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Sample records for absorption spectra observed

  1. Absorption spectra of localized surface plasmon resonance observed in an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell fabricated by a near ultraviolet femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    Absorption spectra based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were obtained with an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell. The spectrometer cell was fabricated into an optical glass fiber by focusing a near UV (NUV) femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 400 nm with an energy of 30 μJ. The laser beam was focused from two directions opposite to each other to fabricate a through-hole spectrometer cell. A diameter of the cell was approximately 3 μm, and the length was approximately 62.5 μm, which was nearly equal to the core diameter of the optical fiber. Liquid solution of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with a diameter of 5-10 nm was injected into the spectrometer cell with its volume of 0.4 pL. The absorption peak centered at 518 nm was observed. An increase of absorption associated with the increase of the number of nanoparticles was in agreement with the numerical calculation based on the Lambert-Beer law.

  2. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate thatmore » near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.« less

  3. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  4. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  5. Gigahertz-peaked Spectra Pulsars and Thermal Absorption Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kijak, J.; Basu, R.; Lewandowski, W.

    2017-05-10

    We present the results of our radio interferometric observations of pulsars at 325 and 610 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We used the imaging method to estimate the flux densities of several pulsars at these radio frequencies. The analysis of the shapes of the pulsar spectra allowed us to identify five new gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS) pulsars. Using the hypothesis that the spectral turnovers are caused by thermal free–free absorption in the interstellar medium, we modeled the spectra of all known objects of this kind. Using the model, we were able to put some observational constraints on the physicalmore » parameters of the absorbing matter, which allows us to distinguish between the possible sources of absorption. We also discuss the possible effects of the existence of GPS pulsars on future search surveys, showing that the optimal frequency range for finding such objects would be from a few GHz (for regular GPS sources) to possibly 10 GHz for pulsars and radio magnetars exhibiting very strong absorption.« less

  6. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  7. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  8. Simultaneous observations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system of 87Rb and theoretical simulation of the observed spectra using a multi-mode approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Das, Arpita; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; De, Sankar

    2016-12-01

    We report here simultaneous experimental observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system in D2 transition of 87Rb, i.e., F =2 →F' with a strong pump and a weak probe beam. We studied the probe spectrum by locking the probe beam to the transition F =2 →F'=2 while the pump is scanned from F =2 →F' . EIA is observed for the open transition (F =2 →F'=2 ) whereas EIT is observed in the closed transition (F =2 →F'=3 ). Sub natural line-width is observed for the EIA. To simulate the observed spectra theoretically, Liouville equation for the three-level V-type system is solved analytically with a multi-mode approach for the density matrix elements. We assumed both the pump and the probe beams can couple the excited states. A multi-mode approach for the coherence terms facilitates the study of all the frequency contributions due to the pump and the probe fields. Since the terms contain higher harmonics of the pump and the probe frequencies, we expressed them in Fourier transformed forms. To simulate the probe spectrum, we have solved inhomogeneous difference equations for the coherence terms using the Green's function technique and continued fraction theory. The experimental line-widths of the EIT and the EIA are compared with our theoretical model. Our system can be useful in optical switching applications as it can be precisely tuned to render the medium opaque and transparent simultaneously.

  9. Simultaneous observations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system of 87Rb and theoretical simulation of the observed spectra using a multi-mode approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Das, Arpita; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; De, Sankar

    2016-12-14

    We report here simultaneous experimental observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system in D 2 transition of Rb87, i.e., F=2→F ' with a strong pump and a weak probe beam. We studied the probe spectrum by locking the probe beam to the transition F=2→F ' =2 while the pump is scanned from F=2→F ' . EIA is observed for the open transition (F=2→F ' =2) whereas EIT is observed in the closed transition (F=2→F ' =3). Sub natural line-width is observed for the EIA. To simulate the observed spectra theoretically, Liouville equation for the three-level V-type system is solved analytically with a multi-mode approach for the density matrix elements. We assumed both the pump and the probe beams can couple the excited states. A multi-mode approach for the coherence terms facilitates the study of all the frequency contributions due to the pump and the probe fields. Since the terms contain higher harmonics of the pump and the probe frequencies, we expressed them in Fourier transformed forms. To simulate the probe spectrum, we have solved inhomogeneous difference equations for the coherence terms using the Green's function technique and continued fraction theory. The experimental line-widths of the EIT and the EIA are compared with our theoretical model. Our system can be useful in optical switching applications as it can be precisely tuned to render the medium opaque and transparent simultaneously.

  10. Two-photon absorption spectra of carotenoids compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Marcelo Gonçalves; Silva, Daniel Luiz; Boni, Leonardo de; Zalesny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Mendonca, Cleber Renato

    2011-05-01

    Carotenoids are biosynthetic organic pigments that constitute an important class of one-dimensional π-conjugated organic molecules with enormous potential for application in biophotonic devices. In this context, we studied the degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section spectra of two carotenoid compounds (β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal) employing the conventional and white-light-continuum Z-scan techniques and quantum chemistry calculations. Because carotenoids coexist at room temperature as a mixture of isomers, the 2PA spectra reported here are due to samples containing a distribution of isomers, presenting distinct conjugation length and conformation. We show that these compounds present a defined structure on the 2PA spectra, that peaks at 650 nm with an absorption cross-section of approximately 5000 GM, for both compounds. In addition, we observed a 2PA band at 990 nm for β-apo-8'-carotenal, which was attributed to a overlapping of 11Bu+-like and 21Ag--like states, which are strongly one- and two-photon allowed, respectively. Spectroscopic parameters of the electronic transitions to singlet-excited states, which are directly related to photophysical properties of these compounds, were obtained by fitting the 2PA spectra using the sum-over-states approach. The analysis and interpretations of the 2PA spectra of the investigated carotenoids were supported by theoretical predictions of one- and two-photon transitions carried out using the response functions formalism within the density functional theory framework, using the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functional.

  11. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9675 Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant ...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring...Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 35 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using

  12. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  13. Soft x-ray absorption spectra of ilmenite family.

    PubMed

    Agui, A; Mizumaki, M; Saitoh, Y; Matsushita, T; Nakatani, T; Fukaya, A; Torikai, E

    2001-03-01

    We have carried out soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of ilmenite family, such as MnTiO3, FeTiO3, and CoTiO3 at the soft x-ray beamline, BL23SU, at the SPring-8. The Ti and M L2,3 absorption spectra of MTiO3 (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) show spectra of Ti4+ and M2+ electron configurations, respectively. Except the Fe L2,3 spectrum, those spectra were understood within the O(h) symmetry around the transition metal ions. The Fe L3-edge spectrum clearly shows a doublet peak at the L3 edge, which is attributed to Fe2+ state, moreover the very high-resolution the L-edge spectra of transition metals show fine structures. The spectra of those ilmenites are compared.

  14. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  15. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  16. A Simple Demonstration of Absorption Spectra Using Tungsten Holiday Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper submitted to the Demonstrations section (Birriel 2008, "Astronomy Education Review," 7, 147), I discussed using commercially available incandescent light bulbs for the purpose of demonstrating absorption spectra in the classroom or laboratory. This demonstration solved a long-standing problem that many of astronomy instructors…

  17. Infrared absorption spectra of metal carbides, nitrides and sulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammori, O.; Sato, K.; Kurosawa, F.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of 12 kinds of metal carbides, 11 kinds of nitrides, and 7 kinds of sulfides, a total of 30 materials, were measured and the application of the infrared spectra of these materials to analytical chemistry was discussed. The measurements were done in the frequency (wave length) range of (1400 to 400/cm (7 to 25 mu). The carbides Al4C3, B4C, the nitrides AlN, BN, Si3N4, WB, and the sulfides Al2S3, FeS2, MnS, NiS and PbS were noted to have specific absorptions in the measured region. The sensitivity of Boron nitride was especially good and could be detected at 2 to 3 micrograms in 300 mg of potassium bromide.

  18. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  19. Ionic species produced on gamma radiolysis: Studies by matrix isolation technique—I. Electronic absorption spectra of perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou-te, Lian C. T.; Mittal, Jai P.

    The absorption spectra of several perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions are compared with the corresponding perhydro compounds in which the various transitions involved have been assigned to those predicted theoretically. The electronic absorption spectra were obtained for pentafluorostyrene, pentafluorobenzaldehyde, pentafluorobenzoic acid, pentafluorobenzonitride, tetrafluorophthalic acid and pentafluoroaniline, by gamma radiolysis in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran at 77 K. A general similarity in the absorption spectra between the perfluorinated and the corresponding perhydro radical anion is observed except for a shift in the absorption band.

  20. Luminescence and Absorption Spectra of C sub 60 Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    J. McKeirnan, J.L Zink, R. Stanley Williams, W.M. Tong, D.A.A. Ohlberg and R.L. Whetten Submitted t DTIC Physical Review Letters ELECT E SFEB 2? 7,19...range at 20K. A 1400 cm"& progression in the a soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low-temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine...ag soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine structure. The characterization of vibronic

  1. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic absorption spectra of some N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganya, Krishnasamy; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan

    2004-04-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 23 ortho- and para-N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed.

  2. Absorption spectra of PTCDI: A combined UV-Vis and TD-DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltean, Mircea; Calborean, Adrian; Mile, George; Vidrighin, Mihai; Iosin, Monica; Leopold, Loredana; Maniu, Dana; Leopold, Nicolae; Chiş, Vasile

    2012-11-01

    Absorption spectra of PTCDI (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide) have been investigated in chloroform, N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). While no signature of assembled PTCDI molecules is observed in chloroform solution, distinct bands assigned to their aggregation have been identified in DMF and DMSO solutions. PTCDI monomers show very similar absorption patterns in chloroform and DMSO solutions. Experimental data, including the vibronic structure of the absorption spectra were explained based on the Franck-Condon approximation and quantum chemical results obtained at PBE0-DCP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Geometry optimization of the first excited state leads to a nice agreement between the calculated adiabatic transition energies and experimental data.

  3. Measurements of trace constituents from atmospheric infrared emission and absorption spectra, a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of detecting eight trace constituents (CH4, HCl, HF, HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2 and SO2) against the rest of the atmospheric background at various altitudes from infrared emission and absorption atmospheric spectra was studied. Line-by-line calculations and observational data were used to establish features that can be observed in the atmospheric spectrum due to each trace constituent. Model calculations were made for experimental conditions which approximately represent state of the art emission and absorption spectrometers.

  4. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density ``spike'' (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines of

  5. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig Wheeler, J.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density “spike” (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines

  6. The P K-near edge absorption spectra of phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, R.; Hormes, J.

    1995-12-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the P K-edge in several orthophosphates with various cations, in condensed, and in substituted sodium phosphates have been measured using synchrotron radiation from the ELSA storage ring at the University of Bonn. The measured spectra demonstrate that chemical changes beyond the PO 4- tetrahedra are reflected by energy shifts of the pre-edge and continuum resonances, by the presence of characteristic shoulders and new peaks and by differences in the intensity of the white line. We discuss the energy differences between the white line positions and the corresponding P ls binding energies as a measure of half of the energy gap. The corresponding values correlate with the valence of the cations and the intensity of the white lines. The energy positions of the continuum resonances are discussed on the basis of an empirical bond-length correlation supporting a 1/ r2 - dependence.

  7. THERMAL ABSORPTION AS THE CAUSE OF GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA IN PULSARS AND MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, Wojciech; Rożko, Karolina; Kijak, Jarosław

    2015-07-20

    We present a model that explains the observed deviation of the spectra of some pulsars and magnetars from the power-law spectra that are seen in the bulk of the pulsar population. Our model is based on the assumption that the observed variety of pulsar spectra can be naturally explained by the thermal free–free absorption that takes place in the surroundings of the pulsars. In this context, the variety of the pulsar spectra can be explained according to the shape, density, and temperature of the absorbing media and the optical path of the line of sight across it. We have putmore » specific emphasis on the case of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900 (also known as the Sgr A* magnetar), modeling the rapid variations of the pulsar spectrum after the outburst of 2013 April as due to the free–free absorption of the radio emission in the electron material ejected during the magnetar outburst. The ejecta expands with time and consequently the absorption rate decreases and the shape of the spectrum changes in such a way that the peak frequency shifts toward the lower radio frequencies. In the hypothesis of an absorbing medium, we also discuss the similarity between the spectral behavior of the binary pulsar B1259–63 and the spectral peculiarities of isolated pulsars.« less

  8. Absorption spectra analysis of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    2000-11-01

    Absorption spectra of powdered samples of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides of the formulas NH 4UCl 4 · 4H 2O and CsUCl 4 · 3H 2O have been recorded at 4.2 K in the 4000-26 000 cm -1 range. The analysis of the spectra enabled the determination of crystal-field parameters and assignment of 83 and 77 crystal-field levels for the tetrahydrate and trihydrate, respectively. The energies of the levels were computed by applying a simplified angular overlap model as well as a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions. Ab initio calculations have enabled the application of a simplified parameterization and the determination of the starting values of the AOM parameters. The received results have proved that the AOM approach can quite well predict both the structure of the ground multiplet and the positions of the crystal-field levels in the 17 000-25 000 cm -1 range, usually obscured by strong f-d bands.

  9. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    PubMed

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-05

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  10. Absorption and electroabsorption spectra of carotenoid cation radical and dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Stanisław

    1998-05-01

    Radical cations and dications of two carotenoids astaxanthin and canthaxanthin were prepared by oxidation with FeCl 3 in fluorinated alcohols at room temperature. Absorption and electroabsorption (Stark effect) spectra were recorded for astaxanthin cations in mixed frozen matrices at temperatures about 160 K. The D 0→D 2 transition in cation radical is at 835 nm. The electroabsorption spectrum for the D 0→D 2 transition exhibits a negative change of molecular polarizability, Δ α=-1.2·10 -38 C·m 2/V (-105 A 3), which seems to originate from the change in bond order alternation in the ground state rather than from the electric field-induced interaction of D 1 and D 2 excited states. Absorption spectrum of astaxanthin dication is located at 715-717 nm, between those of D 0→D 2 in cation radical and S 0→S 2 in neutral carotenoid. Its shape reflects a short vibronic progression and strong inhomogeneous broadening. The polarizability change on electronic excitation, Δ α=2.89·10 -38 C·m 2/V (260 A 3), is five times smaller than in neutral astaxanthin. This value reflects the larger energetic distance from the lowest excited state to the higher excited states than in the neutral molecule.

  11. [Study on the effect of solar spectra on the retrieval of atmospheric CO2 concentration using high resolution absorption spectra].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Teng; Wang, Ying-Ping; Ding, Lei; Zheng, Hai-Yang; Fang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Taking solar source as radiation in the near-infrared high-resolution absorption spectrum is widely used in remote sensing of atmospheric parameters. The present paper will take retrieval of the concentration of CO2 for example, and study the effect of solar spectra resolution. Retrieving concentrations of CO2 by using high resolution absorption spectra, a method which uses the program provided by AER to calculate the solar spectra at the top of atmosphere as radiation and combine with the HRATS (high resolution atmospheric transmission simulation) to simulate retrieving concentration of CO2. Numerical simulation shows that the accuracy of solar spectrum is important to retrieval, especially in the hyper-resolution spectral retrieavl, and the error of retrieval concentration has poor linear relation with the resolution of observation, but there is a tendency that the decrease in the resolution requires low resolution of solar spectrum. In order to retrieve the concentration of CO2 of atmosphere, the authors' should take full advantage of high-resolution solar spectrum at the top of atmosphere.

  12. X ray spectra of X Per. [oso-8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Robinson-Saba, J.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 observed X Per for twenty days during two observations in Feb. 1976 and Feb. 1977. The spectrum of X Per varies in phase with its 13.9 min period, hardening significantly at X-ray minimum. Unlike other X-ray binary pulsar spectra, X Per's spectra do not exhibit iron line emission or strong absorption features. The data show no evidence for a 22 hour periodicity in the X-ray intensity of X Per. These results indicate that the X-ray emission from X Per may be originating from a neutron star in a low density region far from the optically identified Be star.

  13. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  14. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  15. Carbon X-ray absorption in the local ISM: fingerprints in X-ray Novae spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, Efraín; Ness, J.-U.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Kallman, Timothy R.; García, Javier A.

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the C K-edge using high-resolution LETGS Chandra spectra of four novae during their super-soft-source (SSS) phase. We identified absorption lines due to C II Kα, C III Kα and C III Kβ resonances. We used these astronomical observations to perform a benchmarking of the atomic data, which involves wavelength shifts of the resonances and photoionization cross-sections. We used improved atomic data to estimate the C II and C III column densities. The absence of physical shifts for the absorption lines, the consistence of the column densities between multiple observations and the high temperature required for the SSS nova atmosphere modeling support our conclusion about an ISM origin of the respective absorption lines. Assuming a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma the maximum temperature derived from the ratio of C II/C III column densities of the absorbers correspond to Tmax < 3.05 × 104 K.

  16. Far-ultraviolet absorption spectra of quasars: How to find missing hot gas and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verner, D. A.; Tytler, David; Barthel, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    We show that some high-redshift QSO absorption systems that reveal only the H I Lyman series lines at wavelengths visible from the ground maybe a new class of ultra-high-ionization metal line systems, with metal lines in the far-UV region which is now being explored with satellites. At high temperatures or in intense radiation fields metal systems will not show the usual C IV absorption, and O VI will become the most prominent metal absorber. At still higher ionization, O IV also becomes weak and the strongest metal lines are from Ne VIII, Mg X and Si XII, which have doublets in the rangs 500-800 A. Hence very high ionization metal systems will not show metal lines in existing spectra. Recent X-ray observations show that galaxy halos contain hot gas, so we predict that far-UV spectra of QSOs will also show this gas.

  17. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-15

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm(-1) with a resolution of 0.08 cm(-1) using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm(-1) and 8100-8230 cm(-1). No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (i) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (ii) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph;more » (iii) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (iv) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (vi) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.« less

  19. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (I) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (II) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; (III) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (IV) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (VI) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.

  20. Electronic absorption spectra of chromium-bearing sapphirine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, K.; Platonov, A. N.; Matsuk, S. S.; Andrut, M.

    1994-05-01

    Violet, non-pleochroic and greenish-blue, pleochroic chromium-substituted sapphirines were found in corundum-bearing spinel-websterite xenolites from the Yakutian kimberlite pipes Noyabrskaya (N) and Sludyanka (Sl), respectively. The crystallochemical formulae of sapphirine crystals from such xenolites were determined by EMP to be (Mg3.40Fe0.23Al3.25Cr0.16)[6] Al{1.00/[6]}[O2/Al4.53Si1.47O18] (N) and (Mg2.53Fe0.55 Mn0.04Ti{0.03/4+}Al3.55Cr{0.08/3+})[6]Al{1.00/[16]}[O2/Al4.28Si1.73O18] (Sl). Single crystal spectra in the range 35000 6000 cm1- showed a slightly polarization dependent absorption edge near 3200 cm1- (N) or 30000 cm1- (Sl) and unpolarized bands at 25300 and 17300 cm1-, typical of spin-allowed transitions, derived from 4A2g→4T1g and 4A2g→4T2g, of Cr3+ in octahedral sites, with point symmetry C1, of the structure. Another weak band at 23000 cm-1 in the sapphirine-N spectra is attributed to low symmetry splitting of the excited 4T1 (F)-State of Cr3+. These assignments lead to crystal field parameters Dq=1730cm-1 and B= 685cm-1 of Cr3+ in sapphirine. Crystallochemical and spectroscopic arguments suggest that Cr3+ subsitutes for Al in the M(1) or M(8) sites of the sapphirine structure. In addition to Cr3+-transitions, spectra of Sl exhibit weak dd-bands of Fe2+ at 10000 and 7700 cm1-, which are unpolarized in consistency with the C1 site symmetry of the octahedra in the structure. Spectra of Sl show also prominent, broad bands (Δv1/2˜-5000 cm1-) at 15000 and 11000 cm1-, which occur in E//Y(//b) and E//Z(//c=12°) only and exhibit an intensity ratio αY∶αz close to 1∶3. This result, the large half width, as well as band energy — MM distance considerations suggest that these bands originate from Fe2+[6]-Fe3+[6] charge-transfer transitions in wall octahedra M(1)M(2), M(6)M(7) etc., forming MM vectors of 30° with the c-axis. The lack of Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer bands in sapphirine N might indicate a lower oxygen fugacity during the formation of

  1. Theoretical calculations on the electron absorption spectra of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Ping

    1993-01-01

    As a theoretical component of the joint effort with the laboratory of Dr. Lou Allamandola to search for potential candidates for interstellar organic carbon compound that are responsible for the visible diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIB's), quantum mechanical calculations were performed on the electron absorption spectra of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives. In the completed project, 15 different species of naphthalene, its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives, and corresponding cations and anions were studied. Using semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S, the ground electronic state of each species was evaluated with restricted Hartree-Fock scheme and limited configuration interaction. The lowest energy spin state for each species was used for electron absorption calculations. Results indicate that these calculations are accurate enough to reproduce the spectra of naphthalene cation and anion observed in neon matrix. The spectral pattern of the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives predicted based on these results indicate that the electron configuration of the pi orbitals of these species is the dominant determinant. A combined list of 19 absorptions calculated from 4500 A to 10,400 A were compiled and suggested as potential candidates that are relevant for the DIB's absorptions. Continued studies on pyrene and derivatives revealed the ground state symmetries and multiplicities of its neutral, anionic, and cationic species. Spectral calculations show that the cation (B(sub 3g)-2) and the anion (A(sub u)-2) are more likely to have low energy absorptions in the regions between 10 kK and 20 kK, similar to naphthalene. These absorptions, together with those to be determined from the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives of pyrene, can be used to provide additional candidates and suggest experimental work in the search for interstellar compounds that are responsible for DIB's.

  2. Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Jang, Kiwan; Park, Sang-An; Kim, Duck-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2006-09-01

    Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys were investigated in the composition region of 0.0 x 0.4 and in the wavelength region of 300 to 2500 nm at 4.8 K and 290 K. We observed several absorption bands in the wavelength regions corresponding to the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4P) transition and the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4F) transition of Co2+ at a tetrahedral Td point symmetry point in the host crystals, as well as unknown absorption bands. The several absorption bands were analyzed in the framework of the crystal-field theory along with the second-order spin-orbit coupling. The unknown absorption bands were assigned as due to phonon-assisted absorption bands. We also investigated the variations of the crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameter B with composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system. The results showed that the crystal-field parameter (Dq ) increases, on the other hand, the Racah parameter (B ) decreases with increasing composition x, which may be connected with an increase in the covalency of the metal-ligand bond with increasing composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system.

  3. Sharp Absorption Peaks in THz Spectra Valuable for Crystal Quality Evaluation of Middle Molecular Weight Pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Middle molecular weight (MMW) pharmaceuticals (MW 400 4000) are attracting attention for their possible use in new medications. Sharp absorption peaks were observed in MMW pharmaceuticals at low temperatures by measuring with a high-resolution terahertz (THz) spectrometer. As examples, high-resolution THz spectra for amoxicillin trihydrate, atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, probucol, and α,β,γ,δ-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP) were obtained at 10 K. Typically observed as peaks with full width at half-height (FWHM) values as low as 5.639 GHz at 0.96492 THz in amoxicillin trihydrate and 8.857 GHz at 1.07974 THz for probucol, many sharp peaks of MMW pharmaceuticals could be observed. Such narrow absorption peaks enable evaluation of the crystal quality of MMW pharmaceuticals and afford sensitive detection of impurities.

  4. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic absorption spectra of some N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Krishnasamy; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan

    2004-04-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 23 ortho- and para-N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Terahertz absorption spectra of commonly used antimalarial drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawuah, Prince; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectra from the pure forms [i.e. the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)] of four commonly used antimalarial drugs are reported. The well-defined spectral fingerprints obtained for these APIs in the spectral range of 0.1 THz-3 THz show the sensitivity of the THz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) method for screening antimalarial drugs. For identification purpose, two commercially available antimalarial tablets were detected. Clear spectral fingerprints of the APIs in the antimalarial tablets were obtained even amidst the several types of excipients present in the tablets. This observation further proves the high sensitivity of the THz techniques in tracking the presence or absence of API in a pharmaceutical tablet. We envisage that the spectral data obtained for these drugs can contribute to a spectroscopic database in the far infrared spectral region and hence support the modelling of THz sensing to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  6. Terahertz absorption spectra of commonly used antimalarial drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawuah, Prince; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectra from the pure forms [i.e. the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)] of four commonly used antimalarial drugs are reported. The well-defined spectral fingerprints obtained for these APIs in the spectral range of 0.1 THz-3 THz show the sensitivity of the THz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) method for screening antimalarial drugs. For identification purpose, two commercially available antimalarial tablets were detected. Clear spectral fingerprints of the APIs in the antimalarial tablets were obtained even amidst the several types of excipients present in the tablets. This observation further proves the high sensitivity of the THz techniques in tracking the presence or absence of API in a pharmaceutical tablet. We envisage that the spectral data obtained for these drugs can contribute to a spectroscopic database in the far infrared spectral region and hence support the modelling of THz sensing to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  7. Studies of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Resolved Absorption Spectra of Nucleic Acid Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingxian

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about dynamic aspects of the photophysics of the adenylyl chromophore, stemming from the discordant values reported for the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes (tau_1 = 5 ps, tau_2 = 330 ps for 9MeAde; tau_1 = 290 ps, tau_2 = 4.17 ns for ATP). Spectra reported in conjunction with these lifetimes create difficulties in assignment of emission. To clarify this situation I have investigated the fluorescence decay times and time -resolved emission spectra of adenylyl compounds under a variety of conditions (concentration, pH, solvent) using sub-ns laser excitation at 265 nm together with gated fast sampling (100 ps) detection and signal averaging. Multi -component decays and spectra are observed in aqueous solution. Major slow components (tau = 4.4 +/- 0.2 ns) with emission maxima at 380 nm are found for all components at pH 1.1 and for ATP at pH 4.4. At pH 7 a fast component (<100 ps) predominates. There is no marked evidence for a concentration dependence, the oscillator strengths are 10^ {-3}-10^{-5} and transitions must be classified as weakly forbidden. Single component emission is observed in acetonitrile and ethanol. The UV absorption spectra of biomolecules d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) exhibit the different hypochromic effects due to different interactions between guanosine(G) and cytidine(C) in stacked form. The present work has been carried out to explain this quantitatively. To approach this problem the absorption spectra of G and C have been resolved into gaussian components using the PeakFit program. The absorption spectra (220-310 nm) of d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) have been fitted with gaussian components of G and C (in the order of increasing energy, G1 and G2, and C1, C2 and C3, respectively), and the contribution to both spectra from individual gaussians is estimated in terms of oscillator strengths. The fitting results suggest that the small hypochromism in absorption spectrum of d(CG) may be attributed

  8. Absorption spectra of ammonia near 1 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Emma J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Yurchenko, Sergei. N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Civiš, S.; Ferus, M.; Hargreaves, R.; Ovsyannikov, R. I.; Kyuberis, A. A.; Zobov, N. F.; Béguier, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-12-01

    An ammonia absorption spectrum recorded at room temperature in the region 8800-10,400 cm-1 is analysed using a variational line list, BYTe, and ground state energies determined using the MARVEL procedure. BYTe is used as a starting point to initialise assignments by combination differences and the method of branches. Assignments are presented for the region 9400-9850 cm-1. 642 lines are assigned to 6 previously unobserved vibrational bands, (2v1 + 2 v42) ±, (2v1 + v31) ± and (v1 + v31 + 2 v42) ±, leading to 428 new energy levels with 208 confirmed by combination differences. A recently calculated purely ab initio NH3 PES is also used to calculate rovibrational energy levels. Comparison with assigned levels shows better agreement between observed and calculated levels than for BYTe for higher vibrational bands.

  9. Substituent and Solvent Effects on the Absorption Spectra of Cation-π Complexes of Benzene and Borazine: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Nabajit; Bhattacharyya, Pradip Kr; Bania, Kusum K

    2014-05-29

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to predict the absorption spectra of cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Both polarized continuum model (PCM) and discrete solvation model (DSM) and a combined effect of PCM and DSM on the absorption spectra have been elucidated. With decrease in size of the cation, the π → π* transitions of benzene and borazine are found to undergo blue and red shift, respectively. A number of different substituents (both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating) and a range of solvents (nonpolar to polar) have been considered to understand the effect of substituent and solvents on the absorption spectra of the cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Red shift in the absorption spectra of benzene cation-π complexes are observed with both electron-donating groups (EDGs) and electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs). The same trend has not been observed in the case of substituted borazine cation-π complexes. The wavelength of the electronic transitions corresponding to cation-π complexes correlates well with the Hammet constants (σ p and σ m ). This correlation indicates that the shifting of spectral lines of the cation-π complexes on substitution is due to both resonance and inductive effect. On incorporation of solvent phases, significant red or blue shifting in the absorption spectra of the complexes has been observed. Kamlet-Taft multiparametric equation has been used to explain the effect of solvent on the absorption spectra of complexes. Polarity and polarizability are observed to play an important role in the solvatochromism of the cation-π complexes.

  10. Composite Spectra of Broad Absorption Line Quasars in SDSS-III BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Hanna; Hamann, Fred; Paris, Isabelle; Capellupo, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars in the SDSS-III BOSS survey. We’re particularly interested in BALs because they arise from quasar outflows, which may be a source of feedback to the host galaxy. We analyze median composite spectra for BOSS QSOs in the redshift range 2.1 to 3.4 sorted by the strength of the BAL absorption troughs, parameterized by the Balnicity Index (BI), to study trends in the emission and absorption properties of BAL quasars. The wavelength coverage and high number of quasars observed in the BOSS survey allow us to examine BALs in the Lyman forest. Our main preliminary results when sorting the quasars by BI are 1) doublet absorption lines such as P V 1128A show a 1:1 ratio across all BI, indicating large column densities at all BI. This suggests that weaker BAL troughs result from smaller covering fractions rather than lower column densities. 2) The He II emission line, which is a measure of the far-UV/near-UV hardness of the ionizing continuum, is weaker in the larger BI composite spectra, indicating a far-UV spectral softening correlated with BI. This is consistent with the radiatively-driven BAL outflows being helped by intrinsically weaker ionizing continuum shapes (e.g., Baskin, Laor, and Hamann 2013). We also find a trend for slightly redder continuum slopes in the larger BI composite spectra, suggesting that the slope differences in the near-UV are also intrinsic.

  11. The Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Neutral PAHs in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe and are expected to be present in dense interstellar clouds. In these environments, some P.4Hs may be present in the gas phase, but most should be frozen into ice mantles or adsorbed onto dust grains and their spectral features are expected to be seen in absorption. Here we extend our previous work on the infrared spectral properties of the small PAH naphthalene (C10H8) in several media to include the full mid-infrared laboratory spectra of 11 other PAHs and related aromatic species frozen in H2O ices. These include the molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, anthracene, 9,1O-dihydroanthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, pentacene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene. These results demonstrate that PAHs and related molecules, as a class, show the same spectral behaviors as naphthalene when incorporated into H2O-rich matrices. When compared to the spectra of these same molecules isolated in inert matrices (e.g., Ar or N2), the absorption bands produced when they are frozen in H2O matrices are broader (factors of 3-10), show small position shifts in either direction (usually < 4/cm, always < 10/cm), and show variable changes in relative band strengths (typically factors of 1-3). There is no evidence of systematic increases or decreases in the absolute strengths of the bands of these molecules when they are incorporated in H2O matrices. In H2O-rich ices, their absorption bands are relatively insensitive to concentration over the range of 10 < H2O/PAH < 200): The absorption bands of these molecules are also insensitive to temperature over the 10 K < T < 125 K range, although the spectra can show dramatic changes as the ices are warmed through the temperature range in which amorphous H2O ice converts to its cubic and hexagonal crystalline forms (T > 125 Kj. Given the small observed band shifts cause by H2O, the current database of spectra from Ar matrix

  12. Effect of solvent on absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. L.; Zheng, Z. R.; Liu, Z. G.

    The absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene in n-hexane and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) solutions are measured under high pressure at ambient temperature. The common redshift and broadening in the spectra are observed. Simulation of the absorption spectra was performed by using the time-domain formula of the stochastic model. The pressure dependence of the 0-0 band wavenumber is in agreement with the Bayliss theory at pressure higher than 0.2 GPa. The deviation of the linearity at lower pressure is ascribed to the reorientation of the solvent molecules. Both the redshift and broadening are stronger in CS{sub 2} than that in n-hexane becausemore » of the more sensitive pressure dependence of dispersive interactions in CS{sub 2} solution. The effect of pressure on the transition moment is explained with the aid of a simple model involving the relative dimension, location, and orientation of the solute and solvent molecules. The implication of these results for light-harvesting functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is also discussed.« less

  13. The Intervening Galaxies Hypothesis of the Absorption Spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects: Some Statistical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duari, Debiprosad; Narlikar, Jayant V.

    This paper examines, in the light of the available data, the hypothesis that the heavy element absorption line systems in the spectra of QSOs originate through en-route absorption by intervening galaxies, halos etc. Several statistical tests are applied in two different ways to compare the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis (IGH) with actual observations. The database is taken from a recent 1991 compilation of absorption line systems by Junkkarinen, Hewitt and Burbidge. Although, prima facie, a considerable gap is found between the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis and the actual observations despite inclusion of any effects of clustering and some likely selection effects, the gap narrows after invoking evolution in the number density of absorbers and allowing for the incompleteness and inhomogeneity of samples examined. On the latter count the gap might be bridgeable by stretching the parameters of the theory. It is concluded that although the intervening galaxies hypothesis is a possible natural explanation to account for the absorption line systems and may in fact do so in several cases, it seems too simplistic to be able to account for all the available data. It is further stressed that the statistical techniques described here will be useful for future studies of complete and homogenous samples with a view to deciding the extent of applicability of the IGH.

  14. Detection of absorption lines in the spectra of X-ray bursts from X1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Inoue, Hajime; Tanaka, Yasuo

    X-ray bursts from X 1608-52 were observed with the gas scintillation proportional counters on the Tenma satellite. Absorption features were detected in the spectra of three bursts among 17 bursts observed. These absorption features are consistent with a common absorption line at 4.1 keV. The energy and the properties of the absorption lines of the X 1608-52 bursts are very similar to those observed from the X 1636-53 bursts by Waki et al. (1984). Near equality of the absorption-line energies for X 1636-53 and X 1608-52 would imply that mass and radius of the neutron stars in these two systems are very similar to each other.

  15. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina; Sadoughi, Golnaz; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Félix, Roberto; Wilks, Regan G; Snaith, Henry J; Bär, Marcus; Draxl, Claudia

    2018-04-19

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3 ) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2 . The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.

  16. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sgr B2 los molecular absorption line spectra (Corby+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra covering transitions of c-C3H2, c-H1 SO, CCS, H2CS, HCS+, OH, SiO, 29SiO, H2CO, H2(13C)O, l-C3H, and l-C3H+ with line-of-sight absorption observed in the 1-50 GHz data from the PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Data were observed between 2001 and 2014, with the majority of the data obtained in 2007 in GBT Key Science project ID GBT07A-051. Spectra have been baseline-subtracted using best fit polynomials as described in the paper, and normalized by the continuum, so that the y-axis represents (T/TC-1). Data are provided in the FITS format; each FITS file contains all lines of a single molecule that are observed to have foreground absorption. Please refer to Table 1 of the paper to obtain molecular transition rest frequencies, energies, GBT beam sizes, and transition quantum numbers. (2 data files).

  18. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  19. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  20. Broad Absorption Lines in Qsos: Observations and Implications for Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnshek, David Alvin

    Spectroscopic observations of fourteen broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are presented and analyzed. Other observations are summarized. The following major conclusions are reached. Broad absorption lines (BALs) are probably present in 3 to 10 percent of the spectra of moderate to high redshift QSOs. The BALs exhibit a variety of velocity structures, from seemingly smooth, continuous absorption to complexes of individual absorption lines. Outflow velocities up to 40,000 km s(' -1) are observed. The level of ionization is high. The minimum total absorption column densities are 10('20) to 10('22) cm('-2). The emission line properties of BAL QSOs appear to be different from those of non-BAL QSOs. For example, N V emission is generally stronger in BAL QSOs and the emission near C III} (lamda)1909 is generally broader in BAL QSOs. The distribution of multiplicities for isolated absorption troughs suggests that the large -scale spatial distribution of BAL clouds is non-random, possibly described by a disk geometry. The BAL clouds are incapable of accounting for all of the observed broad emission lines, particularly C III} (lamda)1909 and Mg II (lamda)2798. Therefore, if the BAL clouds give rise to observable emission, the generally adopted (optically thick, single component) model for the emission line region must be incorrect. Also, photoionization models, which utilize solar abundances and take the ionizing continuum to be a simple power law, are incapable of explaining the level of ionization in the BAL clouds. By considering the observed percentage of QSOs with BALs and resonance line scattering models, it is found that the absorption covering factor in BAL QSOs is between 3 and 20 percent. This suggests that possibly all, but not less than 15 percent, of the QSOs have BAL clouds associated with them. The amount of observable emission and polarization expected to be produced by the BAL clouds from resonance line scattering and collisional excitation is considered in

  1. First-principles C band absorption spectra of SO2 and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Kumar, Praveen; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Poirier, Bill; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The low-energy wing of the C ˜ B12 ←X˜ 1A1 absorption spectra for SO2 in the ultraviolet region is computed for the 32S,33S,34S and 36S isotopes, using the recently developed ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the two electronic states and the corresponding transition dipole surface. The state-resolved absorption spectra from various ro-vibrational states of SO2(X˜ 1A1 ) are computed. When contributions of these excited ro-vibrational states are included, the thermally averaged spectra are broadened but maintain their key characters. Excellent agreement with experimental absorption spectra is found, validating the accuracy of the PESs. The isotope shifts of the absorption peaks are found to increase linearly with energy, in good agreement with experiment.

  2. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  3. Absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. J.; Balling, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    Pulsed-dye-laser excitation has been used to investigate the optical absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices at 10 °K. Attempts to stabilize Li atoms in a Ne matrix at 2 °K were unsuccessful. Results for all three rare gases were qualitatively the same. White light absorption scans showed a single absorption with three peaks centered near the free-atom 2s→2p transition wavelength. The intensity of fluorescence produced by dye-laser excitation within this absorption band was measured as a function of emission wavelength. Excitation of the longest- and shortest-wavelength absorption peaks produced identical emission profiles, but no distinct fluorescence signal was detected when the laser was tuned to the central absorption peaks, indicating that the apparent absorption triplet is actually the superposition of a singlet and a doublet absorption originating from two different trapping sites. No additional absorption bands were detected.

  4. Unified analysis of optical absorption spectra of carotenoids based on a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Chiasa; Saito, Keisuke; Yoshizawa, Masayuki; Molnár, Péter; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-05-03

    The chemical structures of the carotenoid molecules are very simple and one might think that the electronic feature of it is easily predicted. However, it still has so much unknown information except the correlation between the electronic energy state and the length of effective conjugation chain of carotenoids. To investigate the electronic feature of the carotenoids, the most essential method is measuring the optical absorption spectra, but simulating it from the resonance Raman spectra is also the effective way. From this reason, we studied the optical absorption spectra as well as resonance Raman spectra of 15 different kinds of cyclic carotenoid molecules, recorded in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions at room temperature. The whole band shapes of the absorption spectra of all these carotenoid molecules were successfully simulated based on a stochastic model using Brownian oscillators. The parameters obtained from the simulation made it possible to discuss the intermolecular interaction between carotenoids and solvent THF molecules quantitatively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--13-9479 Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using ...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using Density...structure associated with Fe, Mn, and Mg water complexes using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Calculation of excited state resonance

  6. Temperature-dependent mid-IR absorption spectra of gaseous hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Adam E.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative mid-IR absorption spectra (2500 3400 cm-1) for 12 pure hydrocarbon compounds are measured at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 °C using an FTIR spectrometer. The hydrocarbons studied are n-pentane, n-heptane, n-dodecane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), 2-methyl-butane, 2-methyl-pentane, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, propene, toluene, m-xylene, and ethylbenzene. Room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbon vapor were made with an instrument resolution of both 0.1 and 1 cm-1 (FWHM) to confirm that the high-resolution setting was required only to resolve the propene absorption spectrum while the spectra of the other hydrocarbons could be resolved with 1 cm-1 resolution. High-resolution (0.1 cm-1), room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbons were made at low pressure (˜1 Torr, 133 Pa) and compared to measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure to verify that no pressure broadening could be observed over this pressure range. The temperature was varied between 25 and 500 °C for atmospheric-pressure measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures (Xhydrocarbon˜0.06 1.5%) and it was found that the absorption cross section shows simple temperature-dependent behavior for a fixed wavelength over this temperature range. Comparisons with previous FTIR data over a limited temperature range and with high-resolution laser absorption data over a wide temperature range show good agreement.

  7. Absorption spectra of deuterated water at DF laser wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Bruce, C W; Jelinek, A V

    1982-11-15

    Absorption coefficients for deuterated water have been measured at twenty-two deuterium fluoride (DF) laser wavelengths and presented for atmospheric conditions classified as midlatitude-summer (14.3 T water vapor, standard temperature, and pressure). The HDO vapor was produced from a liquid mixture of H(2)O and D(2)O. The proportions of the resulting equilibrium mixture involving these constituents and HDO were calculated using previously measured constants and produced strong HDO absorption at the 3.5-4.1-microm DF laser wavelengths relative to those of the H(2)O and D(2)O vapors. Predicted and measured pressure dependencies at constant mixing ratios are compared for several laser wavelengths having strong HDO absorption. Absorption coefficients are in fairly close agreement with those of the current Air Force Geophysical Laboratory line-by-line model for standard temperature and pressure conditions. At lower total pressures, the comparison is less satisfactory and suggests inaccurate line parameters in the predictive data base.

  8. The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with some β-diketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, H.I.

    1956-01-01

    The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with four β-dike tones were determined under various conditions of pH, concentration of uranium, and alcohol concentration. Under optimum conditions, the maximum molar absorptivity (31,200) is obtained using 2-furoyltrifluoroacetone. This compares with about 4,000 and 19,000 for the thiocyanate and dibenzoylmethane complexes, respectively.

  9. Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectra of Carbon White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Strong ultraviolet carbon lines were detected in additional white DC (continuous visual spectra) dwarfs using the IUE. These lines are not seen in the ultraviolet spectrum of the cool DC star Stein 2051 B. The bright DA white dwarf LB 3303 has a strong unidentified absorption near lambda 1400.

  10. On the nitrogen-induced far-infrared absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dore, P.; Filabozzi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The rototranslational absorption spectrum of gaseous N2 is analyzed, considering quadrupolar and hexadecapolar induction mechanisms. The available experimental data are accounted for by using a line-shape analysis in which empirical profiles describe the single-line translational profiles. Thus, a simple procedure is derived that allows the prediction of the N2 spectrum at any temperature. On the basis of the results obtained for the pure gas, a procedure to compute the far-infrared spectrum of the N2-Ar gaseous mixture is also proposed. The good agreement between computed and experimental N2-Ar data indicates that it is possible to predict the far-infrared absorption induced by N2 on the isotropic polarizability of any interacting partner.

  11. Effect of ladder diagrams on optical absorption spectra in a quasiparticle self-consistent GW framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.

  12. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

    1989-11-10

    Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  13. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption features having depths up to 5 percent are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  14. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2014-06-24

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan's atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88-5 μm at a resolution of 12-18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan’s atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88–5 μm at a resolution of 12–18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan’s haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1–10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. PMID:24876272

  16. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le; ...

    2017-09-13

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  17. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  18. Excitation of photosystem I by 760 nm femtosecond laser pulses: transient absorption spectra and intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Shelaev, Ivan V.; Gostev, Fedor E.; Mamedov, Mahir D.; Petrova, Anastasia A.; Aybush, Arseniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Semenov, Alexey Yu; Nadtochenko, Victor A.

    2017-09-01

    Excitation of photosystem I (PS I) by a femtosecond 760 nm pump leads to one- and two-photon absorption. The one-photon excitation produces intermediates with transient absorption spectra similar to the spectra of the primary [{{{P}}700}+{{{A}}0}-{{A}}1] and secondary [{{{P}}700}+{{A}}0{{{A}}1}-] ion-radical pairs in the PS I reaction center. The two-photon absorption generates the upper level excited states of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid molecules in the antenna. These excited states are converted into the long-lived intermediates and can be tentatively attributed to the excited and charge-transfer ion-radical states of Chl molecules and to the excited states of carotenoids in the antenna. The transient spectra of intermediates generated by two-photon excitation differ from the transient one-photon spectra of the primary and secondary ion-radical pairs.

  19. Electronic absorption spectra of hydrogenated protonated naphthalene and proflavine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaca, A.; Bilalbegović, G.

    2011-09-01

    We study hydrogenated cations of two polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules as models of hydrogenated organic species that form in the interstellar medium. Optical spectra of the hydrogenated naphthalene cation Hn-C10H+8 for n= 1, 2 and 10, as well as the astrobiologically interesting hydrogenated proflavine cation Hn-C13H11N+3 for n= 1 and 14, are calculated. The pseudopotential time-dependent density functional theory is used. It is found that the fully hydrogenated proflavine cation H14-C13H11N+3 shows a broad spectrum in which the positions of individual lines are almost lost. The positions, shapes and intensities of lines change in hydronaphthalene and hydroproflavine cations, showing that hydrogen additions induce substantially different optical spectra in comparison with base polycyclic hydrocarbon cations. One calculated line in the visible spectrum of H10-C10H+8 and one in the visible spectrum of H-C13H11N+3 are close to the measured diffuse interstellar bands. We also present the positions of near-ultraviolet lines.

  20. A Statistical Study of the Southern Fermi Bubble in UV Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Md. Tanveer; Fox, Andrew; Jenkins, Edward; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Wakker, Bart; Savage, Blair D.; Lockman, Felix; Crawford, Steve; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2018-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles are two giant lobes of plasma situated at the center of the Milky Way, extending 55° above and below the Galactic Midplane. Although the Bubbles have been widely studied in multiple wavelengths, few studies have been done in UV absorption. Here we present a statistical study of the Southern Fermi Bubble using 17 QSO sightlines — 6 inside the Bubble, 11 outside — using UV absorption spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS). We searched for high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in 11 metal lines from ions of Aluminium, Carbon and Silicon. We detected HVCs in 83% of the sightlines inside the Bubble and 64% outside the Bubble, showing an enhancement in the covering fraction of HVCs in the Southern Bubble region. We also observed a decrease in vLSR of the HVCs as a function of the galactic latitude, consistent with a scenario where the identified HVCs trace the Galactic nuclear outflow, as sightlines closer to the central engine are expected to show a higher velocity. Combined with previous studies, our analysis indicates that the Southern Fermi Bubble is a dynamic environment giving rise to complex absorption features.

  1. The origin of absorptive features in the two-dimensional electronic spectra of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Farag, Marwa H; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper

    2018-05-09

    In rhodopsin, the absorption of a photon causes the isomerization of the 11-cis isomer of the retinal chromophore to its all-trans isomer. This isomerization is known to occur through a conical intersection (CI) and the internal conversion through the CI is known to be vibrationally coherent. Recently measured two-dimensional electronic spectra (2DES) showed dramatic absorptive spectral features at early waiting times associated with the transition through the CI. The common two-state two-mode model Hamiltonian was unable to elucidate the origin of these features. To rationalize the source of these features, we employ a three-state three-mode model Hamiltonian where the hydrogen out-of plane (HOOP) mode and a higher-lying electronic state are included. The 2DES of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin are calculated and compared with the experiment. Our analysis shows that the source of the observed features in the measured 2DES is the excited state absorption to a higher-lying electronic state and not the HOOP mode.

  2. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    (sigma)), for solar abundances, for these systems, and can set a weak limit on the size of the absorber. In the emitted frame these PSPC spectra cover the band approximately 0.5-10 keV, which has been well observed for low-redshift quasars and AGN. Comparison of high and low-redshift spectra in this emitted band shows no change of mean spectral index greater than Delta alpha(sub E) greater than 0.3 (99% confidence) with either redshift or luminosity, for radio-loud quasars.

  3. Single crystal absorption spectra of synthetic Ti, Fe-substituted pyropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, V. M.; Langer, K.; Andrut, M.; Koch-Müller, M.; Vishnevsky, A. A.

    1994-11-01

    Synthetic pyrope crystals up to 0.5 mm in diameter, substituted by titanium or by titanium plus iron, were grown under defined conditions of P, T, f_{O_2 } in the presence of water using a piston-cylinder device. The crystals were characterized by X-ray and microprobe techniques. Their single-crystal optical absorption spectra were measured by means of a microscope-spectrometer. Two absorption bands at 16100 and 22300 cm{cm-1} in the spectra of pale-blue Fe-free Ti-bearing pyropes, grown under reduced conditions, were identified as originating from spin-allowed transitions, derived from 2 T 2g → 2 E g of octahedral Ti3+ ions. The splitting value of the excited 2E g state, 6200 cm-1, and the crystal field parameter of Ti3+ in pyrope Δ 0 = 19 200 cm-1 are both in agreement with literature data. In spectra of brown Fe, Ti-bearing garnets, a broad band at 23000 cm-1 was interpreted as a Fe2+[8] → Ti4+[6] charge-transfer band. The spectral position and width of this band agree with those observed for a FeTi charge transfer band in natural garnets. Fe, Ti-containing garnets synthesized at relatively high oxygen fugacity (10-11,0 atm), which permits a fraction of Fe3+ to enter the garnet, show an additional Fe2+[8] → Fe3+[6] charge transfer band at 19800 cm-1.

  4. Observations of Absorption Lines from Highly Ionized Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1984-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. fewX 0.001/cucm) existing at coronal temperatures, 5.3 or = log T or = 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity 9v or = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic uv radiation from very hot, dward stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  5. Low-Resolution Near-infrared Stellar Spectra Observed by the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Arai, Toshiaki; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Seong Jin; Korngut, Phillip; Lanz, Alicia; Lee, Dae Hee; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Nam, Uk Won; Onishi, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Smidt, Joseph; Tsumura, Kohji; Yamamura, Issei; Zemcov, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We present near-infrared (0.8-1.8 μm) spectra of 105 bright ({m}J < 10) stars observed with the low-resolution spectrometer on the rocket-borne Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment. As our observations are performed above the Earth's atmosphere, our spectra are free from telluric contamination, which makes them a unique resource for near-infrared spectral calibration. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey photometry information is used to identify cross-matched stars after reduction and extraction of the spectra. We identify the spectral types of the observed stars by comparing them with spectral templates from the Infrared Telescope Facility library. All the observed spectra are consistent with late F to M stellar spectral types, and we identify various infrared absorption lines.

  6. Comparison of absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresunko, O. P.; Zelinska, N. V.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  7. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films by Resonant Photothermal Bending Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, Toshie; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Hori, Yasuro; Nonomura, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    A resonant photothermal bending spectroscopy (PBS) is demonstrated for the measurement of absorption coefficient spectra in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (μc-3C-SiC:H) films. The resonant vibration technique utilized in PBS establishes the sensitivity as α d˜ 5× 10-5 in a vacuum measurement. Appling resonant PBS to μc-Si:H films, a new extra absorption coefficient αex spectrum is observed from 0.6 to 1.2 eV. The αex spectrum has a peak at ˜1.0 eV, and the localized states inducing the αex are located ˜0.35 eV below the conduction band edge of μc-Si:H. A possible explanation for the observed localized state is that an oxidation produces weak bonds at the grain boundaries and/or amorphous silicon tissues. In μc-3C-SiC:H film, an optical band-gap energy of ˜2.2 eV was demonstrated assuming an indirect optical transition. The temperature coefficient of the optical band-gap energy was ˜2.3× 10-4 eV K-1. The αex spectrum of μc-3C-SiC:H film is plateau-shaped and its magnitude is in accord with an increase in grain size.

  8. Theoretical studies on absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra of Coumarin 343 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenpeng; Cao, Zexing; Zhao, Yi

    2012-03-01

    The vibrationally resolved spectral method and quantum chemical calculations are employed to reveal the structural and spectral properties of Coumarin 343 (C343), an ideal candidate for organic dye photosensitizers, in vacuum and solution. The results manifest that the ground-state energies are dominantly determined by different placements of hydrogen atom in carboxylic group of C343 conformations. Compared to those in vacuum, the electronic absorption spectra in methanol solvent show a hyperchromic property together with the redshift and blueshift for the neutral C343 isomers and their deprotonated anions, respectively. From the absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra, it is found that the maximal absorption and emission come from low-frequency modes whereas the high-frequency modes have high Raman activities. The detailed spectra are further analyzed for the identification of the conformers and understanding the potential charge transfer mechanism in their photovoltaic applications.

  9. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  10. Interatomic potentials for Cd, Zn, and Hg from absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Liao, Pok-Kai; Huang, Yu; Liou, Shian-Shyang; Brebrick, R. F.

    1984-07-01

    The absorption coefficient has been measured over a 65 nm range in the red wing of the 213.8 nm line for Zn vapor at 1000 °C. It has also been measured in the blue wing and over a 60 nm range in the red wing of the 228.7 nm line for Cd vapor at five temperatures between 642 and 955 °C and over a 75 nm range in the red wing of the 253.7 nm line for Hg vapor at five temperatures between 460 and 860 °C. These data are analyzed in terms of the statistical theory of broadening. Oscillator strengths of 1.42±0.01 and 1.61±0.06 are obtained for, respectively, the Cd line and the Zn line. Pair potentials for both the ground and lowest excited state are also obtained in all three cases. For Cd this is done assuming no functional form and then assuming Lennard-Jones potentials. Both methods agree and give a ground state minimum of -47.5 meV at 0.482 nm separation and an excited state minimum of -1.06 eV at 0.410 nm. A functional form is required for the less extensive Zn data and the Lennard-Jones form leads to a range of possibilities including ground and excited state minima of -56 meV at 0.400 nm and -1.30 eV at 0.330 nm, respectively, which are in fair agreement with the theoretical calculations. For Hg the experiments indicate a single excited state and a ground state with a minimum of -55 meV. Assuming no functional form for the pair potentials, taking the excited state as doubly degenerate, and assuming the transition probability from the ground to excited state is one-sixth of the free atom value gives points along the ground and excited state potentials that join smoothly with other experimental results and agree well with the calculation of Baylis for the ground state.

  11. Rich magneto-absorption spectra of AAB-stacked trilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi-Nga; Shih, Po-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Peng; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2016-06-29

    A generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the feature-rich magneto-optical properties of AAB-stacked trilayer graphene. Three intragroup and six intergroup inter-Landau-level (inter-LL) optical excitations largely enrich magneto-absorption peaks. In general, the former are much higher than the latter, depending on the phases and amplitudes of LL wavefunctions. The absorption spectra exhibit single- or twin-peak structures which are determined by quantum modes, LL energy spectra and Fermion distribution. The splitting LLs, with different localization centers (2/6 and 4/6 positions in a unit cell), can generate very distinct absorption spectra. There exist extra single peaks because of LL anti-crossings. AAB, AAA, ABA, and ABC stackings considerably differ from one another in terms of the inter-LL category, frequency, intensity, and structure of absorption peaks. The main characteristics of LL wavefunctions and energy spectra and the Fermi-Dirac function are responsible for the configuration-enriched magneto-optical spectra.

  12. A Novel Acoustic Sensor Approach to Classify Seeds Based on Sound Absorption Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Gasso-Tortajada, Vicent; Ward, Alastair J.; Mansur, Hasib; Brøchner, Torben; Sørensen, Claus G.; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A non-destructive and novel in situ acoustic sensor approach based on the sound absorption spectra was developed for identifying and classifying different seed types. The absorption coefficient spectra were determined by using the impedance tube measurement method. Subsequently, a multivariate statistical analysis, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), was performed as a way to generate a classification of the seeds based on the soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) method. The results show that the sound absorption coefficient spectra of different seed types present characteristic patterns which are highly dependent on seed size and shape. In general, seed particle size and sphericity were inversely related with the absorption coefficient. PCA presented reliable grouping capabilities within the diverse seed types, since the 95% of the total spectral variance was described by the first two principal components. Furthermore, the SIMCA classification model based on the absorption spectra achieved optimal results as 100% of the evaluation samples were correctly classified. This study contains the initial structuring of an innovative method that will present new possibilities in agriculture and industry for classifying and determining physical properties of seeds and other materials. PMID:22163455

  13. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  14. Theoretical infrared and electronic absorption spectra of C16H10 isomers, their ions and doubly ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathappa, Mahadevappa; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2012-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or PAH-related molecules are considered to be responsible for the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.2 μm. However, the exact identification of PAH or PAH-related molecules is difficult. There have been several investigations on the spectroscopic characterization of PAH molecules. But none of them compared the spectra of isomers of PAHs, which might have help in the identification of the UIR emission features. This work presents the infrared and electronic absorption spectra of isomers of C16H10. The aim of the present work is to compare infrared and electronic absorption spectra of four isomers of C16H10 PAH viz. pyrene, aceanthrylene, acephenanthrylene and fluoranthene, their ions and doubly ions. We also compare the spectra of pyrene in the gas-phase and in H2O ice. We have used the density functional theory with B3LYP exchange and correlation functional and 6-311++g** basis set to study the infrared spectra. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to obtain the electronic absorption spectra. Significant difference in the CC stretching, CH in-plane bending and CH out-of-plane bending vibration modes is observed for the isomers of C16H10 whereas there is no large difference in the CH stretching vibration band. A significant change in the vibrational band is observed for pyrene in H2O ice compared to gas-phase pyrene. Though isomers of C16H10 PAH have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, their spectroscopic characteristics are different. This study should help in identifying the isomers of C16H10, their ions and doubly cation in the interstellar medium.

  15. Automated generation and ensemble-learned matching of X-ray absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chen; Mathew, Kiran; Chen, Chi; Chen, Yiming; Tang, Hanmei; Dozier, Alan; Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2018-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used materials characterization technique to determine oxidation states, coordination environment, and other local atomic structure information. Analysis of XAS relies on comparison of measured spectra to reliable reference spectra. However, existing databases of XAS spectra are highly limited both in terms of the number of reference spectra available as well as the breadth of chemistry coverage. In this work, we report the development of XASdb, a large database of computed reference XAS, and an Ensemble-Learned Spectra IdEntification (ELSIE) algorithm for the matching of spectra. XASdb currently hosts more than 800,000 K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) for over 40,000 materials from the open-science Materials Project database. We discuss a high-throughput automation framework for FEFF calculations, built on robust, rigorously benchmarked parameters. FEFF is a computer program uses a real-space Green's function approach to calculate X-ray absorption spectra. We will demonstrate that the ELSIE algorithm, which combines 33 weak "learners" comprising a set of preprocessing steps and a similarity metric, can achieve up to 84.2% accuracy in identifying the correct oxidation state and coordination environment of a test set of 19 K-edge XANES spectra encompassing a diverse range of chemistries and crystal structures. The XASdb with the ELSIE algorithm has been integrated into a web application in the Materials Project, providing an important new public resource for the analysis of XAS to all materials researchers. Finally, the ELSIE algorithm itself has been made available as part of veidt, an open source machine-learning library for materials science.

  16. DFT study of the effect of substituents on the absorption and emission spectra of Indigo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Theoretical analyses of the indigo dye molecule and its derivatives with Chlorine (Cl), Sulfur (S), Selenium (Se) and Bromine (Br) substituents, as well as an analysis of the Hemi-Indigo molecule, were performed using the Gaussian 03 software package. Results Calculations were performed based on the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with the Becke 3- parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31 G(d,p) basis set was employed. The configuration interaction singles (CIS) method with the same basis set was employed for the analysis of excited states and for the acquisition of the emission spectra. Conclusions The presented absorption and emission spectra were affected by the substitution position. When a hydrogen atom of the molecule was substituted by Cl or Br, practically no change in the absorbed and emitted energies relative to those of the indigo molecule were observed; however, when N was substituted by S or Se, the absorbed and emitted energies increased. PMID:22809100

  17. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Amorphous Ices from GW Quasiparticle Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We use a GW approach[2] to compute the x-ray absorption spectra of model low- and high-density amorphous ice structures(LDA and HDA)[3]. We include the structural effects of quantum zero point motion using colored-noise Langevin molecular dynamics[4]. The calculated spectra differences in the main and post edge region between LDA and HDA agree well with experimental observations. We attribute these differences to the presence of interstitial molecules within the first coordination shell range in HDA. This assignment is further supported by a calculation of the spectrum of ice VIII, a high-pressure structure that maximizes the number of interstitial molecules and, accordingly, shows a much weaker post-edge feature. We further rationalize the spectral similarity between HDA and liquid water, and between LDA and ice Ih in terms of the respective similarities in the H-bond network topology and bond angle distributions. Supported by grants DOE-DE-SC0005180, DOE DE-SC0008626 and NSF-CHE-0956500.

  18. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphus carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resmbles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered flimy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  19. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  20. On the Matter Probed by Quasar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroux, Celine

    2010-10-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) constitutes a reservoir of baryons from which galaxies form and is, in turn, affected by the processes of galaxy formation. These latter processes are responsible for the reionisation of most of the hydrogen content of the intergalactic medium and later on, for the reionisation of helium with a contribution from quasars. Galactic winds due to massive stars and supernovae pollute the IGM with metals. The mechanical energy released by the collisional excitation due to galaxy and structure formation heats the medium into the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Most of the baryons are probably in this hotter phase, since only a small fraction has been observed in galaxies and the ionised medium so far. In turn, these modifications of the IGM state impact the star formation history by providing a mechanism for global cold gas accretion. Therefore the interactions between galaxies and the intergalactic medium play a major role in the cosmological evolution of structures and the history of baryons, which cannot be solely traced by the starlight from galaxies (representing only 10% of the baryons).

  1. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: a theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-14

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds: Observations Versus Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Minnis, P.; Corsetti, L.; Dutton, E. G.; Forgan, B. W.; Garber, D. P.; Gates, W. L.; Hack, J. J.; Harrison, E. F.; hide

    1995-01-01

    There has been a long history of unexplained anomalous absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Collocated satellite and surface measurements of solar radiation at five geographically diverse locations showed significant solar absorption by clouds, resulting in about 25 watts per square meter more global-mean absorption by the cloudy atmosphere than predicted by theoretical models. It has often been suggested that tropospheric aerosols could increase cloud absorption. But these aerosols are temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas the observed cloud absorption is remarkably invariant with respect to season and location. Although its physical cause is unknown, enhanced cloud absorption substantially alters our understanding of the atmosphere's energy budget.

  3. The Copernicus observations - Interstellar or circumstellar material. [UV spectra of early stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the sharp absorption lines observed in the ultraviolet spectra of early-type stars by the Copernicus satellite may be entirely accounted for by the circumstellar material in the H II regions and associated transition zones around the observed stars. If this interpretation is correct, the Copernicus results yield little information on the state of any interstellar (as opposed to circumstellar) gas and, in particular, shed little light on the degree of element depletion in interstellar space.

  4. In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, Collin S.; Pery, Mary Jane

    1995-01-01

    An inverse model was developed to extract the absortion and scattering (elastic and inelastic) properties of oceanic constituents from surface spectral reflectance measurements. In particular, phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients, solar-stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence spectra, and particle backscattering spectra were modeled. The model was tested on 35 reflectance spectra obtained from irradiance measurements in optically diverse ocean waters (0.07 to 25.35 mg/cu m range in surface chlorophyll a concentrations). The universality of the model was demonstrated by the accurate estimation of the spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficents over a range of 3 orders of magnitude (rho = 0.94 at 500 nm). Under most oceanic conditions (chlorophyll a less than 3 mg/cu m) the percent difference between measured and modeled phytoplankton absorption coefficents was less than 35%. Spectral variations in measured phytoplankton absorption spectra were well predicted by the inverse model. Modeled volume fluorescence was weakly correlated with measured chl a; fluorescence quantum yield varied from 0.008 to 0.09 as a function of environment and incident irradiance. Modeled particle backscattering coefficients were linearly related to total particle cross section over a twentyfold range in backscattering coefficents (rho = 0.996, n = 12).

  5. Multi-Photon Absorption Spectra: A Comparison Between Transmittance Change and Fluorescence Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0134 multi-photon absorption spectra Cleber Mendonca INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 05/21/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos - Universidade de Sao Paulo Av

  6. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  7. First Principles Optical Absorption Spectra of Organic Molecules Adsorbed on Titania Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baishya, Kopinjol; Ogut, Serdar; Mete, Ersen; Gulseren, Oguz; Ellialtioglu, Sinasi

    2012-02-01

    We present results from first principles computations on passivated rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in both free-standing and dye-sensitized configurations to investigate the size dependence of their optical absorption spectra. The computations are performed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) as well as GW-Bethe-Salpeter-Equation (GWBSE) methods and compared with each other. We interpret the first principles spectra for free-standing TiO2 nanoparticles within the framework of the classical Mie-Gans theory using the bulk dielectric function of TiO2. We investigate the effects of the titania support on the absorption spectra of a particular set of perylene-diimide (PDI) derived dye molecules, namely brominated PDI (Br2C24H8N2O4) and its glycine and aspartine derivatives.

  8. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  9. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C.; Koch, J. D.; Davidson, D. F.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Spectrally resolved UV absorption cross-sections between 190 and 320 nm were measured in shock-heated CO 2 between 880 and 3050 K and H 2O between 1230 and 2860 K. Absorption spectra were acquired with 10 μs time resolution using a unique kinetic spectrograph, thereby enabling comparisons with time-dependent chemical kinetic modeling of post-shock thermal decomposition and chemical reactions. Although room temperature CO 2 is transparent (σ<10 -22 cm2) at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, hot CO 2 has significant absorption (σ>10 -20 cm2) extending to wavelengths longer than 300 nm. The temperature dependence of CO 2 absorption strongly suggests sharply increased transition probabilities from excited vibrational levels.

  10. Simulations of absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers: role of planar conformation and aggregation in condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Wen, Jin; Zheng, Dong; Ma, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This Review highlights the structure/property relationship underlying the morphology modulation through various factors towards the exploration of light-absorbing materials for efficient utilisation of solar power. Theoretical study using a combination of molecular dynamics imulations and the time-dependent density functional theory demonstrated that the planarity plays an important role in tuning spectral properties of oligomer aggregates. The aggregation-induced blue-shift in absorption spectra of oligothiophenes and the red-shift for oligofluorenols were rationalised in a unified way from the reduced (and increased) content of planar conformations in molecular aggregates. The planarity versus non-planarity of oligomers can be modulated by introduction of alkyl side chain or steric bulky substituents. The substitution with various groups in the ortho-position of azobenzene leads to the distorted backbone, breaking symmetry, and hence the red-shift in spectra, expanding the application in biological systems with visible light absorption. The donor-acceptor substituent groups in conjugated oligomers can increase the degree of planarity, electron delocalisation and polarisation, and charge separation, giving rise to the red-shift in spectra and enhancement in polarisability and charge mobility for device applications. The solvent dependent and pH-sensitive properties and intramolecular hydrogen bonds also caused the shift of absorption spectra with the appearance of planar conformers.

  11. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUVmore » radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.« less

  12. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  13. Universal formulation of excitonic linear absorption spectra in all semiconductor microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Christol, Philippe; Mathieu, Henry

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the well-known exciton absorption calculations of Elliott [Phys. Rev. 108, 1384 (1957)], in the 3-dimensional case, and of Shinada and Sugano [J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 1936 (1966)], for 2-dimensional media: We calculate the optical absorption spectra of bound and unbound exciton states, by using a metric space with a noninteger dimension α (1 < α), obtaining almost exactly the same theoretical lineshapes as those resulting from accurate but costly numerical approaches [Chuang et al. Phys. Rev. B, 43, 1500 (1991); Benner and Haug, Phys. Rev. B 47, 15750 (1993)].

  14. Quantification of optical absorption coefficient from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime using photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Multi-wavelength PAT can noninvasively monitor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. However, accurate quantification in PAT requires knowledge of the optical fluence distribution, acoustic wave attenuation, and detection system bandwidth. We propose a method to circumvent this requirement using acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at two optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560 and 575 nm were quantified with errors of ><5%.

  15. Chandra Observations of Associates of η Carinae. II. Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Schlegel, Eric M.; Waldron, Wayne L.; Seward, Frederick D.; Krauss, Miriam I.; Nichols, Joy; Wolk, Scott J.

    2004-09-01

    The low-resolution X-ray spectra around η Car covering Trumpler 16 and part of Trumpler 14 have been extracted from a Chandra CCD ACIS image. Various analysis techniques have been applied to the spectra based on their count rates. The spectra with the greatest number of counts (HD 93162 = WR 25, HD 93129 AB, and HD 93250) have been fitted with a wind model, which uses several components with different temperatures and depths in the wind. Weaker spectra have been fitted with Raymond-Smith models. The weakest spectra are simply intercompared with strong spectra. In general, fits produce reasonable parameters based on knowledge of the extinction from optical studies and on the range of temperatures for high- and low-mass stars. Direct comparisons of spectra confirm the consistency of the fitting results and also hardness ratios for cases of unusually large extinction in the clusters. The spectra of the low-mass stars are harder than the more massive stars. Stars in the sequence evolving from the main sequence (HD 93250) through the system containing the O supergiant (HD 93129 AB) and then through the Wolf-Rayet stage (HD 93162), presumably ending in the extreme example of η Car, share the property of being unusually luminous and hard in X-rays. For these X-ray-luminous stars, their high mass and evolutionary status (from the very last stages of the main sequence and beyond) is the common feature. Their binary status is mixed, and their magnetic status is still uncertain. Based on observations made with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

  16. Narrow absorption lines with two observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of the narrow C IV λ λ 1548,1551 and Mg II λ λ 2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Å in the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150-2643 d in the quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with zabs = 1.5188-3.5212 and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with zabs = 0.3948-1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (β) distribution in the quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with β < 0.06, which might be connected to absorption of quasar outflows. The outflow absorption peaks at υ ≈ 2000 km s^{-1} and drops rapidly below this peak value. Among 3580 C IV absorption systems, 52 systems (˜1.5 per cent) show obvious variations in equivalent widths in the absorber rest frame (Wr): 16 enhanced, 16 emerged, 12 weakened and 8 disappeared systems, respectively. We find that changes in Wrλ1548 are related neither to the time-scales of the two SDSS observations nor to absorber velocities in the quasar rest frame. Variable absorption in low-ionization species is important to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbing gas. There are two variable Mg II absorption systems measured from SDSS spectra detected by Hacker et al. However, in our Mg II absorption sample, we find that neither shows variable absorption with confident levels of >4σ for λ2796 lines and >3σ for λ2803 lines.

  17. A survey of local interstellar hydrogen from OAO-2 observations of Lyman alpha absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin far ultraviolet spectrometer aboard OAO-2 observed the wavelength region near 1216 A for 69 stars of spectral type B2 or earlier. From the strength of the observed interstellar L sub alpha absorption, atomic hydrogen column densities were derived over distances averaging 300 pc away from the sun. The OAO data were compared to synthetic ultraviolet spectra, originally derived from earlier higher resolution rocket observations, which were computer processed to simulate the effects of absorption by different amounts of hydrogen followed by the instrumental blending.

  18. Optical Absorption Spectra of Nuclear Filters Modified by Deposition of Silver Nano- and Microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyanskii, A. S.; Kozlova, N. V.; Zheltova, A. V.; Aksyutina, A. S.; Shvedov, A. S.; Lakeev, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    Light scattering and interference patterns are studied in the optical absorption spectra of nuclear filters based on polyethylene terephthalate fi lms modifi ed by dry aerosol deposition of silver nano- and microparticles. Surface plasmon polaritons and localized plasmons formed by the passage of light through porous silver films are found to have an effect on the diffraction and interference modes. The thickness of silver nano- and microparticle coatings on the surface of the nuclear fi lters was determined from the shift in the interference patterns in the optical absorption spectra of the modified nuclear filters relative to the original nuclear filters. A correlation was found between the estimated coating thickness and the average surface roughness of the nuclear filters modified by layers of silver nano- and microparticles.

  19. Study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Liosi, Giulia Maria

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters has been performed, in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 700 nm. The spectrum of Xylenol Orange (without ferrous sulphate solution) has been achieved, in order to subtract its contribution from the absorption spectra of the irradiated Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters. The absorbance due to ferric ions chelated by Xylenol Orange has been studied for various irradiation doses. Two absorbance peaks are visible, mainly at low doses: the first peak increases with the dose more slowly than the second one. This effect can explain themore » apparent threshold dose that was frequently evidenced. (authors)« less

  20. Characterization of radiation belt electron energy spectra from CRRES observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, W. R.; Lindstrom, C. D.; Ginet, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and the slot region exhibit a wide variety of energy spectral forms, more so than radiation belt protons. We characterize the spatial and temporal dependence of these forms using observations from the CRRES satellite Medium Electron Sensor A (MEA) and High-Energy Electron Fluxmeter (HEEF) instruments, together covering an energy range 0.15-8 MeV. Spectra were classified with two independent methods, data clustering and curve-fitting analyses, in each case defining categories represented by power law, exponential, and bump-on-tail (BOT) or other complex shapes. Both methods yielded similar results, with BOT, exponential, and power law spectra respectively dominating in the slot region, outer belt, and regions just beyond the outer belt. The transition from exponential to power law spectra occurs at higher L for lower magnetic latitude. The location of the transition from exponential to BOT spectra is highly correlated with the location of the plasmapause. In the slot region during the days following storm events, electron spectra were observed to evolve from exponential to BOT yielding differential flux minima at 350-650 keV and maxima at 1.5-2 MeV; such evolution has been attributed to energy-dependent losses from scattering by whistler hiss.

  1. Two-photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers measured over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ron K.; Liess, Martin; Benner, Robert E.; Gellermann, Werner; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi; Ding, Yi W.; Barton, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    We report the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of poly(2,5-dibutoxy-p-phenylene acetylene) (PPA-DBO), poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV-DOO), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) in the spectral range extending from 576 nm to 846 nm. Using the Z-scan technique on the polymers in solution, we measured a strong two-photon allowed transition in all three materials which we attribute to the mAg essential state. In the case of PPA-DBO and PPV-DOO, TPA peaks were coincident with dispersion in the nonlinear refractive indices as detected by reduced aperture Z scan. In all three polymers this peak occurs at approximately 1.3 the bandgap energy. The excitonic nature of the excited electronic states in PPA-DBO is indicated by the lack of a TPA band at or near the 1Bu exciton position. Saturation was observed in the nonlinear index of refraction near spectral peaks, as well as an apparent reverse Kramers- Kronig effect.

  2. Influence of polarity of solvents on IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenko, S. A.; Danyaeva, Y. S.; Maximova, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of numerical calculations of IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid in polar and nonpolar solutions are presented. The dependence of the change in the total energy and the dipole moment of the molecule on the characteristics of the solvents was investigated using the two solvation models. Spectral bands and the corresponding structural groups of the molecule are found, the characteristics of which are most vulnerable to solvents.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of displacement current and absorption spectra of Langmuir film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Kubota, Tohru; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    1995-07-01

    A Maxwell-displacement-current measuring system coupled with the system used for the measurement of absorption spectra of monolayers on a water surface has been developed. Using this system, the displacement current and the absorbance across monolayers of squarylium dye at the air/water surface were detected. It was found that the change in J aggregate in the monolayers with monolayer compression was detectable using the system.

  4. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods:Application to Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Fauvell, Thomas J.

    The theoretical description of the timeevolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to themore » excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further evelopments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.« less

  5. Determination of absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index from reflection and transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Bae; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-07-01

    It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of a nanofluid can be actively tuned by changing material, size, shape, and concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. In applications of engineered nanofluids for the direct absorption of solar radiation, it is important to experimentally characterize the absorption coefficient of nanofluids in the solar spectrum. If the refractive index of the base fluid (i.e., the solution without nanoparticles) is known a priori, the absorption coefficient of nanofluids can be easily determined from the transmission spectrum. However, if the refractive index of the base fluid is not known, it is not straightforward to extract the absorption coefficient solely from the transmission spectrum. The present work aims to develop an analytical method of determining the absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index by measuring both reflection and transmission spectra. The proposed method will be validated with deionized water, and the effect of measurement uncertainty will be carefully examined. Finally, the general applicability of the proposed method will also be demonstrated for Therminol VP-1 as well as the Therminol VP-1 - graphite nanofluid.

  6. Partitioning Ocean Wave Spectra Obtained from Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, Lauriane; Vergely, Jean-Luc; Hauser, Daniele; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Tison, Celine

    2016-08-01

    2D wave spectra of ocean waves can be partitioned into several wave components to better characterize the scene. We present here two methods of component detection: one based on watershed algorithm and the other based on a Bayesian approach. We tested both methods on a set of simulated SWIM data, the Ku-band real aperture radar embarked on the CFOSAT (China- France Oceanography Satellite) mission which launch is planned mid-2018. We present the results and the limits of both approaches and show that Bayesian method can also be applied to other kind of wave spectra observations as those obtained with the radar KuROS, an airborne radar wave spectrometer.

  7. Photoluminescence and gain/absorption spectra of a driven-dissipative electron-hole-photon condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanai, Ryo; Littlewood, Peter B.; Ohashi, Yoji

    2018-06-01

    We investigate theoretically nonequilibrium effects on photoluminescence and gain/absorption spectra of a driven-dissipative exciton-polariton condensate, by employing the combined Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with the generalized random phase approximation extended to the Keldysh formalism. Our calculated photoluminescence spectra is in semiquantitative agreement with experiments, where features such as a blue shift of the emission from the condensate, the appearance of the dispersionless feature of a diffusive Goldstone mode, and the suppression of the dispersive profile of the mode are obtained. We show that the nonequilibrium nature of the exciton-polariton condensate strongly suppresses the visibility of the Bogoliubov dispersion in the negative energy branch (ghost branch) in photoluminescence spectra. We also show that the trace of this branch can be captured as a hole burning effect in gain/absorption spectra. Our results indicate that the nonequilibrium nature of the exciton-polariton condensate strongly reduces quantum depletion, while a scattering channel to the ghost branch is still present.

  8. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Aquatic Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.

  9. Numerical indicators of absorption spectra of green leaf extract obtained from plants of different life forms.

    PubMed

    Koldaev, Vladimir M; Manyakhin, Artem Yu

    2018-06-05

    The study was carried out using 58 species of terrestrial plants of different life forms at the start of their fruiting stage. Photoreceptive systems of the leaves were assessed by means of unconventional numerical indicators of absorption spectra, relative photoabsorption coefficient, photosynthetic pigments' integral absorption intensity and relative absorption intensity coefficient. As the study showed, the leaves of all trees and light-demanding grasses favoring open spaces, which were subjected to the study were featured by the lowest values of numerical indicators of absorption spectra (NIAS). Shade-demanding grasses, which grow beneath the canopy, by contrast, were featured by the highest NIAS values. These values of the shrub leaves were in between those of light-demanding plants and shade-demanding ones. The results obtained are consistent with modern visions concerning the biochemistry and the physiology of plants' photoreceptive system. It is appropriate to apply the NIAS, which were used in this study and reflect a leaf's photoreceptive properties, as spectrophotometric criteria for monitoring and environmental management of natural plant resources and agricultural plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  11. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed. PMID:22734767

  12. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  13. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  14. VUV Spectra observed in C-2 FRC plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osin, Dmitry; Douglass, Jon; Tuszewski, Michel; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    A grazing incidence flat-field spectrometer was installed for observation of vuv-spectra in C-2 FRC experiment. Wavelength calibration was done by observing spectra of six different gases produced by a hollow-cathode discharge lamp . In addition, in-situ calibration and alignment were performed utilizing neutral-beam heated gases. Wavelength regions between 16 nm and 170 nm was investigated with accuracy of about 0.02 nm. VUV-spectral lines of the most abundant impurity ions were identified both for Plasma Gun and C-2 plasmas. In addition to D spectrum, strong lines of O III-VI, N IV-V, C II-III, and Fe II ions were observed during the plasma lifetime. VUV radiative power losses within energy range from 7.3 eV to 81 eV were estimated based on the calculated FRC dimensions.

  15. Narrow C IV absorption doublets on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Luwenjia; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our work of Papers I and II, which are assigned to systematically survey C IV λλ1548,1551 narrow absorption lines (NALs) with zabs ≪ zem on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to collect C IV NALs with zabs ≈ zem from blue to red wings of C IV λ1549 emission lines. Together with Papers I and II, we have collected a total number of 41 479 C IV NALs with 1.4544 ≤ zabs ≤ 4.9224 in surveyed spectral region redward of Lyα until red wing of C IV λ1549 emission line. We find that the stronger C IV NALs tend to be the more saturated absorptions, and associated systems (zabs ≈ zem) seem to have larger absorption strengths when compared to intervening ones (zabs ≪ zem). The redshift density evolution behaviour of absorbers (the number of absorbers per redshift path) is similar to the history of the cosmic star formation. When compared to the quasar-frame velocity (β) distribution of Mg II absorbers, the β distribution of C IV absorbers is broader at β ≈ 0, shows longer extended tail, and exhibits a larger dispersion for environmental absorptions. In addition, for associated C IV absorbers, we find that low-luminosity quasars seem to exhibit smaller β and stronger absorptions when compared to high-luminosity quasars.

  16. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  17. Kα X-Ray Emission Spectra and K X-Ray Absorption-Edge Structures of Fluorine in 3d Transition-Metal Difluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Chikara

    1991-08-01

    The fluorine Kα emission spectra in fluorescence from a series of 3d transition-metal difluorides MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) have been measured with a high-resolution two-crystal vacuum spectrometer. It is shown that the observed FWHM of the Kα1,2 emission band is closely related to the difference in the electronegativity between the metal and fluorine atoms. The measured emission spectra are presented along with the UPS or XPS spectra of the valence bands and the fluorine K absorption spectra of the metal difluorides, reported previously. The structures at the fluorine K absorption edges are interpreted in terms of a molecular orbital (MO) model.

  18. Retrieval of phytoplankton cell size from chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Wang, Guifen; Li, Cai; Xu, Zhantang; Cao, Wenxi; Shen, Fang

    2017-10-20

    Phytoplankton cell size is an important property that affects diverse ecological and biogeochemical processes, and analysis of the absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton can provide important information about phytoplankton size. In this study, an inversion method for extracting quantitative phytoplankton cell size data from these spectra was developed. This inversion method requires two inputs: chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton. The average equivalent-volume spherical diameter (ESD v ) was calculated as the single size approximation for the log-normal particle size distribution (PSD) of the algal suspension. The performance of this method for retrieving cell size was assessed using the datasets from cultures of 12 phytoplankton species. The estimations of a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton population using ESD v had mean error values of 5.8%-6.9% and 7.0%-10.6%, respectively, compared to the a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton populations using the log-normal PSD. The estimated values of C i ESD v were in good agreement with the measurements, with r 2 =0.88 and relative root mean square error (NRMSE)=25.3%, and relatively good performances were also found for the retrieval of ESD v with r 2 =0.78 and NRMSE=23.9%.

  19. Near-edge X-ray absorption spectra for metallic Cu and Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, G. N.; Durham, P. J.; Diakun, G.; Quinn, P.

    1981-11-01

    The measurement of X-ray absorption fine structure of metals- both in the extended region (EXAFS) as well as in the near edge region (XANES)-has been widely discussed (see refs 1-6 for Cu and refs 7-9 for Mn). The recent availability of intense X-ray fluxes from storage rings has usually been exploited for EXAFS leaving the XANES often with poorer resolution than earlier work performed on conventional sources (for example, compare the near edge structure for copper in ref. 1 with refs 3 or 6). In addition, whilst the theory and analysis of EXAFS is relatively well-established2,10, a theory for the strong scattering regime near to the absorption edge has only recently been developed11. We report here the first high resolution XANES spectra for Cu and Mn which were performed at the SRS storage ring at Daresbury. Although both metals have close-packed structures consisting of atoms of similar size their local atomic structure is different in detail. Significant differences are found in their respective XANES reflecting the senstivity of this region of the X-ray absorption fine structure to the local atomic structure. Spectra for the two metals have been analysed using the new multiple scattering formalism. This is a real space calculation and unlike a conventional band structure approach it does not require structural periodicity but works from the local arrangement of atoms.

  20. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dependence of the electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride on the conditions of dilution and storage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride ICl are studied. The spectra of as-prepared solutions display the absorption band associated with hydrated ICl molecules. An additional band indicating that molecular iodine was formed in the solution emerges in the spectrum as dissolution takes place. Only the band belonging to iodine monochloride remains in the absorption spectra, and no additional bands appear after chloride anions Cl- are added to the solution. The absorption spectrum becomes more complex when ICl is dissolved in an alkaline medium. The band belonging to molecular iodine emerges in the spectra at low alkali concentrations, while being transformed to other shorter-wavelength bands at high alkali concentrations (pH ≥ 12).

  2. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadeningmore » of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.« less

  3. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis complementing experimental observationsmore » provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  4. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  5. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina; ...

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis complementing experimental observationsmore » provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  6. X-ray absorption spectra: Graphene, h-BN, and their alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Somnath; Rusz, Jan; Eriksson, Olle

    2013-04-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, in conjunction with the Mahan-Nozières-de Dominicis theory, we calculate the x-ray absorption spectra of the alloys of graphene and monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on a Ni (111) substrate. The chemical neighborhood of the constituent atoms (B, C, and N) inside the alloy differs from that of the parent phases. In a systematic way, we capture the change in the K-edge spectral shape, depending on the chemical neighborhood of B, C, and N. Our work also reiterates the importance of the dynamical core-hole screening for a proper description of the x-ray absorption process in sp2-bonded layered materials.

  7. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption spectra of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, S. S.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of InP/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots have been studied in a broad temperature range of T = 6.5-296 K. Using the second-order derivative spectrophotometry technique, the energies of optical transitions at room temperature were found to be E 1 = 2.60 ± 0.02 eV (for the first peak of excitonic absorption in the InP core) and E 2 = 4.70 ± 0.02 eV (for processes in the ZnS shell). The experimental curve of E 1( T) has been approximated for the first time in the framework of a linear model and in terms of the Fan's formula. It is established that the temperature dependence of E 1 is determined by the interaction of excitons and longitudinal acoustic phonons with hω = 15 meV.

  8. Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-03

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9681 Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 59 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited-state

  9. IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekal', N. D.; Motevich, I. G.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine adsorbed on a silver hydrosol and on the surface of a silver electrode for different potentials. Based on quantum chemical calculations, for the first time we have assigned the vibrations in the berberine molecule according to vibrational mode. The effect of the potential of the silver electrode on the geometry of sorption of the molecule on the surface is considered, assuming a short-range mechanism for enhancement of Raman scattering.

  10. Disentangling atomic-layer-specific x-ray absorption spectra by Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kato, Yukako; Hashimoto, Mie; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer at subsurface, we have proposed a new method, Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy, which is the combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) techniques. We have measured a series of Ni LMM AED patterns of the Ni film grown on Cu(001) surface for various thicknesses. Then we deduced a set of atomic-layer-specific AED patterns in a numerical way. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm to disentangle XANES spectra from different atomic layers using these atomic-layer-specific AED patterns. Surface and subsurface core level shift were determined for each atomic layer.

  11. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3 and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Lead metal was vaporized and trapped in solid xenon at 12K. Electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra were recorded of the resulting matrix, which was shown to contain Pb2, Pb3, and possibly Pb4 molecular species. The vibrational frequency for Pb2 is determined to be 108/cm for the ground state, with a dissociation energy of 82000/cm. Ad3h symmetry is indicated for the Pb3 species, with nu sub 1=117/cm and nu sub 2 = 96 /cm. The existence of Pb4 is suggested by a fundamental and overtone of 111/cm spacing.

  12. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  13. Quantitative comparison of the absorption spectra of the gas mixtures in analogy to the criterion of Pearson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Sandykova, E. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    An approach to the reduction of the space of the absorption spectra, based on the original criterion for profile analysis of the spectra, was proposed. This criterion dates back to the known statistics chi-square test of Pearson. Introduced criterion allows to quantify the differences of spectral curves.

  14. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r < 6000 km s‑1 is a safe boundary to constrain the vast majority of associated Mg II systems, although we find some doublets at υ r > 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r < 6000 km s‑1, ∼33.3% of the absorbers are supposed to be contaminants of intervening systems. Removing the 33.3% contaminants, ∼4.5% of the quasars present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  15. Observing the Spectra of MEarth and TRAPPIST Planets with JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline; Kreidberg, Laura; Rustamkulov, Zafar; Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2017-10-01

    During the past two years, nine planets close to Earth in radius have been discovered around nearby M dwarfs cooler than 3300 K. These planets include the 7 planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system and two planets discovered by the MEarth survey, GJ 1132b and LHS 1140b (Dittmann et al. 2017; Berta-Thompson et al. 2015; Gillon et al. 2017). These planets are the smallest planets discovered to date that will be amenable to atmospheric characterization with JWST. They span equilibrium temperatures from ˜130 K to >500 K, and radii from 0.7 to 1.43 Earth radii. Some of these planets orbit as distances potentially amenable to surface liquid water, though the actual surface temperatures will depend strongly on the albedo of the planet and the thickness and composition of its atmosphere. The stars they orbit also vary in activity levels, from the quiet LHS 1140b host star to the more active TRAPPIST-1 host star. This set of planets will form the testbed for our first chance to study the diversity of atmospheres around Earth-sized planets. Here, we will present model spectra of these 9 planets, varying the composition and the surface pressure of the atmosphere. We base our elemental compositions on three outcomes of planetary atmosphere evolution in our own solar system: Earth, Titan, and Venus. We calculate the molecular compositions in chemical equilibrium. We present both thermal emission spectra and transmission spectra for each of these objects, and make predictions for the observability of these spectra with different instrument modes with JWST.

  16. First principles absorption spectra of Cu{sub n} (n = 2 - 20) clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Baishya, K.; Idrobo, J. C.; Ogut, S.

    2011-06-17

    Optical absorption spectra for the computed ground state structures of copper clusters (Cu{sub n}, n = 2-20) are investigated from first principles using time-dependent density functional theory in the adiabatic local density approximation (TDLDA). The results are compared with available experimental data, existing calculations, and with results from our previous computations on silver and gold clusters. The main effects of d electrons on the absorption spectra, quenching the oscillator strengths, and getting directly involved in low-energy excitations increase in going from Ag{sub n} to Au{sub n} to Cu{sub n} due to the increase in the hybridization of the occupied, yetmore » shallow, d orbitals and the partially occupied s orbitals. We predict that while Cu nanoparticles of spherical or moderately ellipsoidal shape do not exhibit Mie (surface plasmon) resonances, unlike the case for Ag and Au, extremely prolate or oblate Cu nanoparticles with eccentricities near unity should give rise to Mie resonances in the lower end of the visible range and in the infrared. This tunable resonance predicted by the classical Mie-Gans theory is reproduced with remarkable accuracy by our TDLDA computations on hypothetical Cu clusters in the form of zigzag chains with as few as 6 to 20 atoms.« less

  17. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin.

    PubMed

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-15

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-01

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0 → S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.

  19. A wavelet analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Penfold, T. J.; Ecole polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de chimie et biochimie computationnelles, ISIC, FSB-BCH, CH-1015 Lausanne; SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen

    2013-01-07

    We present a Wavelet transform analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules. In contrast to the traditionally used Fourier transform approach, this analysis yields a 2D correlation plot in both R- and k-space. As a consequence, it is possible to distinguish between different scattering pathways at the same distance from the absorbing atom and between the contributions of single and multiple scattering events, making an unambiguous assignment of the fine structure oscillations for complex systems possible. We apply this to two previously studied transition metal complexes, namely iron hexacyanide in both its ferric and ferrous form, and a rheniummore » diimine complex, [ReX(CO){sub 3}(bpy)], where X = Br, Cl, or ethyl pyridine (Etpy). Our results demonstrate the potential advantages of using this approach and they highlight the importance of multiple scattering, and specifically the focusing phenomenon to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of these complexes. We also shed light on the low sensitivity of the EXAFS spectrum to the Re-X scattering pathway.« less

  20. Dynamical effects in x-ray absorption spectra of graphene and monolayered h -BN on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, J.; Preobrajenski, A. B.; Ng, May Ling; Vinogradov, N. A.; Mårtensson, N.; Wessely, O.; Sanyal, B.; Eriksson, O.

    2010-02-01

    We present first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra of graphene and hexagonal BN monolayer on the Ni(111) substrate. Including dynamical core-hole screening effects according to the theory of Mahan-Nozières-de Dominics (MND) results in an overall good agreement with previously published experimental data and our new observations. This approach provides a unified first-principles description of the electronic structure and core excitations in the sp2 -bonded materials on metal surfaces and a better insight into the dynamics of screening effects. We demonstrate in particular that the observed spectral features of graphene and hexagonal BN can be well reproduced with the MND theory, and that they are determined by a delicate balance between initial and final-state effects.

  1. Polarized electronic absorption spectra of Cr2SiO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, A.; Langer, K.

    Polarized electronic absorption spectra, E∥a(∥X), E∥b(∥Y) and E∥c(∥Z), in the energy range 3000-5000 cm-1 were obtained for the orthorhombic thenardite-type phase Cr2SiO4, unique in its Cr2+-allocation suggesting some metal-metal bonding in Cr2+Cr2+ pairs with Cr-Cr distance 2.75 Å along [001]. The spectra were scanned at 273 and 120 K on single crystal platelets ∥(100), containing optical Y and Z, and ∥(010), containing optical X and Z, with thicknesses 12.3 and 15.6 μm, respectively. Microscope-spectrometric techniques with a spatial resolution of 20 μm and 1 nm spectral resolution were used. The orientations were obtained by means of X-ray precession photographs. The xenomorphic, strongly pleochroic crystal fragments (X deeply greenish-blue, Y faint blue almost colourless, Z deeply purple almost opaque) were extracted from polycrystalline Cr2SiO4, synthesized at 35 kbar, above 1440 °C from high purity Cr2O3, Cr (10% excess) and SiO2 in chromium capsules. The Cr2SiO4-phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Four strongly polarized bands, at about 13500 (I), 15700 (II), 18700 (III) and 19700 (IV) cm-1, in the absorption spectra of Cr2SiO4 single crystals show properties (temperature behaviour of linear and integral absorption coefficients, polarization behaviour, molar absorptivities) which are compatible with an assignment to localized spin-allowed transitions of Cr2+ in a distorted square planar coordination of point symmetry C2. The crystal field parameter of Cr2+ is estimated to be 10 Dq =10700 cm-1. A relatively intense, sharp band at 18400 cm-1 and three other minor features can, from their small half widths, be assigned to spin-forbidden dd-transitions of Cr2+. The intensity of such bands strongly decreases on decreasing temperature. The large half widths, near 5000 cm-1 of band III are indicative of some Cr-Cr interactions, i.e. δ-δ* transitions of Cr24+, whereas the latter alone would be in conflict with the strong

  2. Laboratory absorption spectra of molecules at interstellar cloud temperatures - First measurements on CO at about 97 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.; Stark, G.; Ito, K.; Stevens, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    In the 91-100 nm spectral region, where absorption of photons by interstellar CO usually leads to dissociation, laboratory spectra obtained at 295 K show that most CO bands are both overlapped and perturbed. Reliable band oscillator strengths cannot be extracted from such spectra. As a consequence, synthetic extreme-ultraviolet absorption spectra for CO at the low temperatures that prevail in interstellar clouds are uncertain. A supersonic expansion technique has been used to cool CO to 30 K and three bands in the 97-nm region have been studied with high spectral resolution. The measured spectrum at 30 K is in reasonable agreement with some published modeled spectra, but the ratios of integrated cross sections are somewhat different from those determined from low resolution spectra obtained at 295 K, in which the bands are blended.

  3. Photochemically Generated Thiyl Free Radicals Observed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sneeden, Eileen Y.; Hackett, Mark J.; Cotelesage, Julien J. H.; ...

    2017-07-27

    Sulfur-based thiyl radicals are known to be involved in a wide range of chemical and biological processes, but they are often highly reactive, which makes them difficult to observe directly. We report herein X-ray absorption spectra and analysis that support the direct observation of two different thiyl species generated photochemically by X-ray irradiation. The thiyl radical sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of both species are characterized by a uniquely low energy transition at about 2465 eV, which occurs at a lower energy than any previously observed feature at the sulfur K-edge and corresponds to a 1s → 3p transition tomore » the singly occupied molecular orbital of the free radical. In conclusion, our results constitute the first observation of substantial levels of thiyl radicals generated by X-ray irradiation and detected by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.« less

  4. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  5. The absorption- and luminescence spectra of Mn3+ in beryl and vesuvianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Maria; Lisiecki, Radosław; Chrobak, Artur; Sitko, Rafał; Mazurak, Zbigniew

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption-, photoluminescence- and electron paramagnetic-resonance spectra of Mn3+ in red beryl from Wah Wah Mountains (Utah USA) and of pink- and purple vesuvianite from Jeffrey Mine (Asbestos, Canada) were measured at room- and low temperatures. The crystal field stabilization energies are equal to 130.9 kJ/mol for the red beryl, and 151.5-158.0 and 168.0 kJ/mol for for the pink- and the purple vesuvianite, respectively. The red photoluminescence of Mn3+ was not intensive either at room- or at low temperatures. The high Mn content in the crystals caused the emergence of an additional emission band and short photoluminescence-decay lifetimes. The latter are only 183 μs for beryl and 17 μs for vesuvianite.

  6. The absorption- and luminescence spectra of Mn3+ in beryl and vesuvianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Maria; Lisiecki, Radosław; Chrobak, Artur; Sitko, Rafał; Mazurak, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    The electron absorption-, photoluminescence- and electron paramagnetic-resonance spectra of Mn3+ in red beryl from Wah Wah Mountains (Utah USA) and of pink- and purple vesuvianite from Jeffrey Mine (Asbestos, Canada) were measured at room- and low temperatures. The crystal field stabilization energies are equal to 130.9 kJ/mol for the red beryl, and 151.5-158.0 and 168.0 kJ/mol for for the pink- and the purple vesuvianite, respectively. The red photoluminescence of Mn3+ was not intensive either at room- or at low temperatures. The high Mn content in the crystals caused the emergence of an additional emission band and short photoluminescence-decay lifetimes. The latter are only 183 μs for beryl and 17 μs for vesuvianite.

  7. Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M. A.; Briddon, P. R.; Jaros, M.

    1997-08-01

    We have applied the multiband effective mass/valence force field method to the calculation of optical transitions and absorption spectra in InAs/GaAs self-organized dots of different sizes. We have found that the apparently conflicting assignments of luminescence features to optical transitions in different experiments are in fact entirely compatible with each other. Whether the optical signature of a dot is constructed from transitions between states of the same quantum numbers, or via additional processes between the ground conduction state and a low-lying valence state depends on the aspect ratio of the quantum dot radius and height. The states involved can be predicted from a simple particle in a rigid rectangular box model.

  8. Effect of Pressure on Absorption Spectra of Lycopene in n-Hexane and CS2 Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wei-Long; Zheng, Zhi-Ren; Huo, Ming-Ming; Li, Ai-Hua; Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    The absorption spectra of lycopene in n-hexane and CS2 are measured under high pressure and the results are compared with β-carotene. In the lower pressure range, the deviation from the linear dependence on the Bayliss parameter (BP) for β-carotene is more visible than that for lycopene. With the further increase of the solvent BP, the 0-0 bands of lycopene and β-carotene red shift at almost the same rate in n-hexane; however, the 0-0 band of lycopene red shifts slower than that of β-carotene in CS2. The origins of these diversities are discussed taking into account the dispersion interactions and structures of solute and solvent molecules.

  9. X-ray K-edge absorption spectra of Fe minerals and model compounds: II. EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waychunas, Glenn A.; Brown, Gordon E.; Apted, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of Fe in varying environments in a suite of well-characterized silicate and oxide minerals were collected using synchrotron radiation and analyzed using single scattering approximation theory to yield nearest neighbor Fe-O distances and coordination numbers. The partial inverse character of synthetic hercynite spinal was verified in this way. Comparison of the results from all samples with structural data from X-ray diffraction crystal structure refinements indicates that EXAFS-derived first neighbor distances are generally accurate to ±0.02 Å using only theoretically generated phase information, and may be improved over this if similar model compounds are used to determine EXAFS phase functions. Coordination numbers are accurate to ±20 percent and can be similarly improved using model compound EXAFS amplitude information. However, in particular cases the EXAFS-derived distances may be shortened, and the coordination number reduced, by the effects of static and thermal disorder or by partial overlap of the longer Fe-O first neighbor distances with second neighbor distances in the EXAFS structure function. In the former case the total information available in the EXAFS is limited by the disorder, while in the latter case more accurate results can in principle be obtained by multiple neighbor EXAFS analysis. The EXAFS and XANES spectra of Fe in Nain, Labrador osumulite and Lakeview, Oregon plagioclase are also analyzed as an example of the application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to metal ion site occupation determination in minerals.

  10. C IV broad absorption line variability in QSO spectra from SDSS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, Demetra; Brandt, William N.; Grier, Catherine J.; Paolillo, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in the spectra of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are thought to arise from outflowing winds along our line of sight; winds, in turn, are thought to originate from the accretion disk, in the very surroundings of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and they likely affect the accretion process onto the SMBH, as well as galaxy evolution. BALs can exhibit variability on timescales typically ranging from months to years. We analyze such variability and, in particular, BAL disappearance, with the aim of investigating QSO physics and structure. We search for disappearing C IV BALs in the spectra of 1319 QSOs from different programs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); the analyzed time span covers 0.28-4.9 yr (rest frame), and the source redshifts are in the range 1.68-4.27. This is to date the largest sample ever used for such a study. We find 67 sources (5.1_{-0.6}^{+0.7}% of the sample) with 73 disappearing BALs in total (3.9_{-0.5}^{+0.5}% of the total number of C IV BALs detected; some sources have more than one BAL that disappears). We compare the sample of disappearing BALs to the whole sample of BALs, and investigate the correlation in the variability of multiple troughs in the same spectrum. We also derive estimates of the average lifetime of a BAL trough and of the BAL phase along our line of sight.

  11. Signatures in vibrational and UV-visible absorption spectra for identifying cyclic hydrocarbons by graphene fragments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Wu, Qi; Chen, Lei; Wangmo, Sonam; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Ding, Dajun; Niehaus, Thomas A; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2013-12-21

    To promote possible applications of graphene in molecular identification based on stacking effects, in particular in recognizing aromatic amino acids and even sequencing nucleobases in life sciences, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene segments and different cyclic organic hydrocarbons including benzene (C6H6), cyclohexane (C6H12), benzyne (C6H4), cyclohexene (C6H10), 1,3-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(1)) and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(2)), using the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method. Interestingly, we find obviously different characteristics in Raman vibrational and ultraviolet visible absorption spectra of the small molecules adsorbed on the graphene sheet. Specifically, we find that both spectra involve clearly different characteristic peaks, belonging to the different small molecules upon adsorption, with the ones of ionized molecules being more substantial. Further analysis shows that the adsorptions are almost all due to the presence of dispersion energy in neutral cases and involve charge transfer from the graphene to the small molecules. In contrast, the main binding force in the ionic adsorption systems is the electronic interaction. The results present clear signatures that can be used to recognize different kinds of aromatic hydrocarbon rings on graphene sheets. We expect that our findings will be helpful for designing molecular recognition devices using graphene.

  12. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  13. Exploring the Time Evolution of Cool Metallic Absorption Features in UV Burst Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmes, K.; Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    UV bursts are compact brightenings in active regions that appear in UV images. They are identified through three spectroscopic features: (1) broadening and intensification of NUV/FUV emission lines, (2) the presence of optically thin Si IV emission, and (3) the presence of absorption features from cool metallic ions. Properties (2) and (3) imply that bursts exist at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) but are located in the cooler lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Their energetic and dynamical properties remain poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of this phenomena could help us further constrain the energetic and dynamical properties of the chromosphere, as well as give us insight into whether or not UV bursts contribute to chromospheric and/or coronal heating. We analyzed the time evolution of UV bursts using spectral data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We inspected Si IV 1393.8 Å line profiles for Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption features to look for signs of heating. Weakening of absorption features over time could indicate heating of the cool ions above the burst, implying that thermal energy from the burst could rapidly conduct upward through the chromosphere. To detect the spectral profiles corresponding to bursts, we applied a four-parameter Gaussian fit to every profile in each observation and took cuts in parameter space to isolate the bursts. We then manually reviewed the remaining profiles by looking for a statistically significant appearance of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption. We quantified these absorption features by normalizing the Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles and measuring the maximum fractional extinction in each. Our preliminary results indicate that Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption may undergo a cycle of strengthening and weakening throughout a burst's lifetime. However, further investigation is needed for confirmation. This work is supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313.

  14. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almandoz, M. C.; Sancho, M. I.; Blanco, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π*). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  15. Computing the Absorption and Emission Spectra of 5-Methylcytidine in Different Solvents: A Test-Case for Different Solvation Models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, L; Pepino, A J; Segarra-Martí, J; Banyasz, A; Garavelli, M; Improta, R

    2016-09-13

    The optical spectra of 5-methylcytidine in three different solvents (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) is measured, showing that both the absorption and the emission maximum in water are significantly blue-shifted (0.08 eV). The absorption spectra are simulated based on CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculations but including solvent effects with three different approaches: (i) a hybrid implicit/explicit full quantum mechanical approach, (ii) a mixed QM/MM static approach, and (iii) a QM/MM method exploiting the structures issuing from molecular dynamics classical simulations. Ab-initio Molecular dynamics simulations based on CAM-B3LYP functionals have also been performed. The adopted approaches all reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra, giving insights on the chemical-physical effects responsible for the solvent shifts in the spectra of 5-methylcytidine and providing the basis for discussing advantages and limitations of the adopted solvation models.

  16. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectralmore » absorption on Charon is also reported.« less

  17. Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-04

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--17-9723 Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular...Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory L. Huang, S.G. Lambrakos, and L. Massa1 Naval Research Laboratory, Code...and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The size of the clusters considered is relatively large compared to those considered in

  18. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Menodza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra towards the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pileup effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain: a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 x 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); ionization parameter of log xi = .2.70 +/- 0.023; oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689(exp +0.015./-0.010); and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval (1998), a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. (2009) yields A(sub O) = 0.952(exp +0.020/-0.013, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines.K-alpha , K-beta, and K-gamma in O I and O II; and K-alpha in O III, O VI, and O VII--last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated to ISM cold absorption.

  19. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium:. [The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Angstrom broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Angstroms) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the xstar code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 × 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); an ionization parameter of log xi = -2.70 +/- 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689 (+0.015/-0.010); and ionization fractions of O(sub I)/O = 0.911, O(sub II)/O = 0.077, and O(sub III)/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A(sub O) = 0.952(+0.020/-0.013), a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard.We identify several atomic absorption lines-K(alpha), K(beta), and K(gamma) in O(sub I) and O(sub II) and K(alpha) in O(sub III), O(sub VI), and O(sub VII)-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  20. Terrestrial FeO Continuum Emission Observed in Sky Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slanger, Tom G.; Melchiorri, R.; Saran, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    The terrestrial continuum emission in the visible spectral region has often been studied by both astronomers and aeronomers, in order to clarify backgrounds and the nature of the emissions. New observations from the ESI spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, as well as from the OSIRIS/Odin spectrograph and orbiter, have established that a major component of the emission originates with the FeO molecule [Evans et al., 2010]. This quasi-continuum peaks at 5950 A and extends from 5000 A well into the infrared. The identity has been demonstrated by comparison with meteor trains and laboratory measurements [Jenniskens et al., 2000]. Early studies of the continuum show consistency with the FeO emission as presently observed [Gadsden and Marovich, 1973]. Analysis of spectra from Kitt Peak [Neugent and Massey, 2010] demonstrates the great similarity between FeO emission in a clean atmosphere and high pressure sodium lamp emission in a polluted atmosphere. This research was supported by NSF Aeronomy under Grant ATM-0637433 . Evans, W.F.J., et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. [in press, 2010] Gadsden, M. and E. Marovich, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 35, 1601-1614 [1973] Jenniskens, P., et al., Earth, Moon and Planets, 82-83, 429-434 [2000] Neugent, K.F. and P. Massey, PASP [in press, 2010

  1. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  2. Observations of silicate reststrahlen bands in lunar infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E., Jr.; Morgan, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal emission spectra of three lunar sites (Apollo 11, Descartes Formation, and Tycho central peak) are measured in the 8-14 micron spectral range. Transmission and instrument effects are accounted for by forming ratios of the Descartes and Tycho spectra to the Apollo 11 spectrum. The ratio spectra are compared with ratios of published laboratory spectra of returned lunar samples and also with ratio spectra calculated using the Aronson-Emslie (1975) model. The comparisons show pyroxene bands in the Descartes ratio spectrum and plagioclase bands in the Tycho ratio spectrum. The Tycho spectrum is found to be consistent with the existence of fine plagioclase dust (approximately 1 micron) at the rock surface and a higher-than-usual sodium content of the plagioclase.

  3. The first observation of Carbon-13 spin noise spectra

    PubMed Central

    Schlagnitweit, Judith; Müller, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first 13C NMR spin noise spectra obtained without any pulse excitation by direct detection of the randomly fluctuating noise from samples in a cryogenically cooled probe. Noise power spectra were obtained from 13C enriched methanol and glycerol samples at 176 MHz without and with 1H decoupling, which increases the sensitivity without introducing radio frequency interference with the weak spin noise. The multiplet amplitude ratios in 1H coupled spectra indicate that, although pure spin noise prevails in these spectra, the influence of absorbed circuit noise is still significant at the high concentrations used. In accordance with the theory heteronuclear Overhauser enhancements are absent from the 1H-decoupled 13C spin noise spectra. PMID:23041799

  4. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  5. Analysis of atmospheric trace constituents from high resolution infrared balloon-borne and ground-based solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of ongoing studies of high-resolution solar absorption spectra aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents of importance in the chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere are presented. An analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/cm covering the 700-2200/cm interval is presented. The 0.0025/cm spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of quantifying trace constituents. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species are presented. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra are also discussed.

  6. Wavelet based de-noising of breath air absorption spectra profiles for improved classification by principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The comparison results of different mother wavelets used for de-noising of model and experimental data which were presented by profiles of absorption spectra of exhaled air are presented. The impact of wavelets de-noising on classification quality made by principal component analysis are also discussed.

  7. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  8. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-01

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  9. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  10. Prediction of Iron K-Edge Absorption Spectra Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.DeBeer; Petrenko, T.; Neese, F.

    2009-05-14

    Iron K-edge X-ray absorption pre-edge features have been calculated using a time-dependent density functional approach. The influence of functional, solvation, and relativistic effects on the calculated energies and intensities has been examined by correlation of the calculated parameters to experimental data on a series of 10 iron model complexes, which span a range of high-spin and low-spin ferrous and ferric complexes in O{sub h} to T{sub d} geometries. Both quadrupole and dipole contributions to the spectra have been calculated. We find that good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained by using the BP86 functional with the CP(PPP) basis setmore » on the Fe and TZVP one of the remaining atoms. Inclusion of solvation yields a small improvement in the calculated energies. However, the inclusion of scalar relativistic effects did not yield any improved correlation with experiment. The use of these methods to uniquely assign individual spectral transitions and to examine experimental contributions to backbonding is discussed.« less

  11. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Simulation of X-ray absorption spectra with orthogonality constrained density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2015-06-14

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) [F. A. Evangelista, P. Shushkov and J. C. Tully, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 7378] is a variational time-independent approach for the computation of electronic excited states. In this work we extend OCDFT to compute core-excited states and generalize the original formalism to determine multiple excited states. Benchmark computations on a set of 13 small molecules and 40 excited states show that unshifted OCDFT/B3LYP excitation energies have a mean absolute error of 1.0 eV. Contrary to time-dependent DFT, OCDFT excitation energies for first- and second-row elements are computed with near-uniform accuracy. OCDFT core excitation energies are insensitive to the choice of the functional and the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange. We show that OCDFT is a powerful tool for the assignment of X-ray absorption spectra of large molecules by simulating the gas-phase near-edge spectrum of adenine and thymine.

  13. Excitation Dynamics in Phycoerythrin 545: Modeling of Steady-State Spectra and Transient Absorption with Modified Redfield Theory

    PubMed Central

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Doust, Alexander B.; Curutchet, Carles; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We model the spectra and excitation dynamics in the phycobiliprotein antenna complex PE545 isolated from the unicellular photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS24. The excitonic couplings between the eight bilins are calculated using the CIS/6-31G method. The site energies are extracted from a simultaneous fit of the absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra together with the transient absorption kinetics using the modified Redfield approach. Quantitative fit of the data enables us to assign the eight exciton components of the spectra and build up the energy transfer picture including pathways and timescales of energy relaxation, thus allowing a visualization of excitation dynamics within the complex. PMID:20643051

  14. Sensing, Spectra and Scaling: What's in Store for Land Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    2001-01-01

    Bill Pecora's 1960's vision of the future, using spacecraft-based sensors for mapping the environment and exploring for resources, is being implemented today. New technology has produced better sensors in space such as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT, and creative researchers are continuing to find new applications. However, with existing sensors, and those intended for launch in this century, the potential for extracting information from the land surface is far from being exploited. The most recent technology development is imaging spectrometry, the acquisition of images in hundreds of contiguous spectral bands, such that for any pixel a complete reflectance spectrum can be acquired. Experience with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has shown that, with proper attention paid to absolute calibration, it is possible to acquire apparent surface reflectance to 5% accuracy without any ground-based measurement. The data reduction incorporates in educated guess of the aerosol scattering, development of a precipitable water vapor map from the data and mapping of cirrus clouds in the 1.38 micrometer band. This is not possible with TM. The pixel size in images of the earth plays and important role in the type and quality of information that can be derived. Less understood is the coupling between spatial and spectral resolution in a sensor. Recent work has shown that in processing the data to derive the relative abundance of materials in a pixel, also known is unmixing, the pixel size is an important parameter. A variance in the relative abundance of materials among the pixels is necessary to be able to derive the endmembers or pure material constituent spectra. In most cases, the 1 km pixel size for the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument is too large to meet the variance criterion. A pointable high spatial and spectral resolution imaging spectrometer in orbit will be necessary to make the

  15. First-Principles Predictions of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra of Semiconducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gregory M.; Patel, Shrayesh N.; Pemmaraju, C. D.

    The electronic structure and molecular orientation of semiconducting polymers in thin films determine their ability to transport charge. Methods based on near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy can be used to probe both the electronic structure and microstructure of semiconducting polymers in both crystalline and amorphous films. However, it can be challenging to interpret NEXAFS spectra on the basis of experimental data alone, and accurate, predictive calculations are needed to complement experiments. Here, we show that first-principles density functional theory (DFT) can be used to model NEXAFS spectra of semiconducting polymers and to identify the nature of transitions inmore » complicated NEXAFS spectra. Core-level X-ray absorption spectra of a set of semiconducting polymers were calculated using the excited electron and core-hole (XCH) approach based on constrained-occupancy DFT. A comparison of calculations on model oligomers and periodic structures with experimental data revealed the requirements for accurate prediction of NEXAFS spectra of both conjugated homopolymers and donor–acceptor polymers. The NEXAFS spectra predicted by the XCH approach were applied to study molecular orientation in donor–acceptor polymers using experimental spectra and revealed the complexity of using carbon edge spectra in systems with large monomeric units. The XCH approach has sufficient accuracy in predicting experimental NEXAFS spectra of polymers that it should be considered for design and analysis of measurements using soft X-ray techniques, such as resonant soft X-ray scattering and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy.« less

  16. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratorymore » three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.« less

  17. Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Constituents from High Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results and ongoing studies of high resolution solar absorption spectra will be presented. The analysis of these spectra is aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents important in atmospheric chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/ cm covering the 700-2200/ cm interval will be presented. Results from ground-based 0.02/ cm solar spectra, from several locations such as Denver, South Pole, M. Loa, and New Zealand will also be shown. The 0.0025/ cm spectra show many new spectroscopic features. The analysis of these spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of trace constituents quantification. The combination of the recent balloon flights, with earlier flights data since 1978 at 0.02/ cm resolution, provides trends analysis of several stratospheric trace species. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species will be presented. Analysis of several ground-based solar spectra provides trends for HCl, HF and other species. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra will be presented. These are extended for the analysis of the ground-based spectra to be obtained by the high resolution interferometers of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Progress or the University of Denver studies for the NDSC will be presented. This will include intercomparison of solar spectra and trace gases retrievals obtained from simultaneous scans by the high resolution (0.0025/ cm) interferometers of BRUKER and BOMEM.

  18. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ˜15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ˜15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  20. Recording of absorption spectra by a three-beam integral technique with a tunable laser and external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolenko, P. V.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Ochkin, V. N.; Tskhai, S. N.

    2014-04-01

    An integral method is considered for recording absorption using three laser beams transmitted through and reflected from an external cavity with the absorbing medium (R-ICOS). The method is the elaboration of a known single-beam ICOS method and allows suppression of the influence of radiation phase fluctuations in the resonator on recording weak absorption spectra. First of all, this reduces high-frequency instabilities and gives a possibility to record spectra during short time intervals. In this method, mirrors of the resonator may have moderate reflection coefficients. Capabilities of the method have been demonstrated by the examples of weak absorption spectra of atmospheric methane and natural gas in a spectral range around 1650 nm. With the mirrors having the reflection coefficients of 0.8-0.99, a spectrum can be recorded for 320 μs with the accuracy sufficient for detecting a background concentration of methane in atmosphere. For the acquisition time of 20 s, the absorption coefficients of ~2×10-8 cm-1 can be measured, which corresponds to a 40 times less molecule concentration than the background value.

  1. Observations of neutral iron emission in twilight spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepley, C. A.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Walker, J. C. G.; Mathews, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for the analysis of twilight airglow spectra that may be contaminated by atmospheric continuum emission of unknown brightness. The necessity of correcting for this continuum emission when measuring weak airglow features in twilight is illustrated by application of the method to the neutral iron line at 3860 A.

  2. Extraction of ice absorptions in comet spectra, and application to VIRTIS/Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Despan, Daniela; Leyrat, Cédric; Drossart, Pierre; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico

    2014-05-01

    Detection of ice spectral features can be difficult on comet surfaces, due to the mixing with dark opaque materials, as shown by Deep Impact and Epoxi observations. We study here the possible use of high-level spectral detection techniques in this context. A method based on wavelet decomposition and a multiscale vision model, partly derived from image analysis techniques, was presented recently (Erard, 2013). It is here used to extract shallow features from spectra in reflected light, up to ~3 µm. The outcome of the analysis is a description of the bands detected, and a quantitative and reliable confidence parameter. The bands can be described either by the most appropriate wavelet scale only (for rapid analyses) or after reconstruction from all scales involved (for more precise measurements). An interesting side effect is the ability to separate even narrow features from random noise, as well as to identify low-frequency variations i.e., wide and shallow bands. Tests are performed on laboratory analogues spectra and available observational data. The technique is expected to provide detection of ice in the early stages of Rosetta observations of 67P this year, from VIRTIS data (Coradini et al., 2009). Strategies are devised to quickly analyze large datasets, e. g., by applying the extraction technique to components first identified by an ACI (Erard et al., 2011). The exact position of the bands can be diagnostic of surface temperature, in particular at 1.6 µm (e. g., Fink & Larson, 1975) and 3.6 µm (Filacchione et al., 2013), and may complement estimates retrieved from the onset of thermal emission longward of 3.5 µm. Erard, S. (2013) 8th EPSC EPSC2013-520. Coradini et al (2009), Rosetta book, Schulz et al Eds. Erard, S. et al (2011) Planet & Space Sc 59, 1842-1852 Fink, U. & Larson, H. (1975) Icarus 24, 411-420 Filacchione et al (2013) AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A7

  3. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  4. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  5. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  6. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:27389070

  7. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-07-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  8. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A; Kesler, Benjamin A; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M; Dallesasse, John M; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-07-08

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid's absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  9. Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption Properties from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, H.; Ahn, Chang-Woo

    2012-01-01

    The Angstrom Absorption Exponent (AAE) is a parameter commonly used to characterize the wavelength-dependence of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD). It is closely related to aerosol composition. Black carbon (BC) containing aerosols yield AAE values near unity whereas Organic carbon (OC) aerosol particles are associated with values larger than 2. Even larger AAE values have been reported for desert dust aerosol particles. Knowledge of spectral AAOD is necessary for the calculation of direct radiative forcing effect of aerosols and for inferring aerosol composition. We have developed a satellitebased method of determining the spectral AAOD of absorbing aerosols. The technique uses multi-spectral measurements of upwelling radiation from scenes where absorbing aerosols lie above clouds as indicated by the UV Aerosol Index. For those conditions, the satellite measurement can be explained, using an approximations of Beer's Law (BL), as the upwelling reflectance at the cloud top attenuated by the absorption effects of the overlying aerosol layer. The upwelling reflectance at the cloud-top in an aerosol-free atmospheric column is mainly a function of cloud optical depth (COD). In the proposed method of AAE derivation, the first step is determining COD which is retrieved using a previously developed color-ratio based approach. In the second step, corrections for molecular scattering effects are applied to both the observed ad the calculated cloud reflectance terms, and the spectral AAOD is then derived by an inversion of the BL approximation. The proposed technique will be discussed in detail and application results making use of OMI multi-spectral measurements in the UV-Vis. will be presented.

  10. Effects of solvent polarity on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds: determination of the dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abebe; Libnedengel, Ermias; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-02-01

    The effects of solvent polarity on absorption and fluorescence spectra of biologically active compounds (chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acids (CA)) have been investigated. In both spectra pronounced solvatochromic effects were observed with shift of emission peaks larger than the corresponding UV-vis electronic absorption spectra. From solvatochromic theory the ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined experimentally and theoretically. The differences between the excited and ground state dipole moment determined by Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt equations are quite similar. The ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined by theoretical quantum chemical calculation using density function theory (DFT) method (Gaussian 09) and were also similar to the experimental results. The HOMO-LUMO energy band gaps for CGA and CFA were calculated and found to be 4.1119 and 1.8732 eV respectively. The results also indicated the CGA molecule is more stable than that of CFA. It was also observed that in both compounds the excited state possesses a higher dipole moment than that of the ground state. This confirms that the excited state of the hydroxycinnamic compounds is more polarized than that of the ground state and therefore is more sensitive to the solvent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorptionmore » and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.« less

  12. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics. [including pion absorption spectra and muon spin precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.

  13. Directional Wave Spectra Observed During Intense Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. O.; Potter, H.; Lund, B.; Tamura, H.; Graber, H. C.

    2018-02-01

    Two deep-sea moorings were deployed 780 km off the coast of southern Taiwan for 4-5 months during the 2010 typhoon season. Directional wave spectra, wind speed and direction, and momentum fluxes were recorded on two Extreme Air-Sea Interaction buoys during the close passage of Severe Tropical Storm Dianmu and three tropical cyclones (TCs): Typhoon Fanapi, Super Typhoon Megi, and Typhoon Chaba. Conditions sampled include significant wave heights up to 11 m and wind speeds up to 26 m s-1. Details varied for large-scale spectral structure in frequency and direction but were mostly bimodal. The modes were generally composed of a swell system emanating from the most intense storm region and local wind-seas. The peak systems were consistently young, meaning actively forced by winds, when the storms were close. During the peaks of the most intense passages—Chaba at the northern mooring and Megi at the southern—the bimodal seas coalesced. During Chaba, the swell and wind-sea coupling directed the high frequency waves and the wind stress away from the wind direction. A spectral wave model was able reproduce many of the macrofeatures of the directional spectra.

  14. Self-interaction-corrected time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations of x-ray-absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Guangde; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Vahtras, Olav

    We outline an approach within time-dependent density functional theory that predicts x-ray spectra on an absolute scale. The approach rests on a recent formulation of the resonant-convergent first-order polarization propagator [P. Norman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 194103 (2005)] and corrects for the self-interaction energy of the core orbital. This polarization propagator approach makes it possible to directly calculate the x-ray absorption cross section at a particular frequency without explicitly addressing the excited-state spectrum. The self-interaction correction for the employed density functional accounts for an energy shift of the spectrum, and fully correlated absolute-scale x-ray spectra are thereby obtainedmore » based solely on optimization of the electronic ground state. The procedure is benchmarked against experimental spectra of a set of small organic molecules at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K edges.« less

  15. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  16. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on the magnetic susceptibilities and optical absorption spectra on single crystals of Gd(III) pyrogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, T.; Ghosh, D.; Wanklyn, B. M.

    1990-04-01

    The paper reports for the first time the experimental results of the measurements of magnetic susceptibilities ( K⊥ and K|) and their anisotropy (Δ K) between 300 and 21.8 K and the optical absorption spectra (UV region) at 12.5 K on single crystals of gadolinium pyrogermanate (GdPG). The anisotropy, which is only 211×10 -6 emu/mol at room temperature and increases by two orders of magnitude at 21 K, is predominantly a crystal field (CF) effect on the 8S {7}/{2} ground term, through higher order perturbations. Interpretation of the observed magnetic data was carried out by considering a conventional spin Hamiltonian ( Hs) to derive expressions for K⊥ and K| in terms of four effective crystal field parameters (ECFP). The value s of ECFP were varied to obtain a very close fitting between the theoretical and experimental values of K⊥, K|, δ K and K¯ The splitting of the 8S {7}/{2} term corresponding to these values of ECFP was found to be large, which suggests a strong CF effect in GdPG, as also observed in other RPG crystal studied earlier. The thermal characteristics of the magnetic anisotropy below 30 K deviate by about 5% which could not be explained by CF effects alone. A series expansion method was adopted to analyse the results of K⊥ and K| below 30 K, however the corresponding coefficient B2α and B3α were observed t o be unusually high indicating the presence of CF effect even in this temperature region. The Schottky specific heat, Csch, between 300 and 21 K for GdPG has been calculated and this shows a maximum at Tmax=17 K.

  18. Observations of absorption lines from highly ionized atoms. [of interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    1987-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. few x 0.001/cu cm) existing at coronal temperatures log T = 5.3 or 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity (v = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic UV radiation from very hot, dwarf stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  19. Use of Isobestic and Isoemission Points in Absorption and Luminescence Spectra for Study of the Transformation of Radiation Defects in Lithium Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Stupak, A. P.; Runets, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    Isobestic and isoemission points are recorded in the combined absorption and luminescence spectra of two types of radiation defects involved in complex processes consisting of several simultaneous parallel and sequential reactions. These points are observed if a constant sum of two terms, each formed by the product of the concentration of the corresponding defect and a characteristic integral coefficient associated with it, is conserved. The complicated processes involved in the transformation of radiation defects in lithium fluoride are studied using these points. It is found that the ratio of the changes in the concentrations of one of the components and the reaction product remains constant in the course of several simultaneous reactions.

  20. Impact effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and FT infrared absorption spectra of some Nd3+-doped soda lime phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Elkashef, I. M.; Elbatal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study by two collective optical and FTIR spectral measurements some prepared Nd2O3-doped soda lime phosphate glasses before and after gamma irradiation with dose (9 Mrad). The spectral data reveal two strong UV absorption peaks which are correlated with unavoidable trace iron impurities beside extended additional characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped glass produces slight decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption and the generation of an induced visible band and these effects are controlled with two photochemical reduction of some Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions together with the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) or phosphorous oxygen hole center (POHC). The impact effect of gamma irradiation on the spectra of Nd2O3-doped glasses is limited due to suggested shielding behavior of neodymium ions. FT-infrared spectra show vibrational modes due to main Q2-Q3 phosphate groups and the response of gamma irradiation of the IR spectra is low and the limited variations are related to suggested changes in some bond angles and bond lengths which cause the observed decrease to the intensities of some IR bands.

  1. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuza, J.; Godlewska, P.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Kadłubański, P.; Lorenc, J.; Łukowiak, A.; Macalik, L.; Gerasymchuk, Yu.; Legendziewicz, J.

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln = Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass.

  2. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Hanuza, J; Godlewska, P; Lisiecki, R; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Kadłubański, P; Lorenc, J; Łukowiak, A; Macalik, L; Gerasymchuk, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2018-05-05

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln=Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Collisional Processing of Comet and Asteroid Surfaces: Velocity Effects on Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm has emerged where 3.9 Gyr ago, a violent reshuffling reshaped the placement of small bodies in the solar system (the Nice model). Surface properties of these objects may have been affected by collisions caused by this event, and by collisions with other small bodies since their emplacement. These impacts affect the spectrographic observations of these bodies today. Shock effects (e.g., planar dislocations) manifest in minerals allowing astronomers to better understand geophysical impact processing that has occurred on small bodies. At the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center, we have impacted forsterite and enstatite across a range of velocities. We find that the amount of spectral variation, absorption wavelength, and full width half maximum of the absorbance peaks vary non-linearly with the velocity of the impact. We also find that the spectral variation increases with decreasing crystal size (single solid rock versus granular). Future analyses include quantification of the spectral changes with different impactor densities, temperature, and additional impact velocities. Results on diopside, fayalite, and magnesite can be found in Lederer et al., this meeting.

  4. Optical absorption spectra of the uranium (4+) ion in the thorium germanate matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J. C.; Antic-Fidancev, E.

    1997-01-01

    Visible and infrared absorption measurements on the 0953-8984/9/2/023/img6 ion in tetragonal zircon-type matrix 0953-8984/9/2/023/img7 are reported and analysed in terms of the standard parametrization scheme. The observed 17 main peaks and a number of less intense lines have been assigned and fitted to most of the 32 allowed electric dipole transitions with the root mean square error equal to 0953-8984/9/2/023/img8. The free-ion parameters obtained for the model Hamiltonian, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img9, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img10, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img11 and 0953-8984/9/2/023/img12, as well as the corresponding crystal-field parameters, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img13, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img14, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img15, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img16 and 0953-8984/9/2/023/img17, agree fairly well with the initial theoretical estimations. The results are discussed in relation to the previous spectroscopic study on the scheelite-type matrix 0953-8984/9/2/023/img18.

  5. Review of the absorption spectra of solid O2 and N2 as they relate to contamination of a cooled infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    During contamination studies for the liquid helium cooled shuttle infrared telescope facility, a literature search was conducted to determine the absorption spectra of the solid state of homonuclear molecules of O2 and N2, and ascertain what laboratory measurements of the solid have been made in the infrared. With the inclusion of one unpublished spectrum, the absorption spectrum of the solid oxygen molecule has been thoroughly studied from visible to millimeter wavelengths. Only two lines appear in the solid that do not also appear in the gas or liquid. A similar result is implied for the solid nitrogen molecule because it also is homonuclear. The observed infrared absorption lines result from lattice modes of the alpha phase of the solid, and disappear at the warmer temperatures of the beta, gamma, and liquid phases. They are not observed from polycrystalline forms of O2, while strong scattering is. Scattering, rather than absorption, is considered to be the principal natural contamination problem for cooled infrared telescopes in low earth orbit.

  6. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3, and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    Matrix isolation techniques are used to investigate the spectra of lead molecules and, in particular, to obtain resonance Raman spectra of lead vapors isolated in solid xenon matrices. The presence of Pb2 is confirmed by the visible adsorption, and Raman spectra yield a vibrational frequency for the ground state of 108 per cm and a dissociation energy of 8200 per cm. A second resonance Raman progression indicates a Pb3 species of D3h symmetry. Finally, two additional Raman features at approximately 111 per cm spacing are evidence for a third species, tentatively identified as Pb4.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of Venusian airglow observed by EXCEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Kimura, Tomoki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kuwabara, Masaki; Iwagami, Naomoto

    2018-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of Venus in the wavelength range 520 - 1480 Å with 3 - 4 Å resolutions were obtained in March 2014 by an EUV imaging spectrometer EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) on the HISAKI spacecraft. Due to its high sensitivity and long exposure time, many new emission lines and bands were identified. Already known emissions such as the O II 834 Å, O I 989 Å, H ILy - β 1026 Å, and the C I 1277 Å lines (Broadfoot et al., 1974; Bertaux et al., 1980; Feldman et al., 2000) are also detected in the EXCEED spectrum. In addition, N2 band systems such as the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (a 1Πg - X 1Σg+) (2, 0), (2, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2) and (5, 3) bands, the Birge-Hopfield (b1Πu - X 1 Σg+) (1, 3) band, and the Carroll-Yoshino (c 4‧ 1 Σu+ - X 1Σg+) (0, 0) and (0, 1) bands together are identified for the first time in the Venusian airglow. We also identified the CO Hopfield-Birge (B 1Σ+ - X 1Σ+) (1, 0) band in addition to the already known (0, 0) band, and the CO Hopfield-Birge (C 1Σ+ - X 1Σ+) (0, 1), (0, 2) bands in addition to the already known (0, 0) band (Feldman et al., 2000; Gérard et al., 2011).

  8. Laboratory Measurements of Mass Specific Absorption Spectra for Suites of Black Carbon-like, Biomass Burning and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radney, J.; Zangmeister, C.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols can be grouped into three categories: black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC) or mineral dust (MD). In many cases, the absorption of these species is best quantified using a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) since the particles are in the Rayleigh regime (BC) or optically thin (BrC and MD); notably, MAC values are both traceable to the SI and transferrable between photoacoustic spectroscopy and filter-based absorption measurements. Here, we present laboratory measurements of MAC for all three light-absorbing aerosol classes. Particles were size- and mass-selected using a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer, respectively, with absorption coefficients (αabs) and number concentrations (N) being measured by a broadband photoacoustic spectrometer and condensation particle counter, respectively. This suite of instrumentation allows for direct quantification of MAC from the measured parameters (MAC = αabs/Nmp). Further, the measurements contained > 8 data points spanning λ = 405 nm to 840 nm allowing for spectral curvatures (i.e. the Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE) to be fit from many data points versus the more common 2-point interpolations. For the carbonaceous, BC-like aerosols - five samples generated from flames, spark discharge soot (i.e. fullerene soot), graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and fullerene (C60) - we found: 1) measured MAC ranged between 2.4 m2 g-1 and 8.6 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) most AAEs ranged between 0.5 and 1.3; C60 AAE was 7.5 ± 0.9 and 3) MAC spectra were dependent on fuel type and formation conditions. For BrC particles generated from smoldering combustion of 3 hardwood (Oak, Hickory and Mesquite) and 3 softwood species (Western redcedar, Blue spruce and Baldcypress), we found: 1) median MAC values ranged from 1.4 x 10-2 m2 g-1 to 7.9 x 10-2 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) AAE values ranged between 3.5 and 6.2, and 3) Oak, Western redcedar and Blue spruce

  9. Observing random walks of atoms in buffer gas through resonant light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Mitsui, Takahisa

    2016-07-01

    Using resonant light absorption, random-walk motions of rubidium atoms in nitrogen buffer gas are observed directly. The transmitted light intensity through atomic vapor is measured, and its spectrum is obtained, down to orders of magnitude below the shot-noise level to detect fluctuations caused by atomic motions. To understand the measured spectra, the spectrum for atoms performing random walks in a Gaussian light beam is computed, and its analytical form is obtained. The spectrum has 1 /f2 (f is frequency) behavior at higher frequencies, crossing over to a different, but well-defined, behavior at lower frequencies. The properties of this theoretical spectrum agree excellently with the measured spectrum. This understanding also enables us to obtain the diffusion constant, the photon cross section of atoms in buffer gas, and the atomic number density from a single spectral measurement. We further discuss other possible applications of our experimental method and analysis.

  10. The effect of pathological processes on absorption and scattering spectra of samples of bile and pancreatic juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Magomedov, M. A.; Murtazaeva, A. A.; Medzhidov, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Spectra of optical transmission coefficients and optical reflectance for bile and pancreatic juice samples were measured experimentally for different forms of pathologies of the pancreas within the range of 250-2500 nm. The absorption and scattering spectra, as well as the spectrum of the anisotropy factor of scattering, were determined based on the results obtained using the reverse Monte Carlo method. The surface morphology for the corresponding samples of the biological media was studied employing electron microscopy. The dynamics of the optical properties of the biological media was determined depending on the stage of the pathology. It has been demonstrated that the results of the study presented are in a good agreement with pathophysiological data and could supplement and broaden the results of conventional methods for diagnostics of the pancreas.

  11. Methane absorption in the visible spectra of the outer planets and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cess, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    New spectra of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan show weak methane bands in the region below 6000 A which have been known for many years in the spectra of Uranus and Neptune. Adopting the known abundance of methane on Jupiter, we have used a band model to determine CH4 abundances and broadening pressures for the other objects. The results indicate high values of the CH4 to H2 concentration ratio for Uranus and Neptune; for Titan, a surface pressure in excess of 1 atm is implied.

  12. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: Spectra and Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Nowak, M.; Vaughan, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present first results from the analysis of an RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 in its low state, taken about two months after the end of the high state. With Gamma approx. equal to 1.45 the spectrum is considerably harder than previous low-state measurements. The observed spectrum can be explained by a Comptonization spectrum as that emitted from a spherical corona surrounded by a cold accretion disk. The optical depth of the corona is between 2 and 2.5 and the temperature is between 60 and 80 keV. Temporal analysis shows a typical Root Mean Square (RMS) noise of approximately 25%. The Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) can be described as consisting of a flat component followed by an 1/f power-law, followed by an f(sup -1.6) power-law. The lag of the hard photons with respect to the soft photons is consistent with prior observations. The coherence function is remarkably close to unity from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz.

  13. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  14. Dynamics of intramolecular electron transfer reaction of FAD studied by magnetic field effects on transient absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masaaki; Maeda, Kiminori; Arai, Tatsuo

    2005-07-07

    The kinetics of intermediates generated from intramolecular electron-transfer reaction by photo irradiation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecule was studied by a magnetic field effect (MFE) on transient absorption (TA) spectra. Existence time of MFE and MFE action spectra have a strong dependence on the pH of solutions. The MFE action spectra have indicated the existence of interconversion between the radical pair and the cation form of the triplet excited state of flavin part. All rate constants of the triplet and the radical pair were determined by analysis of the MFE action spectra and decay kinetics of TA. The obtained values for the interconversion indicate that the formation of cation radical promotes the back electron-transfer reaction to the triplet excited state. Further, rate constants of spin relaxation and recombination have been studied by the time profiles of MFE at various pH. The drastic change of those two factors has been obtained and can be explained by SOC (spin-orbit coupling) induced back electron-transfer promoted by the formation of a stacking conformation at pH > 2.5.

  15. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  16. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  17. Collision-Induced Absorption Spectra of Binary Mixtures of Molecular Hydrogen with Molecular Deuterium and Argon and of Pure Hydrogen, D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Tsang William

    In the present research project a systematic study of the collision-induced infrared absorption (CIA) spectra of the binary mixtures of H_2 - D_2 in the region of the double fundamental vibrations of H_2 and D_2, and H_2 - Ar in the fundamental band of H_2, and of pure HD in its fundamental and first overtone regions was undertaken. The experiments were carried out with a 2.0 m high-pressure low-temperature transmission-type absorption cell at 77, 201 and 296 K at total gas densities up to 550 amagat. Infrared prism and grating spectrometers equipped with a microprocessor -controlled stepping motor were used to record the spectra. All the experimental results obtained represent first-time observations in collision-induced absorption. Collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of the double transitions of H_2(v=1>=ts 0) and D_2(v=1>=ts 0) have been observed at 77 and 201 K in the spectral region 7000-8000 cm^{-1} for total gas densities up to 550 amagat with a partial gas density ratio of 1:1 of H_2 and D_2. The observed spectra are interpreted in terms of the transitions, Q_1(J) of H_2+Q_1(J) of D _2, Q_1(J) of H_2+S _1(J) of D_2, S_1(J) of H_2 + Q_1(J) of D_2, and S_1(J) of H_2 + S_1(J) of D_2 for J = 0 and 1 for H _2 and J = 0, 1, and 2 for D_2. Analysis of the experimental absorption profiles was carried out using appropriate lineshape functions. The absorption coefficients, lineshape parameters, etc., are obtained from the analysis. Collision-induced enhancement absorption spectra of the fundamental band of H_2 in H_2 - Ar mixtures were recorded at room temperature for a base density of 72 amagat of H_2 for several partial densities of Ar up to 440 amagat. Hexadecapole-induced U transitions, U_1(1), U_1(2), Q_1(0)+U _0(1), and Q_1(1) + U_0(1) have been identified in the spectral region 5400 -6200 cm^{-1}. A "cage" model has been proposed to account for the double transitions of H_2 - H_2 in the H _2 - Ar enhancement spectra. From the analysis of the

  18. Optical absorption spectra and energy band gap in manganese containing sodium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarpasha, K. R.; Hanumantharaju, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Optical band gap energy in the system 25Na2O-(75-x)[0.6P2O5-0.4ZnO]-xMnO2 (where x = 0.5,1,5,10 and 20 mol.%) have been studied. The intensity of the absorption band found to increase with increase of MnO2 content. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in MnO2 content in the investigated glasses is attributed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The obtained results were discussed in view of the structure of phosphate glass network.

  19. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of heterocyclic isomers from long-range-corrected density functional theory in polarizable continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Kityk, Andriy V

    2012-03-22

    Long-range-corrected (LC) DFT/TDDFT methods may provide adequate description of ground and excited state properties; however, accuracy of such an approach depends much on a range separation (exchange screening) representing adjustable model parameter. Its relation to a size or specific of molecular systems has been explored in numerous studies, whereas the effect of solvent environment is usually ignored during the evaluation of state properties. To benchmark and assess the quality of the LC-DFT/TDDFT formalism, we report the optical absorption and fluorescence emission energies of organic heterocyclic isomers, DPIPQ and PTNA, calculated by LC-BLYP DFT/TDDFT method in the polarizable continuum (PCM) approach. The calculations are compared with the optical absorption and fluorescence spectra measured in organic solvents of different polarity. Despite a considerable structural difference, both dyes exhibit quite similar range separations being somewhat different for the optical absorption and fluorescence emission processes. Properly parametrized LC-BLYP xc-potential well reproduces basic features of the optical absorption spectra including the electronic transitions to higher excited states. The DFT/TDDFT/PCM analysis correctly predicts the solvation trends although solvatochromic shifts of the electronic transition energies appear to be evidently underestimated in most cases, especially for the fluorescence emission. Considering the discrepancy between the experiment and theory, evaluated state dipole moments and solvation corrections to the exchange screening are analyzed. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of a solvent-dependent range separation in DFT/TDDFT/PCM calculations for investigating excited state properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,includingmore » depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.« less

  1. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-01

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D0) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing.

  2. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of several chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) bands in stratospheric infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Farmer, C. B.; Brown, L. R.; Norton, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Four of the most prominent and sharpest infrared absorption features of chlorine nitrate at 780.2, 807.7, 809.4, and 1292.6/cm have been observed in a series of infrared solar spectra obtained at an unapodized spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, using the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument from on-board Sapcelab 3. A quantitative analysis of the nu4 Q branch at 780.2/cm has provided insight into the concentration of ClONO2 between 19 and 40 km altitude. While the mean profile deduced from three sunset occultations near 30 deg N latitude exhibits a shape close to that predicted by model calculations, its concentrations in the 20 to 32 km altitude range are, however, about 30 percent larger, reaching a peak concentration of 9 x 10 to the 8th molecules/cu cm at 25 km. The concentrations above 32 km, deduced from one sunrise occultation at 47 deg JS, are even larger than the corresponding sunset values at 30 deg N latitude. Some of these discrepancies may be caused by the rather large uncertainty in the assumed Q branch strength.

  4. Constraining the variation of the fine-structure constant with observations of narrow quasar absorption lines

    SciTech Connect

    Songaila, A.; Cowie, L. L., E-mail: acowie@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-01

    The unequivocal demonstration of temporal or spatial variability in a fundamental constant of nature would be of enormous significance. Recent attempts to measure the variability of the fine-structure constant α over cosmological time, using high-resolution spectra of high-redshift quasars observed with 10 m class telescopes, have produced conflicting results. We use the many multiplet (MM) method with Mg II and Fe II lines on very high signal-to-noise, high-resolution (R = 72, 000) Keck HIRES spectra of eight narrow quasar absorption systems. We consider both systematic uncertainties in spectrograph wavelength calibration and also velocity offsets introduced by complex velocity structure inmore » even apparently simple and weak narrow lines and analyze their effect on claimed variations in α. We find no significant change in α, Δα/α = (0.43 ± 0.34) × 10{sup –5}, in the redshift range z = 0.7-1.5, where this includes both statistical and systematic errors. We also show that the scatter in measurements of Δα/α arising from absorption line structure can be considerably larger than assigned statistical errors even for apparently simple and narrow absorption systems. We find a null result of Δα/α = (– 0.59 ± 0.55) × 10{sup –5} in a system at z = 1.7382 using lines of Cr II, Zn II, and Mn II, whereas using Cr II and Zn II lines in a system at z = 1.6614 we find a systematic velocity trend that, if interpreted as a shift in α, would correspond to Δα/α = (1.88 ± 0.47) × 10{sup –5}, where both results include both statistical and systematic errors. This latter result is almost certainly caused by varying ionic abundances in subcomponents of the line: using Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II in the analysis changes the result to Δα/α = (– 0.47 ± 0.53) × 10{sup –5}. Combining the Mg II and Fe II results with estimates based on Mn II, Ni II, and Cr II gives Δα/α = (– 0.01 ± 0.26) × 10{sup –5}. We conclude that spectroscopic measurements

  5. Determination of vibration-rotation lines intensities from absorption Fourier spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandin, J. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The method presented allows the line intensities to be calculated from either their equivalent widths, heights, or quantities deduced from spectra obtained by Fourier spectrometry. This method has proven its effectiveness in measuring intensities of 60 lines of the molecule H2O with a precision of 10%. However, this method cannot be applied to isolated lines.

  6. A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Relationship between Response Curves and Absorption Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chia-yu

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment for recording two individual spectrophotometer response curves. The two curves are directly related to the power of transmitted beams that pass through a solvent and solution. An absorption spectrum of the solution can be constructed from the calculated rations of the curves as a function of wavelength. (JN)

  7. Laboratory Measurements of SO2 and N2 Absorption Spectra for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    This laboratory project focuses on the following topics: 1) Measurement of SO2 ultraviolet absorption cross sections; and 2) N2 band and Line Oscillator Strengths and Line Widths in the 80 to 100 nm region. Accomplishments for these projects are summarized.

  8. Observations of tropospheric trace gases from GOSAT thermal infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Hirofumi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Maki, Takashi; Deushi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS), which is one of the sensors onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), measures the sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere as well as the thermal radiance emitted from the Earth. Atmospheric trace gases such as ozone (O3), water vapor (H2O and HDO), methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia (NH3) are derived from the thermal infrared spectral radiance recorded with the TANSO-FTS by an optimal estimation retrieval approach. TANSO-FTS total ozone columns are compared with Dobson spectrophotometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data. The TANSO-FTS total ozone retrievals exhibit a positive bias of 3-4% with a root-mean-square difference of 2-6% compared to the Dobson and OMI measurements. We compare TANSO-FTS tropospheric ozone columns to those from ozonesonde data as well as from a three-dimensional chemical-climate model (MRI-CCM2). The TANSO-FTS data have high correlations with the ozonesonde data. The seasonal trends of the retrieved tropospheric ozone are consistent with those of the ozonesonde data. The spatial distribution of the tropospheric ozone from the TANSO-FTS and MRI-CCM2 shows good agreement, especially in the high-level tropospheric ozone regions. We also retrieve tropospheric H2O and HDO profiles simultaneously, accounting for the cross correlations between the water isotopes. The joint retrieval results in precise estimation of the isotope ratio by partial cancellation of systematic errors common to both H2O and HDO. The retrieved profiles and columns are compared with radiosonde, GPS, and ground-based high-resolution FTS data. The temporal and spatial variations of the precipitable water and the isotope ratio are consistent with those of the validation data. Finally, air pollutants such as CH3OH and NH3 are retrieved using the retrieved ozone and water vapor. We present the latitudinal and seasonal variations of CH3OH

  9. The absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of α and β-F, Cl, Br-naphthalenes in crystalline matrixes at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, T.; Milea, I.; Abdolrahman, P. M.

    1984-03-01

    The paper studies the absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of α and β-F, Cl, Br-naphtalenes (α, β-F, Cl,BrN) in different matrixes at 77 K and different concentrations. From these spectra one obtaines the vibrational frequences.

  10. Predicting the Shifts of Absorption Maxima of Azulene Derivatives Using Molecular Modeling and ZINDO CI Calculations of UV-Vis Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patalinghug, Wyona C.; Chang, Maharlika; Solis, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    The deep blue color of azulene is drastically changed by the addition of substituents such as CH[subscript 3], F, or CHO. Computational semiempirical methods using ZINDO CI are used to model azulene and azulene derivatives and to calculate their UV-vis spectra. The calculated spectra are used to show the trends in absorption band shifts upon…

  11. BinMag: Widget for comparing stellar observed with theoretical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2018-05-01

    BinMag examines theoretical stellar spectra computed with Synth/SynthMag/Synmast/Synth3/SME spectrum synthesis codes and compare them to observations. An IDL widget program, BinMag applies radial velocity shift and broadening to the theoretical spectra to account for the effects of stellar rotation, radial-tangential macroturbulence, instrumental smearing. The code can also simulate spectra of spectroscopic binary stars by appropriate coaddition of two synthetic spectra. Additionally, BinMag can be used to measure equivalent width, fit line profile shapes with analytical functions, and to automatically determine radial velocity and broadening parameters. BinMag interfaces with the Synth3 (ascl:1212.010) and SME (ascl:1202.013) codes, allowing the user to determine chemical abundances and stellar atmospheric parameters from the observed spectra.

  12. STIS Observations of the Intrinsic UV Absorption in the Dwarf Seyfert Nucleus of NGC 4395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Steven

    2002-07-01

    The Sd IV dwarf galaxy NGC 4395 is one of the nearest {d 4.2 Mpc} and least luminous {L_bol 10^41 ergs s^-1} examples of Seyfert 1 galaxies. Furthermore, it is the only known example of an active nucleus within a bulgeless, extreme late-type galaxy. This unique object possesses all of the classic Seyfert 1 properties in miniature, including broad and narrow emission lines and highly variable X-ray emission, presumably powered by a small {few x 10^4 M_odot} black hole. Furthermore, we have discovered evidence for blueshifted, intrinsic absorption lines in the UV {C IV LambdaLambda1548.2, 1550.8}, while X-ray spectra show the presence of bound-free edges from O VII and O VIII. We propose HST/STIS echelle observations to determine the properties {ionization states, column densities, velocity coverages, covering factors} of the intrinsic UV absorbers in NGC 4395. Due to the high covering factor of its narrow-line emission, NGC 4395 offers the best case for testing the connection between the absorbers and the narrow-line region {NLR}. Furthermore, an empirical comparison of its absorption properties with those in higher luminosity active galactic nuclei {AGN} will provide valuable constraints on dynamical models of the absorbers, which make predictions that are strongly dependent on luminosity and/or central black hole mass.

  13. Long-Range Chemical Sensitivity in the Sulfur K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Substituted Thiophenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thiophenes are the simplest aromatic sulfur-containing compounds and are stable and widespread in fossil fuels. Regulation of sulfur levels in fuels and emissions has become and continues to be ever more stringent as part of governments’ efforts to address negative environmental impacts of sulfur dioxide. In turn, more effective removal methods are continually being sought. In a chemical sense, thiophenes are somewhat obdurate and hence their removal from fossil fuels poses problems for the industrial chemist. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides key information on thiophenic components in fuels. Here we present a systematic study of the spectroscopic sensitivity to chemical modifications of the thiophene system. We conclude that while the utility of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra in understanding the chemical composition of sulfur-containing fossil fuels has already been demonstrated, care must be exercised in interpreting these spectra because the assumption of an invariant spectrum for thiophenic forms may not always be valid. PMID:25116792

  14. Stark effect spectrophone for continuous absorption spectra monitoring. [a technique for gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A Stark effect spectrophone using a pulsed or continuous wave laser having a beam with one or more absorption lines of a constituent of an unknown gas is described. The laser beam is directed through windows of a closed cell while the unknown gas to be modified flows continuously through the cell between electric field plates disposed in the cell on opposite sides of the beam path through the cell. When the beam is pulsed, energy absorbed by the gas increases at each point along the beam path according to the spectral lines of the constituents of the gas for the particular field strengths at those points. The pressure measurement at each point during each pulse of energy yields a plot of absorption as a function of electric field for simultaneous detection of the gas constituents. Provision for signal averaging and modulation is included.

  15. Performance Enhancement of Polymer Solar Cells by Using Two Polymer Donors with Complementary Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heng; Zhang, Xuejuan; Li, Cuihong; Wei, Hedi; Liu, Qian; Li, Weiwei; Bo, Zhishan

    2015-07-01

    Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is achieved by expanding the absorption of the active layer of devices. To better match the spectrum of solar radiation, two polymers with different band gaps are used as the donor material to fabricate ternary polymer cells. Ternary blend PSCs exhibit an enhanced short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage in comparison with the corresponding HD-PDFC-DTBT (HD)- and DT-PDPPTPT (DPP)-based binary polymer solar cells, respectively. Ternary PSCs show a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.71%, surpassing the corresponding binary PSCs. This work demonstrates that the fabrication of ternary PSCs by using two polymers with complementary absorption is an effective way to improve the device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Simultaneous infrared and UV-visible absorption spectra of matrix-isolated carbon vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Joe; Huffman, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon molecules were suggested as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. In particular, it was proposed that the 443 nm diffuse interstellar band is due to the same molecule which gives rise to the 447 nm absorption feature in argon matrix-isolated carbon vapor. If so, then an associated C-C stretching mode should be seen in the IR. By doing spectroscopy in both the IR and UV-visible regions on the same sample, the present work provides evidence for correlating UV-visible absorption features with those found in the IR. Early data indicates no correlation between the strongest IR feature (1997/cm) and the 447 nm band. Correlation with weaker IR features is being investigated.

  17. XMM-Newton observations of the Lockman Hole IV: spectra of the brightest AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, S.; Barcons, X.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Hasinger, G.; Lehmann, I.; Fabian, A. C.; Streblyanska, A.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of a sample of 123 X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton in the Lockman Hole field. This is the deepest observation carried out with XMM-Newton with more that 600 ks of good EPIC-pn data. We have spectra with good signal to noise (>500 source counts) for all objects down to 0.2-12 keV fluxes of 5×10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 (flux limit of 6×10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 and 2-10 keV bands). At the time of the analysis, we had optical spectroscopic identifications for 60% of the sources, 46 being optical type-1 AGN and 28 optical type-2 AGN. Using a single power law model our sources' average spectral slope hardens at faint 0.5-2 keV fluxes but not at faint 2-10 keV fluxes. We have been able to explain this effect in terms of an increase in X-ray absorption at faint fluxes. We did not find in our data any evidence for the existence of a population of faint intrinsically harder sources. The average spectral slope of our sources is 1.9, with an intrinsic dispersion of 0.28. We detected X-ray absorption (F-test significance ≥95%) in 37% of the sources, 10% in type-1 AGN (rest-frame {NH ˜ 1.6 × 1021{-}1.2 × 1022 cm-2}) and 77% (rest-frame {NH ˜ 1.5 ×1021{-}4× 1023 cm-2}) in type-2 AGN. Using X-ray fluxes corrected for absorption, the fraction of absorbed objects and the absorbing column density distribution did not vary with X-ray flux. Our type-1 and type-2 AGN do not appear to have different continuum shapes, but the distribution of intrinsic (rest-frame) absorbing column densities is different among both classes. A significant fraction of our type-2 AGN (5 out of 28) were found to display no substantial absorption ({NH<1021 cm-2}). We discuss possible interpretations to this in terms of Compton-thick AGN and intrinsic Broad Line Region properties. An emission line compatible with Fe Kα was detected in 8 sources (1 type-1 AGN, 5 type-2 AGN and 2 unidentified) with rest frame equivalent widths

  18. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV/vis absorption spectra of 5-(3- and 4-substituted arylazo)-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić, Gordana S.; Perišić-Janjić, Nada U.; Valentić, Nataša V.

    2006-01-01

    Absorption spectra of seventeen 5-(3- and 4-substituted arylazo)-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones have been recorded in 12 protic and aprotic solvents in the range 200-600 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of these new azo dyes are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with Hammett equation. The solute-solvent interactions were clarified on the basis of linear solvation energy relationships concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The 2-pyridone/2-hydroxypiridine tautomeric equilibration is found to depend upon substituents as well as on solvents.

  19. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2Ge 0.8Cr 0.2O 4, Ba 2Ge 0.1Cr 0.9O 4, Sr 2CrO 4, Ca 2(PO 4) x(CrO 4) 1- xCl ( x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5(CrO 4) 3Cl, CrO 3, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3, CrF 3, Cr 2O 3, KCr(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  20. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  1. Influence of temperature on water and aqueous glucose absorption spectra in the near- and mid-infrared regions at physiologically relevant temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Snoer; Bak, Jimmy; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Near- and mid-infrared absorption spectra of pure water and aqueous 1.0 g/dL glucose solutions in the wavenumber range 8000-950 cm-1 were measured in the temperature range 30-42 degrees C in steps of 2 degrees C. Measurements were carried out with an FT-IR spectrometer and a variable pathlength transmission cell controlled within 0.02 degree C. Pathlengths of 50 microns and 0.4 mm were used in the mid- and near-infrared spectral region, respectively. Difference spectra were used to determine the effect of temperature on the water spectra quantitatively. These spectra were obtained by subtracting the 37 degrees C water spectrum from the spectra measured at other temperatures. The difference spectra reveal that the effect of temperature is highest in the vicinity of the strong absorption bands, with a number of isosbestic points with no temperature dependence and relatively flat plateaus in between. On the basis of these spectra, prospects for and limitations on data analysis for infrared diagnostic methods are discussed. As an example, the absorptive properties of glucose were studied in the same temperature range in order to determine the effect of temperature on the spectral shape of glucose. The change in water absorption associated with the addition of glucose has also been studied. An estimate of these effects is given and is related to the expected level of infrared signals from glucose in humans.

  2. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, B. A.; Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seenmore » in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.« less

  3. [Determination of critical micelle concentration of alkyl polyglucoside (APG) nonionic surfactant aqueous system by multi-peaks Gaussian fitting of visible absorption spectra line shape].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Kong, Kai-Qing; He, Zheng-Ling; Liu, Zi-Li

    2007-07-01

    A multi-peaks Gaussian fitting on the line shape of visible spectra was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of alkyl polyglucoside (APG) nonionic surfactant aqueous system such as octyl beta D mono-glucoside (C8 G1) and decyl beta D mono-glucoside (C10 G1). Visible electronic absorption spectra of a series of different concentration C8G1 or C10G1 with crystal violet (CV) used as a probe were measured respectively and characterized by the overlap of the principal peak with lambda(max) at 598-609 nm and a shoulder at 538-569 nm assigned to monomer and dimer CV respectively. A multi-peaks Gaussian fitting was used to interpret the spectra and give relative integrating absorbance (A2/A1) of two peaks, red-shift (deltalambda) and half-width. A sudden change occurred at CMC in the curves of the relative integrating absorbance (A2/A1), red-shift (deltalambda) and half-width (w1, w2) versus the C8G1 or C10G1 surfactant concentrations. Significantly the dependence of the CMC upon the half-width was ob-served for the first time and successfully used to determine CMC of nonionic surfactant such as APG.

  4. Computer modeling of bidirectional spectra: the role of geometry of illumination/observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynko, Ye.; Shkuratov, Yu.; Mall, U.

    Reflectance spectroscopy is widely used in the remote sensing of the Moon. Ground based and space spectrophotometric observations provide information about physical properties and chemical composition of lunar regolith. The main spectral features such as spectral slope and parameters of the absorption bands are different for different minerals and depend on the surface roughness, particle size, degrees of maturity and cristallinity, etc. In order to interpret reflectance measurements a model describing the light interaction with a regolith-like surface is needed. However, the problem of light scattering in dense particulate media consisting of irregular particles larger than the wavelength of light (which is the case for lunar regolith) has not yet been solved and only approximate models exist. Spectrophotometric properties of such surfaces can be analyzed in the geometric optics approach with one-dimensional (1-D) light scattering models (e.g., [1]). Although the 1-D models are successfully applied to interprete planetary regolith spectra they do not give an answer how spectral features depend on the geometrical illumination/observation condition of the surface. Laboratory measurements prove that the changing lighting conditions play a significant role in the formation of the above mentioned spectral features [2, 3]. In the presented work we use computer modeling to simulate light reflection from a regolith-like surface. Our computer experiment includes two stages: The simulation of the medium and ray tracing [4, 5]. Particles with random irregular shape are randomly distributed in a cyclically closed model volume which forms a semi-infinite medium (surface). Their surface is described by flat facets.The applied technique uses a Monte Carlo ray tracing method with parallel rays falling under a given angle relative to the average surface normal. The interaction of a ray with a particle surface facet is determined by Fresnel formulas and Snell's law. The model

  5. Absorption spectra and nonlinear transmission (at λ = 2940 nm) of a diffusion-doped Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetova, G A; Gulyamova, E S; Il'ichev, N N

    2015-06-30

    Transmission spectra of a ZnSe sample diffusion-doped with Fe{sup 2+} ions have been measured in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm. A broad absorption band in the range 500 – 1500 nm has been observed in both doped and undoped regions of the sample. This band is possibly due to deviations from stoichiometry in the course of diffusion doping. The transmission of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe sample at a wavelength of 2940 nm has been measured at various dopant concentrations and high peak pulse intensities (up to 8 MW cm{sup -2}). The samples have been shown to be incompletely bleached:more » during a laser pulse, the transmission first increases, reaches a maximum, and then falls off. Our results suggest that the incomplete bleaching cannot be accounted for by excited-state absorption. The incomplete bleaching (as well as the transmission maximum) is due to the heating of the sample, which leads to a reduction in upper level lifetime and, accordingly, to an increase in absorption saturation intensity. (nonlinear optical phenomena)« less

  6. Impurity optical absorption spectra of ZnGa 2Se 4:Ni 2+ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wha-Tek; Jin, Moon-Seog; Cheon, Seung-Ho; Kim, Yong-Geun; Park, Byong-Seo

    1990-04-01

    The optical absorption of single crystals of ZnGa 2Se 4:Ni 2+ grown by the chemical transport reaction method was investigated in the temperature region 20-300 K. In the single crystals the impurity optical absorption peaks due to the transitions 3T1( 3F) → 3T2( 3F), 3T1( 3F) → 3A2( 3F) and 3T1( 3F) → 3T1( 3P) of the Ni 2+ ions sited in the host lattice of the ZnGa 2Se 4 single crystal with Td symmetry appeared at 4444, 7874 and 11 600 cm -1, respectively. The crystal-field parameter and the Racah parameter were given by Dq = 340 cm -1 and B = 615 cm -1, respectively. The peak due to the transition 3T1( 3F) → 3T1( 3P) split into four levels by first order spin-orbit-coupling effects of Ni 2+ ions in the lower temperature below 150 K. The spin-orbit-coupling parameter was found to be λ = -400 cm -1.

  7. Infrared absorption spectra of N(CxF2x+1)3, x = 2-5 perfluoroamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, François; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; Burkholder, James B.

    2018-05-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of the perfluoroamines (N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3) were measured over the 500-4000 cm-1 spectral region at 294 K using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at 1 cm-1 resolution. Spectral measurements were performed using static measurements of dilute perfluoroamines mixtures and by infusion of the pure compound into a calibrated gas flow. The perfluoroamines absorb strongly in the "atmospheric window" with integrated band strengths (10-17 cm2 molecule-1 cm-1) between 570 and 1500 cm-1 of 59.9, 74.9, 88.9, and 98.7 for N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3, respectively. Radiative efficiencies (RE) for the perfluoroamines were estimated to be 0.61, 0.75, 0.87, and 0.95 W m-2 ppb-1 for atmospherically well-mixed conditions and including a +10% stratospheric temperature correction for N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the perfluoroamines were performed at the B97-1/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory and optimized perfluoroamine geometries, vibrational band positions, and band strengths are reported. The theoretically calculated infrared spectra are in good agreement with the experimental spectra, while comparison of individual bands was not attempted due to the significant overlap of vibrational bands in the experimental spectra.

  8. On the origin of a very close similarity between the spectra of the supernova type 1 in NGC 3198 and the absorption of DQ HeR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustel, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The type 1 supernova discovered late in 1966 in NGC 3198 has broad minima in its spectrum break down into a number of significantly narrower absorption bands. The broad minima of tau, sigma and mu, which usually show no details in the spectra of type supernovas, contain a number of narrow absorption bands. The reality of most of these absorption bands is demonstrated by comparison of recordings of spectra of the supernova presented for two moments in time. These minima (particularly of tau and mu,) are a result of blending of several broad absorption bands. The minimum of tau should be a blend of intensive and very broad Fe absorption lines, in which the lower level is metastable. The wavelengths of these line are: 5169, 5198, 5235, 5276, 5317, 5363A.

  9. Combined experimental and computational investigation of the absorption spectra of E- and Z-cinnamic acids in solution: The peculiarity of Z-cinnamics.

    PubMed

    Salum, María L; Arroyo Mañez, Pau; Luque, F Javier; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamic acids are present in all kinds of plant tissues and hence in herbs and derived medicines, cosmetics and foods. The interest in their role in plants and their therapeutic applications has grown exponentially. Because of their molecular structure they can exist in E- and Z-forms, which are both found in plants. However, since only the E-forms are commercially available, very few in vitro and in vivo studies of the Z-form have been reported. In this work the physico-chemical properties of Z-cinnamic acids in solution have been examined by means of UV-absorption spectroscopy and high-level quantum mechanical computations. For each isomer similar absorption spectra were obtained in methanol and acetonitrile. However, distinct trends were found for Z- and E forms of cinnamic acids in water, where a higher hypsochromic shift of the Z-isomer relative to the E-form was observed. In general the wavelength of maximal absorption of the Z-form is dramatically blue shifted (-30 to -40 nm) to λ<280 nm, while a slightly blue shift of the absorption maxima for the corresponding E-form (+3 to -4 nm) was observed. This difference is associated with the non-planar, largely distorted, Z-structure and to the almost complete flat structure of the E-form. The results provide a basis for the study of functional and biotechnological roles of cinnamic acids and for the analysis of samples containing mixture of both geometric isomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-energy X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 observed from OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 were measured with the scintillation spectrometer aboard the OSO 8 satellite during a period of one-and-one-half to three weeks in each of the years from 1975 to 1977. Typical spectra of the source between 15 and 250 keV are presented and the spectra are found to be well represented by a single power-law expression whose photon number spectral index is different for the two intensity states that were considered. The observed pivoting effect is consistent with two-temperature accretion disk models of the X-ray emitting region.

  11. Direct Observations of Excess Solar Absorption by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometers to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0 as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on coordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  12. Discriminating the Mineralogical Composition in Drill Cuttings Based on Absorption Spectra in the Terahertz Range.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xinyang; Li, Hao; Bao, Rima; Feng, Chengjing; Wu, Hang; Zhan, Honglei; Li, Yizhang; Zhao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the geological units of a reservoir is essential to the development and management of the resource. In this paper, drill cuttings from several depths from an oilfield were studied using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to classify and analyze the cuttings. The cuttings were clearly classified based on CA and PCA methods, and the results were in agreement with the lithology. Moreover, calcite and dolomite have stronger absorption of a THz pulse than any other minerals, based on an analysis of the PC1 scores. Quantitative analyses of minor minerals were also realized by building a series of linear and non-linear models between contents and PC2 scores. The results prove THz technology to be a promising means for determining reservoir lithology as well as other properties, which will be a significant supplementary method in oil fields.

  13. Laboratory mid-IR spectra of equilibrated and igneous meteorites. Searching for observables of planetesimal debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, B. L.; Skogby, H.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Min, M.

    2018-06-01

    Meteorites contain minerals from Solar System asteroids with different properties (like size, presence of water, core formation). We provide new mid-IR transmission spectra of powdered meteorites to obtain templates of how mid-IR spectra of asteroidal debris would look like. This is essential for interpreting mid-IR spectra of past and future space observatories, like the James Webb Space Telescope. First we present new transmission spectra of powdered ordinary chondrite, pallasite and HED meteorites and then we combine them with already available transmission spectra of chondrites in the literature, giving a total set of 64 transmission spectra. In detail we study the spectral features of minerals in these spectra to obtain measurables used to spectroscopically distinguish between meteorite groups. Being able to differentiate between dust from different meteorite types means we can probe properties of parent bodies, like their size, if they were wet or dry and if they are differentiated (core formation) or not. We show that the transmission spectra of wet and dry chondrites, carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites and achondrite and chondrite meteorites are distinctly different in a way one can distinguish in astronomical mid-IR spectra. Carbonaceous chondrites type < 3 (aqueously altered) show distinct features of hydrated silicates (hydrosilicates) compared to the olivine and pyroxene rich ordinary chondrites (dry and equilibrated meteorites). Also the iron concentration of the olivine in carbonaceous chondrites differs from ordinary chondrites, which can be probed by the wavelength peak position of the olivine spectral features. The transmission spectra of chondrites (not differentiated) are also strongly different from the achondrite HED meteorites (meteorites from differentiated bodies like 4 Vesta), where the latter show much stronger pyroxene signatures. The two observables that spectroscopically separate the different meteorites groups (and thus the different

  14. Measurement of two-photon-absorption spectra through nonlinear fluorescence produced by a line-shaped excitation beam.

    PubMed

    Hasani, E; Parravicini, J; Tartara, L; Tomaselli, A; Tomassini, D

    2018-05-01

    We propose an innovative experimental approach to estimate the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum of a fluorescent material. Our method develops the standard indirect fluorescence-based method for the TPA measurement by employing a line-shaped excitation beam, generating a line-shaped fluorescence emission. Such a configuration, which requires a relatively high amount of optical power, permits to have a greatly increased fluorescence signal, thus avoiding the photon counterdetection devices usually used in these measurements, and allowing to employ detectors such as charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. The method is finally tested on a fluorescent isothiocyanate sample, whose TPA spectrum, which is measured with the proposed technique, is compared with the TPA spectra reported in the literature, confirming the validity of our experimental approach. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. FTIR spectrometer with 30 m optical cell and its applications to the sensitive measurements of selective and nonselective absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Solodov, A. A.; Solodov, A. M.; Petrova, T. M.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    A description of the spectroscopic complex at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS, operating in a wide spectral range with high threshold sensitivity to the absorption coefficient is presented. Measurements of weak lines and nonselective spectra of CO2 and H2O were performed based on the built setup. As new application of this setup, positions and intensities of 152 weak lines of H2O were measured between 2400 and 2560 cm-1 with threshold sensitivity of 8.6×10-10 cm-1, and compared with available calculated and experimental data. Essential deviations between the new intensity measurements and calculated data accepted in HITRAN 2012 and GEISA 2015 forthcoming release are found.

  16. AKARI observations of brown dwarfs. IV. Effect of elemental abundances on near-infrared spectra between 1.0 and 5.0 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.

    2014-09-20

    The detection of the CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 μm in brown dwarf spectra by AKARI has made it possible to discuss CO{sub 2} molecular abundance in brown dwarf atmospheres. In our previous studies, we found an excess in the 4.2 μm CO{sub 2} absorption band of three brown dwarf spectra, and suggested that these deviations were caused by high C and O elemental abundances in their atmospheres. To validate this hypothesis, we have constructed a set of models of brown dwarf atmospheres with various elemental abundance patterns, and we investigate the variations of the molecular composition and themore » thermal structure, and how they affect the near-infrared spectra between 1.0 and 5.0 μm. The 4.2 μm CO{sub 2} absorption band in some late-L and T dwarfs taken by AKARI is stronger or weaker than predicted by corresponding models with solar abundance. By comparing the CO{sub 2} band in the model spectra to the observed near-infrared spectra, we confirm possible elemental abundance variations among brown dwarfs. We find that the band strength is especially sensitive to O abundance, but C is also needed to reproduce the entire near-infrared spectra. This result indicates that both the C and O abundances should increase and decrease simultaneously for brown dwarfs. We find that a weaker CO{sub 2} absorption band in a spectrum can also be explained by a model with lower 'C and O' abundances.« less

  17. Optical absorption spectra and g factor of MgO: Mn2+explored by ab initio and semi empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreici Eftimie, E.-L.; Avram, C. N.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculations of the optical absorption spectra, ligand field parameters and g factor for the Mn2+ (3d5) ions doped in MgO host crystal. The proposed technique combines two methods: the ab initio multireference (MR) and the semi empirical ligand field (LF) in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) respectively. Both methods of calculations are applied to the [MnO6]10-cluster embedded in an extended point charge field of host matrix ligands based on Gellé-Lepetit procedure. The first step of such investigations was the full optimization of the cubic structure of perfect MgO crystal, followed by the structural optimization of the doped of MgO:Mn2+ system, using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The ab initio MR wave functions approaches, such as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), N-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and spectroscopy oriented configuration interaction (SORCI), are used for the calculations. The scalar relativistic effects have also been taken into account through the second order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) procedure. Ab initio ligand field theory (AILFT) allows to extract all LF parameters and spin-orbit coupling constant from such calculations. In addition, the ECM of ligand field theory (LFT) has been used for modelling theoptical absorption spectra. The perturbation theory (PT) was employed for the g factor calculation in the semi empirical LFT. The results of each of the aforementioned types of calculations are discussed and the comparisons between the results obtained and the experimental results show a reasonable agreement, which justifies this new methodology based on the simultaneous use of both methods. This study establishes fundamental principles for the further modelling of larger embedded cluster models of doped metal oxides.

  18. Where Is the Electronic Oscillator Strength? Mapping Oscillator Strength across Molecular Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianjun; Polizzi, Nicholas F; Dave, Adarsh R; Migliore, Agostino; Beratan, David N

    2016-03-24

    The effectiveness of solar energy capture and conversion materials derives from their ability to absorb light and to transform the excitation energy into energy stored in free carriers or chemical bonds. The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule mandates that the integrated (electronic) oscillator strength of an absorber equals the total number of electrons in the structure. Typical molecular chromophores place only about 1% of their oscillator strength in the UV-vis window, so individual chromophores operate at about 1% of their theoretical limit. We explore the distribution of oscillator strength as a function of excitation energy to understand this circumstance. To this aim, we use familiar independent-electron model Hamiltonians as well as first-principles electronic structure methods. While model Hamiltonians capture the qualitative electronic spectra associated with π electron chromophores, these Hamiltonians mistakenly focus the oscillator strength in the fewest low-energy transitions. Advanced electronic structure methods, in contrast, spread the oscillator strength over a very wide excitation energy range, including transitions to Rydberg and continuum states, consistent with experiment. Our analysis rationalizes the low oscillator strength in the UV-vis spectral region in molecules, a step toward the goal of oscillator strength manipulation and focusing.

  19. Limits on the time variation of the electromagnetic fine-structure constant in the low energy limit from absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.

    PubMed

    Srianand, R; Chand, H; Petitjean, P; Aracil, B

    2004-03-26

    We present the results of a detailed many-multiplet analysis performed on a new sample of Mg ii systems observed in high quality quasar spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope. The weighted mean value of the variation in alpha derived from our analysis over the redshift range 0.4absorption line systems.

  20. [The effect of electromagnetic waves of very high frequency of molecular spectra of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide on the functional activity of platelets].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Maĭborodin, A V; Volin, M V; Krenitskiĭ, A P; Tupikin, V D

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of electromagnetic EMI MMD-fluctuation on the frequencies of molecular spectra of radiation, and nitric oxide absorption under in vitro conditions on the functional activity of platelets in patients with unstable angina pectoris, with the help of a specially created generator. At amplitude-modulated and continuous modes of EMI MMD-irradiation of platelet-rich plasma for 5, 15 and 30 min the platelet functional activity decreases, which was shown up in reduction of their activation and fall of aggregative ability. The degree, to which platelet functional activity was inhibited, depended on the mode of irradiation and on duration of EMI MMD effect. The most obvious changes in platelet activation and in their readiness to aggregative response were observed at a continuous mode of irradiation within a 15 min interval.

  1. Absorption Spectra and Photoreactivity of p-Aminobenzophenone by Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xue-mei; Huang, Yao; Ma, Jian-yi; Li, Xiang-yuan

    2007-06-01

    The absorption spectral properties of para-aminobenzophenone (p-ABP) were investigated in gas phase and in solution by time-dependent density functional theory. Calculations suggest that the singlet states vary greatly with the solvent polarities. In various polar solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide, the excited S1 states with charge transfer character result from π → π* transitions. However, in nonpolar solvents, cyclohexane, and benzene, the S1 states are the result of n → π* transitions related to local excitation in the carbonyl group. The excited T1 states were calculated to have ππ* character in various solvents. From the variation of the calculated excited states, the band due to π → π* transition undergoes a redshift with an increase in solvent polarity, while the band due to n → π* transition undergoes a blueshift with an increase in solvent polarity. In addition, the triplet yields and the photoreactivities of p-ABP in various solvents are discussed.

  2. Structure and electronic absorption spectra of nematogenic alkoxycinnamic acids - a comparative study based on semiempirical and DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Pogula Lakshmi; Ojha, Durga Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Structure of nematogenic p-n-Alkoxy cinnamic acids (nOCAC) with various alkyl chain carbon atoms (n = 2, 4, 6, 8) has been optimized using density functional B3LYP with 6-31+G (d) basis set using crystallographic geometry as input. Using the optimized geometry, electronic structure of the molecules has been evaluated using the semiempirical methods and DFT calculations. Molecular charge distribution and phase stability of these systems have been analyzed based on Mulliken and Löwdin population analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of nOCAC molecules have been simulated by employing DFT method, semiempirical CNDO/S and INDO/S parameterizations. Two types of calculations have been performed for model systems containing single and double molecules of nOCAC. UV-Visible spectra have been calculated for all single molecules. The UV stability of the molecules has been discussed in light of the electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The dimer complexes of higher homologues (n = 6, 8) have also been reported to enable the comparison between single and double molecules.

  3. A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.

  4. The IR Absorption Spectra of Aqueous Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide over the Frequency Range 50-300 cm-1 and the Mobility of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemenkova, Z. S.; Novskova, T. A.; Lyashchenko, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The IR absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with concentrations from 100% H2O to 100% DMSO were recorded over the frequency range 50-500 cm-1. The absorption spectra were described using the theoretical scheme of hindered rotators. A model was developed according to which orientation relaxation in solution was related to separate rotations of H2O and DMSO molecules through fixed small and (or) large angles in a unified network of H-bonds consisting of several subsystems ordered to various degrees. The calculated absorption spectra were in agreement with the experimental data in the far IR region. Elementary motions of molecules were found to slow down in the passage from pure dimethylsulfoxide to its aqueous solutions. The special features of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration of DMSO polar and nonpolar groups were considered.

  5. Doppler-shifting effects on frequency spectra of gravity waves observed near the summer mesopause at high latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of radar observations of horizontal and vertical velocities near the summer mesopause at Poker Flat (Alaska), showing that the observed vertical velocity spectra were influenced strongly by Doppler-shifting effects. The horizontal velocity spectra, however, were relatively insensitive to horizontal wind speed. The observed spectra are compared with predicted spectra for various models of the intrinsic motion spectrum and degrees of Doppler shifting.

  6. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Neutral Perylene (C20H12), Terrylene (C30H16), and Quaterrylene (C40H20) and their Positive and Negative Ions: Ne Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopy and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a full experimental and theoretical study of an interesting series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the oligorylenes. The absorption spectra of perylene, terrylene and quaterrylene in neutral, cationic and anionic charge states are obtained by matrix-isolation spectroscopy in Ne. The experimental spectra are dominated by a bright state that red shifts with growing molecular size. Excitation energies and state symmetry assignments are supported by calculations using time dependent density functional theory methods. These calculations also provide new insight into the observed trends in oscillator strength and excitation energy for the bright states: the oscillator strength per unit mass of carbon increases along the series.

  7. Searches for 3.5 keV Absorption Features in Cluster AGN Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate possible evidence for a spectral dip around 3.5 keV in central cluster AGNs, motivated by previous results for archival Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster and the general interest in novel spectral features around 3.5 keV that may arise from dark matter physics. We use two deep Chandra observations of the Perseus and Virgo clusters that have recently been made public. In both cases, mild improvements in the fit (Δχ2 = 4.2 and Δχ2 = 2.5) are found by including such a dip at 3.5 keV into the spectrum. A comparable result (Δχ2 = 6.5) is found re-analysing archival on-axis Chandra ACIS-S observations of the centre of the Perseus cluster.

  8. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Calculation of the visible-UV absorption spectra of hydrogen sulfide, bisulfide, polysulfides, and As and Sb sulfides, in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Tossell, JA

    2003-01-01

    Recently we showed that visible-UV spectra in aqueous solution can be accurately calculated for arsenic (III) bisulfides, such as As(SH)3, As(SH)2S- and their oligomers. The calculated lowest energy transitions for these species were diagnostic of their protonation and oligomerization state. We here extend these studies to As and Sb oxidation state III and v sulfides and to polysulfides Sn2-, n = 2–6, the bisulfide anion, SH-, hydrogen sulfide, H2S and the sulfanes, SnH2, n = 2–5. Many of these calculations are more difficult than those performed for the As(iii) bisulfides, since the As and Sb(v) species are more acidic and therefore exist as highly charged anions in neutral and basic solutions. In general, small and/or highly charged anions are more difficult to describe computationally than larger, monovalent anions or neutral molecules. We have used both Hartree-Fock based (CI Singles and Time-Dependent HF) and density functional based (TD B3LYP) techniques for the calculations of absorption energy and intensity and have used both explicit water molecules and a polarizable continuum to describe the effects of hydration. We correctly reproduce the general trends observed experimentally, with absorption energies increasing from polysulfides to As, Sb sulfides to SH- to H2S. As and Sb(v) species, both monomers and dimers, also absorb at characteristically higher energies than do the analogous As and Sb(III)species. There is also a small reduction in absorption energy from monomeric to dimeric species, for both As and Sb III and v. The polysufides, on the other hand, show no simple systematic changes in UV spectra with chain length, n, or with protonation state. Our results indicate that for the As and Sb sulfides, the oxidation state, degree of protonation and degree of oligomerization can all be determined from the visible-UV absorption spectrum. We have also calculated the aqueous phase energetics for the reaction of S8 with SH- to produce the polysulfides

  10. Accounting for nanometer-thick adventitious carbon contamination in X-ray absorption spectra of carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Mangolini, Filippo; McClimon, J Brandon; Rose, Franck; Carpick, Robert W

    2014-12-16

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for characterizing the composition and bonding state of nanoscale materials and the top few nanometers of bulk and thin film specimens. When coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy, it enables chemical imaging of materials with nanometer-scale lateral spatial resolution. However, analysis of NEXAFS spectra is often performed under the assumption of structural and compositional homogeneity within the nanometer-scale depth probed by this technique. This assumption can introduce large errors when analyzing the vast majority of solid surfaces due to the presence of complex surface and near-surface structures such as oxides and contamination layers. An analytical methodology is presented for removing the contribution of these nanoscale overlayers from NEXAFS spectra of two-layered systems to provide a corrected photoabsorption spectrum of the substrate. This method relies on the subtraction of the NEXAFS spectrum of the overlayer adsorbed on a reference surface from the spectrum of the two-layer system under investigation, where the thickness of the overlayer is independently determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach is applied to NEXAFS data acquired for one of the most challenging cases: air-exposed hard carbon-based materials with adventitious carbon contamination from ambient exposure. The contribution of the adventitious carbon was removed from the as-acquired spectra of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) to determine the intrinsic photoabsorption NEXAFS spectra of these materials. The method alters the calculated fraction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon from 5 to 20% and reveals that the adventitious contamination can be described as a layer containing carbon and oxygen ([O]/[C] = 0.11 ± 0.02) with a thickness of 0.6 ± 0.2 nm and a fraction of sp(2)-bonded carbon of 0.19 ± 0.03. This

  11. Transition metal atomic multiplets in the ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectra and multiple oxidation states in the L2,3 emission of strongly correlated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Mier, J.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Yang, W.-L.; Denlinger, J.

    2014-07-01

    We present results that show that atomic multiplet ligand field calculations are in very good agreement with experimental x-ray absorption spectra at the L2,3 edge of transition metal (TM) di-fluorides (MF2, MCrCu). For chromium more than one TM oxidation state is needed to achieve such an agreement. We also show that signature of the TM atomic multiplet can be found at the pre-edge of the fluorine K-edge x-ray absorption spectra. TM atomic multiplet ligand field calculations with a structureless core hole show good agreement with the observed pre-edges in the experimental fluorine absorption spectra. Preliminary results for the comparison between calculated and experimental resonant x-ray emission spectra for nominal CrF2 with more than one oxidation state indicate the presence of three chromium oxidation states in the bulk.

  12. gamma-Irradiation effects on the thermal decomposition behaviour and IR absorption spectra of piperacillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Gaffar, M. A.; Abu El-Fadl, A.; Hamad, Ar. G. K.

    2003-11-01

    The thermal decomposition behaviour of unirradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated piperacillin (pipril) as a semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic has been studied in the temperature range of (273-1072 K). The decomposition was found to proceed through three major steps both for unirradiated and gamma-irradiated samples. Neither appearance nor disappearance of new bands in the IR spectrum of piperacillin was recorded as a result of gamma-irradiation but only a decrease in the intensity of most bands was observed. A degradation mechanism was suggested to explain the bond rupture and the decrease in the intensities of IR bands of gamma-irradiated piperacillin.

  13. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moment of laser dyes C504T and C521T using solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Basavaraja, Jana; Suresh Kumar, H M; Inamdar, S R; Wari, M N

    2016-02-05

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dyes: coumarin 504T (C504T) and coumarin 521T (C521T) have been recorded at room temperature in a series of non-polar and polar solvents. The spectra of these dyes showed bathochromic shift with increasing in solvent polarity indicating the involvement of π→π⁎ transition. Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters were used to analyze the effect of solvents on C504T and C521T molecules. The study reveals that both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these two systems. The ground state dipole moment was estimated using Guggenheim's method and also by quantum mechanical calculations. The solvatochromic data were used to determine the excited state dipole moment (μ(e)). It is observed that dipole moment value of excited state (μ(e)) is higher than that of the ground state in both the laser dyes indicating that these dyes are more polar in nature in the excited state than in the ground state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Synergic use of TOMS and Aeronet Observations for Characterization of Aerosol Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, B.; Siniuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of aerosol absorption on the radiative transfer balance of the earth-atmosphere system is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the analysis of global climate change. Global measurements of aerosol single scattering albedo are, therefore, necessary to properly assess the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosol absorption is currently carried out using both ground (Aerosol Robotic Network) and space (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) based observations. The satellite technique uses measurements of backscattered near ultraviolet radiation. Carbonaceous aerosols, resulting from the combustion of biomass, are one of the most predominant absorbing aerosol types in the atmosphere. In this presentation, TOMS and AERONET retrievals of single scattering albedo of carbonaceous aerosols, are compared for different environmental conditions: agriculture related biomass burning in South America and Africa and peat fires in Eastern Europe. The AERONET and TOMS derived aerosol absorption information are in good quantitative agreement. The most absorbing smoke is detected over the African Savanna. Aerosol absorption over the Brazilian rain forest is less absorbing. Absorption by aerosol particles resulting from peat fires in Eastern Europe is weaker than the absorption measured in Africa and South America. This analysis shows that the near UV satellite method of aerosol absorption characterization has the sensitivity to distinguish different levels of aerosol absorption. The analysis of the combined AERONET-TOMS observations shows a high degree of synergy between satellite and ground based observations.

  15. Copernicus observations of interstellar absorption at Lyman alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Column densities NH of atomic hydrogen have been derived for 40 OB stars from spectral scans at Lyman alpha obtained by the Copernicus (OAO-3) satellite. The stars are all between 60 and 1100 pc away with a range of mean densities n sub H of 0.01 to 2.5 atoms cm-3. The gas to color-excess ratio in clouds varies from 1 to 3 times the mean outside of clouds. The presence of molecular hydrogen correlates with E(B-V), but the best tracer for H2 is atomic hydrogen. The mean density of the gas for all 40 stars is much smaller than the mean of 0.7 atoms cm-3 obtained from 21-cm observations, because the brightest stars with less than average amounts of matter in the line of sight were selected for observation.

  16. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-06-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.

  17. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  18. Vertical Distribution of NO, NO(2), and HNO(3) as Derived from Stratospheric Absorption Infrared Spectra.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, J C; Girard, A; Gramont, L; Louisnard, N

    1975-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the results concerning NO, NO(2), and HNO(3) obtained during airborne experiments performed in June-July 1973 on Concorde 001. The altitude of flight was about 16 km. Results concerning NO are, within the accuracy of measurement, in agreement with results of a previousspectrometric balloonborne experiment conducted jointly by IASB and ONERA (14 May 1973). Nitric oxide is concentrated in stratospheric layers clearly above the flight altitude. Integrated amount of NO along the optical path is (4 +/- 1.5) x 10(16) mol cm(-2) for a solar elevation varying from +2 degrees above the horizontal plane to -1 degrees . A value of 6 x 10(8) mol cm(-3) may be given as an upper limit for the local concentration at the flight altitude. Thereis no significant difference in the integrated amount observed at sunset and sunrise. Measured value of NO(2) local concentration at 15.5 km is (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) mol cm(-3), in sunset conditions. This value is not greatly modified between 15 km and 30 km. Measured value of HNO(3). This value increases with altitude between 15 km and 20 km. The local concentration is maximum at 20 km. The measured value is (2 +/- 1) x 10(10) mol cm(-3) at 20 km. It seems that local concentration decreases rapidly above 20 km.

  19. Spectroscopy Made Easy: A New Tool for Fitting Observations with Synthetic Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenti, J. A.; Piskunov, N.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new software package that may be used to determine stellar and atomic parameters by matching observed spectra with synthetic spectra generated from parameterized atmospheres. A nonlinear least squares algorithm is used to solve for any subset of allowed parameters, which include atomic data (log gf and van der Waals damping constants), model atmosphere specifications (T(sub eff, log g), elemental abundances, and radial, turbulent, and rotational velocities. LTE synthesis software handles discontiguous spectral intervals and complex atomic blends. As a demonstration, we fit 26 Fe I lines in the NSO Solar Atlas (Kurucz et al.), determining various solar and atomic parameters.

  20. Interaction of thioflavin T with amyloid fibrils: stoichiometry and affinity of dye binding, absorption spectra of bound dye.

    PubMed

    Sulatskaya, Anna I; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2011-10-06

    The fluorescence of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) is a well-known test for amyloid fibril formation. It has now become evident that ThT can also be used for structural investigations of amyloid fibrils and even for the treatment of amyloid diseases. In this case, one of the most urgent problems is an accurate determination of ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters: the number of binding modes, stoichiometry, and binding constant for each mode. To obtain information concerning the ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters, we propose to use absorption spectrophotometry of solutions prepared by equilibrium microdialysis. This approach is inherently designed for the determination of dye-receptor binding parameters. However, it has been very rarely used in the study of dye-protein interactions and has never been used to study the binding parameters of ThT or its analogues to amyloid fibrils. We showed that, when done in corpore, this approach enables the determination of not only binding parameters but also the absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient of ThT bound to sites of different binding modes. The proposed approach was used for the examination of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. Two binding modes were found for the ThT-lysozyme amyloid fibril interaction. These binding modes have significantly different binding constants (K(b1) = 7.5 × 10(6) M(-1), K(b2) = 5.6 × 10(4) M(-1)) and a different number of dye binding sites on the amyloid fibrils per protein molecule (n(1) = 0.11, n(2) = 0.24). The absorption spectra of ThT bound to sites of different modes differ from each other (ε(b1,max) = 5.1 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1), ε(b2,max) = 6.7 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 449 nm) and significantly differ from that of free ThT in aqueous solution (ε(max) = 3.2 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 412 nm). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. One- and two-photon absorption spectra of the yellow fluorescent protein citrine: effects of intramolecular electron-vibrational coupling and intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fasheng; Zhao, Xinyi; Liang, WanZhen

    2018-04-01

    Both the vibrationally resolved and statistically averaged one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of the anionic form of chromophore (AC) in its micro-environment of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) Citrine have been calculated. The result comparison has been made with those of the AC model compounds in vacuo and methanol solution, which allows us to allocate the individual contribution of the intramolecular electron-vibrational coupling, the electrostatic π-stacking interaction between Tyr203 and AC, and the interaction between AC and its micro-environment to the spectra. The results reveal that the non-Condon vibronic coupling effect is responsible for the blue shift of TPA absorption maximum compared with its OPA counterpart corresponding to S0 → S1, and that the π-stacking interaction between Tyr203 and AC alters the relative intensities of TPA maxima, which further enhances the higher-energy vibronic peaks and weakens the lowest-energy peak. The statically averaged OPA and TPA spectra calculated by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods based on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation largely deviate the experimental spectral lineshapes, which further verifies the significant contribution of non-Condon vibronic coupling effect on the spectra. The interaction of individual amino acid residue or water close to AC+Tyr203 has different effects on the spectra, which may increase/decrease the excitation energy depending on its position and electronic property.

  2. TD-M06-2X insights into the absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and its molecularly imprinted recognition by methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    The absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and the dichlorvos-MAA complex in methanol, water, and chloroform in the molecularly imprinted recognition were investigated systematically. The M06-2X results revealed that: 1) the hydroxyl groups in polar solvents such as methanol and water may markedly influence the weak interactions, and then alter the adsorption and emission spectra; 2) the electronic excitation in absorption spectra of dichlorvos is dominated by the configuration HOMO → LUMO, but in the most stable dichlorvos-MAA it becomes the ππ* excitation of HOMO → LUMO + 1; 3) Mulliken charges reveal that dichlorvos almost dissociates to Cl - and a cation in its S 1 excitation state; 4) the phosphorescence spectra of dichlorvos-MAA are relatively weak. Graphical Abstract The absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and the dichlorvos-MAA complex in the molecularly imprinted recognition of dichlorvos were investigated systematically in methanol, water, and chloroform as solvents.

  3. Copernicus observations of interstellar absorption at Lyman alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R C

    1975-09-01

    Column densities N/sub H/ of atomic hydrogen have been derived for 40 OB stars from spectral scans at L$alpha$ obtained by the Copernicus (OAO-3) satellite. The stars are all between 60 and 1100 pc away with a range of mean densities n/sub H/ of 0.01 to 2.5 atoms cm $sup -3$. For 27 stars without significant amounts of molecular hydrogen, the mean ratio of gas to color excess is =3.6times10$sup 21$ atoms cm$sup -2$ mag$sup -1$, and the mean density is =0.12 atoms cm$sup -3$. For 10 stars where the molecular hydrogen is at least 5 percent of the totalmore » hydrogen, is 5.4times10$sup 21$ atoms cm $sup -2$ mag$sup -1$ and is 0.7 atoms cm$sup -3$. In this limited set of data, the ratio of gas to color excess in clouds varies from 1 to 3 times the mean outside of clouds. The presence of molecular hydrogen correlates with E (B-V), but the best tracer for H$sub 2$ is atomic hydrogen. The mean density of the gas for all 40 stars is much smaller than the mean of 0.7 atoms cm$sup -3$ obtained from 21-cm observations, because the brightest stars with less than average amounts of matter in the line of sight were selected for observation. (AIP)« less

  4. Unexpected solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and benzene: in contrast with non-aromatic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dong; Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Ma, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Xizhang; Liu, Ziteng

    2018-01-01

    Cresol is a prototype molecule in understanding intermolecular interactions in material and biological systems, because it offers different binding sites with various solvents and protonation states under different pH values. It is found that the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene) are characterized by a sharp peak, unlike the broad double-peaks in 11 non-aromatic solvents. Both molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations revealed the formation of intermolecular π-complexation between o-cresol and aromatic solvents. The thermal movements of solvent and solute molecules render the conformations of o-cresol changing between trans and cis isomers. The π-interaction makes the cis configuration a dominant isomer, hence leading to the single keen-edged UV/Vis absorption peak at approximately 283 nm. The free conformation changes between trans and cis in aqueous solution rationalize the broader absorption peaks in the range of 260–280 nm. The pH dependence of the UV/Vis absorption spectra in aqueous solutions is also rationalized by different protonation states of o-cresol. The explicit solvent model with long-ranged interactions is vital to describe the effects of π-complexation and electrostatic interaction on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and alkaline aqueous (pH > 10.3) solutions, respectively. PMID:29657794

  5. Unexpected solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and benzene: in contrast with non-aromatic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Ma, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Xizhang; Liu, Ziteng; Ma, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Cresol is a prototype molecule in understanding intermolecular interactions in material and biological systems, because it offers different binding sites with various solvents and protonation states under different pH values. It is found that the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o -cresol in aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene) are characterized by a sharp peak, unlike the broad double-peaks in 11 non-aromatic solvents. Both molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations revealed the formation of intermolecular π-complexation between o -cresol and aromatic solvents. The thermal movements of solvent and solute molecules render the conformations of o -cresol changing between trans and cis isomers. The π-interaction makes the cis configuration a dominant isomer, hence leading to the single keen-edged UV/Vis absorption peak at approximately 283 nm. The free conformation changes between trans and cis in aqueous solution rationalize the broader absorption peaks in the range of 260-280 nm. The pH dependence of the UV/Vis absorption spectra in aqueous solutions is also rationalized by different protonation states of o -cresol. The explicit solvent model with long-ranged interactions is vital to describe the effects of π-complexation and electrostatic interaction on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o -cresol in toluene and alkaline aqueous (pH > 10.3) solutions, respectively.

  6. XAS spectroelectrochemistry: reliable measurement of X-ray absorption spectra from redox manipulated solutions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Best, Stephen P; Levina, Aviva; Glover, Chris; Johannessen, Bernt; Kappen, Peter; Lay, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    The design and operation of a low-volume spectroelectrochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of solutions at room temperature is described. Fluorescence XAS measurements are obtained from samples contained in the void space of a 50 µL reticulated vitreous carbon (sponge) working electrode. Both rapid electrosynthesis and control of the effects of photoreduction are achieved by control over the flow properties of the solution through the working electrode, where a good balance between the rate of consumption of sample and the minimization of decomposition was obtained by pulsing the flow of the solution by 1-2 µL with duty cycle of ∼3 s while maintaining a small net flow rate (26-100 µL h(-1)). The performance of the cell in terms of control of the redox state of the sample and minimization of the effects of photoreduction was demonstrated by XAS measurements of aqueous solutions of the photosensitive Fe(III) species, [Fe(C2O4)3](3-), together with that of the electrogenerated [Fe(C2O4)3](4-) product. The current response from the cell during the collection of XAS spectra provides an independent measure of the stability of the sample of the measurement. The suitability of the approach for the study of small volumes of mM concentrations of protein samples was demonstrated by the measurement of the oxidized and electrochemically reduced forms of cytochrome c.

  7. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of 5-(4-substituted arylazo)-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Gordana S.; Mijin, Dusanˇ Z. ˇ; Valentić, Nataša V.; Vajs, Vlatka V.; Sušić, Biljana M.

    2004-10-01

    Absorption spectra of ten 5-(4-substituted arylazo)-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones have been recorded in fifteen solvents in the range 200-600 nm. The substituents at the phenyl nucleus are as follows: OH, OCH 3, CH 3, C 2H 5, H, Cl, Br, I, COOH and NO 2. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of investigated compounds are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple Hammett equation. The effects of solvent polarity and solvent/solute hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by means of linear solvation energy relationships concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The azo-hydrazone tuatomeric equilibration is found to depend upon substituents as well as on solvents.

  8. Energy spectra variations of high energy electrons in magnetic storms observed by ARASE and HIMAWARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Higashio, N.; Mitani, T.; Nagatsuma, T.; Yoshizumi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE spacecraft was launched in December 20, 2016 to investigate mechanisms for acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts during space storms. The six particle instruments with wide energy range (a few eV to 10MeV) are onboard the ARASE spacecraft. Especially, two particle instruments, HEP and XEP observe high energy electron with energy range from 70keV to over 10Mev. Those instruments observed several geomagnetic storms caused by coronal hole high speed streams or coronal mass ejections from March in 2017. The relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt were disappeared/increased and their energy spectra were changed dynamically in some storms observed by XEP/HEP onboard the ARASE spacecraft. In the same time, SEDA-e with energy range 200keV-4.5MeV for electron on board the HIMAWARI-8, Japanese weather satellite on GEO, observed increase of relativistic electron in different local time. We will report on energy spectra variations of high energy electrons including calibrations of differential flux between XEP and HEP and discuss comparisons with energy spectra between ARAE and HIMAWARI that observed each storm in different local time.

  9. OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. I - Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Smith, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    OSO 8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV have been analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. For 20 clusters temperatures, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low-energy absorption measurements are presented. The data give, in general, better fits to thermal bremsstrahlung than to power-law models. Eight clusters have positive iron emission-line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all 20 cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H = 0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Thus it is confirmed that X-ray emission in this energy band is predominantly thermal radiation from hot intracluster gas rather than inverse Compton radiation. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central-galaxy density than with richness; and (4) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  10. OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopy of water in hydrated lipid multi-bilayers. I. Infrared spectra and ultrafast pump-probe observables.

    PubMed

    Gruenbaum, S M; Skinner, J L

    2011-08-21

    The vibrational spectroscopy of hydration water in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine lipid multi-bilayers is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and a mixed quantum/classical model for the OD stretch spectroscopy of dilute HDO in H(2)O. FTIR absorption spectra, and isotropic and anisotropic pump-probe decay curves have been measured experimentally as a function of the hydration level of the lipid multi-bilayer, and our goal is to make connection with these experiments. To this end, we use third-order response functions, which allow us to include non-Gaussian frequency fluctuations, non-Condon effects, molecular rotations, and a fluctuating vibrational lifetime, all of which we believe are important for this system. We calculate the response functions using existing transition frequency and dipole maps. From the experiments it appears that there are two distinct vibrational lifetimes corresponding to HDO molecules in different molecular environments. In order to obtain these lifetimes, we consider a simple two-population model for hydration water hydrogen bonds. Assuming a different lifetime for each population, we then calculate the isotropic pump-probe decay, fitting to experiment to obtain the two lifetimes for each hydration level. With these lifetimes in hand, we then calculate FTIR spectra and pump-probe anisotropy decay as a function of hydration. This approach, therefore, permits a consistent calculation of all observables within a unified computational scheme. Our theoretical results are all in qualitative agreement with experiment. The vibrational lifetime of lipid-associated OD groups is found to be systematically shorter than that of the water-associated population, and the lifetimes of each population increase with decreasing hydration, in agreement with previous analysis. Our theoretical FTIR absorption spectra successfully reproduce the experimentally observed red-shift with decreasing lipid hydration, and we confirm a previous interpretation

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy of water in hydrated lipid multi-bilayers. I. Infrared spectra and ultrafast pump-probe observables

    PubMed Central

    Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational spectroscopy of hydration water in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine lipid multi-bilayers is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and a mixed quantum∕classical model for the OD stretch spectroscopy of dilute HDO in H2O. FTIR absorption spectra, and isotropic and anisotropic pump-probe decay curves have been measured experimentally as a function of the hydration level of the lipid multi-bilayer, and our goal is to make connection with these experiments. To this end, we use third-order response functions, which allow us to include non-Gaussian frequency fluctuations, non-Condon effects, molecular rotations, and a fluctuating vibrational lifetime, all of which we believe are important for this system. We calculate the response functions using existing transition frequency and dipole maps. From the experiments it appears that there are two distinct vibrational lifetimes corresponding to HDO molecules in different molecular environments. In order to obtain these lifetimes, we consider a simple two-population model for hydration water hydrogen bonds. Assuming a different lifetime for each population, we then calculate the isotropic pump-probe decay, fitting to experiment to obtain the two lifetimes for each hydration level. With these lifetimes in hand, we then calculate FTIR spectra and pump-probe anisotropy decay as a function of hydration. This approach, therefore, permits a consistent calculation of all observables within a unified computational scheme. Our theoretical results are all in qualitative agreement with experiment. The vibrational lifetime of lipid-associated OD groups is found to be systematically shorter than that of the water-associated population, and the lifetimes of each population increase with decreasing hydration, in agreement with previous analysis. Our theoretical FTIR absorption spectra successfully reproduce the experimentally observed red-shift with decreasing lipid hydration, and we confirm a previous interpretation

  13. Phase-dependent absorption features in X-ray spectra of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghese, A.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Turolla, R.; Tiengo, A.; Zane, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed phase-resolved spectroscopy of archival XMM-Newton observations of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINSs) led to the discovery of narrow and strongly phase-dependent absorption features in two of these sources. The first was discovered in the X-ray spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125, followed by a new possible candidate in RX J1308.6+2127. Both spectral lines have similar properties: they are detected for only ˜ 20% of the rotational cycle and appear to be stable over the timespan covered by the observations. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of these phase-variable features and in both cases the outcome has confirmed the detection with a confidence level > 4.6σ. Because of the narrow width and the strong dependence on the pulsar rotational phase, the most likely interpretation for these spectral features is in terms of resonant proton cyclotron absorption scattering in a confined high-B structure close to the stellar surface. Within the framework of this interpretation, our results provide evidence for deviations from a pure dipole magnetic field on small scales for highly magnetized neutron stars and support the proposed scenario of XDINSs being aged magnetars, with a strong non-dipolar crustal B-field component.

  14. High resolution jet-cooled infrared absorption spectra of (HCOOH)2, (HCOOD)2, and HCOOH—HCOOD complexes in 7.2 μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuluan; Li, Wenguang; Luo, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-06-01

    The rotationally resolved infrared spectra of (HCOOH)2, (HCOOD)2, and HCOOH—HCOOD complexes have been measured in 7.2 μm region by using a segmented rapid-scan distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer to probe a slit supersonic jet expansion. The observed spectra are assigned to the v21 (H—C/O—H in-plane bending) fundamental band of (HCOOH)2, the v15 (H—C/O—D in-plane bending) fundamental band of HCOOH—HCOOD, and the v20 (H—C—O in-plane bending) fundamental band of (HCOOD)2. Strong local perturbations caused by the rotation-tunneling coupling between two tunneling components are observed in (HCOOH)2. The v21 fundamental band of (HCOOH)2 and the previously measured v22 fundamental and v12 + v14 combination bands [K. G. Goroya et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 164311 (2014)] are analyzed together, yielding a more precise tunneling splitting in the ground state, 0.011 367(92) cm-1. The band-origin of the v21 band of (HCOOH)2 is 1371.776 74(8) cm-1, and the tunneling splitting decreases to 0.000 38(18) cm-1 upon the vibrational excitation. The vibrational energy is 1386.755 49(16) cm-1 for the v15 vibrational mode of HCOOH—HCOOD and 1391.084 39(17) cm-1 for the v20 vibrational mode of (HCOOD)2. No apparent spectral splittings are resolved for HCOOH—HCOOD and (HCOOD)2 under our experimental conditions. The tunneling splitting in the ground state of HCOOH—HCOOD is estimated to be 0.001 13 cm-1 from its average linewidth.

  15. MR Spectra of Normal Adult Testes and Variations with Age: Preliminary Observations.

    PubMed

    Tsili, Athina C; Astrakas, Loukas G; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Stavrou, Sotirios; Maliakas, Vasilios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to determine the proton MR (1H-MR) spectra of normal adult testes and variations with age. Forty-one MR spectra of normal testes, including 16 testes from men aged 20-39 years (group I) and 25 testes from men aged 40-69 years (group II), were analyzed. A single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS), with TR/TE: 2000/25 ms was used. The volume of interest was placed to include the majority of normal testicular parenchyma. Association between normalized metabolite concentrations, defined as ratios of the calculated metabolite concentrations relative to creatine concentration, and age was assessed. Quantified metabolites of the spectra were choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), scyllo-inositol, taurine, lactate, GLx compound, glucose, lipids, and macromolecules resonating at 0.9 ppm (LM09), around 20 ppm (LM20), and at 13 ppm (LM13). Most prominent peaks were Cho, Cr, mI, and lipids. A weak negative correlation between mI and age (P = 0.015) was observed. Higher normalized concentrations of Cho (P = 0.03), mI (P = 0.08), and LM13 (P = 0.05) were found in group I than in group II. 1H-MR spectra of a normal adult testis showed several metabolite peaks. A decrease of levels of Cho, mI, and LM13 was observed with advancing age. • Single-voxel PRESS MRS of a normal testis is feasible. • 1H-MR spectra of a normal testis showed several metabolite peaks. • Most prominent peaks were Cho, Cr, mI, and lipids. • A decrease of Cho, mI, and LM13 was seen with advancing age.

  16. Observation of Pure Rotational Spectra of SiCCN by Fourier-Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeki, Hiroya; Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-06-01

    Pure rotational spectra of SiCCN ( ˜{X} 2Π3/2) have been observed using Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in the frequency region 13 to 35 GHz. The SiCCN radical was produced in a supersonic jet by discharging a mixture gas, 0.2% SiCl4 and 0.2% CH3CN diluted in Ar. The effective rotational constant Beff,3/2, the centrifugal distortion constant D, and the hyperfine coupling constants, a + (b + c)/2 and eQq0, were determined with a standard deviation of the fit to be 6 kHz. Determined B and eQq0 are consistent with those derived from ab initio calculations. Λ-type doublings were not resolved for the observed spectra.

  17. Ultraviolet Spectra of Comets Observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Harold Anthony, Jr.

    Ultraviolet spectra of seven comets observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite are presented. Observations of comet Bradfield (1979 X) made in early 1980 allow a comprehensive study of the production of water by this comet. By comparing the observations to the predictions of two water models of the coma (Haser and vectorial), it is determined that these measurements support the idea of a comet composed principally of water ice. The vaporization of the water has a rather unexpected heliocentric variation, decreasing as r('-3.7) over the entire range of observations. Atomic carbon is relatively abundant in the coma of comet Bradfield; the production rate of carbon is roughly 5-10% of the water production rate. Analysis of the spatial brightness profiles of the strongest atomic carbon emission does not reveal the identity of the source of the observed carbon, but the data are apparently inconsistent with a photodissociation source that is either CO or CO(,2). A comparison of the ultraviolet spectrum of periodic comet Encke, recorded by the IUE between 1980 October 24 and November 5, with similar spectra of short and long period comets shows the gaseous composition of P/Encke to be virtually identical to that of the other comets. If P/Encke is indeed the remains of a once giant comet, this similarity implies a homogeneous structure for the cometary ice nucleus. The OH(0,0) band brightness distribution shows a spatial variation similar to the visible fan-shaped image of the comet. Comets P/Tuttle (1980h), P/Stephan-Oterma (1980g), and Meier (1980q) were observed during November-December 1980 with IUE, while comets P/Borrelly (1980i) and Panther (1980u) were observed with IUE on 6 March 1981. The spectra of these comets are compared with those of comets Bradfield (1979 X) and P/Encke, as well as with each other. In order to simplify the interpretation of the data and to minimize the dependence upon a specific model, the spectra are compared at

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. v. redshift evolution of lyman limit absorption in the spectra of a large sample of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik A.; Boksenberg, Alec; Steidel, Charles, C.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bacall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Using a sample of 119 QSOs, containing objects we have selected having previously available high quality ground-based and IUE spectral observations, together with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 26 QSOs from Bahcall et al. (1993, 1995) and Impey et al. (1995) and new optical observations of 41 objects by Steidel & Sargent (1995), we study the redshift evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs; tau greater than 1.0) over the reshift range 0.32 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 4.11. The HST observations significantly improve the determination of the low redshift (0.4 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 1.4) distribution. We find the effect which may have been responsible for the apparent strong evolution at a(sub LLS) greater than or equal to 2.5 found by Lanzetta (1991), which led him to consider a broken, not single power law as a better description of the redshift distribution of LLSs. After removing objects which may bias our sample, leaving a total of 169 QSOs, we find the distribution is well described by a single power law, and obtain for the number density as a function of redshift the form N(z) = N(sub 0)(1 + z)(exp gamma) with gamma = 1.50 =/- 0.39 and N(sub 0) = 0.25(sup -0.10)(sub +0.17), consistent with a constant comoving density of absorbers in a Firedmann universe with q(sub 0) = 0 but indicating evolution if q(sub 0) = 1/2.

  19. Observations of explosion generated PcP spectra at near-normal incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Mansour; McLaughlin, Keith L.

    1987-10-01

    Short period recordings of PcP at the SRO station ANTO have been observed at epicentral distance of 13.5° from presumed underground explosions in western Kazahk, USSR. The core reflections are narrow band (0.6 to 2.4 Hz), short duration (3 sec) signals. Comparison of these near normally incident reflections to P waveforms observed at greater distances reveals that the PcP spectra are peaked with respect to the more representative P-wave spectra. The 1.2 Hz spectral peak is also observed for PcP waves recorded at 50 degrees. Corrections for frequency independent mantle Q attnuation models only increase the high frequency deficiency of the PcP spectra at frequencies above 1.2 Hz. A plausible explanation calls for finer structural features of core-mantle boundary (CMB) than hitherto suggested. The influence of small scale lateral heterogeneities, however, cannot be completely ruled out. (Mantle-core boundary, near normal PcP reflection.)

  20. Correction of Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra for Telluric Absorption at 0.90–1.35 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kondo, Sohei; Fukue, Kei; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Mizumoto, Misaki; Arai, Akira; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Asano, Akira; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2018-07-01

    We report a method of correcting a near-infrared (0.90–1.35 μm) high-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 28,000) spectrum for telluric absorption using the corresponding spectrum of a telluric standard star. The proposed method uses an A0 V star or its analog as a standard star from which on the order of 100 intrinsic stellar lines are carefully removed with the help of a reference synthetic telluric spectrum. We find that this method can also be applied to feature-rich objects having spectra with heavily blended intrinsic stellar and telluric lines and present an application to a G-type giant using this approach. We also develop a new diagnostic method for evaluating the accuracy of telluric correction and use it to demonstrate that our method achieves an accuracy better than 2% for spectral parts for which the atmospheric transmittance is as low as ∼20% if telluric standard stars are observed under the following conditions: (1) the difference in airmass between the target and the standard is ≲ 0.05; and (2) that in time is less than 1 hr. In particular, the time variability of water vapor has a large impact on the accuracy of telluric correction and minimizing the difference in time from that of the telluric standard star is important especially in near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic observation.

  1. Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapour transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of water-vapour overtone and combination bands at high pressures is complicated by pressure broadening and shifting of individual lines and the blending of neighbouring transitions. An experimental and computational methodology is developed to determine accurate high-pressure absorption spectra. This case study investigates two water-vapour transitions, one near 1388 nm (7203.9 cm-1) and the other near 1345 nm (7435.6 cm-1), for potential two-line absorption measurements of temperature in the range of 400-1050 K with a pressure varying from 5-25 atm. The required quantitative spectroscopy data (line strength, collisional broadening, and pressure-induced frequency shift) of the target transitions and their neighbours (a total of four H2O vapour transitions near 1388 nm and six transitions near 1345 nm) are measured in neat H2O vapour, H2O-air and H2O-CO2 mixtures as a function of temperature (296-1000 K) at low pressures (<800 Torr). Precise values of the line strength S(T), pressure-broadening coefficients γair(T) and \\gamma _{CO_2 } (T), and pressure-shift coefficients δair(T) and \\delta _{CO_2 } (T) for the ten transitions were inferred from the measured spectra and compared with data from HITRAN 2004. A hybrid spectroscopic database was constructed by modifying HITRAN 2004 to incorporate these values for simulation of water-vapour-absorption spectra at high pressures. Simulations using this hybrid database are in good agreement with high pressure experiments and demonstrate that data collected at modest pressures can be used to simulate high-pressure absorption spectra.

  2. Deriving brown carbon from multiwavelength absorption measurements: Method and application to AERONET and Aethalometer observations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, X.; Heald, C. L.; Sedlacek, A.; ...

    2016-10-13

    The radiative impact of organic aerosols (OA) is a large source of uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. This radiative impact includes not only light scattering but also light absorption from a subclass of OA referred to as brown carbon (BrC). However the absorption properties of BrC are poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in modelling studies. To obtain observational constraints from measurements, a simple Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE) method is often used to separate the contribution of BrC absorption from that of black carbon (BC). However, this attribution method is based on assumptions regardingmore » the spectral dependence of BC that are often violated in the ambient atmosphere. Here we develop a new method that decreases the uncertainties associated with estimating BrC absorption. By applying this method to multi-wavelength absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) measurements at AERONET sites worldwide and surface aerosol absorption measurements at multiple ambient sites, we estimate that BrC globally contributes 6-40% of the absorption at 440nm. We find that the mass absorption coefficient of OA (OA-MAC) is positively correlated with BC/OA mass ratio. Based on the variability of BC properties and BC/OA emission ratio, we estimate a range of 0.05-1.2 m 2/g for OA-MAC at 440nm. Using the combination of AERONET and OMI UV absorption observations we estimate that the AAE 388/440nm for BrC is generally ~4 world-wide, with a smaller value in Europe (< 2). Our analyses of two surface sites (Cape Cod, to the southeast of Boston, and the GoAmazon2014/5 T3 site, to the west of Manaus, Brazil) reveal no significant relationship between BrC absorptivity and photochemical aging in typical urban influenced conditions. However, the absorption of BrC measured during the biomass burning season near Manaus is found to decrease with photochemical aging with a lifetime of ~1 day. This lifetime is comparable to

  3. Are non-linearity effects of absorption important for MAX-DOAS observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukite, Janis; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    For scattered light observations the absorption optical depth depends non-linearly on the trace gas concentrations if their absorption is strong. This is the case because the Beer-Lambert law is generally not applicable for scattered light measurements due to many (i.e. more than one) light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases a linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorption non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries with spatially extended and diffuse light paths, especially in satellite limb geometry but also for nadir measurements as well. Fortunately the effects of non-linear effects can be quantified by means of expanding the radiative transfer equation in a Taylor series with respect to the trace gas absorption coefficients. Herewith if necessary (1) the higher order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the DOAS fit and (2) the algorithm constraints of retrievals of VCDs and profiles can be improved by considering higher order sensitivity parameters. In this study we investigate the contribution of the higher order absorption structures for MAX-DOAS observation geometry for different atmospheric and ground properties (cloud and aerosol effects, trace gas amount, albedo) and geometry (different Sun and viewing angles).

  4. Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the North Polar Spur: Charge exchange or ISM absorption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle

    2016-10-01

    By revisiting the Suzaku and XMM-Newton data of the North Polar Spur, we discovered that the spectra are inconsistent with the traditional model consisting of pure thermal emission and neutral absorption. The most prominent discrepancies are the enhanced O vii and Ne ix forbidden-to-resonance ratios, and a high O viii Lyβ line relative to other Lyman series. A collisionally ionized absorption model can naturally explain both features, while a charge exchange component can only account for the former. By including the additional ionized absorption, the plasma in the North Polar Spur can be described by a single-phase collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) component with a temperature of 0.25 keV, and nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and iron abundances of 0.4-0.8 solar. The abundance pattern of the North Polar Spur is well in line with those of the Galactic halo stars. The high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio reported in previous studies can be migrated to the large transmission of the O viii Lyα line. The ionized absorber is characterized by a balance temperature of 0.17-0.20 keV and a column density of 3-5 × 1019 cm-2. Based on the derived abundances and absorption, we speculate that the North Polar Spur is a structure in the Galactic halo, so that the emission is mostly absorbed by the Galactic interstellar medium in the line of sight.

  5. Absorption spectra measurements of the x-ray radiation heated SiO2 aerogel plasma in 'dog-bone' targets irradiated by high power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y.-K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Takabe, H.

    2008-05-01

    We studied the opacity effect of the SiO2 aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 Å to 7.4 Å, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.

  6. MODELING THE HARD TeV SPECTRA OF BLAZARS 1ES 0229+200 AND 3C 66A WITH AN INTERNAL ABSORPTION SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharopoulou, O.; Aharonian, F. A.; Khangulyan, D.

    2011-09-10

    We study the applicability of the idea of internal absorption of {gamma}-rays produced through synchrotron radiation of ultrarelativistic protons in highly magnetized blobs to 1ES 0229+200 and 3C 66A, the two TeV blazars which show unusually hard intrinsic {gamma}-ray spectra after being corrected for the intergalactic absorption. We show that for certain combinations of reasonable model parameters, even with quite modest energy requirements, the scenario allows a self-consistent explanation of the non-thermal emission of these objects in the keV, GeV, and TeV energy bands.

  7. Theoretical Model Images and Spectra for Comparison with HESSI and Microwave Observations of Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor); Holman, G. D.; Sui, L.; McTiernan, J. M.; Petrosian, V.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed bremsstrahlung and gyrosynchrotron images and spectra from a model flare loop. Electrons with a power-law energy distribution are continuously injected at the top of a semi-circular magnetic loop. The Fokker-Planck equation is integrated to obtain the steady-state electron distribution throughout the loop. Coulomb scattering and energy losses and magnetic mirroring are included in the model. The resulting electron distributions are used to compute the radiative emissions. Sample images and spectra are presented. We are developing these models for the interpretation of the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) x-ray/gamma ray data and coordinated microwave observations. The Fokker-Planck and radiation codes are available on the Web at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/hessi/modelware.htm This work is supported in part by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program.

  8. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kalesse, Heike; Szyrmer, Wanda; Kneifel, Stefan; ...

    2016-03-09

    In this paper, Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW) layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyondmore » the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. In conclusion, this suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.« less

  9. Einstein X-ray observations of QSO's with absorption-line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Marscher, A. P.; Burbidge, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The detection of X-ray emission from eight QSO's is reported, plus an upper limit to the X-ray flux from one QSO, using the Einstein X-ray Observatory (HEAO-2). Each object in the sample contains at least one absorption-line system that has been identified in its optical spectrum. The present results are combined with those of other investigators to form a sample of 44 absorption-line QSO's (with 2 sub e greater than 1.2) which have been observed in the X-ray. This sample cannot be distinguished, in terms of X-ray properties, from one which consists of QSO's in which no absorption systems have been identified. These results are consistent with extrinsic models for absorption-line clouds, as well as with current versions of intrinsic models.

  10. DFT Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-31

    of isolated molecules and that of bulk systems. DFT calculated absorption spectra represent quantitative estimates that can be correlated with...spectra, can be correlated with the presence of these hydrocarbons (see reference [1]). Accordingly, the molecular structure and IR absorption spectra of...associated with different types of ambient molecules, e.g., H2O, in order to apply background subtraction or spectral-signature- correlation algorithms

  11. Electronic and nuclear contributions to time-resolved optical and X-ray absorption spectra of hematite and insights into photoelectrochemical performance

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes, Dugan; Hadt, Ryan G.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Ultrafast time-resolved studies of photocatalytic thin films can provide a wealth of information crucial for understanding and thereby improving the performance of these materials by directly probing electronic structure, reaction intermediates, and charge carrier dynamics. The interpretation of transient spectra, however, can be complicated by thermally induced structural distortions, which appear within the first few picoseconds following excitation due to carrier–phonon scattering. Here we present a comparison of ex situ steady-state thermal difference spectra and transient absorption spectra spanning from NIR to hard X-ray energies of hematite thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. We find that beyond the firstmore » 100 picoseconds, the transient spectra measured for all excitation wavelengths and probe energies are almost entirely due to thermal effects as the lattice expands in response to the ultrafast temperature jump and then cools to room temperature on the microsecond timescale. At earlier times, a broad excited state absorption band that is assigned to free carriers appears at 675 nm, and the lifetime and shape of this feature also appear to be mostly independent of excitation wavelength. The combined spectroscopic data, which are modeled with density functional theory and full multiple scattering calculations, support an assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of hematite that involves two LMCT bands that nearly span the visible spectrum. Lastly, our results also suggest a framework for shifting the ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption bands of ferric oxide films from the near-UV further into the visible part of the solar spectrum to improve solar conversion efficiency.« less

  12. Franck-Condon Simulations including Anharmonicity of the Ã(1)A''-X̃(1)A' Absorption and Single Vibronic Level Emission Spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel W K; Lee, Edmond P F; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2009-03-10

    RCCSD(T) and/or CASSCF/MRCI calculations have been carried out on the X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A'' states of HSiCl employing basis sets of up to the aug-cc-pV5Z quality. Contributions from core correlation and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit were included in determining the computed equilibrium geometrical parameters and relative electronic energy of these two states of HSiCl. Franck-Condon factors which include allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation between these two states of HSiCl and DSiCl were calculated employing RCCSD(T) and CASSCF/MRCI potential energy functions, and were used to simulate the Ã(1)A'' ← X̃(1)A' absorption and Ã(1)A'' → X̃(1)A' single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl. Simulated absorption and experimental LIF spectra, and simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,0,0) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra, of HSiCl and DSiCl are in very good agreement. However, agreement between simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,1,0) → X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A''(0,2,1) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra of DSiCl is not as good. Preliminary calculations on low-lying excited states of HSiCl suggest that vibronic interaction between low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state and highly excited vibrational levels of the ã(3)A'' is possible. Such vibronic interaction may change the character of the low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state, which would lead to perturbation in the SVL emission spectra from these vibrational levels.

  13. Observational constraints on relativistic electron dynamics: temporal evolution of electron spectra and flux isotropization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.

    2007-05-01

    Models of energization of electrons in the Earth's outer radiation belts invoke two classes of processes, radial transport and in-situ wave-particle interactions. Temporal evolution of electron spectra and flux isotropization during energization events provide useful observational constraints on models of electron energization. Events dominated by radial diffusion result in pancake type pitch angle distributions whereas some in-situ wave-particle energization mechanisms include pitch angle scattering leading to rapid flux isotropization. We present a survey of flux isotrpization time scales and electron spectra during relativstic electron enhancement events. We will use data collected by detectors onboard SAMPEX in low earth orbit and Polar which measures electron fluxes at higher altitude to measure flux isotropization. Electron spectra are obtained by pulse height analyzed data from the PET detector onboard SAMPEX.SAMPEX measurements cover the entire outer zone for more than a decade from mid 1992 to mid 2004 and Polar covers the time period from mid 1996 to the present.

  14. Path integral Monte Carlo study on the structure and absorption spectra of alkali atoms (Li, Na, K) attached to superfluid helium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akira; Yamashita, Koichi

    2001-01-01

    Path integral Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of the AkṡHeN (Ak=Li, Na, K,N⩽300) clusters at T=0.5 K. Absorption spectra which correspond to the 2P←2S transitions of alkali atoms are also calculated within a pairwise additive model, which employs diatomic Ak-He potential energy curves. The size dependences of the cluster structure and absorption spectra that show the influence of the helium cluster environment are examined in detail. It is found that alkali atoms are trapped in a dimple on the helium cluster's surface and that, from the asymptotic behavior, the AkṡHe300 cluster, at least semiquantitatively, mimics the local structure of experimentally produced large helium clusters in the vicinity of alkali atoms. We have successfully reproduced the overall shapes of the spectra and explained their features from a static and structural point of view. The positions, relative intensities, and line widths of the absorption maxima are calculated to be in moderate agreement with experiments [F. Stienkemeier, J. Higgins, C. Callegari, S. I. Kanorsky, W. E. Ernst, and G. Scoles, Z. Phys. D 38, 253 (1996)].

  15. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  16. Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Naixing; Qi Ping

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml ofmore » Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.« less

  17. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.; ...

    2018-04-24

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  18. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  19. Atomistic absorption spectra and non-adiabatic dynamics of the LH2 complex with a GPU-accelerated ab initio exciton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, David

    Recently, we outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground/excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail. In this paper, we apply our ab initioexciton framework to the 27 coupled bacteriocholorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute linear absorption spectra and short-time, on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) dynamics of electronically excited LH2. Our ab initio exciton model includes two key parameters whose values are determined by fitting to experiment: d, which is added to the diagonal elements, corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies on a single chromophore; and e, which occurs on the off-diagonal matrix elements, describes the average dielectric screening of the inter-chromophore transition-dipole coupling. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, best-fit values of both d and e were obtained by fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum within the Frank-Condon approximation, providing a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. We follow the nonadiabatic dynamics using surface hopping to construct time-resolved visualizations of the EET dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photoexcitation. This provides some qualitative insight into the excitonic energy transfer (EET) that results from atomically resolved vibrational fluctuations of the chromophores. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple chromophores and undergo frequent crossing on a femtosecond timescale as a result of the underlying chromophore vibrational dynamics. The eigenstate fluctuations arise from disorder in both the diagonal chromophore site energies and the off-diagonal inter

  20. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Coastal Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System. Measuring the Absorption of CDOM in the Field Using a Multiple Pathlength Liquid Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, a(sub CDOM), and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values (r > 0.99) and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of a(sub CDOM) measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of a(sub CDOM) for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5/m. At low CDOM concentrations (a(sub 370) < 0.1/m) spectrophotometric a(sub CDOM) were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples. The maximum deviation in replicate MPLCW spectra was less than 0.001 absorbance units. The portability, sampling, and optical characteristics of a MPLCW system provide significant enhancements for routine CDOM absorption measurements in a broad range of natural waters.

  1. Assessing the Extent of Black Carbon Absorption Enhancements from Field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C. D.; Zhang, X.; Metcalf, A. R.; Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.; Zimmermann, K.; Bertram, T. H.; Corrigan, A. L.; Russell, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) play important roles as short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) as a result of their short atmospheric lifetimes and ability to absorb solar radiation. The direct impacts of BC on climate depend on just how efficiently a given BC particle absorbs solar radiation, while the impacts of BrC depend on the specific properties of the BrC. The addition of 'coatings' to BC particles can theoretically increase the absorption by a given particle, and this theoretical 'lensing' enhancement has been confirmed through laboratory experiments. However, recent field observations (from the CalNex and CARES studies; Cappa et al. 2012), using a novel thermodenuder-absorption method, have suggested that the actual enhancement for ambient particles is substantially less than theoretically expected. Here, we will discuss results from similar measurements made during two recent field studies, the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ Fresno study and the 2013 SOAS Look Rock study. DISCOVER-AQ took place in Jan/Feb 2013 in Fresno, CA. This region is severely impacted by particulate matter from local and regional residential biomass burning, and thus provides a sharp contrast to the previous CalNex and CARES studies. SOAS took place during June/July 2013 at Look Rock National Park, TN, a relatively remote region strongly impacted by biogenic emissions (predominately isoprene) and located approximately 30 miles away from Knoxville, TN. The difference in absorption for dry, ambient particles will be compared with absorption measured for particles that have been passed through a thermodenuder. Additionally, variations in the mass absorption coefficient, determined from comparison of the measured light absorption and refractory black carbon concentrations, will be examined. The relative contributions of BrC and BC to total absorption at 405 nm, 532 nm and 870 nm will be discussed. The overall measurements suggest a relatively small role for lensing-induced absorption

  2. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  3. Infrared measurements of atmospheric ethane (C2H6) from aircraft and ground-based solar absorption spectra in the 3000/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. M.; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of prominent Q-branches of the nu-7 band of C2H6 have been identified near 3000/cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  4. Observation of current reversal in the scanning tunneling spectra of fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azulay, Doron; Kopnov, Frieda; Tenne, Reshef; Balberg, Isaac; Millo, Oded

    2006-04-01

    Current-voltage characteristics measured using STM on fullerene-like WS2 nanoparticles show zero-bias current and contain segments in which the tunneling current flows opposite to the applied bias voltage. In addition, negative differential conductance peaks emerge in these reversed current segments, and the characteristics are hysteretic with respect to the change in the voltage sweep direction. Such unusual features resemble those appearing in cyclic voltammograms, but are uniquely observed here in tunneling spectra measured in vacuum, as well as in ambient and dry atmosphere conditions. This behavior is attributed to tunneling-driven electrochemical processes.

  5. Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majzlan, Juraj; Alpers, Charles N.; Bender Koch, Christian; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Myneni, Satish B.C.; Neil, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and M??ssbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, r??merite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3??5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750-4000cm-1 are presented for all studied phases. Position of the FTIR bands is discussed in terms of the vibrations of sulfate ions, hydroxyl groups, and water molecules. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected for selected samples. The feature of greatest interest is a series of weak pre-edge peaks whose position is determined by the number of bridging oxygen atoms between Fe3+ octahedra and sulfate tetrahedra. M??ssbauer spectra of selected samples were obtained at room temperature and 80K for ferric minerals jarosite and rhomboclase and mixed ferric-ferrous minerals r??merite, voltaite, and copiapite. Values of Fe2+/[Fe2++Fe3+] determined by M??ssbauer spectroscopy agree well with those determined by wet chemical analysis. The data presented here can be used as standards in spectroscopic work where spectra of well-characterized compounds are required to identify complex mixtures of minerals and related phases. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majzlan, Juraj; Alpers, Charles N.; Bender Koch, Christian; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Myneni, Satish B.C.; Neil, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, römerite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750–4000 cm−1 are presented for all studied phases. Position of the FTIR bands is discussed in terms of the vibrations of sulfate ions, hydroxyl groups, and water molecules. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected for selected samples. The feature of greatest interest is a series of weak pre-edge peaks whose position is determined by the number of bridging oxygen atoms between Fe3+ octahedra and sulfate tetrahedra. Mössbauer spectra of selected samples were obtained at room temperature and 80 K for ferric minerals jarosite and rhomboclase and mixed ferric–ferrous minerals römerite, voltaite, and copiapite. Values of Fe2+/[Fe2+ + Fe3+] determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy agree well with those determined by wet chemical analysis. The data presented here can be used as standards in spectroscopic work where spectra of well-characterized compounds are required to identify complex mixtures of minerals and related phases.

  7. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, B. I.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, M.

    A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K-absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 10more » 16 –10 17 W=cm 2. It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray freeelectron laser pulses.« less

  8. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, B. I.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, M.; ...

    2017-08-16

    A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K-absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 10more » 16 –10 17 W=cm 2. It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray freeelectron laser pulses.« less

  9. Observation of soft X-ray spectra from a Seyfert 1 and a narrow emission-line galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Garmire, G. P.; Nousek, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 0.2-40 keV X-ray spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509 and the narrow emission-line galaxy NGC 2992 are analyzed. The results suggest the presence of a steep soft X-ray component in Mrk 509 in addition to the well-known Gamma = 1.7 component found in other active galactic nuclei in the 2-40 keV energy range. The soft X-ray component is interpreted as due to thermal emission from a hot gas, probably associated with the highly ionized gas observed to be outflowing from the galaxy. The X-ray spectrum of NGC 2992 does not show any steepening in the soft X-ray band and is consistent with a single power law (Gamma = 1.78) with very low absorbing column density of 4 x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. A model with partial covering of the nuclear X-ray source is preferred, however, to a simple model with a single power law and absorption.

  10. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  11. Transformation of apparent ocean wave spectra observed from an aircraft sensor platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The problem considered was transformation of a unidirectional apparent ocean wave spectrum observed from an aircraft sensor platform into the true spectrum that would be observed from a stationary platform. Spectral transformation equations were developed in terms of the linear wave dispersion relationship and the wave group speed. An iterative solution to the equations was outlined and used to transform reference theoretical apparent spectra for several assumed values of average water depth. Results show that changing the average water depth leads to a redistribution of energy density among the various frequency bands of the transformed spectrum. This redistribution is most severe when much of the energy density is expected, a priori, to reside at relatively low true frequencies.

  12. Predicting lanthanide cluster properties: a comparison with the observed optical spectra of HO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemukhin, A. V.; Ermilov, A. Yu.; Petrukhina, M. A.; Klotzbücher, W. E.; Smets, J.

    1997-10-01

    Ab initio pseudopotential calculations for HO and HO 2 have been carried out in order to support an assignment of the bands observed in UV-visible spectra of matrix isolated holmium species. SCF, MCSCF and configuration interaction (CI) procedures have been used with quasirelativistic pseudopotentials to compute the ground and excited state energies of HO and HO 2, together with the dipole transition moments. For HO 2, using a Q = 11 pseudopotential (describing the holmium atom in the 4f 106s 25d 1 electronic state), two transitions from the ground state σg2σu2πu2 to the states with principal excitations σu → πg and π u → σ g∗ are predicted at 499 and 524 nm. These two lines, with predicted close intensities, correlate nicely with the observed features at 498/504 and 558/563nm in the spectrum of matrix-isolated HO 2.

  13. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Torres, Omar; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET, satellite retrievals from the TOMS instrument, and field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption. and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  14. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine what are the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  15. Aerosol Absorption in the Atmosphere: Perspectives from Global Model, Ground-Based Measurements, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Main; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia; Duncan, Bryan; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol absorption in the atmosphere poses a major uncertainty in assessing the aerosol climate effects. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, and our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt. We compare the model calculated total aerosol optical thickness, extinction, and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia. We will examine the most sensitive factors in determining the aerosol absorption, and the consequences of assessing the aerosol radiative forcing and atmospheric heating associated with those factors.

  16. Observation of confinement effects through liner and nonlinear absorption spectroscopy in cuprous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nano clusters, micro cubes and micro particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper (II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of pure single phase cubic. Raman spectrum shows the inevitable presence of CuO on the surface of the Cu2O powders which may have an impact on the stability of the phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro cubes and micro particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show that the absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nano clusters to micro cubes and micro particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Samples exhibited saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA is ascribed to excited-state absorption (ESA) induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap) we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) in the case of nano-clusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  17. Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectra of Helium (DB) White Dwarfs and a Study of the Ultraviolet Spectra of White Dwarfs Containing Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Strong ultraviolet carbon lines were detected in the spectrum of the southern DC white dwarf BPM 11668. Observations of a number of hotter DB white dwarfs with IUE show no evidence of carbon features. Two additional DA white dwarfs were observed that have the strong unidentified absorption near 1400 A which now seems to be identified with another lower temperature feature as satellite lines to Lyman alpha radiation.

  18. Statistical and observational research of solar flare for total spectra and geometrical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, S.; Watanabe, K.; Imada, S.; Kawate, T.; Lee, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive energy release phenomena such as solar flares, sometimes affect to the solar-terrestrial environment. Usually, we use soft X-ray flux (GOES class) as the index of flare scale. However, the magnitude of effect to the solar-terrestrial environment is not proportional to that scale. To identify the relationship between solar flare phenomena and influence to the solar-terrestrial environment, we need to understand the full spectrum of solar flares. There is the solar flare irradiance model named the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) (Chamberlin et al., 2006, 2007, 2008). The FISM can estimate solar flare spectra with high wavelength resolution. However, this model can not express the time evolution of emitted plasma during the solar flare, and has low accuracy on short wavelength that strongly effects and/or controls the total flare spectra. For the purpose of obtaining the time evolution of total solar flare spectra, we are performing statistical analysis of the electromagnetic data of solar flares. In this study, we select solar flare events larger than M-class from the Hinode flare catalogue (Watanabe et al., 2012). First, we focus on the EUV emission observed by the SDO/EVE. We examined the intensities and time evolutions of five EUV lines of 55 flare events. As a result, we found positive correlation between the "soft X-ray flux" and the "EUV peak flux" for all EVU lines. Moreover, we found that hot lines peaked earlier than cool lines of the EUV light curves. We also examined the hard X-ray data obtained by RHESSI. When we analyzed 163 events, we found good correlation between the "hard X-ray intensity" and the "soft X-ray flux". Because it seems that the geometrical features of solar flares effect to those time evolutions, we also looked into flare ribbons observed by SDO/AIA. We examined 21 flare events, and found positive correlation between the "GOES duration" and the "ribbon length". We also found positive correlation between the "ribbon

  19. Highly Ionized Fe-K Absorption Line from Cygnus X-1 in the High/Soft State Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Torii, S.; Mineshige, S.; Ueda, Y.; Kubota, A.; Gandhi, P.; Done, C.; Noda, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Makishima, K.

    2013-04-01

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe Kα absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start to the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for ~10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of ~3, peaking at an orbital phase of ~0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of ~1010-12 cm with a density of ~10(- 13)-(- 11) g cm-3, which accretes onto and/or transits the line of sight to the black hole, causing an instant decrease in the observed degree of ionization and/or an increase in density of the accreting matter. Continued monitoring for individual events with future X-ray calorimeter missions such as ASTRO-H and AXSIO will allow us to map out the accretion environment in detail and how it changes between the various accretion states.

  20. Ultraviolet Spectra of Two Magnetic White Dwarfs and Ultraviolet Spectra of Subluminous Objects Found in the Kiso Schmidt Survey and Ultraviolet Absorptions in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Research under NASA Grant NAG5-287 has carried out a number of projects in conjunction with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. These include: (1) studies of the UV spectra of DA white dwarfs which show quasi-molecular bands of H2 and H2(+); (2) the peculiar star HR6560; (3) the UV spectra of two magnetic white dwarfs that also show the quasi-molecular features; (4) investigations of the UV spectra of subluminous stars, primarily identified from visual wavelength spectroscopy in the Kiso survey of UV excess stars, some of which show interesting metal lines in their UV spectra; and (5) completion of studies of UV spectra of DB stars. The main result of this research has been to further knowledge of the structure and compositions of subluminous stars which helps cast light on their formation and evolution.

  1. Circular dichroism and optical absorption spectra of mononuclear and trinuclear chiral Cu(II) amino-alcohol coordinated compounds: A combined theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Israel; Ávila-Torres, Yenny; Barba-Behrens, Norah; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the physicochemical properties of biomimetic compounds of multicopper oxidases are fundamental to understand their reaction mechanisms and catalytic behavior. In this work, electronic, optical, and chiroptical properties of copper(II) complexes with amino-alcohol chiral ligands are theoretically studied by means of time-dependent density functional theory. The calculated absorption and circular dichroism spectra are compared with experimental measurements of these spectra for an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative, as well as for the corresponding mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated complexes. This comparison is useful to gain insights into their electronic structure, optical absorption and optical activity. The optical absorption and circular dichroism bands of the pseudoephedrine derivative are located in the UV-region. They are mainly due to transitions originated from n to π anti-bonding orbitals of the alcohol and amino groups, as well as from π bonding to π anti-bonding orbitals of carboxyl and phenyl groups. In the case of the mononuclear and trinuclear compounds, additional signals in the visible spectral region are present. In both systems, the origin of these bands is due to charge transfer from ligand to metal and d-d transitions.

  2. Load-unloading response of intact and artificially degraded articular cartilage correlated with near infrared (NIR) absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Afara, I O; Singh, S; Oloyede, A

    2013-04-01

    The conventional mechanical properties of articular cartilage, such as compressive stiffness, have been demonstrated to be limited in their capacity to distinguish intact (visually normal) from degraded cartilage samples. In this paper, we explore the correlation between a new mechanical parameter, namely the reswelling of articular cartilage following unloading from a given compressive load, and the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The capacity to distinguish mechanically intact from proteoglycan-depleted tissue relative to the "reswelling" characteristic was first established, and the result was subsequently correlated with the NIR spectral data of the respective tissue samples. To achieve this, normal intact and enzymatically degraded samples were subjected to both NIR probing and mechanical compression based on a load-unload-reswelling protocol. The parameter δr, characteristic of the osmotic "reswelling" of the matrix after unloading to a constant small load in the order of the osmotic pressure of cartilage, was obtained for the different sample types. Multivariate statistics was employed to determine the degree of correlation between δr and the NIR absorption spectrum of relevant specimens using Partial Least Squared (PLS) regression. The results show a strong relationship (R(2)=95.89%, p<0.0001) between the spectral data and δr. This correlation of δr with NIR spectral data suggests the potential for determining the reswelling characteristics non-destructively. It was also observed that δr values bear a significant relationship with the cartilage matrix integrity, indicated by its proteoglycan content, and can therefore differentiate between normal and artificially degraded proteoglycan-depleted cartilage samples. It is therefore argued that the reswelling of cartilage, which is both biochemical (osmotic) and mechanical (hydrostatic pressure) in origin, could be a strong candidate for characterizing the tissue, especially in regions surrounding focal

  3. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M; Darvish Ganji, M; Jameh-Bozorghi, S; Niazi, A

    2018-04-05

    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω + ) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C 60 -Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C 60 -P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C 60 -P-Mptriad system due to C 60 -Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes

  4. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Jameh-Bozorghi, S.; Niazi, A.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω+) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C60-Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C60-P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C60-P-Mptriad system due to C60-Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes. In

  5. Solar absorption by elemental and brown carbon determined from spectral observations.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Ranjit; Praveen, Puppala S; Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, V

    2012-10-23

    Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TC) and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). However, organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC), which is typically not represented in climate models. We propose an observationally based analytical method for rigorously partitioning measured absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) among EC and BrC, using multiwavelength measurements of total (EC, OC, and dust) absorption. EC is found to be strongly absorbing (SSA of 0.38) whereas the BrC SSA varies globally between 0.77 and 0.85. The method is applied to the California region. We find TC (EC + BrC) contributes 81% of the total absorption at 675 nm and 84% at 440 nm. The BrC absorption at 440 nm is about 40% of the EC, whereas at 675 nm it is less than 10% of EC. We find an enhanced absorption due to OC in the summer months and in southern California (related to forest fires and secondary OC). The fractions and trends are broadly consistent with aerosol chemical-transport models as well as with regional emission inventories, implying that we have obtained a representative estimate for BrC absorption. The results demonstrate that current climate models that treat OC as nonabsorbing are underestimating the total warming effect of carbonaceous aerosols by neglecting part of the atmospheric heating, particularly over biomass-burning regions that emit BrC.

  6. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  7. Multiconfigurational and DFT analyses of the electromeric formulation and UV-vis absorption spectra of the superoxide adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amr A A; Cioloboc, Daniela; Lupan, Alexandru; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-12-01

    The putative initial adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase (SOR) with superoxide has been alternatively formulated as ferric-peroxo or ferrous-superoxo. The ~600-nm UV-vis absorption band proposed to be assigned to this adduct (either as sole intermediate in the SOR catalytic cycle, or as one of the two intermediates) has recently been interpreted as due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer, involving thiolate and superoxide in a ferrous complex, contrary to an alternative assignment as a predominantly cysteine thiolate-to-ferric charge transfer in a ferric-peroxo electromer. In an attempt to clarify the electromeric formulation of this adduct, we report a computational study using a multiconfigurational complete active space self-consistent field (MC-CASSCF) wave function approach as well as modelling the UV-vis absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The MC-CASSCF calculations disclose a weak interaction between iron and the dioxygenic ligand and a dominant configuration with an essentially ferrous-superoxo character. The computed UV-vis absorption spectra reveal a marked dependence on the choice of density functional - both in terms of location of bands and in terms of orbital contributors. For the main band in the visible region, besides the recently reported thiolate-to-superoxide charge transfer, a more salient, and less functional-dependent, feature is a thiolate-to-ferric iron charge transfer, consistent with a ferric-peroxo electromer. By contrast, the computed UV-vis spectra of a ferric-hydroperoxo SOR model match distinctly better (and with no qualitative dependence on the DFT methodology) the 600-nm band as due to a mainly thiolate-to-ferric character - supporting the assignment of the SOR "600-nm intermediate" as a S=5/2 ferric-hydroperoxo species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Time-Dependent Density Functional and Natural Bond Orbital Theories to the UV-vis Absorption Spectra of Some Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Marković, Svetlana; Tošović, Jelena

    2015-09-03

    The UV-vis properties of 22 natural phenolic compounds, comprising anthraquinones, neoflavonoids, and flavonoids were systematically examined. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach in combination with the B3LYP, B3LYP-D2, B3P86, and M06-2X functionals was used to simulate the UV-vis spectra of the investigated compounds. It was shown that all methods exhibit very good (B3LYP slightly better) performance in reproducing the examined UV-vis spectra. However, the shapes of the Kohn-Sham molecular orbitals (MOs) involved in electronic transitions were misleading in constructing the MO correlation diagrams. To provide better understanding of redistribution of electron density upon excitation, the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was applied. Bearing in mind the spatial and energetic separations, as well as the character of the π bonding, lone pair, and π* antibonding natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs), the "NLMO clusters" were constructed. NLMO cluster should be understood as a part of a molecule characterized with distinguished electron density. It was shown that all absorption bands including all electronic transitions need to be inspected to fully understand the UV-vis spectrum of a certain compound, and, thus, to learn more about its UV-vis light absorption. Our investigation showed that the TDDFT and NBO theories are complementary, as the results from the two approaches can be combined to interpret the UV-vis spectra. Agreement between the predictions of the TDDFT approach and those based on the NLMO clusters is excellent in the case of major electronic transitions and long wavelengths. It should be emphasized that the approach for investigation of UV-vis light absorption based on the NLMO clusters is applied for the first time.

  9. The Production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions in Inert Gas Matrices Doped with Alkali Metals. Electronic Absorption Spectra of the Pentacene Anion (C22H14(-))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).

  10. Gravity-wave spectra in the atmosphere observed by MST radar, part 4.2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A universal spectrum of atmospheric buoyancy waves is proposed based on data from radiosonde, Doppler navigation, not-wire anemometer and Jimsphere balloon. The possible existence of such a universal spectrum clearly will have significant impact on several areas in the study of the middle atmosphere dynamics such as the parameterization of sub-grid scale gravity waves in global circulation models; the transport of trace constituents and heat in the middle atmosphere, etc. Therefore, it is important to examine more global wind data with temporal and spatial resolutions suitable for the investigation of the wave spectra. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations offer an excellent opportunity for such studies. It is important to realize that radar measures the line-of-sight velocity which, in general, contains the combination of the vertical and horizontal components of the wave-associated particle velocity. Starting from a general oblique radar observation configuration, applying the dispersion relation for the gravity waves, the spectrum for the observed fluctuations in the line-of-sight gravity-wave spectrum is investigated through a filter function. The consequence of the filter function on data analysis is discussed.

  11. Effect of Acid-Base Equilibrium on Absorption Spectra of Humic acid in the Presence of Copper Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between humic acid (HA, sample IHSS) and a metal ion (Cu2+) that was manifested as absorption bands in the range 210-350 nm was recorded using absorption spectroscopy. The reaction was found to be more effective as the pH increased. These data were interpreted in the framework of generally accepted concepts about the influence of acid-base equilibrium on the dissociation of salts, according to which increasing the solution pH increases the concentration of HA anions. It was suggested that [HA-Cu2+] complexes formed.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation and TDDFT study of the structures and UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Yujiao; Xie, Xiaomei; Chen, Feifei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the inclusion ratios and inclusion constants of MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM inclusion complexes were measured by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The inclusion ratios are both 1:1, and the inclusion constants are 60 and 342.5 for MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM, respectively. The stabilities of inclusion complexes were investigated by MD simulation. MD shows that VDW energy plays a vital role in the stability of inclusion complex, and the destruction of inclusion complex is due to the increasing temperature. The UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes were studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method employing BLYP-D3, B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X-D3 functionals. BLYP-D3 well reproduces the UV-vis absorption spectrum and reveals that the absorption bands of MCT-β-CD mainly arise from n→π(∗) and n→σ(∗) transition, and those of inclusion complexes mainly arise from intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). ICT results in the shift of main absorption bands of MCT-β-CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Absorption Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gaseous- and Particle- Phase Emissions from Peat Fuel Combustion Under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J. I.; Samburova, V.; Moosmüller, H.; Khlystov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass and fossil fuel burning processes emit important organic pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the atmosphere. Smoldering combustion of peat is one of the largest contributors (up to 70%) of carbonaceous species and, therefore, it may be one of the main sources of these PAHs. PAHs can be detrimental to health, they are known to be potent mutagens and suspected carcinogens. They may also contribute to solar light absorption as the particles absorb in the blue and near ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum ("brown carbon" species). There is very little knowledge and large ambiguity regarding the contribution of PAHs to optical properties of organic carbon (OC) emitted from smoldering biomass combustion. This study focuses on quantifying and analyzing PAHs emitted from peat smoldering combustion to gain more knowledge on their optical properties. Five peat fuels collected in different regions of the world (Russia, USA) were burned under controlled conditions (e.g., relative humidity, combustion efficiency, fuel-moisture content) at the Desert Research Institute Biomass Burning facility (Reno, NV, USA). Combustion aerosols collected on TIGF filters followed by XAD resin cartridges were extracted and analyzed for gas-phase (semi-volatile) and particle-phase PAHs. Filter and XAD samples were extracted separately with dichloromethane followed by acetone using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ACE 300, Dionex). To determine absorption properties, absorption spectra of extracts and standard PAHs were recorded between 190 and 900 nm with a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer, Lambda 650). This poster will discuss the potential contribution of PAHs to brown carbon emitted from peat combustion and give a brief comparison with absorption spectra from biomass burning aerosols.

  14. Experimental and theoretical comparison of the O K-edge nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectra of NaReO4.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Joseph A; Yang, Ping; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Burns, Carol J; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; Seidler, Gerald T; Scott, Brian L; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilkerson, Marianne P; Wolfsberg, Laura E

    2010-10-06

    Accurate X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of first row atoms, e.g., O, are notoriously difficult to obtain due to the extreme sensitivity of the measurement to surface contamination, self-absorption, and saturation affects. Herein, we describe a comprehensive approach for determining reliable O K-edge XAS data for ReO(4)(1-) and provide methodology for obtaining trustworthy and quantitative data on nonconducting molecular systems, even in the presence of surface contamination. This involves comparing spectra measured by nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS), a bulk-sensitive technique that is not prone to X-ray self-absorption and provides exact peak intensities, with XAS spectra obtained by three different detection modes, namely total electron yield (TEY), fluorescence yield (FY), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). For ReO(4)(1-), TEY measurements were heavily influenced by surface contamination, while the FY and STXM data agree well with the bulk NRIXS analysis. These spectra all showed two intense pre-edge features indicative of the covalent interaction between the Re 5d and O 2p orbitals. Density functional theory calculations were used to assign these two peaks as O 1s excitations to the e and t(2) molecular orbitals that result from Re 5d and O 2p covalent mixing in T(d) symmetry. Electronic structure calculations were used to determine the amount of O 2p character (%) in these molecular orbitals. Time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) was also used to calculate the energies and intensities of the pre-edge transitions. Overall, under these experimental conditions, this analysis suggests that NRIXS, STXM, and FY operate cooperatively, providing a sound basis for validation of bulk-like excitation spectra and, in combination with electronic structure calculations, suggest that NaReO(4) may serve as a well-defined O K-edge energy and intensity standard for future O K-edge XAS studies.

  15. ALMA observations of molecular absorption in four directions toward the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H.; Gerin, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Alma Cycle 3 observations serendipitously showed strong absorption from diffuse molecular gas in the Galactic bulge at -200 km s-1 < v < -140 km s-1 toward the compact extragalactic continuum source J1744-3116 at (l, b) = -2.13∘, - 1.00∘. Aims: We aimed to test whether molecular gas in the bulge could also be detected toward the three other, sufficiently strong mm-wave continuum sources seen toward the bulge at |b| < 3∘. Methods: We took absorption profiles of HCO+ (1-0), HCN(1-0), C2H(1-0), CS(2-1) and H13CO+(1-0) in ALMA Cycle 4 toward J1713-3418, J1717-3341, J1733-3722 and J1744-3116. Results: Strong molecular absorption from disk gas at |ν| ≲ 30 km s-1 was detected in all directions, and absorption from the 3 kpc arm was newly detected toward J1717 and J1744. However, only the sightline toward J1744 is dominated by molecular gas overall and no other sightlines showed molecular absorption from gas deep inside the bulge. No molecular absorption was detected toward J1717 where H I emission from the bulge was previously known. As observed in HCO+, HCN, C2H and CS, the bulge gas toward J1744 at v < -135 km s-1 has chemistry and kinematics like that seen near the Sun and in the Milky Way disk generally. We measured isotopologic ratios N(HCO+)/N(H13CO+) > 51(3σ) for the bulge gas toward J1744 and 58 ± 9 and 64 ± 4 for the disk gas toward J1717 and J1744, respectively, all well above the value of 20-25 typical of the central molecular zone. Conclusions: The kinematics and chemistry of the bulge gas observed toward J1744 more nearly resemble that of gas in the Milky Way disk than in the central molecular zone.

  16. How Continuous Observations of Shortwave Reflectance Spectra Can Narrow the Range of Shortwave Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D.; Collins, W. D.; Wielicki, B. A.; Shea, Y.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Kuo, C.; Nguyen, N.

    2017-12-01

    Shortwave feedbacks are a persistent source of uncertainty for climate models and a large contributor to the diagnosed range of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) for the international multi-model ensemble. The processes that contribute to these feedbacks affect top-of-atmosphere energetics and produce spectral signatures that may be time-evolving. We explore the value of such spectral signatures for providing an observational constraint on model ECS by simulating top-of-atmosphere shortwave reflectance spectra across much of the energetically-relevant shortwave bandpass (300 to 2500 nm). We present centennial-length shortwave hyperspectral simulations from low, medium and high ECS models that reported to the CMIP5 archive as part of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) in support of the CLimate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO). Our framework interfaces with CMIP5 archive results and is agnostic to the choice of model. We simulated spectra from the INM-CM4 model (ECS of 2.08 °K/2xCO2), the MIROC5 model (ECS of 2.70 °K/2xCO2), and the CSIRO Mk3-6-0 (ECS of 4.08 °K/2xCO2) based on those models' integrations of the RCP8.5 scenario for the 21st Century. This approach allows us to explore how perfect data records can exclude models of lower or higher climate sensitivity. We find that spectral channels covering visible and near-infrared water-vapor overtone bands can potentially exclude a low or high sensitivity model with under 15 years' of absolutely-calibrated data. These different spectral channels are sensitive to model cloud radiative effect and cloud height changes, respectively. These unprecedented calculations lay the groundwork for spectral simulations of perturbed-physics ensembles in order to identify those shortwave observations that can help narrow the range in shortwave model feedbacks and ultimately help reduce the stubbornly-large range in model ECS.

  17. Comparisons of Spectra from 3D Kinetic Meteor PIC Simulations with Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, M. M.; Tarnecki, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoroids smaller than a grain of sand have significant impacts on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere. The processes by which they turbulently diffuse can be studied using collisional kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Spectral analysis is a valuable tool for comparing such simulations of turbulent, non-specular meteor trails with observations. We present three types of spectral information: full spectra along the trail in k-ω space, spectral widths at common radar frequencies, and power as a function of angle with respect to B. These properties can be compared to previously published data. Zhou et al. (2004) use radar theory to predict the power observed by a radar as a function of the angle between the meteor trail and the radar beam and the size of field-aligned irregularities (FAI) within the trail. Close et al. (2008) present observations of meteor trails from the ALTAIR radar, including power returned as a function of angle off B for a small sample of meteors. Close et al. (2008) and Zhou et al. (2004) both suggest a power drop off of 2-3 dB per degree off perpendicular to B. We compare results from our simulations with both theory and observations for a range of conditions, including trail altitude and incident neutral wind speed. For 1m waves, power fell off by 1-3 dB per degree off perpendicular to B. These comparisons help determine if small-scale simulations accurately capture the behavior of real meteors.

  18. Dynamical core-hole screening in the x-ray absorption spectra of hydrogenated carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessely, O.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Nilsson, A.; Nikitin, A.; Ogasawara, H.; Odelius, M.; Sanyal, B.; Eriksson, O.

    2007-10-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of a hydrogenated single graphite plane, in order to simulate recent experimental results on hydrogenated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as hydrogenated graphene. We find that the presence of H induces a substantial component of sp3 bonding and as a result the π and π* components to the electronic structure vanish. We have calculated a theoretical x-ray absorption spectrum using a multiband version of the Mahan-Nozières-De Dominicis theory. By making a fitting of the XA signal of C atoms that have H attached to them and C atoms without H in the vicinity we obtain a good representation of the experimental data and we can draw the conclusion that in the experiments [A. Nikitin , Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 225507 (2005)] some 35-50 % H have been absorbed in the SWCNT.

  19. Kinetics and its accompanying thermodynamics studies on simultaneous complexation of heterobimetallic neodymium (III) with zinc (II) and L-tryptophan in aquated DMF using 4f-4f absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Huidrom, Bimola; Singh, N Rajmuhon

    2014-01-24

    The 4f-4f absorption spectra of the simultaneous heterobimetallic complexation of trivalent neodymium ion with l-tryptophan and divalent zinc ion in aquated DMF (50%, v/v) at pH 6.0 was recorded at the time interval of 1h. From the observed absorption spectra, the values of intensity parameters such as oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (Tλ) parameters, kinetics and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The rate constant increases with an increase in the temperature along with the oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The positive values of the change in the standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) indicate that the complexation is endothermic. The negative values of the change in the standard free energy (ΔG°) in the range from 293.15 K to 308.15 K, indicate that the reaction occurs spontaneously and hence the formation of heterobimetallic complex in the solution is favored kinetically and thermodynamically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics and its accompanying thermodynamics studies on simultaneous complexation of heterobimetallic neodymium (III) with zinc (II) and L-tryptophan in aquated DMF using 4f-4f absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huidrom, Bimola; Rajmuhon Singh, N.

    2014-01-01

    The 4f-4f absorption spectra of the simultaneous heterobimetallic complexation of trivalent neodymium ion with L-tryptophan and divalent zinc ion in aquated DMF (50%, v/v) at pH 6.0 was recorded at the time interval of 1 h. From the observed absorption spectra, the values of intensity parameters such as oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (Tλ) parameters, kinetics and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The rate constant increases with an increase in the temperature along with the oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The positive values of the change in the standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) indicate that the complexation is endothermic. The negative values of the change in the standard free energy (ΔG°) in the range from 293.15 K to 308.15 K, indicate that the reaction occurs spontaneously and hence the formation of heterobimetallic complex in the solution is favored kinetically and thermodynamically.

  1. Excited state absorption spectra of dissolved and aggregated distyrylbenzene: A TD-DFT state and vibronic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliezer Fernando; Shi, Junqing; Lavarda, Francisco Carlos; Lüer, Larry; Milián-Medina, Begoña; Gierschner, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    A time-dependent density functional theory study is performed to reveal the excited state absorption (ESA) features of distyrylbenzene (DSB), a prototype π-conjugated organic oligomer. Starting with a didactic insight to ESA based on simple molecular orbital and configuration considerations, the performance of various density functional theory functionals is tested to reveal the full vibronic ESA features of DSB at short and long probe delay times.

  2. Absorption/Transmission Measurements of PSAP Particle-Laden Filters from the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Field Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Conny, Joseph M.; Chand, Duli; Sedlacek, Arthur; Hubbe, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques). Advantages of the LDTR approach include 1) direct estimation of material absorption from temperature measurements (as opposed to resolving the difference between the measured reflection/scattering and transmission), 2) information on the filter optical properties, and 3) identification of the filter material effects on particle absorption (e.g., leading to particle absorption enhancement or shadowing). For measurements carried out under ambient conditions, the particle absorptivity is obtained with a thermocouple placed flush with the filter back surface and the laser probe beam impinging normal to the filter particle-laden surface. Thus, in principle one can employ a simple experimental arrangement to measure simultaneously both the transmissivity and absorptivity (at different discrete wavelengths) and ascertain the particle absorption coefficient. For this investigation, LDTR measurements were carried out with PSAP filters (pairs with both blank and exposed filters) from eight different days during the campaign, having relatively light but different particle loadings. The observed particles coating the filters were found to be carbonaceous (having broadband absorption characteristics). The LDTR absorption coefficient compared well with results from the PSAP. The

  3. Absorption/Transmission Measurements of PSAP Particle-Laden Filters from the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Field Campaign.

    PubMed

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Conny, Joseph M; Chand, Duli; Sedlacek, Arthur; Hubbe, John M

    2017-01-01

    Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques). Advantages of the LDTR approach include 1) direct estimation of material absorption from temperature measurements (as opposed to resolving the difference between the measured reflection/scattering and transmission), 2) information on the filter optical properties, and 3) identification of the filter material effects on particle absorption (e.g., leading to particle absorption enhancement or shadowing). For measurements carried out under ambient conditions, the particle absorptivity is obtained with a thermocouple placed flush with the filter back surface and the laser probe beam impinging normal to the filter particle-laden surface. Thus, in principle one can employ a simple experimental arrangement to measure simultaneously both the transmissivity and absorptivity (at different discrete wavelengths) and ascertain the particle absorption coefficient. For this investigation, LDTR measurements were carried out with PSAP filters (pairs with both blank and exposed filters) from eight different days during the campaign, having relatively light but different particle loadings. The observed particles coating the filters were found to be carbonaceous (having broadband absorption characteristics). The LDTR absorption coefficient compared well with results from the PSAP. The

  4. First-principles calculations of K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zi; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei

    2016-05-15

    X-ray absorption spectrum is a powerful tool for atomic structure detection on warm dense matter. Here, we perform first-principles molecular dynamics and X-ray absorption spectrum calculations on warm dense nitrogen along a Hugoniot curve. From the molecular dynamics trajectory, the detailed atomic structures are examined for each thermodynamical condition. The K-shell X-ray absorption spectrum is calculated, and its changes with temperature and pressure along the Hugoniot curve are discussed. The warm dense nitrogen systems may contain isolated nitrogen atoms, N{sub 2} molecules, and nitrogen clusters, which show quite different contributions to the total X-ray spectrum due to their different electronmore » density of states. The changes of X-ray spectrum along the Hugoniot curve are caused by the different nitrogen structures induced by the temperature and the pressure. Some clear signatures on X-ray spectrum for different thermodynamical conditions are pointed out, which may provide useful data for future X-ray experiments.« less

  5. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  6. Orographic precipitation and vertical velocity characteristics from drop size and fall velocity spectra observed by disdrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Hyeonjoon

    2017-04-01

    During a summer monsoon season each year, severe weather phenomena caused by front, mesoscale convective systems, or typhoons often occur in the southern Korean Peninsula where is mostly comprised of complex high mountains. These areas play an important role in controlling formation, amount, and distribution of rainfall. As precipitation systems move over the mountains, they can develop rapidly and produce localized heavy rainfall. Thus observational analysis in the mountainous areas is required for studying terrain effects on the rapid rainfall development and its microphysics. We performed intensive field observations using two s-band operational weather radars around Mt. Jiri (1950 m ASL) during summertime on June and July in 2015-2016. Observation data of DSD (Drop Size Distribution) from Parsivel disdrometer and (w component) vertical velocity data from ultrasonic anemometers were analyzed for Typhoon Chanhom on 12 July 2015 and the heavy rain event on 1 July 2016. During the heavy rain event, a dual-Doppler radar analysis using Jindo radar and Gunsan radar was also conducted to examine 3-D wind fields and vertical structure of reflectivity in these areas. For examining up-/downdrafts in the windward or leeward side of Mt. Jiri, we developed a new scheme technique to estimate vertical velocities (w) from drop size and fall velocity spectra of Parsivel disdrometers at different stations. Their comparison with the w values observed by the 3D anemometer showed quite good agreement each other. The Z histogram with regard to the estimated w was similar to that with regard to R, indicating that Parsivel-estimated w is quite reasonable for classifying strong and weak rain, corresponding to updraft and downdraft, respectively. Mostly, positive w values (upward) were estimated in heavy rainfall at the windward side (D1 and D2). Negative w values (downward) were dominant even during large rainfall at the leeward side (D4). For D1 and D2, the upward w percentages were

  7. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: a study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as the state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger π-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to π∗-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate π∗-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to this

  8. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: A study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fransson, Thomas; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as themore » state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger {pi}-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to {pi}*-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate {pi}*-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to

  9. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-05

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pK a '. The determination of pK a ' is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pK a =7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of -1 and the blue form that of -2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.

  11. Observation of Gate-Tunable Coherent Perfect Absorption of Terahertz Waves in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kakenov, Nurbek; Balci, Osman; Takan, Taylan; Ozkan, Vedat Ali; Altan, Hakan

    We report experimental observation of electrically tunable coherent perfect absorption (CPA) of terahertz (THz) radiation in graphene. We develop a reflection-type tunable THz cavity formed by a large-area graphene layer, a metallic reflective electrode, and an electrolytic medium in between. Ionic gating in the THz cavity allows us to tune the Fermi energy of graphene up to 1 eV and to achieve a critical coupling condition at 2.8 THz with absorption of 100 %. With the enhanced THz absorption, we were able to measure the Fermi energy dependence of the transport scattering time of highly doped graphene. Furthermore, we demonstrate flexible active THz surfaces that yield large modulation in the THz reflectivity with low insertion losses. We anticipate that the gate-tunable CPA will lead to efficient active THz optoelectronics applications. This work was partially supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No. 114F379 and the European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant ERC-682723 SmartGraphene. N.K. acknowledges the TUBITAK-BIDEB 2215.

  12. A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part 2: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    geometrical properties of ice crystals before the influence of ice crystal shape on cirrus radiative properties can be adequately understood. This study provides a way of coupling the radiative properties of absorption, extinction, and single scatter albedo to the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. The dependence of extinction and absorption on ice crystal shape was not just due to geometrical differences between crystal types, but was also due to the effect these differences had on the evolution of ice particle size spectra. The ice particle growth model in Part 1 and the radiative properties treated here are based on analytical formulations, and thus represent a computationally efficient means of modeling the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds.

  13. Faraday rotation fluctutation spectra observed during solar occultation of the Helios spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Efimov, A. I.; Samoznaev, L.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) measurements using linearly polarized radio signals from the two Helios spacecraft were carried out during the period from 1975 to 1984. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Helios S-band FR fluctuations observed at heliocentric distances from 2.6 to 15 solar radii during the superior conjunctions 1975-1983. The mean intensity of the FR fluctuations does not exceed the noise level for solar offsets greater than ca. 15 solar radii. The rms FR fluctuation amplitude increases rapidly as the radio ray path approaches the Sun, varying according to a power law (exponent: 2.85 +/- 0.15) at solar distances 4-12 solar radii. At distances inside 4 solar radii the increase is even steeper (exponent: 5.6 +/- 0.2). The equivalent two-dimensional FR fluctuation spectrum is well modeled by a single power-law over the frequency range from 5 to 50 mHz. For heliocentric distances larger than 4 solar radii the spectral index varies between 1.1 and 1.6 with a mean value of 1.4 +/- 0.2, corresponding to a 3-D spectral index p = 2.4. FR fluctuations thus display a somwhat lower spectral index compared with phase and amplitude fluctuations. Surprisingly high values of the spectral index were found for measurements inside 4 solar radii (p = 2.9 +/- 0.2). This may arise from the increasingly dominant effect of the magnetic field on radio wave propagation at small solar offsets. Finally, a quasiperiodic component, believed to be associated with Alfven waves, was discovered in some (but not all!) fluctuation spectra observed simultaneously at two ground stations. Characteristic periods and bulk velocities of this component were 240 +/- 30 sec and 300 +/- 60 km/s, respectively.

  14. Cesium Absorption Spectrum Perturbed by Argon: Observation of Non-Lorentzian Wing Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    vapor phase Cs contained in a heat pipe in order to observe the absorption lines. Two lenses were used to collimate the light through the heat pipe...After passing through the heat pipe, a mirror was used to direct light around a 90 degree turn and then through an f/# matched lens into a monochromator...pipe used here was built by Charles Fox as part of [19]. Brewster’s angle windows were attached to either end of a pipe approximately 1 inch in diameter

  15. Prediction of the Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Dibenzo and Naphtho) Derivatives of Fluoranthene.

    PubMed

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara

    2017-06-01

    The annellation theory method has been used to predict the locations of maximum absorbance (LMA) of the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectral bands in the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) C 24 H 14 (dibenzo and naphtho) derivatives of fluoranthene (DBNFl). In this group of 21 PAHs, ten PAHs present a sextet migration pattern with four or more benzenoid rings that is potentially related to a high molecular reactivity and high mutagenic conduct. This is the first time that the locations of maximum absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of naphth[1,2- a]aceanthrylene, dibenz[ a,l]aceanthrylene, indeno[1,2,3- de]naphthacene, naphtho[1,2- j]fluoranthene, naphth[2,1- e]acephenanthrylene, naphth[2,1- a]aceanthrylene, dibenz[ a,j]aceanthrylene, naphth[1,2- e]acephenanthrylene, and naphtho[2,1- j]fluoranthene have been predicted. Also, this represents the first report about the application of the annellation theory for the calculation of the locations of maximum absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of PAHs with five-membered rings. Furthermore, this study constitutes the premier investigation beyond the pure benzenoid classical approach toward the establishment of a generalized annellation theory that will encompass not only homocyclic benzenoid and non-benzenoid PAHs, but also heterocyclic compounds.

  16. Hourly, daily, and seasonal variability in the absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a eutrophic, humic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. A.; Kothawala, D. N.; Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlée, E.; Koehler, B.; Tranvik, L. J.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    The short-term (hourly and daily) variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in lakes is largely unknown. We assessed the spectral characteristics of light absorption by CDOM in a eutrophic, humic shallow mixed lake of temperate Sweden at a high-frequency (30 min) interval and during a full growing season (May to October). Physical time series, such as solar radiation, temperature, wind, and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in water and air, were measured synchronously. We identified a strong radiation-induced summer CDOM loss (25 to 50%) that developed over 4 months, which was accompanied by strong changes in CDOM absorption spectral shape. The magnitude of the CDOM loss exceeded subhourly to daily variability by an order of magnitude. Applying Fourier analysis, we demonstrate that variation in CDOM remained largely unaffected by rapid shifts in weather, and no apparent response to in-lake dissolved organic carbon production was found. In autumn, CDOM occasionally showed variation at hourly to daily time scales, reaching a maximum daily coefficient of variation of 15%. We suggest that lake-internal effects on CDOM are quenched in humic lake waters by dominating effects associated with imported CDOM and solar exposure. Since humic lake waters belong to one of the most abundant lake types on Earth, our results have important implications for the understanding of global CDOM cycling.

  17. Dynamical Core-Hole Screening in the X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Carbon Nanotubes And Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wessely, O.; /Uppsala U. /Imperial Coll., London; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2009-04-30

    We have calculated the electronic structure and the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of a hydrogenated single graphite plane, in order to simulate recent experimental results on hydrogenated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as hydrogenated graphene. We find that the presence of H induces a substantial component of sp{sup 3} bonding and as a result the {pi} and {pi}* components to the electronic structure vanish. We have calculated a theoretical x-ray absorption spectrum using a multiband version of the Mahan-Nozieres-De Dominicis theory. By making a fitting of the XA signal of C atoms that have H attached to themmore » and C atoms without H in the vicinity we obtain a good representation of the experimental data and we can draw the conclusion that in the experiments [A. Nikitin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 225507 (2005)] some 35-50 % H have been absorbed in the SWCNT.« less

  18. Lick optical spectra of quasar HS 1946+7658 at 10 kilometers per second resolution Lyman-alpha forest and metal absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xiao-Ming; Tytler, David

    1994-01-01

    We present optical spectra of the most luminous known quasi stellar object (QSO) HS 1946+7658 (z(sub em) = 3.051). Our spectra have both full wavelength coverage, 3240-10570 A, and in selected regions, either high signal-to-noise ratio, SNR approximately equals 40-100, or unusually high approximately 10 km/sec resolution, and in parts of the Ly alpha forest and to the red of Ly alpha emission they are among the best published. We find 113 Ly alpha systems and six metal-line systems, three of which are new. The metal systems at z(sub abs) = 2.844 and 3.050 have complex velocity structure with four and three prominent components, respectively. We find that the system at z(sub abs) = 2.844 is a damped Ly alpha absorption (DLA) system, with a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I) = 20.2 +/- 0.4, and it is the cause of the Lyman limit break at lambda approximately equals 3520 A. We believe that most of the H I column density in this system is in z(sub abs) = 2.8443 component which shows the strongest low-ionization absorption lines. The metal abundance in the gas phase of the system is (M/H) approximately equals -2.6 +/- 0.3, with a best estimate of (M/H) = -2.8, with ionizaion parameter log gamma = -2.75, from a photoionization model. The ratios of the logarithmic abundances of C, O, Al, and Si are all within a factor of 2 of solar, which is important for two reasons. First, we believe that the gas abundances which we measure are close to the total abundances, because the ratio of aluminum to other elements is near cosmic, and Al is a refractory element which depletes very readily like chromium, in the interstellar medium. Second, we do not see the enhancement of O with respect to C of (O/C) approximately equals 0.5-0.9 reported in three partial Lyman limit systems by Reimers et al. (1992) and Vogel & Reimers (1993); we measure (O/C) = -0.06 for observed ions and (O/C) approximately equals 0.2 after ionization corrections, which is consistent with solar

  19. Airborne observations of cloud condensation nuclei spectra and aerosols over East Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiefan; Lei, Hengchi; Lü, Yuhuan

    2017-08-01

    A set of vertical profiles of aerosol number concentrations, size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra was observed using a passive cloud and aerosol spectrometer (PCASP) and cloud condensation nuclei counter, over the Tongliao area, East Inner Mongolia, China. The results showed that the average aerosol number concentration in this region was much lower than that in heavily polluted areas. Monthly average aerosol number concentrations within the boundary layer reached a maximum in May and a minimum in September, and the variations in CCN number concentrations at different supersaturations showed the same trend. The parameters c and k of the empirical function N = cS k were 539 and 1.477 under clean conditions, and their counterparts under polluted conditions were 1615 and 1.42. Measurements from the airborne probe mounted on a Yun-12 (Y12) aircraft, together with Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model backward trajectories indicated that the air mass from the south of Tongliao contained a high concentration of aerosol particles (1000-2500 cm-3) in the middle and lower parts of the troposphere. Moreover, detailed intercomparison of data obtained on two days in 2010 indicated that the activation efficiency in terms of the ratio of N CCN to N a (aerosols measured from PCASP) was 0.74 (0.4 supersaturations) when the air mass mainly came from south of Tongliao, and this value increased to 0.83 on the relatively cleaner day. Thus, long-range transport of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily polluted mega cities, such as Beijing and Tianjin, may result in slightly decreasing activation efficiencies.

  20. Method of composing two-dimensional scanned spectra observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun-Fang; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Yu-Chao; Xu, Jun; Li, Zheng-Gang; Fu, Yu; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we illustrate the technique used by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) to increase the spatial resolution of two-dimensional (2D) solar spectroscopy observations involving two dimensions of space and one of wavelength. Without an image stabilizer at the NVST, large scale wobble motion is present during the spatial scanning, whose instantaneous amplitude can reach 1.3″ due to the Earth’s atmosphere and the precision of the telescope guiding system, and seriously decreases the spatial resolution of 2D spatial maps composed with scanned spectra. We make the following effort to resolve this problem: the imaging system (e.g., the TiO-band) is used to record and detect the displacement vectors of solar image motion during the raster scan, in both the slit and scanning directions. The spectral data (e.g., the Hα line) which are originally obtained in time sequence are corrected and re-arranged in space according to those displacement vectors. Raster scans are carried out in several active regions with different seeing conditions (two rasters are illustrated in this paper). Given a certain spatial sampling and temporal resolution, the spatial resolution of the composed 2D map could be close to that of the slit-jaw image. The resulting quality after correction is quantitatively evaluated with two methods. A physical quantity, such as the line-of-sight velocities in multiple layers of the solar atmosphere, is also inferred from the re-arranged spectrum, demonstrating the advantage of this technique.

  1. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  2. Ab Initio Theory of Dynamical Core-Hole Screening in Graphite from X-Ray Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessely, O.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eriksson, O.

    2005-04-01

    We have implemented the effect of dynamical core-hole screening, as given by Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis, in a first-principles based method and applied the theory to the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of graphite. It turns out that two of the conspicuous peaks of graphite are well described, both regarding the position, shape, and relative intensity, whereas one peak is absent in the theory. Only by incorporation of both excitonic and delocalized processes can a full account of the experimental spectrum be obtained theoretically, and we interpret the XA spectrum in graphite to be the result of a well screened and a poor screened process, much in the same way as is done for core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Spatial Representativeness Error in the Ground-Level Observation Networks for Black Carbon Radiation Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Andrews, Elisabeth; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Schulz, Michael; Schuster, Gregory L.; Valari, Myrto; Tao, Shu

    2018-02-01

    There is high uncertainty in the direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC), an aerosol that strongly absorbs solar radiation. The observation-constrained estimate, which is several times larger than the bottom-up estimate, is influenced by the spatial representativeness error due to the mesoscale inhomogeneity of the aerosol fields and the relatively low resolution of global chemistry-transport models. Here we evaluated the spatial representativeness error for two widely used observational networks (AErosol RObotic NETwork and Global Atmosphere Watch) by downscaling the geospatial grid in a global model of BC aerosol absorption optical depth to 0.1° × 0.1°. Comparing the models at a spatial resolution of 2° × 2° with BC aerosol absorption at AErosol RObotic NETwork sites (which are commonly located near emission hot spots) tends to cause a global spatial representativeness error of 30%, as a positive bias for the current top-down estimate of global BC direct radiative forcing. By contrast, the global spatial representativeness error will be 7% for the Global Atmosphere Watch network, because the sites are located in such a way that there are almost an equal number of sites with positive or negative representativeness error.

  4. Using OMI Observations to Measure Aerosol Absorption of Biomass Burning Aerosols Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, P. K.; Jethva, Hiren

    2011-01-01

    The presence of absorbing aerosol layers above clouds is unambiguously detected by the TOMS/OMI UV Aerosol Index (AI) that uses satellite observations at two near-UV channels. A sensitivity study using radiative transfer calculations shows that the AI signal of resulting from the presence of aerosols above clouds is mainly driven by the aerosol absorption optical depth and the optical depth of the underlying cloud. Based on these results, an inversion algorithm has been developed to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of aerosol layers above clouds. In this presentation we will discuss the sensitivity analysis, describe the retrieval approach, and present results of applications of the retrieval method to OMI observations over the South Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary error analyses, to be discussed, indicate that the AOD can be underestimated (up to -30%) or overestimated (up to 60%) depending on algorithmic assumptions.

  5. Observation of excited state absorption in the V-Cr Prussian blue analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedley, Luke; Horbury, Michael D.; Liedy, Florian; Johansson, J. Olof

    2017-11-01

    We present femtosecond transient transmission measurements of thin films of the VII/III-CrIII Prussian blue analogue (V-Cr PBA) in the spectral range 330-675 nm after exciting the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer transition (LMCT) at 400 nm. A global analysis including three decay-times of τ1 = 230 fs, τ2 = 1.38 ps and τ3 ≫ 2 ns could satisfactory describe the data. We observed an excited state absorption (ESA) at 345 nm, which was attributed to a charge-transfer transition from the 2E state on the Cr ions after fast intersystem crossing from the quartet manifold. An additional weak and short-lived ESA at 455 nm was also observed and was tentatively attributed to the initially populated 4LMCT state.

  6. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: POWER SPECTRA AND WMAP-DERIVED PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.

    2011-02-01

    The WMAP mission has produced sky maps from seven years of observations at L2. We present the angular power spectra derived from the seven-year maps and discuss the cosmological conclusions that can be inferred from WMAP data alone. With the seven-year data, the temperature (TT) spectrum measurement has a signal-to-noise ratio per multipole that exceeds unity for l < 919; and in band powers of width {Delta}l = 10, the signal-to-noise ratio exceeds unity up to l = 1060. The third acoustic peak in the TT spectrum is now well measured by WMAP. In the context of a flat {Lambda}CDMmore » model, this improvement allows us to place tighter constraints on the matter density from WMAP data alone, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and on the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}. The temperature-polarization (TE) spectrum is detected in the seven-year data with a significance of 20{sigma}, compared to 13{sigma} with the five-year data. We now detect the second dip in the TE spectrum near l {approx} 450 with high confidence. The TB and EB spectra remain consistent with zero, thus demonstrating low systematic errors and foreground residuals in the data. The low-l EE spectrum, a measure of the optical depth due to reionization, is detected at 5.5{sigma} significance when averaged over l = 2-7: l(l + 1)C {sup EE}{sub l}/(2{pi}) = 0.074{sup +0.034}{sub -0.025} {mu}K{sup 2} (68% CL). We now detect the high-l, 24 {<=} l {<=} 800, EE spectrum at over 8{sigma}. The BB spectrum, an important probe of gravitational waves from inflation, remains consistent with zero; when averaged over l = 2-7, l(l + 1)C {sup BB}{sub l}/(2{pi}) < 0.055 {mu}K{sup 2} (95% CL). The upper limit on tensor modes from polarization data alone is a factor of two lower with the seven-year data than it was using the five-year data. The data remain consistent with the simple {Lambda}CDM model: the best-fit TT spectrum has an effective {chi}{sup 2} of

  7. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  8. Assignment of Pre-edge Features in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Kendra; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the lowest energy bound-state transition in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra for a series of Grubbs-type ruthenium complexes was investigated. The pre-edge feature was unambiguously assigned as resulting from formally electric dipole forbidden Ru 4d←1s transitions. The intensities of these transitions are extremely sensitive to the ligand environment and the symmetry of the metal centre. In centrosymmetric complexes the pre-edge is very weak since it is limited by the weak electric quadrupole intensity mechanism. By contrast, upon breaking centrosymmetry, Ru 5p-4d mixing allows for introduction of electric dipole allowed character resulting in a dramatic increase in the pre-edge intensity. The information content of this approach is explored as it relates to complexes of importance in olefin metathesis and its relevance as a tool for the study of reactive intermediates. PMID:20151030

  9. [Influence of electromagnetic emission at the frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of oxygen and nitrogen oxide on the adhesion and formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm].

    PubMed

    Pronina, E A; Shvidenko, I G; Shub, G M; Shapoval, O G

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the influence of electromagnetic emission (EME) at the frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen oxide (MAES 02 and MAES NO respectively) on the adhesion, population progress and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adhesive activity was evaluated by mean adhesion index (MAI) of bacteria on human erythrocytes. Population growth dynamic was assessed by optical density index of broth cultures; biofilm formation--by values of optical density of the cells attached to the surface of polystyrol wells. P.aeruginosa bacteria had high adhesive properties that have increased under the influence of MAES 02 frequency emission and have not changed under the influence of MAES NO frequency. Exposure of bacteria to MAES NO frequency did not influence the population progress; exposure to MAES 02 frequency stimulated the biofilm formation ability of the bacteria, and MAES NO--decreased this ability. EME at MAES NO frequency can be used to suppress bacterial biofilm formation by pseudomonas.

  10. Correlations between spectra with different symmetries: any chance to be observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, P.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2011-06-01

    A standard assumption in quantum chaology is the absence of correlation between spectra pertaining to different symmetries. Doubts were raised about this statement for several reasons, in particular because in semiclassics the spectra of different symmetries are expressed in terms of the same set of periodic orbits. We re-examine this question and notice the absence of correlations in the universal regime. In the case of continuous symmetry, the problem is reduced to parametric correlation, and we expect correlations to be present up to a certain time which is essentially classical but larger than the ballistic time.

  11. Stratospheric Horizontal Wavenumber Spectra of Winds, Potential Temperature, and Atmospheric Tracers Observed by High-Altitude Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Newman, Paul A.; Lait, Leslie; Chan, K. R.; Loewenstein, Max; Proffitt, Michael H.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal wavenumber power spectra of vertical and horizontal wind velocities, potential temperatures, and ozone and N(2)O mixing ratios, as measured in the mid-stratosphere during 73 ER-2 flights (altitude approx. 20km) are presented. The velocity and potential temperature spectra in the 100 to 1-km wavelength range deviate significantly from the uniform -5/3 power law expected for the inverse energy-cascade regime of two-dimensional turbulence and also for inertial-range, three-dimensional turbulence. Instead, steeper spectra approximately consistent with a -3 power law are observed at horizontal scales smaller than 3 km for all velocity components as well as potential temperature. Shallower spectra are observed at scales longer than 6 km. For horizontal velocity and potential temperature the spectral indices at longer scales are between -1.5 and -2.0. For vertical velocity the spectrum at longer scales become flat. It is argued that the observed velocity and potential temperature spectra are consistent with gravity waves. At smaller scales, the shapes are also superficially consistent with a Lumley-Shur-Weinstock buoyant subrange of turbulence and/or nonlinear gravity waves. Contemporaneous spectra of ozone and N(sub 2)O mixing ratio in the 100 to 1-km wavelength range do conform to an approximately uniform -5/3 power law. It is argued that this may reflect interactions between gravity wave air-parcel displacements and laminar or filamentary structures in the trace gas mixing ratio field produced by enstropy-cascading two-dimensional turbulence.

  12. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  13. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  14. Predicting Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra with the Spin-Free Exact-Two-Component Hamiltonian and Orthogonality Constrained Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prakash; Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-01-12

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) provides near-edge X-ray absorption (NEXAS) spectra of first-row elements within one electronvolt from experimental values. However, with increasing atomic number, scalar relativistic effects become the dominant source of error in a nonrelativistic OCDFT treatment of core-valence excitations. In this work we report a novel implementation of the spin-free exact-two-component (X2C) one-electron treatment of scalar relativistic effects and its combination with a recently developed OCDFT approach to compute a manifold of core-valence excited states. The inclusion of scalar relativistic effects in OCDFT reduces the mean absolute error of second-row elements core-valence excitations from 10.3 to 2.3 eV. For all the excitations considered, the results from X2C calculations are also found to be in excellent agreement with those from low-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess relativistic Hamiltonians. The X2C-OCDFT NEXAS spectra of three organotitanium complexes (TiCl4, TiCpCl3, TiCp2Cl2) are in very good agreement with unshifted experimental results and show a maximum absolute error of 5-6 eV. In addition, a decomposition of the total transition dipole moment into partial atomic contributions is proposed and applied to analyze the nature of the Ti pre-edge transitions in the three organotitanium complexes.

  15. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Mass-Selected Hydrocarbon Cations in Solid Neon: C_nH_4+ (n=5-8,10,12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Fulara, J.; Garkusha, I.; Maier, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    Small, unsaturated hydrocarbons, C_nH_m (n,m≤6), play an important role in astrochemical models as they have been detected in various space objects such as the interstellar medium or envelopes of carbon-rich stars. Although identification of most of these species was based on rotational studies, they are candidate carriers of the infamous diffuse interstellar bands. It has been proposed that corresponding cationic species formed upon UV radiation may also be of astrophysical relevance; therefore, their optical spectra need to be determined. In this contribution, electronic absorption spectra of mass-selected C_nH_4+ (n=5-8,10,12) ions trapped in neon matrices are presented. The cations were produced in a hot-cathode discharge source, guided through a series of electrostatic lenses, mass filtered and co-deposited with excess of neon onto a rhodium-coated sapphire plate held at 6 K. In the same experiments, neutral species were generated from the cations by a photobleaching procedure.

  16. Spatial Representativeness Error in the Ground‐Level Observation Networks for Black Carbon Radiation Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Balkanski, Yves; Boucher, Olivier; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Schulz, Michael; Schuster, Gregory L.; Valari, Myrto; Tao, Shu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract There is high uncertainty in the direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC), an aerosol that strongly absorbs solar radiation. The observation‐constrained estimate, which is several times larger than the bottom‐up estimate, is influenced by the spatial representativeness error due to the mesoscale inhomogeneity of the aerosol fields and the relatively low resolution of global chemistry‐transport models. Here we evaluated the spatial representativeness error for two widely used observational networks (AErosol RObotic NETwork and Global Atmosphere Watch) by downscaling the geospatial grid in a global model of BC aerosol absorption optical depth to 0.1° × 0.1°. Comparing the models at a spatial resolution of 2° × 2° with BC aerosol absorption at AErosol RObotic NETwork sites (which are commonly located near emission hot spots) tends to cause a global spatial representativeness error of 30%, as a positive bias for the current top‐down estimate of global BC direct radiative forcing. By contrast, the global spatial representativeness error will be 7% for the Global Atmosphere Watch network, because the sites are located in such a way that there are almost an equal number of sites with positive or negative representativeness error. PMID:29937603

  17. The Suzaku Observation of NGC 3516: Complex Absorption and the Broad and Narrow Fe K Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, Alex; Reeves, James N.; Miniutti, Giovanni; Serlemitsos, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Taqoob, Tahir; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a 150 ksec Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1 NGC 3516 in October 2005. The source was in a relatively highly absorbed state. Our best-fit model is consistent with partial covering by a lowly-ionized absorber with a column density near 5x10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and with a covering fraction 96-100 percent. Narrow K-shell absorption features due to He- and H-like Fe confirm the presence of a high-ionization absorbing component as well. A broad Fe K(alpha) diskline is required in all fits, even after the complex absorption is taken into account; an additional partial-covering component is an inadequate substitute for the continuum curvature associated with the broad line. The narrow Fe Ka line at 6.4 keV is resolved, yielding a velocity width commensurate with the optical Broad Line Region. The strength of the Compton reflection hump suggests a contribution mainly from the broad Fe line origin. We include in our model soft band emission lines from He- and H-like ions and radiative recombination lines, consistent with photo-ionization, though a small contribution from collisional ionization is possible.

  18. Observations of solar flare photon energy spectra from 20 keV to 7 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshimori, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nitta, N.

    1985-01-01

    Solar flare photon energy spectra in the 20 keV to 7 MeV range are derived from the Apr. 1, Apr. 4, apr. 27 and May 13, 1981 flares. The flares were observed with a hard X-ray and a gamma-ray spectrometers on board the Hinotori satellite. The results show that the spectral shape varies from flare to flare and the spectra harden in energies above about 400 keV. Effects of nuclear line emission on the continuum and of higher energy electron bremsstrahlung are considered to explain the spectral hardening.

  19. Composition and energy spectra of low energy ions observed upstream of the earth's bow shock on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of eleven locally accelerated particle events in the energy range from 30 to 125 keV/Q observed upstream of the earth's bow shock have been determined, including composition, energy spectra, and intensity versus time profiles. The measurements were made with the Ultra Low Energy Charge Analyzer sensor on ISEE-1. The composition in these events is similar to that of the solar wind, with a He to proton ratio of 8% and a CNO to He ratio of 6%. The composition is reasonably constant only when evaluated at equal energy per charge. The energy spectra cannot be adequately fit by a single power law in energy; an exponential or Maxwellian in energy per charge gives a satisfactory representation of the spectra. The time-intensity profiles of these upstream events show an inverse velocity dispersion, which may provide clues to the responsible acceleration mechanism.

  20. Parity violation constraints using cosmic microwave background polarization spectra from 2006 and 2007 observations by the QUaD polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Wu, E Y S; Ade, P; Bock, J; Bowden, M; Brown, M L; Cahill, G; Castro, P G; Church, S; Culverhouse, T; Friedman, R B; Ganga, K; Gear, W K; Gupta, S; Hinderks, J; Kovac, J; Lange, A E; Leitch, E; Melhuish, S J; Memari, Y; Murphy, J A; Orlando, A; Piccirillo, L; Pryke, C; Rajguru, N; Rusholme, B; Schwarz, R; O'Sullivan, C; Taylor, A N; Thompson, K L; Turner, A H; Zemcov, M

    2009-04-24

    We constrain parity-violating interactions to the surface of last scattering using spectra from the QUaD experiment's second and third seasons of observations by searching for a possible systematic rotation of the polarization directions of cosmic microwave background photons. We measure the rotation angle due to such a possible "cosmological birefringence" to be 0.55 degrees +/-0.82 degrees (random) +/-0.5 degrees (systematic) using QUaD's 100 and 150 GHz temperature-curl and gradient-curl spectra over the spectra over the multipole range 200

  1. Electronic structure, bonding, charge distribution, and x-ray absorption spectra of the (001) surfaces of fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulis, Paul; Yao, Hongzhi; Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fluorapatite (FAP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are two very important bioceramic crystals. The (001) surfaces of FAP and HAP crystals are studied by ab initio density functional calculations using a supercell slab geometry. It is shown that in both crystals, the O-terminated (001) surface is more stable with calculated surface energies of 0.865 and 0.871J/m2 for FAP and HAP, respectively. In FAP, the two surfaces are symmetric. In HAP, the orientation of the OH group along the c axis reduces the symmetry such that the top and bottom surfaces are no longer symmetric. It is revealed that the atoms near the surface and subsurface are significantly relaxed especially in the case of HAP. The largest relaxations occurred via the lateral movements of the O ions at the subsurface level. The electronic structures of the surface models in the form of layer-by-layer resolved partial density of states for all the atoms show systematic variation from the surface region toward the bulk region. The calculated Mulliken effective charge on each type of atom and the bond order values between cations (Ca, P) and anions (O, F) show different charge transfers and bond strength variations from the bulk crystal values. Electron charge density calculations show that the surfaces of both FAP and HAP crystals are mostly positively charged due to the presence of Ca ions at the surface. The positively charged surfaces have implications for the absorption on apatite surfaces of water and other organic molecules in an aqueous environment which are an important part of its bioactivity. The x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra ( Ca-K , O-K , F-K , P-K , and P-L3 edges) of both the surface models and the bulk crystals are calculated and compared. The calculations use a supercell approach which takes into account the electron-core-hole interaction. It is shown that the site-specific XANES spectra show significant differences between atoms near the surface and in the bulk and are very

  2. Analysis of Rosetta/VIRTIS spectra of earth using observations from ENVISAT/AATSR, TERRA/MODIS and ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY, and radiative-transfer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M.; Oliva, F.; Capaccioni, F.; Smith, A.; Filacchione, G.; Tosi, F.; Thomas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Rosetta, the Solar System cornerstone mission of ESA's Horizon 2000 programme, consists of an orbiter and a lander, and is due to arrive at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in May 2014. Following its 2004 launch, Rosetta carried out a series of planetary fly-bys and gravitational assists. On these close fly-bys of the Earth, measurements were taken by the Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS). Analysis of these spectra and comparison with spectra acquired by Earth-observing satellites can support the verification of the inflight calibration of Rosetta/VIRTIS. In this paper, measurements taken by VIRTIS in November 2009 are compared with suitable coincident data from Earth-observing instruments (ESA-ENVISAT/AATSR and SCIAMACHY, and EOS-TERRA/MODIS). Radiative transfer simulations using NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008) are fit to the fly-by data taken by VIRTIS, using representative atmospheric and surface parameters. VIRTIS measurements correlate 90% with AATSR's, 85-94% with MODIS, and 82-88% with SCIAMACHYs. The VIRTIS spectra are reproducible in the 1-5 μm region, except in the 1.4 μm deep water vapour spectral absorption band in the near-infrared in cases in which the radiance is very low (cloud-free topographies), where VIRTIS consistently registers more radiance than do MODIS and SCIAMACHY. Over these cloud-free regions, VIRTIS registers radiances a factor of 3-10 larger than SCIAMACHY and of 3-8 greater than MODIS. It is speculated that this discrepancy could be due to a spectral light leak originating from reflections from the order-sorting filters above the detector around 1.4 μm.

  3. Molecular and electronic structure, magnetotropicity and absorption spectra of benzene-trinuclear copper(I) and silver(I) trihalide columnar binary stacks.

    PubMed

    Tsipis, A C; Stalikas, A V

    2012-02-20

    The molecular and electronic structures, stabilities, bonding features, magnetotropicity and absorption spectra of benzene-trinuclear Cu(I) and Ag(I) trihalide columnar binary stacks with the general formula [c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](n)(C(6)H(6))(m) (M = Cu, Ag; X = halide; n, m ≤ 2) have been investigated by means of electronic structure calculation methods. The interaction of c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters with one and two benzene molecules yields 1:1 and 1:2 binary stacks, while benzene sandwiched 2:1 stacks are formed upon interaction of two c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters with one benzene molecule. In all binary stacks the plane of the alternating c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) and benzene components adopts an almost parallel orientation. The separation distance between the centroids of the benzene and the proximal c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) metallic cluster found in the range 2.97-3.33 Å at the B97D/Def2-TZVP level is indicative of a π···π stacking interaction mode, for the centroid separation distance is very close to the sum of the van der Waals radii of Cu···C (3.10 Å) and Ag···C (3.44 Å). Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) at the SSB-D/TZP level revealed that the dominant term in the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)···C(6)H(6) interaction arises from dispersion and electrostatic forces while the covalent interactions are predicted to be negligible. On the other hand, charge decomposition analysis (CDA) illustrated very small charge transfer from C(6)H(6) toward the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters, thus reflecting weak π-base/π-acid interactions which are further corroborated by the respective electrostatic potentials and the fact that the total dipole moment vector points to the center of the metallic ring of the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) cluster. The absorption spectra of all aromatic columnar binary stacks simulated by means of TD-DFT calculations showed strong absorptions in the UV region. The main features of the simulated absorption spectra are thoroughly analyzed, and assignments of

  4. A rocket-borne photoelectric spectrophotometer using convergent beam dispersion to observe far ultraviolet stellar spectra.

    PubMed

    Sudbury, G C

    1969-10-01

    The advantages of the Monk-Gillieson dispersion system using a plane grating off axis in the convergent beam from a paraboloidal collecting mirror have been applied to obtain low resolution photoelectric spectra of over forty bright stars in the 1500-3000 A region. Techniques of construction, alignment, calibration, and dc and pulse counting output data handling are described. The flight performance,in unstabilized Skylark rockets, is discussed.

  5. Drag Coefficient Comparisons Between Observed and Model Simulated Directional Wave Spectra Under Hurricane Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    of the ix flight segments ( white dots P1 to P6 shown in Fig. 3 ) to com- are the directional wave spectrum between the model and the RA measurement. At...September 14; and using constructed model spectra set C for (b) September 9, (d) September 12, and (f) September 14. The thick white line is the...model for hurri- cane conditions. The calibration factors (proportionality constants of the source functions) are determined from a comparison of modeled

  6. Tracking the complex absorption in NGC 2110 with two Suzaku observations

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2014-05-10

    We present spectral analysis of two Suzaku observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 2110. This source has been known to show complex, variable absorption which we study in depth by analyzing these two observations set 7 yr apart and by comparing them to previously analyzed observations with the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. We find that there is a relatively stable, full-covering absorber with a column density of ∼3× 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, with an additional patchy absorber that is likely variable in both column density and covering fraction over timescales of years, consistent with clouds in a patchy torusmore » or in the broad line region. We model a soft emission line complex, likely arising from ionized plasma and consistent with previous studies. We find no evidence for reflection from an accretion disk in this source with contribution from neither relativistically broadened Fe Kα line emission, nor from a Compton reflection hump.« less

  7. Absorption/transmission measurements of PSAP particle-laden filters from the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Conny, Joseph M.

    Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) nonreacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). Here, the particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques).

  8. Absorption/transmission measurements of PSAP particle-laden filters from the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Conny, Joseph M.; ...

    2016-12-02

    Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) nonreacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). Here, the particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques).

  9. Absorption Properties of Supercooled Liquid Water between 31 and 225 GHz: Evaluation of Absorption Models Using Ground-Based Observations

    DOE PAGES

    Kneifel, Stefan; Redl, Stephanie; Orlandi, Emiliano; ...

    2014-04-10

    Microwave radiometers (MWR) are commonly used to quantify the amount of supercooled liquid water (SLW) in clouds; however, the accuracy of the SLW retrievals is limited by the poor knowledge of the SLW dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. Six liquid water permittivity models were compared with ground-based MWR observations between 31 and 225 GHz from sites in Greenland, the German Alps, and a low-mountain site; average cloud temperatures of observed thin cloud layers range from 0° to –33°C. A recently published method to derive ratios of liquid water opacity from different frequencies was employed in this analysis. These ratios aremore » independent of liquid water path and equal to the ratio of αL at those frequencies that can be directly compared with the permittivity model predictions. The observed opacity ratios from all sites show highly consistent results that are generally within the range of model predictions; however, none of the models are able to approximate the observations over the entire frequency and temperature range. Findings in earlier published studies were used to select one specific model as a reference model for αL at 90 GHz; together with the observed opacity ratios, the temperature dependence of αL at 31.4, 52.28, 150, and 225 GHz was derived. The results reveal that two models fit the opacity ratio data better than the other four models, with one of the two models fitting the data better for frequencies below 90 GHz and the other for higher frequencies. Furthermore, these findings are relevant for SLW retrievals and radiative transfer in the 31–225-GHz frequency region.« less

  10. Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC): From Visual Observation to X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, W. A.; Mibe, K.

    2006-05-01

    A fluid sample contained in a Re gasket between two diamond anvils can be subjected to pressures up to 2.5 GPa and temperatures up to 1200°C in a resistively heated hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). Thermocouples are used to measure temperature. The constant-volume sample chamber permits isochoric measurements that can be used to determine pressure from the equation of state of H2O and to map phases and properties in P-T space. A movie of reactions between K-feldspar and water up to 2.5 GPa and 880°C illustrates the use of visual observations for mapping coexisting solution, melt, and solid phases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of ZnBr2 in solution up to 500°C and 500 MPa shows hydrogen bond breaking in the hydration shells of the ZnBr42- and Br- ions with increasing temperature. In other studies the stability field of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) has been mapped by visual observation and Raman spectroscopy; the phases of montmorillonite have been mapped by X-ray diffraction; and the leaching of Pb from zircon has been measured by X-ray microprobe.

  11. The solvation structure of Mg ions in dichloro complex solutions from first-principles molecular dynamics and simulated X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge of Mg solvation structure in the electrolyte is requisite to understand the transport behavior of Mg ions and their dissolution/deposition mechanism at electrolyte/electrode interfaces. In the first established rechargeable Mg-ion battery system [D. Aurbach et al. Nature 2000, 407, 724], the electrolyte is of the dichloro complex (DCC) solution family, Mg(AlCl2BuEt)2/THF, resulting from the reaction of Bu2Mg and EtAlCl2 with a molar ratio of 1:2. There is disagreement in the literature regarding the exact solvation structure of Mg ions in such solutions, i.e., whether Mg(2+) is tetra- or hexacoordinated by a combination of Cl(-) and THF. In this work, theoretical insight into the solvation complexes present is provided based on first-principles molecular dynamics simulations (FPMD). Both Mg monomer and dimer structures are considered in both neutral and positively charged states. We found that, at room temperature, the Mg(2+) ion tends to be tetracoordinated in the THF solution phase instead of hexacoordinated, which is the predominant solid-phase coordination. Simulating the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the Mg K-edge by sampling our FPMD trajectories, our predicted solvation structure can be readily compared with experimental measurements. It is found that when changing from tetra- to hexacoordination, the onset of X-ray absorption should exhibit at least a 1 eV blue shift. We propose that this energy shift can be used to monitor changes in the Mg solvation sphere as it migrates through the electrolyte to electrolyte/electrode interfaces and to elucidate the mechanism of Mg dissolution/deposition.

  12. Poster 2:Ab initio calculations of low temperature hydrocarbon spectra for astrophysics: application to the modeling of methane absorption in the Titan atmosphere in a wide IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei; Bezard, Bruno; Rannou, Pascal; Coustenis, Athena; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of intensities of spectral transitions in various temperature ranges including very low-T conditions is essential for the modeling of optical properties of planetary atmospheres and for other astrophysical applications. The temperature dependence of spectral features is crucial, but quantified experimental information in a wide spectral range is generally missing. A significant progress has been recently achieved in first principles quantum mechanical predictions (ab initio electronic structure + variational nuclear motion calculations) of rotationally resolved spectra for hydrocarbon molecules such as methane , ethylene and their isotopic species [1,2] . We have recently reported the TheoReTS information system (theorets.univ-reims.fr, theorets.tsu.ru) for theoretical spectra based on variational predictions from molecular potential energy and dipole moment surfaces [3] that permits online simulation of radiative properties including low-T conditions of cold planets. In this work, we apply ab initio predictions of the spectra of methane isotopologues down to T=80 K for the modeling of the transmittance in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest satellite explored by the Cassini-Huygens space mission. A very good agreement over the whole infrared range from 6,000 to 11,000 cm-1 compared with observations obtained by the Descent Imager / Spectral Radiometer (DISR) on the Huygens probe [4,5] at various altitudes will be reported.

  13. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  14. Absorption dips at low X-ray energies in Cygnus X-1. [observed with Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Absorbing material in Cygnus X-1 jitters near the line joining the two stars, out of the orbital plane is described. Three looks with the Copernicus satellite at Cygnus X-1 have produced four examples of absorption dips (decreases in the 2 to 7 keV flux from Cygnus X-1 with an increase of spectral hardness consistent with photoelectric absorption).

  15. Comparison between POES energetic electron precipitation observations and riometer absorptions: Implications for determining true precipitation fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Kavanagh, Andrew J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Marple, Steve R.

    2013-12-01

    electron precipitation (EEP) impacts the chemistry of the middle atmosphere with growing evidence of coupling to surface temperatures at high latitudes. To better understand this link, it is essential to have realistic observations to properly characterize precipitation and which can be incorporated into chemistry-climate models. The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) detectors measure precipitating particles but only integral fluxes and only in a fraction of the bounce loss cone. Ground-based riometers respond to precipitation from the whole bounce loss cone; they measure the cosmic radio noise absorption (CNA), a qualitative proxy with scant direct information on the energy flux of EEP. POES observations should have a direct relationship with ΔCNA and comparing the two will clarify their utility in studies of atmospheric change. We determined ionospheric changes produced by the EEP measured by the POES spacecraft in ~250 overpasses of an imaging riometer in northern Finland. The ΔCNA modeled from the POES data is 10-15 times less than the observed ΔCNA when the >30 keV flux is reported as <106 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. Above this level, there is relatively good agreement between the space-based and ground-based measurements. The discrepancy occurs mostly during periods of low geomagnetic activity, and we contend that weak diffusion is dominating the pitch angle scattering into the bounce loss cone at these times. A correction to the calculation using measurements of the trapped flux considerably reduces the discrepancy and provides further support to our hypothesis that weak diffusion leads to underestimates of the EEP.

  16. Four-Component Damped Density Functional Response Theory Study of UV/Vis Absorption Spectra and Phosphorescence Parameters of Group 12 Metal-Substituted Porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Saue, Trond; Norman, Patrick

    2016-05-10

    The influences of group 12 (Zn, Cd, Hg) metal-substitution on the valence spectra and phosphorescence parameters of porphyrins (P) have been investigated in a relativistic setting. In order to obtain valence spectra, this study reports the first application of the damped linear response function, or complex polarization propagator, in the four-component density functional theory framework [as formulated in Villaume et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2010 , 133 , 064105 ]. It is shown that the steep increase in the density of states as due to the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling yields only minor changes in overall computational costs involved with the solution of the set of linear response equations. Comparing single-frequency to multifrequency spectral calculations, it is noted that the number of iterations in the iterative linear equation solver per frequency grid-point decreases monotonously from 30 to 0.74 as the number of frequency points goes from one to 19. The main heavy-atom effect on the UV/vis-absorption spectra is indirect and attributed to the change of point group symmetry due to metal-substitution, and it is noted that substitutions using heavier atoms yield small red-shifts of the intense Soret-band. Concerning phosphorescence parameters, the adoption of a four-component relativistic setting enables the calculation of such properties at a linear order of response theory, and any higher-order response functions do not need to be considered-a real, conventional, form of linear response theory has been used for the calculation of these parameters. For the substituted porphyrins, electronic coupling between the lowest triplet states is strong and results in theoretical estimates of lifetimes that are sensitive to the wave function and electron density parametrization. With this in mind, we report our best estimates of the phosphorescence lifetimes to be 460, 13.8, 11.2, and 0.00155 s for H2P, ZnP, CdP, and HgP, respectively, with the corresponding transition

  17. High-resolution TNG spectra of T Tauri stars. Near-IR GIANO observations of the young variables XZ Tauri and DR Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Biazzo, K.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Sanna, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We aim to characterise the star-disk interaction region in T Tauri stars that show photometric and spectroscopic variability. Methods: We used the GIANO instrument at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo to obtain near-infrared high-resolution spectra (R 50 000) of XZ Tau and DR Tau, which are two actively accreting T Tauri stars classified as EXors. Equivalent widths and profiles of the observed features are used to derive information on the properties of the inner disk, the accretion columns, and the winds. Results: Both sources display composite H I line profiles, where contributions from both accreting gas and high-velocity winds can be recognised. These lines are progressively more symmetric and narrower with increasing upper energy which may be interpreted in terms of two components with different decrements or imputed to self-absorption effects. XZ Tau is observed in a relatively high state of activity with respect to literature observations. The variation of the He I 1.08 μm line blue-shifted absorption, in particular, suggests that the inner wind has undergone a dramatic change in its velocity structure, connected with a recent accretion event. DR Tau has a more stable wind as its He I 1.08 μm absorption does not show variations with time in spite of strong variability of the emission component. The IR veiling in the two sources can be interpreted as due to blackbody emission at temperatures of 1600 K and 2300 K for XZ Tau and DR Tau, respectively, with emitting areas 30 times larger than the central star. While for XZ Tau these conditions are consistent with emission from the inner rim of the dusty disk, the fairly high temperature inferred for DR Tau might suggest that its veiling originates from a thick gaseous disk located within the dust sublimation radius. Strong and broad metallic lines, mainly from C I and Fe I, are detected in XZ Tau, similar to those observed in other EXor sources during burst phases. At variance, DR Tau shows weaker and

  18. Observation of enhanced infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with gold by pulsed laser melting of nanometer-thick gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Philippe K.; Yang, Wenjie; Hudspeth, Quentin; Lim, Shao Qi; Williams, Jim S.; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that pulsed laser melting (PLM) of thin 1, 5, and 10 nm-thick vapor-deposited gold layers on silicon enhances its room-temperature sub-band gap infrared absorption, as in the case of ion-implanted and PLM-treated silicon. The former approach offers reduced fabrication complexity and avoids implantation-induced lattice damage compared to ion implantation and pulsed laser melting, while exhibiting comparable optical absorptance. We additionally observed strong broadband absorptance enhancement in PLM samples made using 5- and 10-nm-thick gold layers. Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering analysis indicate that such an enhancement could be explained by absorption by a metastable, disordered and gold-rich surface layer. The sheet resistance and the diode electrical characteristics further elucidate the role of gold-supersaturation in silicon, revealing the promise for future silicon-based infrared device applications.

  19. Cirrus cloud spectra and layers observed during the FIRE and GASP projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatau, Piotr J.; Gultepe, I.; Nastrom, G.; Cotton, William R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A general characterization is developed for cirrus clouds in terms of their spectra, shapes, optical thicknesses, and radiative properties for use in numerical models. Data sets from the Global Atmospheric Sampling Project (GASP) of the upper troposphere and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) are combined and analyzed to study general traits of cirrus clouds. A definition is given for 2D turbulence, and the GASP and FIRE data sets are examined with respect to cirrus layers and entrainment and to dominant turbulent scales. The approach employs conditional sampling in cloudy and clear air, power-spectral analysis, and mixing-line-type diagrams. Evidence is given for a well mixed cloud deck and for the tendency of cirrus to be formed in multilayer structures. The results are of use in mesoscale and global circulation models which predict cirrus, in small-scale cirrus modeling, and in studying the role of gravity waves in the horizontal structure of upper tropospheric clouds.

  20. 21cm Absorption Line Zeeman Observations And Modeling Of Physical Conditions In M16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Furea; Brogan, C.; Troland, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed 21 cm HI absorption line observations of M16 using the Very Large Array. The M16 "pillars of creation" are classic examples of the interaction of ISM with radiation from young, hot stars. Magnetic fields can affect these interactions, the 21 cm Zeeman effect reveals magnetic field strengths in the Photodissociation regions associated with the pillars. The present results yield a 3-sigma upper limit upon the line-of-sight magnetic field of about 300 microgauss. This limit is consistent with a total field strength of 500 microgauss, required in the molecular gas if magnetic energies and turbulent energies in the pillars are in equipartition. Most likely, magnetic fields do not play a dominant role in the dynamics of the M16 pillars. Another goal of this study is to determine the distribution of cold HI in the M16 region and to model the physical conditions in the neutral gas in the pillars. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy 08.00 for this purpose. We adopted the results of a published Cloudy HII region model and extended this model into the neutral gas to derive physical conditions therein.

  1. Influence of the pH value of a colloidal gold solution on the absorption spectra of an LSPR-assisted sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Wenbin; Zhu, Mao

    2014-03-15

    The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold particles assembled on a crystal plate are a powerful tool for biological sensors. Here, we prepare gold colloids in different pH solutions. We monitor the effects of the particle radius and particle coverage on the absorption spectra of AT-cut (r-face dihedral angle of about 3°) crystal plates supporting gold nanoparticles. The surface morphologies were monitored on silicon dioxide substrates using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the gold particle coverage decreases with increasing pH value of the gold colloid solution. This phenomenon demonstrates thatmore » self-assembled gold surfaces were formed via the electrostatic adsorption of gold particles on the positively charged, ionized amino groups on the crystal plates in the acidic solution. The spectrum of gold nanoparticles with different coverage degree on the crystal plates showed that the LSPR properties are highly dependent on pH.« less

  2. Absorption and emission spectra of Ga1.7Ge25As8.3S65 glasses doped with rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, E. V.; Iaseniuc, O. V.; Ciornea, V. I.; Iovu, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Excellent optical properties of chalcogenide glasses make them interesting for optoelectronic devices in the visible (VIS) and, especially, in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectral regions. The rare-earth (RE3+) doped Ga17Ge25As8.3S65 glasses were prepared in evacuated ( 10-5 Pa) silica-glass ampoules which were heated up to 1000 °C at 2-4°C min-1, and then the melt was quenched. The absorption and photoluminescence spectra in the visible and near IR regions for GA1.7Ge25As8.3S65 doped with rare-earth RE+) ions (Sm3+, Nd3+, Pr3+, Dy3+ and co-doped with Ho3++Dy3+) are investigated. The energy transfer of the absorbed light in the broad band Urbach region of the host glass to the RE3+ ions is suggested for increasing the emission efficiency. The investigated Ga17Ge25As8.3S65 glasses doped with RE3+ ions are promising materials for optical amplifiers operating at 1300 and 1500 nm telecommunication windows.

  3. Artificial neural networks for retrieving absorption and reduced scattering spectra from frequency-domain diffuse reflectance spectroscopy at short source-detector separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Po-Jung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) based on the frequency-domain (FD) technique has been employed to investigate the optical properties of deep tissues such as breast and brain using source to detector separation up to 40 mm. Due to the modeling and system limitations, efficient and precise determination of turbid sample optical properties from the FD diffuse reflectance acquired at a source-detector separation (SDS) of around 1 mm has not been demonstrated. In this study, we revealed that at SDS of 1 mm, acquiring FD diffuse reflectance at multiple frequencies is necessary for alleviating the influence of inevitable measurement uncertainty on the optical property recovery accuracy. Furthermore, we developed artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained by Monte Carlo simulation generated databases that were capable of efficiently determining FD reflectance at multiple frequencies. The ANNs could work in conjunction with a least-square optimization algorithm to rapidly (within 1 second), accurately (within 10%) quantify the sample optical properties from FD reflectance measured at SDS of 1 mm. In addition, we demonstrated that incorporating the steady-state apparatus into the FD DRS system with 1 mm SDS would enable obtaining broadband absorption and reduced scattering spectra of turbid samples in the wavelength range from 650 to 1000 nm. PMID:27446671

  4. Quantitative treatment of the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of acridines and phenazines. The ground and first excited singlet-state dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jean Jacques; Maafi, Mounir; Párkányi, Cyril; Boniface, Christian

    1995-04-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of four acridines (acridine, Acridine Yellow, 9-aminoacridine and proflavine) and three phenazines (phenazine, neutral Red and safranine) are determined at room temperature (298 K) in several solvents of various polarities (dioxane, chloroform, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide). The effect of the solvent upon the spectral characteristics of the above compounds, is studied. In combination with the ground-state dipole moments of these compounds, the spectral data are used to evaluate their first excited singlet-state dipole moments by means of the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's correlations). The theoretical ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments for acridines and phenazines are also calculated as a vector sum of the π-component (obtained by the PPP method) and the σ-component (obtained from σ-bond moments). For most acridines and phenazines under study, the experimental excited singlet-state dipole moments are found to be higher than their ground state counterpart. The application of the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft solvatochromic parameters to the solvent effect on spectral properties of acridine and phenazine derivatives is discussed.

  5. Angular spectra of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticity field, their observability and their impact on lensing in tomographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes intrinsic ellipticity correlations between galaxies, their statistical properties, their observability with future surveys and their interference with weak gravitational lensing measurements. Using an angular-momentum-based, quadratic intrinsic alignment model we derive correlation functions of the ellipticity components and project them to yield the four non-zero angular ellipticity spectra C^ɛ _E(ℓ), C^ɛ _B(ℓ), C^ɛ _C(ℓ) and C^ɛ _S(ℓ) in their generalization to tomographic surveys. For a Euclid-like survey, these spectra would have amplitudes smaller than the weak lensing effect on non-linear structures, but would constitute an important systematics. Computing estimation biases for cosmological parameters derived from an alignment-contaminated survey suggests biases of +5σw for the dark energy equation of state parameter w, -20σ _{Ω _m} for the matter density Ωm and -12σ _{σ _8} for the spectrum normalization σ8. Intrinsic alignments yield a signal that is easily observable with a survey similar to Euclid: while not independent, significances for estimates of each of the four spectra reach values of tens of σ if weak lensing and shape noise are considered as noise sources, which suggests relative uncertainties on alignment parameters at the percent level, implying that galaxy alignment mechanisms can be investigated by future surveys.

  6. Communication: THz absorption spectrum of the CO2-H2O complex: observation and assignment of intermolecular van der Waals vibrations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J; Heimdal, J; Mahler, D W; Nelander, B; Larsen, R Wugt

    2014-03-07

    Terahertz absorption spectra have been recorded for the weakly bound CO2-H2O complex embedded in cryogenic neon matrices at 2.8 K. The three high-frequency van der Waals vibrational transitions associated with out-of-plane wagging, in-plane rocking, and torsional motion of the isotopic H2O subunit have been assigned and provide crucial observables for benchmark theoretical descriptions of this systems' flat intermolecular potential energy surface. A (semi)-empirical value for the zero-point energy of 273 ± 15 cm(-1) from the class of intermolecular van der Waals vibrations is proposed and the combination with high-level quantum chemical calculations provides a value of 726 ± 15 cm(-1) for the dissociation energy D0.

  7. Tomographic multiaxis-differential optical absorption spectroscopy observations of Sun-illuminated targets: a technique providing well-defined absorption paths in the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, Erna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    A novel experimental procedure to measure the near-surface distribution of atmospheric trace gases by using passive multiaxis differential absorption optical spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is proposed. The procedure consists of pointing the receiving telescope of the spectrometer to nonreflecting surfaces or to bright targets placed at known distances from the measuring device, which are illuminated by sunlight. We show that the partial trace gas absorptions between the top of the atmosphere and the target can be easily removed from the measured total absorption. Thus it is possible to derive the average concentration of trace gases such as NO2, HCHO, SO2, H2O, Glyoxal, BrO, and others along the line of sight between the instrument and the target similar to the well-known long-path DOAS observations (but with much less expense). If tomographic arrangements are used, even two- or three-dimensional trace gas distributions can be retrieved. The basic assumptions of the proposed method are confirmed by test measurements taken across the city of Heidelberg.

  8. Preliminary Observations of Noise Spectra at the SRO and ASRO Stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon

    1980-01-01

    Introduction The seismic noise spectra presented in this report were derived from SRO and ASRO station data for the purpose of evaluating the performance of the seismic instruments. They are also useful for constructing a spectral estimate of earth noise at a quiet site based on noise samples obtained from a network of globally distributed sites. It is hoped that the spectra will be usefull for other purposes as well. The term 'noise' is used here to describe the ambient signals recorded during a quiet period when earthquake signals have not been detected by visual inspectino of the analog seismogram. The total recorded noise is the sum of instrumental noise, environmental noise (such as effects of temperature, pressure, wind), earth background noise from both natural and cultural sources, and very possibly low-level signals from earthquakes that cannot be visually identified. It is not possible to separate and quantify the signals generated by these independent noise sources using a single sample of station data, although instrumental problems may be indicated by gross changes of noise levels, if the changes are not in the microseismic bands. Since seismic data at the SRO and ASRO stations are recorded in a digital format, spectral computations can be automated so that station noise levels can be monitored as part of data-review procedures. The noise spectra presented in this study are intended to serve as an initial baseline against which relative changes in noise levels can be measured. Total noise power was computed separately for the short- and long-period bands, which are recorded separately at the stations. Power spectral densities were derived by averaging the spectral estimates of a number of contiguous dat segments. The mean value and slope were removed from each segment, cosine-tapered windows were applied, and the estimates were obtained using a fast Fourier transform. In the short-period analyses 16 segments were used, each segment being 1024 samples

  9. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated

  10. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Nakayama, T.; Taketani, F.; Adachi, K.; Matsuki, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory-BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a heater maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the heater and was found to be 22-23 %. The largest enhancements (> 30 %) were observed under high absorption coefficient conditions when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption coefficient events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with spherical sulfate or as clusters of sulfate spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 30 %) of BC light absorption, TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be embedded into the sulfate. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly-coated soot was

  11. Primary proton and helium spectra around the knee observed by the Tibet air-shower experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Huang; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    A hybrid experiment was carried out to study the cosmic-ray primary composition in the 'knee' energy region. The experimental set-up consists of the Tibet-II air shower array( AS ), the emulsion chamber ( EC ) and the burst detector ( BD ) which are operated simulteneously and provides us information on the primary species. The experiment was carried out at Yangbajing (4,300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm2) in Tibet during the period from 1996 through 1999. We have already reported the primary proton flux around the knee region based on the simulation code COSMOS. In this paper, we present the primary proton and helium spectra around the knee region. We also extensively examine the simulation codes COSMOS ad-hoc and CORSIKA with interaction models of QGSJET01, DPMJET 2.55, SIBYLL 2.1, VENUS 4.125, HDPM, and NEXUS 2. Based on these calculations, we briefly discuss on the systematic errors involved in our experimental results due to the Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles on silicon substrates: Understanding Fano-like spectra observed in reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard-Giannesini, Léo; Cruguel, Hervé; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Pluchery, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are known for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that can be measured with UV-visible spectroscopy. AuNPs are often deposited on silicon substrates for various applications, and the LSPR is measured in reflection. In this case, optical spectra are measured by surface differential reflectance spectroscopy (SDRS) and the absorbance exhibits a negative peak. This article studies both experimentally and theoretically on the single layers of 16 nm diameter spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) grafted on silicon. The morphology and surface density of AuNPs were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The plasmon response in transmission on the glass substrate and in reflection on the silicon substrate is described by an analytical model based on the Fresnel equations and the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory (FMG). The FMG model shows a strong dependence to the incidence angle of the light. At low incident angles, the peak appears negatively with a shallow intensity, and at angles above 30°, the usual positive shape of the plasmon is retrieved. The relevance of the FMG model is compared to the Mie theory within the dipolar approximation. We conclude that no Fano effect is responsible for this derivative shape. An easy-to-use formula is derived that agrees with our experimental data.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen absorption cells for observations of the planetary coronas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, M.; Taguchi, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Ishida, T.; de Oliveira, N.; Ito, K.; Kameda, S.; Suzuki, F.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2018-02-01

    Newly designed Lyman-alpha absorption cells for imaging hydrogen planetary corona were characterized using an ultra high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer installed on the DESIRS (Dichroïsme Et Spectroscopie par Interaction avec le Rayonnement Synchrotron) beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL in France. The early absorption cell installed in the Japanese Mars orbiter NOZOMI launched in 1998 had not been sufficiently optimized due to its short development time. The new absorption cells are equipped with the ability to change various parameters, such as filament shape, applied power, H2 gas pressure, and geometrical configuration. We found that the optical thickness of the new absorption cell was ˜4 times higher than the earlier one at the center wavelength of Lyman-alpha absorption, by optimizing the condition to promote thermal dissociation of H2 molecules into two H atoms on a hot tungsten filament. The Doppler temperature of planetary coronas could be determined with an accuracy better than 100 K with the performance of the newly developed absorption cell.

  14. Origin of Non-Gaussian Spectra Observed via the Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy Diagnostic in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulyman, Alex; Chrystal, Colin; Haskey, Shaun; Burrell, Keith; Grierson, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The possible observation of non-Maxwellian ion distribution functions in the pedestal of DIII-D will be investigated with a synthetic diagnostic that accounts for the effect of finite neutral beam size. Ion distribution functions in tokamak plasmas are typically assumed to be Maxwellian, however non-Gaussian features observed in impurity charge exchange spectra have challenged this concept. Two possible explanations for these observations are spatial averaging over a finite beam size and a local ion distribution that is non-Maxwellian. Non-Maxwellian ion distribution functions could be driven by orbit loss effects in the edge of the plasma, and this has implications for momentum transport and intrinsic rotation. To investigate the potential effect of finite beam size on the observed spectra, a synthetic diagnostic has been created that uses FIDAsim to model beam and halo neutral density. Finite beam size effects are investigated for vertical and tangential views in the core and pedestal region with varying gradient scale lengths. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Retrieval Analysis of the CO2 1.6 μm Band in Solar Absorption Spectra Measured by a Ground-Based High-Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Tsukuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Morino, I.; Nagahama, T.; Suto, H.; Oguma, H.; Machida, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Nakagawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The global measurements of greenhouse gases from space are being planned, such as GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). Satellite remote sensing needs validations with other measurement techniques, for example, in-situ or sampling measurement by aircraft or ground station, or remote sensing measurement by ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The ground-based FTS measurement can provide the column amounts of atmospheric composition by a retrieval analysis with relatively high precision. In 2001, we started a project to observe the atmospheric compositions in solar absorption spectra by a ground- based high-resolution FTS (Bruker IFS 120 HR) located at Tsukuba, Japan. Three years ago, optical components of the FTS were replaced for measuring greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the near-infrared region: a CaF2 beam splitter, an InSb detector, and a 1.4-2.4 μm optical filter. The measurements were carried out once a day for ~100 days per year. We also made simultaneous FTS and aircraft in-situ measurements on August 10, 2004 and March 30, 2005. The retrieval analysis was performed for the measured spectra in the CO2 1.6 μm band. We used SEASCRAPE PLUS (Sequential Evaluation Algorithm for Simultaneous and Concurrent Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameter Estimates PLUS, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc.) as a retrieval analysis program. The column amounts were compared with those derived from in-situ measurements complemented by model data; differences are less than 1%. We have derived the diurnal variations of CO2 on the same days as in-situ measurements, and they showed tendencies similar to the tower measurements at the Meteorological Research Institute in Tsukuba.

  16. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 μm absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation

  17. High-resolution Observations of Hα Spectra with a Subtractive Double Pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Rezaei, R.; Choudhary, D. P.; Gosain, S.; Tritschler, A.; Louis, R. E.

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution imaging spectroscopy in solar physics has relied on Fabry-Pérot interferometers (FPIs) in recent years. FPI systems, however, become technically challenging and expensive for telescopes larger than the 1 m class. A conventional slit spectrograph with a diffraction-limited performance over a large field of view (FOV) can be built at much lower cost and effort. It can be converted into an imaging spectro(polari)meter using the concept of a subtractive double pass (SDP). We demonstrate that an SDP system can reach a similar performance as FPI-based systems with a high spatial and moderate spectral resolution across a FOV of 100^'' ×100^' ' with a spectral coverage of 1 nm. We use Hα spectra taken with an SDP system at the Dunn Solar Telescope and complementary full-disc data to infer the properties of small-scale superpenumbral filaments. We find that the majority of all filaments end in patches of opposite-polarity fields. The internal fine-structure in the line-core intensity of Hα at spatial scales of about 0.5'' exceeds that in other parameters such as the line width, indicating small-scale opacity effects in a larger-scale structure with common properties. We conclude that SDP systems in combination with (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics are a valid alternative to FPI systems when high spatial resolution and a large FOV are required. They can also reach a cadence that is comparable to that of FPI systems, while providing a much larger spectral range and a simultaneous multi-line capability.

  18. Differential absorption lidar observation on small-time-scale features of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Wei; Li, Jiatang; Liu, Hao; Chen, Tao; Hong, Guanglie; Shu, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Observation on small-time-scale features of water vapor density is essential for turbulence, convection and many other fast atmospheric processes study. For the high signal-to-noise signal of elastic signal acquired by differential absorption lidar, it has great potential for all-day water vapor turbulence observation. This paper presents a set of differential absorption lidar at 935nm developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Science for water vapor turbulence observation. A case at the midday is presented to demonstrate the daytime observation ability of this system. "Autocovariance method" is used to separate the contribution of water vapor fluctuation from random error. The results show that the relative error is less than 10% at temporal and spatial resolution of 10 seconds and 60 meters in the ABL. This indicate that the system has excellent performance for daytime water vapor turbulence observation.

  19. Gamma-Ray Spectra & Variability of Cygnus X-1 Observed by BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, A.; Wallyn, P.; Mahoney, W. A.; Paciesas, W. W.; Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Zhang, S. N.; Hua, X. M.

    1996-01-01

    We present new BATSE Earth occultation observations of the 25 keV-1.8 MeV spectrum and variability of Cygnus X-1 made between August 1993 and May 1994. We observed that the normal soft gamma-ray spectrum (gamma2) of Cygnus X-1 has two components: a Comptonized part seen below 30keV, and a high-energy tail in the 0.3-2 MeV range.

  20. Line structures in the X-ray spectra of Cygnus X-2 observed with Exosat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, P. E.; Kahn, S. M.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Ciapi, A.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Branduardi-Raymont, E. G.; Ercan, E. N.

    1990-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with Exosat at five phases of a single orbital cycle in September of 1983. The results of spectral fits of the LE + ME (Argon) data are summarized in terms of a superposition of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody components. During the first observation, a grating spectrum was obtained, and this is described in some detail. The GSPC data are used to investigate the presence of iron features and their behavior during dips.

  1. VUV Absorption Spectra of Gas-Phase Quinoline in the 3.5 - 10.7 eV Photon Energy Range.

    PubMed

    Leach, Sydney; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Un, Sun

    2018-06-16

    The absorption spectrum of quinoline was measured in the gas phase between 3.5 and 10.7 eV using a synchrotron photon source. A large number of sharp and broad spectral features were observed, some of which have plasmon-type collective π-electron modes contributing to their intensities. Eight valence electronic transitions were assigned, considerably extending the number of π-π* transitions previously observed mainly in solution. The principal factor in solution red-shifts is found to be the Lorentz-Lorenz polarizability parameter. Rydberg bands, observed for the first time, are analysed into eight different series, converging to the D0 ground and two excited electronic states, D3 and D4, of the quinoline cation. The R1 series limit is 8.628 eV for the first ionization energy of quinoline, a value more precise than previously published. This value, combined with cation electronic transition data provides precise energies, respectively 10.623 eV and 11.355 eV, for the D3 and D4 states. The valence transition assignments are based on DFT calculations as well as on earlier Pariser-Parr-Pople SCF LCAO MO results. The relative quality of the P-P-P and DFT data is discussed. Both are far from spectroscopic accuracy concerning electronic excited states but were nevertheless useful for our assignments. Our time-dependent DFT calculations of quinoline are excellent for its ground state properties such as geometry, rotational constants, dipole moment and vibrational frequencies, which agree well with experimental observations. Vibrational components of the valence and Rydberg transitions mainly involve C-H bend and C=C and C=N stretch modes. Astrophysical applications of the VUV absorption of quinoline are briefly discussed.

  2. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  3. Modeling, Analysis, and Interpretation of Photoelectron Energy Spectra at Enceladus Observed by Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. A.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.; Wellbrock, A.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Desai, R. T.; Caro-Carretero, R.; Michiko, M. W.; Schippers, P.; Waite, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Electron Spectrometer (ELS) of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer has observed photoelectrons produced in the plume of Enceladus. These photoelectrons are observed during Enceladus encounters in the energetic particle shadow where the spacecraft is largely shielded from penetrating radiation by the moon. We present a complex electron spectrum at Enceladus including evidence of two previously unidentified electron populations at 6-10 eV and 10-16 eV. We estimate that the proportion of "hot" (>15 eV) to "cold" (<15 eV) electrons during the Enceladus flybys is ≈ 0.1-0.5%. We have constructed a model of photoelectron production in the plume and compared it with ELS Enceladus flyby data by scaling and energy shifting according to spacecraft potential. We suggest that the complex structure of the electron spectrum observed can be explained entirely by photoelectron production in the plume ionosphere.

  4. METALLICITY AND TEMPERATURE INDICATORS IN M DWARF K-BAND SPECTRA: TESTING NEW AND UPDATED CALIBRATIONS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF 133 SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.

    2012-04-01

    We present K-band spectra for 133 nearby (d < 33 ps) M dwarfs, including 18 M dwarfs with reliable metallicity estimates (as inferred from an FGK type companion), 11 M dwarf planet hosts, more than 2/3 of the M dwarfs in the northern 8 pc sample, and several M dwarfs from the LSPM catalog. From these spectra, we measure equivalent widths of the Ca and Na lines, and a spectral index quantifying the absorption due to H{sub 2}O opacity (the H{sub 2}O-K2 index). Using empirical spectral type standards and synthetic models, we calibrate the H{sub 2}O-K2 index as an indicatormore » of an M dwarf's spectral type and effective temperature. We also present a revised relationship that estimates the [Fe/H] and [M/H] metallicities of M dwarfs from their Na I, Ca I, and H{sub 2}O-K2 measurements. Comparisons to model atmosphere provide a qualitative validation of our approach, but also reveal an overall offset between the atomic line strengths predicted by models as compared to actual observations. Our metallicity estimates also reproduce expected correlations with Galactic space motions and H{alpha} emission line strengths, and return statistically identical metallicities for M dwarfs within a common multiple system. Finally, we find systematic residuals between our H{sub 2}O-based spectral types and those derived from optical spectral features with previously known sensitivity to stellar metallicity, such as TiO, and identify the CaH1 index as a promising optical index for diagnosing the metallicities of near-solar M dwarfs.« less

  5. Femtosecond time-domain observation of atmospheric absorption in the near-infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. J.; Monchocé, Sylvain; Zhang, Chunmei; Brown, Graham G.; Corkum, P. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    As light propagates through a medium, absorption caused by electronic or rovibrational transitions is evident in the transmitted spectrum. The incident electromagnetic field polarizes the medium and the absorption is due to the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility. In the time domain, the field establishes a coherence in the medium that radiates out of phase with the initial field. This coherence can persist for tens of picoseconds in atmospheric molecules such as H2O . We propagate a few-cycle laser pulse centered at 1.8 μ m through the atmosphere and measure the long-lasting molecular coherence in the time domain by high-order harmonic cross correlation. The measured optical free-induction decay of the pulse is compared with a calculation based on the calculated rovibrational spectrum of H2O absorption.

  6. Study on the interactions of antiemetic drugs and 12-tungstophosphoric acid by absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    In 0.1 mol L-1 HCl medium, antiemetic drugs (ATM), such as granisetron hydrochloride (GS) and tropisetron hydrochloride (TS), reacted with H3PW12O40·nH2O and formed 3:1 ion-association complex of [(ATM)3PW12O40], then self-aggregated into nanoparticles-[(ATM)3PW12O40]n with an average size of 100 nm. The reaction resulted in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and the absorption spectra. The increments of scattering intensity (ΔIRRS) and the change of absorbance (ΔA) were both directly proportional to the concentrations of ATM in certain ranges. Accordingly, two new RRS and spectrophotometric methods were proposed for ATM detection. The detection limits (3σ) of GS and TS were 3.2 ng mL-1 and 4.0 ng mL-1(RRS method), 112.5 ng mL-1 and 100.0 ng mL-1(spectrophotometric method). These two methods were applied to determine GS in orally disintegrating tablets and the results were in good agreement with the official method. The ground-state geometries and electronic structures of GS and TS were optimized by the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) method and the shape of [(ATM)3PW12O40]n was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Take the RRS method with higher sensitivity as an example, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for enhancement of scattering were discussed.

  7. Time-domain calculations of the polarized Raman spectra, the transient infrared absorption anisotropy, and the extent of delocalization of the OH stretching mode of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hajime

    2006-08-03

    The polarized Raman spectrum and the time dependence of the transient infrared (TRIR) absorption anisotropy are calculated for the OH stretching mode of liquid water (neat liquid H2O) by using time-domain formulations, which include the effects of both the diagonal frequency modulations (of individual oscillators) induced by the interactions between the dipole derivatives and the intermolecular electric field, and the off-diagonal (intermolecular) vibrational coupling described by the transition dipole coupling (TDC) mechanism. The IR spectrum of neat liquid H2O and the TRIR anisotropy of a liquid mixture of H2O/HDO/D2O are also calculated. It is shown that the calculated features of these optical signals, including the temperature dependence of the polarized Raman and IR spectra, are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the frequency separation between the isotropic and anisotropic components of the polarized Raman spectrum and the rapid decay (approximately 0.1 ps) of the TRIR anisotropy of the OH stretching mode of neat liquid H2O are mainly controlled by the resonant intermolecular vibrational coupling described by the TDC mechanism. Comparing with the time evolution of vibrational excitations, it is suggested that the TRIR anisotropy decays in the time needed for the initially localized vibrational excitations to delocalize over a few oscillators. It is also shown that the enhancement of the dipole derivatives by the interactions with surrounding molecules is an important factor in generating the spectral profiles of the OH stretching Raman band. The time-domain behavior of the molecular motions that affect the spectroscopic features is discussed.

  8. A Catalog of Absorption in the Spectra of Quasi-stellar Objects: Erratum (Orig. paper in 77, 203, 47-B1 (1991))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V.; Hewitt, A.; Burbidge, G.

    1992-07-01

    In the paper entitled "A Catalog of Absorption in the Spectra of Quasi- stellar Objects" by V. Junkkarinen, A. Hewitt, & G. Burbidge (ApJS, 77,203(1991]) there is an error in Table l. Because of an error in the computer program used to generate the final version of Table 1, the J2000 coordinates for all the objects are incorrect. The error involves the printed values for the J2000 seconds of time in right ascension and the J2000 seconds of arc in declination. The following table gives corrected J2000 coordinates for all the objects in Table 1 of our paper. Table 1 should be consulted for the 1950 coordinates and to check for coordinates which are poorly known. The J2000 coordinate names in Table 1 are correct (except that a few may change as more accurate coordinates become available for those QSOs with poorly determined coordinates), and the B1950 coordinates and coordinate names are not affected by the programming error. Additional corrections: In Table 3, 1040+015 should be QNB1:49, not QNB1:22. Two references were omitted (the numbers appear in Table 1, but the references are not listed): 1720. Djorgovski, S., Strauss, M. A., Perley, R. A., Spinrad, H., and McCarthy, P. 1987, AJ, 93,1318. 2115. Turnshek, D. A., Wolfe, A. M., Lanzetta, K. M., Briggs, F. H., Cohen, R. D., Foltz, C. B., Smith, H. E., and Wilkes, B. J. 1989, ApJ, 344,567. We would like to thank Marion Schmitz (IPAC) for pointing out the missing references and QNB1:49.

  9. Ultraviolet Spectra of Subluminous Objects Found in the Kiso Schmidt Survey and Systematic Reanalysis of the Archived Ultraviolet Spectra of White Dwarfs Observed with the IUE Satellite Under the Astrophysics Data Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent research under NASA grant NAG5-971 consisted of the performance of two projects in conjunction with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. These are: (1) to look at the ultraviolet spectra of subluminous stars identified from visual wavelength spectroscopy that had been originally discovered from the Kiso Schmidt survey for ultraviolet excess stars and (2) to carry out a systematic reanalysis of the archived IUE spectra of white dwarfs. This report presents information on the progress of the re-reduction of over 600 IUE white dwarf spectra and their subsequent analysis employing model atmospheres and the observation of the Kiso ultraviolet excess stars.

  10. Optical activity and electronic absorption spectra of some simple nucleosides related to cytidine and uridine: all-valence-shell molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D W; Redington, P K; Miles, D L; Eyring, H

    1981-01-01

    The circular dichroism and electronic absorption of three simple model systems for cytidine and uridine have been measured to 190 nm. The molecular spectral properties (excitation wavelengths, oscillator strengths, rotational strengths, and polarization directions) and electronic transitional patterns were investigated by using wave functions of the entire nucleoside with the goal of establishing the reliability of the theoretical method. The computed electronic absorption quantities were shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. It was found that the computed optical rotatory strengths of the B2u and E1u electronic transitions and lowest observed n-pi transition are in good agreement with experimental values. Electronic transitions were characterized by their electronic transitional patterns derived from population analysis of the transition density matrix. The theoretical rotational strengths associated with the B2u and E1u transitions stabilize after the use of just a few singly excited configurations in the configuration interaction basis and, hypothetically, are more reliable as indicators of conformation in pyrimidine nucleosides related to cytidine. PMID:6950393

  11. Impact of entrainment on cloud droplet spectra: theory, observations, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, W.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of entrainment and mixing on microphysical properties of warm boundary layer clouds is an important aspect of the representation of such clouds in large-scale models of weather and climate. Entrainment leads to a reduction of the liquid water content in agreement with the fundamental thermodynamics, but its impact on the droplet spectrum is difficult to quantify in observations and modeling. For in-situ (e.g., aircraft) observations, it is impossible to follow air parcels and observe processes that lead to changes of the droplet spectrum in different regions of a cloud. For similar reasons traditional modeling methodologies (e.g., the Eulerian large eddy simulation) are not useful either. Moreover, both observations and modeling can resolve only relatively narrow range of spatial scales. Theory, typically focusing on differences between idealized concepts of homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixing, is also of a limited use for the multiscale turbulent mixing between a cloud and its environment. This presentation will illustrate the above points and argue that the Lagrangian large-eddy simulation with appropriate subgrid-scale scheme may provide key insights and eventually lead to novel parameterizations for large-scale models.

  12. Electronic Absorption and MCD Spectra for Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), and Related Platinum-Centered Gold Cluster Complexes.

    PubMed

    Adrowski, Michael J.; Mason, W. Roy

    1997-03-26

    Electronic absorption and 7.0 T magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the UV-vis region, 1.6 to approximately 4.0 &mgr;m(-)(1) (1 &mgr;m(-)(1) = 10(4) cm(-)(1)) are reported for [Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) and [Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) in acetonitrile solutions at room temperature. The MCD spectra are better resolved than the absorption spectra and consist of both A and B terms. The spectra are interpreted in terms of D(4)(d)() skeletal geometry and MO's that are approximated by 5s and 6s orbitals for Pd and Pt/Au atoms, respectively. The lowest energy excited configurations and states are attributed to intraframework (IF) Au(8)(2+) transitions. Evidence is also presented for Pt 5d --> Au 6s transitions in the MCD spectra for Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+). Acetonitrile solution absorption and MCD spectra for the related Pt-centered cluster complexes [Pt(CO)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AuP(p-tolyl)(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(CuCl)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AgNO(3))(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(Hg)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(HgCl)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2), and [Pt(HgNO(3))(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2) are also reported and interpreted within the context of the model developed for the M(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+) complexes.

  13. 3-D-Observation of Matrix of MIL 090657 Meteorite by Absorption-Phase Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyama, Sugimoto; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Matsuno, Junya; Miyake, Akira; Nakano, Tsukasa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takigawa, Aki; Takayama, Akiko; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; hide

    2017-01-01

    MIL 090657 meteorite (CR2.7) is one of the least altered primitive carbonaceous c hondrites [1]. This meteorite has amorphous silicates like GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), which are characteristically contained in cometary dust, in matrix [2,3] as with the Paris meteorite [4]. Three lithologies have been recognized; lithology-1 (L 1) dominated by submicron anhydrous silicates, lithology-2 (L2) by GEMS-like amorphous silicates and lithology-3 (L3) by phyllosilicates [2]. Organic materials are abundant in L 1 and L2 [2,3]. L 1 and L2 were further divided into sub-lithology respectively based on their textures and compositions [5]. These studies were performed by 2D SEM and TEM observations of sample surfaces and thin sections that are unable to reveal what constitute each lithology and how these lithologies are distributed and related to each other. This information will provide important insights into alteration and aggregation processes on asteroids and in the early solar nebula. In this study, MIL 090657 matrix was examined in 3D using two types of X-ray tomography; DET (dual-energy tomography) [6] and SIXM (scanning-imaging X-ray microscopy) [7]. Mineral phases can be discriminated based on absorption contrasts at two different X-ray energies in DET. In SIXM, materials composed of light elements such as water or organic materials can be identified based on phase and absorption contrasts. By combining these methods, we can discriminate not only organic materials from voids but also hydrous alteration products, such as hydrated silicates and carbonates, from anhydrous minerals [8]. In this study, we first observed cross sections of MIL 090657 matrix fragments C1 00 mm) in detail using FE-SEM/ EDS. Based on the results, three house-shaped samples (3 0 -50 mm) were extracted from L 1, L2 and their boundary (H1, H3 and H5, respectively) using FIB. 3D imaging of these samples were conducted at BL47XU of SPring-8, a synchrotron radiation facility, with

  14. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  15. Comparison of ScaRaB, GOES 8, Aircraft, and Surface Observations of the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Shelly K.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Collins, William D.; Minnis, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Data obtained by the Scanner for Radiation Budget (ScaRaB) instrument on the Meteor 3 satellite have been analyzed and compared to satellite (GOES 8), aircraft (Radiation Measurement System, RAMS), and surface (Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN), Solar and Infrared Observations System (SIROS), and RAMS) measurements of irradiance obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE). It is found that the ScaRaB data covering the period from March 1994 to February 1995 (the instrument's operational lifetime) indicate excess absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere in agreement with previous aircraft, surface, and GOES 8 results. The full ScaRaB data set combined with BSRN and SIROS surface observations gives an average all-sky absorptance of 0.28. The GOES 8 data set combined with RAMS surface observations gives an average all-sky absorptance of 0.26. The aircraft data set (RAMS) gives a mean all-sky absorptance of 0.24 (for the column between 0.5 and 13 km).

  16. Impulsive EUV bursts observed in C IV with OSO-8. [UV solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, R. G.; White, O. R.; Lites, B. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Time sequences of profiles of the 1548 A line of C IV containing 51 EUV bursts observed in or near active regions are analyzed to determine the brightness, Doppler shift and line broadening characteristics of the bursts. The bursts have mean lifetimes of approximately 150 s, and mean increases in brightness at burst maximum of four-fold as observed with a field of view of 2 x 20 arc sec. Mean burst diameters are estimated to be 3 arc sec, or smaller. All but three of the bursts show Doppler shifts with velocities sometimes exceeding 75 km/s; 31 are dominated by red shifts and 17 are dominated by blue shifts. Approximately half of the latter group have red-shifted precursors. The bursts are interpreted as prominence material, such as surges and coronal rain, moving through the field of view of the spectrometer.

  17. Observing Femtosecond Fragmentation Using Ultrafast X-ray-Induced Auger Spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Thomas; Holzmeier, Fabian; Wagner, Isabella; ...

    2017-07-01

    Molecules often fragment after photoionization in the gas phase. Usually, this process can only be investigated spectroscopically as long as there exists electron correlation between the photofragments. Important parameters, like their kinetic energy after separation, cannot be investigated. We are reporting on a femtosecond time-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy study concerning the photofragmentation dynamics of thymine. We observe the appearance of clearly distinguishable signatures from thymine's neutral photofragment isocyanic acid. Furthermore, we observe a time-dependent shift of its spectrum, which we can attribute to the influence of the charged fragment on the Auger electron. This allows us to map our time-dependentmore » dataset onto the fragmentation coordinate. The time dependence of the shift supports efficient transformation of the excess energy gained from photoionization into kinetic energy of the fragments. Our method is broadly applicable to the investigation of photofragmentation processes.« less

  18. IDEOS: Fitting Infrared Spectra from Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Vincent; Rupke, D.

    2014-01-01

    We fit models to heavily obscured infrared spectra taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope and prepare them for cataloguing in the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). When completed, IDEOS will contain homogeneously measured mid-infrared spectroscopic observables of more than 4200 galaxies beyond the Local Group. The software we use, QUESTFit, models the spectra using up to three extincted blackbodies (including silicate, water ice, and hydrocarbon absorption) and PAH templates. We present results from a sample of the approximately 200 heavily obscured spectra that will be present in IDEOS.

  19. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  20. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  1. Gritty Surface Sample Holder Invented To Obtain Correct X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra for Concentrated Materials by Fluorescence Yield.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hitoshi; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masao; Murakami, Youichi; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-04-05

    A gritty surface sample holder has been invented to obtain correct XAFS spectra for concentrated samples by fluorescence yield (FY). Materials are usually mixed with boron nitride (BN) to prepare proper concentrations to measure XAFS spectra. Some materials, however, could not be mixed with BN and would be measured in too concentrated conditions to obtain correct XAFS spectra. Consequently, XAFS spectra will be incorrect typically with decreased intensities of the peaks. We have invented the gritty surface sample holders to obtain correct XAFS spectra even for concentrated materials for FY measurements. Pure Cu and CuO powders were measured mounted on the sample holders, and the same spectra were obtained as transmission spectra of properly prepared samples. This sample holder is useful to measure XAFS for any concentrated materials.

  2. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  3. On the Time Variation of Dust Extinction and Gas Absorption for Type Ia Supernovae Observed through a Nonuniform Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Aldering, G.; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.

    2017-11-01

    For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the nonuniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (≳ 10 {pc}) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of an SN photosphere. Therefore, the typical amplitude of time variation due to a nonuniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths, and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that nonuniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power-law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.

  4. Gamma-Ray Spectra and Variability of Cygnus Z-1 Observed by BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, William A.; Wallyn, P.; Mahoney, W. .; Paciesas, W. S.; Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Zhang, S. N.; Hua, X. M.

    1998-01-01

    We present new BATSE earth occultation observations of the 25 keV-1.8 MeV spectrum and variability of Cygnus X-1 made between August 1993 and May 1994. We observed that the normal soft gamma ray spectrum (gamma2) of Cygnus X-1 has two components: a Comptonized part seen below 300 keV, and a high-energy tail in the 0.3 - 2 MeV range. We interpret it in terms of a two-layer region, consisting of a high-energy core (with an equivalent electron temperature of approximately 210-250 keV) near the event horizon, embedded in an about 50 keV corona. In this scenario, the observed 25-300 keV photons were produced by Compton scattering of soft photons (about 0.5 keV) by the hot electrons in the outer corona. These same hard x rays were further up-scattered by a population of energetic electrons in the inner core, producing the spectral tail above 300 keV. Cygnus X-1 went through an extended sequence of transitions between August 1993 and May 1994, when the 45-140 keV flux first decreased steadily from approximately gamma2 to roughly one-quarter of its intensity over a period of about 140 days. The flux remained at this low level for about 40 days before returning, swiftly (approximately 20 days) to approximately the initial gamma2 level. During the transition, the spectrum evolved to a shape consistent with either a power law with photon index of about 2.6 or a single temperature Compton model with electron temperature kT = 110 +/- 11 keV, and optical depth t = 0.40 +/- 0.06, and then returned essentially to the original gamma2 spectrum at the end of the active period. The overall cooling of the system during the low flux period may be due to an increase in the soft photon population which effectively quenched the hot electrons in these regions through Compton scattering.

  5. THE IMPRINT OF EXOPLANET FORMATION HISTORY ON OBSERVABLE PRESENT-DAY SPECTRA OF HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mordasini, C.; Van Boekel, R.; Mollière, P.

    The composition of a planet’s atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet’s spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a “chain” of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet’s formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with James Webb Space Telescope and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon asmore » in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called “dry” and “wet” planets, respectively. (2) Both the “dry” and “wet” planets are oxygen-rich (C/O < 1) due to the oxygen-rich nature of the solid building blocks. The “dry” planet’s C/O ratio is <0.2 for standard carbon depletion, while the “wet” planet has typical C/O values between 0.1 and 0.5 depending mainly on the clathrate formation efficiency. Only non-standard disk chemistries without carbon depletion lead to carbon-rich C/O ratios >1 for the “dry” planet. (3) While we consistently find C/O ratios <1, they still vary significantly. To link a formation history to a specific C/O, a better understanding of the disk chemistry is thus needed.« less

  6. Observation of IPL spectra using detector system incorporating broadband optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, D. McG.

    2007-07-01

    Systems using intense pulsed light are being increasingly used in therapy applications where issues related to safety of devices and also of performance are becoming more urgent to address. Mechanisms to address this include a suitable standards framework and also the development and application of appropriate measurement techniques. An approach of using conventional bandpass optical filters and silicon photodetectors has been implemented using an analogue USB data capture interfaces linked to a laptop PC. An initial system with 8 concurrent channels has been upgraded to a separate system sampling up to 16 analogue channels. Sampling takes place at the maximum hardware conversion rate of the USB device. Observations have been made of a range of intense pulsed light systems, including a Lumenis One unit with a range of discrete filters. The system has been of value in determining the basic parameters of output pulse profile and spectral composition. This has in turn been related to aspects of standards development for both device manufacture and allocation of appropriate safety eyewear. Initial assessments of a subset of intense pulsed light systems indicate significant complexities in terms, for example, of variation in spectral content as a function of device output setting.

  7. Direct observation of single layer graphene oxide reduction through spatially resolved, single sheet absorption/emission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Denis A; Morozov, Yurii V; McDonald, Matthew P; Vietmeyer, Felix; Hodak, Jose H; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-06-11

    Laser reduction of graphene oxide (GO) offers unique opportunities for the rapid, nonchemical production of graphene. By tuning relevant reduction parameters, the band gap and conductivity of reduced GO can be precisely controlled. In situ monitoring of single layer GO reduction is therefore essential. In this report, we show the direct observation of laser-induced, single layer GO reduction through correlated changes to its absorption and emission. Absorption/emission movies illustrate the initial stages of single layer GO reduction, its transition to reduced-GO (rGO) as well as its subsequent decomposition upon prolonged laser illumination. These studies reveal GO's photoreduction life cycle and through it native GO/rGO absorption coefficients, their intrasheet distributions as well as their spatial heterogeneities. Extracted absorption coefficients for unreduced GO are α405 nm ≈ 6.5 ± 1.1 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10(4) cm(-1) while corresponding rGO α-values are α405 nm ≈ 21.6 ± 0.6 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 16.9 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 14.5 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1). More importantly, the correlated absorption/emission imaging provides us with unprecedented insight into GO's underlying photoreduction mechanism, given our ability to spatially resolve its kinetics and to connect local rate constants to activation energies. On a broader level, the developed absorption imaging is general and can be applied toward investigating the optical properties of other two-dimensional materials, especially those that are nonemissive and are invisible to current single molecule optical techniques.

  8. PROBING X-RAY ABSORPTION AND OPTICAL EXTINCTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM USING CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Foight, Dillon R.; Slane, Patrick O.; Güver, Tolga

    We present a comprehensive study of interstellar X-ray extinction using the extensive Chandra supernova remnant (SNR) archive and use our results to refine the empirical relation between the hydrogen column density and optical extinction. In our analysis, we make use of the large, uniform data sample to assess various systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the interstellar X-ray absorption. Specifically, we address systematic uncertainties that originate from (i) the emission models used to fit SNR spectra; (ii) the spatial variations within individual remnants; (iii) the physical conditions of the remnant such as composition, temperature, and non-equilibrium regions; and (iv) themore » model used for the absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium. Using a Bayesian framework to quantify these systematic uncertainties, and combining the resulting hydrogen column density measurements with the measurements of optical extinction toward the same remnants, we find the empirical relation N {sub H} = (2.87 ± 0.12) × 10{sup 21} A {sub V} cm{sup 2}, which is significantly higher than the previous measurements.« less

  9. CORSAIR-Calibrated Observations of Radiance Spectra from the Atmosphere in the Far- Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D.; Abedin, N.; Liu, X.; Kratz, D.; Jordan, D.; Wang, J.; Bingham, G.; Latvakoski, H.; Bowman, K.; Kaplan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The CORSAIR project is a new NASA Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) whose primary goal is to develop and demonstrate the necessary technologies to achieve SI-traceable, on-orbit measurements of Earth's spectral radiance in the far-infrared (far-IR). The far-IR plays a vital role in the energy balance of the Earth yet its spectrum has not been comprehensively observed from space for the purposes of climate sensing. The specific technologies being developed under CORSAIR include: passively cooled, antenna-coupled terahertz detectors for the far-IR (by Raytheon Vision Systems); accurately calibrated, SI-traceable blackbody sources for the far-IR (by Space Dynamics Laboratory); and high-performance broad bandpass beamsplitters (by ITT). These technologies complement those already developed under past Langley IIP projects (FIRST; INFLAME) in the areas of Fourier Transform Spectrometers and dedicated far-IR beamsplitters. The antenna-coupled far-IR detectors will be validated in the FIRST instrument at Langley. The SI-traceable far-IR blackbodies will be developed in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An overview of the CORSAIR technologies will be presented as well as their larger role in the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. Upon successful completion of CORSAIR these IIP efforts will provide the necessary technologies to achieve the first comprehensive, accurate, high-resolution measurements from a satellite of the far-IR spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere, enabling major advances in our understanding of Earth's climate.

  10. Electronic absorption, vibrational spectra, nonlinear optical properties, NBO analysis and thermodynamic properties of N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, T; Muthu, S; Karabacak, M

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-100 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively, for N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The frontier orbital energy gap and dipole moment illustrates the high reactivity of the title molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of the molecule were also calculated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) anti-bonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-500 nm in ethanol and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were calculated by TD-DFT/B3LYP, CIS and TD-HF methods using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels are also constructed. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures and the results reveals the heat capacity (C), and entropy (S) increases with rise in temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflationary spectra with inverse-volume corrections in loop quantum cosmology and their observational constraints from Planck 2015 data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang

    We first derive the primordial power spectra, spectral indices and runnings of both scalar and tensor perturbations of a flat inflationary universe to the second-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with the inverse-volume quantum corrections. This represents an extension of our previous work in which the parameter σ was assumed to be an integer, where σ characterizes the quantum corrections and in general can take any of values from the range σ  element of  (0, 6]. Restricting to the first-order approximations of the slow-roll parameters, we find corrections to the results obtained previously inmore » the literature, and point out the causes for such errors. To our best knowledge, these represent the most accurate calculations of scalar and tensor perturbations given so far in the literature. Then, fitting the perturbations to the recently released data by Planck (2015), we obtain the most severe constraints for various values of σ. Using these constraints as our referring point, we discuss whether these quantum gravitational corrections can lead to measurable signatures in the future cosmological observations. We show that, depending on the value of σ, the scale-dependent contributions to the relativistic inflationary spectra due to the inverse-volume corrections could be well within the range of the detectability of the forthcoming generations of experiments, such as the Stage IV experiments.« less

  12. Orientation observed by Zeeman spectra of dissociated atoms and the interference in photoexcitations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kasahara, Shunji; Kato, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    In a magnetic field, the wave number of a pump laser light polarized along the field was fixed to the isolated Cs{sub 2}D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(v=46, J=54)(leftarrow)X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(v=0, J=55) line, and the excitation spectrum of the dissociated Cs(6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms was measured by scanning the wave number of a probe laser light polarized perpendicular to the field. The population of each sublevel 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,m{sub j}} of the dissociated atoms was determined from the line intensities in the m{sub j}-resolved excitation spectrum. The unequal population between the 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,+verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar}more » and 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,-verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar} levels (atomic orientation) was observed and it was enhanced as the magnetic-field strength was increased. The atomic orientation is shown to be induced by the interference between the indirect predissociation, which occurs by a combination of the spin-orbit coupling of the D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} state and the L-uncoupling and Zeeman interactions between the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} and dissociative (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} states, and the dissociation following a direct excitation to the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state, which is allowed by spin-orbit coupling of the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the B {sup 1}{pi}{sub u} state. It is demonstrated that the atomic orientation is produced by the photodissociation in the presence of an external magnetic field even when all degenerated molecular M=J,...,0,...,-J sublevels are excited by a light polarized linearly along the field.« less

  13. A determination of the spectra of Galactic components observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, R. D.; Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Jaffe, T. R.; Górski, K. M.; Davis, R. J.

    2006-08-01

    Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data when combined with ancillary data on free-free, synchrotron and dust allow an improved understanding of the spectrum of emission from each of these components. Here, we examine the sky variation at intermediate latitudes using a cross-correlation technique. In particular, we compare the observed emission in 15 selected sky regions to three `standard' templates. The free-free emission of the diffuse ionized gas is fitted by a well-known