Science.gov

Sample records for absorption selection rules

  1. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  4. Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui

    2014-11-17

    We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.

  5. A Generalized Selection Rule for Pericyclic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Fu-Cheng; Pfeiffer, Gary V.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a convenient procedure, the Odd-Even Rule, for predicting the allowedness of forbiddenness of ground-state, pericyclic reactions. The rule is applied to a number of specific reactions. In contrast to the Woodward-Hoffman approach, the application to each reaction is always the same. (JN)

  6. Photo-absorption sum rules σ-1 in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Combining the spin-dependent dispersion GDH-sum rule, the iso-vector, photo-excitation states projecting Cabibbo-Radicati sum rule, and the relativistic dipole-moment-fluctuation (or generalized Gottfried) sum rule with the three valence quark configuration of nucleons taken into account for the composition of the ground and the excited states of the nucleon, the relevant moments of the distribution and correlation functions of the quark electric dipole moment operators in the nucleon ground state are expressed via the experimentally measurable nucleon resonance photo-excitation amplitudes.These functions are of interest for checking detailed quark-configuration structure of the nucleon state vector.

  7. Optimized wavelength selection for molecular absorption thermometry.

    PubMed

    An, Xinliang; Caswell, Andrew W; Lipor, John J; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-04-01

    A differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to a recently developed spectroscopic objective function to select wavelengths that optimize the temperature precision of water absorption thermometry. DE reliably finds optima even when many-wavelength sets are chosen from large populations of wavelengths (here 120 000 wavelengths from a spectrum with 0.002 cm(-1) resolution calculated by 16 856 transitions). Here, we study sets of fixed wavelengths in the 7280-7520 cm(-1) range. When optimizing the thermometer for performance within a narrow temperature range, the results confirm that the best temperature precision is obtained if all the available measurement time is split judiciously between the two most temperature-sensitive wavelengths. In the wide temperature range case (thermometer must perform throughout 280-2800 K), we find (1) the best four-wavelength set outperforms the best two-wavelength set by an average factor of 2, and (2) a complete spectrum (all 120 000 wavelengths from 16 856 transitions) is 4.3 times worse than the best two-wavelength set. Key implications for sensor designers include: (1) from the perspective of spectroscopic temperature sensitivity, it is usually sufficient to monitor two or three wavelengths, depending on the sensor's anticipated operating temperature range; and (2) although there is a temperature precision penalty to monitoring a complete spectrum, that penalty may be small enough, particularly at elevated pressure, to justify the complete-spectrum approach in many applications.

  8. Teaching the Spin Selection Rule: An Inductive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In the group exercise described, students are guided through an inductive justification for the spin conservation selection rule ([delta]S = 0). Although the exercise only explicitly involves various states of helium, the conclusion is one of the most widely applicable selection rules for the interaction of light with matter, applying, in various…

  9. Rule encoding in dorsal striatum impacts action selection.

    PubMed

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Roesch, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive flexibility is a hallmark of prefrontal cortical (PFC) function yet little is known about downstream area involvement. The medial dorsal striatum (mDS) receives major projections from the PFC and is uniquely situated to perform the integration of responses with rule information. In this study, we use a novel rule shifting task in rats that mirrors non-human primate and human studies in its temporal precision and counterbalanced responses. We record activity from single neurons in the mDS while rats switch between different rules for reward. Additionally, we pharmacologically inactivate mDS by infusion of a baclofen/muscimol cocktail. Inactivation of mDS impaired the ability to shift to a new rule and increased the number of regressive errors. While recording in mDS, we identified neurons modulated by direction whose activity reflected the conflict between competing rule information. We show that a subset of these neurons was also rule selective, and that the conflict between competing rule cues was resolved as behavioural performance improved. Other neurons were modulated by rule, but not direction. These neurons became selective before behavioural performance accurately reflected the current rule. These data provide an additional locus for investigating the mechanisms underlying behavioural flexibility. Converging lines of evidence from multiple human psychiatric disorders have implicated dorsal striatum as an important and understudied neural substrate of flexible cognition. Our data confirm the importance of mDS, and suggest a mechanism by which mDS mediates abstract cognition functions.

  10. Superwetting nanowire membranes for selective absorption.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jikang; Liu, Xiaogang; Akbulut, Ozge; Hu, Junqing; Suib, Steven L; Kong, Jing; Stellacci, Francesco

    2008-06-01

    The construction of nanoporous membranes is of great technological importance for various applications, including catalyst supports, filters for biomolecule purification, environmental remediation and seawater desalination. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with the desirable combination of good thermal stability, high selectivity and excellent recyclability. Here we present a self-assembly method for constructing thermally stable, free-standing nanowire membranes that exhibit controlled wetting behaviour ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. These membranes can selectively absorb oils up to 20 times the material's weight in preference to water, through a combination of superhydrophobicity and capillary action. Moreover, the nanowires that form the membrane structure can be re-suspended in solutions and subsequently re-form the original paper-like morphology over many cycles. Our results suggest an innovative material that should find practical applications in the removal of organics, particularly in the field of oil spill cleanup.

  11. Permutation-symmetry related selection rules in spinor quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Selection rules constraining possible transitions between states of quantum systems can be derived from the system symmetry. Invariance over permutations of indistinguishable particles, contained in each physical system, is one of the basic symmetries. Consider a many-body system with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom of particles with arbitrary spins s. Eigenfunctions of such systems can be expressed as a sum of products of spin and spatial functions, which form irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group. The quantum numbers are the Young diagrams λ = [λ1 , ... ,λ2 s + 1 ] . The selection rules for a general k-body interactions allow transitions between the states λ and λ' only if ∑m=12s+1 |λm -λm'| <= 2 k . For s = 1 / 2 , the Young diagrams are unambiguously related to the total spin, and if k = 1 , we get the conventional selection rule for dipole transitions. However, if s > 1 / 2 , the rules cannot be expressed in terms of spins. The selection rules provide a way of control over the formation of many-body entangled states, belonging to multidimensional, non-Abelian irreps of the symmetric group. The effects can be observed with spinor atoms in an optical lattice in the Mott-insulator regime.

  12. Selective microwave absorption of iron-rich carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xuchun; Wang, Kunlin; Cao, Anyuan; Wei, Jinquan; Lv, Ruitao; Kang, Feiyu; Shu, Qinke; Jia, Yi; Wu, Dehai

    2010-03-01

    We report on high selectivity of microwave absorption by controlling the concentration of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites and matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss through encapsulation of crystalline Fe nanorods inside nanotubes. The reflection loss reached more than 10 dB (> 90% absorption) by loading nanotubes at concentrations of 1 wt% to 10 wt% into the composites, and the frequencies corresponding to the maximum loss can be tailored throughout the range of 2 to 18 GHz by changing the concentration. A maximum absorption capability (75 dB x GHz) was observed at a CNT loading of about 4.5 wt%. The crystalline structure of encapsulated Fe nanorods can be modified to enhance the reflection loss. Control of absorption selectivity by modifying the structure and concentration of nanoscale fillers could facilitate potential higher-frequency applications (e.g., radar absorbing) of nanocomposites. PMID:20355578

  13. Selective microwave absorption of iron-rich carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xuchun; Wang, Kunlin; Cao, Anyuan; Wei, Jinquan; Lv, Ruitao; Kang, Feiyu; Shu, Qinke; Jia, Yi; Wu, Dehai

    2010-03-01

    We report on high selectivity of microwave absorption by controlling the concentration of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites and matching the dielectric loss and magnetic loss through encapsulation of crystalline Fe nanorods inside nanotubes. The reflection loss reached more than 10 dB (> 90% absorption) by loading nanotubes at concentrations of 1 wt% to 10 wt% into the composites, and the frequencies corresponding to the maximum loss can be tailored throughout the range of 2 to 18 GHz by changing the concentration. A maximum absorption capability (75 dB x GHz) was observed at a CNT loading of about 4.5 wt%. The crystalline structure of encapsulated Fe nanorods can be modified to enhance the reflection loss. Control of absorption selectivity by modifying the structure and concentration of nanoscale fillers could facilitate potential higher-frequency applications (e.g., radar absorbing) of nanocomposites.

  14. Pollution Police: How to Determine Spectroscopic Selection Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selco, Jodye I.; Beery, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Students employ mathematics and physical chemistry in a project called Pollution Police to establish spectroscopic selection rules, and apply them to detect environmental contaminants from infrared spectra. This interdisciplinary project enables students to gain multiple information on molecular symmetry, and its role in the development of…

  15. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-08-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. PMID:27269960

  16. Learning a New Selection Rule in Visual and Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    van der Togt, Chris; Stănişor, Liviu; Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Albantakis, Larissa; Deco, Gustavo; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2016-01-01

    How do you make a decision if you do not know the rules of the game? Models of sensory decision-making suggest that choices are slow if evidence is weak, but they may only apply if the subject knows the task rules. Here, we asked how the learning of a new rule influences neuronal activity in the visual (area V1) and frontal cortex (area FEF) of monkeys. We devised a new icon-selection task. On each day, the monkeys saw 2 new icons (small pictures) and learned which one was relevant. We rewarded eye movements to a saccade target connected to the relevant icon with a curve. Neurons in visual and frontal cortex coded the monkey's choice, because the representation of the selected curve was enhanced. Learning delayed the neuronal selection signals and we uncovered the cause of this delay in V1, where learning to select the relevant icon caused an early suppression of surrounding image elements. These results demonstrate that the learning of a new rule causes a transition from fast and random decisions to a more considerate strategy that takes additional time and they reveal the contribution of visual and frontal cortex to the learning process. PMID:27269960

  17. Selection rules for the nonlinear interaction of internal gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip S

    2009-03-27

    Two intersecting beams of internal gravity waves will generically create two wave packets by nonlinear interaction. The frequency of one packet will be the sum and that of the other packet will be the difference of the frequencies of the intersecting beams. In principle, each packet should form an "X" pattern, or "St. Andrew's cross" consisting of four beams outgoing from the point of intersection. Here we derive selection rules and show that most of the expected nonlinear beams are forbidden. These rules can also be applied to the reflection of a beam from a boundary.

  18. Absorption to reflection transition in selective solar coatings.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kyle D; Talghader, Joseph J

    2012-07-01

    The optimum transition wavelength between high absorption and low emissivity for selective solar absorbers has been calculated in several prior treatises for an ideal system, where the emissivity is exactly zero in the infrared. However, no real coating can achieve such a low emissivity across the entire infrared with simultaneously high absorption in the visible. An emissivity of even a few percent radically changes the optimum wavelength separating the high and low absorption spectral bands. This behavior is described and calculated for AM0 and AM1.5 solar spectra with an infrared emissivity varying between 0 and 5%. With an emissivity of 5%, solar concentration of 10 times the AM1.5 spectrum the optimum transition wavelength is found to be 1.28 µm and have a 957K equilibrium temperature. To demonstrate typical absorptions in optimized solar selective coatings, a four-layer sputtered Mo and SiO₂ coating with absorption of 5% across the infrared is described experimentally and theoretically.

  19. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  20. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model.

    PubMed

    Forn-Díaz, P; Romero, G; Harmans, C J P M; Solano, E; Mooij, J E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models. PMID:27273346

  1. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forn-Díaz, P.; Romero, G.; Harmans, C. J. P. M.; Solano, E.; Mooij, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models.

  2. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Díaz, P.; Romero, G.; Harmans, C. J. P. M.; Solano, E.; Mooij, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models. PMID:27273346

  3. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model.

    PubMed

    Forn-Díaz, P; Romero, G; Harmans, C J P M; Solano, E; Mooij, J E

    2016-06-07

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models.

  4. [Anaysis on acupoint selection rule of acupuncture for trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengyu; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhao; Dong, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics and rules of acupoint selection of acupuncture for trigeminal neuralgia were analyzed. By searching CNKI, VIP, WF, literature regarding acupuncture for trigeminal neuralgia from 1980 to 2013 was collected to establish an acupuncture prescription database. The data mining technology was applied to analyze the characteristics and rules of the acupoint selection. As a result, a total of 180 papers were included, involving 148 acupoints. It was found that the acupoints that had high frequency of selection included Hegu (LI 4), Xiaguan (ST 7), Fengchi (GB 20) and trigger points. The acupoints selected were distributed in 14 meridians, in which yangming meridian of hand-foot had a frequency of 41. 58%. The special acupoints including crossing points, yuan-primary points and five-shu points were widely used, accounting for 65. 9%. As for the branch of trigeminal nerve, the top-3 selected acupoints were Yangbai (GB 14), Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Cuanzhu (BL 2) in the first branch, Sibai (ST 2), Quanlian (SI 18), Yingxiang (LI 20) in the second branch, Jiache (ST 6), Xiaguan (ST 7), Dicang (ST 4) in the third branch. In conclusion, it is believed that the clinical treatment of trigeminal neural gia focuses on local acupoints in combination with nerve distribution-based acupoints and distal acupoints, also the special acupoints are emphasized. PMID:27348932

  5. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF RADIO-SELECTED BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; Becker, R. H.; Gregg, M. D.; Tran, H. D.; White, R. L.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.

    2010-07-15

    We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. Both high- and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) shows large continuum polarization (2%-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths; emission lines are typically less polarized than the continuum; and absorption line troughs often show large polarization jumps. There are no significant correlations between polarization properties and radio properties, including those indicative of system orientation, suggesting that BAL quasars are not simply normal quasars seen from an edge-on perspective.

  6. Selection rules for hadronic transitions of XYZ mesons.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson

    2014-06-01

    Many of the XYZ mesons discovered in the last decade can be identified as bound states of a heavy quark and antiquark in Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potentials defined by the energy of gluon and light-quark fields in the presence of static color sources. The mesons include quarkonium hybrids, which are bound states in excited flavor-singlet BO potentials, and quarkonium tetraquarks, which are bound states in BO potentials with light-quark+antiquark flavor. The deepest hybrid potentials are known from lattice QCD calculations. The deepest tetraquark potentials can be inferred from lattice QCD calculations of static adjoint mesons. Selection rules for hadronic transitions are derived and used to identify XYZ mesons that are candidates for ground-state energy levels in the BO potentials for charmonium hybrids and tetraquarks.

  7. Selection rules for hadronic transitions of XYZ mesons.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson

    2014-06-01

    Many of the XYZ mesons discovered in the last decade can be identified as bound states of a heavy quark and antiquark in Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potentials defined by the energy of gluon and light-quark fields in the presence of static color sources. The mesons include quarkonium hybrids, which are bound states in excited flavor-singlet BO potentials, and quarkonium tetraquarks, which are bound states in BO potentials with light-quark+antiquark flavor. The deepest hybrid potentials are known from lattice QCD calculations. The deepest tetraquark potentials can be inferred from lattice QCD calculations of static adjoint mesons. Selection rules for hadronic transitions are derived and used to identify XYZ mesons that are candidates for ground-state energy levels in the BO potentials for charmonium hybrids and tetraquarks. PMID:24949759

  8. Multiple beats of weakly confined excitons with inverted selection rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Hideki; Ishihara, Hajime

    2009-05-01

    The phenomenon of multiple beats (MBs) arising from nondipole-type excitons weakly confined in a thin film is theoretically elucidated using a nonlocal transient-response theory. Kojima previously demonstrated for a GaAs thin film that the degenerate four-wave mixing signals from the quantized levels of the center-of-mass motion of excitons exhibit complex interference between beats under femtosecond-order pulse incidence [Kojima , J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 044701 (2008)]. This leads to an ultrafast optical response on the order of femtoseconds. This effect occurs in a size region beyond the long-wavelength approximation regime due to the resonant enhancement of the internal field, wherein the usual dipole selection rule is violated. Our analysis of MBs employs a model of the nonlocal multilevel system that considers the spatial interplay between excitonic waves and the radiation field to elucidate the mechanism behind the observed ultrafast response.

  9. Non-perturbative selection rules in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Luca; Weigand, Timo

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the structure of charged matter couplings in 4-dimensional F-theory compactifications. Charged matter is known to arise from M2-branes wrapping fibral curves on an elliptic or genus-one fibration Y . If a set of fibral curves satisfies a homological relation in the fibre homology, a coupling involving the states can arise without exponential volume suppression due to a splitting and joining of the M2-branes. If the fibral curves only sum to zero in the integral homology of the full fibration, no such coupling is possible. In this case an M2-instanton wrapping a 3-chain bounded by the fibral matter curves can induce a D-term which is volume suppressed. We elucidate the consequences of this pattern for the appearance of massive U(1) symmetries in F-theory and analyse the structure of discrete selection rules in the coupling sector. The weakly coupled analogue of said M2-instantons is worked out to be given by D1-F1 instantons. The generation of an exponentially suppressed F-term requires the formation of half-BPS bound states of M2 and M5-instantons. This effect and its description in terms of fluxed M5-instantons is discussed in a companion paper.

  10. Selection rules in low energy string effective lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, L.; Lau, S.

    1992-01-01

    Selection rules which restrict elementary particle interactions are derived as the low-energy limit of superstring theory. A general mechanism is demonstrated, in four-dimensional string tree-amplitudes, whereby the supersymmetric trilinear Yukawa-like couplings in the effective lagrangian which violate lepton number vanish, terms which otherwise occur naturally in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. Explicit expressions for the vertex operators, and all cubic bosonic couplings involving the Yang-Mills gauge bosons and the graviton, together with the scalar and anti-symmetric tensor components of gravity are given. There are no √2 α' corrections to the three-point string tree-amplitudes, a result which eliminates any higher derivative trilinear couplings among these fields in the effective action. In this four-dimensional string theory, expressions are derived for the gravitational coupling constant κ and the Yang-Mills coupling constant gYM in terms of the two string parameters: the universal Regge slope parameter which is the origin of the length scale √2 α', and the dimensionless string coupling constant g. We find κ = {1}/{2}g√2α' and g YM = g .

  11. The rule of unity for human intestinal absorption 2: application to pharmaceutical drugs that are marketed as salts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the human intestinal absorption (HIA) of the 59 drugs which are marketed as salts is predicted using the rule of unity. Intrinsic aqueous solubilities and partition coefficients along with the drug dose are used to calculate modified absorption potential (MAP) values. These values are shown to be related to the fraction of the dose that is absorbed upon oral administration in humans (FA). It is shown that the MAP value can distinguish between drugs that are poorly absorbed (FA <0.5) and those that are well absorbed (FA ≥ 0.5). Inspection of the data as well as a receiver operative characteristic (ROC) plot shows that a single critical MAP value can be used for predicting efficient human absorption of drugs. This forms the basis of a simple rule of unity based solely on in vitro data for predicting whether or not a drug will be well absorbed at a given dose.

  12. Guided-wave approaches to spectrally selective energy absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments designed to demonstrate spectrally selective absorption in dielectric waveguides on semiconductor substrates are reported. These experiments were conducted with three waveguides formed by sputtering films of PSK2 glass onto silicon-oxide layers grown on silicon substrates. The three waveguide samples were studied at 633 and 532 nm. The samples differed only in the thickness of the silicon-oxide layer, specifically 256 nm, 506 nm, and 740 nm. Agreement between theoretical predictions and measurements of propagation constants (mode angles) of the six or seven modes supported by these samples was excellent. However, the loss measurements were inconclusive because of high scattering losses in the structures fabricated (in excess of 10 dB/cm). Theoretical calculations indicated that the power distribution among all the modes supported by these structures will reach its steady state value after a propagation length of only 1 mm. Accordingly, the measured loss rates were found to be almost independent of which mode was initially excited. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment leads to the conclusion that low loss waveguides confirm the predicted loss rates.

  13. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  14. A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

  15. Comparing the Performance of Five Multidimensional CAT Selection Procedures with Different Stopping Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Through simulated data, five multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) selection procedures with varying test lengths are examined and compared using different stopping rules. Fixed item exposure rates are used for all the items, and the Priority Index (PI) method is used for the content constraints. Two stopping rules, standard error…

  16. Birefringence-Directed Raman Selection Rules in 2D Black Phosphorus Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Nannan; Wu, Juanxia; Han, Bowen; Lin, Jingjing; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The incident and scattered light engaged in the Raman scattering process of low symmetry crystals always suffer from the birefringence-induced depolarization. Therefore, for anisotropic crystals, the classical Raman selection rules should be corrected by taking the birefringence effect into consideration. The appearance of the 2D anisotropic materials provides an excellent platform to explore the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules, due to its controllable thickness at the nanoscale that greatly simplifies the situation comparing with bulk materials. Herein, a theoretical and experimental investigation on the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules in the anisotropic black phosphorus (BP) crystals is presented. The abnormal angle-dependent polarized Raman scattering of the Ag modes in thin BP crystal, which deviates from the normal Raman selection rules, is successfully interpreted by the theoretical model based on birefringence. It is further confirmed by the examination of different Raman modes using different laser lines and BP samples of different thicknesses. PMID:27030911

  17. Birefringence-Directed Raman Selection Rules in 2D Black Phosphorus Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Nannan; Wu, Juanxia; Han, Bowen; Lin, Jingjing; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The incident and scattered light engaged in the Raman scattering process of low symmetry crystals always suffer from the birefringence-induced depolarization. Therefore, for anisotropic crystals, the classical Raman selection rules should be corrected by taking the birefringence effect into consideration. The appearance of the 2D anisotropic materials provides an excellent platform to explore the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules, due to its controllable thickness at the nanoscale that greatly simplifies the situation comparing with bulk materials. Herein, a theoretical and experimental investigation on the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules in the anisotropic black phosphorus (BP) crystals is presented. The abnormal angle-dependent polarized Raman scattering of the Ag modes in thin BP crystal, which deviates from the normal Raman selection rules, is successfully interpreted by the theoretical model based on birefringence. It is further confirmed by the examination of different Raman modes using different laser lines and BP samples of different thicknesses.

  18. Absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectra of mass-selected rhenium dimers in argon matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhendong; Dong, Jian-Guo; Lombardi, John R.; Lindsay, D. M.; Harbich, W.

    1994-07-01

    We report absorption, laser fluorescence, and Raman spectra for Re2 in an argon matrix prepared by the mass-selected ion deposition technique. The dirhenium absorption spectrum consists of seven band systems (A-G) extending from the near infrared into the ultraviolet region. For the A system (a simple vibrational progression), we find T0=10 817(1) cm-1, ωe=317.1(5) cm-1 and ωexe=1.0(1) cm-1. A Franck-Condon analysis of the A system intensities predicts that this state has a smaller equilibrium internuclear distance than the ground state (Δre=-0.073 Å), in violation of Badger's rule. The B system starts at 13 250 cm-1 and consists of four overlapping (and possibly perturbed) subsystems, whose average vibrational spacing is 270(11) cm-1. The C, D, E, and F systems (vibrational spacings in parentheses) are centered at 22 300 cm-1 (210 cm-1), 24 500 cm-1 (195 cm-1), 29 150 cm-1 (175 cm-1), and 32 900 cm-1 (160 cm-1), respectively. Weak fluorescence spectra, obtained upon laser excitation into the A system, were characterized by vibrational progressions to the dimer ground (X) state and to a low lying (X') state for which T0=357.6(5) cm-1 and ωe=332.3(2) cm-1. Raman and fluorescence progressions to the ground state were observed when the B system was excited. These data give ωe=337.9(49) cm-1 for the dimer ground state in good agreement with measurements from photodetachment spectra [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 178 (1986)]. We propose likely assignments for the low lying electronic states of Re2 and discuss our results in terms of the bonding in the other group VIIB dimers, Mn2 and Tc2.

  19. The sum rule for dipolar absorptions and rotational kinetic energy of wate and some dipolar molecules in condensed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Shuichi; Kimura, Masao

    1981-06-01

    Another form of the sum rule for dipolar absorptions has been derived by means of quantum statistics. The difference between this and usually used form results from a quantum effect on the molecular rotational motion. By the joint use of the two forms, average rotational kinetic energies of water molec in the liquid and solid phases and some dipolar molecules in solutions have been estimated. It has been shown that the average rotational kinetic energ larger than the value expected from the classical equipartition rule, with an increase in the hindering potential for the rotational motion of the mole The dipole moments of water molecules in liquid and solid water have been estimated. These are considerably smaller than the gas-phase value.

  20. Selectivity of the optical-absorption method based on an instrumental pick out of Fourier components in the absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Kolesnikova, E. S.; Turutin, Yu. A.; Konopelko, L. A.; Shor, N. B.

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of interference-polarization filters (IPFs) in the structure of an optical-absorption analyzer makes it possible to pick out a harmonic (a Fourier component of the absorption spectrum) providing measurement with the highest sensitivity. The selectivity of such a method of analysis is determined by overlapping the oscillations of the measured and interfering components. By the example of measurement in benzene in the presence of an interfering component (toluene), the possibility is considered for the optimization of selectivity due to the variation of the path-difference dispersion for ordinary and extraordinary interfering rays. The metrological characteristics of the interference-polarization analyzer of C6H6 confirming the results of calculations are given.

  1. Towards a Model Selection Rule for Quantum State Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, Travis; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    Quantum tomography on large and/or complex systems will rely heavily on model selection techniques, which permit on-the-fly selection of small efficient statistical models (e.g. small Hilbert spaces) that accurately fit the data. Many model selection tools, such as hypothesis testing or Akaike's AIC, rely implicitly or explicitly on the Wilks Theorem, which predicts the behavior of the loglikelihood ratio statistic (LLRS) used to choose between models. We used Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the LLRS in quantum state tomography, and found that it disagrees dramatically with Wilks' prediction. We propose a simple explanation for this behavior; namely, that boundaries (in state space and between models) play a significant role in determining the distribution of the LLRS. The resulting distribution is very complex, depending strongly both on the true state and the nature of the data. We consider a simplified model that neglects anistropy in the Fisher information, derive an almost analytic prediction for the mean value of the LLRS, and compare it to numerical experiments. While our simplified model outperforms the Wilks Theorem, it still does not predict the LLRS accurately, implying that alternative methods may be necessary for tomographic model selection. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE.

  2. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  3. Selection of logical patterns for constructing a decision rule of recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antamoshkin, A. N.; Masich, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate an aspect of the construction of logical recognition algorithms - selection of patterns in the set of found patterns in the data. We consider the recognition problem for objects described by binary attributes and divided into two classes. A result of performance the procedure of searching patterns on the training set (a set of input data) is a number of patterns found. The question is to select some patterns from their total number to form a decision rule. That can not only reduce size of the decision rule, but also to improve recognition. One way to make a selection of patterns is select a subset of patterns that are needed to cover all objects of the training sample. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The resulting optimization model represents a problem of conditional pseudo-Boolean optimization, in which the objective function and the constraints functions are unimodal monotone pseudo-Boolean functions. Another way is to make the selection of such patterns, which when used together will increase separating capacity of the decision rule. As a criterion for the formation of the decision rule is considered the width of the separation margin. One more way is the selection supporting objects, rules are formed on the basis of which. Selection of logical patterns, which is made in accordance with the proposed approach, can significantly reduce the number of patterns and simplify the decision rule, almost without compromising the accuracy of recognition. This makes the decision rule clearer, and the results more interpretable. It is necessary to support decision making for recognition.

  4. Optimal decision rule with class-selective rejection and performance constraints.

    PubMed

    Grall-Maës, Edith; Beauseroy, Pierre

    2009-11-01

    The problem of defining a decision rule which takes into account performance constraints and class-selective rejection is formalized in a general framework. In the proposed formulation, the problem is defined using three kinds of criteria. The first is the cost to be minimized, which defines the objective function, the second are the decision options, determined by the admissible assignment classes or subsets of classes, and the third are the performance constraints. The optimal decision rule within the statistical decision theory framework is obtained by solving the stated optimization problem. Two examples are provided to illustrate the formulation and the decision rule is obtained.

  5. 1S core-level spectroscopy of graphite: The effects of phonons on emission and absorption and validity of the final-state rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, C. P.; Schnatterly, S. E.; Zutavern, F. J.; Aton, T.; Cafolla, T.; Carson, R. D.

    1985-04-01

    We have used both electron-induced soft x-ray emission and fast inelastic electron scattering to observe 1S core-level emission and absorption in graphite near threshold. Linear phonon coupling with partial relaxation is found to quantitatively explain the absorption linewidth, the emission broadening, and the unusually large difference between emission and absorption threshold energies (Stokes shift). Both emission and absorption line shapes quantitatively obey the final-state rule, which asserts that the best single-particle potential describing these many electron processes is the final-state potential.

  6. Suppressed Conductance From Spin Selection Rules in F-CNT-F Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Nikolaus; Morgan-Wall, Tyler; Markovic, Nina

    Conductance through a quantum dot can be suppressed due to spin selection rules governing the hoping of an additional electron onto an already-occupied quantum dot. Measurements of this effect in a carbon nanotube quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts will be presented. Suppressed conductance peaks are observed in the Coulomb diamond plots at zero field and explained using spin selection rules. The pattern of suppressed peaks is observed to change with applied magnetic field as the spin ground state of the occupied quantum dot changes. This work was supported by NSF DMR-1106167.

  7. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbon Black/Silicone Rubber Coating by Frequency-Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoning; Luo, Fa; Gao, Lu; Qing, Yuchang; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-10-01

    A square frequency-selective surface (FSS) design has been employed to improve the microwave absorption properties of carbon black/silicone rubber (CBSR) composite coating. The FSS is placed on the surface of the CBSR coating. The effects of FSS design parameters on the microwave absorption properties of the CBSR coating have been investigated, including the size and period of the FSS design, and the thickness and permittivity of the coating. Simulation results indicate that the absorption peak for the CBSR coating alone is related to its thickness and electromagnetic parameters, while the combination of the CBSR coating with a FSS can exhibit a new absorption peak in the reflection curve; the frequency of the new absorption peak is determined by the resonance of the square FSS design and tightly depends on the size of the squares, with larger squares in the FSS design leading to a lower frequency of the new absorption peak. The enhancement of the absorption performance depends on achievement of a new absorption peak using a suitable size and period of the FSS design. In addition, the FSS design has a stable frequency response for both transverse electromagnetic (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations as the incident angle varies from 0° to 40°. The optimized results indicate that the bandwidth with reflection loss below -5 dB can encompass the whole frequency range from 8 GHz to 18 GHz for thickness of the CBSR coating of only 1.8 mm. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments.

  8. Modafinil Effects on Middle-Frequency Oscillatory Power During Rule Selection in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Carter, Cameron S

    2014-01-01

    Control-related cognitive processes such as rule selection are associated with cortical oscillations in the theta, alpha and, beta ranges, and modulated by catecholamine neurotransmission. Thus, a potential strategy for improving cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia would be to use pro-catecholamine pharmacological agents to augment these control-related oscillations. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled (within-subjects) study, we tested the effects of adjunctive single-dose modafinil 200 mg on rule-related 4–30 Hz oscillations in 23 stable schizophrenia patients, using EEG during cognitive control task performance. EEG data underwent time-frequency decomposition with Morlet wavelets to determine the power of 4–30 Hz oscillations. Modafinil (relative to placebo) enhanced oscillatory power associated with high-control rule selection in theta, alpha, and beta ranges, with modest effects during rule maintenance. Modafinil treatment in schizophrenia augments middle-frequency cortical oscillatory power associated with rule selection, and may subserve diverse subcomponent processes in proactive cognitive control. PMID:24964814

  9. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  10. Dynamics of CO(2) laser pulse filamentation in air influenced by spectrally selective molecular absorption.

    PubMed

    Geints, Yuri E; Zemlyanov, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical aspects of self-focusing and filamentation of high-power pulsed CO(2) laser radiation with carrier wavelength 10.6 μm in air are considered. The spectrally selective molecular absorption of realistic atmospheric air is included in the theoretical model. In the conditions of strong pulse self-phase modulation and pulse spectral broadening, the supercontinual radiation spectrum is substantially influenced by the selective atmospheric absorption that destabilizes the filamentation process and results in considerable shortening of the filamentation length. PMID:25321358

  11. Selecting Pesticides and Nonchemical Alternatives: Green Thumbs' Rules of Thumb Decision Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 78 (of 320) home gardeners use rules of thumb (heuristics) to choose between chemical pesticides and nonchemical alternatives. Pesticides rank low in 24 choice attributes where alternatives rank high, and vice versa. Gender, age, and years of pesticide use correlate with pesticide selection. (SK)

  12. Bourdieu's Distinction between Rules and Strategies and Secondary Principal Practice: A Review of Selected Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature on secondary principal practice from which to propose an approach for further research. The review demonstrates that applications of Bourdieu's theory of practice have contributed to understandings about secondary principal practice, and that the distinction he made between rules and strategies has the…

  13. A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

  14. A Flexible Mechanism of Rule Selection Enables Rapid Feature-Based Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Balcarras, Matthew; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Learning in a new environment is influenced by prior learning and experience. Correctly applying a rule that maps a context to stimuli, actions, and outcomes enables faster learning and better outcomes compared to relying on strategies for learning that are ignorant of task structure. However, it is often difficult to know when and how to apply learned rules in new contexts. In our study we explored how subjects employ different strategies for learning the relationship between stimulus features and positive outcomes in a probabilistic task context. We test the hypothesis that task naive subjects will show enhanced learning of feature specific reward associations by switching to the use of an abstract rule that associates stimuli by feature type and restricts selections to that dimension. To test this hypothesis we designed a decision making task where subjects receive probabilistic feedback following choices between pairs of stimuli. In the task, trials are grouped in two contexts by blocks, where in one type of block there is no unique relationship between a specific feature dimension (stimulus shape or color) and positive outcomes, and following an un-cued transition, alternating blocks have outcomes that are linked to either stimulus shape or color. Two-thirds of subjects (n = 22/32) exhibited behavior that was best fit by a hierarchical feature-rule model. Supporting the prediction of the model mechanism these subjects showed significantly enhanced performance in feature-reward blocks, and rapidly switched their choice strategy to using abstract feature rules when reward contingencies changed. Choice behavior of other subjects (n = 10/32) was fit by a range of alternative reinforcement learning models representing strategies that do not benefit from applying previously learned rules. In summary, these results show that untrained subjects are capable of flexibly shifting between behavioral rules by leveraging simple model-free reinforcement learning and context

  15. A Flexible Mechanism of Rule Selection Enables Rapid Feature-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Balcarras, Matthew; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Learning in a new environment is influenced by prior learning and experience. Correctly applying a rule that maps a context to stimuli, actions, and outcomes enables faster learning and better outcomes compared to relying on strategies for learning that are ignorant of task structure. However, it is often difficult to know when and how to apply learned rules in new contexts. In our study we explored how subjects employ different strategies for learning the relationship between stimulus features and positive outcomes in a probabilistic task context. We test the hypothesis that task naive subjects will show enhanced learning of feature specific reward associations by switching to the use of an abstract rule that associates stimuli by feature type and restricts selections to that dimension. To test this hypothesis we designed a decision making task where subjects receive probabilistic feedback following choices between pairs of stimuli. In the task, trials are grouped in two contexts by blocks, where in one type of block there is no unique relationship between a specific feature dimension (stimulus shape or color) and positive outcomes, and following an un-cued transition, alternating blocks have outcomes that are linked to either stimulus shape or color. Two-thirds of subjects (n = 22/32) exhibited behavior that was best fit by a hierarchical feature-rule model. Supporting the prediction of the model mechanism these subjects showed significantly enhanced performance in feature-reward blocks, and rapidly switched their choice strategy to using abstract feature rules when reward contingencies changed. Choice behavior of other subjects (n = 10/32) was fit by a range of alternative reinforcement learning models representing strategies that do not benefit from applying previously learned rules. In summary, these results show that untrained subjects are capable of flexibly shifting between behavioral rules by leveraging simple model-free reinforcement learning and context

  16. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS BY PH-SELECTIVE HYDRIDE GENERATION-ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory


    A method based on pH-selective generation and separation of arsines is commonly used for analysis of inorganic, methylated, and dimethylated trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). We have optimized this method to pe...

  17. Bilingualism trains specific brain circuits involved in flexible rule selection and application.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Andrea; Prat, Chantel S

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual individuals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that measure non-linguistic executive functioning, suggesting that some facets of the bilingual experience give rise to generalized improvements in cognitive performance. The current study investigated the hypothesis that such advantage in executive functioning arises from the need to flexibly select and apply rules when speaking multiple languages. Such flexible behavior may strengthen the functioning of the fronto-striatal loops that direct signals to the prefrontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral and brain data from proficient bilinguals and monolinguals who performed a Rapid Instructed Task Learning paradigm, which requires behaving according to ever-changing rules. Consistent with our hypothesis, bilinguals were faster than monolinguals when executing novel rules, and this improvement was associated with greater modulation of activity in the basal ganglia. The implications of these findings for language and executive function research are discussed herein.

  18. [Study on rules of acupoints selection for vertigo in ancient acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiana; Chen, Hua-De

    2014-04-01

    The characteristics of selection and matching acupoint and application rules of meridians in ancient acupuncture literature for vertigo were explored. The data were collected from literature regarding acupuncture for vertigo from the pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty and then database was established. Frequency statistics method and comparison of support degree were applied to analyze and explore application rules of acupoints and meridians, while association rules in data mining was used to extract combinations of acupoints. As a result, for treatment of vertigo, according to frequency of use and support degree, generally the most selected acupoints, in turn, were Fengchi (GB 20), Shangxing (GV 23), Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Shenting (GV 24), etc.; the most methods for matching acupoint were combination of adjacent acupoints, combination of same-meridian acupoints, combination of the superior-inferior acupoints, combination of yang-meridian and yang-meridian acupoints and combination of child-mother meridians acupoints; the most selected meridians were bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang and governor vessel. Compared between the ancient and modern literature, it was found out that the ancient and modern clinic has same points in selection of acupoint-meridian and matching acupoints methods. However, the use of Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41) and Feiyang (BL 58) as well as combination of child-mother meridians acupoints were less seen in modern clinic, which could provide new reference.

  19. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbon Black/Silicone Rubber Coating by Frequency-Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoning; Luo, Fa; Gao, Lu; Qing, Yuchang; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-06-01

    A square frequency-selective surface (FSS) design has been employed to improve the microwave absorption properties of carbon black/silicone rubber (CBSR) composite coating. The FSS is placed on the surface of the CBSR coating. The effects of FSS design parameters on the microwave absorption properties of the CBSR coating have been investigated, including the size and period of the FSS design, and the thickness and permittivity of the coating. Simulation results indicate that the absorption peak for the CBSR coating alone is related to its thickness and electromagnetic parameters, while the combination of the CBSR coating with a FSS can exhibit a new absorption peak in the reflection curve; the frequency of the new absorption peak is determined by the resonance of the square FSS design and tightly depends on the size of the squares, with larger squares in the FSS design leading to a lower frequency of the new absorption peak. The enhancement of the absorption performance depends on achievement of a new absorption peak using a suitable␣size and period of the FSS design. In addition, the FSS design has a stable␣frequency response for both transverse electromagnetic (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations as the incident angle varies from 0° to 40°. The optimized results indicate that the bandwidth with reflection loss below -5 dB can encompass the whole frequency range from 8 GHz to 18 GHz for thickness of the CBSR coating of only 1.8 mm. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments.

  20. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space. PMID:24875790

  1. Theoretical calculations on the electron absorption spectra of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Ping

    1993-01-01

    As a theoretical component of the joint effort with the laboratory of Dr. Lou Allamandola to search for potential candidates for interstellar organic carbon compound that are responsible for the visible diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIB's), quantum mechanical calculations were performed on the electron absorption spectra of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives. In the completed project, 15 different species of naphthalene, its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives, and corresponding cations and anions were studied. Using semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S, the ground electronic state of each species was evaluated with restricted Hartree-Fock scheme and limited configuration interaction. The lowest energy spin state for each species was used for electron absorption calculations. Results indicate that these calculations are accurate enough to reproduce the spectra of naphthalene cation and anion observed in neon matrix. The spectral pattern of the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives predicted based on these results indicate that the electron configuration of the pi orbitals of these species is the dominant determinant. A combined list of 19 absorptions calculated from 4500 A to 10,400 A were compiled and suggested as potential candidates that are relevant for the DIB's absorptions. Continued studies on pyrene and derivatives revealed the ground state symmetries and multiplicities of its neutral, anionic, and cationic species. Spectral calculations show that the cation (B(sub 3g)-2) and the anion (A(sub u)-2) are more likely to have low energy absorptions in the regions between 10 kK and 20 kK, similar to naphthalene. These absorptions, together with those to be determined from the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives of pyrene, can be used to provide additional candidates and suggest experimental work in the search for interstellar compounds that are responsible for DIB's.

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid gels for the selective absorption of oils from water.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2016-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid gels were synthesized by the condensation of a linear aliphatic diol (1,8-octanediol) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes (from ethyltriethoxysilane to hexadecyltrimethoxysilane) through a bulk polymerization process without using any initiator, activator, catalyst, or solvent for the selective removal of oils from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR) were used for the structural analysis of hybrid gels. Thermal properties of the hybrid gels were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Oil absorbency of organic-inorganic hybrid gels was determined by oil absorption tests. The results showed that hybrid gels have high and fast absorption capacities and excellent reusability. Good selectivity, high thermal stability, low density, and excellent recyclability for the oil removal give the material potential applications. PMID:26939691

  3. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  4. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. II - Data calibration and absorption-line selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Saxe, David H.; Weymann, Ray J.; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present the observational and data processing aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project. Topics discussed include the observational technique, calibration of the data, software that simulates the data, the automated procedure used to identify and characterize the absorption features, and the determination of the sensitivity limits of the survey.

  6. Bigger knows better: young children selectively learn rule games from adults rather than from peers.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Preschoolers' selective learning from adult versus peer models was investigated. Extending previous research, children from age 3 were shown to selectively learn simple rule games from adult rather than peer models. Furthermore, this selective learning was not confined to preferentially performing certain acts oneself, but more specifically had a normative dimension to it: children understood the way the adult demonstrated an act not only as the better one, but as the normatively appropriate/correct one. This was indicated in their spontaneous normative interventions (protest, critique, etc.) in response to third party acts deviating from the one demonstrated by the adult model. Various interpretations of these findings are discussed in the broader context of the development of children's social cognition and cultural learning. PMID:21121467

  7. Bipyridine hydrogel for selective and visible detection and absorption of Cd2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qingqing; Wu, Ziye; Hai, Zijuan; Tao, Changlu; Yuan, Qingpan; Gong, Yadi; Guan, Yafeng; Jiang, Jun; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time the use of bipyridine-based hydrogel for selective and visible detection and absorption of Cd2+. At low concentrations, hydrogelator 1 was applied for selective detection of Cd2+in vitro and in living cells with high sensitivity. In the absence of metal ions, 1 is nonfluorescent at 470 nm. Upon addition of metal ions, 1 selectively coordinates to Cd2+, causing an 86-fold increase of fluorescence intensity at 470 nm via the chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect, as revealed by first-principles simulations. At 1.5 wt% and pH 5.5, 1 self-assembles into nanofibers to form hydrogel Gel I. Since Cd2+ could actively participate in the hydrogelation and promote the self-assembly, we also successfully applied Gel I for visible detection and absorption of Cd2+. With these excellent properties, Gel I is expected to be explored as one type of versatile biomaterial for not only environmental monitoring but also for pollution treatment in the near future.Herein, we report for the first time the use of bipyridine-based hydrogel for selective and visible detection and absorption of Cd2+. At low concentrations, hydrogelator 1 was applied for selective detection of Cd2+in vitro and in living cells with high sensitivity. In the absence of metal ions, 1 is nonfluorescent at 470 nm. Upon addition of metal ions, 1 selectively coordinates to Cd2+, causing an 86-fold increase of fluorescence intensity at 470 nm via the chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect, as revealed by first-principles simulations. At 1.5 wt% and pH 5.5, 1 self-assembles into nanofibers to form hydrogel Gel I. Since Cd2+ could actively participate in the hydrogelation and promote the self-assembly, we also successfully applied Gel I for visible detection and absorption of Cd2+. With these excellent properties, Gel I is expected to be explored as one type of versatile biomaterial for not only environmental monitoring but also for pollution treatment in the near future

  8. Selection rules for electromagnetic transitions in triaxially deformed odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Kosai; Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko

    2008-06-15

    The approximate selection rules for the interband and intraband electromagnetic transitions are predicted referring to two quantum numbers, which are derived from an algebraic solution for the particle-rotor model with one high-j nucleon coupled to a triaxially deformed core. It is shown that the inclusion of angular momentum dependence for moments of inertia reproduces the experimental excitation energies relative to a reference quite well both for positive and negative parity TSD bands in {sup 161,163,165,167}Lu.

  9. Comparison of the Electronic Transitions of Unconjugated Thiones and Imines: An Exercise in the Application of Symmetry Selection Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worman, James J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how symmetry selection rules can be used to determine whether certain of the electronic transitions exhibited by the title compounds are allowed or forbidden by symmetry. (Author/CP)

  10. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment. PMID:26964186

  11. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment.

  12. Three-dimensionally macroporous Fe/C nanocomposites as highly selective oil-absorption materials.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ying; Pan, Qinmin

    2012-05-01

    In this study, three-dimensionally macroporous Fe/C nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorption materials for removing oils from water surface. The macroporous nanocomposites were synthesized by sintering a mixture of closely packed polystyrene microspheres and ferric nitrate precursor. These nanocomposites exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties without the modification of low-surface-energy chemicals. And the pore size of the nanocomposites, which is crucial for the oil-absorption capacity, was tuned by varying the diameter of polystyrene microspheres. The macroporous nanocomposites fast and selectively absorbed a wide range of oils and hydrophobic organic solvents on water surface, and the removal of the absorbed oils from the water surface was readily achieved under a magnetic field. Moreover, the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. Because of frequently occurring environmental pollution arising from oil spills and chemicals leakage, the results of this study might offer a kind of efficient and selective absorbent materials for removing oils and nonpolar organic solvents from the surface of water. PMID:22530653

  13. Comparative accuracy of the Albedo, transmission and absorption for selected radiative transfer approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.; HARSHVARDHAN

    1986-01-01

    Illustrations of both the relative and absolute accuracy of eight different radiative transfer approximations as a function of optical thickness, solar zenith angle and single scattering albedo are given. Computational results for the plane albedo, total transmission and fractional absorption were obtained for plane-parallel atmospheres composed of cloud particles. These computations, which were obtained using the doubling method, are compared with comparable results obtained using selected radiative transfer approximations. Comparisons were made between asymptotic theory for thick layers and the following widely used two stream approximations: Coakley-Chylek's models 1 and 2, Meador-Weaver, Eddington, delta-Eddington, PIFM and delta-discrete ordinates.

  14. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES AS A PROBE OF QUASAR ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Okoshi, Katsuya; Nagashima, Masahiro; Gouda, Naoteru; Minowa, Yousuke

    2010-02-20

    We investigate the properties of H I-rich galaxies detected in blind radio surveys within the hierarchical structure formation scenario using a semianalytic model of galaxy formation. By drawing a detailed comparison between the properties of H I-selected galaxies and H I absorption systems, we argue a link between the local galaxy population and quasar absorption systems, particularly for damped Lyalpha absorption (DLA) systems and sub-DLA systems. First, we evaluate how many H I-selected galaxies exhibit H I column densities as high as those of DLA systems. We find that H I-selected galaxies with H I masses M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}> 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} have gaseous disks that produce H I column densities comparable to those of DLA systems. We conclude that DLA galaxies where the H I column densities are as high as those of DLA systems, contribute significantly to the population of H I-selected galaxies at M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}> 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. Second, we find that star formation rates (SFRs) correlate tightly with H I masses (M{sub H{sub I}}) rather than B- (and J-) band luminosities: SFR {proportional_to} M {sup alpha}{sub H{sub I}}, alpha = 1.25-1.40 for 10{sup 6} <= M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub sun} <= 10{sup 11}. In the low-mass range M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, sub-DLA galaxies replace DLA galaxies as the dominant population. The number fraction of sub-DLA galaxies relative to galaxies reaches 40%-60% for M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and 30%-80% for M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}. The H I-selected galaxies at M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} are a strong probe of sub-DLA systems that place stringent constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  15. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results. PMID:25867082

  16. Screening method for solvent selection used in tar removal by the absorption process.

    PubMed

    Masurel, Eve; Authier, Olivier; Castel, Christophe; Roizard, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the treatment of flue gas issued from a process of biomass gasification in fluidized bed. The flue gas contains tar which should be selectively removed from the fuel components of interest (e.g. H2, CO and light hydrocarbons) to avoid condensation and deposits in internal combustion engine. The chosen flue gas treatment is the gas-liquid absorption using solvents, which present specific physicochemical properties (e.g. solubility, viscosity, volatility and chemical and thermal stability) in order to optimize the unit on energetic, technico-economic and environmental criteria. The rational choice of the proper solvent is essential for solving the tar issue. The preselection of the solvents is made using a Hansen parameter in order to evaluate the tar solubility and the saturation vapour pressure of the solvent is obtained using Antoine law. Among the nine families of screened solvents (alcohols, amines, ketones, halogenates, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, sulphured and chlorinates), acids methyl esters arise as solvents of interest. Methyl oleate has then been selected and studied furthermore. Experimental liquid-vapour equilibrium data using bubbling point and absorption cell measurements and theoretical results obtained by the UNIFAC-Dortmund model confirm the high potential of this solvent and the good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  17. Permutation Symmetry in Spinor Quantum Gases: Selection Rules, Conservation Laws, and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A.

    2014-11-01

    Many-body systems of identical arbitrary-spin particles, with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom, are considered. Their eigenstates can be classified by Young diagrams, corresponding to nontrivial permutation symmetries (beyond the conventional paradigm of symmetric-antisymmetric states). The present work obtains the following. (a) Selection rules for additional nonseparable (dependent on spins and coordinates) k -body interactions: the Young diagrams, associated with the initial and final states of a transition, can differ by relocation of no more than k boxes between their rows. (b) Correlation rules in which eigenstate-averaged local correlations of k particles vanish if k exceeds the number of columns (for bosons) or rows (for fermions) in the associated Young diagram. It also elucidates the physical meaning of the quantities conserved due to permutation symmetry—in 1929, Dirac identified those with characters of the symmetric group—relating them to experimentally observable correlations of several particles. The results provide a way to control the formation of entangled states belonging to multidimensional non-Abelian representations of the symmetric group. These states can find applications in quantum computation and metrology.

  18. Permutation symmetry in spinor quantum gases: selection rules, conservation laws, and correlations.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A

    2014-11-14

    Many-body systems of identical arbitrary-spin particles, with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom, are considered. Their eigenstates can be classified by Young diagrams, corresponding to nontrivial permutation symmetries (beyond the conventional paradigm of symmetric-antisymmetric states). The present work obtains the following. (a) Selection rules for additional nonseparable (dependent on spins and coordinates) k-body interactions: the Young diagrams, associated with the initial and final states of a transition, can differ by relocation of no more than k boxes between their rows. (b) Correlation rules in which eigenstate-averaged local correlations of k particles vanish if k exceeds the number of columns (for bosons) or rows (for fermions) in the associated Young diagram. It also elucidates the physical meaning of the quantities conserved due to permutation symmetry-in 1929, Dirac identified those with characters of the symmetric group-relating them to experimentally observable correlations of several particles. The results provide a way to control the formation of entangled states belonging to multidimensional non-Abelian representations of the symmetric group. These states can find applications in quantum computation and metrology.

  19. Raman selection rule for surface optical phonons in ZnS nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Varadhan, Purushothaman; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Cheng-Ying; Fang, Xiaosheng; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-03-21

    We report Raman scattering results for high-quality wurtzite ZnS nanobelts (NBs) grown by chemical vapor deposition. In the Raman spectrum, the ensembles of ZnS NBs exhibit first order phonon modes at 274 cm(-1) and 350 cm(-1), corresponding to A1/E1 transverse optical and A1/E1 longitudinal optical phonons, in addition to a strong surface optical (SO) phonon mode at 329 cm(-1). The existence of the SO band is confirmed by its shift with different surrounding dielectric media. Polarization dependent Raman spectra were recorded on a single ZnS NB and for the first time a SO phonon band has been detected on a single nanobelt. Different selection rules for the SO phonon mode are shown from their corresponding E1/A1 phonon modes, and were attributed to the breaking of anisotropic translational symmetry on the NB surface. PMID:26924069

  20. Electromagnetic selection rules in the triangular α-cluster model of 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellin, G.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    After recapitulating the procedure to find the bands and the states occurring in the {{ D }}3h alpha-cluster model of 12C in which the clusters are placed at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle, we obtain the selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. While the alpha-cluster structure leads to the cancellation of E1 transitions, the approximations carried out in deriving the rotational-vibrational Hamiltonian lead to the disappearance of M1 transitions. Furthermore, although in general the lowest active modes are E2, E3, ... and M2, M3, ..., the cancellation of M2, M3 and M5 transitions between certain bands also occur as a result of the application of group theoretical techniques drawn from molecular physics. These implications can be very relevant for the spectroscopic analysis of γ-ray spectra of 12C.

  1. Slowing down fat digestion and absorption by an oxadiazolone inhibitor targeting selectively gastric lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Point, Vanessa; Bénarouche, Anais; Zarrillo, Julie; Guy, Alexandre; Magnez, Romain; Fonseca, Laurence; Raux, Brigitt; Leclaire, Julien; Buono, Gérard; Fotiadu, Frédéric; Durand, Thierry; Carrière, Frédéric; Vaysse, Carole; Couëdelo, Leslie; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2016-11-10

    Based on a previous study and in silico molecular docking experiments, we have designed and synthesized a new series of ten 5-Alkoxy-N-3-(3-PhenoxyPhenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2(3H)-one derivatives (RmPPOX). These molecules were further evaluated as selective and potent inhibitors of mammalian digestive lipases: purified dog gastric lipase (DGL) and guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (GPLRP2), as well as porcine (PPL) and human (HPL) pancreatic lipases contained in porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) and human pancreatic juices (HPJ), respectively. These compounds were found to strongly discriminate classical pancreatic lipases (poorly inhibited) from gastric lipase (fully inhibited). Among them, the 5-(2-(Benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-PhenoxyPhenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (BemPPOX) was identified as the most potent inhibitor of DGL, even more active than the FDA-approved drug Orlistat. BemPPOX and Orlistat were further compared in vitro in the course of test meal digestion, and in vivo with a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model to evaluate their respective impacts on fat absorption. While Orlistat inhibited both gastric and duodenal lipolysis and drastically reduced fat absorption in rats, BemPPOX showed a specific action on gastric lipolysis that slowed down the overall lipolysis process and led to a subsequent reduction of around 55% of the intestinal absorption of fatty acids compared to controls. All these data promote BemPPOX as a potent candidate to efficiently regulate the gastrointestinal lipolysis, and to investigate its link with satiety mechanisms and therefore develop new strategies to "fight against obesity".

  2. Slowing down fat digestion and absorption by an oxadiazolone inhibitor targeting selectively gastric lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Point, Vanessa; Bénarouche, Anais; Zarrillo, Julie; Guy, Alexandre; Magnez, Romain; Fonseca, Laurence; Raux, Brigitt; Leclaire, Julien; Buono, Gérard; Fotiadu, Frédéric; Durand, Thierry; Carrière, Frédéric; Vaysse, Carole; Couëdelo, Leslie; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2016-11-10

    Based on a previous study and in silico molecular docking experiments, we have designed and synthesized a new series of ten 5-Alkoxy-N-3-(3-PhenoxyPhenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2(3H)-one derivatives (RmPPOX). These molecules were further evaluated as selective and potent inhibitors of mammalian digestive lipases: purified dog gastric lipase (DGL) and guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (GPLRP2), as well as porcine (PPL) and human (HPL) pancreatic lipases contained in porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) and human pancreatic juices (HPJ), respectively. These compounds were found to strongly discriminate classical pancreatic lipases (poorly inhibited) from gastric lipase (fully inhibited). Among them, the 5-(2-(Benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-PhenoxyPhenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (BemPPOX) was identified as the most potent inhibitor of DGL, even more active than the FDA-approved drug Orlistat. BemPPOX and Orlistat were further compared in vitro in the course of test meal digestion, and in vivo with a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model to evaluate their respective impacts on fat absorption. While Orlistat inhibited both gastric and duodenal lipolysis and drastically reduced fat absorption in rats, BemPPOX showed a specific action on gastric lipolysis that slowed down the overall lipolysis process and led to a subsequent reduction of around 55% of the intestinal absorption of fatty acids compared to controls. All these data promote BemPPOX as a potent candidate to efficiently regulate the gastrointestinal lipolysis, and to investigate its link with satiety mechanisms and therefore develop new strategies to "fight against obesity". PMID:27543878

  3. Communication: The H{sub 2}@C{sub 60} inelastic neutron scattering selection rule: Expanded and explained

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Bill

    2015-09-14

    Recently [M. Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 064309 (2013)], an unexpected selection rule was discovered for the title system, contradicting the previously held belief that inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is not subject to any selection rules. Moreover, the newly predicted forbidden transitions, which emerge only in the context of coupled H{sub 2} translation-rotation (TR) dynamics, have been confirmed experimentally. However, a simple physical understanding, e.g., based on group theory, has been heretofore lacking. This is provided in the present paper, in which we (1) derive the correct symmetry group for the H{sub 2}@C{sub 60} TR Hamiltonian and eigenstates; (2) complete the INS selection rule, and show that the set of forbidden transitions is actually much larger than previously believed; and (3) evaluate previous theoretical and experimental results, in light of the new findings.

  4. Selection-rule breakdown in plasmon-induced electronic excitation of an isolated single-walled carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Mai; Ajiki, Hiroshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Komeda, Keiichiro; Nara, Masanobu; Nabika, Hideki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ishihara, Hajime; Murakoshi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Optical transitions between electronic levels are restricted according to the selection rules governed by the parities of electronic wavefunctions. If this restriction can be removed, then drastic improvements in the efficiency and diversity of photoreactions may be realized. Because the selection rules are based on the long wavelength approximation, wherein the field amplitude is assumed to be constant within a molecule, a localized plasmon that has an electromagnetic field with a significantly high gradient is expected to violate the conventional limitations of the optical response. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of controlling the optical electronic transitions of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using metal nanodimers with a controlled nanogap distance. Highly systematic identification of the excitations of individual SWNTs through well-resolved Raman signals implies a breakdown of the selection rules due to the strong field gradient in the radial direction of the SWNTs.

  5. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching.

    PubMed

    Sivarajah, I; Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2013-11-01

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field. PMID:24289382

  6. The effect of selective absorption on coal conversion. [2-t-butyltetralin

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Lazarov, L.

    1991-07-01

    Scope of work: (1) Importance of hydrogen donors in the coal, prepare highly pure 2-t-butyltetralin. Study the conversion of Argonne coals in tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin and compare the following: conversion to soluble products, product molecular weight distributions, and product structure. Hydrogen donated by both solvents will be measured by gas chromatography and the same technique will be used to establish the amount of dealkylation of 2-t-butyltetralin. Reactions will be run at several temperatures for varying times. (2) Selective recycle solvent absorption. Argonne coals will be exposed to recycle solvents at several elevated temperatures and the non-absorbed portion of the solvent will be separated by filtration. The composition of the whole oil and non-absorbed portion will be analyzed spectroscopically and chromatographically and compared to determine the composition of the recycle oil dissolved in the coal. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Selective two-photon absorptive resonance femtosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R; Stauffer, Hans U; Danehy, Paul M; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-05-15

    Selective two-photon absorptive resonance femtosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging (STARFLEET), a nonseeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and nonreactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25 nm 100 fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 μJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and nonreactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities, and further demonstrate the significantly less intrusive nature of STARFLEET. PMID:27176968

  8. Crystallographic analysis of CaaX prenyltransferases complexed with substrates defines rules of protein substrate selectivity.

    PubMed

    Reid, T Scott; Terry, Kimberly L; Casey, Patrick J; Beese, Lorena S

    2004-10-15

    Post-translational modifications are essential for the proper function of many proteins in the cell. The attachment of an isoprenoid lipid (a process termed prenylation) by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) or geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) is essential for the function of many signal transduction proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and oncogenesis. FTase and GGTase-I (also called the CaaX prenyltransferases) recognize protein substrates with a C-terminal tetrapeptide recognition motif called the Ca1a2X box. These enzymes possess distinct but overlapping protein substrate specificity that is determined primarily by the sequence identity of the Ca1a2X motif. To determine how the identity of the Ca1a2X motif residues and sequence upstream of this motif affect substrate binding, we have solved crystal structures of FTase and GGTase-I complexed with a total of eight cognate and cross-reactive substrate peptides, including those derived from the C termini of the oncoproteins K-Ras4B, H-Ras and TC21. These structures suggest that all peptide substrates adopt a common binding mode in the FTase and GGTase-I active site. Unexpectedly, while the X residue of the Ca1a2X motif binds in the same location for all GGTase-I substrates, the X residue of FTase substrates can bind in one of two different sites. Together, these structures outline a series of rules that govern substrate peptide selectivity; these rules were utilized to classify known protein substrates of CaaX prenyltransferases and to generate a list of hypothetical substrates within the human genome.

  9. A selection rule for the directions of electronic fluxes during unimolecular pericyclic reactions in the electronic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, Jörn; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2012-05-01

    Unimolecular pericyclic reactions in a non-degenerate electronic ground state proceed under the constraint of zero electronic angular momentum. This restriction engenders a selection rule on the directions of electronic fluxes. Accordingly, clockwise or counter-clockwise fluxes are 'forbidden', whereas pincer-like fluxes (which consist of concerted clockwise and counter-clockwise fluxes) are 'allowed'. The selection rule is illustrated for three reactions: the degenerate Cope rearrangement of hexadiene, hydrogen transfer in malonaldehyde, and double proton transfer in the formic acid dimer.

  10. Relaxation process of the excited state and selection rule in the soft X-ray emission of Si and cBN.

    PubMed

    Shin, S; Agui, A; Harada, Y

    1997-07-01

    The soft X-ray emission spectra of Si and cubic boron nitride (cBN) are compared in the Si2p- and B1s-core exciton regions because inversion symmetry is lost and the band gap is extremely large for cBN although both crystal structures are very similar. The background in the soft X-ray emission spectrum of Si is much larger than that for cBN but becomes extremely weak as the excitation energy becomes low and the Raman process becomes dominant compared with the fluorescence process. The background is found to be mainly formed by electron excitation from the valence band to the conduction band. The Raman spectrum is similar to the absorption spectrum in cBN, while those of Si are quite different from each other. It is shown that the centrosymmetry is important in the selection rule of Raman scattering. In resonant Raman scattering the selection rule partly breaks down due to the lattice relaxation process that emits an ungerade phonon in the intermediate state.

  11. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  12. Confirming a predicted selection rule in inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy: the quantum translator-rotator H2 entrapped inside C60.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minzhong; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica; Johnson, Mark R; Rols, Stéphane; Ye, Shufeng; Carravetta, Marina; Denning, Mark S; Lei, Xuegong; Bačić, Zlatko; Horsewill, Anthony J

    2014-09-19

    We report an inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of a H2 molecule encapsulated inside the fullerene C60 which confirms the recently predicted selection rule, the first to be established for the INS spectroscopy of aperiodic, discrete molecular compounds. Several transitions from the ground state of para-H2 to certain excited translation-rotation states, forbidden according to the selection rule, are systematically absent from the INS spectra, thus validating the selection rule with a high degree of confidence. Its confirmation sets a precedent, as it runs counter to the widely held view that the INS spectroscopy of molecular compounds is not subject to any selection rules. PMID:25279623

  13. Selection rules for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.

    2014-02-01

    field having a constant negative potential, and for the case of a phantom scalar field with a positive potential. The FRW model of a scalar field with a vanishing potential does not lead to selection rules for solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, but this does not violate Hermiticity properties, because all these solutions are plane-wave type and describe cosmological dynamics without turning points and bounces. In models with turning points the description of classically forbidden domains goes beyond the original principles of the unitary quantum reduction to the physical sector, because it includes the complexification of the physical time variable or the complex nature of the physical Hamiltonian. However, this does not alter the formalism of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which continues describing underbarrier quantum dynamics in terms of real superspace variables.

  14. A VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY OF RADIO-SELECTED SDSS BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Brotherton, M. S.; De Breuck, C.; Laurent-Muehleisen, Sally

    2011-12-10

    We have built a sample of 74 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters, along with a well-matched sample of 74 unabsorbed 'normal' quasars. The sources have been observed with the NRAO Very Large Array/Expanded Very Large Array at 8.4 GHz (3.5 cm) and 4.9 GHz (6 cm). All sources have additional archival 1.4 GHz (21 cm) data. Here we present the measured radio fluxes, spectral indices, and our initial findings. The percentage of BAL quasars with extended structure (on the order of 10%) in our sample is similar to previous studies at similar resolutions, suggesting that BAL quasars are indeed generally compact, at least at arsecond resolutions. The majority of sources do not appear to be significantly variable at 1.4 GHz, but we find two previously unidentified BAL quasars that may fit into the 'polar' BAL category. We also identify a significant favoring of steeper radio spectral index for BAL compared to non-BAL quasars. This difference is apparent for several different measures of the spectral index and persists even when restricting the samples to only include compact objects. Because radio spectral index is a statistical indicator of viewing angle for large samples, these results suggest that BAL quasars do have a range of orientations but are more often observed farther from the jet axis compared to normal quasars.

  15. Rest-frame optical properties of luminous, radio-selected broad absorption line quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnoe, Jessie C.; Ganguly, R.; Brotherton, M. S.; DiPompeo, M. A.

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX spectra of eight moderate-redshift (z = 0.7-2.4), radio-selected (log R* ≈ 0.4-1.9) broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. The spectra cover the rest-frame optical band. We compare the optical properties of these quasars to those of canonically radio-quiet (log R* ≲ 1) BAL quasars at similar redshifts and to low-redshift quasars from the Palomar-Green catalogue. As with previous studies of BAL quasars, we find that [O III] λ5007 is weak, and optical Fe II emission is strong, a rare combination in canonically radio-loud (log R* ≳ 1) quasars. With our measurements of the optical properties, particularly the Balmer emission-line widths and the continuum luminosity, we have used empirical scaling relations to estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios. These lie in the range (0.4-2.6) × 109 M⊙ and 0.1-0.9, respectively. Despite their comparatively extreme radio properties relative to most BAL quasars, their optical properties are quite consistent with those of radio-quiet BAL quasars and dissimilar to those of radio-loud non-BAL quasars. While BAL quasars generally appear to have low values of [O III] λ5007/Fe II an extreme of `Eigenvector 1', the Balmer line widths and Eddington ratios do not appear to significantly differ from those of unabsorbed quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities.

  16. A pixel selection rule based on the number of different-phase neighbours for the simulated annealing reconstruction of sandstone microstructure.

    PubMed

    Tang, T; Teng, Q; He, X; Luo, D

    2009-06-01

    Sandstone reservoir is one of the main types of oil and gas reservoirs in China. It has porous microstructure, which directly affects the transport properties of a sandstone. Hence, the study of porous microstructure is important to the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Three-dimensional microstructure of a sandstone can be reconstructed using the simulated annealing method based on statistical properties of its two-dimensional micrograph. The aim of reconstruction is to minimize the discrepancy between the statistical properties of the reconstructed microstructure and those of the two-dimensional image. To accelerate the rate of convergence, we proposed a different-phase neighbours (DPNs)-based pixel selection rule to replace the random pixel selection rule of the simulated annealing reconstruction. In this rule, pixels with the largest number of DPNs have the largest selection probability. The selection probabilities of other pixels are proportional to their DPNs. Microstructure reconstructed with the DPNs-based rule is compared with those with the random selection rule and two other biased pixel selection rules. The DPNs-based rule is the most effective in enhancing convergence. Permeability of the microstructure reconstructed with the DPNs-based rule is estimated by the Kozeny-Carman formula and is in good agreement with the one reconstructed with the random pixel selection rule.

  17. Analysis of reflection, transmission and absorption of frequency selective surfaces in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscasu, Irina

    Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) are commonly used as dichroic filters in the microwave portion of the spectrum. These filters are typically configured as periodic arrays of metallic patches supported by a dielectric substrate, or as an array of apertures on a metallic sheet. To first order, the current-wave resonance of the individual patches or apertures determines the spectral behavior of the structure. The resonant dimension of the structures is on the order of a wavelength of the incident radiation. Using the high- resolution capabilities of direct-write electron-beam lithography (DEBL), the functionality of an FSS can be extended toward shorter wavelengths-into the infrared (IR), and even to visible wavelengths. Design of FSSs at these short wavelengths presents new problems-the usual assumption of perfect metal conductivity is not valid in the IR. In our method-of- moments model, we use a frequency-dependent complex conductivity to characterize the metallic structure, which allows prediction of the location, magnitude, and spectral width of the resonance. We compare the measured behavior of our IR FSSs to the theoretical predictions and find good agreement over a wide range of structure sizes and materials. Treating the loss mechanism in this way allows us to predict resonant effects not only for reflection and transmission, but for absorption as well. Kirchoff's Law, which states that absorption and emissivity are equal on a spectral basis, provides a means to develop IR FSSs for which the spectral emissivity can be enhanced over a desired range of wavelengths. This characteristic has potential application in development of new sources for IR spectroscopy, and in IR-signature management. Fabrication of IR FSSs by DEBL allows fine control over the dimensions of the metallic elements, but the direct write process is slow and hence too expensive for practical development of large-area IR FSSs. We investigated precision imprint embossing as a candidate

  18. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  19. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-10-05

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  20. Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Yang, Ji-Hui; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Yan, Yanfa; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-10-01

    The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.

  1. A novel control system for automatically locking a diode laser frequency to a selected gas absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Ma, Weiguang; Jia, Suotang

    2007-05-01

    A novel control system has been developed for avoiding manual operation during traditional frequency locking. The control system uses a computer with a commercial data acquisition card. This accomplishes the whole operation of frequency locking, including generating ramp, searching locking point, engaging a proportional-integral-differential (PID) regulator at the proper time and outputting PID compensation signal. Moreover, a new method has also been employed to make the novel control system accurately identify the locking points of all absorption lines within the scanning range, so that the laser frequency can be automatically firmly brought onto any selected absorption line centre without any adjusting time. The operation of the system, the ability to identify absorption lines and the performance of the frequency locking were discussed in detail. Successful tests were made with two different lasers: external cavity diode lasers and distributed feedback diode lasers.

  2. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  3. Tunable ultranarrow spectrum selective absorption in a graphene monolayer at terahertz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Complete absorption in a graphene monolayer at terahertz frequency through the critical coupling effect is investigated. It is achieved by sandwiching the graphene monolayer between a dielectric grating and a Bragg grating. The designed graphene absorber exhibits near-unity absorption at resonance but with an ultranarrow spectrum and antenna-like response, which is attributed to the combined effects of guided mode resonance with dielectric grating and the photonic band gap with Bragg grating. In addition to numerical simulation, the electric field distributions are also illustrated to provide a physical understanding of the perfect absorption effect. Furthermore, the absorption performance can be tuned by only changing the Fermi level of graphene, which is beneficial for real application. It is believed that this study may be useful for designing next-generation graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  4. Molecular basis of substrate selection by the N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS

    SciTech Connect

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2009-06-19

    The N-end rule is a conserved degradation pathway that relates the stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid. Here, we present crystal structures of ClpS, the bacterial N-end rule adaptor, alone and engaged with peptides containing N-terminal phenylalanine, leucine, and tryptophan. These structures, together with a previous structure of ClpS bound to an N-terminal tyrosine, illustrate the molecular basis of recognition of the complete set of primary N-end rule amino acids. In each case, the alpha-amino group and side chain of the N-terminal residue are the major determinants of recognition. The binding pocket for the N-end residue is preformed in the free adaptor, and only small adjustments are needed to accommodate N-end rule residues having substantially different sizes and shapes. M53A ClpS is known to mediate degradation of an expanded repertoire of substrates, including those with N-terminal valine or isoleucine. A structure of Met53A ClpS engaged with an N-end rule tryptophan reveals an essentially wild-type mechanism of recognition, indicating that the Met(53) side chain directly enforces specificity by clashing with and excluding beta-branched side chains. Finally, experimental and structural data suggest mechanisms that make proteins with N-terminal methionine bind very poorly to ClpS, explaining why these high-abundance proteins are not degraded via the N-end rule pathway in the cell.

  5. Effect of metal base layer on the absorptance and emittance of sputtered graded metal-carbon selective absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, G. L.; Craig, S.

    1981-08-01

    Solar absorptance and temperature-dependent emittance is measured for graded metal-carbon films deposited onto smooth aluminum, copper, nickel, and stainless steel base layers, sputter-deposited onto glass tubes at relatively low argon pressure (approximately 0.5 Pa), and deposited onto textured copper using argon pressures 3 to 40 Pa. Absorptance measurements are made on surfaces deposited onto small plane glass slides attached to a glass tube in the coating system, and emittance measurements are made on coated tubes, assembled into glass envelopes. Both the small planar specimens of selective surface and coated tubes were inserted in continuously evacuated glass envelopes and annealed at 500 C for approximately 1 hr. It is shown that solar absorptance varies by only 1-2% for the different base layers, whereas the emittance of surfaces based on nickel and stainless steel is considerably higher than for surfaces based on copper and aluminum. Small changes occur in absorptances and emittances after annealing. It is concluded that the optimum selective surface for evacuated collectors used with mirrors of low concentrations consists of graded metal-carbon overlaid with smooth copper.

  6. Rule-based approach to operating system selection: RMS vs. UNIX

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.S.; Sadlowe, A.R.; Emrich, M.L.; Gadagkar, H.P.

    1988-10-01

    A rule-based system is under development for choosing computer operating systems. Following a brief historical account, this paper compares and contrasts the essential features of two operating systems highlighting particular applications. ATandT's UNIX System and Datapoint Corporations's Resource Management System (RMS) are used as illustrative examples. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Computerized nodule detection in thin-slice CT using selective enhancement filter and automated rule-based classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio

    2005-04-01

    We have been developing computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme to assist radiologists detect lung nodules in thoracic CT images. In order to improve the sensitivity for nodule detection, we developed a selective nodule enhancement filter for nodule which can simultaneously enhance nodules and suppress other normal anatomic structures such as blood vessels and airway walls. Therefore, as preprocessing steps, this filter is useful for improving the sensitivity of nodule detection and for reducing the number of false positives. Another new technique we employed in this study is an automated rule-based classifier. It can significantly reduce the extent of the disadvantages of existing rule-based classifiers, including manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as re-substitution, and a large overtraining effect. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT dataset demonstrated that the automated method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the rule-based classifier.

  8. Polarization-selective three-photon absorption and subsequent photoluminescence in CsPbBr3 single crystal at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. J.; Stoumpos, C. C.; Saouma, F. O.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Jang, J. I.

    2016-05-01

    We report on highly polarization-selective three-photon absorption (3PA) in a Bridgman-grown single crystal of CsPbBr3 oriented along the (112) direction, which is an inorganic counterpart to emerging organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites for solar-cell and optoelectronic applications. The crystal exhibits strong photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature as a direct consequence of 3PA of fundamental radiation. Interestingly, 3PA disappears when the input polarization is parallel to the (-110 ) direction. This 3PA effect is strongest when orthogonal to (-110 ) and the corresponding 3PA coefficient was measured to be γ =0.14 ±0.03 cm3/GW2 under picosecond-pulse excitation at the fundamental wavelength of λ =1200 nm. The laser-induced damage threshold was also determined to be about 20 GW/cm2 at the same wavelength. Based on relative PL intensities upon λ tuning over the entire 3PA range (1100 -1700 nm), we determined the nonlinear optical dispersion of the 3PA coefficient for CsPbBr3, which is consistent with a theoretical prediction. Experimentally observed significant polarization dependence of γ was explained by relevant selection rules. The perovskite is potentially important for nonlinear optical applications owing to its highly efficient 3PA-induced PL response with a sharp on/off ratio by active polarization control.

  9. Young Children's Selective Learning of Rule Games from Reliable and Unreliable Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We investigated preschoolers' selective learning from models that had previously appeared to be reliable or unreliable. Replicating previous research, children from 4 years selectively learned novel words from reliable over unreliable speakers. Extending previous research, children also selectively learned other kinds of acts--novel games--from…

  10. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27103068

  11. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Application of a rule-based knowledge system using CLIPS for the taxonomy of selected Opuntia species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymans, Bart C.; Onema, Joel P.; Kuti, Joseph O.

    1991-01-01

    A rule based knowledge system was developed in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) for identifying Opuntia species in the family Cactaceae, which contains approx. 1500 different species. This botanist expert tool system is capable of identifying selected Opuntia plants from the family level down to the species level when given some basic characteristics of the plants. Many plants are becoming of increasing importance because of their nutrition and human health potential, especially in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The expert tool system described can be extremely useful in an unequivocal identification of many useful Opuntia species.

  13. Towards photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity: graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfa; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-08-28

    Plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in optoelectronic devices and has been intensively studied for solar cells and photodetectors. Graphene has recently emerged as a powerful plasmonic material. It shows significantly less loss compared to traditional plasmonic materials such as gold and silver and its plasmons can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy with chemical or electrical doping. Here we propose the use of graphene plasmonics for light trapping in optoelectronic devices and show that the excitation of localized plasmons in doped, nanostructured graphene can enhance optical absorption in its surrounding medium including both bulky and two-dimensional materials by tens of times, which may lead to a new generation of photodetectors with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity in the mid-infrared and THz ranges.

  14. Chemical effect on the K shell absorption parameters of some selected cerium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, F.; Kaçal, M. R.; Durak, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the photoelectric cross section values of Ce, CeCl3.7H2O, Ce2(SO4)3, Ce(OH)4 and Ce2O3 samples were measured in the energy range from 31.82 keV up to 51.70 keV by adopting in narrow beam geometry. Using these photoelectric cross sections, the K shell photoelectric cross sections at the K-edge, the K shell absorption jump ratios and jump factors, the Davisson-Kirchner ratios and K shell oscillator strength values were estimated experimentally. The measured parameters were compared with the theoretical calculated values. It is observed that the K shell photoelectric cross section at the K-edge and K shell oscillator strength values of an element are affected by the chemical environment of material while the K shell absorption jump ratio, K shell absorption jump factor and Davisson-Kirchner ratio are not affected by the chemical environment of material for the present samples. To the best of our knowledge, the chemical effects on the Davisson-Kirchner ratio and K shell oscillator strength have not been discussed for any element by now.

  15. Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: sparse methods for statistical selection of relevant absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia; Dillner, Ann M.

    2016-07-01

    Various vibrational modes present in molecular mixtures of laboratory and atmospheric aerosols give rise to complex Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra. Such spectra can be chemically informative, but they often require sophisticated algorithms for quantitative characterization of aerosol composition. Naïve statistical calibration models developed for quantification employ the full suite of wavenumbers available from a set of spectra, leading to loss of mechanistic interpretation between chemical composition and the resulting changes in absorption patterns that underpin their predictive capability. Using sparse representations of the same set of spectra, alternative calibration models can be built in which only a select group of absorption bands are used to make quantitative prediction of various aerosol properties. Such models are desirable as they allow us to relate predicted properties to their underlying molecular structure. In this work, we present an evaluation of four algorithms for achieving sparsity in FT-IR spectroscopy calibration models. Sparse calibration models exclude unnecessary wavenumbers from infrared spectra during the model building process, permitting identification and evaluation of the most relevant vibrational modes of molecules in complex aerosol mixtures required to make quantitative predictions of various measures of aerosol composition. We study two types of models: one which predicts alcohol COH, carboxylic COH, alkane CH, and carbonyl CO functional group (FG) abundances in ambient samples based on laboratory calibration standards and another which predicts thermal optical reflectance (TOR) organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass in new ambient samples by direct calibration of infrared spectra to a set of ambient samples reserved for calibration. We describe the development and selection of each calibration model and evaluate the effect of sparsity on prediction performance. Finally, we ascribe

  16. In vitro modeling of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor's absorption with chromatographic retention data and selected molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Odović, Jadranka; Marković, Bojan; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2014-03-15

    Set of nine angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (enalapril, quinapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, cilazapril, ramipril, benazepril, perindopril and moexipril) were studied to evaluate the correlation between their intestinal absorption and salting-out thin-layer chromatography hydrophobicity parameters (RM(0) or C0) obtained by ascending technique applying four different salts, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NH4Cl and NaCl as mobile phases. The best correlations between KOWWIN logP and both hydrophobicity parameters, RM(0) and C0, (R(2)>0.850) were observed for NaCl (1.0-3.0M) while the lowest R(2) was obtained for (NH4)2SO4 (0.649 and 0.427, respectively) due to highest salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. The effect of selected inorganic salts in the salting-out mobile phases, on the solutes solubility and retention was evaluated. The topological polar surface area should be selected as independent variable (only this molecular descriptor showed low correlation with chromatographic hydrophobicity parameters) for multiple linear regression analysis, to obtain reliable correlation between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor's intestinal absorption data and salting-out thin-layer chromatograpic hydrophobicity parameters. These correlations provide R(2)=0.823 for RM(0) or R(2)=0.799 for C0 indicating good relationship between predicted and literature available intestinal absorption (ranged from 22% to 70%) of investigated angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The proposed in vitro model was checked with three in addition experimentally analyzed drugs, zofenopril, trandolapril and captoril. The satisfactory absorption prediction was obtained for zofenopril and trandolapril, while divergence established for captopril resulted from considerably different structure.

  17. [Acupoints selecting and medication rules analysis based on data mining technique for bronchial asthma treated with acupoint application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Han, Dongyue; Qie, Lili; Liu, Chang; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-06-01

    Clinical literature of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application from January 2000 to March 2014 in modern periodicals databases was retrieved through computer. With cluster analysis and frequency analysis methods of data mining, acupoints selecting and medication rules of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application were analyzed. Total 38 articles were included eventually, including 25 acupoints and 42 medicines. The results indicate that on acupoints selecting, Feishu (BL 13) is used as the main acupoint and 3 groups of bladder meridian and conception vessel acupoints are applied alternately and on medicines, Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis) and Mahuang (Radix et Rhizonma Ephedrae) are primarily adopted, epispastic medicines being the main medicines; medicines mostly belong to lung meridian, main medicines being unchanged mostly with Shengjiang as guiding drug.

  18. Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunsung; Dan, Yaping; Seo, Kwanyong; Yu, Young J; Duane, Peter K; Wober, Munib; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2014-01-01

    The organic dye filters of conventional color image sensors achieve the red/green/blue response needed for color imaging, but have disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. Here, we report a new paradigm for color imaging based on all-silicon nanowire devices and no filters. We fabricate pixels consisting of vertical silicon nanowires with integrated photodetectors, demonstrate that their spectral sensitivities are governed by nanowire radius, and perform color imaging. Our approach is conceptually different from filter-based methods, as absorbed light is converted to photocurrent, ultimately presenting the opportunity for very high photon efficiency.

  19. Frequency selective microwave absorption induced by controlled orientation of graphene-like nanoplatelets in thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesfin, Henok Mebratie; Baudouin, A. C.; Hermans, Sophie; Delcorte, Arnaud; Huynen, Isabelle; Bailly, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Highly ordered polycarbonate films containing parallel graphite nanoplatelets have been produced by squeezing the corresponding random nanocomposites in the melt. Orientation of the conductive fillers is observed in the plane of the film, i.e., perpendicular to the squeezing direction. It only appears above a critical concentration of 15 wt. % and results from a confinement effect. Oriented samples show a resonance-like sharp increase of the conductivity at a given frequency in the microwave region, with the possibility to control the value of this frequency and the resulting absorption by changing the nanoplatelets concentration. Above this frequency, the oriented polymer nanocomposites show a high level of electromagnetic absorption, which opens the possibility to tailor materials with effective electromagnetic interference shielding by absorption in selected frequency ranges. The in-plane stacking of conductive nanoplatelets separated by insulating polymer induces their strong capacitive coupling to the signal propagating in the plane of the polymer film. As a result, the equivalent circuit of this propagation becomes a resonant system composed of capacitors, inductors, and resistors, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  20. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  1. 76 FR 78215 - Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Biennial Review; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Services (HHS) published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (76 FR 61206... of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (76 FR 61206) requesting public comment on (1... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and...

  2. Supreme Court Rulings on Abortion: Roe v. Wade and Selected Progeny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and contentious issues of our time. Few topics generate as much public debate or leave as little room for political compromise. This article presents a discussion of selected United States Supreme Court decisions on abortion and the legal reasoning supporting those decisions. It should be noted initially…

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in electrical fields: An element-selective probe of atomic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied a range of polar and nonpolar materials using x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in external electric fields. An energy shift of the XANES by a few meV/kV is found which scales linearly with the applied voltage, thus being reminiscent of the linear Stark effect. This is corroborated by the consistent presence of this energy shift in polar thin films and bulk crystals and its absence in nonpolar materials as well as in conducting films. The observed energy shift of the XANES is different between two atomic species in one specimen and appears to scale linearly with the atomic number of the studied element. Therefore, XANES in electrical fields opens the perspective to study atomic polarization with element specificity in a range of functional materials.

  4. Comparisons of selected methods for the determination of kinetic parameters from electrothermal atomic absorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Rodney W.; Pfefferkorn, Lisa L.; Holcombe, James A.

    1994-12-01

    Three of the methods available for the determination of kinetic parameters for atom formation in ETAAS were compared. In the approach of mcnally and holcombe [ Anal. Chem. 59, 1015 (1987)], Arrhenius-type plots are used to extract activation energy values while an approximation of the order of release is obtained by studying the alignment of the absorption maxima at increasing analyte concentrations. In the method of rojas and olivares [ Spectrochim. Acta47B, 387 (1992)], plots are prepared for different orders of release, with the correct order yielding a longer linear region from whose slope the activation energy is calculated. The method of yan et al. [ Spectrochim. Acta48B, 605 (1993)] uses a single absorption profile for the calculations. Activation energy and the order of release are obtained from the slope and intercept, respectively, on their graph. All three methods assume linear heating rate, constant activation energies, and furnace isothermality. The methods were tested with the same experimental data sets for Cu, Au and Ni using a spatially isothermal cuvette. Since intensive mathematical treatments commonly have deleterious effects on the uncertainty of the final result, the methods were compared using both the original data and a smoothed version of it. In general, the three methods yielded comparable results for the metals studied. However, choosing the most linear plot to determine the correct order of release when using Rojas and Olivares' method was sometimes subjective, and McNally and Holcombe's method provided only estimates for the orders of release that were neither zero nor unity.

  5. Enhancing and broadening absorption properties of frequency selective surfaces absorbers using FeCoB-based thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenyi; Nie, Yan; Xiong, Xuan; Zhang, Cui; Zhou, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of FeCoB-based magnetic film on the absorption properties of traditional frequency selective surface (FSS) was investigated experimentally. A single-layer Minkowski fractal planar frequency selective surface was chosen, and the laser etching technique was proposed to fabricate aluminum-based FSS (AFSS) samples. Magnetic films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, with the targets of Fe40Co40B20 and SiO2. It is found that after the magnetic film is incorporated, the bandwidth under -10 dB increases by 33.3% from 5.08 to 6.78 GHz and the peak value of reflectivity decreases from -12.46 to -38.41 dB. The 3.1-mm-thick radar absorber is relatively light and could obtain the reflectivity of -38.41 with -20 dB bandwidth of 1.85 GHz. As a consequence, under the circumstance that the total thickness of the sample maintains relatively constant, the magnetic thin film can effectively improve the absorption properties of the sample.

  6. Descending control of neural bias and selectivity in a spatial attention network: rules and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Shreesh P; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-10-01

    The brain integrates stimulus-driven (exogenous) activity with internally generated (endogenous) activity to compute the highest priority stimulus for gaze and attention. Little is known about how this computation is accomplished neurally. We explored the underlying functional logic in a critical component of the spatial attention network, the optic tectum (OT, superior colliculus in mammals), in awake barn owls. We found that space-specific endogenous influences, evoked by activating descending forebrain pathways, bias competition among exogenous influences, and substantially enhance the quality of the categorical neural pointer to the highest priority stimulus. These endogenous influences operate across sensory modalities. Biologically grounded modeling revealed that the observed effects on network bias and selectivity require a simple circuit mechanism: endogenously driven gain modulation of feedback inhibition among competing channels. Our findings reveal fundamental principles by which internal and external information combine to guide selection of the next target for gaze and attention.

  7. Descending control of neural bias and selectivity in a spatial attention network: rules and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Shreesh P.; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The brain integrates stimulus-driven (exogenous) activity with internally generated (endogenous) activity to compute the highest priority stimulus for gaze and attention. Little is known about how this computation is accomplished neurally. We explored the underlying functional logic in a critical component of the spatial attention network, the optic tectum (OT, superior colliculus in mammals), in awake barn owls. We found that space-specific endogenous influences, evoked by activating descending forebrain pathways, bias competition among exogenous influences, and substantially enhance the quality of the categorical neural pointer to the highest priority stimulus. These endogenous influences operate across sensory modalities. Biologically grounded modeling revealed that the observed effects on network bias and selectivity require a simple circuit mechanism: endogenously driven gain modulation of feedback inhibition among competing channels. Our findings reveal fundamental principles by which internal and external information combine to guide selection of the next target for gaze and attention. PMID:25220813

  8. Possession, use, and transfer of select agents and toxins; biennial review. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) located within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety and is republishing that list. As a result of our review, we have added Chapare virus, Lujo virus, and SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to the list of HHS select agents and toxins. We have also removed from the list of HHS and overlap select agents and toxins, or excluded from compliance with part 73, the agents and toxins described in the Executive Summary. Further, in accordance with Executive Order 13546, "Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States," HHS/CDC has designated those select agents and toxins that present the greatest risk of deliberate misuse with the most significant potential for mass casualties or devastating effects to the economy, critical infrastructure; or public confidence as "Tier 1" agents; established new security requirements for entities possessing Tier 1 agents, including the requirement to conduct pre-access assessments and on-going monitoring of personnel with access to Tier 1 agents and toxins; and made revisions to the regulations to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, biosafety, and incident response. In a companion document published in this issue of the Federal Register, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has made parallel regulatory changes.

  9. a New Framework for Geospatial Site Selection Using Artificial Neural Networks as Decision Rules: a Case Study on Landfill Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. A. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Saad, A.-M. H. Y.

    2015-10-01

    This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  10. Method for making an aluminum or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A panel is described for selectively absorbing solar energy comprising an aluminum substrate. A zinc layer was covered by a layer of nickel and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a nickel layer. A layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate was included. A method for making these panels is disclosed.

  11. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction. PMID:27608277

  12. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction.

  13. Aluminium or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method for making panels which selectively absorb solar energy is disclosed. The panels are comprised of an aluminum substrate, a layer of zinc thereon, a layer of nickel over the zinc layer and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a layer of nickel thereon and a layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate.

  14. Spiral waves in nematic liquid crystals:mExperimental analysis of selection rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierheilig, A.; Chevallard, C.; Gilli, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    Archimedian spiral waves develop around umbilics, in an homeotropically anchored nematic sample. They are observed under the influence of a rotating magnetic field in the plane of the glass plates, and in presence of a destabilizing electric field. The geometrical characteristics of these experimental spirals (pitch, rotation frequency, etc.) are analyzed in parameter space. These spiral waves are numerically fitted with Archimedian spirals to good degree of accuracy. The transverse speed of zero curvature Bloch walls are deduced from these measurements. The existing domain of these spiral waves is limited, respectively, toward large (low) magnetic-field rotation speed, or low (large) magnetic-field intensities, by the asynchronous regime (by a Bloch-Ising transition of the walls). These experimental results are compared to two-dimensional interactive simulations of a Ginzburg-Landau equation. The measurements made in the low-field domain (which is a validity condition for the model derivation) confirm the applicability of the same selection criterion deduced by Burton, Cabrera, and Frank [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 243, 299 (1951)] for the description of spiral shaped steps in cristalline growth, and more recently for the fronts of excitable media.

  15. Properties of solid dispersions of selected magnesium salts and the absorption process of Mg2+ ions in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoin, Waclawa; Duda, Henryk; Chrobak, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an application of phosphatidylcholine 45% (PC 45) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in formulations of magnesium salts such as Mg(VitB6) and Mg(VitB6Arg) prepared by solid dispersion (SD) techniques. The evaluation of influence of the selected carriers on some physicochemical properties of solid dispersions and on the absorption process of Mg +2 ions in vitro were made. An infrared (IR) spectra study suggested creation of a hydrogen bond between the carriers and the examined magnesium salts. The results of the following thermal analysis: differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that application of PVP into SD lower the temperature of the decomposition process. However, in the case of PC 45 into SD the characteristic thermal effects of higher temperatures were observed. Moreover, values of the enthalpy SD of decomposition process were decreased. The results of these studies on absorption process of Mg2+ ions in vitro showed the positive influence of the applied carriers on the partition coefficient values (log P) in the examined formulation.

  16. Characterization of selective binding of alkali cations with carboxylate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Saykally, Richard J; Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-08

    We describe an approach for characterizing selective binding between oppositely charged ionic functional groups under biologically relevant conditions. Relative shifts in K-shell x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous cations and carboxylate anions indicate the corresponding binding strengths via perturbations of carbonyl antibonding orbitals. XAS spectra measured for aqueous formate and acetate solutions containing lithium, sodium, and potassium cations reveal monotonically stronger binding of the lighter metals, supporting recent results from simulations and other experiments. The carbon K-edge spectra of the acetate carbonyl feature centered near 290 eV clearly indicate a preferential interaction of sodium versus potassium, which was less apparent with formate. These results are in accord with the Law of Matching Water Affinities, relating relative hydration strengths of ions to their respective tendencies to form contact ion pairs. Density functional theory calculations of K-shell spectra support the experimental findings.

  17. Coating compositions for solar selective absorption comprising a thermosetting acrylic resin and particles of a low molecular weight fluorocarbon polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, M.; Fukuda, H.; Sano, S.

    1984-01-17

    A coating composition for solar selective absorption comprising, in solvent, particles of an inorganic black pigment dispersed in a dissolved binder of a thermosetting acrylic resin and particles of a low molecular weight fluorocarbon resin contained in an amount of 5-15 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the acrylic resin. The inorganic black particles have a size of 0.01-0.5 microns and are contained in an amount of 45-65 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the acrylic resin. An article having a metal substrate and a paint film formed thereon from the composition in a dry thickness of 1.5 microns or more is also described.

  18. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  19. Uv/vis Absorption Experiments on Mass Selected Cations by Counter-Ion Introduction Into AN Inert Neon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehr, N. P.; Szczepanski, J.; Polfer, N. C.

    2012-06-01

    Obtaining UV/Vis absorption spectra of cations is a challenging endeavor due to the low densities that can be achieved in the gas phase. In matrix isolation, ions of interest are accumulated in a cold inert matrix of a rare gas (e.g. Argon, Neon) until sufficient concentrations are attained for direct spectroscopic characterization. Nonetheless, in order to ensure neutralization of the matrix, experimentalists often rely on non-ideal, energetic processes, such as electron emission from metal surfaces upon cation bombardment. A better method for matrix neutralization would involve co-depositing a molecular counter-ion. In this talk, a two-ion source instrument is presented, where cations and anions are deposited into a cold inert matrix. Mass-selected cation beams are generated in an electron ionization source and filtered in a quadrupole mass filter (5-10 nA mass-selected naphthalene radical cations recorded). Anion beams are generated in a chemical ionization source (20 nA SF6- recorded). Both ion beams are introduced into an octopole ion guide via a quadrupole deflector. Cations and anions can be deposited simultaneously or separately; in the latter case, alternating layers of each species can be formed. Target cations of interest include open-shell naphthalene and tetracene, for which UV/Vis absorption spectra are recorded after deposition. The counter-ion of choice is SF6-, due to the high electronegativity of SF6. J. P. Maier, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 90, 600(1989). Godbout, et al., J. Phys. Chem. 100 2892-2899(1996). P. Brechignac, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 22 7337-7347(1999). M. Vala, et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 245 539-548(1995).

  20. Evaluation of empirical rule of linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS) for proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Zhang, Jiyang; Fu, Bin; Xie, Hongwei; Wang, Yingchun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Precise protein quantification is essential in comparative proteomics. Currently, quantification bias is inevitable when using proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics strategy for the differences in peptides measurability. To improve quantification accuracy, we proposed an "empirical rule for linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS)" in quantitative proteomics in our previous work. However, a systematic evaluation on general application of ERLPS in quantitative proteomics under diverse experimental conditions needs to be conducted. In this study, the practice workflow of ERLPS was explicitly illustrated; different experimental variables, such as, different MS systems, sample complexities, sample preparations, elution gradients, matrix effects, loading amounts, and other factors were comprehensively investigated to evaluate the applicability, reproducibility, and transferability of ERPLS. The results demonstrated that ERLPS was highly reproducible and transferable within appropriate loading amounts and linearly correlated response peptides should be selected for each specific experiment. ERLPS was used to proteome samples from yeast to mouse and human, and in quantitative methods from label-free to O18/O16-labeled and SILAC analysis, and enabled accurate measurements for all proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics over a large dynamic range.

  1. The robustness of Hamilton's rule with inbreeding and dominance: kin selection and fixation probabilities under partial sib mating.

    PubMed

    Roze, Denis; Rousset, François

    2004-08-01

    Assessing the validity of Hamilton's rule when there is both inbreeding and dominance remains difficult. In this article, we provide a general method based on the direct fitness formalism to address this question. We then apply it to the question of the evolution of altruism among diploid full sibs and among haplodiploid sisters under inbreeding resulting from partial sib mating. In both cases, we find that the allele coding for altruism always increases in frequency if a condition of the form rb>c holds, where r depends on the rate of sib mating alpha but not on the frequency of the allele, its phenotypic effects, or the dominance of these effects. In both examples, we derive expressions for the probability of fixation of an allele coding for altruism; comparing these expressions with simulation results allows us to test various approximations often made in kin selection models (weak selection, large population size, large fecundity). Increasing alpha increases the probability of fixation of recessive altruistic alleles (h<1/2), while it can increase or decrease the probability of fixation of dominant altruistic alleles (h>1/2). PMID:15278845

  2. Possible high absorptance and low emittance selective surface for high temperature solar thermal collectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q C; Kelly, J C; Mills, D R

    1991-05-01

    Optical reflectivity measurements show that the reflectivity of Ge is dramatically reduced in the wavelength 0.3-1.4-microm range after high dose oxygen ion implantation. To explain such greatly reduced reflectivity, a model has been developed for the reflectivity of high dose oxygen implanted germanium. Our experimentally measured and calculated reflectivities show that, for a layered structure consisting of a Ge and GeO(2) mixture on Ge on GeO(2) on a Cu substrate, a low reflectivity of 0-10% in the solar spectrum is obtained, together with a high reflectivity approximately 100% in the 1.7-25-microm wavelength range. This is close to that of an ideal selective surface for solar energy thermal collectors operating at high temperatures from 300 to 500 degrees C.

  3. Disentangling the prefrontal network for rule selection by means of a non-verbal variant of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Specht, Karsten; Lie, Chuh-Hyoun; Shah, Nadim Jon; Fink, Gereon R

    2009-05-01

    This study disentangles the prefrontal network underlying executive functions involved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). During the WCST, subjects have to perform two key processes: first, they have to derive the correct sorting rule for each trial by trial-and-error, and, second, they have to detect when this sorting rule is changed by the investigator. Both cognitive processes constitute key components of the executive system, which is subserved by the prefrontal cortex. For the current fMRI experiment, we developed a non-verbal variant of the WCST. Subjects were instructed either to respond according to a given sorting rule or to detect the correct sorting rule, like in the original version of the WCST. Data were obtained from 14 healthy male volunteers and analysed using SPM and a random effects model. All conditions activated a fronto-parietal network, which was generally more active when subjects had to search for the correct sorting rule than when the rule was announced beforehand. Significant differences between these two conditions were seen in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the parietal lobe. In addition, the data provided new evidence for the assumption of differentiated roles of the left and right prefrontal cortex. Although the right PFC showed a general involvement in response selection and the execution of goal directed responses, based on given rules, the left PFC was only activated when inductive reasoning and feedback integration was required.

  4. Increased Potassium Absorption Confers Resistance to Group IA Cations in Rubidium-Selected Suspension Cells of Brassica napus1

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Daniel D.

    1989-01-01

    Cell lines of suspension cultures of Brassica napus cv. Jet Neuf were identified for their ability to tolerate 100 millimolar Rb+, a level which was double the normally lethal concentration. Ten spontaneous isolates were obtained from approximately 5 × 107 cells, one of which was reestablished as a cell suspension. This cell line, JL5, was also resistant to the other group IA cations— Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+—and this trait was stable for at least 30 cell generations in the absence of Rb+ selection pressure. The growth characteristics were similar to those of sensitive cells under nonselective conditions. The selected JL5 cells were shown by analysis to have effected more net accumulation of K+ and Rb+ and less of Na+ than did the unselected cells. JL5 and unselected cells after 14 days of culture in basal medium contained 597.2 and 258.2 micromoles of K per gram dry weight, respectively. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis of K+ influx showed that JL5 possessed an elevated phase 1 Vmax, but there was no alteration in its Km. This is the first time that a plant mutation has been shown to have both increased influx and net absorption of a major essential cation. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667201

  5. In situ Studies of Soft- and Reactive Landing of Mass-Selected Ions Using Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qichi; Wang, Peng; Gassman, Paul L.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-09-01

    Grazing incidence infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) for in situ and in real time characterization of substrates modified by soft- and reactive landing (SL and RL) of complex ions was implemented on a mass-selected ion deposition instrument. Ions produced by electrospray ionization were mass-selected using a quadrupole mass filter and deposited onto inert and reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Surface composition during and after ion deposition was monitored using IRRAS. Physisorption of a cyclic peptide, Garmicidin S (GS), was studied for 8 hrs during deposition and additional 12 hrs after the end of deposition. The integrated signal of the characteristic amide bands followed a linear increase during the deposition and stayed unchanged after the deposition was finished. Similar linear increase in IRRAS signal was obtained following reactive deposition of the protonated dodecanediamine onto SAMs of dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) (NHS-SAM) and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid fluoride (COF-SAM) on gold. IRRAS allowed us to monitor for the first time the formation of the amide bond between reactive SAM surfaces and the projectile molecule.

  6. ERIC Processing Manual. Rules and Guidelines for the Acquisition, Selection, and Technical Processing of Documents and Journal Articles by the Various Components of the ERIC Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.; And Others

    This loose-leaf manual provides the detailed rules, guidelines, and examples to be used by the components of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Network in acquiring and selecting documents and in processing them (i.e., cataloging, indexing, abstracting) for input to the ERIC computer system and subsequent announcement in…

  7. Speciation of inorganic lead and trialkyllead compounds by flame atomic absorption spectrometry following continuous selective preconcentration from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena, Josefa R.; Gallego, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    1999-12-01

    A new method for the speciation of inorganic lead and trialkyllead compounds involving the selective separation of the analytes in a continuous system and their subsequent introduction into a flame atomic absorption spectrometer was developed. The proposed flow system consists of two units. In the first unit, total inorganic lead at concentrations from 8 to 200 ng ml -1 is continuously precipitated as lead chromate and the filtrate, containing trialkyllead cations, is collected in a vessel, the precipitate then being dissolved in diluted acid and driven to the instrument. In the second unit, trimethyllead (TML +) and triethyllead (TEL +) cations at ng ml -1 levels are complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and retained on a C 60 pre-conditioned fullerene column; the mixture of both species was resolved by conditioning the sorbent column with n-hexane or isobutyl methyl ketone solvents. Detection limits of 1-2 ng ml -1 can be achieved by using a sample volume of 50 ml. Special attention was given to the reliability and robustness of the global flow injection method in assessing its applicability to both types of organolead compounds and inorganic lead present in different proportions. Trimethyllead provides the poorest results as consequence of its low adsorption constant on C 60; however, the three different types of species (Pb 2+/TML +/TEL +) can be effectively determined in proportions from 1:1:1 to 30:12:1 with relative errors less than 10%.

  8. Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Georg; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-25

    The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 ± 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 ± 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L(-1) is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L(-1) is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples. PMID:23312311

  9. Species selective preconcentration and quantification of gold nanoparticles using cloud point extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Georg; Schuster, Michael

    2013-01-25

    The determination of metallic nanoparticles in environmental samples requires sample pretreatment that ideally combines pre-concentration and species selectivity. With cloud point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton X-114 we present a simple and cost effective separation technique that meets both criteria. Effective separation of ionic gold species and Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) is achieved by using sodium thiosulphate as a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency for Au-NP ranged from 1.01 ± 0.06 (particle size 2 nm) to 0.52 ± 0.16 (particle size 150 nm). An enrichment factor of 80 and a low limit of detection of 5 ng L(-1) is achieved using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) for quantification. TEM measurements showed that the particle size is not affected by the CPE process. Natural organic matter (NOM) is tolerated up to a concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The precision of the method expressed as the standard deviation of 12 replicates at an Au-NP concentration of 100 ng L(-1) is 9.5%. A relation between particle concentration and the extraction efficiency was not observed. Spiking experiments showed a recovery higher than 91% for environmental water samples.

  10. Theoretical and experimental analysis of transmission and enhanced absorption of frequency-selective surfaces in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscasu, Irina; Schaich, William L.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2001-05-01

    A comparative study between theory and experiment is presented for transmission through lossy frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) on silicon in the 2 - 15 micrometer range. Important parameters controlling the resonance shape and location are identified: dipole length, spacing, impedance, and dielectric surroundings. Their separate influence is exhibited. The primary resonance mechanism of FSSs is the resonance of the individual metallic patches. There is no discernable resonance arising from a feed-coupled configuration. The real part of the element's impedance controls the minimum value of transmission, while scarcely affecting its location. Varying the imaginary part shifts the location of resonance, while only slightly changing the minimum value of transmission. With such fine-tuning, it is possible to make a good fit between theory and experiment near the dipole resonance on any sample. A fixed choice of impedance can provide a reasonable fit to all samples fabricated under the same conditions. The dielectric surroundings change the resonance wavelength of the FSS compared to its value in air. The presence of FSS on the substrate increases the absorptivity/emissivity of the surface in a resonant way. Such enhancement is shown for dipole and cross arrays at several wavelengths.

  11. Flash chromatography on cartridges for the separation of plant extracts: rules for the selection of chromatographic conditions and comparison with medium pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weber, Petra; Hamburger, Matthias; Schafroth, Nina; Potterat, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Empirical rules for the selection of chromatographic conditions on flash chromatography cartridges were developed, with an emphasis on gradient mode. These rules were then tested with separation of extracts from important medicinal plants including Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Piper nigrum and Salvia milthiorrhiza. Sepacore® cartridges enabled a good separation of compounds with a broad range of polarity, as typically found in plant extracts. The chromatographic resolution remained, however, lower than that achieved on classical columns packed with material of smaller particle size. For poorly soluble extracts, solid introduction gave better results than liquid injection.

  12. Mode Selection Rules for Two-Delay Systems: Dynamical Explanation for the Function of the Register Hole on the Clarinet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Goya, Kana; Goya, Saya

    2014-12-01

    Generally, time-delay systems are regarded as multi-attractor systems. We investigate mode selection rules for two-delay systems considering which oscillation mode is first excited by the Hopf bifurcation with increasing a bifurcation parameter. In particular, we focus on the case that the strength of the short time delay α1 is lower than that of the long time delay α2. In a certain range of α1/α2 in which it is sufficiently small but still not negligible, the third-harmonic mode occupies a particular range of the ratio of the two delay times such that 2 < tR2/tR1 < 4, where tR1 and tR2 denote the short and long delay times, respectively. This is the key for understanding the function of the register hole on the clarinet, which is smaller in radius than the other tone holes, but works well to raise the pitch of first register notes in a wide range more than an octave by a twelfth (19 semitones), i.e., generating third harmonics, when opened. This is confirmed using a simple model of the clarinet with two delays: short and long time delays are regarded as delayed reflections caused by the register hole and the open end of the pipe, respectively. The working range of the register hole roughly corresponds to the particular range of the third-harmonic mode for two-delay systems (2 < tR2/tR1 < 4).

  13. From a Subtractive to Multiplicative Approach: A Concept-Driven Interactive Pathway on the Selective Absorption of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, Laurence; de Hosson, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment on how the absorption of light depends on the thickness of the absorbing medium. This teaching experiment is more specifically characterized as bringing to bear a "concept-driven interactive pathway". It is designed to make students analyse the absorption of light…

  14. Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Odelle; Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.

    2008-04-14

    Black carbon (BC), a main component of combustion-generated soot, is a strong absorber of sunlight and contributes to climate change. Measurement methods for BC are uncertain, however. This study presents a method for analyzing the BC mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength as the sample is heated. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration based on derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAE) of BC and char. The fraction of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO{sub 2}) at temperatures higher than 480 C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected from coastal and mountain sites in Northern California. The uncertainty in measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12 to 100 percent, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 {micro}g BC and uncertainty approached 20 percent for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 {micro}g BC.

  15. Element-selective trace detection of toxic species in environmental samples using chromatographic techniques and derivative diode laser absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Zybin, A.; Niemax, K.

    1998-10-01

    Very sensitive laser absorption techniques based on a double-beam scheme with logarithmic processing of the detector signals and wavelength modulation of laser diodes are presented. Detection limits equivalent to 10-7 absorption per square root of detection bandwidth are obtained if sufficient laser power is available and if the absorption is also subject to additional modulation. The analytical versatility of these techniques is demonstrated by quantitative analysis of very low concentrations of (i) Cr(VI) species in tap water and (ii) chlorinated poly-aromatics (chlorophenols) in plant extracts, both after chromatographic separation. The atomic absorption measurements were performed in an air-acetylene flame (Cr) and in a low-pressure microwave-induced plasma (chlorophenols).

  16. The application of rules in morphology, syntax and number processing: a case of selective deficit of procedural or executive mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Demonet, Jean-François; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Declarative memory is a long-term store for facts, concepts and words. Procedural memory subserves the learning and control of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, including the mental grammar. In this study, we report a single-case study of a mild aphasic patient who showed procedural deficits in the presence of preserved declarative memory abilities. We administered several experiments to explore rule application in morphology, syntax and number processing. Results partly support the differentiation between declarative and procedural memory. Moreover, the patient’s performance varied according to the domain in which rules were to be applied, which underlines the need for more fine-grained distinctions in cognition between procedural rules. PMID:20446168

  17. Site-selective excitation and polarized absorption and emission spectra of trivalent thulium and erbium in strontium fluorapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, John B.; Wright, Andrew O.; Seltzer, Michael D.; Zandi, Bahram; Merkle, Larry D.; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morrison, Clyde A.; Allik, Toomas H.; Chai, Bruce H. T.

    1997-05-01

    Polarized fluorescence spectra produced by site-selective excitation, and conventional polarized absorption spectra were obtained for Tm3+ and Er3+ ions individually incorporated into single crystals of strontium fluorapatite, Sr5(PO4)3F, also known as SFAP. Substitution of the trivalent rare earth ion for divalent strontium was achieved by passive charge compensation during Czochralski growth of the fluorapatite crystals. Spectra were obtained between 1780 and 345 nm at temperatures from 4 K to room temperature on crystals having the hexagonal structure [P63/m(C6h2)]. The polarized fluorescence spectra due to transitions from multiplet manifolds of Tm3+(4f12), including 1D2, 1G4, and 3H4 to manifolds 3H6 (the ground-state manifold), 3F4, 3H5, 3H4, and 3F3 were analyzed for the details of the crystal-field splitting of the manifolds. Fluorescence lifetimes were measured for Tm3+ transitions from 1D2, 1G4, and 3H4 at room temperature and from 1G4 at 16 K. Results of the analysis indicate that the majority of Tm3+ ions occupy sites having Cs symmetry. A point-charge lattice-sum calculation was made in which the crystal-field components, Anm, were determined assuming that trivalent thulium replaces divalent strontium in the metal site having Cs symmetry. Results support the conclusion that the nearest-neighbor fluoride (F-) is replaced by divalent oxygen (O2-), thus preserving overall charge neutrality and local symmetry. Crystal-field splitting calculations predict energy levels in agreement with results obtained from an analysis of the experimental data. By varying the crystal-field parameters, Bnm, we obtained a rms difference of 7 cm-1 between 43 calculated and experimental Stark levels for Tm3+(4f12) in Tm:SFAP. Absorption and fluorescence spectra are also reported for Er3+ ions in Er:SFAP. Measurement of the temporal decay of the room temperature fluorescence from the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 manifolds yielded fluorescence lifetimes of 230±20 μs and 8.9±0.1 ms

  18. Mercury speciation in sea food by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry using selective solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Vereda Alonso, E; Siles Cordero, M T; García de Torres, A; Cañada Rudner, P; Cano Pavón, J M

    2008-10-19

    An on-line inorganic and organomercury species separation, preconcentration and determination system consisting of cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS or CV-ETAAS) coupled to a flow injection (FI) method was studied. The inorganic mercury species was retained on a column (i.d., 3 mm; length 3 cm) packed to a height of 0.7 cm with a chelating resin aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (550 A) functionalized with [1,5-bis (2 pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyl methylene thiocarbonohydrazyde] placed in the injection valve of a simple flow manifold. Methylmercury is not directly determined. Previous oxidation of the organomercurial species permitted the determination of total mercury. The separation of mercury species was obtained by the selective retention of inorganic mercury on the chelating resin. The difference between total and inorganic mercury determined the organomercury content in the sample. The inorganic mercury was removed on-line from the microcolumn with 6% (m/v) thiourea. The mercury cold vapor generation was performed on-line with 0.2% (m/v) sodium tethrahydroborate and 0.05% (m/v) sodium hydroxide as reducing solution. The determination was performed using CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, both approaches have been used and compared for the speciation of mercury in sea food. A detection limit of 10 and 6 ng l(-1) was achieved for CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, respectively. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 1 microg l(-1) Hg level was 3.5% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated from the peak heights obtained. Both approaches were validated with the use of two certified reference materials and by spiking experiments. By analyzing the two biological certified materials, it was evident that the difference between the total mercury and inorganic mercury corresponds to methylmercury. The concentrations obtained by both techniques were in agreement with the certified values or with differences of the certified values for total Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg

  19. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure study during selective alcohol oxidation over Pd/Al2O3 in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Caravati, Matteo; Baiker, Alfons

    2006-05-25

    High-pressure in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are reported during the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in supercritical carbon dioxide over a Pd/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (shell impregnated). For this purpose, a continuous-flow system with a spectroscopic cell suitable for in situ X-ray absorption studies on heterogeneous catalysts up to 200 degrees C and 200 bar has been developed. Due to the high contribution of the dense fluid to the overall X-ray absorption, high stability of the process pressure is mandatory, particularly when recording EXAFS spectra. According to EXAFS and XANES results, the palladium particles were fully reduced after exposure to benzyl alcohol in scCO(2). In contrast to Pd-catalyzed liquid-phase oxidation, a higher oxygen tolerance of the catalyst was observed. Palladium was partially oxidized on the surface under typical reaction conditions (0.9 mol % benzyl alcohol/0.5 mol % O(2) in carbon dioxide), which gradually increased when the concentration of oxygen in the feed was raised. Both XANES and EXAFS data uncovered that palladium is mainly oxidized on the surface or within the outermost layers. These results are in accordance with simulations of the XANES data using the FEFF8.20 code (program for ab initio calculations on multiple scattering XAS) and EXAFS data fitting/simulation. PMID:16706447

  20. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Reserve Select; TRICARE Dental Program; Early Eligibility for TRICARE for Certain Reserve Component Members. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-09-15

    TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) is a premium-based TRICARE health plan available for purchase worldwide by qualified members of the Ready Reserve and by qualified survivors of TRS members. TRICARE Dental Program (TDP) is a premium-based TRICARE dental plan available for purchase worldwide by qualified Service members. This final rule revises requirements and procedures for the TRS program to specify the appropriate actuarial basis for calculating premiums in addition to making other minor clarifying administrative changes. For a member who is involuntarily separated from the Selected Reserve under other than adverse conditions this final rule provides a time-limited exception that allows TRS coverage in effect to continue for up to 180 days after the date on which the member is separated from the Selected Reserve and TDP coverage in effect to continue for no less than 180 days after the separation date. It also expands early TRICARE eligibility for certain Reserve Component members from a maximum of 90 days to a maximum of 180 days prior to activation in support of a contingency operation for more than 30 days. PMID:26387151

  1. Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Reserve Select; TRICARE Dental Program; Early Eligibility for TRICARE for Certain Reserve Component Members. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-09-15

    TRICARE Reserve Select (TRS) is a premium-based TRICARE health plan available for purchase worldwide by qualified members of the Ready Reserve and by qualified survivors of TRS members. TRICARE Dental Program (TDP) is a premium-based TRICARE dental plan available for purchase worldwide by qualified Service members. This final rule revises requirements and procedures for the TRS program to specify the appropriate actuarial basis for calculating premiums in addition to making other minor clarifying administrative changes. For a member who is involuntarily separated from the Selected Reserve under other than adverse conditions this final rule provides a time-limited exception that allows TRS coverage in effect to continue for up to 180 days after the date on which the member is separated from the Selected Reserve and TDP coverage in effect to continue for no less than 180 days after the separation date. It also expands early TRICARE eligibility for certain Reserve Component members from a maximum of 90 days to a maximum of 180 days prior to activation in support of a contingency operation for more than 30 days.

  2. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal–organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-15

    A new 3D nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF), [[Zn{sub 4}O(C{sub 24}H{sub 15}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O·DMF]{sub n} (1) based on 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single–crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Absorption of two typical aldehydes (formaldehyde and benzaldehyde) by solvothermally synthesized of a 3D nano-porous MOF based on TATAB tricarboxylate ligand and Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • We present a 3D Zn(II)-MOF with TATAB linker by solvothermal method. • The framework possesses a new kvh1 topology. • The framework displays formaldehyde and benzaldehyde absorption property. • Conformational analysis was performed to determine the stable linker geometry.

  3. Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone by atomic-absorption spectrometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Kamada, T; Yamamoto, Y

    1977-05-01

    The extraction behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of frameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of antimony(III) and differential determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) have been developed. With ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and methyl isobutyl ketone, when the aqueous phase/solvent volume ratio is 50 ml/10 ml and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 mul, the sensitivity for antimony is 0.2 ng/ml for 1% absorption. The relative standard deviations are ca. 2%. Interferences by many metal ions can be prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods have been applied satisfactorily to determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in various types of water. PMID:18962096

  4. Raman and absorption spectrophotometric studies of selected lanthanide, californium-doped lanthanide, and actinide trihalides in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1988-03-01

    The solid-state absorption spectra of Cf(III) ions as a dopant in lanthanide trihalide hosts (LnCl/sub 3/: Ln = Ce, Sm, and Y; LnBr/sub 3/: Ln = Ce, Sm, Tb, and Y; LnI/sub 3/: Ln = Ce and Y) have been recorded. The spectra of Cf(III) have been correlated with the various crystal structures. The phonon Raman spectra and solid-state absorption spectra of PmF/sub 3/, PmCl/sub 3/, PmBr/sub 3/, and two crystal modifications of PmI/sub 3/ have been recorded. Symmetry assignments have been made for the Raman-active bands for these trihalides and also the sesquioxide. The room-temperature absorption spectra have been correlated to crystal field effects. The symmetry assignments of the Raman-active phonon modes have been made based on polarized Raman spectra from single crystals of YF/sub 3/-type orthorhombic TbF/sub 3/ and PuBr/sub 3/-type orthorhombic NdBr/sub 3/. Raman spectra of other isostructural lanthanide compounds have been recorded and compared. Symmetry assignments for these compounds have been made by analogy to the single-crystal assignments. Raman spectra have been obtained and catalogued for a number of actinide compounds. Symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active phonon bands in this work based on the assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. 29 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. 20 CFR 667.825 - What special rules apply to reviews of NFJP and WIA INA grant selections?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... have been selected and the organization continues to meet the requirements of 20 CFR part 668 or part... grant selections? (a) An applicant whose application for funding as a WIA INA grantee under 20 CFR part 668 or as an NFJP grantee under 20 CFR part 669 is denied in whole or in part may request...

  6. Born Rule(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Urbasi

    2011-09-23

    This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and ''weirdness'' associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10{sup -2} of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.

  7. Born Rule(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Urbasi

    2011-09-01

    This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and "weirdness" associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.

  8. Selection and Maintenance of Stimulus-Response Rules during Preparation and Performance of a Spatial Choice-Reaction Task

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Eric H.; Cole, Michael W.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The ability to select an appropriate response among competing alternatives is a fundamental requirement for successful performance of a huge variety of everyday tasks. Recent research suggests that a frontal-parietal network of brain regions (including dorsal prefrontal, dorsal premotor and superior parietal cortices) mediate response selection for spatial material. Most of this research has used blocked experimental designs. Thus, the frontal-parietal activity reported may be due either to tonic activity across a block or to processing occurring at the trial level. Our current event-related fMRI study investigated response selection at the level of the trial in order to identify possible response selection sub-processes. In the study, participants responded to a visually presented stimulus with either a spatially compatible or incompatible manual response. On some trials, several seconds prior to stimulus onset, a cue indicated which task was to be performed. In this way we could identify separate brain regions for task preparation and task performance, if they exist. Our results showed that the frontal-parietal network for spatial response selection activated both during task preparation as well as during task performance. We found no evidence for preparation specific brain mechanisms in this task. These data suggest that spatial response selection and response preparation processes rely on the same neurocognitive mechanisms. PMID:17223091

  9. A nanoporous 3D zinc(II) metal-organic framework for selective absorption of benzaldehyde and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, Tahereh; Abbasi, Alireza; Van Hecke, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    A new 3D nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), [[Zn4O(C24H15N6O6)2(H2O)2]·6H2O·DMF]n (1) based on 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-p-aminobenzoate (TATAB) ligand was solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis reveals that 1 exhibits a 3D network with new kvh1 topology. Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations were carried out to obtain stable conformers for TATAB ligand. In addition, the absorption of two typical aldehydes (benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) in the presence of 1 was investigated and the effect of the aldehyde concentration, exposure time and temperature was studied. It was found that compound 1 has a potential for the absorption of aldehydes under mild conditions.

  10. Local atomic structure analysis of SiC interface with oxide using chemical-state-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Murai, Takaaki; Oji, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2016-10-01

    A local atomic structure analysis of the interface between chemical vapor-deposited SiO2 and 4H-SiC was achieved via a combination of chemical-state-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the use of a sample with a very thin oxide film. The Si K-edge spectrum, which monitors the SiC-assigned Auger peak, allows the SiC side of the SiO2/SiC interface to be selectively measured through the SiO2 film. We estimate the coordination number of the first nearest neighbor to be reduced by 17% with respect to the SiC bulk. This suggests that C vacancy defects exist at the SiC side of the interface.

  11. FTIR spectrometer with 30 m optical cell and its applications to the sensitive measurements of selective and nonselective absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Solodov, A. A.; Solodov, A. M.; Petrova, T. M.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    A description of the spectroscopic complex at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS, operating in a wide spectral range with high threshold sensitivity to the absorption coefficient is presented. Measurements of weak lines and nonselective spectra of CO2 and H2O were performed based on the built setup. As new application of this setup, positions and intensities of 152 weak lines of H2O were measured between 2400 and 2560 cm-1 with threshold sensitivity of 8.6×10-10 cm-1, and compared with available calculated and experimental data. Essential deviations between the new intensity measurements and calculated data accepted in HITRAN 2012 and GEISA 2015 forthcoming release are found.

  12. Site selection for managed aquifer recharge using fuzzy rules: integrating geographical information system (GIS) tools and multi-criteria decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Ramezani Mehrian, Majid; Jafari, Hamid Reza

    2012-11-01

    One of the most important water-resources management strategies for arid lands is managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In establishing a MAR scheme, site selection is the prime prerequisite that can be assisted by geographic information system (GIS) tools. One of the most important uncertainties in the site-selection process using GIS is finite ranges or intervals resulting from data classification. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a novel method has been developed involving the integration of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), GIS, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The Shemil-Ashkara plain in the Hormozgan Province of Iran was selected as the case study; slope, geology, groundwater depth, potential for runoff, land use, and groundwater electrical conductivity have been considered as site-selection factors. By defining fuzzy membership functions for the input layers and the output layer, and by constructing fuzzy rules, a FIS has been developed. Comparison of the results produced by the proposed method and the traditional simple additive weighted (SAW) method shows that the proposed method yields more precise results. In conclusion, fuzzy-set theory can be an effective method to overcome associated uncertainties in classification of geographic information data.

  13. Direct estimates of natural selection in Iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Oddny Ósk; Timpson, Adrian; Toombs, Jamie; Lecoeur, Cecile; Froguel, Philippe; Carretero, Jose Miguel; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose--the main carbohydrate in milk--and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP--that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe. PMID:24448642

  14. Direct estimates of natural selection in Iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Oddny Ósk; Timpson, Adrian; Toombs, Jamie; Lecoeur, Cecile; Froguel, Philippe; Carretero, Jose Miguel; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose--the main carbohydrate in milk--and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP--that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe.

  15. An Examination of Biomedical Intellectual Reputation in Relationship to Graduates' Productivity, Regional Innovation and Absorptive Capacity at Selected Universities Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Gesulla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to determine factors associated with intellectual reputation, specifically among selected biomedical departments worldwide within the university setting. Second, the study aimed to examine intellectual reputation in relationship to doctoral graduates' productivity in the biomedical sciences and in relationship…

  16. Synthesis and selective IR absorption properties of iminodiacetic-acid intercalated MgAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lijing; Xu Xiangyu; Evans, David G.; Duan Xue; Li Dianqing

    2010-05-15

    An MgAl-NO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor has been prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Reaction with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) under weakly acidic conditions led to the replacement of the interlayer nitrate anions by iminodiacetic acid anions. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA, ICP, elemental analysis and SEM. The results show that the original interlayer nitrate anions of LDHs precursor were replaced by iminodiacetic acid anions and that the resulting intercalation product MgAl-IDA-LDH has an ordered crystalline structure. MgAl-IDA-LDH was mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE) using a masterbatch method. LDPE films filled with MgAl-IDA-LDH showed a higher mid to far infrared absorption than films filled with MgAl-CO{sub 3}-LDH in the 7-25 {mu}m range, particularly in the key 9-11 {mu}m range required for application in agricultural plastic films. - Graphical abstract: Intercalation of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) anions in a MgAl-NO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide host leads to an enhancement of its infrared absorbing ability for application in agricultural plastic films.

  17. Selective cloud point extraction for the determination of cadmium in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guoqiang; Wen, Shengping; Wu, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Xiuming; He, Lijun; Liu, Yulan

    2012-05-01

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) procedure for preconcentration of cadmium prior to the determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. The method is based on the fact that cadmium could form hydrophobic ion-associated complex in the presence of iodide and methyl green (MG), and the hydrophobic ion-associated complex could be extracted into surfactant-rich phase. The main factors affecting CPE procedure, such as pH, concentration of KI, MG and surfactant, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated. Potential interference from co-existing ions was largely eliminated as most of co-existing ions can not form extractable ion-associated complex with iodide and MG. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (3σ) and limit of quantity (10σ) were 0.90ngmL(-1) and 3.0ngmL(-1) for cadmium, respectively, and relative standard deviation was 4.2% (c=50ngmL(-1), n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of cadmium in the certified reference rice sample (GBW08510) and food samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26434327

  18. Absorption spectra of graphene nanoribbons in a composite magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. S.; Wu, M. F.; Hsieh, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The low-frequency optical absorption properties of graphene nanoribbons in a composite magnetic field are investigated by using the gradient approximation. The spectral function exhibits symmetric delta-function like prominent peaks structure in a uniform magnetic field, and changes to asymmetric square-root divergent peaks structure when subjecting to a composite field. These asymmetric divergent peaks can be further classified into principal and secondary peaks. The spectral intensity and frequency of the absorption peaks depend sensitively on the strength and modulation period of the composite field. The transition channels of the absorption peaks are also analyzed. There exists an optical selection rule which is caused by the orthogonal properties of the sublattice wave functions. The evolution of the spectral frequency of the absorption peaks with the field strength is explored.

  19. Self-accommodation of B19' martensite in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys - Part I. Morphological and crystallographic studies of the variant selection rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, M.; Nishiura, T.; Kawano, H.; Inamura, T.

    2012-06-01

    The self-accommodation morphologies of B19‧ martensite in Ti-Ni alloys have been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Twelve pairs of minimum units consisting of two habit plane variants (HPVs) with V-shaped morphology connected to a ? B19‧ type I variant accommodation twin were observed. Three types of self-accommodation morphologies, based on the V-shaped minimum unit, developed around one of the {111}B2 traces, which were triangular, rhombic and hexangular and consisted of three, four and six HPVs, respectively. In addition, the variant selection rule and the number of possible HPV combinations in each of these self-accommodation morphologies are discussed.

  20. Polarization selection rules and optical transitions in terbium activated yttrium tantalate phosphor under x-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet, and ultraviolet excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Mihail; Tsukerblat, Boris; Byeon, Clare Chisu; Arellano, Ivan; Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Noh, Do Young

    2009-01-01

    The terbium-activated yttrium tantalite (YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}}) phosphor is of great interest due to the interesting spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in crystals and also practical use in x-ray imaging. Using the group-theoretical approach, we analyze the selection rules for the transition between Stark components of Tb{sup 3{sup +}} in symmetry of the actual crystal field and the polarization for the allowed transitions. The luminescence upon UV, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV), and x-ray excitation is presented and discussed. The YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}} phosphors are found to be efficient VUV-excited luminescent materials that could be used not only in x-ray intensifying screens, but also in mercury-free fluorescent lamps or plasma display panels.

  1. Determination of selected elements in whole coal and in coal ash from the eight argonne premium coal samples by atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, and ion-selective electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doughten, M.W.; Gillison, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 24 elements in whole coal and coal ash by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, flame, graphite furnace, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and by ion-selective electrode are described. Coal ashes were analyzed in triplicate to determine the precision of the methods. Results of the analyses of NBS Standard Reference Materials 1633, 1633a, 1632a, and 1635 are reported. Accuracy of the methods is determined by comparison of the analysis of standard reference materials to their certified values as well as other values in the literature.

  2. Crystal and molecular structures of selected organic and organometallic compounds and an algorithm for empirical absorption correction

    SciTech Connect

    Karcher, B.

    1981-10-01

    Cr(CO)/sub 5/(SCMe/sub 2/) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//a with a = 10.468(8), b = 11.879(5), c = 9.575(6) A, and ..beta.. = 108.14(9)/sup 0/, with an octahedral coordination around the chromium atom. PSN/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 12/ crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//n with a = 10.896(1), b = 11.443(1), c = 7.288(1) A, and ..beta.. = 104.45(1)/sup 0/. Each of the five-membered rings in this structure contains a carbon atom which is puckered toward the sulfur and out of the nearly planar arrays of the remaining ring atoms. (RhO/sub 4/N/sub 4/C/sub 48/H/sub 56/)/sup +/(BC/sub 24/H/sub 20/)/sup -/.1.5NC/sub 2/H/sub 3/ crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 17.355(8), b = 21.135(10), c = 10.757(5) A, ..cap alpha.. = 101.29(5), ..beta.. = 98.36(5), and ..gamma.. = 113.92(4)/sup 0/. Each Rh cation complex is a monomer. MoP/sub 2/O/sub 10/C/sub 16/H/sub 22/ crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//c with a = 12.220(3), b = 9.963(2), c = 20.150(6) A, and ..beta.. = 103.01(3)/sup 0/. The molybdenum atom occupies the axial position of the six-membered ring of each of the two phosphorinane ligands. An empirical absorption correction program was written.

  3. A spectroscopic rule from the solvatochromism of aromatic solutes in nonpolar solvents.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Javier; Del Valle, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-15

    The UV-vis absorption spectroscopy for a series of selected symmetrical aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, perylene, and rubrene in the gas phase or in 2-methylbutane, shows the consistency of a new spectroscopic rule. From a thorough spectroscopic analysis with temperature variation (293-113 K) this rule states that "an aromatic molecule, on Franck-Condon excitation can hardly generate an excited electronic state with a lower polarizability than that of its ground electronic-state." We have not found any exceptions to this rule. PMID:24735522

  4. Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The growth, nutrient absorption, and internal moisture status of selected woody species in coal mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius was studied. Nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded with a mixture of herbaceous ground cover species. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After three years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus was superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after two years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species.

  5. Powder preparation and UV absorption properties of selected compositions in the CeO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Tessier, Franck Chevire, Francois; Munoz, Francisco; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Marchand, Roger; Bouchard, Michel; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe

    2008-05-15

    Several approaches have been investigated to prepare fluorite-type compositions within the (1-x) CeO{sub 2}-xYO{sub 1.5} system. The optical properties of the resulting modified-ceria materials have been characterized in order to evaluate their potential abilities as inorganic UV absorbers. Diffuse reflectance analyses reveal a strong optical absorption between 390 and 400 nm for all substituted compositions and the spectral selectivities are estimated suitable for the targeted application. Additionally, time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and phenol photodegradation analyses do not indicate any photocalatytic activity for these compositions. Aqueous colloidal suspensions of the Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.3}O{sub 1.85} UV absorber have been carried out. - Graphical abstract: Comparison between diffuse reflectance spectra of ceria (x=0) and yttrium modified ceria (x=0.3)

  6. Intestinal absorption mechanism of mirabegron, a potent and selective β₃-adrenoceptor agonist: involvement of human efflux and/or influx transport systems.

    PubMed

    Takusagawa, Shin; Ushigome, Fumihiko; Nemoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yutaka; Li, Qun; Kerbusch, Virginie; Miyashita, Aiji; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Usui, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Mirabegron, a weak-basic compound, is a potent and selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of overactive bladder. Mirabegron extended release formulation shows dose-dependent oral bioavailability in humans, which is likely attributable to saturation of intestinal efflux abilities leading to higher absorption with higher doses. This study evaluated the membrane permeability of mirabegron and investigated the involvement of human intestinal transport proteins in the membrane permeation of mirabegron. Transcellular transport and cellular/vesicular uptake assays were performed using Caco-2 cells and/or human intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein [P-gp], breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP], and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 [MRP2]) and influx (peptide transporter 1 [PEPT1], OATP1A2, and OATP2B1) transporter-expressing cells, vesicles, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The absorptive permeability coefficients of mirabegron in Caco-2 cells (1.68-1.83 × 10(-6) cm/s) at the apical and basal pH of 6.5 and 7.4, respectively, were slightly higher than those of nadolol (0.97-1.41 × 10(-6) cm/s), a low permeability reference standard, but lower than those of metoprolol and propranolol (both ranged from 8.49 to 11.6 × 10(-6) cm/s), low/high permeability boundary reference standards. Increasing buffer pH at the apical side from 5.5 to 8.0 gradually increased the absorptive permeation of mirabegron from 0.226 to 1.66 × 10(-6) cm/s, but was still less than the value in the opposite direction (11.0-14.2 × 10(-6) cm/s). The time- and concentration-dependent transport of mirabegron was observed in P-gp-expressing cells and OATP1A2-expressing oocytes with apparent Km values of 294 and 8.59 μM, respectively. In contrast, no clear BCRP-, MRP2-, PEPT1-, or OATP2B1-mediated uptake of mirabegron was observed in their expressing vesicles or cells. These findings suggest that mirabegron has low-to-moderate membrane permeability and P-gp is likely to be involved in its

  7. Coumarin-based fluorescence hybrid silica material used for selective detection and absorption of Hg2+ in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingtao; Jia, Hongmin; Wang, Cuiping; Zhao, Hongbin; Lu, Gonghao; Hu, Zhizhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Chunying

    2014-11-01

    An inorganic-organic hybrid fluorescence material (C-SBA-15) was prepared by covalent immobilization of a coumarin derivative within the channels of SBA-15. The characterization results of XRD, TEM micrographs, FT-IR and UV-vis demonstrate that coumarin is successfully grafted onto the inner surface of SBA-15 and its organized structure is preserved. C-SBA-15 can detect Hg2+ with high selectivity to Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ag+, Fe3+, Ni2+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+ in water. Furthermore, the fluorogenical response is reversible by treating with EDTA and do not vary over a broad pH range (5.0-10.5). C-SBA-15 features more outstanding absorbing capacity for Hg2+ among other HTM ions in water.

  8. Absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of ritobegron (KUC-7483), a novel selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, in rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Ota, E; Endo, T; Murakami, M; Kobayashi, M

    2014-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of ritobegron, a novel, selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, was investigated in rats. Ritobegron, an ethyl ester prodrug of the active compound KUC-7322, or KUC-7322 itself was orally administered (10 mg/kg). Ethyl esterification resulted in a 10-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)), as compared to KUC-7322. Following intravenous administration of KUC-7322 (1 mg/kg), total blood clearance was 1.36 L/h/kg, suggesting that intrinsic hepatic clearance is the rate-limiting step in KUC-7322 excretion. When ritobegron was orally administered (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of KUC-7322 rapidly increased and reached a maximum concentration (C(max)) at 0.25 to 0.31 h. KUC-7322 levels rapidly decreased, with a half-life (t 1/2) of 0.42 to 1.37 h thereafter. AUC(0-t) did not show a dose-dependent increase. The bioavailability of KUC-7322 was estimated to be 4%. Following oral administration of [14C]ritobegron (3 mg/kg), radioactivity concentrations in tissues rapidly increased and declined in parallel with changes in plasma concentration. In most of tissues, excluding the liver, kidney, urinary bladder, stomach and small intestine, radioactivity concentrations were lower than that in plasma. In plasma, bile, urine, and feces, KUC-7322 and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates were detected. The glucuronide conjugate of KUC-7322 was the predominant metabolite in bile, plasma, and urine, and KUC-7322 was predominant in feces. Ritobegron was not detected in any of the samples. The cumulative excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces were 28.7% and 68.3% of the dose, respectively, up to 120 h after administration.

  9. A Zn(II) coordination polymer and its photocycloaddition product: syntheses, structures, selective luminescence sensing of iron(III) ions and selective absorption of dyes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei-long; Shi, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Huan-Huan; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-21

    One coordination polymer [Zn2(L)2(bpe)2(H2O)2] (1) (L = 4,4'-((1,2-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid; bpe = (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene) was prepared and structurally determined. Compound 1 has a chain structure in which its pair of bpe ligands is arranged in a head-to-tail manner with their C=C bonds being close enough for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. Upon exposure to UV light, compound 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) [2 + 2] photodimerization to generate one 2D coordination polymer [Zn(L)(rctt-tpcb)0.5(H2O)] (1a) (rctt (regio cis, trans, trans)-tpcb = tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane). The tpcb ligands in the crystals of 1a show an intriguing in situ thermal isomerisation. The nanospheres of 1 can be obtained by recrystallization in DMSO/alcohol. The nanospheres of 1a can also be readily produced from the corresponding nanospheres of 1 by the photocyclodimerization method. Compared with those of 1a, the nanospheres of 1 display highly selective sensing of Fe(3+) ions over mixed metal ions through fluorescence quenching. Moreover, the nanospheres of 1a can rapidly adsorb CR (congo red), MB (methylene blue) or RhB (rhodamine B) over MO (methyl orange) from aqueous solutions. This work offers a new photoinduced post-synthetic method for the synthesis of multifunctional MOFs, which show luminescence sensing of Fe(3+) ions and dye adsorption properties.

  10. A Zn(II) coordination polymer and its photocycloaddition product: syntheses, structures, selective luminescence sensing of iron(III) ions and selective absorption of dyes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei-long; Shi, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Huan-Huan; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-21

    One coordination polymer [Zn2(L)2(bpe)2(H2O)2] (1) (L = 4,4'-((1,2-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid; bpe = (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene) was prepared and structurally determined. Compound 1 has a chain structure in which its pair of bpe ligands is arranged in a head-to-tail manner with their C=C bonds being close enough for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. Upon exposure to UV light, compound 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) [2 + 2] photodimerization to generate one 2D coordination polymer [Zn(L)(rctt-tpcb)0.5(H2O)] (1a) (rctt (regio cis, trans, trans)-tpcb = tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane). The tpcb ligands in the crystals of 1a show an intriguing in situ thermal isomerisation. The nanospheres of 1 can be obtained by recrystallization in DMSO/alcohol. The nanospheres of 1a can also be readily produced from the corresponding nanospheres of 1 by the photocyclodimerization method. Compared with those of 1a, the nanospheres of 1 display highly selective sensing of Fe(3+) ions over mixed metal ions through fluorescence quenching. Moreover, the nanospheres of 1a can rapidly adsorb CR (congo red), MB (methylene blue) or RhB (rhodamine B) over MO (methyl orange) from aqueous solutions. This work offers a new photoinduced post-synthetic method for the synthesis of multifunctional MOFs, which show luminescence sensing of Fe(3+) ions and dye adsorption properties. PMID:26458568

  11. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  12. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L- 1 for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L- 1, n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009-88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3-116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix.

  13. Integrating user centered design, universal design and goal, operation, method and selection rules to improve the usability of DAISY player for persons with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Ming-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY) player is an assistive reading tool developed for use by persons with visual impairments. Certain problems have persisted in the operating procedure and interface of DAISY players, especially for their Chinese users. Therefore, the aim of this study was to redesign the DAISY player with increased usability features for use by native Chinese speakers. First, a User Centered Design (UCD) process was employed to analyze the development of the prototype. Next, operation procedures were reorganized according to GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules) methodology. Then the user interface was redesigned according to specific Universal Design (UD) principles. Following these revisions, an experiment involving four scenarios was conducted to compare the new prototype to other players, and it was tested by twelve visually impaired participants. Results indicate the prototype had the quickest operating times, the fewest number of operating errors, and the lowest mental workloads of all the compared players, significantly enhancing the prototype's usability. These findings have allowed us to generate suggestions for developing the next generation of DAISY players for people, especially for Chinese audience. PMID:26360192

  14. Integrating user centered design, universal design and goal, operation, method and selection rules to improve the usability of DAISY player for persons with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsin; Chiu, Ming-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY) player is an assistive reading tool developed for use by persons with visual impairments. Certain problems have persisted in the operating procedure and interface of DAISY players, especially for their Chinese users. Therefore, the aim of this study was to redesign the DAISY player with increased usability features for use by native Chinese speakers. First, a User Centered Design (UCD) process was employed to analyze the development of the prototype. Next, operation procedures were reorganized according to GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules) methodology. Then the user interface was redesigned according to specific Universal Design (UD) principles. Following these revisions, an experiment involving four scenarios was conducted to compare the new prototype to other players, and it was tested by twelve visually impaired participants. Results indicate the prototype had the quickest operating times, the fewest number of operating errors, and the lowest mental workloads of all the compared players, significantly enhancing the prototype's usability. These findings have allowed us to generate suggestions for developing the next generation of DAISY players for people, especially for Chinese audience.

  15. Morphological and genetic analyses reveal a cryptic species complex in the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum and rule out a stabilizing selection explanation.

    PubMed

    Egea, E; David, B; Choné, T; Laurin, B; Féral, J P; Chenuil, A

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary analyses revealed the presence of at least five mitochondrial clades within the widespread sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida). In this study, we analyzed the genetic (two mitochondrial and two nuclear sequence loci) and morphological characteristics (20 indices) from worldwide samples of this taxon to establish the species limits, morphological diversity and differentiation. Co-occurring spatangoid species were also analyzed with mitochondrial DNA. The nuclear sequences confirm that mitochondrial lineages correspond to true genetic entities and reveal that two clades (named A and B1) hybridize in their sympatry area, although a more closely related pair of clades (B1 and B2), whose distributions widely overlap, does not display hybridization. The morphology of all E. cordatum clade pairs was significantly differentiated, but no morphological diagnostic character was evidenced. By contrast, other spatangoid species pairs that diverged more recently than the E. cordatum clades display clear diagnostic characters. Morphological diversity thus appears responsible for the absence of diagnostic characters, ruling out stabilizing selection, a classical explanation for cryptic species. Alternative classical explanations are (i) environmental plasticity or (ii) a high diversity of genes determining morphology, maintained by varying environmental conditions. We suggest a new hypothesis that the observed morphological diversity is selectively neutral and reflects high effective population sizes in the E. cordatum complex. It is supported by the higher abundance of this taxon compared with other taxa, a trend for the genetic and morphological diversity to be correlated in Europe, and the higher genetic and morphological diversities found in clades of E cordatum (except B1) than in other spatangoid samples in Europe. However, the Pacific clades do not confirm these trends. PMID:26265259

  16. Selective quantification of trace palladium in road dusts and roadside soils by displacement solid-phase extraction online coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Xiu-Ping; Ni, Zhe-Ming

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the effect of palladium on human health because of the toxicity and increasing occurrence of palladium as a result of its extensive use in automotive catalytic converters. Development of reliable analytical methodologies for the determination of palladium in environmental materials is of great importance for critical evaluation of the possible risks for human health. In this work, a displacement solid-phase extraction technique was developed and online coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for selective and sensitive determination of trace palladium in environmental samples without need of any special selective complexing agents, selective sorbents, and masking agents. The developed methodology involved the online formation of copper pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (Cu-PDC), and the resultant Cu-PDC was extracted onto a microcolumn packed with the sorbent from a cigarette filter. Trace Pd(II) was selectively preconcentrated through loading the sample solution onto the microcolumn by online displacement reaction between Pd(II) and the extracted Cu-PDC on the microcolumn. The retained analyte was subsequently eluted with 40 microL of ethanol for online ETAAS determination. Interferences from coexisting heavy metal ions with lower stability of their PDC complexes relative to Cu-PDC were minimized. The tolerable concentrations of Cd-(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), and Zn(II) were up to 2, 6, 40, 2, 1.5, and at least 100 mg L(-1), respectively. Compared with conventional solid-phase extraction methodology, the developed displacement solid-phase extraction protocol gave 2-4 orders of magnitude improvement in the maximum tolerable concentrations of coexisting heavy metal ions. With the consumption of only 2.8 mL of sample solution, an enhancement factor of 52 and a detection limit (3sigma) of 18 ng L(-1) were achieved at a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1). The precision (RSD, n = 13) was 2.5% at the 1

  17. Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane@Fe3O4@SiO2@fluoropolymer sponges for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. The effects of CVD time of TEOS and FP concentration on wettability, mechanical properties, oil absorbency, and oil/water selectivity of the sponges were also investigated. The sponges exhibit fast magnetic responsivity and excellent superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity (CAwater = 157° and CAoil ≈ 0°). The sponges also show very high efficiency in oil/water separation and could, driven by a magnet, quickly absorb floating oils on the water surface and heavy oils under water. Moreover, the PU@Fe3O4@SiO2@FP sponges could be used as membranes for oil/water separation and for continuous separation of large amounts of oil pollutants from the water surface with the help of a pump. The in turn binding of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, SiO2, and FP can also improve mechanical properties of the PU sponge. The sponges maintain the superhydrophobicity even when they are stretched with 200% strain or compressed with 50% strain. The sponges also show excellent mechanical stability, oil stability, and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorbency. The magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic PU sponges are very promising materials for practical oil absorption and oil/water separation. PMID:25671386

  18. One-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the selective determination of methylmercury in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Mo, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for the selective determination of methylmercury (MeHg) was developed by one-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (D-DLLME) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In the proposed method, Cu(II) reacted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which was used as the chelating agent instead of DDTC for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of MeHg. Because the stability of MeHg-DDTC is higher than that of Cu-DDTC, MeHg can displace Cu from the Cu-DDTC complex and be preconcentrated in a single DLLME procedure. MeHg could be extracted into the extraction solvent phase at pH 6 while Hg(II) remained in the sample solution. Potential interference from co-existing metal ions with lower DDTC complex stability was largely eliminated without the need of any masking reagent. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of this method was 13.6ngL(-1) (as Hg), and an enhancement factor of 81 was achieved with a sample volume of 5.0mL. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace MeHg in some environmental samples with satisfactory results.

  19. High-energy resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals insight into unique selectivity of La-based nanoparticles for CO2

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ofer; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Luo, Li; Süess, Martin J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Koziej, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The lanthanum-based materials, due to their layered structure and f-electron configuration, are relevant for electrochemical application. Particularly, La2O2CO3 shows a prominent chemoresistive response to CO2. However, surprisingly less is known about its atomic and electronic structure and electrochemically significant sites and therefore, its structure–functions relationships have yet to be established. Here we determine the position of the different constituents within the unit cell of monoclinic La2O2CO3 and use this information to interpret in situ high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (vtc XES). Compared with La(OH)3 or previously known hexagonal La2O2CO3 structures, La in the monoclinic unit cell has a much lower number of neighboring oxygen atoms, which is manifested in the whiteline broadening in XANES spectra. Such a superior sensitivity to subtle changes is given by HERFD method, which is essential for in situ studying of the interaction with CO2. Here, we study La2O2CO3-based sensors in real operando conditions at 250 °C in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. We identify that the distribution of unoccupied La d-states and occupied O p- and La d-states changes during CO2 chemoresistive sensing of La2O2CO3. The correlation between these spectroscopic findings with electrical resistance measurements leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the selective adsorption at La site and may enable the design of new materials for CO2 electrochemical applications. PMID:26668362

  20. Two novel POM-based inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: synthesis, structures, magnetic properties, photodegradation and selective absorption of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Dui, Xue-Jing; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Kuang, Xiaofei; Liao, Jian-Zhen; Yu, Rongmin; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2015-05-28

    The hydrothermal reactions of a mixture of (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, Cu(Ac)2·H2O and 3-bpo ligands at different temperatures result in the isolation of two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials containing different but related isopolymolybdate units, [Cu(3-bpo)(H2O)(Mo4O13)]·3H2O () and [Cu2(3-bpo)2(Mo6O20)] (). The {Mo4O13}n chains in and unprecedented [Mo6O20](4-) isopolyhexamolybdate anions in are linked by octahedral Cu(2+) ions into two-dimensional hybrid layers. Interestingly, 3-bpo ligands in both and are located on either side of these hybrid layers and serve as arched footbridges to link Cu(ii) ions in the layer via pyridyl N-donors, and at the same time connect these hybrid layers into 3D supramolecular frameworks via weak MoNoxadiazole bonds. Another important point for is that water clusters are filled in the 1D channels surrounded by isopolytetramolybdate units. In addition, dye adsorption and photocatalytic properties of and magnetic properties of have been investigated. The results indicated that complex is not only a good heterogeneous photocatalyst in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB), but also has high absorption capacity of MB at room temperature and can selectively capture MB molecules from binary mixtures of MB/MO or MB/RhB. All MB molecules absorbed on can be completely released and photodegraded in the presence of adequate peroxide. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility revealed that complex exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at about 5 K, and a spin-flop transition was observed at about 5.8 T at 2 K, indicating metamagnetic-like behaviour from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phases.

  1. Low absorption vitreous carbon reactors for operando XAS: a case study on Cu/Zeolites for selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) by NH3.

    PubMed

    Kispersky, Vincent F; Kropf, A Jeremy; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Miller, Jeffrey T

    2012-02-21

    We describe the use of vitreous carbon as an improved reactor material for an operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) plug-flow reactor. These tubes significantly broaden the operating range for operando experiments. Using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) by NH(3) on Cu/Zeolites (SSZ-13, SAPO-34 and ZSM-5) as an example reaction, we illustrate the high-quality XAS data achievable with these reactors. The operando experiments showed that in Standard SCR conditions of 300 ppm NO, 300 ppm NH(3), 5% O(2), 5% H(2)O, 5% CO(2) and balance He at 200 °C, the Cu was a mixture of Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states. XANES and EXAFS fitting found the percent of Cu(I) to be 15%, 45% and 65% for SSZ-13, SAPO-34 and ZSM-5, respectively. For Standard SCR, the catalytic rates per mole of Cu for Cu/SSZ-13 and Cu/SAPO-34 were about one third of the rate per mole of Cu on Cu/ZSM-5. Based on the apparent lack of correlation of rate with the presence of Cu(I), we propose that the reaction occurs via a redox cycle of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Cu(I) was not found in in situ SCR experiments on Cu/Zeolites under the same conditions, demonstrating a possible pitfall of in situ measurements. A Cu/SiO(2) catalyst, reduced in H(2) at 300 °C, was also used to demonstrate the reactor's operando capabilities using a bending magnet beamline. Analysis of the EXAFS data showed the Cu/SiO(2) catalyst to be in a partially reduced Cu metal-Cu(I) state. In addition to improvements in data quality, the reactors are superior in temperature, stability, strength and ease of use compared to previously proposed borosilicate glass, polyimide tubing, beryllium and capillary reactors. The solid carbon tubes are non-porous, machinable, can be operated at high pressure (tested at 25 bar), are inert, have high material purity and high X-ray transmittance. PMID:22158950

  2. Low absorption vitreous carbon reactors for operando XAS: a case study on Cu/Zeolites for selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) by NH3.

    PubMed

    Kispersky, Vincent F; Kropf, A Jeremy; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Miller, Jeffrey T

    2012-02-21

    We describe the use of vitreous carbon as an improved reactor material for an operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) plug-flow reactor. These tubes significantly broaden the operating range for operando experiments. Using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x) by NH(3) on Cu/Zeolites (SSZ-13, SAPO-34 and ZSM-5) as an example reaction, we illustrate the high-quality XAS data achievable with these reactors. The operando experiments showed that in Standard SCR conditions of 300 ppm NO, 300 ppm NH(3), 5% O(2), 5% H(2)O, 5% CO(2) and balance He at 200 °C, the Cu was a mixture of Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states. XANES and EXAFS fitting found the percent of Cu(I) to be 15%, 45% and 65% for SSZ-13, SAPO-34 and ZSM-5, respectively. For Standard SCR, the catalytic rates per mole of Cu for Cu/SSZ-13 and Cu/SAPO-34 were about one third of the rate per mole of Cu on Cu/ZSM-5. Based on the apparent lack of correlation of rate with the presence of Cu(I), we propose that the reaction occurs via a redox cycle of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Cu(I) was not found in in situ SCR experiments on Cu/Zeolites under the same conditions, demonstrating a possible pitfall of in situ measurements. A Cu/SiO(2) catalyst, reduced in H(2) at 300 °C, was also used to demonstrate the reactor's operando capabilities using a bending magnet beamline. Analysis of the EXAFS data showed the Cu/SiO(2) catalyst to be in a partially reduced Cu metal-Cu(I) state. In addition to improvements in data quality, the reactors are superior in temperature, stability, strength and ease of use compared to previously proposed borosilicate glass, polyimide tubing, beryllium and capillary reactors. The solid carbon tubes are non-porous, machinable, can be operated at high pressure (tested at 25 bar), are inert, have high material purity and high X-ray transmittance.

  3. Age Discrimination and the FAA Age 60 Rule. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witness testimonies and related materials from a Congressional hearing called to examine the mandatory retirement age of 60 for airline pilots. In opening remarks, Congressmen Roybal and Pepper question this ruling, citing productivity of older workers and the lack of data to support any specific age for mandatory…

  4. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  5. Self-polarized terahertz magnon absorption in a single crystal of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Eiichi; Mochizuki, Takeshi; Nagai, Masaya; Ashida, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    We report the polarization dependence of terahertz magnon absorption in single crystals of BiFeO3 grown by a modified floating zone method. In a (111)pc-oriented crystal, two major magnon absorption signals were observed for all terahertz polarizations, which indicates that magnetic domains were not aligned in one of the three allowed directions. In contrast, the absorption modes in a (001)pc-oriented crystal showed significant polarization dependence, which was unchanged even after annealing the crystal at temperatures far above the Néel point to demagnetize it. This polarization dependence coincides with that of E mode phonons. Thus, we conclude that magnon and phonon in BiFeO3 are strongly coupled and the selection rules for magnon absorption are governed by the activity of E mode phonons, namely, the crystalline anisotropy originating from ferroelectric polarization.

  6. Mg II ABSORPTION SYSTEMS WITH W{sub 0} >= 0.1 A FOR A RADIO SELECTED SAMPLE OF 77 QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED MAGNETIC FIELDS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Bernet, M. L.; Miniati, F.; Lilly, S. J. E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.c

    2010-03-01

    We present a catalog of Mg II absorption systems obtained from high-resolution Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph/VLT data of 77 quasi-stellar objects in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.0, and down to an equivalent width W{sub 0} >= 0.1 A. The statistical properties of our sample are found to be in agreement with those from the previous work in the literature. However, we point out that the previously observed increase with redshift of partial derivN/partial derivz for weak absorbers pertains exclusively to very weak absorbers with W{sub 0} < 0.1 A. Instead, partial derivN/partial derivz for absorbers with W{sub 0} in the range 0.1-0.3 A actually decreases with redshift, similar to the case of strong absorbers. We then use this catalog to extend our earlier analysis of the links between the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of the quasars and the presence of intervening Mg II absorbing systems in their spectra. In contrast to the case with strong Mg II absorption systems (W{sub 0} > 0.3 A), the weaker systems do not contribute significantly to the observed RM of the background quasars. This is possibly due to the higher impact parameters of the weak systems compared to strong ones, suggesting that the high column density magnetized material that is responsible for the Faraday rotation is located within about 50 kpc of the galaxies. Finally, we show that this result also rules out the possibility that some unexpected secondary correlation between the quasar redshift and its intrinsic RM is responsible for the association of high RM and strong intervening Mg II absorption that we have presented elsewhere, since this would have produced an equal effect for the weak absorption line systems, which exhibit a very similar distribution of quasar redshifts.

  7. Alternative selection rules for one- and two-photon transitions in tribenzotetraazachlorin: Quasi-centrosymmetrical π-conjugation pathway of formally non-centrosymmetrical molecule

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Nikolay S.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Wicks, Geoffrey; Makarova, Elena A.; Lukyanets, Evgeny A.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    We compare the two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra of non-centrosymmetrical metal-free tribenzo-tetraazachlorin (H2TBTAC) and analogous symmetrical tetra-tert-butyl-phthalocyanine (H2TtBuPc). Surprisingly, despite formal lack of center of inversion, the 2PA spectrum of H2TBTAC displays a two-photon allowed transition at 935 nm, similar to gerade–gerade (g–g) transitions observed in H2TtBuPc and in other symmetrical phthalocyanines. This transition is even better resolved in the singlet–singlet excited-state absorption spectrum. We tentatively explain the survival of the g–g transition in H2TBTAC by assuming that the main π-electron conjugation pathway in the tetraaza-substituted tetrapyrrole macrocycle bypasses the outer parts of the two oppositely located isoindole rings and thus renders the optically responsive core of the chromophore quasi-centrosymmetrical. By using the independently measured ground- and excited-state absorption extinction coefficients, we also show that the two-photon absorptivity can be quantitatively explained by a simple three-level model with the lowest energy Q1 state serving as an intermediate level. PMID:23758378

  8. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies. PMID

  9. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  10. Evaluation of intensity and energy interaction parameters for the complexation of Pr(III) with selected nucleoside and nucleotide through absorption spectral studies.

    PubMed

    Bendangsenla, N; Moaienla, T; David Singh, Th; Sumitra, Ch; Rajmuhon Singh, N; Indira Devi, M

    2013-02-15

    The interactions of Pr(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different organic solvents employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The magnitudes of the variations in both energy and intensity interaction parameters were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere co-ordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Various electronic spectral parameters like Slater-Condon (F(k)), Racah (E(k)), Lande parameter (ξ(4f)), Nephelauxatic ratio (β), bonding (b(1/2)), percentage covalency (δ) and intensity parameters like oscillator strength (P) and Judd Ofelt electronic dipole intensity parameter (T(λ), λ=2,4,6) have been evaluated. The variation of these evaluated parameters were employed to interpret the nature of binding of Pr(III) with different ligands i.e. Adenosine/ATP in presence and absence of Ca(2+).

  11. Allocating application to group of consecutive processors in fault-tolerant deadlock-free routing path defined by routers obeying same rules for path selection

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Vitus J.; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Bender, Michael A.; Bunde, David P.

    2009-07-21

    In a multiple processor computing apparatus, directional routing restrictions and a logical channel construct permit fault tolerant, deadlock-free routing. Processor allocation can be performed by creating a linear ordering of the processors based on routing rules used for routing communications between the processors. The linear ordering can assume a loop configuration, and bin-packing is applied to this loop configuration. The interconnection of the processors can be conceptualized as a generally rectangular 3-dimensional grid, and the MC allocation algorithm is applied with respect to the 3-dimensional grid.

  12. Rules for selecting the parameters of Oustaloup recursive approximation for the simulation of linear feedback systems containing PI λ D μ controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad

    2012-04-01

    Oustaloup recursive approximation (ORA) is widely used to find a rational integer-order approximation for fractional-order integrators and differentiators of the form sv, v ∈ (-1, 1). In this method the lower bound, the upper bound and the order of approximation should be determined beforehand, which is currently performed by trial and error and may be inefficient in some cases. The aim of this paper is to provide efficient rules for determining the suitable value of these parameters when a fractional-order PID controller is used in a stable linear feedback system. Two numerical examples are also presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed formulas.

  13. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago. NBER Working Paper No. 16817

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases due to student selection to schools and single-sex schools being better in unmeasured ways. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and cleanly estimate an upper-bound single-sex school effect. The…

  14. 7 CFR 29.6104 - Rule 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.6104 Rule 18. Burn shall be determined as the average burning time of leaves selected at random from the sample. A minimum of 10 leaves shall be selected as representative regardless... on the same side of the leaf. The leaf shall be punctured to permit quick ignition when placed over...

  15. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ombaba, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (mytilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienylmanganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were considered. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using spearmint oil and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard mixture as probes is discussed. The program is used for separation optimization and prediction of gas chromatographic parameters. The program produces a relative resolution map (RRM) which guides the analyst in selecting the most favorable temperature programming rate for the separation.

  16. Ornament Complexity Is Correlated with Sexual Selection: (A Comment on Raia et al., "Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity").

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape. PMID:27420791

  17. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ombaba, Jackson M.

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The device exhibits a stable signal because the plasma is self-seeding and reignites itself every half cycle. A tesla coil is not required to commence generation of the plasma if the ac voltage applied is greater than the breakdown voltage of the plasma-supporting gas. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (Mvutilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienyl manganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer (common room humidifier) was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were also considered. Figures of merits of selected elements both in absorption and emission modes are reported. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using

  18. Chronic and selective inhibition of basolateral membrane Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates brush border membrane Na absorption in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Gayam, Swapna; Arthur, Subha; Palaniappan, Balasubramanian; Singh, Soudamani; Dick, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Na-K-ATPase, an integral membrane protein in mammalian cells, is responsible for maintaining the favorable intracellular Na gradient necessary to promote Na-coupled solute cotransport processes [e.g., Na-glucose cotransport (SGLT1)]. Inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) SGLT1 is, at least in part, due to the diminished Na-K-ATPase in villus cells from chronically inflamed rabbit intestine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Na-K-ATPase inhibition on the two major BBM Na absorptive pathways, specifically Na-glucose cotransport and Na/H exchange (NHE), in intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) cells. Na-K-ATPase was inhibited using 1 mM ouabain or siRNA for Na-K-ATPase-α1 in IEC-18 cells. SGLT1 activity was determined as 3-O-methyl-d-[3H]glucose uptake. Na-K-ATPase activity was measured as the amount of inorganic phosphate released. Treatment with ouabain resulted in SGLT1 inhibition at 1 h but stimulation at 24 h. To further characterize this unexpected stimulation of SGLT1, siRNA silencing was utilized to inhibit Na-K-ATPase-α1. SGLT1 activity was significantly upregulated by Na-K-ATPase silencing, while NHE3 activity remained unaltered. Kinetics showed that the mechanism of stimulation of SGLT1 activity was secondary to an increase in affinity of the cotransporter for glucose without a change in the number of cotransporters. Molecular studies demonstrated that the mechanism of stimulation was not secondary to altered BBM SGLT1 protein levels. Chronic and direct silencing of basolateral Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates BBM Na absorptive pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Specifically, while BBM NHE3 is unaffected, SGLT1 is stimulated secondary to enhanced affinity of the cotransporter. PMID:25652450

  19. Chronic and selective inhibition of basolateral membrane Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates brush border membrane Na absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Gayam, Swapna; Arthur, Subha; Palaniappan, Balasubramanian; Singh, Soudamani; Dick, Gregory M; Sundaram, Uma

    2015-04-15

    Na-K-ATPase, an integral membrane protein in mammalian cells, is responsible for maintaining the favorable intracellular Na gradient necessary to promote Na-coupled solute cotransport processes [e.g., Na-glucose cotransport (SGLT1)]. Inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) SGLT1 is, at least in part, due to the diminished Na-K-ATPase in villus cells from chronically inflamed rabbit intestine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Na-K-ATPase inhibition on the two major BBM Na absorptive pathways, specifically Na-glucose cotransport and Na/H exchange (NHE), in intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) cells. Na-K-ATPase was inhibited using 1 mM ouabain or siRNA for Na-K-ATPase-α1 in IEC-18 cells. SGLT1 activity was determined as 3-O-methyl-D-[(3)H]glucose uptake. Na-K-ATPase activity was measured as the amount of inorganic phosphate released. Treatment with ouabain resulted in SGLT1 inhibition at 1 h but stimulation at 24 h. To further characterize this unexpected stimulation of SGLT1, siRNA silencing was utilized to inhibit Na-K-ATPase-α1. SGLT1 activity was significantly upregulated by Na-K-ATPase silencing, while NHE3 activity remained unaltered. Kinetics showed that the mechanism of stimulation of SGLT1 activity was secondary to an increase in affinity of the cotransporter for glucose without a change in the number of cotransporters. Molecular studies demonstrated that the mechanism of stimulation was not secondary to altered BBM SGLT1 protein levels. Chronic and direct silencing of basolateral Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates BBM Na absorptive pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Specifically, while BBM NHE3 is unaffected, SGLT1 is stimulated secondary to enhanced affinity of the cotransporter.

  20. Guess My Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carraher, David W.; Earnest, Darrell

    2003-01-01

    We present classroom research on a variant of the guess-my-rule game, in which nine-year-old students make up linear functions and challenge classmates to determine their secret rule. We focus on issues students and their teacher confronted in inferring underlying rules and in deciding whether the conjectured rule matched the rule of the creators.…

  1. Direct interband light absorption in the cylindrical quantum dot with modified Pöschl-Teller potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Tevosyan, H. Kh.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper the direct interband light absorption in cylindrical quantum dot with modified Pöschl-Teller potential made of GaAs is studied. For the regime of strong size quantization analytical expressions for the particle energy spectrum, absorption coefficient and dependencies of effective threshold frequencies of absorption on the geometrical sizes of quantum dot are obtained. The selection rules corresponding to different transitions between quantum levels are found. To facilitate the comparison of obtained results with the probable experimental data, size dispersion distribution of growing quantum dots by the geometrical sizes using two experimentally realizing distribution functions has been taken into account. Distribution functions of Lifshits-Slezov and Gaussian have been considered.

  2. The selectivity of Vibrio cholerae H-NOX for gaseous ligands follows the "sliding scale rule" hypothesis. Ligand interactions with both ferrous and ferric Vc H-NOX.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Wen; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-lim

    2013-12-31

    Vc H-NOX (or VCA0720) is an H-NOX (heme-nitric oxide and oxygen binding) protein from facultative aerobic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It shares significant sequence homology with soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), a NO sensor protein commonly found in animals. Similar to sGC, Vc H-NOX binds strongly to NO and CO with affinities of 0.27 nM and 0.77 μM, respectively, but weakly to O2. When positioned on a "sliding scale" plot [Tsai, A.-l., et al. (2012) Biochemistry 51, 172-186], the line connecting log K(D)(NO) and log K(D)(CO) of Vc H-NOX can almost be superimposed with that of Ns H-NOX. Therefore, the measured affinities and kinetic parameters of gaseous ligands to Vc H-NOX provide more evidence to validate the "sliding scale rule" hypothesis. Like sGC, Vc H-NOX binds NO in multiple steps, forming first a six-coordinate heme-NO complex at a rate of 1.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), and then converts to a five-coordinate heme-NO complex at a rate that is also dependent on NO concentration. Although the formation of oxyferrous Vc H-NOX cannot be detected at a normal atmospheric oxygen level, ferrous Vc H-NOX is oxidized to the ferric form at a rate of 0.06 s(-1) when mixed with O2. Ferric Vc H-NOX exists as a mixture of high- and low-spin states and is influenced by binding to different ligands. Characterization of both ferric and ferrous Vc H-NOX and their complexes with various ligands lays the foundation for understanding the possible dual roles in gas and redox sensing of Vc H-NOX.

  3. A new highly selective, ratiometric and colorimetric fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+) with a remarkable red shift in absorption and emission spectra based on internal charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Sen, Debabrata; Das, Nirmal Kumar

    2010-02-19

    A new 1,8-diaminonaphthalene based ratiometric and highly selective colorimetric "off-on" type of fluorescent probe, receptor 2 has been designed and synthesized that senses only Cu(2+) among the other heavy and transition metal ions examined on the basis of internal charge transfer (ICT). The visual sensitivity of the receptor 2 is remarkable, showing dual color changes from colorless (receptor) to purple followed by blue and a large red shift in emission upon Cu(2+) complexation.

  4. A Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Array Spectrometer as a Selective Detector for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography: Concept and First Results.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Thomas; Gruber, Beate; Harrison, Dale; Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad; Mthembu, Makhosazana; Sutherland, Aimée; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-03-15

    Fast and selective detectors are very interesting for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). This is particularly true if the detector system can provide additional spectroscopic information on the compound structure and/or functionality. Other than mass spectrometry (MS), only optical spectroscopic detectors are able to provide selective spectral information. However, until present the application of optical spectroscopy technologies as universal detectors for GC × GC has been restricted mainly due to physical limitations such as insufficient acquisition speed or high detection limits. A recently developed simultaneous-detection spectrometer working in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 125-240 nm overcomes these limitations and meets all the criteria of a universal detector for GC × GC. Peak shape and chromatographic resolution is preserved and unique spectral information, complementary to mass spectrometry data, is gained. The power of this detector is quickly recognized as it has the ability to discriminate between isomeric compounds or difficult to separate structurally related isobaric species; thus, it provides additional selectivity. A further promising feature of this detector is the data analysis concept of spectral filtering, which is accomplished by targeting special electronic transitions that allows for a fast screening of GC × GC chromatograms for designated compound classes.

  5. A Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Array Spectrometer as a Selective Detector for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography: Concept and First Results.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Thomas; Gruber, Beate; Harrison, Dale; Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad; Mthembu, Makhosazana; Sutherland, Aimée; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-03-15

    Fast and selective detectors are very interesting for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). This is particularly true if the detector system can provide additional spectroscopic information on the compound structure and/or functionality. Other than mass spectrometry (MS), only optical spectroscopic detectors are able to provide selective spectral information. However, until present the application of optical spectroscopy technologies as universal detectors for GC × GC has been restricted mainly due to physical limitations such as insufficient acquisition speed or high detection limits. A recently developed simultaneous-detection spectrometer working in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 125-240 nm overcomes these limitations and meets all the criteria of a universal detector for GC × GC. Peak shape and chromatographic resolution is preserved and unique spectral information, complementary to mass spectrometry data, is gained. The power of this detector is quickly recognized as it has the ability to discriminate between isomeric compounds or difficult to separate structurally related isobaric species; thus, it provides additional selectivity. A further promising feature of this detector is the data analysis concept of spectral filtering, which is accomplished by targeting special electronic transitions that allows for a fast screening of GC × GC chromatograms for designated compound classes. PMID:26810390

  6. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security. PMID:27632805

  7. Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins-- Addition of Bacillus Cereus Biovar Anthracis to the HHS List of Select Agents and Toxins. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-09-14

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is adding Bacillus cereus Biovar anthracis to the list of HHS select agents and toxins as a Tier 1 select agent. We are taking this action to regulate this agent that is similar to B. anthracis to prevent its misuse, which could cause a biological threat to public health and/or national security.

  8. Growth, nutrient absorption, and moisture status of selected woody species in coal-mine spoil in response to an induced infection by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1982-09-01

    In this study, nursery grown loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings infected with Pisolithus and control seedlings were outplanted on a coal mine spoil in Tennessee which had been previously hydroseeded. Granular fertilizer was applied by broadcasting to one-half of the seedlings of each ectomycorrhizal treatment at the rate of 112 kg/ha NPK. After 3 years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine infected with Pisolithus were superior to that of the control seedlings, and chemical analyses of foliar samples revealed that the seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae had a higher foliar concentration of NO/sub 3/ and a lower concentration of Zn than the control seedlings. The survival, growth, and nutrient absorption of Virginia pine were not significantly affected by the infection with Pisolithus after 2 years, but both loblolly and Virginia pine seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae exhibited an enhanced ability to absorb water during periods of high moisture stress, as determined by the pressure chamber technique. Fertilization substantially reduced the survival of the seedlings of both species. Sweet birch and European alder were grown under high, intermediate, and low fertility regimes in sand culture containing a mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius for 5 months and then transplanted to coal mine spoil containing an identical Pisolithus inoculum. Control seedlings of each species were similarly grown except that no inoculum was incorporated into the potting media. The nutrient treatments initiated in the sand culture were continued throughout the study. Examinations of the roots of the sweet birch seedlings revealed that high fertility significantly reduced the development of Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae, but Pisolithus formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on the roots of sweet birch grown under the intermediate and low fertility regimes and these seedlings were significantly larger than comparable control seedlings.

  9. In absence of local adaptation, plasticity and spatially varying selection rule: a view from genomic reaction norms in a panmictic species (Anguilla rostrata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is one of the few species for which panmixia has been demonstrated at the scale of the entire species. As such, the development of long term local adaptation is impossible. However, both plasticity and spatially varying selection have been invoked in explaining how American eel may cope with an unusual broad scope of environmental conditions. Here, we address this question through transcriptomic analyses and genomic reaction norms of eels from two geographic origins reared in controlled environments. Results The null hypothesis of no difference in gene expression between eels from the two origins was rejected. Many unique transcripts and two out of seven gene clusters showed significant difference in expression, both at time of capture and after three months of common rearing. Differences in expression were observed at numerous genes representing many functional groups when comparing eels from a same origin reared under different salinity conditions. Plastic response to different rearing conditions varied among gene clusters with three clusters showing significant origin-environment interactions translating into differential genomic norms of reaction. Most genes and functional categories showing differences between origins were previously shown to be differentially expressed in a study comparing transcription profiles between adult European eels acclimated to different salinities. Conclusions These results emphasize that while plasticity in expression may be important, there is also a role for local genetic (and/or epigenetic) differences in explaining differences in gene expression between eels from different geographic origins. Such differences match those reported in genetically distinct populations in other fishes, both in terms of the proportion of genes that are differentially expressed and the diversity of biological functions involved. We thus propose that genetic differences between glass eels of different

  10. Selenium speciation using capillary electrophoresis coupled with modified electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after selective extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lizhen; Deng, Biyang; Shen, Caiying; Long, Chanjuan; Deng, Qiufen; Tao, Chunyao

    2015-05-22

    A new method for selenium speciation in fermented bean curd wastewater and juice was described. This method involved sample extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation, and online detection with a modified electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) system. The modified interface for ETAAS allowed for the introduction of CE effluent directly through the end of the graphite tube. Elimination of the upper injection hole of the graphite tube reduced the loss of the anlayte and enhanced the detection sensitivity. The SSA-SMNPs were synthesized and used to extract trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenite [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from dilute samples. The concentration enrichment factors for Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 were 21, 29, 18, and 12, respectively, using the SSA-SMNPs extraction. The limits of detection for Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 were 0.18, 0.17, 0.54, 0.49ngmL(-1), respectively. The RSD values (n=6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.7% and 2.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 3.5%. The linear range of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were in the range of 0.5-200ngmL(-1), and the linear ranges of SeMet and SeCys2 were 2-500 and 2-1000ngmL(-1), respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment by the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of Se(VI) and Se(IV) in fermented bean curd wastewater were measured as 3.83 and 2.62ngmL(-1), respectively. The contents of Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 in fermented bean curd juice were determined as 6.39, 4.08, 2.77, and 4.00ngmL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 99.14-104.5% and the RSDs (n=6) of recoveries between 0.82% and 3.5%.

  11. The Author Replies: Regarding Campbell's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Norman C.

    2004-01-01

    A reply in relation to Campbell's rule is presented where the issues of discrepancies in the average value between the two values is discussed and the graphical analysis which had uncovered an aspect of selecting a numerical value for Campbell's rule that was earlier overlooked is appreciated. The cause of the discrepancies in the average value…

  12. Brainstorming, Brainstorming Rules and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Vicky L.; Paulus, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All…

  13. Neutral atomic-carbon quasar absorption-line systems at z> 1.5. Sample selection, H i content, reddening, and 2175 Å extinction feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for cold gas at high redshift along quasar lines of sight carried out without any a priori assumption on the neutral atomic-hydrogen content of the absorption-line systems. To do this, we systematically looked for neutral-carbon (C i) λλ1560, 1656 transition lines in 41 696 low-resolution quasar spectra (1.5 < zem < 4.46) from the SDSS-II - Data Release 7 - database. C i absorption lines should indeed probe the shielded gas in the neutral interstellar medium of galaxies more efficiently than traditional tracers such as neutral atomic-hydrogen (H i) damped Lyman-α (DLA) and/or Mg ii systems. We built up a sample of 66 C i absorbers with redshifts in the range 1.5 < z < 3.1 and rest-frame equivalent widths 0.1 21 (atoms cm-2) compared to systematic DLA surveys. Whilst the dust content

  14. Investigation of chemical effect on the absorption parameters for some selected indium complex at 59.54 keV photon energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, F.; Akman, F.; Kaçal, M. R.; Turhan, M. F.; Akdemir, F.; Araz, A.; Durak, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients, molecular, atomic and electronic cross sections, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some selected indium complexes such as C5H10InNO9, C3H6InNO9 and C9H10InNO9, were determined with experimentally and theoretically using transmission geometry at 59.54 keV photon energy which emitted from 241Am annular source. The results were compared with the theoretical calculations which obtained from the WinXCOM program. Also, the results were interpreted based on some chemical parameters such as energy gap, ionization energy, electron affinity, hardness, chemical potential, electronegativity and global electrophilicity values of malonate, 2, 2 dimethylmalonate and phenylmalonate which were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP).

  15. A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction procedure for pre-concentration and determination of ultra-trace levels of copper in selected beverages and foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Orhan, Ulaş

    2015-01-01

    A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of Cu(II) in selected beverage and food samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) analysis. For this purpose, Safranin T was used as an ion-pairing reagent based on charge transfer in the presence of oxalate as the primary chelating agent at pH 10. Non-ionic surfactant, poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7.5) was used as an extracting agent in the presence of NH4Cl as the salting out agent. The variables affecting UA-CPE efficiency were optimised in detail. The linear range for Cu(II) at pH 10 was 0.02-70 µg l(-)(1) with a very low detection limit of 6.10 ng l(-)(1), while the linear range for Cu(I) at pH 8.5 was 0.08-125 µg l(-)(1) with a detection limit of 24.4 ng l(-)(1). The relative standard deviation (RSD %) was in the range of 2.15-4.80% (n = 5). The method was successfully applied to the quantification of Cu(II), Cu(I) and total Cu in selected beverage and food samples. The accuracy of the developed method was demonstrated by the analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) as well as recoveries of spiked samples.

  16. Giant Two-photon Absorption in Circular Graphene Quantum Dots in Infrared Region.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Li, Zhisong; Li, Xin; Liu, Yingkai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the two-photon absorption (TPA) for circular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the edge of armchair and zigzag on the basis of electronic energy states obtained by solving the Dirac-Weyl equation numerically under finite difference method. The expressions for TPA cross section are derived and the transition selection rules are obtained. Results reveal that the TPA is significantly greater in GQDs than conventional semiconductor QDs in infrared spectrum (2-6 um) with a resonant TPA cross section of up to 10(11 )GM. The TPA peaks are tuned by the GQDs' size, edge and electron relaxation rate.

  17. Size-dependent two-photon absorption in circular graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Li, Xin; Li, Zhisong; Liu, Yingkai

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the size-dependence of two-photon absorption (TPA) for circular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the basis of electronic energy states obtained by solving the Dirac-Weyl equation analytically under infinite-mass boundary condition. The analytical expressions for TPA coefficient are derived with an arbitrary size-distribution and the transition selection rules are obtained. Results reveal that the intraband transitions in conduction band and valence band contribute much more to TPA than interband transitions. The energy spectrum and TPA peaks are tuned by the size of GQDs. PMID:26906856

  18. Giant Two-photon Absorption in Circular Graphene Quantum Dots in Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaobo; Li, Zhisong; Li, Xin; Liu, Yingkai

    2016-09-01

    We investigate theoretically the two-photon absorption (TPA) for circular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the edge of armchair and zigzag on the basis of electronic energy states obtained by solving the Dirac-Weyl equation numerically under finite difference method. The expressions for TPA cross section are derived and the transition selection rules are obtained. Results reveal that the TPA is significantly greater in GQDs than conventional semiconductor QDs in infrared spectrum (2-6 um) with a resonant TPA cross section of up to 1011 GM. The TPA peaks are tuned by the GQDs’ size, edge and electron relaxation rate.

  19. Giant Two-photon Absorption in Circular Graphene Quantum Dots in Infrared Region.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Li, Zhisong; Li, Xin; Liu, Yingkai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the two-photon absorption (TPA) for circular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the edge of armchair and zigzag on the basis of electronic energy states obtained by solving the Dirac-Weyl equation numerically under finite difference method. The expressions for TPA cross section are derived and the transition selection rules are obtained. Results reveal that the TPA is significantly greater in GQDs than conventional semiconductor QDs in infrared spectrum (2-6 um) with a resonant TPA cross section of up to 10(11 )GM. The TPA peaks are tuned by the GQDs' size, edge and electron relaxation rate. PMID:27629800

  20. Giant Two-photon Absorption in Circular Graphene Quantum Dots in Infrared Region

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaobo; Li, Zhisong; Li, Xin; Liu, Yingkai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the two-photon absorption (TPA) for circular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with the edge of armchair and zigzag on the basis of electronic energy states obtained by solving the Dirac-Weyl equation numerically under finite difference method. The expressions for TPA cross section are derived and the transition selection rules are obtained. Results reveal that the TPA is significantly greater in GQDs than conventional semiconductor QDs in infrared spectrum (2–6 um) with a resonant TPA cross section of up to 1011 GM. The TPA peaks are tuned by the GQDs’ size, edge and electron relaxation rate. PMID:27629800

  1. Study of band inversion in the PbxSn1-xTe class of topological crystalline insulators using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, K V; Kolobov, A V; Fons, P; Krbal, M; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2014-11-26

    Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te and Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Se crystals belong to the class of topological crystalline insulators where topological protection is achieved due to crystal symmetry rather than time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we make use of selection rules in the x-ray absorption process to experimentally detect band inversion along the PbTe(Se)-SnTe(Se) tie-lines. The observed significant change in the ratio of intensities of L1 and L3 transitions along the tie-line demonstrates that x-ray absorption can be a useful tool to study band inversion in topological insulators.

  2. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  3. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

  4. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  5. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  6. Interplay between the spin-selection rule and frontier orbital theory in O2 activation and CO oxidation by single-atom-sized catalysts on TiO2(110).

    PubMed

    Li, Shunfang; Zhao, Xingju; Shi, Jinlei; Jia, Yu; Guo, Zhengxiao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-28

    Exploration of the catalytic activity of low-dimensional transition metal (TM) or noble metal catalysts is a vital subject of modern materials science because of their instrumental role in numerous industrial applications. Recent experimental advances have demonstrated the utilization of single atoms on different substrates as effective catalysts, which exhibit amazing catalytic properties such as more efficient catalytic performance and higher selectivity in chemical reactions as compared to their nanostructured counterparts; however, the underlying microscopic mechanisms operative in these single atom catalysts still remain elusive. Based on first-principles calculations, herein, we present a comparative study of the key kinetic rate processes involved in CO oxidation using a monomer or dimer of two representative TMs (Pd and Ni) on defective TiO2(110) substrates (TMn@TiO2(110), n = 1, 2) to elucidate the underlying mechanism of single-atom catalysis. We reveal that the O2 activation rates of the single atom TM catalysts deposited on TiO2(110) are governed cooperatively by the classic spin-selection rule and the well-known frontier orbital theory (or generalized d-band picture) that emphasizes the energy gap between the frontier orbitals of the TM catalysts and O2 molecule. We further illuminate that the subsequent CO oxidation reactions proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with contrasting reaction barriers for the Pd monomer and dimer catalysts. These findings not only provide an explanation for existing observations of distinctly different catalytic activities of Pd@TiO2(110) and Pd2@TiO2(110) [Kaden et al., Science, 2009, 326, 826-829] but also shed new insights into future utilization and optimization of single-atom catalysis.

  7. Interplay between the spin-selection rule and frontier orbital theory in O2 activation and CO oxidation by single-atom-sized catalysts on TiO2(110).

    PubMed

    Li, Shunfang; Zhao, Xingju; Shi, Jinlei; Jia, Yu; Guo, Zhengxiao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-28

    Exploration of the catalytic activity of low-dimensional transition metal (TM) or noble metal catalysts is a vital subject of modern materials science because of their instrumental role in numerous industrial applications. Recent experimental advances have demonstrated the utilization of single atoms on different substrates as effective catalysts, which exhibit amazing catalytic properties such as more efficient catalytic performance and higher selectivity in chemical reactions as compared to their nanostructured counterparts; however, the underlying microscopic mechanisms operative in these single atom catalysts still remain elusive. Based on first-principles calculations, herein, we present a comparative study of the key kinetic rate processes involved in CO oxidation using a monomer or dimer of two representative TMs (Pd and Ni) on defective TiO2(110) substrates (TMn@TiO2(110), n = 1, 2) to elucidate the underlying mechanism of single-atom catalysis. We reveal that the O2 activation rates of the single atom TM catalysts deposited on TiO2(110) are governed cooperatively by the classic spin-selection rule and the well-known frontier orbital theory (or generalized d-band picture) that emphasizes the energy gap between the frontier orbitals of the TM catalysts and O2 molecule. We further illuminate that the subsequent CO oxidation reactions proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with contrasting reaction barriers for the Pd monomer and dimer catalysts. These findings not only provide an explanation for existing observations of distinctly different catalytic activities of Pd@TiO2(110) and Pd2@TiO2(110) [Kaden et al., Science, 2009, 326, 826-829] but also shed new insights into future utilization and optimization of single-atom catalysis. PMID:27545326

  8. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  9. Sound absorption in metallic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. J.; Hess, Audrey; Ashby, M. F.

    1999-06-01

    The sound absorption capacity of one type of aluminum alloy foams—trade name Alporas—is studied experimentally. The foam in its as-received cast form contains closed porosities, and hence does not absorb sound well. To make the foam more transparent to air motion, techniques based on either rolling or hole drilling are used. Under rolling, the faces of some of the cells break to form small sharp-edged cracks as observed from a scanning electronic microscope. These cracks become passage ways for the in-and-out movement of air particles, resulting in sound absorption improvement. The best performance is nevertheless achieved via hole drilling where nearly all of the sound can be absorbed at selected frequencies. Combining rolling with hole drilling does not appear to lend additional benefits for sound absorption. Image analysis is carried out to characterize the changes in cell morphologies due to rolling/compression, and the drop in elastic modulus due to the formation of cracks is recorded. The effects of varying the relative foam density and panel thickness on sound absorption are measured, and optimal relative density and thickness of the panel are identified. Analytical models are used to explain the measured increase in sound absorption due to rolling and/or drilling. Sound absorbed by viscous flow across small cracks appears to dominate over that dissipated via other mechanisms.

  10. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Amui, J.

    1992-06-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stages of direct coal liquefaction. Scope of work study the conversion of Argonne Premium coals in tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin and compare the following: conversion to soluble products and product composition. Hydrogen donated by both solvents will be measured by gas chromatography and the same technique will be used to establish the amount of dealkylation of 2-t-butyltetralin. Reactions will be performed at several different temperatures for varying amounts of time.

  11. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.; Lazarov, L.; Amui, J.

    1992-04-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stage of direct coal liquefaction.

  12. Forty years of Clar's aromatic π-sextet rule.

    PubMed

    Solà, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    In 1972 Erich Clar formulated his aromatic π-sextet rule that allows discussing qualitatively the aromatic character of benzenoid species. Now, 40 years later, Clar's aromatic π-sextet rule is still a source of inspiration for many chemists. This simple rule has been validated both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we select some particular examples to highlight the achievement of Clar's aromatic π-sextet rule in many situations and we discuss two recent successful cases of its application.

  13. a Heterosynaptic Learning Rule for Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    In this article we introduce a novel stochastic Hebb-like learning rule for neural networks that is neurobiologically motivated. This learning rule combines features of unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (reinforcement) learning and is stochastic with respect to the selection of the time points when a synapse is modified. Moreover, the learning rule does not only affect the synapse between pre- and postsynaptic neuron, which is called homosynaptic plasticity, but effects also further remote synapses of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. This more complex form of synaptic plasticity has recently come under investigations in neurobiology and is called heterosynaptic plasticity. We demonstrate that this learning rule is useful in training neural networks by learning parity functions including the exclusive-or (XOR) mapping in a multilayer feed-forward network. We find, that our stochastic learning rule works well, even in the presence of noise. Importantly, the mean learning time increases with the number of patterns to be learned polynomially, indicating efficient learning.

  14. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1absorption (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  15. 14 CFR 23.723 - Shock absorption tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shock absorption tests. 23.723 Section 23... Landing Gear § 23.723 Shock absorption tests. (a) It must be shown that the limit load factors selected... exceeded. This must be shown by energy absorption tests except that analysis based on tests conducted on...

  16. 14 CFR 23.723 - Shock absorption tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shock absorption tests. 23.723 Section 23... Landing Gear § 23.723 Shock absorption tests. (a) It must be shown that the limit load factors selected... exceeded. This must be shown by energy absorption tests except that analysis based on tests conducted on...

  17. 14 CFR 23.723 - Shock absorption tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shock absorption tests. 23.723 Section 23... Landing Gear § 23.723 Shock absorption tests. (a) It must be shown that the limit load factors selected... exceeded. This must be shown by energy absorption tests except that analysis based on tests conducted on...

  18. Rule groupings in expert systems using nearest neighbour decision rules, and convex hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasiadis, Stergios

    1991-01-01

    Expert System shells are lacking in many areas of software engineering. Large rule based systems are not semantically comprehensible, difficult to debug, and impossible to modify or validate. Partitioning a set of rules found in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) into groups of rules which reflect the underlying semantic subdomains of the problem, will address adequately the concerns stated above. Techniques are introduced to structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of rules that inherently have common semantic information. The concepts involved are imported from the field of A.I., Pattern Recognition, and Statistical Inference. Techniques focus on the areas of feature selection, classification, and a criteria of how 'good' the classification technique is, based on Bayesian Decision Theory. A variety of distance metrics are discussed for measuring the 'closeness' of CLIPS rules and various Nearest Neighbor classification algorithms are described based on the above metric.

  19. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  20. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  1. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  2. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  3. How Rules Shape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

  4. Delayed rule following

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363

  5. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won't become contaminated with bacteria if you pick it up off the floor in 5 seconds or less. The 5-second rule has become such a part of our culture that scientists actually tested it. As you can ...

  6. Flow injection solid phase extraction electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of Cr(VI) by selective separation and preconcentration on a lab-made hybrid mesoporous solid microcolumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Manuela; Stripeikis, Jorge; Tudino, Mabel

    2009-06-01

    A lab-made hybrid mesoporous solid was employed in a flow injection solid phase extraction electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric (FI-SPE-ETAAS) system for the selective retention of Cr(VI). The solid was prepared by co-condensation of sodium tetraethylortosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by sol-gel methodology and one-pot synthesis and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy. Adsorption capacities at different pH values of both, Cr(VI) and Cr(III), were also measured in order to obtain the optimum retention for Cr(VI) with no interference of Cr(III). The maximum capacity of adsorption (4.35 mmol g - 1) was observed for pH values between 2-3, whilst Cr(III) was found to remain in solution (adsorption capacity = 0.007 mmol g - 1). Then, a microcolumn (bed volume: 7.9 µL) was filled with the solid and inserted in the FI-ETAAS system for analytical purposes. Since the analyte was strongly retained by the filling in the anionic form, 0.1 mol L - 1 hydroxylammonium chloride in 1 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid was selected as eluent due to its redox characteristics. In this way, the sorbed Cr(VI) was easily released in the cationic form. The enrichment factor (EF) was found as a compromise between sensitivity and sample throughput and a value of 27 was obtained under optimized conditions: pH 2, sample loading 2 mL min - 1 (60 s), elution flow rate 0.5 ml min - 1 (eluent volume: 75 μL). Under optimized conditions the limit of detection for Cr(VI) was 1.2 ng L - 1, the precision, expressed as RSD was 2.5%, the sample throughput 21/h, and the microcolumn lifetime was over 300 adsorption/desorption cycles. Cr(III) determination was also performed by simply measuring its concentration at the end of the column and after Cr(VI) retention by the mesoporous solid. Applications of the methodology to the determination of Cr(VI) in deionized, osmosis, mineral, effluent and river

  7. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  8. Coherent Absorption of N00N States.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:27447505

  9. Coherent Absorption of N00N States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Thomas; Restuccia, Sara; Lyons, Ashley; Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Jeffers, John; Padgett, Miles; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Recent results in deeply subwavelength thickness films demonstrate coherent control and logical gate operations with both classical and single-photon light sources. However, quantum processing and devices typically involve more than one photon and nontrivial input quantum states. Here we experimentally investigate two-photon N00N state coherent absorption in a multilayer graphene film. Depending on the N00N state input phase, it is possible to selectively choose between single- or two-photon absorption of the input state in the graphene film. These results demonstrate that coherent absorption in the quantum regime exhibits unique features, opening up applications in multiphoton spectroscopy and imaging.

  10. On the Ammonia Absorption on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejfel, Victor G.; Karimov, A. M.; Lyssenko, P. G.; Kharitonova, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ammonia absorption bands centered at wavelengths of 645 and 787 nm in the visible spectrum of Saturn are very weak and overlapped with more strong absorption bands of methane. Therefore, the allocation of these bands is extremely difficult. In fact, the NH3 band 787 nm is completely masked by methane. The NH3 645 nm absorption band is superimposed on a relatively weak shortwave wing of CH4 band, in which the absorption maximum lies at the wavelength of 667 nm. In 2009, during the equinox on Saturn we have obtained the series of zonal spectrograms by scanning of the planet disk from the southern to the northern polar limb. Besides studies of latitudinal variation of the methane absorption bands we have done an attempt to trace the behavior of the absorption of ammonia in the band 645 nm. Simple selection of the pure NH3 profile of the band was not very reliable. Therefore, after normalizing to the ring spectrum and to the level of the continuous spectrum for entire band ranging from 630 to 680 nm in the equivalent widths were calculated for shortwave part of this band (630-652 nm), where the ammonia absorption is present, and a portion of the band CH4 652-680 nm. In any method of eliminating the weak part of the methane uptake in the short wing show an increased ammonia absorption in the northern hemisphere compared to the south. This same feature is observed also in the behavior of weak absorption bands of methane in contrast to the more powerful, such as CH4 725 and 787 nm. This is due to the conditions of absorption bands formation in the clouds at multiple scattering. Weak absorption bands of methane and ammonia are formed on the large effective optical depths and their behavior reflects the differences in the degree of uniformity of the aerosol component of the atmosphere of Saturn.

  11. Following the Rules.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
. PMID:27105186

  12. Kin selection and eusociality.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Joan E; Page, Robert E; Robinson, Gene E; Seeley, Thomas D

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Hamilton described a selective process in which individuals affect kin (kin selection), developed a novel modelling strategy for it (inclusive fitness), and derived a rule to describe it (Hamilton's rule). Nowak et al. assert that inclusive fitness is not the best modelling strategy, and also that its production has been "meagre". The former may be debated by theoreticians, but the latter is simply incorrect. There is abundant evidence to demonstrate that inclusive fitness, kin selection and Hamilton's rule have been extraordinarily productive for understanding the evolution of sociality. PMID:21430723

  13. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  14. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  15. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  16. Pushing the rules: effects and aftereffects of deliberate rule violations.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Robert; Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Huestegge, Lynn; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-09-01

    Most of our daily life is organized around rules and social norms. But what makes rules so special? And what if one were to break a rule intentionally? Can we simply free us from the present set of rules or do we automatically adhere to them? How do rule violations influence subsequent behavior? To investigate the effects and aftereffects of violating simple S-R rule, we conducted three experiments that investigated continuous finger-tracking responses on an iPad. Our experiments show that rule violations are distinct from rule-based actions in both response times and movement trajectories, they take longer to initiate and execute, and their movement trajectory is heavily contorted. Data not only show differences between the two types of response (rule-based vs. violation), but also yielded a characteristic pattern of aftereffects in case of rule violations: rule violations do not trigger adaptation effects that render further rule violations less difficult, but every rule violation poses repeated effort on the agent. The study represents a first step towards understanding the signature and underlying mechanisms of deliberate rule violations, they cannot be acted out by themselves, but require the activation of the original rule first. Consequently, they are best understood as reformulations of existing rules that are not accessible on their own, but need to be constantly derived from the original rule, with an add-on that might entail an active tendency to steer away from mental representations that reflect (socially) unwanted behavior.

  17. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, in the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  18. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  19. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  20. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    PubMed

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions.

  1. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  2. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  3. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  4. The POP learning algorithms: reducing work in identifying fuzzy rules.

    PubMed

    Quek, C; Zhou, R W

    2001-12-01

    A novel fuzzy neural network, the Pseudo Outer-Product based Fuzzy Neural Network (POPFNN), and its two fuzzy-rule-identification algorithms are proposed in this paper. They are the Pseudo Outer-Product (POP) learning and the Lazy Pseudo Outer-Product (LazyPOP) leaning algorithms. These two learning algorithms are used in POPFNN to identify relevant fuzzy rules. In contrast with other rule-learning algorithms, the proposed algorithms have many advantages, such as being fast, reliable, efficient, and easy to understand. POP learning is a simple one-pass learning algorithm. It essentially performs rule-selection. Hence, it suffers from the shortcoming of having to consider all the possible rules. The second algorithm, the LazyPOP learning algorithm, truly identifies the fuzzy rules which are relevant and does not use a rule-selection method whereby irrelevant fuzzy rules are eliminated from an initial rule set. In addition, it is able to adjust the structure of the fuzzy neural network. The proposed LazyPOP learning algorithm is able to delete invalid feature inputs according to the fuzzy rules that have been identified. Extensive experimental results and discussions are presented for a detailed analysis of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  6. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  7. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  8. The unified method rules

    SciTech Connect

    Juric, R.

    1996-12-31

    Any methodology for information systems development defines rules and conditions that are to be followed and satisfied when applying it to developing analysis and design models of a system. The newest attempt to achieve a successful systems development and establish standards in object oriented analysis and design technologies resulted in the unified method documentation set, version 0.8 being published in late 1995. In this paper I will analyse the first draft and present a set of rules that must be satisfied by the valid unified method. The rules are divided into different sections: (A) classes/objects and categories, (B) attributes and operations, (C) associations and inheritance, (D) message trace diagram/object message diagram/state diagram/use cases.

  9. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  10. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  11. Badger's rule revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy; Liu, Guanghua; Mosquera Castro, Ricardo A.

    2000-12-01

    Numerical experiments demonstrate that the accuracy of stretching force constants ke provided by Badger's rule is unlikely to be substantially improved either by modification of the functional dependence on the equilibrium bond length Re or the inclusion of bond parameters related to electron density. These results, based upon both the experimental and QCISD/6-311++G(3d2f, 3p2d) values of Re and ke, imply that most of the universal characteristics of the bond strength vs. bond length dependence are accounted for by Badger's rule, the more detailed features being unexplainable by first-order response properties such as electron density.

  12. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions. PMID:26934755

  13. Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.

    2014-03-01

    Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  15. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  16. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  17. Liquid for absorption of solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kadotani, K.; Marui, T.

    1984-11-13

    A liquid for the absorption of solar heat, useful as an heat-absorbing medium in water heaters and heat collectors comprises: a dispersing medium selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, mixture of propylene glycol with water, mixture of propylene glycol with water and glycerin, and mixture of glycerin with water, a dispersant selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, caramel, and mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone with caramel, and a powdered activated carbon as a black coloring material.

  18. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  19. 13 Rules That Expire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Karen S.; Bush, Sarah B.; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneralizing commonly accepted strategies, using imprecise vocabulary, and relying on tips and tricks that do not promote conceptual mathematical understanding can lead to misunderstanding later in students' math careers. In this article, the authors present thirteen pervasive mathematics rules that "expire." With the…

  20. An Airship Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  2. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  3. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  4. Studies on the complexation of neodymium(III) ion with 1,2,4-1H-triazole and 1,2,3-benzotriazole in absence and presence of calcium(II) ion in aqueous and some selected different aquated organic solvents by an absorption spectroscopy involving 4f-4f transitions.

    PubMed

    Huidrom, Bimola; Ranjana Devi, N; Singh, Th David; Singh, N Rajmuhon

    2012-01-01

    The absorption spectra of trivalent neodymium ion with 1,2,4-1H-triazole and 1,2,3-benzotriazole in absence and presence of calcium(II) ion in aqueous and some selected different aquated organic solvents have been recorded in the visible and near infrared regions. From the data available in the absorption spectra, various spectroscopic parameters such as Slator-Condon (F(k)), Lande spin-orbit coupling constant (ξ(4f)), nephelauxetic ratio (β), bonding parameter (b(1/2)), percent covalency (δ), oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (T(λ)) parameters have been evaluated. The Judd-Ofelt intensity, T(λ) (λ=2, 4, 6) parameters are utilized in evaluating the P(cal) from various excited states of trivalent neodymium ions and ratifying as an inner sphere complexations.

  5. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  6. Learning categories via rules and similarity: comparing adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Rahel; Miles, Sarah J; Minda, John Paul

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments explored the different strategies used by children and adults when learning new perceptual categories. Participants were asked to learn a set of categories for which both a single-feature rule and overall similarity would allow for perfect performance. Other rules allowed for suboptimal performance. Transfer stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2) and single features (Experiment 2) were presented after training to help determine how the categories were learned. In both experiments, we found that adults made significantly more optimal rule-based responses to the test stimuli than children. Children showed a variety of categorization styles, with a few relying on the optimal rules, many relying on suboptimal single-feature rules, and only a few relying on overall family resemblance. We interpret these results within a multiple systems framework, and we argue that children show the pattern they do because they lack the necessary cognitive resources to fully engage in hypothesis testing, rule selection, and verbally mediated category learning.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  8. Impact of soil properties on selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment has been recognized as a potential threat. Pharmaceuticals may contaminate soils and consequently surface and groundwater. Study was therefore focused on the evaluation of selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing contaminant transport in soils. The goals of this study were: (1) to select representative soils of the Czech Republic and to measure soil physical and chemical properties; (2) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals; (3) to evaluate impact of soil properties on pharmaceutical adsorptions and to propose pedotransfer rules for estimating adsorption coefficients from the measured soil properties. Batch sorption tests were performed for 6 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and 13 representative soils (soil samples from surface horizons of 11 different soil types and 2 substrates). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. The simple correlations between measured physical and chemical soil properties (soil particle density, soil texture, oxidable organic carbon content, CaCO3 content, pH_H2O, pH_KCl, exchangeable acidity, cation exchange capacity, hydrolytic acidity, basic cation saturation, sorption complex saturation, salinity), and the Freundlich adsorption coefficients were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then multiple-linear regressions were applied to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. The largest adsorption was measured for Clarithromycin (average value of 227.1) and decreased as follows: Trimetoprim (22.5), Metoprolol (9.0), Atenolol (6.6), Carbamazepin (2.7), Sulfamethoxazol (1.9). Absorption coefficients for Atenolol and Metoprolol closely correlated (R=0.85), and both were also

  9. 75 FR 76065 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select... Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols in Section I of the Fee Schedule. The text of the proposed rule change.... Purpose The purpose of the proposed rule change is to amend the list of Select Symbols in the...

  10. Caregivers program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

  11. Disagreement Rules, Referral Rules and the Spanish Feminine Article "el."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The Spanish feminine article /el/, ordinarily the singular masculine definite article, has been used as evidence of the need for obligatory disagreement rules. Others explain the anamoly by means of referral rules. A third solution is suggested: an allomorphy rule which can be interpreted syntactically or phonologically. (LMO)

  12. Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…

  13. Energy absorption of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

  14. Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norvang Nilsen, Lill T.; Fiskerstrand, Elisanne J.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of laser induced selective photothermolysis is to induced thermal damage to specific targets in such a manner that the temperature of the surrounding tissue is maintained below the threshold for thermal damage. The selectivity is obtained by selection of a proper wavelength and pulse duration. The technique is presently being used in the clinic for removal of port-wine stains. The presence of melanin in the epidermal layer can represent a limitation to the selectivity. Melanin absorption drops off significantly with increasing wavelength, but is significant in the entire wavelength region where the blood absorption is high. Treatment of port-wine stain in patients with high skin pigmentation may therefore give overheating of the epidermis, resulting in epidermal necrosis. Melanosomal heating is dependent on the energy and duration of the laser pulse. The heating mechanism for time scales less than typically 1 microsecond(s) corresponds to a transient local heating of the individual melanosomes. For larger time scales, heat diffusion out of the melanosomes become of increased importance, and the temperature distribution will reach a local steady state condition after typically 10 microsecond(s) . For even longer pulse duration, heat diffusing from neighboring melanosomes becomes important, and the temperature rise in a time scale from 100 - 500 microsecond(s) is dominated by this mechanism. The epidermal heating during the typical 450 microsecond(s) pulse used for therapy is thus dependent on the average epidermal melanin content rather than on the absorption coefficient of the individual melanosomes. This study will present in vivo measurements of the epidermal melanin absorption of human skin when exposed to short laser pulses (< 0.1 microsecond(s) ) from a Q-switched ruby laser and with long laser pulses (approximately 500 microsecond(s) ) from a free-running ruby laser or a long pulse length flashlamp pumped dye laser. The epidermal melanin

  15. Lipids: Absorption and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the hydrophobic nature of lipids, dietary fat is handled differently than protein or carbohydrate with respect with digestion and absorption. Dietary fats are broken down throughout the gastrointestinal system. A unique group of enzymes and cofactors allows this process to proceed in an eff...

  16. Absorption driven focus shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  17. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  18. Cholesterol Absorption and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howles, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of cholesterol absorption have been sought for decades as a means to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with hypercholesterolemia. Ezetimibe is the one clear success story in this regard, and other compounds with similar efficacy continue to be sought. In the last decade, the laboratory mouse, with all its genetic power, has become the premier experimental model for discovering the mechanisms underlying cholesterol absorption and has become a critical tool for preclinical testing of potential pharmaceutical entities. This chapter briefly reviews the history of cholesterol absorption research and the various gene candidates that have come under consideration as drug targets. The most common and versatile method of measuring cholesterol absorption is described in detail along with important considerations when interpreting results, and an alternative method is also presented. In recent years, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has become an area of intense new interest for drug discovery since this process is now considered another key to reducing CVD risk. The ultimate measure of RCT is sterol excretion and a detailed description is given for measuring neutral and acidic fecal sterols and interpreting the results. PMID:27150091

  19. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-02-28

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.

  20. Sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation of New World dragonflies follows Rensch's rule.

    PubMed

    Santos, E S A; Machado, G

    2016-07-01

    Many animal taxa that display sexual size dimorphism (SSD) exhibit a positive allometric relationship in which the degree of dimorphism increases with body size. This macroevolutionary pattern is known as Rensch's rule. Although sexual selection is hypothesized to be the main mechanism causing this pattern, body size is influenced by several selective forces, including natural and sexual selection. Therefore, by focusing exclusively on SSD one cannot ascertain which of these selective forces drives Rensch's rule. If sexual selection is indeed the main mechanism underlying Rensch's rule, we predict that other sexually selected traits, including coloration-based ornaments, will also exhibit interspecific allometric scaling consistent with Rensch's rule. We tested this prediction using wing pigmentation of 89 species of dragonflies. Studies show that male wing pigmentation is generally under strong intra- and intersexual selection, so that sexual dichromatism in this trait should follow Rensch's rule. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that male body size is usually not sexually selected in dragonflies, so we do not expect SSD to follow Rensch's rule. First, we found that sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation was consistent with Rensch's rule. The phylogenetic major axis regression slope was significantly greater than one. We also showed that the allometric slope for SSD was not different from unity, providing no support for Rensch's rule. Our results provide the first evidence that a trait which appears to be under strong sexual selection exhibits a pattern consistent with Rensch's rule. PMID:27169873

  1. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  2. A Natural Selection Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashiro, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Provides rules for a game which simulates selection pressures on a hominid group. Objectives include an appreciation of how selectivity works, an understanding of how abiotic factors are able to influence a population, and how interactions within the population can influence the group. (JM)

  3. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  4. [Absorption of extractive Polygonum orientale in rat everted gut sacs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Tang, Li; Cao, Xu; Zheng, Lin; Wang, Ai-Min; Huang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Using in vitro everted gut to investigate the intestinal absorption of the extracts from Polygonum orientale at different concentration. UPLC-MS/MS was used to detect the content of protocatechuic acid, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, cynaroside, quercitrin, kaempferol-rhamnoside in different intestinal segments, then compared the results with the absorption of chemical components of extractive P. orientale in each intestinal segments, and calculated the absorption parameter. We took the statistic analysis with SPSS statistic software. The influence significance of each factors were analyzed to describe the character of absorption. The absorption of each component is linearity in different intestinal segments and different dose, and the square of coeficient correlation exceed 0.95, which consistent with zero order rate process. The K(a) increase along with the raised dosage of the extractive P. orientale (R2 > 0.95), indicated it is the passive absorption; different intestinal segments have different absorption. And the absorption trend in intestinal is duodenum, jejunum, ileum are greater than the colon. As ingredients are selectively absorbed in intestinal sac, the everted intestinal sac method is selected to assess the intestinal absorption charcteristics of ingredients of extractive P. orientale. PMID:25272855

  5. Geometrical dependence of spin current absorption into a ferromagnetic nanodot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ohnishi, Kohei; Kimura, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the absorption property of the diffusive pure spin current due to a ferromagnetic nanodot in a laterally configured ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic hybrid nanostructure. The spin absorption in a nano-pillar-based lateral-spin-valve structure was confirmed to increase with increasing the lateral dimension of the ferromagnetic dot. However, the absorption efficiency was smaller than that in a conventional lateral spin valve based on nanowire junctions because the large effective cross section of the two dimensional nonmagnetic film reduces the spin absorption selectivity. We also found that the absorption efficiency of the spin current is significantly enhanced by using a thick ferromagnetic nanodot. This can be understood by taking into account the spin absorption through the side surface of the ferromagnetic dot quantitatively.

  6. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  7. Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy Using Quantum Cascade Lasers.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  8. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. Rules for Optical Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1. Fully Understand the Task 2. Develop an Error Budget 3. Continuous Metrology Coverage 4. Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6. Independent Cross-Checks 7. Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  10. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  11. Rules for Optical Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1.Fully Understand the Task 2.Develop an Error Budget 3.Continuous Metrology Coverage 4.Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6.Independent Cross-Checks 7.Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  12. Absorption mode FTICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Kilgour, David P A; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here, we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image, and then, these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode "Datacubes" for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.

  13. A clinical case-based hypothesis: secretory IgA operates as an electronic transistor controlling the selection or rejection of molecules in the absorption process in the lumen of gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Zamm, Alfred V

    2013-01-01

    There is a clinical correlation between (1) an allergic patient's ability to resist the development of symptoms that would have resulted from an allergenic challenge, (2) the magnitude of geomagnetism at a geographic site, and (3) the amount of solar energy falling on that site. It is suggested that the digestive membrane has an electronic gatekeeper that "decides" electronically which molecules to allow or not allow to pass on to the absorptive surface. The unique bipolar structure of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), having a central secretory piece and the resultant unique electronic function of this polarized molecule, allows it to function as an electronic transistor, producing an electronic gatekeeper in the form of an electronic sieve. PMID:24068871

  14. A clinical case-based hypothesis: secretory IgA operates as an electronic transistor controlling the selection or rejection of molecules in the absorption process in the lumen of gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Zamm, Alfred V

    2013-01-01

    There is a clinical correlation between (1) an allergic patient’s ability to resist the development of symptoms that would have resulted from an allergenic challenge, (2) the magnitude of geomagnetism at a geographic site, and (3) the amount of solar energy falling on that site. It is suggested that the digestive membrane has an electronic gatekeeper that “decides” electronically which molecules to allow or not allow to pass on to the absorptive surface. The unique bipolar structure of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), having a central secretory piece and the resultant unique electronic function of this polarized molecule, allows it to function as an electronic transistor, producing an electronic gatekeeper in the form of an electronic sieve. PMID:24068871

  15. Absorption and emission spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.

    The advent of controllable synthetic methods for the production of semiconductor nanostructures has led to their use in a host of applications, including light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, sensors, and even television displays. This is, in part, due to the size, shape, and morphologically dependent optical and electrical properties that make this class of materials extremely customizable; wire-, rod- and sphere-shaped nanocrystals are readily synthesized through common wet chemical methods. Most notably, confining the physical dimension of the nanostructure to a size below its Bohr radius (aB) results in quantum confinement effects that increase its optical energy gap. Not only the size, but the shape of a particle can be exploited to tailor its optical and electrical properties. For example, confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires (NWs) of equivalent diameter possess significantly different optical gaps. This phenomenon has been ascribed to electrostatic contributions arising from dielectric screening effects that are more pronounced in an elongated (wire-like) morphology. Semiconducting nanostructures have thus received significant attention over the past two decades. However, surprisingly little work has been done to elucidate their basic photophysics on a single particle basis. What has been done has generally been accomplished through emission-based measurements, and thus does not fully capture the full breadth of these intriguing systems. What is therefore needed then are absorption-based studies that probe the size and shape dependent evolution of nanostructure photophysics. This thesis summarizes the single particle absorption spectroscopy that we have carried out to fill this knowledge gap. Specifically, the diameter-dependent progression of one-dimensional (1D) excitonic states in CdSe NWs has been revealed. This is followed by a study that focuses on the polarization selection rules of 1D excitons within single CdSe NWs. Finally

  16. Motor Demands Constrain Cognitive Rule Structures.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne Gabrielle Eva; Frank, Michael Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Study of human executive function focuses on our ability to represent cognitive rules independently of stimulus or response modality. However, recent findings suggest that executive functions cannot be modularized separately from perceptual and motor systems, and that they instead scaffold on top of motor action selection. Here we investigate whether patterns of motor demands influence how participants choose to implement abstract rule structures. In a learning task that requires integrating two stimulus dimensions for determining appropriate responses, subjects typically structure the problem hierarchically, using one dimension to cue the task-set and the other to cue the response given the task-set. However, the choice of which dimension to use at each level can be arbitrary. We hypothesized that the specific structure subjects adopt would be constrained by the motor patterns afforded within each rule. Across four independent data-sets, we show that subjects create rule structures that afford motor clustering, preferring structures in which adjacent motor actions are valid within each task-set. In a fifth data-set using instructed rules, this bias was strong enough to counteract the well-known task switch-cost when instructions were incongruent with motor clustering. Computational simulations confirm that observed biases can be explained by leveraging overlap in cortical motor representations to improve outcome prediction and hence infer the structure to be learned. These results highlight the importance of sensorimotor constraints in abstract rule formation and shed light on why humans have strong biases to invent structure even when it does not exist.

  17. Motor Demands Constrain Cognitive Rule Structures

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne Gabrielle Eva; Frank, Michael Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Study of human executive function focuses on our ability to represent cognitive rules independently of stimulus or response modality. However, recent findings suggest that executive functions cannot be modularized separately from perceptual and motor systems, and that they instead scaffold on top of motor action selection. Here we investigate whether patterns of motor demands influence how participants choose to implement abstract rule structures. In a learning task that requires integrating two stimulus dimensions for determining appropriate responses, subjects typically structure the problem hierarchically, using one dimension to cue the task-set and the other to cue the response given the task-set. However, the choice of which dimension to use at each level can be arbitrary. We hypothesized that the specific structure subjects adopt would be constrained by the motor patterns afforded within each rule. Across four independent data-sets, we show that subjects create rule structures that afford motor clustering, preferring structures in which adjacent motor actions are valid within each task-set. In a fifth data-set using instructed rules, this bias was strong enough to counteract the well-known task switch-cost when instructions were incongruent with motor clustering. Computational simulations confirm that observed biases can be explained by leveraging overlap in cortical motor representations to improve outcome prediction and hence infer the structure to be learned. These results highlight the importance of sensorimotor constraints in abstract rule formation and shed light on why humans have strong biases to invent structure even when it does not exist. PMID:26966909

  18. Motor Demands Constrain Cognitive Rule Structures.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne Gabrielle Eva; Frank, Michael Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Study of human executive function focuses on our ability to represent cognitive rules independently of stimulus or response modality. However, recent findings suggest that executive functions cannot be modularized separately from perceptual and motor systems, and that they instead scaffold on top of motor action selection. Here we investigate whether patterns of motor demands influence how participants choose to implement abstract rule structures. In a learning task that requires integrating two stimulus dimensions for determining appropriate responses, subjects typically structure the problem hierarchically, using one dimension to cue the task-set and the other to cue the response given the task-set. However, the choice of which dimension to use at each level can be arbitrary. We hypothesized that the specific structure subjects adopt would be constrained by the motor patterns afforded within each rule. Across four independent data-sets, we show that subjects create rule structures that afford motor clustering, preferring structures in which adjacent motor actions are valid within each task-set. In a fifth data-set using instructed rules, this bias was strong enough to counteract the well-known task switch-cost when instructions were incongruent with motor clustering. Computational simulations confirm that observed biases can be explained by leveraging overlap in cortical motor representations to improve outcome prediction and hence infer the structure to be learned. These results highlight the importance of sensorimotor constraints in abstract rule formation and shed light on why humans have strong biases to invent structure even when it does not exist. PMID:26966909

  19. Vaginal Absorption of Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Rock, J; Barker, R H; Bacon, W B

    1947-01-01

    Except during the last two months of pregnancy, penicillin is easily absorbed from cocoa butter suppositories in the vagina, ordinarily to give therapeutic blood levels for from 4 to 6 hours. Penicillin in the dosage used seems to have a good effect on vaginal infections. In nonpregnant women, during the ovulation phase, considered as including days 14 +/- 2 in the ordinary menstrual cycle of about 28 days, absorption seemed to be somewhat diminished. Higher levels were found in patients who were near the end of their menstrual cycles and in two patients who were menopausal. Patients who were very near term absorbed little or no penicillin, whereas patients 10 days post partum showed excellent absorption.

  20. Photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Octeau, Vivien; Cognet, Laurent; Duchesne, Laurence; Lasne, David; Schaeffer, Nicolas; Fernig, David G; Lounis, Brahim

    2009-02-24

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a popular technique, complementary to cell imaging for the investigation of dynamic processes in living cells. Based on fluorescence, this single molecule method suffers from artifacts originating from the poor fluorophore photophysics: photobleaching, blinking, and saturation. To circumvent these limitations we present here a new correlation method called photothermal absorption correlation spectroscopy (PhACS) which relies on the absorption properties of tiny nano-objects. PhACS is based on the photothermal heterodyne detection technique and measures akin FCS, the time correlation function of the detected signals. Application of this technique to the precise determination of the hydrodynamic sizes of different functionalized gold nanoparticles are presented, highlighting the potential of this method. PMID:19236070

  1. THE ABSORPTION OF ADRENALIN

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, D. Murray

    1923-01-01

    1. Adrenalin solution given subcutaneously is usually rapidly absorbed, probably by lymphatic channels. 2. The speed of this process may be influenced by the circulation rate. 3. The relative amounts of adrenalin at any moment unabsorbed at the site of inoculation, carried in the circulating fluids, and taken up by the reacting tissues can be calculated from figures extracted from the curve of the blood pressure changes. The relative rates of transference of adrenalin into the blood and from the circulation into the tissues can also be estimated. 4. When absorption takes place rapidly a large quantity of the drug comes into action at once and the maximum occurs early, the curve of blood pressure reaches a considerable height, and subsides quickly. When absorption is slow the apex appears later and does not reach so high a level. 5. The response to adrenalin bears a logarithmic relationship to the dose employed and a method of allowing for this is indicated. PMID:19868816

  2. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-01

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified. PMID:26320799

  3. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-01

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified.

  4. Equations for Scoring Rules When Data Are Missing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A document presents equations for scoring rules in a diagnostic and/or prognostic artificial-intelligence software system of the rule-based inference-engine type. The equations define a set of metrics that characterize the evaluation of a rule when data required for the antecedence clause(s) of the rule are missing. The metrics include a primary measure denoted the rule completeness metric (RCM) plus a number of subsidiary measures that contribute to the RCM. The RCM is derived from an analysis of a rule with respect to its truth and a measure of the completeness of its input data. The derivation is such that the truth value of an antecedent is independent of the measure of its completeness. The RCM can be used to compare the degree of completeness of two or more rules with respect to a given set of data. Hence, the RCM can be used as a guide to choosing among rules during the rule-selection phase of operation of the artificial-intelligence system..

  5. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  6. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  7. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  8. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-15

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  9. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, R; Schade, U; Kleber, Ch; Schreiner, M

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  10. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  11. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  12. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  13. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  14. Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.

  15. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY is an instrument which measures backscattered, reflected, and transmitted light from the earth's atmosphere and surface. SCIAMACHY has eight spectral channels which observe simultaneously the spectral region between 240 and 1700 nm and selected windows between 1940 and 2400 nm. Each spectral channel contains a grating and linear diode array detector. SCIAMACHY observes the atmosphere in nadir, limb, and solar and lunar occultation viewing geometries.

  16. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  17. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639

  18. Absorption Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Irwin D.; Loach, Paul A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1964-01-01

    The magnitude and kinetics of photo-induced absorption changes in bacterial chromatophores (R. rubrum, R. spheroides and Chromatium) have been studied as a function of potential, established by added redox couples. No photochanges can be observed above +0.55 v or below -0.15 v. The loss of signal at the higher potential is centered at +0.439 v and follows a one-electron change. The loss of signal at the lower potential is centered at -0.044 v and is also consistent with a one-electron change. Both losses are reversible. A quantitative relationship exists between light-minus-dark and oxidized-minus-reduced spectra in the near infrared from +0.30 to +0.55 v. Selective treatment of the chromatophores with strong oxidants irreversibly bleaches the bulk pigments but appears to leave intact those pigments responsible for the photo- and chemically-induced absorption changes. Kinetic studies of the photochanges in deaerated samples of R. rubrum chromatophores revealed the same rise time for bands at 433, 792, and 865 mμ (t½ = 50 msec.). However, these bands had different decay rates (t½ = 1.5, 0.5, 0.15 sec., respectively), indicating that they belong to different pigments. Analysis of the data indicates, as the simplest interpretation, a first-order (or pseudo first-order) forward reaction and two parallel first-order (or pseudo first-order) decay reactions at each wavelength. These results imply that all pigments whose kinetics are given are photooxidized and the decay processes are dark reductions. These experiments are viewed as supporting and extending the concept of a bacterial photosynthetic unit, with energy migration within it to specific sites of electron transfer. PMID:14185583

  19. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  1. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  2. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  3. [Contributions of the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee to the determination of rules for the selection of donors of blood and blood components and the study of sexual behaviors having an impact on blood safety].

    PubMed

    Behr-Gross, M-E; Heiden, M; Norda, R

    2013-05-01

    In November 2009, the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee created a group of experts to explore the problem of behaviors having an impact on the management of donors of blood and blood components and on blood transfusion safety in Europe. This ad hoc group sought a harmonised interpretation of temporary exclusion (or temporary deferral), as opposed to permanent exclusion (or permanent deferral), in the context of the selection of donors of blood and blood components. It was also given the mandate to assess, on the basis of available data, the possibility of differentiating "at risk" behaviours from behaviours "at high risk" of contamination by serious infectious diseases transmitted by blood, blood components or derived therapeutic products. The primary objective of this work was to ensure the safety of blood, blood components and derived therapeutic products for future recipients by promoting a risk analysis-based approach, given that some countries envisaged amending their provisions for donor selection. However, a risk analysis can only be performed on groups, not individuals, which may give the impression of a discriminatory approach, so it needed to be justified in the context of transfusion safety. A collaborative project, which included an investigation phase, led to the drafting of a technical memorandum that summarised the data collected in ten Council of Europe member states on the selection criteria for blood donors and the epidemiology of infectious diseases (with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus) in the general population and among blood donors. The technical memorandum was published in 2011 on the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare website dedicated to this project. A draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe was then developed by the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee. This text was circulated among member and observer states of the Council

  4. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  6. Fluctuations in classical sum rules.

    PubMed

    Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  7. Tunable absorption in heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metallic film and Fibonacci fractal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Jie; Du, Gui-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the anomalous optical properties of heterostructures composed of a highly absorptive metal film and a truncated Fibonacci fractal photonic crystal. It is found that one or multiple highly reflected peaks, even enhanced transmission narrowband, can be realized in the near-complete absorption broadband, where the photonic crystals are selected with various Fibonacci sequences or a given sequence as the basic unit. These properties are significant to design important reflection or transmission optical devices in the visible and near-infrared ranges.

  8. Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricaud, Annick; Babin, Marcel; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; TièChe, Fanny

    2010-08-01

    Absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles (NAPs), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and their relative contributions to total light absorption, are essential variables for bio-optical and biogeochemical models. However, their actual variations in the open ocean remain poorly documented, particularly for clear waters because of the difficulty in measuring very low absorption coefficients. The Biogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment (BIOSOPE) cruise investigated a large range of oceanic regimes, from mesotrophic waters around the Marquesas Islands to hyperoligotrophic waters in the subtropical gyre and eutrophic waters in the upwelling area off Chile. The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were determined using the filter technique, while the CDOM absorption coefficients were measured using a 2 m capillary waveguide. Over the whole transect, the absorption coefficients of both dissolved and particulate components covered approximately two orders of magnitude; in the gyre, they were among the lowest ever reported for open ocean waters. In the oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were notably lower than those measured in other oceanic areas with similar chlorophyll contents, indicating some deviation from the standard chlorophyll-absorption relationships. The contribution of absorption by NAPs to total particulate absorption showed large vertical and horizontal variations. CDOM absorption coefficients covaried with algal biomass, albeit with a high scatter. The spectral slopes of both NAP and CDOM absorption revealed structured spatial variability in relation with the trophic conditions. The relative contributions of each component to total nonwater absorption were (at a given wavelength) weakly variable over the transect, at least within the euphotic layer.

  9. Inversion of absorption anisotropy and bowing of crystal field splitting in wurtzite MgZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, M. D.; Esser, N.; Chauveau, J.-M.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2016-05-01

    The anisotropic optical properties of wurtzite MgxZn1-xO thin films (0 ≤x ≤0.45 ) grown on m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature. The data analysis provides the dielectric functions for electric field polarizations perpendicular and parallel to the optical axis. The splitting between the absorption edges of the two polarization directions decreases between x = 0 and x = 0.24, while an inverted absorption anisotropy is found at higher Mg content, indicating a sign change of the crystal field splitting Δcr as for the spin orbit parameter. The characteristic energies such as exciton binding energies and band gaps are determined from the analysis of the imaginary parts of the dielectric functions. In particular, these data reveal a bowing parameter of b =-283 meV for describing the compositional dependence of the crystal field splitting and indicate Δcr=-327 meV for wurtzite MgO. The inverted valence band ordering of ZnO ( Γ7-Γ9-Γ7 ) is found to be preserved with increasing Mg content, while the optical selection rules interchange.

  10. Dopaminergic Genetic Polymorphisms Predict Rule-Based Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Davis, Tyler; Worthy, Darrell A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic genes play an important role in cognitive function. DRD2 and DARPP-32 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms affect striatal dopamine binding potential, while the Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex. Our study assesses the role of these gene polymorphisms on performance in two rule-based category learning tasks. Participants completed unidimensional and conjunctive rule-based tasks. In the unidimensional task, a rule along a single stimulus dimension can be used to distinguish category members. In contrast, a conjunctive rule utilizes a combination of two dimensions to distinguish category members. DRD2 C957T TT homozygotes outperformed C allele carriers on both tasks, and DARPP-32 AA homozygotes outperformed G allele carriers on both tasks. However, we found an interaction between COMT and task-type where Met allele carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in the conjunctive rule task, but both groups performed equally well in the unidimensional task. Thus, striatal dopamine binding may play a critical role in both types of rule-based tasks, while prefrontal dopamine binding is important for learning more complex conjunctive rule tasks. Modeling results suggest that striatal dopaminergic genes influence selective attention processes while cortical genes mediate the ability to update complex rule-representations. PMID:26918585

  11. Evaluation of municipal water supply operating rules using stochastic dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Daw; Narayanan, Rangesan; Hughes, Trevor C.; Bishop, A. Bruce

    1991-07-01

    A procedure for evaluating and selecting among alternative rules for operating a municipal water supply system is outlined in this study. It is assumed that monthly water demands and supplies are random. The total cost, however, is affected by both current month and future water allocation decisions with respect to the operation of facilities. A perfect foresight model using mixed integer programming is developed and applied to 36 years of historical demand and supply data. Using the solutions to this model, several simple operating rules are derived. These rules are applied to the historical data to simulate system operation, and cumulative distribution of net revenue for each rule is derived. Based on first- and second-degree stochastic dominance criteria, the performance of alternative rules are evaluated. The procedure is also repeated with a set of generated data sequences to check the consistency of the solutions. Average reductions of up to 11% in annual net revenues from those of a perfect foresight model are observed, for various operating rules. Using stochastically dominant rules, annual revenues can be increased by 5% on the average from a commonly used rule based on unit cost.

  12. Wave Function of the Dirac Equation for an Electron in the Field of a Nucleus Expressed in Terms of an Eigenfunction of the Spin Projection Operator and a Wave Function of the Schrödinger Equation. Radiative Processes of a Hydrogen-Like Atom and Selection Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    A solution of the Dirac equation for an electron in the field of a point nucleus (Ze), expressed in terms of an eigenfunction of the operator of the spin projection onto the third axis and the corresponding solution of the Schrödinger equation is derived. This solution is suitable for practical calculations. On the basis of this solution, using ordinary methods of QED and field theory, general principles for the emission of photons, axions, and neutrinos {(Ze)}^{*}to (Ze)+γ, a, voverline{v} by a hydrogen-like atom are formulated which take into account the spin state of the electron and, in the case of photons, their polarization. This range of questions pertaining to a comparative characteristic of processes of emission of massless or almost massless particles has, to this day, not been discussed from this point of view in the literature. Selection rules for γ, a,voverline{v} emission processes are also obtained, where for axions and neutrinos they coincide with the existing selection rules in the literature ∆m = 0,±1; with ∆l = ±1 pertaining to photons, but for photon emission a few of them do in fact differ from them with the hypothesis of odd values of ∆l, not established by us and additional to the usual values ∆l = ±1 of variation of the azimuthal quantum number l due to the appearance of "new" integrals over the spherical angle θ for ∆m = ±1, where for ∆m = 0, as before, ∆l = ±1. Moreover, the dependence of the amplitude of the photon emission process on the quantum numbers is in principle different than in the previously adopted approach to the problem although the lifetime in the excited state for small values of the quantum numbers coincides in order of magnitude with the accepted value 10-9 s.

  13. Diagnosis supporting rules of the Hepar system.

    PubMed

    Bobrowski, L; Wasyluk, H

    2001-01-01

    The "Hepar" system comprises a clinical database and the shell of procedures that aim at data analysis and the support of diagnosis. The database consists of hepatological patient cases. Each case is described by about 200 medical findings and histopathologically verified diagnosis. The diagnosis supporting rules of "Hepar" are based on visualizing data transformations and on the similarity based techniques. The applied linear visualizing transformations of data sets on the plane aim at separating of the groups of patients associated with different diseases. The resulting diagnostic maps by the visual inspection allow to find such cases in the database that are similar to the previously diagnosed patients. This paper examines combining of data transformations with the nearest neighbors techniques in the support of diagnosis. We report the results on the experimental comparisons of different decision rules including the feature selection procedure.

  14. RuleEd, a web-based semantic network interface for constructing and revising computable eligibility rules.

    PubMed

    Olasov, Ben; Sim, Ida

    2006-01-01

    RuleEd is a web-based editing environment which enables clinical trial eligibility rules entered as free text to be represented as a series of terms mapped to unique concepts in a controlled vocabulary. RuleEd provides interfaces for creating and refining concept mappings for terms within rules and disambiguating multiply-mapped terms. A combination of inter-active and non-interactive methods enable authors to specify eligibility rule representations with a fine level of control.

  15. Determination of bromhexine in cough-cold syrups by absorption spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration using partial least-squares and hybrid linear analyses. Application of a novel method of wavelength selection.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    1999-07-12

    The mucolitic bromhexine [N-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-N-methylcyclohexylamine] has been determined in cough suppressant syrups by multivariate spectrophotometric calibration, together with partial least-squares (PLS-1) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Notwithstanding the spectral overlapping between bromhexine and syrup excipients, as well as the intrinsic variability of the latter in unknown samples, the recoveries are excellent. A novel method of wavelength selection was also applied, based on the concept of net analyte signal regression, as adapted to the HLA methodology. This method allows one to improve the performance of both PLS-1 and HLA in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. PMID:18967655

  16. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  17. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  18. Developmental Disabilities Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    This rule implements the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000. The previous regulations were completed in 1997 before the current law was passed. The rule will align the regulations and current statute and will provide guidance to AIDD grantees. PMID:26214859

  19. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.

    PubMed

    Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M

    2008-11-01

    The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250

  1. News Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-11-01

    Astronomy: Science and beauty combined Africa: Physics technicians offer valuable skills Conference: ESERA2013 brings researchers together in Cyprus Physics Olympiad: UK team bring home more medals from the Physics Olympics in Copenhagen Physics Tournament: IOC backs Shrewsbury to host IYPT 2014 Conference: MPTL18 looks at the latest multimedia developments Workshop: The selective absorption of light Science on Stage: Illuminating Science Education in London in 2015

  2. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices. PMID:26555184

  3. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices.

  4. Percutaneous absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    West, D P; Halket, J M; Harvey, D R; Hadgraft, J; Solomon, L M; Harper, J I

    1987-11-01

    The skin of preterm infants varies considerably in its level of maturity. To understand skin absorption in premature infants better, we report a technique for the assessment of percutaneous absorption at various gestational and postnatal ages using stable, isotope-labeled (13C6) benzoic acid. Our results indicate that in the preterm infant, this method detects enhanced skin absorption in the first postnatal days, which declines over three weeks to that expected of a full-term infant. This approach also indicates an inverse relationship between gestational age and skin absorption, as well as postnatal age and skin absorption. The reported technique is a safe and noninvasive method using a model skin penetrant for the study of percutaneous absorption in preterm infants from which basic data may be derived to add to our understanding of skin barrier function. PMID:3422856

  5. The absorption of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řídký, R.; Popovič, M.; Rolc, S.; Drdlová, M.; Krátký, J.

    2016-06-01

    An absorption capacity of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates is important for wide range of practical applications. Nowadays there are many variants of numerical models suitable for this kind of analysis. The main difficulty is in selection of the most realistic numerical model and a correct setup of many unknown material constants. Cooperation between theoretical simulations and real testing is next crucial point in the investigation process. Standard open source material database offer material properties valid for strain rates less than 250 s-1. There are experiments suitable for analysis of material properties with strain rates close to 2000 s-1. The high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous blast energy absorbing material measured by modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is presented in this study. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. One of the possible solution leads to complex and frequency depended Young modulus of testing bars material. This testing technique was applied to materials composed of porous glass/ceramic filler and polymeric binder, with density of 125 - 300 kg/m3 and particle size in range of 50 µm - 2 mm. The achieved material model was verified in practical application of sandwich structure includes polymeric composites under a blast test.

  6. The rule of rescue.

    PubMed

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  7. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  8. A random rule model of surface growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Bernardo A.

    2015-02-01

    Stochastic models of surface growth are usually based on randomly choosing a substrate site to perform iterative steps, as in the etching model, Mello et al. (2001) [5]. In this paper I modify the etching model to perform sequential, instead of random, substrate scan. The randomicity is introduced not in the site selection but in the choice of the rule to be followed in each site. The change positively affects the study of dynamic and asymptotic properties, by reducing the finite size effect and the short-time anomaly and by increasing the saturation time. It also has computational benefits: better use of the cache memory and the possibility of parallel implementation.

  9. Overview-absorption/Rankine solar cooling program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlig, M.; Heitz, A.; Boyce, B.

    1980-03-01

    The tasks being performed in the absorption and Rankine program areas run the gamut from basic work on fluids to development of chillers and chiller components, to field and reliability testing of complete cooling systems. In the absorption program, there are six current and five essentially completed projects. In the Rankine program, there are five current projects directly supported by DOE, and three projects funded through and managed by NASA/MSFC (Manned Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama). The basic features of these projects are discussed. The systems under development in five of these current projects were selected for field testing in the SOLERAS program, a joint US-Saudi Arabian enterprise. Some technical highlights of the program are presented.

  10. Revisions to direct fee payment rules. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    We are adopting, with two revisions, our interim final rules that implemented amendments to the Social Security Act (Act) made by the Social Security Disability Applicants' Access to Professional Representation Act of 2010 (PRA). The interim final rules made permanent the direct fee payment rules for eligible non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act and for attorney representatives under title XVI of the Act. They also revised some of our eligibility policies for non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act. Based on public comment and subsequent inquiries, we are revising our rules to clarify that an eligible non-attorney representative's liability insurance policy must include malpractice coverage. We are also reaffirming that a business entity legally permitted to provide the required insurance in the States in which the non-attorney representative conducts business must underwrite the policies.

  11. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  12. Efficient Sub-Bandgap Light Absorption and Signal Amplification in Silicon Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Hsin

    This thesis focuses on two areas in silicon photodetectors, the first being enhancing the sub-bandgap light absorption of IR wavelenghts in silicon, and the second being intrinsic signal amplification in silicon photodetectors. Both of these are achieved using heavily doped p-n junction devices which create localized states that relax the k-selection rule of indirect bandgap material. The probability of transitions between impurity band and the conduction/valence band would be much more efficient than the one between band-to-band transition. The waveguide-coupled epitaxial p-n photodetector was demonstrated for 1310 nm wavelength detection. Incorporated with the Franz-Keldysh effect and the quasi-confined epitaxial layer design, an absorption coefficient around 10 cm-1 has been measured and internal quantum efficiency nearly 100% at -2.5V. The absorption coefficient is calculated from the wave function of the electron and hole in p-n diode. The heavily doped impurity wave function can be formulated as a delta function, and the quasi-confined conduction band energy states, and the wave function on each level can be obtained from the Silvaco software. The calculated theoretical absorption coefficient increases with the increasing applied bias and the doping concentration, which matches the experimental results. To solve the issues of large excess noise and high operation bias for avalanche photodiodes based on impact ionization, I presented a detector using the Cycling Excitation Process (CEP) for signal amplification. This can be realized in a heavily doped and highly compensated Si p-n junction, showing ultra high gain about 3000 at very low bias (<4 V), and possessing an intrinsic, phonon-mediated regulation process to keep the device stable without any quenching device required in today's Geiger-mode avalanche detectors. The CEP can be formulated with the rate equations in conduction bands and impurity states. The gain expression, which is a function of the

  13. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  14. "Ruling in" and "ruling out": two approaches to the micro-rationing of health care.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D; Griffiths, L

    1997-03-01

    Much of the implicit rationing said to characterise British health care occurs as doctors decide what resources to allocate to individual patients. This paper examines this process using data from case studies of selection of patients for cardiac surgery and admission to a specialist neurological rehabilitation centre. The analysis focuses on cardiac catheterisation conferences in which cardiologists present surgical candidates to a cardiac surgeon, and neuro-rehabilitation admissions conferences in which a multidisciplinary team assess the suitability of head injury and stroke patients referred by hospital doctors. For much of the time participants in both settings discuss patients within a clinical discourse that relies on technical assessments of coronary anatomy, ADL scores and the like. However, there are many examples where the discourse "frame" shifts to address patient characteristics of a social or moral nature. Information of this kind tends to be deployed in two ways: it can be used to signal the patient's unsuitability, usually on the basis that past behaviour implies poor prognosis ("ruling out"), or it can be used to suggest that a patient is especially deserving of help ("ruling in"). Analysis of the data suggests that "ruling out" is more salient within the cardiac catheterisation conferences, and "ruling in" within the neuro-rehabilitation admissions conferences. The authors suggest that this reflects differences in the work organisation of the two specialties, including the division of labour, the organisation of waiting lists as a queue or a pool, and the putative significance of patient agency in the genesis of disease and recovery.

  15. Occupied and unoccupied orbitals of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} probed with C 1s emission and absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, J.A.; Terminello, L.J.; Hudson, E.A.

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the orbital structure of the fullerenes, and to pursue its evolution from a cluster to the infinite solid. For obtaining a complete picture of the electronic structure the authors compare a variety of experimental techniques, i.e. photoemission and core level emission for occupied orbitals and inverse photoemission and core level absorption for unoccupied orbitals. Their experimental results focus on optical probes involving the C 1s core level, i.e. absorption via transitions from the C 1s level into unoccupied {pi}* and {sigma}* orbitals and emission involving transitions from occupied orbitals into a C 1s hole. Due to the simplicity of the C 1s level there exist clear selection rules. For example, only transitions to and from orbitals with p-character are dipole-allowed. These results on the p-projected density of states are compared with inverse photoemission and photoemission results, where the selection rules are less definitive. In addition, a first-principles quasiparticle calculation of the density of states is used to assign the orbital features. The spectra from C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} are still far from their infinite analog, i.e., graphite, which is also measured with the same techniques. In order to determine the effect of electron transfer onto C{sub 60}, as in superconducting alkali fullerides, the authors are studying resonant emission of C{sub 60}. An electron is placed in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) by optical absorption from the C 1s level and the C 1s emission detected in the presence of this spectator electron.

  16. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  17. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  18. 77 FR 39751 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    .... (``NASDAQ OMX''). The text of the proposed rule change is below. The text of the proposed rule change is... rule change. The text of these statements may be examined at the places specified in Item IV below. The...\\ An ``Industry Director'' means a Director (excluding any two officers of NASDAQ OMX, selected at...

  19. 77 FR 42524 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... OMX''). The text of the proposed rule change is available at the Exchange's Web site, at the Exchange... rule change and discussed any comments it received on the proposed rule change. The text of these...'' means a Director (excluding any two officers of NASDAQ OMX, selected at the sole discretion of the...

  20. Rule-Based Runtime Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework for defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Our logic, EAGLE, is implemented as a Java library and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is done on a state-by-state basis, without storing the execution trace.

  1. Intestinal Folate Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Olinger, Edward J.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Binder, Henry J.

    1973-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine whether pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA) at physiologic concentrations is transported across the small intestine unaltered or is reduced and methylated to the circulating folate form (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-MeFH4]) during absorption. [3H]PGA was incubated in vitro on the mucosal side of rat jejunum. Of the folate transferred to the serosal side, the percent identified as 5-MeFH4 by DEAE-Sephadex chromtography was inversely related to the initial mucosa PGA concentration: at 7, 20, and 2,000 nM, 44%, 34%, and 2%, respectively, was converted to 5-MeFH4. In contrast, less than 4% of the folate transferred across ileal mucosa was 5-MeFH4 when the initial mucosa concentration was 20 nM. Specific activity of dihydrofolate (DHF) reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting PGA to tetrahydrofolic acid, was measured in villus homogenates and was significantly greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. 1,000 nM methotrexate (MTX), a DHF reductase inhibitor, markedly inhibited PGA conversion to 5-MeFH4 by the jejunum. Studies of transmural flux, initial rate of mucosal entry (influx) and mucosal accumulation (uptake) of folate were also performed. Although MTX did not alter the influx of PGA, MTX decreased jejunal mucosal uptake but increased transmural movement. Transmural folate movement across ileal mucosa was greater than across jejunal mucosa although mucosal uptake was greater in the jejunum than in the ileum. These results could explain previous studies which have failed to identify conversion of PGA to 5-MeFH4 when intestinal preparations have been exposed to higher and less physiologic concentrations of PGA. Further, these studies suggest that 5-MeFH4 may be retained by the jejunal mucosa. PMID:4727453

  2. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    SciTech Connect

    Hlavacek, William S; Monnie, Michael I; Colvin, Joshua; Faseder, James

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  3. Implicit sequence learning is represented by stimulus-response rules.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Schumacher, Eric H

    2010-09-01

    For nearly two decades, researchers have investigated spatial sequence learning in an attempt to identify what specifically is learned during sequential tasks (e.g., stimulus order, response order, etc.). Despite extensive research, controversy remains concerning the information-processing locus of this learning effect. There are three main theories concerning the nature of spatial sequence learning, corresponding to the perceptual, motor, or response selection (i.e., central mechanisms underlying the association between stimulus and response pairs) processes required for successful task performance. The present data investigate this controversy and support the theory that stimulus-response (S-R) rules are critical for sequence learning. The results from two experiments demonstrate that sequence learning is disrupted only when the S-R rules for the task are altered. When the S-R rules remain constant or involve only a minor transformation, significant sequence learning occurs. These data implicate spatial response selection as a likely mechanism mediating spatial sequential learning.

  4. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  5. Rules and Self-Rules: Effects of Variation upon Behavioral Sensitivity to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Ana A.; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; da Silva Souza, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments compared the effects of self-rules and rules, and varied and specific schedules of reinforcement. Participants were first exposed to either several schedules (varied groups) or to one schedule (specific groups) and either were asked to generate rules (self-rule groups), were provided rules (rule groups), or were not asked nor…

  6. In silico prediction of the solubility advantage for amorphous drugs - Are there property-based rules for drug discovery and early pharmaceutical development?

    PubMed

    Kuentz, Martin; Imanidis, Georgios

    2013-02-14

    Oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds is often a substantial challenge. Once a drug candidate is selected, it is desirable to predict, based on chemical structure, which formulation technology has the highest potential to enhance drug solubility and absorption. Due to the importance of amorphous drug formulations, this work aimed at calculating the solubility ratio of amorphous and crystalline drug using in silico methods only. Molecular modeling together with multivariate methods was employed and a particular aim was to find simple structure-based rules for the technology selection of amorphous drug formulations. As a result, calculated estimates for reference compounds were generally higher than experimentally obtained amorphous solubility ratios; however, the rank order of the values revealed a significant correlation (p=0.036). Subsequently, a set of 56 neutral poorly water-soluble compounds resulted in a good partial least square model with R² of 0.803. Most important for the amorphous solubility ratio was molecular weight, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, melting point, number of torsional bonds and polar surface area. By considering the Lipinsky rules, we proposed suitable ranges of these molecular predictors with respect to selecting promising amorphous drug formulations. Such structure-based guidance can help in early formulation development of challenging drug candidates, thereby leading to substantial cost savings. However, there is certainly more experimental research needed to finally assess how broadly the presented concepts can be applied. PMID:23262058

  7. In silico prediction of the solubility advantage for amorphous drugs - Are there property-based rules for drug discovery and early pharmaceutical development?

    PubMed

    Kuentz, Martin; Imanidis, Georgios

    2013-02-14

    Oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds is often a substantial challenge. Once a drug candidate is selected, it is desirable to predict, based on chemical structure, which formulation technology has the highest potential to enhance drug solubility and absorption. Due to the importance of amorphous drug formulations, this work aimed at calculating the solubility ratio of amorphous and crystalline drug using in silico methods only. Molecular modeling together with multivariate methods was employed and a particular aim was to find simple structure-based rules for the technology selection of amorphous drug formulations. As a result, calculated estimates for reference compounds were generally higher than experimentally obtained amorphous solubility ratios; however, the rank order of the values revealed a significant correlation (p=0.036). Subsequently, a set of 56 neutral poorly water-soluble compounds resulted in a good partial least square model with R² of 0.803. Most important for the amorphous solubility ratio was molecular weight, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, melting point, number of torsional bonds and polar surface area. By considering the Lipinsky rules, we proposed suitable ranges of these molecular predictors with respect to selecting promising amorphous drug formulations. Such structure-based guidance can help in early formulation development of challenging drug candidates, thereby leading to substantial cost savings. However, there is certainly more experimental research needed to finally assess how broadly the presented concepts can be applied.

  8. Prefrontal set activity predicts rule-specific neural processing during subsequent cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuyuki; Passingham, Richard E

    2006-01-25

    Prefrontal neurons have been shown to represent task rules. Here we show the mechanisms by which the rule-selective activity in the prefrontal cortex influences subsequent cognitive performance based on that rule. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the frontopolar cortex interacted with posterior areas differently depending on whether subjects were going to perform a phonological or semantic task. Moreover, we found that the sustained "set" activity in this region predicted the activity that could be recorded in the posterior areas during the performance, as well as the speed of that performance. We argue that the prefrontal set activity does not reflect simple maintenance of the task rules but the process of implementing the rule for subsequent cognitive performance and that this is done through rule-selective interactions with areas involved in execution of the tasks.

  9. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  10. 75 FR 7428 - Amendments to Enforceable Consent Agreement Procedural Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... cyclohexane, 59 FR 59660 (November 18, 1994) (FRL- 4909-5)). In other instances, EPA selected the substance or substances based on its own initiative (see, e.g., ECA for 1,2-ethylene dichloride, 68 FR 33125 (June 3, 2003... (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this proposed rule is not a ``significant regulatory action''...

  11. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  12. 77 FR 4910 - Editorial Revisions to the Commission's Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...-the-air antenna input to a TV receiver. Each of these three paragraphs ends with a statement designed... switches within a TV receiver that are used to select between a cable TV input and an over-the-air antenna...: PART 2--FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS 0 1....

  13. Percutaneous absorption of Octopirox.

    PubMed

    Black, J G; Kamat, V B

    1988-01-01

    containing 1% Octopirox is 29,400, so that the possibility of systemic effects due to absorption through the skin is remote. PMID:3345970

  14. Resonant Absorption of Bessel Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H. M.

    1999-11-01

    We report the first observation of enhanced laser-plasma optical absorption in a subcritical density plasma resulting from spatial resonances, here in the laser breakdown of a gas with a Bessel beam. The enhancement in absorption is directly correlated to enhancements both in confinement of laser radiation to the plasma and in its heating. Under certain conditions, azimuthal asymmetry in the laser beam is essential for efficient gas breakdown. Simulations of this absorption consistently explain the experimental observations. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9515509) and the US Department of Energy (DEF G0297 ER 41039).

  15. Light absorption measurements: new techniques.

    PubMed

    Hänel, G; Busen, R; Hillenbrand, C; Schloss, R

    1982-02-01

    A new radiometer is described which simplifies measurement of the radiation supply of solar wavelengths. Two methods of measuring the radiant energy absorbed by aerosol particles are described: A photometric technique is used for particles collected on filters, and a calorimetric technique is used for in situ measurements. Data collected with the radiometer and the light absorption techniques yield the heating rate of the atmosphere due to light absorption by the particles. Sample measurements show substantial atmospheric temperature increases due to absorption, especially in industrial regions.

  16. The framework of weighted subset-hood Mamdani fuzzy rule based system rule extraction (MFRBS-WSBA) for forecasting electricity load demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansor, Rosnalini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Othman, Mahmod

    2016-08-01

    Fuzzy rules are very important elements that should be taken consideration seriously when applying any fuzzy system. This paper proposes the framework of Mamdani Fuzzy Rule-based System with Weighted Subset-hood Based Algorithm (MFRBS-WSBA) in the fuzzy rule extraction for electricity load demand forecasting. The framework consist of six main steps: (1) Data Collection and Selection; (2) Preprocessing Data; (3) Variables Selection; (4) Fuzzy Model; (5) Comparison with Other FIS and (6) Performance Evaluation. The objective of this paper is to show the fourth step in the framework which applied the new electricity load forecasting rule extraction by WSBA method. Electricity load demand in Malaysia data is used as numerical data in this framework. These preliminary results show that the WSBA method can be one of alternative methods to extract fuzzy rules for forecast electricity load demand

  17. Angular solar absorptance of absorbers used in solar thermal collectors.

    PubMed

    Tesfamichael, T; Wäckelgård, E

    1999-07-01

    The optical characterization of solar absorbers for thermal solar collectors is usually performed by measurement of the spectral reflectance at near-normal angle of incidence and calculation of the solar absorptance from the measured reflectance. The solar absorptance is, however, a function of the angle of incidence of the light impinging on the absorber. The total reflectance of two types of commercial solar-selective absorbers, nickel-pigmented anodized aluminum, and sputtered nickel nickel oxide coated aluminum are measured at angles of incidence from 5 to 80 in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm by use of an integrating sphere. From these measurements the angular integrated solar absorptance is determined. Experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations, and it is found that optical thin-film interference effects can explain the significant difference in solar absorptance at higher angles for the two types of absorbers.

  18. Highly efficient plasmonic enhancement of graphene absorption at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Cumming, Benjamin P; Gu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene system consisting of graphene and silica layers coated on a metal film with groove rings is proposed to strongly enhance light absorption in the graphene layer. Our results indicate that the excited localized plasmon resonance in groove rings can effectively improve the graphene absorption from 2.3% to 43.1%, even to a maximum value of 87.0% in five-layer graphene at telecommunication wavelengths. In addition, the absorption peak is strongly dependent on the groove depth and ring radius as well as the number of graphene layers, enabling the flexible selectivity of both the operating spectral position and bandwidth. This favorable enhancement and tunability of graphene absorption could provide a path toward high-performance graphene opto-electronic components, such as photodetectors.

  19. Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of absorption.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A

    2014-06-01

    This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive index. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of absorption on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high absorption. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and absorption are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high absorption and perpendicularly incident plane waves.

  20. Electronic selection rules controlling dislocation glide in bcc metals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Travis E; Eberhart, Mark E; Clougherty, Dennis P; Woodward, Chris

    2008-08-22

    The validity of the structure-property relationships governing the low-temperature deformation behavior of many bcc metals was brought into question with recent ab initio density functional studies of isolated screw dislocations in Mo and Ta. These relationships were semiclassical in nature, having grown from atomistic investigations of the deformation properties of the group V and VI transition metals. We find that the correct form for these structure-property relationships is fully quantum mechanical, involving the coupling of electronic states with the strain field at the core of long a/<2111> screw dislocations. PMID:18764636

  1. Electronic Selection Rules Controlling Dislocation Glide in bcc Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Travis E.; Eberhart, Mark E.; Clougherty, Dennis P.; Woodward, Chris

    2008-08-01

    The validity of the structure-property relationships governing the low-temperature deformation behavior of many bcc metals was brought into question with recent ab initio density functional studies of isolated screw dislocations in Mo and Ta. These relationships were semiclassical in nature, having grown from atomistic investigations of the deformation properties of the group V and VI transition metals. We find that the correct form for these structure-property relationships is fully quantum mechanical, involving the coupling of electronic states with the strain field at the core of long a/2⟨111⟩ screw dislocations.

  2. 17 CFR 243.100 - General rule regarding selective disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(f)(5)), that filed a report on Form 13F (17 CFR 249.325) with the Commission for the most recent... or monitoring a credit rating: (A) Any nationally recognized statistical rating organization, as that...)), pursuant to § 240.17g-5(a)(3) of this chapter; or (B) Any credit rating agency, as that term is defined...

  3. Sexual selection and speciation.

    PubMed

    Panhuis, T M.; Butlin, R; Zuk, M; Tregenza, T

    2001-07-01

    The power of sexual selection to drive changes in mate recognition traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. Much of the evidence to support this possibility comes from comparative studies that examine differences in the number of species between clades that apparently differ in the intensity of sexual selection. We argue that more detailed studies are needed, examining extinction rates and other sources of variation in species richness. Typically, investigations of extant natural populations have been too indirect to convincingly conclude speciation by sexual selection. Recent empirical work, however, is beginning to take a more direct approach and rule out confounding variables.

  4. Rule-based simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    Procedural modeling systems, rule based modeling systems, and a method for converting a procedural model to a rule based model are described. Simulation models are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most modeling system languages are based on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule based systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule based system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing model source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural models can be translated and executed by a rule based system. Neural models can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time models.

  5. [Absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by everted intestinal sac method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Xue-lin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Hong-min; Liu, Xiao-qian; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Zhi-min

    2015-08-01

    To study the absorptive characteristics of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by in vitro rat everted intestinal sac model. Three representative ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizome--protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), posmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB), were selected as the study objects. An UPLC method was established to determine and measure their cumulative absorption amount, in order to explain the absorption characteristics of ingredients in different intestinal sections. According to the experimental result, RA and SAB showed the passive absorption in ileum, which conformed to the first-order absorption rate; with low and medium doses, they showed a zero-order absorption rate in jejunum, which was reflected in the coexistence of both positive and passive absorptions; PAL showed a passive absorption manner both in ileum and jejunum. According to the experiment for absorption in different intestinal sections, RA and SAB were mainly absorbed in jejunum, while PAL was absorbed mainly in ileum. All of the three ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome--PAL, RA and SAB could be absorbed in intestines, but with differences in the absorption rate and mechanism, which indicated that the intestinal absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome was selectivity, instead of a simple semi-permeable membrane penetration process.

  6. Gloger's rule in plants: The species and ecosystem levels

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geography have different pigmentation than other taxa found at different habitats or latitudes). Concerning plants, Gloger's rule was first proposed to operate in many plant species growing in sand dunes, sandy shores and in deserts, because of being white, whitish, or silver colored, based on white trichomes, because of sand grains and clay particles glued to sticky glandular trichomes, or because of light-colored waxes. Recently, Gloger's rule was shown to also be true at the intraspecific level in relation to protection of anthers from UV irradiation. While Gloger's rule is true in certain plant taxa and ecologies, there are others where “anti-Gloger” coloration patterns exist. In some of these the selective agents are known and in others they are not. I present both Gloger and “anti-Gloger” cases and argue that this largely neglected aspect of plant biology deserves much more research attention. PMID:26786012

  7. Gloger's rule in plants: The species and ecosystem levels.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Gloger's rule posits that darker birds are found more often in humid environments than in arid ones, especially in the tropics. Accordingly, desert-inhabiting animals tend to be light-colored. This rule is also true for certain mammalian groups, including humans. Gloger's rule is manifested at 2 levels: (1) at the species level (different populations of the same species have different pigmentation at different latitudes), and (2) at the species assembly level (different taxa at a certain geography have different pigmentation than other taxa found at different habitats or latitudes). Concerning plants, Gloger's rule was first proposed to operate in many plant species growing in sand dunes, sandy shores and in deserts, because of being white, whitish, or silver colored, based on white trichomes, because of sand grains and clay particles glued to sticky glandular trichomes, or because of light-colored waxes. Recently, Gloger's rule was shown to also be true at the intraspecific level in relation to protection of anthers from UV irradiation. While Gloger's rule is true in certain plant taxa and ecologies, there are others where "anti-Gloger" coloration patterns exist. In some of these the selective agents are known and in others they are not. I present both Gloger and "anti-Gloger" cases and argue that this largely neglected aspect of plant biology deserves much more research attention.

  8. The Protein Naming Utility: a rules database for protein nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johannes; Montgomery, Robert; Brinkac, Lauren M; Schobel, Seth; Harkins, Derek M; Sebastian, Yinong; Shrivastava, Susmita; Durkin, Scott; Sutton, Granger

    2010-01-01

    Generation of syntactically correct and unambiguous names for proteins is a challenging, yet vital task for functional annotation processes. Proteins are often named based on homology to known proteins, many of which have problematic names. To address the need to generate high-quality protein names, and capture our significant experience correcting protein names manually, we have developed the Protein Naming Utility (PNU, http://www.jcvi.org/pn-utility). The PNU is a web-based database for storing and applying naming rules to identify and correct syntactically incorrect protein names, or to replace synonyms with their preferred name. The PNU allows users to generate and manage collections of naming rules, optionally building upon the growing body of rules generated at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). Since communities often enforce disparate conventions for naming proteins, the PNU supports grouping rules into user-managed collections. Users can check their protein names against a selected PNU rule collection, generating both statistics and corrected names. The PNU can also be used to correct GenBank table files prior to submission to GenBank. Currently, the database features 3080 manual rules that have been entered by JCVI Bioinformatics Analysts as well as 7458 automatically imported names.

  9. Percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Horhota, S T; Fung, H L

    1979-05-01

    Percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption was studied in shaved rats by monitoring unchanged plasma drug concentrations for up to 4 hr. Drug absorption from the neat liquid state or from an alcoholic solution was considerably poorer than that from a commercial ointment. This observation was unanticipated since the driving force for percutaneous drug absorption was assumed to be drug thermodynamics. Potential artifacts such as drug volatilization from the skin, reduction of surface area through droplet formation, and vehicle occlusion were investigated, but they did not appear to be responsible for the observed results. Two experimental aqueous nitroglycerin gels were prepared with polyethylene glycol 400. One gel contained just sufficient polyethylene glycol to solubilize the nitroglycerin; the other had excess polyethylene glycol to solubilize nitroglycerin far below saturation. Both gels gave extremely low plasma nitroglycerin levels. The composite data suggested that percutaneous nitroglycerin absorption is highly vehicle dependent and that this dependency cannot be explained by simple consideration of drug thermodynamic activity.

  10. Circadian Regulation of Macronutrient Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Various intestinal functions exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Disruptions in these rhythms as in shift workers and transcontinental travelers are associated with intestinal discomfort. Circadian rhythms are controlled at the molecular level by core clock and clock-controlled genes. These clock genes are expressed in intestinal cells, suggesting that they might participate in the circadian regulation of intestinal functions. A major function of the intestine is nutrient absorption. Here, we will review absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and circadian regulation of various transporters involved in their absorption. A better understanding of circadian regulation of intestinal absorption might help control several metabolic disorders and attenuate intestinal discomfort associated with disruptions in sleep-wake cycles.

  11. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  12. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Andrew F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes. PMID:24686934

  13. Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2014-05-19

    Hamilton's rule is a central theorem of inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory and predicts that social behaviour evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost. This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour. Overall, the focal studies strongly confirm the predictions of Hamilton's rule regarding conditions for social evolution and their causes.

  14. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-08-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children.

  15. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  16. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis. PMID:25239063

  17. 16 CFR 429.1 - The Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Rule. 429.1 Section 429.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RULE CONCERNING COOLING-OFF PERIOD FOR SALES MADE AT HOMES OR AT CERTAIN OTHER LOCATIONS § 429.1 The Rule. In connection with any door-to-door sale,...

  18. 16 CFR 429.1 - The Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 429.1 Section 429.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RULE CONCERNING COOLING-OFF PERIOD FOR SALES MADE AT HOMES OR AT CERTAIN OTHER LOCATIONS § 429.1 The Rule. In connection with any door-to-door sale,...

  19. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80, and 87 Commercial Radio Operators Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend our rules concerning commercial... within the commercial radio operators service, to determine which rules can be clarified, streamlined,...

  20. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... Opportunity Ventures: Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 62 FR 9115 (Feb. 28, 1997). ``Initial Proposed... Rule, 71 FR 9054 (Apr. 12, 2006). ``Interim Business Opportunity Rule'' refers to the...

  1. 29 CFR 18.802 - Hearsay rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hearsay rule. 18.802 Section 18.802 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Hearsay § 18.802 Hearsay rule. Hearsay is not admissible except...

  2. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  3. [Simulation of TDLAS direct absorption based on HITRAN database].

    PubMed

    Qi, Ru-birn; He, Shu-kai; Li, Xin-tian; Wang, Xian-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Simulating of the direct absorption TDLAS spectrum can help to comprehend the process of the absorbing and understand the influence on the absorption signal with each physical parameter. Firstly, the basic theory and algorithm of direct absorption TDLAS is studied and analyzed thoroughly, through giving the expressions and calculating steps of parameters based on Lambert-Beer's law, such as line intensity, absorption cross sections, concentration, line shape and gas total partition functions. The process of direct absorption TDLAS is simulated using MATLAB programs based on HITRAN spectra database, with which the absorptions under a certain temperature, pressure, concentration and other conditions were calculated, Water vapor is selected as the target gas, the absorptions of which under every line shapes were simulated. The results were compared with that of the commercial simulation software, Hitran-PC, which showed that, the deviation under Lorentz line shape is less than 0. 5%, and that under Gauss line shape is less than 2. 5%, while under Voigt line shape it is less than 1%. It verified that the algorithm and results of this work are correct and accurate. The absorption of H2O in v2 + v3 band under different pressure and temperature is also simulated. In low pressure range, the Doppler broadening dominant, so the line width changes little with varied.pressure, while the line peak increases with rising pressure. In high pressure range, the collision broadening dominant, so the line width changes wider with increasing pressure, while the line peak approaches to a constant value with rising pressure. And finally, the temperature correction curve in atmosphere detection is also given. The results of this work offer the reference and instruction for the application of TDLAS direct absorption. PMID:25993843

  4. Risk management. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Interim rule adopted as final with changes.

    PubMed

    2000-11-22

    This is a final rule amending the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to emphasize considerations of risk management, including safety, security (including information technology security), health, export control, and damage to the environment, within the acquisition process. This final rule addresses risk management within the context of acquisition planning, selecting sources, choosing contract type, structuring award fee incentives, administering contracts, and conducting contractor surveillance.

  5. Higher Order Rule Characterization of Heuristics for Compass and Straight Edge Constructions in Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others

    The research reported in this paper was designed to analyze the incidence of use of higher-order rules by students solving geometric construction problems. A carefully selected set of construction problems was subjected to rigorous a priori analysis by mathematics educators to determine what basic and second-order rules might be used by able high…

  6. Flight Rules Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Knudsen, F.; Rice, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review (CRR) flight rules are presented. The topics include: 1) B13-152 Acoustic Constraints; 2) B13-113 IFM/Corrective Action Prioritization Due to Loss of Exercise Capability; 3) B13-116 Constraints on Treadmill VIS Failure; 4) B13-201 Medical Management of ISS Fire/Smoke Response; 5) ARED and T2 Exercise constraints Flight rules (flight and stage specific); 6) FYI: B14 FR to be updated with requirement to sample crew sleep locations prior to receiving a "recommendation" from SRAG on where to sleep.

  7. Rule generation from neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.

    1994-08-01

    The neural network approach has proven useful for the development of artificial intelligence systems. However, a disadvantage with this approach is that the knowledge embedded in the neural network is opaque. In this paper, we show how to interpret neural network knowledge in symbolic form. We lay down required definitions for this treatment, formulate the interpretation algorithm, and formally verify its soundness. The main result is a formalized relationship between a neural network and a rule-based system. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the neural network generates rules of better performance than the decision tree approach in noisy conditions. 7 refs.

  8. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  9. Parallel machine architecture for production rule systems

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., John D.; Butler, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing system for production rule programs utilizes a host processor for storing production rule right hand sides (RHS) and a plurality of rule processors for storing left hand sides (LHS). The rule processors operate in parallel in the recognize phase of the system recognize -Act Cycle to match their respective LHS's against a stored list of working memory elements (WME) in order to find a self consistent set of WME's. The list of WME is dynamically varied during the Act phase of the system in which the host executes or fires rule RHS's for those rules for which a self-consistent set has been found by the rule processors. The host transmits instructions for creating or deleting working memory elements as dictated by the rule firings until the rule processors are unable to find any further self-consistent working memory element sets at which time the production rule system is halted.

  10. A mechanism for decision rule discrimination by supplementary eye field neurons.

    PubMed

    Ray, Supriya; Heinen, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    A decision to select an action from alternatives is often guided by rules that flexibly map sensory inputs to motor outputs when certain conditions are satisfied. However, the neural mechanisms underlying rule-based decision making remain poorly understood. Two complementary types of neurons in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of macaques have been identified that modulate activity differentially to interpret rules in an ocular go-nogo task, which stipulates that the animal either visually pursue a moving object if it intersects a visible zone ('go'), or maintain fixation if it does not ('nogo'). These neurons discriminate between go and nogo rule-states by increasing activity to signal their preferred (agonist) rule-state and decreasing activity to signal their non-preferred (antagonist) rule-state. In the current study, we found that SEF neurons decrease activity in anticipation of the antagonist rule-state, and do so more rapidly when the rule-state is easier to predict. This rapid decrease in activity could underlie a process of elimination in which trajectories that do not invoke the preferred rule-state receive no further computational resources. Furthermore, discrimination between difficult and easy trials in the antagonist rule-state occurs prior to when discrimination within the agonist rule-state occurs. A winner-take-all like model that incorporates a pair of mutually inhibited integrators to accumulate evidence in favor of either the decision to pursue or the decision to continue fixation accounts for the observed neural phenomena.

  11. Modulation of ganciclovir intestinal absorption in presence of absorption enhancers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Jogani, Viral; Mishra, Pushpa; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Bagchi, Tamishraha; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the influences of absorption enhancers in increasing oral bioavailability of Ganciclovir (GAN) by assessing the transepithelial permeation across cell monolayers in vitro and bioavailability in rats in vivo. The permeation of GAN across Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers in the absence/presence of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD), chitosan hydrochloride (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), and their combinations was studied for a 2-h period. GAN was administered to rats in absence/presence of absorption enhancers and drug contents in plasma were estimated. We found that the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of GAN in absence of absorption enhancers (control) were 0.261 +/- 0.072 x 10(-6) and 0.486 +/- 0.063 x 10(-6) cm/s in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively, whereas in the presence of DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations, Papp of GAN increased by 5- to 25-fold and 7- to 33-fold as compared to control in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers, respectively. However, in rats, the maximum enhancement in bioavailability of GAN during coadministration of these absorption enhancers was only fivefold compared to GAN control. To conclude, the absorption enhancers-DMbetaCD, CH, SLS, and their combinations demonstrated significant improvement in transepithelial permeation and bioavailability of GAN.

  12. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500 Hz.

  13. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  14. Site-dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which can be used to determine the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling systems. This procedure has been used in a study to investigate the influence of the site-dependent parameters on the economic feasibility of solar absorption cooling. The purpose of this study was to make preliminary site selections for solar powered absorption cooling systems. This paper summarizes the results of that study.

  15. All Things Out of Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  16. The Eighteen-Electron Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, P. R.; Parish, R. V.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the stability of the structures of transition metal complexes (primarily carbonyls and organometallic compounds) having 18 electrons or less in their valence shell. Presents molecular orbital diagrams for various structures involving alpha and pi bonding and describes the conditions under which the 18 electron rule applies. (RR)

  17. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  18. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  19. Seven Rules for Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firebaugh, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    "Seven Rules for Social Research" teaches social scientists how to get the most out of their technical skills and tools, providing a resource that fully describes the strategies and concepts no researcher or student of human behavior can do without. Glenn Firebaugh provides indispensable practical guidance for anyone doing research in the social…

  20. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with the Commission for approval any proposed Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Rule change. A Regional Entity shall submit a Regional Entity Rule or Rule change to the Electric Reliability Organization... or upon complaint, may propose a change to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or...

  1. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with the Commission for approval any proposed Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Rule change. A Regional Entity shall submit a Regional Entity Rule or Rule change to the Electric Reliability Organization... or upon complaint, may propose a change to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or...

  2. 76 FR 4144 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC Relating to Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select... the Select Symbols in Section I of the Exchange's Fee Schedule titled Rebates and Fees for Adding and Removing Liquidity in Select Symbols. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the...

  3. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  4. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption.

  5. Fluid milk substitutions in the school nutrition programs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-09-12

    This final rule implements a legislative provision on milk substitutes that is consistent with current regulations on menu exceptions for students with disabilities and adds requirements for the optional substitution of nondairy beverage for fluid milk for children with medical or special dietary needs in the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program. Specifically, this final rule establishes nutrient standards for nondairy beverage alternatives to fluid milk, allows schools to accept a written substitution request from a parent or legal guardian, grants schools discretion to select the acceptable nondairy beverages, and continues to make school food authorities responsible for substitution expenses that exceed the Federal reimbursement. This rule ensures consistency of standards among milk substitutes offered in the school lunch and breakfast programs, and assures that students who consume nondairy beverage alternates receive important nutrients found in fluid milk. PMID:18985947

  6. Deriving rules from activity diary data: A learning algorithm and results of computer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arentze, Theo A.; Hofman, Frank; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    Activity-based models consider travel as a derived demand from the activities households need to conduct in space and time. Over the last 15 years, computational or rule-based models of activity scheduling have gained increasing interest in time-geography and transportation research. This paper argues that a lack of techniques for deriving rules from empirical data hinders the further development of rule-based systems in this area. To overcome this problem, this paper develops and tests an algorithm for inductively deriving rules from activity-diary data. The decision table formalism is used to exhaustively represent the theoretically possible decision rules that individuals may use in sequencing a given set of activities. Actual activity patterns of individuals are supplied to the system as examples. In an incremental learning process, the system progressively improves on the selection of rules used for reproducing the examples. Computer experiments based on simulated data are performed to fine-tune rule selection and rule value update functions. The results suggest that the system is effective and fairly robust for parameter settings. It is concluded, therefore, that the proposed approach opens up possibilities to derive empirically tested rule-based models of activity scheduling. Follow-up research will be concerned with testing the system on empirical data.

  7. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  8. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Diabetic lipohypertrophy delays insulin absorption.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Hannan, W J; Frier, B M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of lipohypertrophy at injection sites on insulin absorption has been studied in 12 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The clearance of 125I-insulin from sites with lipohypertrophy was significantly slower than from complementary nonhypertrophied sites (% clearance in 3 h, 43.8 +/- 3.5 +/- SEM) control; 35.3 +/- 3.9 lipohypertrophy, P less than 0.05). The degree of the effect was variable but sufficient in several patients to be of clinical importance. Injection-site lipohypertrophy is another factor that modifies the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin.

  10. Solar powered absorption air conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardon, J. M.

    1980-04-01

    Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.

  11. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  12. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S

    2010-01-01

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  13. Behavior of Collective Cooperation Yielded by Two Update Rules in Social Dilemmas: Combining Fermi and Moran Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jin-Song

    2012-09-01

    We combine the Fermi and Moran update rules in the spatial prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift games to investigate the behavior of collective cooperation among agents on the regular lattice. Large-scale simulations indicate that, compared to the model with only one update rule, the cooperation behavior exhibits the richer phenomena, and the role of update dynamics should be paid more attention in the evolutionary game theory. Meanwhile, we also observe that the introduction of Moran rule, which needs to consider all neighbor's information, can markedly promote the aggregate cooperation level, that is, randomly selecting the neighbor proportional to its payoff to imitate will facilitate the cooperation among agents. Current results will contribute to further understand the cooperation dynamics and evolutionary behaviors within many biological, economic and social systems.

  14. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  15. Absorption of massless scalar field by rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Luiz C. S.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Dolan, Sam R.

    2016-07-01

    We compute the absorption cross-section of the Kerr black holes (BH) for the massless scalar field, and present a selection of numerical results, to complement the results of Ref.[C. F. B. Macedo, L. C. S. Leite, E. S. Oliveria, S. R. Dolan and L. C. B. Crispino, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 064033.] We show that, in the high-frequency regime, the cross-section approaches the geodesic capture cross-section. We split the absorption cross-section into corotating and counterrotating contributions, and we show that the counterrotating contribution exceeds the corotating one.

  16. Two-photon absorption by a quantum dot pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, Michael; Economou, Sophia E.; Ponomarev, Ilya V.; Jennings, Cameron; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The biexciton absorption spectrum of a pair of InAs/GaAs quantum dots is being studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. An absorption resonance with the characteristics of an instantaneous two-photon process reveals a coherent interdot two-photon transition. Pauli-selective tunneling is being used to demonstrate the transduction of the two-photon coherence into a nonlocal spin singlet state. The two-photon transition can be tuned spectrally by electric field, enabling amplification of its transition strength.

  17. Advanced non-disruptive manufacturing rule checks (MRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Bill; Do, Tanya; Morgan, Ray E.

    2006-10-01

    New advanced mask rule checking (MRC) solutions are required to ensure cost effective, high yield photomask manufacturing processes at 65nm and below and are needed to provide new verification capabilities for mask makers and data prep engineers alike. Traditional MRC, which implements fundamental geometric data checks on limited data formats, is not sufficient for advanced photomask manufacturing. Like recent advances in design rule checking (DRC) software, which includes extensive "manufacturing-aware" rules (or DFM rules), MRC solutions must evolve to include a more comprehensive and intelligent rule checks for the mask manufacturing process. This paper describes the development and testing of an advanced MRC software solution developed within the CATS TM mask data preparation (MDP) solution from Synopsys Inc. The new MRC solution enables the inspection and analysis of mask layout patterns for simple and advanced data verification checks. Proposed applications for mask data prep applications are discussed and include incoming design verification, fracture data correction, inspection tool data tags, mask manufacturing tool or inspection tool selection, and job deck verification.

  18. A hierarchical structure for representing and learning fuzzy rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    Yager provides an example in which the flat representation of fuzzy if-then rules leads to unsatisfactory results. Consider a rule base consisting to two rules: if U is 12 the V is 29; if U is (10-15) the V is (25-30). If U = 12 we would get V is G where G = (25-30). The application of the defuzzification process leads to a selection of V = 27.5. Thus we see that the very specific instruction was not followed. The problem with the technique used is that the most specific information was swamped by the less specific information. In this paper we shall provide for a new structure for the representation of fuzzy if-then rules. The representational form introduced here is called a Hierarchical Prioritized Structure (HPS) representation. Most importantly in addition to overcoming the problem illustrated in the previous example this HPS representation has an inherent capability to emulate the learning of general rules and provides a reasonable accurate cognitive mapping of how human beings store information.

  19. Uncertainties drive arsenic rule delay

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is under court order to sign a proposed rule for arsenic by Nov. 30, 1995. The agency recently announced that it will not meet this deadline, citing the need to gather additional information. Development of a National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic has been delayed several times over the past 10 years because of uncertainties regarding health issues and costs associated with compliance. The early history of development of the arsenic rule has been reviewed. Only recent developments are reviewed here. The current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is 0.05 mg/L. This MCL was set in 1975, based on the 1962 US Public Health Standards. The current Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires that the revised arsenic MCL be set as close to the MCL goal (MCLG) as is feasible using best technology, treatment techniques, or other means and taking cost into consideration.

  20. Passive acquisition of CLIPS rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The automated acquisition of knowledge by machine has not lived up to expectations, and knowledge engineering remains a human intensive task. Part of the reason for the lack of success is the difference in the cognitive focus of the expert. The expert must shift his or her focus from the subject domain to that of the representation environment. In doing so this cognitive shift introduces opportunity for errors and omissions. Presented here is work that observes the expert interact with a simulation of the domain. The system logs changes in the simulation objects and the expert's actions in response to those changes. This is followed by the application of inductive reasoning to move the domain specific rules observed to general domain rules.

  1. Color selective photodetector and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Brian J.; Dorn, August; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2013-03-19

    A photoelectric device, such as a photodetector, can include a semiconductor nanowire electrostatically associated with a J-aggregate. The J-aggregate can facilitate absorption of a desired wavelength of light, and the semiconductor nanowire can facilitate charge transport. The color of light detected by the device can be chosen by selecting a J-aggregate with a corresponding peak absorption wavelength.

  2. EPA rule could cut pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a rule on November 14 that it claims could nearly eliminate dioxin discharges into waterways and reduce other toxic pollutants into the air and water from 155 pulp and paper mills.EPA estimates that results will include a 96% reduction in dioxin and a nearly 60% reduction in toxic air pollutants. Also, volatile organic compounds and sulfur emissions could be cut in half, with particulate matter cut by 37%.

  3. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption.

    PubMed

    Garbuny, M; Pechersky, M J

    1976-05-01

    The coherence properties and power levels of lasers available at present lend themselves to the remote operation of mechanical engines by resonance absorption in a working gas. Laser radiation is capable of producing extremely high temperatures in a gas. Limits to the achievable temperatures in the working gas of an engine are imposed by the solid walls and by loss of resonance absorption due to thermal saturation, bleaching, and dissociation. However, it is shown that by proper control of the laser beam in space, time, and frequency, as well as by choice of the absorbing gas, these limits are to a great extent removed so that very high temperatures are indeed attainable. The working gas is largely monatomic, preferably helium with the addition of a few volume percent of an absorber. Such a gas mixture, internally heated, permits an optimization of the expansion ratio, with resulting thermal efficiencies and work ratios, not achievable in conventional engines. A relationship between thermal efficiency and work ratio is derived that is quite general for the optimization condition. The performance of laser piston engines, turbines, and the Stirling cycle based on these principles is discussed and compared with conventional engine operation. Finally, a brief discussion is devoted to the possibility and concepts for the direct conversion of selective vibrational or electronic excitation into mechanical work, bypassing the translational degrees of freedom. PMID:20165143

  4. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption.

    PubMed

    Garbuny, M; Pechersky, M J

    1976-05-01

    The coherence properties and power levels of lasers available at present lend themselves to the remote operation of mechanical engines by resonance absorption in a working gas. Laser radiation is capable of producing extremely high temperatures in a gas. Limits to the achievable temperatures in the working gas of an engine are imposed by the solid walls and by loss of resonance absorption due to thermal saturation, bleaching, and dissociation. However, it is shown that by proper control of the laser beam in space, time, and frequency, as well as by choice of the absorbing gas, these limits are to a great extent removed so that very high temperatures are indeed attainable. The working gas is largely monatomic, preferably helium with the addition of a few volume percent of an absorber. Such a gas mixture, internally heated, permits an optimization of the expansion ratio, with resulting thermal efficiencies and work ratios, not achievable in conventional engines. A relationship between thermal efficiency and work ratio is derived that is quite general for the optimization condition. The performance of laser piston engines, turbines, and the Stirling cycle based on these principles is discussed and compared with conventional engine operation. Finally, a brief discussion is devoted to the possibility and concepts for the direct conversion of selective vibrational or electronic excitation into mechanical work, bypassing the translational degrees of freedom.

  5. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2014-07-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3absorption and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the host galaxies, indicating a physical link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection.

  6. Concentration-modulated absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Langley, A J; Beaman, R A; Baran, J; Davies, A N; Jones, W J

    1985-07-01

    Concentration modulation is demonstrated to be a technique capable of markedly extending sensitivity limits in absorption spectroscopy. The gain generated relates in such a manner to sample transmittance that for the first reported time direct spectroscopic concentration measurements become possible. When concentration modulation is used with picosecond lasers, state lifetimes can be determined to a limit of approximately 20 psec.

  7. Ultraviolet and Light Absorption Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light absorption spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…

  8. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  9. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process." PMID:12285766

  10. Phenoxyethanol absorption by polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, M G

    1984-12-01

    Phenoxyethanol was found to be absorbed by polyvinyl chloride administration sets during continuous irrigation therapy. Depending upon the conditions of administration up to 20% loss of potency could occur. Absorption of the drug by the rigid plastic luer-lock fitting of the set caused softening and decreased rigidity of the plastic.

  11. Slow light and saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.

  12. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  13. Statistical inference of static analysis rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  14. Complex dynamics of cellular automata rule 119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Chen, Fang-Yue

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamical behaviors of cellular automata rule 119 are studied from the viewpoint of symbolic dynamics in the bi-infinite symbolic sequence space Σ2. It is shown that there exists one Bernoulli-measure global attractor of rule 119, which is also the nonwandering set of the rule. Moreover, it is demonstrated that rule 119 is topologically mixing on the global attractor and possesses the positive topological entropy. Therefore, rule 119 is chaotic in the sense of both Li-Yorke and Devaney on the global attractor. It is interesting that rule 119, a member of Wolfram’s class II which was said to be simple as periodic before, actually possesses a chaotic global attractor in Σ2. Finally, it is noted that the method presented in this work is also applicable to studying the dynamics of other rules, especially the 112 Bernoulli-shift rules therein.

  15. Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the Octet Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses major events leading to the development of the octet rule. Three conclusions based on the work of Mendeleev, Abegg, Thompson, Kossel, Lewis, and Langmuir are considered as is the debate over the rule's validity. (JN)

  16. 7 CFR 29.1132 - Rule 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1132 Rule 26. Tobacco that contains a moderate amount of dirt or sand, but... from the Primings group, shall be designated by placing the special factor, “dirt” or “sand” after...

  17. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  18. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  19. 49 CFR 365.301 - Applicable rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RULES GOVERNING APPLICATIONS FOR OPERATING AUTHORITY General Rules Governing the Application Process § 365.301 Applicable...

  20. Bicarbonate absorption stimulates active calcium absorption in the rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed Central

    Bomsztyk, K; Calalb, M B

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of luminal bicarbonate on calcium reabsorption, rat proximal tubules were perfused in vivo. Perfusion solution contained mannitol to reduce water flux to zero. Total Ca concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, Ca ion concentration in the tubule lumen (CaL2+) and the peritubular capillary (CaP2+), and luminal pH (pHL) with ion-selective microelectrodes and transepithelial voltage (VTE) with conventional microelectrodes. When tubules were perfused with buffer-free Cl-containing solution, net Ca absorption (JCa) averaged 3.33 pmol/min. Even though VTE was 1.64 mV lumen-positive, CaL2+, 1.05 mM, did not fall below the concentration in the capillary blood, 1.07 mM. When 27 mM of Cl was replaced with HCO3, there was luminal fluid acidification. Despite a decrease in VTE and CaL2+, JCa increased to 7.13 pmol/min, indicating that the enhanced JCa could not be accounted for by the reduced electrochemical gradient, delta CCa. When acetazolamide or an analogue of amiloride was added to the HCO3 solution, JCa was not different from the buffer-free solution, suggesting that HCO3-stimulated JCa may be linked to acidification. To further test this hypothesis, we used 27 mM Hepes as the luminal buffer. With Hepes there was luminal fluid acidification and JCa was not different from the buffer-free solution but delta CCa was significantly reduced, indicating enhanced active calcium transport. We conclude from the results of the present study that HCO3 stimulates active Ca absorption, a process that may be linked to acidification-mediated HCO3 absorption. PMID:3366902