side of the antenna. However, the density peaks occurred at differentmore » critical magnetic fields on both sides of antenna. Depending upon the direction of the magnetic field, in the m = +1 propagation side, the main density peak has been observed around 30 G of magnetic field. On this side, the density peak around 5 G corresponding to electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is not very pronounced, whereas in the m = -1 propagation side, very pronounced ECR peak has been observed around 5 G. Another prominent density peak around 12 G has also been observed in m = -1 side. However, no peak has been observed around 30 G on this m = -1 side. This asymmetry in the results on both sides is explained on the basis of polarization reversal of left hand polarized waves to right hand polarized waves and vice versa in a bounded plasma system. The density peaking phenomena are likely to be caused by obliquely propagating helicon waves at the resonance cone boundary.« less

  3. Broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy in the deep ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Hikaru; Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2017-09-01

    We report broadband stimulated Raman measurements in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region, which enables selective probing of the aromatic amino acid residues inside proteins through the resonance enhancement. We combine the narrowband DUV Raman pump pulse (<10 cm-1) at wavelengths as short as 240 nm and the broadband DUV probe pulse (>1000 cm-1) to realize stimulated Raman measurements covering a >1500 cm-1 spectral window. The stimulated Raman measurements for neat solvents, tryptophan, tyrosine, and glucose oxidase are performed using 240- and 290-nm Raman pump, highlighting the high potential of the DUV stimulated Raman probe for femtosecond time-resolved study of proteins.

  4. Electride Mediated Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electride may provide surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The electride, a compound where the electrons serve as anions, may be a ceramic electride, such as a conductive ceramic derived from mayenite, or an organic electride, for example. The textured electride surface or electride particles may strongly enhance the Raman scattering of organic or other Raman active analytes. This may also provide a sensitive method for monitoring the chemistry and electronic environment at the electride surface. The results are evidence of a new class of polariton (i.e., a surface electride-polariton resonance mechanism) that is analogous to the surface plasmon-polariton resonance that mediates conventional SERS.

  5. Fourier-Transform Raman Spectroscopy Of Biological Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Ira W.; Lewis, E. Neil

    1989-12-01

    Although the successful coupling of Raman scattered near-infrared radiation to a Michelson interferometer has recently created an outburst of intense interest in Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectrometry," extended applications of the technique to macromolecular assemblies of biochemical and biophysical relevance have not progressed as rapidly as studies directed primarily at more conventional chemical characterizations. Since biological materials sampled with visible laser excitation sources typically emit a dominant fluorescence signal originating either from the intrinsic fluorescence of the molecular scatterer or from unrelenting contaminants, the use of near-infrared Nd:YAG laser excitation offers a convenient approach for avoiding this frequently overwhelming effect. In addition, the FT-Raman instrumentation provides a means of eliminating the deleterious resonance and decomposition effects often observed with the more accessible green and blue laser emissions. However, in choosing the incident near-infrared wavelength at, for example, 1064nm, the Raman scattered intensity decreases by factors of eighteen to forty from the Raman emissions induced by the shorter, visible excitations. Depending upon the experiment, this disadvantage is offset by the throughput and multiplex advantages afforded by the interferometric design. Thus, for most chemical systems, near-infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy, clearly provides a means for obtaining vibrational Raman spectra from samples intractable to the use of visible laser sources. In particular, for neat liquids, dilute solutions or polycrystalline materials, the ability to achieve high quality, reproducible spectra is, with moderate experience and perhaps relatively high laser powers, as straightforward as the conventional methods used to obtain Raman spectra with visible excitation and dispersive monochromators. In using near-infrared FT techniques to determine the Raman spectra of biological samples, one encounters new

  6. Fabrication of Annealed Gold Nanostructures on Pre-Treated Glow-Discharge Cleaned Glasses and Their Used for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Detection of Adsorbed (Bio)molecules.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Rodica Elena; Aybeke, Ece Neslihan; Bourillot, Eric; Lacroute, Yvon; Lesniewska, Eric; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Bijeon, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-26

    Metallic nanoparticles are considered as active supports in the development of specific chemical or biological biosensors. Well-organized nanoparticles can be prepared either through expensive (e.g., electron beam lithography) or inexpensive (e.g., thermal synthesis) approaches where different shapes of nanoparticles are easily obtained over large solid surfaces. Herein, the authors propose a low-cost thermal synthesis of active plasmonic nanostructures on thin gold layers modified glass supports after 1 h holding on a hot plate (~350 °C). The resulted annealed nanoparticles proved a good reproducibility of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) optical responses and where used for the detection of low concentrations of two model (bio)chemical molecules, namely the human cytochrome b5 (Cyt-b5) and trans -1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE).

  7. Fabrication of Annealed Gold Nanostructures on Pre-Treated Glow-Discharge Cleaned Glasses and Their Used for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Detection of Adsorbed (Bio)molecules

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Rodica Elena; Aybeke, Ece Neslihan; Bourillot, Eric; Lacroute, Yvon; Lesniewska, Eric; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Bijeon, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are considered as active supports in the development of specific chemical or biological biosensors. Well-organized nanoparticles can be prepared either through expensive (e.g., electron beam lithography) or inexpensive (e.g., thermal synthesis) approaches where different shapes of nanoparticles are easily obtained over large solid surfaces. Herein, the authors propose a low-cost thermal synthesis of active plasmonic nanostructures on thin gold layers modified glass supports after 1 h holding on a hot plate (~350 °C). The resulted annealed nanoparticles proved a good reproducibility of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) optical responses and where used for the detection of low concentrations of two model (bio)chemical molecules, namely the human cytochrome b5 (Cyt-b5) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE). PMID:28134754

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy reveals the initial steps of biological hydrogen evolution† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Complementary resonance Raman and infrared spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01098a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S.; Noth, J.; Shafaat, H. S.; Happe, T.; Hildebrandt, P.

    2016-01-01

    [FeFe] hydrogenases are biocatalytic model systems for the exploitation and investigation of catalytic hydrogen evolution. Here, we used vibrational spectroscopic techniques to characterize, in detail, redox transformations of the [FeFe] and [4Fe4S] sub-sites of the catalytic centre (H-cluster) in a monomeric [FeFe] hydrogenase. Through the application of low-temperature resonance Raman spectroscopy, we discovered a novel metastable intermediate that is characterized by an oxidized [FeIFeII] centre and a reduced [4Fe4S]1+ cluster. Based on this unusual configuration, this species is assigned to the first, deprotonated H-cluster intermediate of the [FeFe] hydrogenase catalytic cycle. Providing insights into the sequence of initial reaction steps, the identification of this species represents a key finding towards the mechanistic understanding of biological hydrogen evolution. PMID:28451119

  9. Raman microspectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering microspectroscopy, and stable-isotope Raman microspectroscopy for biofilm characterization.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Kubryk, Patrick; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms represent the predominant form of microbial life on our planet. These aggregates of microorganisms, which are embedded in a matrix formed by extracellular polymeric substances, may colonize nearly all interfaces. Detailed knowledge of microorganisms enclosed in biofilms as well as of the chemical composition, structure, and functions of the complex biofilm matrix and their changes at different stages of the biofilm formation and under various physical and chemical conditions is relevant in different fields. Important research topics include the development and improvement of antibiotics and medical devices and the optimization of biocides, antifouling strategies, and biological wastewater treatment. Raman microspectroscopy is a capable and nondestructive tool that can provide detailed two-dimensional and three-dimensional chemical information about biofilm constituents with the spatial resolution of an optical microscope and without interference from water. However, the sensitivity of Raman microspectroscopy is rather limited, which hampers the applicability of Raman microspectroscopy especially at low biomass concentrations. Fortunately, the resonance Raman effect as well as surface-enhanced Raman scattering can help to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, the combination of Raman microspectroscopy with other microscopic techniques, mass spectrometry techniques, or particularly with stable-isotope techniques can provide comprehensive information on monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Here, an overview of different Raman microspectroscopic techniques, including resonance Raman microspectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering microspectroscopy, for in situ detection, visualization, identification, and chemical characterization of biofilms is given, and the main feasibilities and limitations of these techniques in biofilm research are presented. Future possibilities of and challenges for Raman microspectroscopy alone and in combination with other

  10. Combined antenna and localized plasmon resonance in Raman scattering from random arrays of silver-coated, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P; Duenas, J A; Boyle, M G; Doherty, M D; Bell, S E J; Kern, A M; Martin, O J F; Teh, A-S; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2011-02-09

    The electric field enhancement associated with detailed structure within novel optical antenna nanostructures is modeled using the surface integral equation technique in the context of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The antennae comprise random arrays of vertically aligned, multiwalled carbon nanotubes dressed with highly granular Ag. Different types of "hot-spot" underpinning the SERS are identified, but contrasting characteristics are revealed. Those at the outer edges of the Ag grains are antenna driven with field enhancement amplified in antenna antinodes while intergrain hotspots are largely independent of antenna activity. Hot-spots between the tops of antennae leaning towards each other also appear to benefit from antenna amplification.

  11. Dynamics of an [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2- cluster explored via IR, Raman, and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)-analysis using 36S substitution, DFT calculations, and empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuming; Koutmos, Markos; Case, David A; Coucouvanis, Dimitri; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P

    2006-05-14

    We have used four vibrational spectroscopies--FT-IR, FT-Raman, resonance Raman, and 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)--to study the normal modes of the Fe-S cluster in [(n-Bu)4N]2[Fe4S4(SPh)4]. This [Fe4S4(SR)4]2- complex serves as a model for the clusters in 4Fe ferredoxins and high-potential iron proteins (HiPIPs). The IR spectra exhibited differences above and below the 243 K phase transition. Significant shifts with 36S substitution into the bridging S positions were also observed. The NRVS results were in good agreement with the low temperature data from the conventional spectroscopies. The NRVS spectra were interpreted by normal mode analysis using optimized Urey-Bradley force fields (UBFF) as well as from DFT theory. For the UBFF calculations, the parameters were refined by comparing calculated and observed NRVS frequencies and intensities. The frequency shifts after 36S substitution were used as an additional constraint. A D 2d symmetry Fe4S4S'4 model could explain most of the observed frequencies, but a better match to the observed intensities was obtained when the ligand aromatic rings were included for a D 2d Fe4S4(SPh)4 model. The best results were obtained using the low temperature structure without symmetry constraints. In addition to stretching and bending vibrations, low frequency modes between approximately 50 and 100 cm(-1) were observed. These modes, which have not been seen before, are interpreted as twisting motions with opposing sides of the cube rotating in opposite directions. In contrast with a recent paper on a related Fe4S4 cluster, we find no need to assign a large fraction of the low frequency NRVS intensity to 'rotational lattice modes'. We also reassign the 430 cm(-1) band as primarily an elongation of the thiophenolate ring, with approximately 10% terminal Fe-S stretch character. This study illustrates the benefits of combining NRVS with conventional Raman and IR analysis for characterization of Fe-S centers. DFT

  12. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well due to THz laser heating by cyclotron resonance absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; McCombe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    HgTe quantum wells (QWs) have shown a number of interesting phenomena over the past 20 years, most recently the first two-dimensional topological insulating state. We have studied thermoelectric photovoltages of 2D electrons in a 6.1 nm wide HgTe quantum well induced by cyclotron resonance absorption (B = 2 - 5 T) of a focused THz laser beam. We have estimated thermo-power coefficients by detailed analysis of the beam profile at the sample surface and the photovoltage signals developed across various contacts of a large Hall bar structure at a bath temperature of 1.6 K. We obtain reasonable values of the magneto-thermopower coefficients. Work at UB was supported by NSF DMR 1008138 and the Office of the Provost, and at the University of Wuerzburg by DARPA MESO Contract N6601-11-1-4105, by DFG Grant HA5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 and the Leibnitz Program, and the EU ERC-AG Program (Project 3-TOP.

  13. Investigation of maximum local specific absorption rate in 7 T magnetic resonance with respect to load size by use of electromagnetic simulations.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Fontana, Nunzia; Costagli, Mauro; Stara, Riccardo; Biagi, Laura; Symms, Mark Roger; Monorchio, Agostino; Retico, Alessandra; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela

    2015-07-01

    Local specific absorption rate (SAR) evaluation in ultra high field (UHF) magnetic resonance (MR) systems is a major concern. In fact, at UHF, radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity generates hot-spots that could cause localized tissue heating. Unfortunately, local SAR measurements are not available in present MR systems; thus, electromagnetic simulations must be performed for RF fields and SAR analysis. In this study, we used three-dimensional full-wave numerical electromagnetic simulations to investigate the dependence of local SAR at 7.0 T with respect to subject size in two different scenarios: surface coil loaded by adult and child calves and quadrature volume coil loaded by adult and child heads. In the surface coil scenario, maximum local SAR decreased with decreasing load size, provided that the RF magnetic fields for the different load sizes were scaled to achieve the same slice average value. On the contrary, in the volume coil scenario, maximum local SAR was up to 15% higher in children than in adults. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Elemental-sensitive Detection of the Chemistry in Batteries through Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinpeng; Sallis, Shawn; Qiao, Ruimin; Li, Qinghao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Dai, Kehua; Guo, Zixuan; Yang, Wanli

    2018-04-17

    Energy storage has become more and more a limiting factor of today's sustainable energy applications, including electric vehicles and green electric grid based on volatile solar and wind sources. The pressing demand of developing high-performance electrochemical energy storage solutions, i.e., batteries, relies on both fundamental understanding and practical developments from both the academy and industry. The formidable challenge of developing successful battery technology stems from the different requirements for different energy-storage applications. Energy density, power, stability, safety, and cost parameters all have to be balanced in batteries to meet the requirements of different applications. Therefore, multiple battery technologies based on different materials and mechanisms need to be developed and optimized. Incisive tools that could directly probe the chemical reactions in various battery materials are becoming critical to advance the field beyond its conventional trial-and-error approach. Here, we present detailed protocols for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS), soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (sXES), and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments, which are inherently elemental-sensitive probes of the transition-metal 3d and anion 2p states in battery compounds. We provide the details on the experimental techniques and demonstrations revealing the key chemical states in battery materials through these soft X-ray spectroscopy techniques.

  15. Low-lying singlet states of carotenoids having 8-13 conjugated double bonds as determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kanematsu, Yasuo; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi; Nishio, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Electronic absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in solutions of carotenoids having different numbers of conjugated double bonds, n = 8-13, including a spheroidene derivatives, neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin. The vibronic states of 1Bu+(v=0-4), 2Ag-(v=0-3), 3Ag- (0) and 1Bu- (0) were clearly identified. The arrangement of the four electronic states determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy was identical to that determined by measurement of resonance Raman excitation profiles [K. Furuichi et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547] for carotenoids in crystals.

  16. Perpendicular State of an Electronically Excited Stilbene: Observation by Femtosecond-Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Quick, Martin; Dobryakov, Alexander L; Ioffe, Ilya N; Granovsky, Alex A; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Ernsting, Nikolaus P

    2016-10-20

    In the photoisomerization path of stilbene, a perpendicular state P on the S 1 potential energy surface is expected just before internal conversion through a conical intersection S 1 /S 0 . For decades the observation of P was thwarted by a short lifetime τ P in combination with slow population flow over a barrier. But these limitations can be overcome by ethylenic substitution. Following optical excitation of trans-1,1'-dicyanostilbene, P is populated significantly (τ P = 27 ps in n-hexane) and monitored by an exited-state absorption band at 370 nm. Here we report stimulated Raman lines of P. The strongest, at 1558 cm -1 , is attributed to stretching vibrations of the phenyl rings. Transient electronic states, resonance conditions, and corresponding Raman signals are discussed.

  17. Indium nanoparticles for ultraviolet surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rupali; Soni, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (UVSERS) has emerged as an efficient molecular spectroscopy technique for ultra-sensitive and ultra-low detection of analyte concentration. The generic SERS substrates based on gold and silver nanostructures have been extensively explored for high local electric field enhancement only in visible-NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The template synthesis of controlled nanoscale size metallic nanostructures supporting localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the UV region have been recently explored due to their ease of synthesis and potential applications in optoelectronic, catalysis and magnetism. Indium (In0) nanoparticles exhibit active surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in ultraviolet (UV) and deep-ultaviolet (DUV) region with optimal absorption losses. This extended accessibility makes indium a promising material for UV plasmonic, chemical sensing and more recently in UV-SERS. In this work, spherical indium nanoparticles (In NPs) were synthesized by modified polyol reduction method using NaBH4 having local surface plasmon resonance near 280 nm. The as-synthesized spherical In0 nanoparticles were then coated with thin silica shells of thickness ˜ 5nm by a modified Stober method protecting the nanoparticles from agglomeration, direct contact with the probed molecules as well as prevent oxidation of the nanoparticles. Morphological evolution of In0 nanoparticles and SiO2 coating were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enhanced near resonant shell-isolated SERS activity from thin film of tryptophan (Tryp) molecules deposited on indium coated substrates under 325nm UV excitation was observed. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to comprehend the experimental results and simulate the electric field contours which showed amplified electromagnetic field localized around the nanostructures. The comprehensive analysis indicates that indium is a promising alternate

  18. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Ortega, Angel; Estrela, Jose Maria

    2004-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique as it provides fundamental information about vibrational modes of a system. Eigenvalues of these modes are very sensitive to the strength of the chemical bonds and perturbations caused by the environment, particularly charge distribution and alterations in the dipole strength of the system. All these parameters are profoundly modified during the tumor formation process nad hence Raman technique could be a unique and also a direct approach for evaluating tumor genesis at early stages. for this pupose the present investigation was carried out. We used cultured wild type and c-ras transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblast. The samples were treated with methyl alcohol solution ina conventional manner and then Raman spectra nad images were obtained by a specially developed confocal Raman microscope. The present results reveal differences between both cell types in the spectral details as well as in the morphology. Raman images are able to detect the exact site where cancer-related changes have taken place. These results clearly indicate the superiority of the present technique over conventional methods such as images obtained by X-rays or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Moreover, unlike other approaches, Raman images detect alterations at the submicron level rather than in the centimeter or millimeter range. Being an optical method it can be applied in vivo as a non-invasive technique potentially useful to early detection of cancer (particularly easy accessible cancers such as those of the skin and the digestive tract). The obtained resulsts suggest the great potential of Raman imaging in premature clinical diagnostic approaches.

  19. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  20. Solid-state Raman frequency converters for CO2-DIAL systems at 1.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hanjo; Lisinetskii, Victor; Kaminskii, Alexander A.; Eichler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Measurement of the three-dimensional distribution of atmospheric trace gases, especially CO2, is an important factor to improve the accuracy of climate models and to understand the global effects of the greenhouse effect. This can be achieved by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL). The absorption spectrum of CO2 features several suitable absorption lines for a ground-based or air-borne DIAL system working at wavelengths between 1.57 μm and 1.61 μm. An appropriate laser transmitter must emit laser pulses with pulse energies of more than 10 mJ and pulse duration in the nanosecond range. For high spectral purity the bandwidth is required to be less than 60 MHz. OPOs and Er-doped solid-state lasers emit around 1.6 μm, but we describe here alternatively Nd:YAG and Nd:glass laser systems with Raman converters. The use of stimulated Raman scattering in crystalline and ceramic materials is a possibility to shift the wavelength of existing lasers depending on the size of the Raman shift. After the investigation of a large number of Raman-active materials some of them could be identified as promising candidates for the conversion of typical Nd:YAG emission wavelengths, including LiNH2C6H4SO3•H2O, Ba(NO3)2, Li2SO4•H2O, Y(HCOO)3•2H2O, β-BBO and diamond. Our experiments with Ba(NO3)2 showed that the choice of the material should not be restricted to those with an adequate first order Stokes Raman line position, but also second or third order Raman shift should be considered. Development of Raman frequency converters for high pulse energies concentrates on linear and folded resonator designs and seeded Raman amplifiers using the Raman material as a direct amplifier. With Ba(NO3)2 pulse energy up to 116 mJ and 42 % quantum efficiency at the third Stokes wavelength with 1599 nm has been demonstrated. High power operation at 5 W with compensation of thermal lensing was achieved.

  1. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  2. Study on the interactions of antiemetic drugs and 12-tungstophosphoric acid by absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    In 0.1 mol L-1 HCl medium, antiemetic drugs (ATM), such as granisetron hydrochloride (GS) and tropisetron hydrochloride (TS), reacted with H3PW12O40·nH2O and formed 3:1 ion-association complex of [(ATM)3PW12O40], then self-aggregated into nanoparticles-[(ATM)3PW12O40]n with an average size of 100 nm. The reaction resulted in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and the absorption spectra. The increments of scattering intensity (ΔIRRS) and the change of absorbance (ΔA) were both directly proportional to the concentrations of ATM in certain ranges. Accordingly, two new RRS and spectrophotometric methods were proposed for ATM detection. The detection limits (3σ) of GS and TS were 3.2 ng mL-1 and 4.0 ng mL-1(RRS method), 112.5 ng mL-1 and 100.0 ng mL-1(spectrophotometric method). These two methods were applied to determine GS in orally disintegrating tablets and the results were in good agreement with the official method. The ground-state geometries and electronic structures of GS and TS were optimized by the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) method and the shape of [(ATM)3PW12O40]n was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Take the RRS method with higher sensitivity as an example, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for enhancement of scattering were discussed.

  3. The effect of TiO2 phase on the surface plasmon resonance of silver thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ruijin; Jing, Ming; Tao, Chunxian; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    A series of silver films with various thicknesses were deposited on TiO2 covered silica substrates by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effects of TiO2 phase on the structure, optical properties and surface plasmon resonance of silver thin films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption and Raman scattering measurements, respectively. By adjusting the silver layer thickness, the resonance wavelength shows a redshift, which is due to a change in the electromagnetic field coupling strength from the localized surface plasmons excited between the silver thin film and TiO2 layer. Raman scattering measurement results showed that optical absorption plays an important role in surface plasmon enhancement, which is also related to different crystal phase.

  4. Temperature dependence Infrared and Raman studies of III-V/II-VI core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; McCombe, Bruce D.; Lucey, Derrick

    2005-03-01

    The temperature dependence (8 K < T < 300 K) of optical phonon modes confined in InP/II-VI core-shell nanostructures have been investigated by far-infrared (FIR) and Raman scattering spectroscopies. The core-shell nanostructures were fabricated by colloidal chemistry and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction prior to being embedded in a polycrystalline CsI matrix for the present studies. The FIR measurements of InP/ZnSe sample exhibits three absorption features, one clearly due to the Froelich mode of the InP cores, and the others related to modes associated with the shell layer and its coupling to the matrix. Strong mixing of the characteristic vibrations of each constituent material was observed for InP/ZnS sample. Raman scattering (457.9 nm excitation) features were determined without polarization selection in the backscattering geometry. Interesting T-dependent resonant Raman effect of the surface optical phonon modes has been discovered in InP/ZnSe sample. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the Raman and FIR results, as well as with theoretical calculations.

  5. Stimulated Raman amplification, oscillation, and linewidth in barium nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Christopher J.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Raman gain in a Ba(NO3)2 crystal are reported at 532 nm using a Raman oscillator/amplifier arrangement for differential absorption lidar measurements of ozone. The experimentally determined gain coefficient will be compared with theoretical results. The effect of single and multi-longitudinal mode pumping upon the amplification process will be discussed. Measurement of the Raman linewidth for 1st 2nd and 3d stokes shifts arc presented.

  6. Alfven wave cyclotron resonance heating

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Yosikawa, S.; Oberman, C.

    1981-02-01

    The resonance absorption of fast Alfven waves at the proton ctclotron resonance of a predominately deuterium plasma is investigated. An approximate dispersion relation is derived, valid in the vicinity of the resonance, which permits an exact calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. For reasonable plasma parameters significant linear resonance absorption is found.

  7. Ultrafast Saturation of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and Comparison for Pulse Durations in the Nanosecond to Femtosecond Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-05

    electronic-resonance-enhanced CARS (ERE- CARS ) configuration is calculated. We demonstrate that while underdamping condition is a suffi- cient condition for...saturation of ERE- CARS with the long-pulse excitations, a transient-gain must be achieved to saturate ERE- CARS signal for ultrafast probe regime. We...ultrafast ERE- CARS . From a simplified analytical solution and a detailed numerical calculation based on density-matrix equations, the saturation threshold

  8. Electromagnetic field enhancement effects in group IV semiconductor nanowires. A Raman spectroscopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pura, J. L.; Anaya, J.; Souto, J.; Prieto, A. C.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, T.; Periwal, P.; Baron, T.; Jiménez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are the building blocks of future nanoelectronic devices. Furthermore, their large refractive index and reduced dimension make them suitable for nanophotonics. The study of the interaction between nanowires and visible light reveals resonances that promise light absorption/scattering engineering for photonic applications. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used as a characterization tool for semiconductor nanowires. The light/nanowire interaction can be experimentally assessed through the micro-Raman spectra of individual nanowires. As compared to both metallic and dielectric nanowires, semiconductor nanowires add additional tools for photon engineering. In particular, one can grow heterostructured nanowires, both axial and radial, and also one could modulate the doping level and the surface condition among other factors than can affect the light/NW interaction. We present herein a study of the optical response of group IV semiconductor nanowires to visible photons. The study is experimentally carried out through micro-Raman spectroscopy of different group IV nanowires, both homogeneous and axially heterostructured (SiGe/Si). The results are analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic modelling of the light/nanowire interaction using finite element methods. The presence of axial heterostructures is shown to produce electromagnetic resonances promising new photon engineering capabilities of semiconductor nanowires.

  9. Electric-dipole absorption resonating with longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon system and its effect on dispersion relations of interface phonon polariton modes in metal/semiconductor-stripe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hironori; Takeuchi, Eito; Yoshida, Kouki; Morita, Ken; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    Interface phonon polaritons (IPhPs) in nano-structures excluding metal components are thoroughly investigated because they have lower loss in optical emission or absorption and higher quality factors than surface plasmon polaritons. In previous reports, it is found that strong infrared (IR) absorption is based on the interaction of p-polarized light and materials, and the resonance photon energy highly depends on the structure size and angle of incidence. We report the optical absorption by metal/semiconductor (bulk-GaAs and thin film-AlN)-stripe structures in THz to mid-IR region for the electric field of light perpendicular to the stripes, where both of s- and p-polarized light are absorbed. The absorption resonates with longitudinal optical (LO) phonon or LO phonon-plasmon coupling (LOPC) modes, and thus is independent of the angle of incidence or structure size. This absorption is attributed to the electric dipoles by the optically induced polarization charges at the metal/semiconductor, heterointerfaces, or interfaces of high electron density layers and depression ones. The electric permittivity is modified by the formation of these dipoles. It is found to be indispensable to utilize our form of altered permittivity to explain the experimental dispersion relations of metal/semiconductor-IPhP and SPhP in these samples. This analysis reveals that the IPhPs in the stripe structures of metal/AlN-film on a SiC substrate are highly confined in the AlN film, while the permittivity of the structures of metal/bulk-GaAs is partially affected by the electric-dipoles. The quality factors of the electric-dipole absorption are found to be 42-54 for undoped samples, and the value of 62 is obtained for Al/AlN-IPhP. It is thought that metal-contained structures are not obstacles to mode energy selectivity in phonon energy region of semiconductors.

  10. Raman scattering in the atmospheres of the major planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. D.; Trafton, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is developed to calculate the detailed effects of Raman scattering in an inhomogeneous anisotropically scattering atmosphere. The technique is applied to evaluations of Raman scattering by H2 in the atmosphere of the major planets. It is noted that Raman scattering produces an insufficient decrease in the blue and ultraviolet regions to explain the albedos of all planets investigated. For all major planets, the filling-in of solar line cores and the generation of the Raman-shifted ghosts of the Fraunhofer spectrum are observed. With regard to Uranus and Neptune, Raman scattering is seen to exert a major influence on the formation and profile of strong red and near infrared CH4 bands, and Raman scattering by H2 explains the residual intensity in the cores of these bands. Raman scattering by H2 must also be taken into account in the scattering of photons into the cores of saturated absorption bands.

  11. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17)/cu cm. The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  12. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3 x 10(exp 17) and 9 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  13. Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Measurements of Atomic Oxygen in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The absorption of vacuum ultraviolet light by atomic oxygen has been measured in the Electric Arc-driven Shock Tube (EAST) Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center. This investigation demonstrates the instrumentation required to determine atomic oxygen concentrations from absorption measurements in impulse facilities. A shock wave dissociates molecular oxygen, producing a high temperature sample of atomic oxygen in the shock tube. A probe beam is generated with a Raman-shifted ArF excimer laser. By suitable tuning of the laser, absorption is measured over a range of wavelengths in the region of the atomic line at 130.49 nm. The line shape function is determined from measurements at atomic oxygen densities of 3x10(exp 17) and 9x10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The broadening coefficient for resonance interactions is deduced from this data, and this value is in accord with available theoretical models.

  14. Binding of bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine to wild-type and F120A mutant cytochrome P450 2D6 studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bonifacio, Alois; Keizers, Peter H.J.; Commandeur, Jan N.M.

    2006-05-12

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. Resonance Raman data, reported for First time for CYP2D6, show that the CYP2D6 heme is found to be in a six-coordinated low-spin state in the absence of substrates, and it is perturbed to different extents by bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Dextromethorphan and MDMA induce in CYP2D6 a significant amount of five-coordinated high-spin heme species and reduce the polarity of its heme-pocket, whereas bufuralol does not. Spectra of the F120A mutant CYP2D6 suggest that Phe{sup 12} is involved in substrate-binding of dextromethorphan and MDMA, being responsiblemore » for the spectral differences observed between these two compounds and bufuralol. These differences could be explained postulating a different substrate mobility for each compound in the CYP2D6 active site, consistently with the role previously suggested for Phe{sup 12} in binding dextromethorphan and MDMA.« less

  15. Binding of bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine to wild-type and F120A mutant cytochrome P450 2D6 studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Alois; Keizers, Peter H J; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Robert, Bruno; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert

    2006-05-12

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. Resonance Raman data, reported for the first time for CYP2D6, show that the CYP2D6 heme is found to be in a six-coordinated low-spin state in the absence of substrates, and it is perturbed to different extents by bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Dextromethorphan and MDMA induce in CYP2D6 a significant amount of five-coordinated high-spin heme species and reduce the polarity of its heme-pocket, whereas bufuralol does not. Spectra of the F120A mutant CYP2D6 suggest that Phe120 is involved in substrate-binding of dextromethorphan and MDMA, being responsible for the spectral differences observed between these two compounds and bufuralol. These differences could be explained postulating a different substrate mobility for each compound in the CYP2D6 active site, consistently with the role previously suggested for Phe120 in binding dextromethorphan and MDMA.

  16. Raman microscopic analysis in museology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnall, Robert; Derbyshire, Alan; Thiel, Sigrun; Hughes, Michael J.

    2000-09-01

    These portrait miniatures on ivory were analyzed by Raman microscopy to determine the identity of tiny, white crystals which occur under, within, or on top of their paint layers. In each case the crystals were identified as magnesium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate, newberyite (MgHPO4.3H2O). Small, white crystals which grow on the inner surface of ivory tusks were also identified as newberyite by means of Raman microscopy. Thus, it is concluded that the tiny, white crystals occurring on the portrait miniatures on ivory almost certainly originate from the ivory substrate. Resonance Raman spectroscopy using 632.8 nm excitations were found to be a sensitive probe for the detection of the blue pigment, indigo, even when it occurs in pigment mixtures on paintings. Raman microscopy was also used in analyze a fragment of opaque red Assyrian glass, dating from around the 9th-8th centuries BC, an opaque red Iron Age glass stud, dating from around the 1st century BC, and three opaque yellow Anglo-Saxon glass beads, dating from the 6th century AD.

  17. Nanostructures Exploit Hybrid-Polariton Resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured devices that exploit the hybrid-polariton resonances arising from coupling among photons, phonons, and plasmons are subjects of research directed toward the development of infrared-spectroscopic sensors for measuring extremely small quantities of molecules of interest. The spectroscopic techniques in question are surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). An important intermediate goal of this research is to increase the sensitivity achievable by these techniques. The basic idea of the approach being followed in this research is to engineer nanostructured devices and thereby engineer their hybrid-polariton resonances to concentrate infrared radiation incident upon their surfaces in such a manner as to increase the absorption of the radiation for SEIRA and measure the frequency shifts of surface vibrational modes. The underlying hybrid-polariton-resonance concept is best described by reference to experimental devices that have been built and tested to demonstrate the concept. The nanostructure of each such device includes a matrix of silicon carbide particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter that are supported on a potassium bromide (KBr) or poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] window. These grains are sputter-coated with gold grains of 40-nm size (see figure). From the perspective of classical electrodynamics, in this nanostructure, that includes a particulate or otherwise rough surface, the electric-field portion of an incident electromagnetic field becomes concentrated on the particles when optical resonance conditions are met. Going beyond the perspective of classical electrodynamics, it can be seen that when the resonance frequencies of surface phonons and surface plasmons overlap, the coupling of the resonances gives rise to an enhanced radiation-absorption or -scattering mechanism. The sizes, shapes, and aggregation of the particles determine the frequencies of the resonances. Hence, the task of

  18. Intrinsic Raman spectroscopy for quantitative biological spectroscopy Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kate L.; Shih, Wei-Chuan; Feld, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of intrinsic Raman spectroscopy (IRS) at reducing errors caused by absorption and scattering. Physical tissue models, solutions of varying absorption and scattering coefficients with known concentrations of Raman scatterers, are studied. We show significant improvement in prediction error by implementing IRS to predict concentrations of Raman scatterers using both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and partial least squares regression (PLS). In particular, we show that IRS provides a robust calibration model that does not increase in error when applied to samples with optical properties outside the range of calibration. PMID:18711512

  19. In-pile Thermal Conductivity Characterization with Time Resolved Raman

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xinwei; Hurley, David H.

    The project is designed to achieve three objectives: (1) Develop a novel time resolved Raman technology for direct measurement of fuel and cladding thermal conductivity. (2) Validate and improve the technology development by measuring ceramic materials germane to the nuclear industry. (3) Conduct instrumentation development to integrate optical fiber into our sensing system for eventual in-pile measurement. We have developed three new techniques: time-domain differential Raman (TD-Raman), frequency-resolved Raman (FR-Raman), and energy transport state-resolved Raman (ET-Raman). The TD-Raman varies the laser heating time and does simultaneous Raman thermal probing, the FR-Raman probes the material’s thermal response under periodical laser heatingmore » of different frequencies, and the ET-Raman probes the thermal response under steady and pulsed laser heating. The measurement capacity of these techniques have been fully assessed and verified by measuring micro/nanoscale materials. All these techniques do not need the data of laser absorption and absolute material temperature rise, yet still be able to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with unprecedented accuracy. It is expected they will have broad applications for in-pile thermal characterization of nuclear materials based on pure optical heating and sensing.« less

  20. Vibrations and reorientations of H2O molecules in [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 studied by Raman light scattering, incoherent inelastic neutron scattering and proton magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Lukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Harańczyk, Hubert

    2014-04-24

    Vibrational-reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), quasielastic and inelastic incoherent Neutron Scattering (QENS and IINS) methods. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements, performed simultaneously with QENS, did not indicated a change of the crystal structure at the phase transition (detected earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at TC(h)=252.9 K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling)). Temperature dependence of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of νs(OH) band at ca. 3248 cm(-1) in the RS spectra indicated small discontinuity in the vicinity of phase transition temperature, what suggests that the observed phase transition may be associated with a change of the H2O reorientational dynamics. However, an activation energy value (Ea) for the reorientational motions of H2O ligands in both phases is nearly the same and equals to ca. 8 kJ mol(-1). The QENS peaks, registered for low temperature phase do not show any broadening. However, in the high temperature phase a small QENS broadening is clearly visible, what implies that the reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands undergoes a change at the phase transition. (1)H NMR line is a superposition of two powder Pake doublets, differentiated by a dipolar broadening, suggesting that there are two types of the water molecules in the crystal lattice of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 which are structurally not equivalent average distances between the interacting protons are: 1.39 and 1.18 Å. However, their reorientational dynamics is very similar (τc=3.3⋅10(-10) s). Activation energies for the reorientational motion of these both kinds of H2O ligands have nearly the same values in an experimental error limit: and equal to ca. 40 kJ mole(-1). The phase transition is not seen in the (1)H NMR spectra temperature dependencies. Infrared (IR), Raman (RS) and inelastic