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Sample records for absorption spectra supports

  1. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate thatmore » near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.« less

  3. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  4. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  5. Two-photon absorption spectra of carotenoids compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Marcelo Gonçalves; Silva, Daniel Luiz; Boni, Leonardo de; Zalesny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Mendonca, Cleber Renato

    2011-05-01

    Carotenoids are biosynthetic organic pigments that constitute an important class of one-dimensional π-conjugated organic molecules with enormous potential for application in biophotonic devices. In this context, we studied the degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section spectra of two carotenoid compounds (β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal) employing the conventional and white-light-continuum Z-scan techniques and quantum chemistry calculations. Because carotenoids coexist at room temperature as a mixture of isomers, the 2PA spectra reported here are due to samples containing a distribution of isomers, presenting distinct conjugation length and conformation. We show that these compounds present a defined structure on the 2PA spectra, that peaks at 650 nm with an absorption cross-section of approximately 5000 GM, for both compounds. In addition, we observed a 2PA band at 990 nm for β-apo-8'-carotenal, which was attributed to a overlapping of 11Bu+-like and 21Ag--like states, which are strongly one- and two-photon allowed, respectively. Spectroscopic parameters of the electronic transitions to singlet-excited states, which are directly related to photophysical properties of these compounds, were obtained by fitting the 2PA spectra using the sum-over-states approach. The analysis and interpretations of the 2PA spectra of the investigated carotenoids were supported by theoretical predictions of one- and two-photon transitions carried out using the response functions formalism within the density functional theory framework, using the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functional.

  6. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9675 Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant ...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring...Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 35 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using

  7. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  8. Soft x-ray absorption spectra of ilmenite family.

    PubMed

    Agui, A; Mizumaki, M; Saitoh, Y; Matsushita, T; Nakatani, T; Fukaya, A; Torikai, E

    2001-03-01

    We have carried out soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of ilmenite family, such as MnTiO3, FeTiO3, and CoTiO3 at the soft x-ray beamline, BL23SU, at the SPring-8. The Ti and M L2,3 absorption spectra of MTiO3 (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) show spectra of Ti4+ and M2+ electron configurations, respectively. Except the Fe L2,3 spectrum, those spectra were understood within the O(h) symmetry around the transition metal ions. The Fe L3-edge spectrum clearly shows a doublet peak at the L3 edge, which is attributed to Fe2+ state, moreover the very high-resolution the L-edge spectra of transition metals show fine structures. The spectra of those ilmenites are compared.

  9. The P K-near edge absorption spectra of phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, R.; Hormes, J.

    1995-12-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the P K-edge in several orthophosphates with various cations, in condensed, and in substituted sodium phosphates have been measured using synchrotron radiation from the ELSA storage ring at the University of Bonn. The measured spectra demonstrate that chemical changes beyond the PO 4- tetrahedra are reflected by energy shifts of the pre-edge and continuum resonances, by the presence of characteristic shoulders and new peaks and by differences in the intensity of the white line. We discuss the energy differences between the white line positions and the corresponding P ls binding energies as a measure of half of the energy gap. The corresponding values correlate with the valence of the cations and the intensity of the white lines. The energy positions of the continuum resonances are discussed on the basis of an empirical bond-length correlation supporting a 1/ r2 - dependence.

  10. A Simple Demonstration of Absorption Spectra Using Tungsten Holiday Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper submitted to the Demonstrations section (Birriel 2008, "Astronomy Education Review," 7, 147), I discussed using commercially available incandescent light bulbs for the purpose of demonstrating absorption spectra in the classroom or laboratory. This demonstration solved a long-standing problem that many of astronomy instructors…

  11. Effect of pyridine on infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S K; Saini, G S S

    2008-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of copper phthalocyanine in KBr pellet and pyridine solution in 400-1625 and 2900-3200 cm(-1)regions are reported. In the IR spectra of solid sample, presence of weak bands, which are forbidden according to the selection rules of D4h point group, is explained on the basis of distortion in the copper phthalocyanine molecule caused by the crystal packing effects. Observation of a new band at 1511 cm(-1) and change in intensity of some other bands in pyridine are interpreted on the basis of coordination of the solvent molecule with the central copper ion.

  12. Infrared absorption spectra of metal carbides, nitrides and sulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammori, O.; Sato, K.; Kurosawa, F.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of 12 kinds of metal carbides, 11 kinds of nitrides, and 7 kinds of sulfides, a total of 30 materials, were measured and the application of the infrared spectra of these materials to analytical chemistry was discussed. The measurements were done in the frequency (wave length) range of (1400 to 400/cm (7 to 25 mu). The carbides Al4C3, B4C, the nitrides AlN, BN, Si3N4, WB, and the sulfides Al2S3, FeS2, MnS, NiS and PbS were noted to have specific absorptions in the measured region. The sensitivity of Boron nitride was especially good and could be detected at 2 to 3 micrograms in 300 mg of potassium bromide.

  13. Gigahertz-peaked Spectra Pulsars and Thermal Absorption Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kijak, J.; Basu, R.; Lewandowski, W.

    2017-05-10

    We present the results of our radio interferometric observations of pulsars at 325 and 610 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We used the imaging method to estimate the flux densities of several pulsars at these radio frequencies. The analysis of the shapes of the pulsar spectra allowed us to identify five new gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS) pulsars. Using the hypothesis that the spectral turnovers are caused by thermal free–free absorption in the interstellar medium, we modeled the spectra of all known objects of this kind. Using the model, we were able to put some observational constraints on the physicalmore » parameters of the absorbing matter, which allows us to distinguish between the possible sources of absorption. We also discuss the possible effects of the existence of GPS pulsars on future search surveys, showing that the optimal frequency range for finding such objects would be from a few GHz (for regular GPS sources) to possibly 10 GHz for pulsars and radio magnetars exhibiting very strong absorption.« less

  14. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  15. First Principles Optical Absorption Spectra of Organic Molecules Adsorbed on Titania Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baishya, Kopinjol; Ogut, Serdar; Mete, Ersen; Gulseren, Oguz; Ellialtioglu, Sinasi

    2012-02-01

    We present results from first principles computations on passivated rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in both free-standing and dye-sensitized configurations to investigate the size dependence of their optical absorption spectra. The computations are performed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) as well as GW-Bethe-Salpeter-Equation (GWBSE) methods and compared with each other. We interpret the first principles spectra for free-standing TiO2 nanoparticles within the framework of the classical Mie-Gans theory using the bulk dielectric function of TiO2. We investigate the effects of the titania support on the absorption spectra of a particular set of perylene-diimide (PDI) derived dye molecules, namely brominated PDI (Br2C24H8N2O4) and its glycine and aspartine derivatives.

  16. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic absorption spectra of some N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganya, Krishnasamy; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan

    2004-04-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 23 ortho- and para-N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed.

  17. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  18. Absorption spectra analysis of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    2000-11-01

    Absorption spectra of powdered samples of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides of the formulas NH 4UCl 4 · 4H 2O and CsUCl 4 · 3H 2O have been recorded at 4.2 K in the 4000-26 000 cm -1 range. The analysis of the spectra enabled the determination of crystal-field parameters and assignment of 83 and 77 crystal-field levels for the tetrahydrate and trihydrate, respectively. The energies of the levels were computed by applying a simplified angular overlap model as well as a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions. Ab initio calculations have enabled the application of a simplified parameterization and the determination of the starting values of the AOM parameters. The received results have proved that the AOM approach can quite well predict both the structure of the ground multiplet and the positions of the crystal-field levels in the 17 000-25 000 cm -1 range, usually obscured by strong f-d bands.

  19. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    PubMed

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-05

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  20. Absorption and electroabsorption spectra of carotenoid cation radical and dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Stanisław

    1998-05-01

    Radical cations and dications of two carotenoids astaxanthin and canthaxanthin were prepared by oxidation with FeCl 3 in fluorinated alcohols at room temperature. Absorption and electroabsorption (Stark effect) spectra were recorded for astaxanthin cations in mixed frozen matrices at temperatures about 160 K. The D 0→D 2 transition in cation radical is at 835 nm. The electroabsorption spectrum for the D 0→D 2 transition exhibits a negative change of molecular polarizability, Δ α=-1.2·10 -38 C·m 2/V (-105 A 3), which seems to originate from the change in bond order alternation in the ground state rather than from the electric field-induced interaction of D 1 and D 2 excited states. Absorption spectrum of astaxanthin dication is located at 715-717 nm, between those of D 0→D 2 in cation radical and S 0→S 2 in neutral carotenoid. Its shape reflects a short vibronic progression and strong inhomogeneous broadening. The polarizability change on electronic excitation, Δ α=2.89·10 -38 C·m 2/V (260 A 3), is five times smaller than in neutral astaxanthin. This value reflects the larger energetic distance from the lowest excited state to the higher excited states than in the neutral molecule.

  1. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  2. Carbon X-ray absorption in the local ISM: fingerprints in X-ray Novae spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatuzz, Efraín; Ness, J.-U.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Hasoglu, M. F.; Kallman, Timothy R.; García, Javier A.

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the C K-edge using high-resolution LETGS Chandra spectra of four novae during their super-soft-source (SSS) phase. We identified absorption lines due to C II Kα, C III Kα and C III Kβ resonances. We used these astronomical observations to perform a benchmarking of the atomic data, which involves wavelength shifts of the resonances and photoionization cross-sections. We used improved atomic data to estimate the C II and C III column densities. The absence of physical shifts for the absorption lines, the consistence of the column densities between multiple observations and the high temperature required for the SSS nova atmosphere modeling support our conclusion about an ISM origin of the respective absorption lines. Assuming a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma the maximum temperature derived from the ratio of C II/C III column densities of the absorbers correspond to Tmax < 3.05 × 104 K.

  3. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (i) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (ii) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph;more » (iii) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (iv) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (vi) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.« less

  4. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (I) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (II) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; (III) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (IV) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (VI) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.

  5. Electronic absorption spectra of chromium-bearing sapphirine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, K.; Platonov, A. N.; Matsuk, S. S.; Andrut, M.

    1994-05-01

    Violet, non-pleochroic and greenish-blue, pleochroic chromium-substituted sapphirines were found in corundum-bearing spinel-websterite xenolites from the Yakutian kimberlite pipes Noyabrskaya (N) and Sludyanka (Sl), respectively. The crystallochemical formulae of sapphirine crystals from such xenolites were determined by EMP to be (Mg3.40Fe0.23Al3.25Cr0.16)[6] Al{1.00/[6]}[O2/Al4.53Si1.47O18] (N) and (Mg2.53Fe0.55 Mn0.04Ti{0.03/4+}Al3.55Cr{0.08/3+})[6]Al{1.00/[16]}[O2/Al4.28Si1.73O18] (Sl). Single crystal spectra in the range 35000 6000 cm1- showed a slightly polarization dependent absorption edge near 3200 cm1- (N) or 30000 cm1- (Sl) and unpolarized bands at 25300 and 17300 cm1-, typical of spin-allowed transitions, derived from 4A2g→4T1g and 4A2g→4T2g, of Cr3+ in octahedral sites, with point symmetry C1, of the structure. Another weak band at 23000 cm-1 in the sapphirine-N spectra is attributed to low symmetry splitting of the excited 4T1 (F)-State of Cr3+. These assignments lead to crystal field parameters Dq=1730cm-1 and B= 685cm-1 of Cr3+ in sapphirine. Crystallochemical and spectroscopic arguments suggest that Cr3+ subsitutes for Al in the M(1) or M(8) sites of the sapphirine structure. In addition to Cr3+-transitions, spectra of Sl exhibit weak dd-bands of Fe2+ at 10000 and 7700 cm1-, which are unpolarized in consistency with the C1 site symmetry of the octahedra in the structure. Spectra of Sl show also prominent, broad bands (Δv1/2˜-5000 cm1-) at 15000 and 11000 cm1-, which occur in E//Y(//b) and E//Z(//c=12°) only and exhibit an intensity ratio αY∶αz close to 1∶3. This result, the large half width, as well as band energy — MM distance considerations suggest that these bands originate from Fe2+[6]-Fe3+[6] charge-transfer transitions in wall octahedra M(1)M(2), M(6)M(7) etc., forming MM vectors of 30° with the c-axis. The lack of Fe2+-Fe3+ charge-transfer bands in sapphirine N might indicate a lower oxygen fugacity during the formation of

  6. Terahertz absorption spectra of commonly used antimalarial drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawuah, Prince; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectra from the pure forms [i.e. the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)] of four commonly used antimalarial drugs are reported. The well-defined spectral fingerprints obtained for these APIs in the spectral range of 0.1 THz-3 THz show the sensitivity of the THz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) method for screening antimalarial drugs. For identification purpose, two commercially available antimalarial tablets were detected. Clear spectral fingerprints of the APIs in the antimalarial tablets were obtained even amidst the several types of excipients present in the tablets. This observation further proves the high sensitivity of the THz techniques in tracking the presence or absence of API in a pharmaceutical tablet. We envisage that the spectral data obtained for these drugs can contribute to a spectroscopic database in the far infrared spectral region and hence support the modelling of THz sensing to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  7. Terahertz absorption spectra of commonly used antimalarial drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawuah, Prince; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectra from the pure forms [i.e. the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)] of four commonly used antimalarial drugs are reported. The well-defined spectral fingerprints obtained for these APIs in the spectral range of 0.1 THz-3 THz show the sensitivity of the THz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) method for screening antimalarial drugs. For identification purpose, two commercially available antimalarial tablets were detected. Clear spectral fingerprints of the APIs in the antimalarial tablets were obtained even amidst the several types of excipients present in the tablets. This observation further proves the high sensitivity of the THz techniques in tracking the presence or absence of API in a pharmaceutical tablet. We envisage that the spectral data obtained for these drugs can contribute to a spectroscopic database in the far infrared spectral region and hence support the modelling of THz sensing to differentiate between genuine and counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  8. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic absorption spectra of some N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Krishnasamy; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan

    2004-04-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 23 ortho- and para-N-(substitutedphenyl)benzene sulphonamides in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  10. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  11. First-principles C band absorption spectra of SO2 and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Kumar, Praveen; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H.; Poirier, Bill; Guo, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The low-energy wing of the C ˜ B12 ←X˜ 1A1 absorption spectra for SO2 in the ultraviolet region is computed for the 32S,33S,34S and 36S isotopes, using the recently developed ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the two electronic states and the corresponding transition dipole surface. The state-resolved absorption spectra from various ro-vibrational states of SO2(X˜ 1A1 ) are computed. When contributions of these excited ro-vibrational states are included, the thermally averaged spectra are broadened but maintain their key characters. Excellent agreement with experimental absorption spectra is found, validating the accuracy of the PESs. The isotope shifts of the absorption peaks are found to increase linearly with energy, in good agreement with experiment.

  12. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  13. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  14. Absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in rare gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. J.; Balling, L. C.

    1980-10-01

    Pulsed-dye-laser excitation has been used to investigate the optical absorption and emission spectra of Li atoms trapped in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices at 10 °K. Attempts to stabilize Li atoms in a Ne matrix at 2 °K were unsuccessful. Results for all three rare gases were qualitatively the same. White light absorption scans showed a single absorption with three peaks centered near the free-atom 2s→2p transition wavelength. The intensity of fluorescence produced by dye-laser excitation within this absorption band was measured as a function of emission wavelength. Excitation of the longest- and shortest-wavelength absorption peaks produced identical emission profiles, but no distinct fluorescence signal was detected when the laser was tuned to the central absorption peaks, indicating that the apparent absorption triplet is actually the superposition of a singlet and a doublet absorption originating from two different trapping sites. No additional absorption bands were detected.

  15. Unified analysis of optical absorption spectra of carotenoids based on a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Chiasa; Saito, Keisuke; Yoshizawa, Masayuki; Molnár, Péter; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-05-03

    The chemical structures of the carotenoid molecules are very simple and one might think that the electronic feature of it is easily predicted. However, it still has so much unknown information except the correlation between the electronic energy state and the length of effective conjugation chain of carotenoids. To investigate the electronic feature of the carotenoids, the most essential method is measuring the optical absorption spectra, but simulating it from the resonance Raman spectra is also the effective way. From this reason, we studied the optical absorption spectra as well as resonance Raman spectra of 15 different kinds of cyclic carotenoid molecules, recorded in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions at room temperature. The whole band shapes of the absorption spectra of all these carotenoid molecules were successfully simulated based on a stochastic model using Brownian oscillators. The parameters obtained from the simulation made it possible to discuss the intermolecular interaction between carotenoids and solvent THF molecules quantitatively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--13-9479 Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using ...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Absorption Spectra of Fe, Mn, and Mg Water Complexes Calculated Using Density...structure associated with Fe, Mn, and Mg water complexes using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Calculation of excited state resonance

  17. Luminescence and Absorption Spectra of C sub 60 Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    J. McKeirnan, J.L Zink, R. Stanley Williams, W.M. Tong, D.A.A. Ohlberg and R.L. Whetten Submitted t DTIC Physical Review Letters ELECT E SFEB 2? 7,19...range at 20K. A 1400 cm"& progression in the a soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low-temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine...ag soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine structure. The characterization of vibronic

  18. Absorption spectra of deuterated water at DF laser wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Bruce, C W; Jelinek, A V

    1982-11-15

    Absorption coefficients for deuterated water have been measured at twenty-two deuterium fluoride (DF) laser wavelengths and presented for atmospheric conditions classified as midlatitude-summer (14.3 T water vapor, standard temperature, and pressure). The HDO vapor was produced from a liquid mixture of H(2)O and D(2)O. The proportions of the resulting equilibrium mixture involving these constituents and HDO were calculated using previously measured constants and produced strong HDO absorption at the 3.5-4.1-microm DF laser wavelengths relative to those of the H(2)O and D(2)O vapors. Predicted and measured pressure dependencies at constant mixing ratios are compared for several laser wavelengths having strong HDO absorption. Absorption coefficients are in fairly close agreement with those of the current Air Force Geophysical Laboratory line-by-line model for standard temperature and pressure conditions. At lower total pressures, the comparison is less satisfactory and suggests inaccurate line parameters in the predictive data base.

  19. The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with some β-diketones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, H.I.

    1956-01-01

    The absorption spectra of the complexes of uranium (VI) with four β-dike tones were determined under various conditions of pH, concentration of uranium, and alcohol concentration. Under optimum conditions, the maximum molar absorptivity (31,200) is obtained using 2-furoyltrifluoroacetone. This compares with about 4,000 and 19,000 for the thiocyanate and dibenzoylmethane complexes, respectively.

  20. On the nitrogen-induced far-infrared absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dore, P.; Filabozzi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The rototranslational absorption spectrum of gaseous N2 is analyzed, considering quadrupolar and hexadecapolar induction mechanisms. The available experimental data are accounted for by using a line-shape analysis in which empirical profiles describe the single-line translational profiles. Thus, a simple procedure is derived that allows the prediction of the N2 spectrum at any temperature. On the basis of the results obtained for the pure gas, a procedure to compute the far-infrared spectrum of the N2-Ar gaseous mixture is also proposed. The good agreement between computed and experimental N2-Ar data indicates that it is possible to predict the far-infrared absorption induced by N2 on the isotropic polarizability of any interacting partner.

  1. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra.

    PubMed

    Vilas, F; Gaffey, M J

    1989-11-10

    Absorption features having depths up to 5% are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  2. Phyllosilicate absorption features in main-belt and outer-belt asteroid reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption features having depths up to 5 percent are identified in high-quality, high-resolution reflectance spectra of 16 dark asteroids in the main belt and in the Cybele and Hilda groups. Analogs among the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites exist for some of these asteroids, suggesting that these absorptions are due to iron oxides in phyllosilicates formed on the asteroidal surfaces by aqueous alteration processes. Spectra of ten additional asteroids, located beyond the outer edge of the main belt, show no discernible absorption features, suggesting that aqueous alteration did not always operate at these heliocentric distances.

  3. Excitation of photosystem I by 760 nm femtosecond laser pulses: transient absorption spectra and intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Shelaev, Ivan V.; Gostev, Fedor E.; Mamedov, Mahir D.; Petrova, Anastasia A.; Aybush, Arseniy V.; Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Semenov, Alexey Yu; Nadtochenko, Victor A.

    2017-09-01

    Excitation of photosystem I (PS I) by a femtosecond 760 nm pump leads to one- and two-photon absorption. The one-photon excitation produces intermediates with transient absorption spectra similar to the spectra of the primary [{{{P}}700}+{{{A}}0}-{{A}}1] and secondary [{{{P}}700}+{{A}}0{{{A}}1}-] ion-radical pairs in the PS I reaction center. The two-photon absorption generates the upper level excited states of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid molecules in the antenna. These excited states are converted into the long-lived intermediates and can be tentatively attributed to the excited and charge-transfer ion-radical states of Chl molecules and to the excited states of carotenoids in the antenna. The transient spectra of intermediates generated by two-photon excitation differ from the transient one-photon spectra of the primary and secondary ion-radical pairs.

  4. Electronic absorption spectra of hydrogenated protonated naphthalene and proflavine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaca, A.; Bilalbegović, G.

    2011-09-01

    We study hydrogenated cations of two polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules as models of hydrogenated organic species that form in the interstellar medium. Optical spectra of the hydrogenated naphthalene cation Hn-C10H+8 for n= 1, 2 and 10, as well as the astrobiologically interesting hydrogenated proflavine cation Hn-C13H11N+3 for n= 1 and 14, are calculated. The pseudopotential time-dependent density functional theory is used. It is found that the fully hydrogenated proflavine cation H14-C13H11N+3 shows a broad spectrum in which the positions of individual lines are almost lost. The positions, shapes and intensities of lines change in hydronaphthalene and hydroproflavine cations, showing that hydrogen additions induce substantially different optical spectra in comparison with base polycyclic hydrocarbon cations. One calculated line in the visible spectrum of H10-C10H+8 and one in the visible spectrum of H-C13H11N+3 are close to the measured diffuse interstellar bands. We also present the positions of near-ultraviolet lines.

  5. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Amorphous Ices from GW Quasiparticle Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We use a GW approach[2] to compute the x-ray absorption spectra of model low- and high-density amorphous ice structures(LDA and HDA)[3]. We include the structural effects of quantum zero point motion using colored-noise Langevin molecular dynamics[4]. The calculated spectra differences in the main and post edge region between LDA and HDA agree well with experimental observations. We attribute these differences to the presence of interstitial molecules within the first coordination shell range in HDA. This assignment is further supported by a calculation of the spectrum of ice VIII, a high-pressure structure that maximizes the number of interstitial molecules and, accordingly, shows a much weaker post-edge feature. We further rationalize the spectral similarity between HDA and liquid water, and between LDA and ice Ih in terms of the respective similarities in the H-bond network topology and bond angle distributions. Supported by grants DOE-DE-SC0005180, DOE DE-SC0008626 and NSF-CHE-0956500.

  6. Absorption spectra of ammonia near 1 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Emma J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Yurchenko, Sergei. N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Civiš, S.; Ferus, M.; Hargreaves, R.; Ovsyannikov, R. I.; Kyuberis, A. A.; Zobov, N. F.; Béguier, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-12-01

    An ammonia absorption spectrum recorded at room temperature in the region 8800-10,400 cm-1 is analysed using a variational line list, BYTe, and ground state energies determined using the MARVEL procedure. BYTe is used as a starting point to initialise assignments by combination differences and the method of branches. Assignments are presented for the region 9400-9850 cm-1. 642 lines are assigned to 6 previously unobserved vibrational bands, (2v1 + 2 v42) ±, (2v1 + v31) ± and (v1 + v31 + 2 v42) ±, leading to 428 new energy levels with 208 confirmed by combination differences. A recently calculated purely ab initio NH3 PES is also used to calculate rovibrational energy levels. Comparison with assigned levels shows better agreement between observed and calculated levels than for BYTe for higher vibrational bands.

  7. Theoretical studies on absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra of Coumarin 343 isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenpeng; Cao, Zexing; Zhao, Yi

    2012-03-01

    The vibrationally resolved spectral method and quantum chemical calculations are employed to reveal the structural and spectral properties of Coumarin 343 (C343), an ideal candidate for organic dye photosensitizers, in vacuum and solution. The results manifest that the ground-state energies are dominantly determined by different placements of hydrogen atom in carboxylic group of C343 conformations. Compared to those in vacuum, the electronic absorption spectra in methanol solvent show a hyperchromic property together with the redshift and blueshift for the neutral C343 isomers and their deprotonated anions, respectively. From the absorption, emission, and resonance Raman spectra, it is found that the maximal absorption and emission come from low-frequency modes whereas the high-frequency modes have high Raman activities. The detailed spectra are further analyzed for the identification of the conformers and understanding the potential charge transfer mechanism in their photovoltaic applications.

  8. Reassignment of the Iron (3) Absorption Bands in the Spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Absorption features in the near-infrared and visible region reflectance spectra of Mars have been assigned to specific Fe (3+) crystal-field and o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge transfer transitions. Recently, near-ultraviolet absorption spectra of iron oxides were obtained and the energies of o(2-) yields Fe(3+) charge-transfer (LMCT) transitions were determined from accurate SCF-X # alpha-SW molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)(9-) and (FeO4)(5-) clusters. Both the theoretical and experimental results, together with existing data in the literature, show that some of the previous Fe(3+) band assignments in the spectra of Mars need to be revised. The theory of Fe(3+) spectra in minerals is discussed and applied to the spectrum of Mars.

  9. Interatomic potentials for Cd, Zn, and Hg from absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Liao, Pok-Kai; Huang, Yu; Liou, Shian-Shyang; Brebrick, R. F.

    1984-07-01

    The absorption coefficient has been measured over a 65 nm range in the red wing of the 213.8 nm line for Zn vapor at 1000 °C. It has also been measured in the blue wing and over a 60 nm range in the red wing of the 228.7 nm line for Cd vapor at five temperatures between 642 and 955 °C and over a 75 nm range in the red wing of the 253.7 nm line for Hg vapor at five temperatures between 460 and 860 °C. These data are analyzed in terms of the statistical theory of broadening. Oscillator strengths of 1.42±0.01 and 1.61±0.06 are obtained for, respectively, the Cd line and the Zn line. Pair potentials for both the ground and lowest excited state are also obtained in all three cases. For Cd this is done assuming no functional form and then assuming Lennard-Jones potentials. Both methods agree and give a ground state minimum of -47.5 meV at 0.482 nm separation and an excited state minimum of -1.06 eV at 0.410 nm. A functional form is required for the less extensive Zn data and the Lennard-Jones form leads to a range of possibilities including ground and excited state minima of -56 meV at 0.400 nm and -1.30 eV at 0.330 nm, respectively, which are in fair agreement with the theoretical calculations. For Hg the experiments indicate a single excited state and a ground state with a minimum of -55 meV. Assuming no functional form for the pair potentials, taking the excited state as doubly degenerate, and assuming the transition probability from the ground to excited state is one-sixth of the free atom value gives points along the ground and excited state potentials that join smoothly with other experimental results and agree well with the calculation of Baylis for the ground state.

  10. Rich magneto-absorption spectra of AAB-stacked trilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi-Nga; Shih, Po-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Peng; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2016-06-29

    A generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the feature-rich magneto-optical properties of AAB-stacked trilayer graphene. Three intragroup and six intergroup inter-Landau-level (inter-LL) optical excitations largely enrich magneto-absorption peaks. In general, the former are much higher than the latter, depending on the phases and amplitudes of LL wavefunctions. The absorption spectra exhibit single- or twin-peak structures which are determined by quantum modes, LL energy spectra and Fermion distribution. The splitting LLs, with different localization centers (2/6 and 4/6 positions in a unit cell), can generate very distinct absorption spectra. There exist extra single peaks because of LL anti-crossings. AAB, AAA, ABA, and ABC stackings considerably differ from one another in terms of the inter-LL category, frequency, intensity, and structure of absorption peaks. The main characteristics of LL wavefunctions and energy spectra and the Fermi-Dirac function are responsible for the configuration-enriched magneto-optical spectra.

  11. A Novel Acoustic Sensor Approach to Classify Seeds Based on Sound Absorption Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Gasso-Tortajada, Vicent; Ward, Alastair J.; Mansur, Hasib; Brøchner, Torben; Sørensen, Claus G.; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A non-destructive and novel in situ acoustic sensor approach based on the sound absorption spectra was developed for identifying and classifying different seed types. The absorption coefficient spectra were determined by using the impedance tube measurement method. Subsequently, a multivariate statistical analysis, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), was performed as a way to generate a classification of the seeds based on the soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) method. The results show that the sound absorption coefficient spectra of different seed types present characteristic patterns which are highly dependent on seed size and shape. In general, seed particle size and sphericity were inversely related with the absorption coefficient. PCA presented reliable grouping capabilities within the diverse seed types, since the 95% of the total spectral variance was described by the first two principal components. Furthermore, the SIMCA classification model based on the absorption spectra achieved optimal results as 100% of the evaluation samples were correctly classified. This study contains the initial structuring of an innovative method that will present new possibilities in agriculture and industry for classifying and determining physical properties of seeds and other materials. PMID:22163455

  12. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  13. [Study on the effect of solar spectra on the retrieval of atmospheric CO2 concentration using high resolution absorption spectra].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Teng; Wang, Ying-Ping; Ding, Lei; Zheng, Hai-Yang; Fang, Li

    2011-06-01

    Taking solar source as radiation in the near-infrared high-resolution absorption spectrum is widely used in remote sensing of atmospheric parameters. The present paper will take retrieval of the concentration of CO2 for example, and study the effect of solar spectra resolution. Retrieving concentrations of CO2 by using high resolution absorption spectra, a method which uses the program provided by AER to calculate the solar spectra at the top of atmosphere as radiation and combine with the HRATS (high resolution atmospheric transmission simulation) to simulate retrieving concentration of CO2. Numerical simulation shows that the accuracy of solar spectrum is important to retrieval, especially in the hyper-resolution spectral retrieavl, and the error of retrieval concentration has poor linear relation with the resolution of observation, but there is a tendency that the decrease in the resolution requires low resolution of solar spectrum. In order to retrieve the concentration of CO2 of atmosphere, the authors' should take full advantage of high-resolution solar spectrum at the top of atmosphere.

  14. Automated generation and ensemble-learned matching of X-ray absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chen; Mathew, Kiran; Chen, Chi; Chen, Yiming; Tang, Hanmei; Dozier, Alan; Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2018-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used materials characterization technique to determine oxidation states, coordination environment, and other local atomic structure information. Analysis of XAS relies on comparison of measured spectra to reliable reference spectra. However, existing databases of XAS spectra are highly limited both in terms of the number of reference spectra available as well as the breadth of chemistry coverage. In this work, we report the development of XASdb, a large database of computed reference XAS, and an Ensemble-Learned Spectra IdEntification (ELSIE) algorithm for the matching of spectra. XASdb currently hosts more than 800,000 K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) for over 40,000 materials from the open-science Materials Project database. We discuss a high-throughput automation framework for FEFF calculations, built on robust, rigorously benchmarked parameters. FEFF is a computer program uses a real-space Green's function approach to calculate X-ray absorption spectra. We will demonstrate that the ELSIE algorithm, which combines 33 weak "learners" comprising a set of preprocessing steps and a similarity metric, can achieve up to 84.2% accuracy in identifying the correct oxidation state and coordination environment of a test set of 19 K-edge XANES spectra encompassing a diverse range of chemistries and crystal structures. The XASdb with the ELSIE algorithm has been integrated into a web application in the Materials Project, providing an important new public resource for the analysis of XAS to all materials researchers. Finally, the ELSIE algorithm itself has been made available as part of veidt, an open source machine-learning library for materials science.

  15. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: a theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-14

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, Collin S.; Pery, Mary Jane

    1995-01-01

    An inverse model was developed to extract the absortion and scattering (elastic and inelastic) properties of oceanic constituents from surface spectral reflectance measurements. In particular, phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients, solar-stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence spectra, and particle backscattering spectra were modeled. The model was tested on 35 reflectance spectra obtained from irradiance measurements in optically diverse ocean waters (0.07 to 25.35 mg/cu m range in surface chlorophyll a concentrations). The universality of the model was demonstrated by the accurate estimation of the spectral phytoplankton absorption coefficents over a range of 3 orders of magnitude (rho = 0.94 at 500 nm). Under most oceanic conditions (chlorophyll a less than 3 mg/cu m) the percent difference between measured and modeled phytoplankton absorption coefficents was less than 35%. Spectral variations in measured phytoplankton absorption spectra were well predicted by the inverse model. Modeled volume fluorescence was weakly correlated with measured chl a; fluorescence quantum yield varied from 0.008 to 0.09 as a function of environment and incident irradiance. Modeled particle backscattering coefficients were linearly related to total particle cross section over a twentyfold range in backscattering coefficents (rho = 0.996, n = 12).

  17. Multi-Photon Absorption Spectra: A Comparison Between Transmittance Change and Fluorescence Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0134 multi-photon absorption spectra Cleber Mendonca INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 05/21/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos - Universidade de Sao Paulo Av

  18. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  19. Absorption spectra of PTCDI: A combined UV-Vis and TD-DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltean, Mircea; Calborean, Adrian; Mile, George; Vidrighin, Mihai; Iosin, Monica; Leopold, Loredana; Maniu, Dana; Leopold, Nicolae; Chiş, Vasile

    2012-11-01

    Absorption spectra of PTCDI (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide) have been investigated in chloroform, N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). While no signature of assembled PTCDI molecules is observed in chloroform solution, distinct bands assigned to their aggregation have been identified in DMF and DMSO solutions. PTCDI monomers show very similar absorption patterns in chloroform and DMSO solutions. Experimental data, including the vibronic structure of the absorption spectra were explained based on the Franck-Condon approximation and quantum chemical results obtained at PBE0-DCP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Geometry optimization of the first excited state leads to a nice agreement between the calculated adiabatic transition energies and experimental data.

  20. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  1. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of shock-heated carbon dioxide and water between 900 and 3050 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C.; Koch, J. D.; Davidson, D. F.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Spectrally resolved UV absorption cross-sections between 190 and 320 nm were measured in shock-heated CO 2 between 880 and 3050 K and H 2O between 1230 and 2860 K. Absorption spectra were acquired with 10 μs time resolution using a unique kinetic spectrograph, thereby enabling comparisons with time-dependent chemical kinetic modeling of post-shock thermal decomposition and chemical reactions. Although room temperature CO 2 is transparent (σ<10 -22 cm2) at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, hot CO 2 has significant absorption (σ>10 -20 cm2) extending to wavelengths longer than 300 nm. The temperature dependence of CO 2 absorption strongly suggests sharply increased transition probabilities from excited vibrational levels.

  2. THERMAL ABSORPTION AS THE CAUSE OF GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA IN PULSARS AND MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, Wojciech; Rożko, Karolina; Kijak, Jarosław

    2015-07-20

    We present a model that explains the observed deviation of the spectra of some pulsars and magnetars from the power-law spectra that are seen in the bulk of the pulsar population. Our model is based on the assumption that the observed variety of pulsar spectra can be naturally explained by the thermal free–free absorption that takes place in the surroundings of the pulsars. In this context, the variety of the pulsar spectra can be explained according to the shape, density, and temperature of the absorbing media and the optical path of the line of sight across it. We have putmore » specific emphasis on the case of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900 (also known as the Sgr A* magnetar), modeling the rapid variations of the pulsar spectrum after the outburst of 2013 April as due to the free–free absorption of the radio emission in the electron material ejected during the magnetar outburst. The ejecta expands with time and consequently the absorption rate decreases and the shape of the spectrum changes in such a way that the peak frequency shifts toward the lower radio frequencies. In the hypothesis of an absorbing medium, we also discuss the similarity between the spectral behavior of the binary pulsar B1259–63 and the spectral peculiarities of isolated pulsars.« less

  3. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  4. Simulations of absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers: role of planar conformation and aggregation in condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Wen, Jin; Zheng, Dong; Ma, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This Review highlights the structure/property relationship underlying the morphology modulation through various factors towards the exploration of light-absorbing materials for efficient utilisation of solar power. Theoretical study using a combination of molecular dynamics imulations and the time-dependent density functional theory demonstrated that the planarity plays an important role in tuning spectral properties of oligomer aggregates. The aggregation-induced blue-shift in absorption spectra of oligothiophenes and the red-shift for oligofluorenols were rationalised in a unified way from the reduced (and increased) content of planar conformations in molecular aggregates. The planarity versus non-planarity of oligomers can be modulated by introduction of alkyl side chain or steric bulky substituents. The substitution with various groups in the ortho-position of azobenzene leads to the distorted backbone, breaking symmetry, and hence the red-shift in spectra, expanding the application in biological systems with visible light absorption. The donor-acceptor substituent groups in conjugated oligomers can increase the degree of planarity, electron delocalisation and polarisation, and charge separation, giving rise to the red-shift in spectra and enhancement in polarisability and charge mobility for device applications. The solvent dependent and pH-sensitive properties and intramolecular hydrogen bonds also caused the shift of absorption spectra with the appearance of planar conformers.

  5. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUVmore » radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.« less

  6. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic Csbnd H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the spectral influences

  7. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Absorption spectra and light penetration depth of normal and pathologically altered human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Volotovskaya, A. V.; Ulashchik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    A three-layered skin model (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and engineering formulas for radiative transfer theory are used to study absorption spectra and light penetration depths of normal and pathologically altered skin. The formulas include small-angle and asymptotic approximations and a layer-addition method. These characteristics are calculated for wavelengths used for low-intensity laser therapy. We examined several pathologies such as vitiligo, edema, erythematosus lupus, and subcutaneous wound, for which the bulk concentrations of melanin and blood vessels or tissue structure (for subcutaneous wound) change compared with normal skin. The penetration depth spectrum is very similar to the inverted blood absorption spectrum. In other words, the depth is minimal at blood absorption maxima. The calculated absorption spectra enable the power and irradiation wavelength providing the required light effect to be selected. Relationships between the penetration depth and the diffuse reflectance coefficient of skin (unambiguously expressed through the absorption coefficient) are analyzed at different wavelengths. This makes it possible to find relationships between the light fields inside and outside the tissue.

  9. Measurements of trace constituents from atmospheric infrared emission and absorption spectra, a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of detecting eight trace constituents (CH4, HCl, HF, HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2 and SO2) against the rest of the atmospheric background at various altitudes from infrared emission and absorption atmospheric spectra was studied. Line-by-line calculations and observational data were used to establish features that can be observed in the atmospheric spectrum due to each trace constituent. Model calculations were made for experimental conditions which approximately represent state of the art emission and absorption spectrometers.

  10. Universal formulation of excitonic linear absorption spectra in all semiconductor microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Christol, Philippe; Mathieu, Henry

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the well-known exciton absorption calculations of Elliott [Phys. Rev. 108, 1384 (1957)], in the 3-dimensional case, and of Shinada and Sugano [J. Phys. Soc. Japan 21, 1936 (1966)], for 2-dimensional media: We calculate the optical absorption spectra of bound and unbound exciton states, by using a metric space with a noninteger dimension α (1 < α), obtaining almost exactly the same theoretical lineshapes as those resulting from accurate but costly numerical approaches [Chuang et al. Phys. Rev. B, 43, 1500 (1991); Benner and Haug, Phys. Rev. B 47, 15750 (1993)].

  11. Quantification of optical absorption coefficient from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime using photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Multi-wavelength PAT can noninvasively monitor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution. However, accurate quantification in PAT requires knowledge of the optical fluence distribution, acoustic wave attenuation, and detection system bandwidth. We propose a method to circumvent this requirement using acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at two optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560 and 575 nm were quantified with errors of ><5%.

  12. Theoretical calculations on the electron absorption spectra of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Ping

    1993-01-01

    As a theoretical component of the joint effort with the laboratory of Dr. Lou Allamandola to search for potential candidates for interstellar organic carbon compound that are responsible for the visible diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIB's), quantum mechanical calculations were performed on the electron absorption spectra of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and derivatives. In the completed project, 15 different species of naphthalene, its hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives, and corresponding cations and anions were studied. Using semiempirical quantum mechanical method INDO/S, the ground electronic state of each species was evaluated with restricted Hartree-Fock scheme and limited configuration interaction. The lowest energy spin state for each species was used for electron absorption calculations. Results indicate that these calculations are accurate enough to reproduce the spectra of naphthalene cation and anion observed in neon matrix. The spectral pattern of the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives predicted based on these results indicate that the electron configuration of the pi orbitals of these species is the dominant determinant. A combined list of 19 absorptions calculated from 4500 A to 10,400 A were compiled and suggested as potential candidates that are relevant for the DIB's absorptions. Continued studies on pyrene and derivatives revealed the ground state symmetries and multiplicities of its neutral, anionic, and cationic species. Spectral calculations show that the cation (B(sub 3g)-2) and the anion (A(sub u)-2) are more likely to have low energy absorptions in the regions between 10 kK and 20 kK, similar to naphthalene. These absorptions, together with those to be determined from the hydrogen abstraction and addition derivatives of pyrene, can be used to provide additional candidates and suggest experimental work in the search for interstellar compounds that are responsible for DIB's.

  13. Optical Absorption Spectra of Nuclear Filters Modified by Deposition of Silver Nano- and Microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyanskii, A. S.; Kozlova, N. V.; Zheltova, A. V.; Aksyutina, A. S.; Shvedov, A. S.; Lakeev, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    Light scattering and interference patterns are studied in the optical absorption spectra of nuclear filters based on polyethylene terephthalate fi lms modifi ed by dry aerosol deposition of silver nano- and microparticles. Surface plasmon polaritons and localized plasmons formed by the passage of light through porous silver films are found to have an effect on the diffraction and interference modes. The thickness of silver nano- and microparticle coatings on the surface of the nuclear fi lters was determined from the shift in the interference patterns in the optical absorption spectra of the modified nuclear filters relative to the original nuclear filters. A correlation was found between the estimated coating thickness and the average surface roughness of the nuclear filters modified by layers of silver nano- and microparticles.

  14. Far-ultraviolet absorption spectra of quasars: How to find missing hot gas and metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verner, D. A.; Tytler, David; Barthel, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    We show that some high-redshift QSO absorption systems that reveal only the H I Lyman series lines at wavelengths visible from the ground maybe a new class of ultra-high-ionization metal line systems, with metal lines in the far-UV region which is now being explored with satellites. At high temperatures or in intense radiation fields metal systems will not show the usual C IV absorption, and O VI will become the most prominent metal absorber. At still higher ionization, O IV also becomes weak and the strongest metal lines are from Ne VIII, Mg X and Si XII, which have doublets in the rangs 500-800 A. Hence very high ionization metal systems will not show metal lines in existing spectra. Recent X-ray observations show that galaxy halos contain hot gas, so we predict that far-UV spectra of QSOs will also show this gas.

  15. Study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Liosi, Giulia Maria

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters has been performed, in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 700 nm. The spectrum of Xylenol Orange (without ferrous sulphate solution) has been achieved, in order to subtract its contribution from the absorption spectra of the irradiated Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters. The absorbance due to ferric ions chelated by Xylenol Orange has been studied for various irradiation doses. Two absorbance peaks are visible, mainly at low doses: the first peak increases with the dose more slowly than the second one. This effect can explain themore » apparent threshold dose that was frequently evidenced. (authors)« less

  16. Influence of polarity of solvents on IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenko, S. A.; Danyaeva, Y. S.; Maximova, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of numerical calculations of IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid in polar and nonpolar solutions are presented. The dependence of the change in the total energy and the dipole moment of the molecule on the characteristics of the solvents was investigated using the two solvation models. Spectral bands and the corresponding structural groups of the molecule are found, the characteristics of which are most vulnerable to solvents.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of displacement current and absorption spectra of Langmuir film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Kubota, Tohru; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    1995-07-01

    A Maxwell-displacement-current measuring system coupled with the system used for the measurement of absorption spectra of monolayers on a water surface has been developed. Using this system, the displacement current and the absorbance across monolayers of squarylium dye at the air/water surface were detected. It was found that the change in J aggregate in the monolayers with monolayer compression was detectable using the system.

  18. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods:Application to Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Fauvell, Thomas J.

    The theoretical description of the timeevolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to themore » excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further evelopments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.« less

  19. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-15

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm(-1) with a resolution of 0.08 cm(-1) using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm(-1) and 8100-8230 cm(-1). No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Jang, Kiwan; Park, Sang-An; Kim, Duck-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2006-09-01

    Optical absorption spectra of substitutional Co2+ ions in Mgx Cd1-x Se alloys were investigated in the composition region of 0.0 x 0.4 and in the wavelength region of 300 to 2500 nm at 4.8 K and 290 K. We observed several absorption bands in the wavelength regions corresponding to the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4P) transition and the 4A2(4F) 4T1(4F) transition of Co2+ at a tetrahedral Td point symmetry point in the host crystals, as well as unknown absorption bands. The several absorption bands were analyzed in the framework of the crystal-field theory along with the second-order spin-orbit coupling. The unknown absorption bands were assigned as due to phonon-assisted absorption bands. We also investigated the variations of the crystal-field parameter Dq and the Racah parameter B with composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system. The results showed that the crystal-field parameter (Dq ) increases, on the other hand, the Racah parameter (B ) decreases with increasing composition x, which may be connected with an increase in the covalency of the metal-ligand bond with increasing composition x in the Mgx Cd1-x Se system.

  1. Determination of absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index from reflection and transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Bae; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-07-01

    It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of a nanofluid can be actively tuned by changing material, size, shape, and concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. In applications of engineered nanofluids for the direct absorption of solar radiation, it is important to experimentally characterize the absorption coefficient of nanofluids in the solar spectrum. If the refractive index of the base fluid (i.e., the solution without nanoparticles) is known a priori, the absorption coefficient of nanofluids can be easily determined from the transmission spectrum. However, if the refractive index of the base fluid is not known, it is not straightforward to extract the absorption coefficient solely from the transmission spectrum. The present work aims to develop an analytical method of determining the absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index by measuring both reflection and transmission spectra. The proposed method will be validated with deionized water, and the effect of measurement uncertainty will be carefully examined. Finally, the general applicability of the proposed method will also be demonstrated for Therminol VP-1 as well as the Therminol VP-1 - graphite nanofluid.

  2. Photoluminescence and gain/absorption spectra of a driven-dissipative electron-hole-photon condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanai, Ryo; Littlewood, Peter B.; Ohashi, Yoji

    2018-06-01

    We investigate theoretically nonequilibrium effects on photoluminescence and gain/absorption spectra of a driven-dissipative exciton-polariton condensate, by employing the combined Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with the generalized random phase approximation extended to the Keldysh formalism. Our calculated photoluminescence spectra is in semiquantitative agreement with experiments, where features such as a blue shift of the emission from the condensate, the appearance of the dispersionless feature of a diffusive Goldstone mode, and the suppression of the dispersive profile of the mode are obtained. We show that the nonequilibrium nature of the exciton-polariton condensate strongly suppresses the visibility of the Bogoliubov dispersion in the negative energy branch (ghost branch) in photoluminescence spectra. We also show that the trace of this branch can be captured as a hole burning effect in gain/absorption spectra. Our results indicate that the nonequilibrium nature of the exciton-polariton condensate strongly reduces quantum depletion, while a scattering channel to the ghost branch is still present.

  3. Studies of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Resolved Absorption Spectra of Nucleic Acid Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingxian

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about dynamic aspects of the photophysics of the adenylyl chromophore, stemming from the discordant values reported for the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes (tau_1 = 5 ps, tau_2 = 330 ps for 9MeAde; tau_1 = 290 ps, tau_2 = 4.17 ns for ATP). Spectra reported in conjunction with these lifetimes create difficulties in assignment of emission. To clarify this situation I have investigated the fluorescence decay times and time -resolved emission spectra of adenylyl compounds under a variety of conditions (concentration, pH, solvent) using sub-ns laser excitation at 265 nm together with gated fast sampling (100 ps) detection and signal averaging. Multi -component decays and spectra are observed in aqueous solution. Major slow components (tau = 4.4 +/- 0.2 ns) with emission maxima at 380 nm are found for all components at pH 1.1 and for ATP at pH 4.4. At pH 7 a fast component (<100 ps) predominates. There is no marked evidence for a concentration dependence, the oscillator strengths are 10^ {-3}-10^{-5} and transitions must be classified as weakly forbidden. Single component emission is observed in acetonitrile and ethanol. The UV absorption spectra of biomolecules d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) exhibit the different hypochromic effects due to different interactions between guanosine(G) and cytidine(C) in stacked form. The present work has been carried out to explain this quantitatively. To approach this problem the absorption spectra of G and C have been resolved into gaussian components using the PeakFit program. The absorption spectra (220-310 nm) of d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) have been fitted with gaussian components of G and C (in the order of increasing energy, G1 and G2, and C1, C2 and C3, respectively), and the contribution to both spectra from individual gaussians is estimated in terms of oscillator strengths. The fitting results suggest that the small hypochromism in absorption spectrum of d(CG) may be attributed

  4. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Aquatic Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.

  5. Numerical indicators of absorption spectra of green leaf extract obtained from plants of different life forms.

    PubMed

    Koldaev, Vladimir M; Manyakhin, Artem Yu

    2018-06-05

    The study was carried out using 58 species of terrestrial plants of different life forms at the start of their fruiting stage. Photoreceptive systems of the leaves were assessed by means of unconventional numerical indicators of absorption spectra, relative photoabsorption coefficient, photosynthetic pigments' integral absorption intensity and relative absorption intensity coefficient. As the study showed, the leaves of all trees and light-demanding grasses favoring open spaces, which were subjected to the study were featured by the lowest values of numerical indicators of absorption spectra (NIAS). Shade-demanding grasses, which grow beneath the canopy, by contrast, were featured by the highest NIAS values. These values of the shrub leaves were in between those of light-demanding plants and shade-demanding ones. The results obtained are consistent with modern visions concerning the biochemistry and the physiology of plants' photoreceptive system. It is appropriate to apply the NIAS, which were used in this study and reflect a leaf's photoreceptive properties, as spectrophotometric criteria for monitoring and environmental management of natural plant resources and agricultural plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  7. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed. PMID:22734767

  8. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  9. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  10. Composite Spectra of Broad Absorption Line Quasars in SDSS-III BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Hanna; Hamann, Fred; Paris, Isabelle; Capellupo, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars in the SDSS-III BOSS survey. We’re particularly interested in BALs because they arise from quasar outflows, which may be a source of feedback to the host galaxy. We analyze median composite spectra for BOSS QSOs in the redshift range 2.1 to 3.4 sorted by the strength of the BAL absorption troughs, parameterized by the Balnicity Index (BI), to study trends in the emission and absorption properties of BAL quasars. The wavelength coverage and high number of quasars observed in the BOSS survey allow us to examine BALs in the Lyman forest. Our main preliminary results when sorting the quasars by BI are 1) doublet absorption lines such as P V 1128A show a 1:1 ratio across all BI, indicating large column densities at all BI. This suggests that weaker BAL troughs result from smaller covering fractions rather than lower column densities. 2) The He II emission line, which is a measure of the far-UV/near-UV hardness of the ionizing continuum, is weaker in the larger BI composite spectra, indicating a far-UV spectral softening correlated with BI. This is consistent with the radiatively-driven BAL outflows being helped by intrinsically weaker ionizing continuum shapes (e.g., Baskin, Laor, and Hamann 2013). We also find a trend for slightly redder continuum slopes in the larger BI composite spectra, suggesting that the slope differences in the near-UV are also intrinsic.

  11. Narrow C IV absorption doublets on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Luwenjia; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our work of Papers I and II, which are assigned to systematically survey C IV λλ1548,1551 narrow absorption lines (NALs) with zabs ≪ zem on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to collect C IV NALs with zabs ≈ zem from blue to red wings of C IV λ1549 emission lines. Together with Papers I and II, we have collected a total number of 41 479 C IV NALs with 1.4544 ≤ zabs ≤ 4.9224 in surveyed spectral region redward of Lyα until red wing of C IV λ1549 emission line. We find that the stronger C IV NALs tend to be the more saturated absorptions, and associated systems (zabs ≈ zem) seem to have larger absorption strengths when compared to intervening ones (zabs ≪ zem). The redshift density evolution behaviour of absorbers (the number of absorbers per redshift path) is similar to the history of the cosmic star formation. When compared to the quasar-frame velocity (β) distribution of Mg II absorbers, the β distribution of C IV absorbers is broader at β ≈ 0, shows longer extended tail, and exhibits a larger dispersion for environmental absorptions. In addition, for associated C IV absorbers, we find that low-luminosity quasars seem to exhibit smaller β and stronger absorptions when compared to high-luminosity quasars.

  12. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  13. Plant phenolics and absorption features in vegetation reflectance spectra near 1.66 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Skidmore, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Past laboratory and field studies have quantified phenolic substances in vegetative matter from reflectance measurements for understanding plant response to herbivores and insect predation. Past remote sensing studies on phenolics have evaluated crop quality and vegetation patterns caused by bedrock geology and associated variations in soil geochemistry. We examined spectra of pure phenolic compounds, common plant biochemical constituents, dry leaves, fresh leaves, and plant canopies for direct evidence of absorption features attributable to plant phenolics. Using spectral feature analysis with continuum removal, we observed that a narrow feature at 1.66 μm is persistent in spectra of manzanita, sumac, red maple, sugar maple, tea, and other species. This feature was consistent with absorption caused by aromatic C-H bonds in the chemical structure of phenolic compounds and non-hydroxylated aromatics. Because of overlapping absorption by water, the feature was weaker in fresh leaf and canopy spectra compared to dry leaf measurements. Simple linear regressions of feature depth and feature area with polyphenol concentration in tea resulted in high correlations and low errors (% phenol by dry weight) at the dry leaf (r2 = 0.95, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 56), fresh leaf (r2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.1%, n = 56), and canopy (r2 = 0.78, RMSE = 1.0%, n = 13) levels of measurement. Spectra of leaves, needles, and canopies of big sagebrush and evergreens exhibited a weak absorption feature centered near 1.63 μm, short ward of the phenolic compounds, possibly consistent with terpenes. This study demonstrates that subtle variation in vegetation spectra in the shortwave infrared can directly indicate biochemical constituents and be used to quantify them. Phenolics are of lesser abundance compared to the major plant constituents but, nonetheless, have important plant functions and ecological significance. Additional research is needed to advance our understanding of the

  14. The Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectra of Neutral PAHs in Dense Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe and are expected to be present in dense interstellar clouds. In these environments, some P.4Hs may be present in the gas phase, but most should be frozen into ice mantles or adsorbed onto dust grains and their spectral features are expected to be seen in absorption. Here we extend our previous work on the infrared spectral properties of the small PAH naphthalene (C10H8) in several media to include the full mid-infrared laboratory spectra of 11 other PAHs and related aromatic species frozen in H2O ices. These include the molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, anthracene, 9,1O-dihydroanthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, pentacene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene. These results demonstrate that PAHs and related molecules, as a class, show the same spectral behaviors as naphthalene when incorporated into H2O-rich matrices. When compared to the spectra of these same molecules isolated in inert matrices (e.g., Ar or N2), the absorption bands produced when they are frozen in H2O matrices are broader (factors of 3-10), show small position shifts in either direction (usually < 4/cm, always < 10/cm), and show variable changes in relative band strengths (typically factors of 1-3). There is no evidence of systematic increases or decreases in the absolute strengths of the bands of these molecules when they are incorporated in H2O matrices. In H2O-rich ices, their absorption bands are relatively insensitive to concentration over the range of 10 < H2O/PAH < 200): The absorption bands of these molecules are also insensitive to temperature over the 10 K < T < 125 K range, although the spectra can show dramatic changes as the ices are warmed through the temperature range in which amorphous H2O ice converts to its cubic and hexagonal crystalline forms (T > 125 Kj. Given the small observed band shifts cause by H2O, the current database of spectra from Ar matrix

  15. Retrieval of phytoplankton cell size from chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Wang, Guifen; Li, Cai; Xu, Zhantang; Cao, Wenxi; Shen, Fang

    2017-10-20

    Phytoplankton cell size is an important property that affects diverse ecological and biogeochemical processes, and analysis of the absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton can provide important information about phytoplankton size. In this study, an inversion method for extracting quantitative phytoplankton cell size data from these spectra was developed. This inversion method requires two inputs: chlorophyll a specific absorption and scattering spectra of phytoplankton. The average equivalent-volume spherical diameter (ESD v ) was calculated as the single size approximation for the log-normal particle size distribution (PSD) of the algal suspension. The performance of this method for retrieving cell size was assessed using the datasets from cultures of 12 phytoplankton species. The estimations of a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton population using ESD v had mean error values of 5.8%-6.9% and 7.0%-10.6%, respectively, compared to the a(λ) and b(λ) for the phytoplankton populations using the log-normal PSD. The estimated values of C i ESD v were in good agreement with the measurements, with r 2 =0.88 and relative root mean square error (NRMSE)=25.3%, and relatively good performances were also found for the retrieval of ESD v with r 2 =0.78 and NRMSE=23.9%.

  16. Effect of solvent on absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. L.; Zheng, Z. R.; Liu, Z. G.

    The absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene in n-hexane and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) solutions are measured under high pressure at ambient temperature. The common redshift and broadening in the spectra are observed. Simulation of the absorption spectra was performed by using the time-domain formula of the stochastic model. The pressure dependence of the 0-0 band wavenumber is in agreement with the Bayliss theory at pressure higher than 0.2 GPa. The deviation of the linearity at lower pressure is ascribed to the reorientation of the solvent molecules. Both the redshift and broadening are stronger in CS{sub 2} than that in n-hexane becausemore » of the more sensitive pressure dependence of dispersive interactions in CS{sub 2} solution. The effect of pressure on the transition moment is explained with the aid of a simple model involving the relative dimension, location, and orientation of the solute and solvent molecules. The implication of these results for light-harvesting functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is also discussed.« less

  17. Near-edge X-ray absorption spectra for metallic Cu and Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, G. N.; Durham, P. J.; Diakun, G.; Quinn, P.

    1981-11-01

    The measurement of X-ray absorption fine structure of metals- both in the extended region (EXAFS) as well as in the near edge region (XANES)-has been widely discussed (see refs 1-6 for Cu and refs 7-9 for Mn). The recent availability of intense X-ray fluxes from storage rings has usually been exploited for EXAFS leaving the XANES often with poorer resolution than earlier work performed on conventional sources (for example, compare the near edge structure for copper in ref. 1 with refs 3 or 6). In addition, whilst the theory and analysis of EXAFS is relatively well-established2,10, a theory for the strong scattering regime near to the absorption edge has only recently been developed11. We report here the first high resolution XANES spectra for Cu and Mn which were performed at the SRS storage ring at Daresbury. Although both metals have close-packed structures consisting of atoms of similar size their local atomic structure is different in detail. Significant differences are found in their respective XANES reflecting the senstivity of this region of the X-ray absorption fine structure to the local atomic structure. Spectra for the two metals have been analysed using the new multiple scattering formalism. This is a real space calculation and unlike a conventional band structure approach it does not require structural periodicity but works from the local arrangement of atoms.

  18. Dependence of the electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride on the conditions of dilution and storage time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of iodine monochloride ICl are studied. The spectra of as-prepared solutions display the absorption band associated with hydrated ICl molecules. An additional band indicating that molecular iodine was formed in the solution emerges in the spectrum as dissolution takes place. Only the band belonging to iodine monochloride remains in the absorption spectra, and no additional bands appear after chloride anions Cl- are added to the solution. The absorption spectrum becomes more complex when ICl is dissolved in an alkaline medium. The band belonging to molecular iodine emerges in the spectra at low alkali concentrations, while being transformed to other shorter-wavelength bands at high alkali concentrations (pH ≥ 12).

  19. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis complementing experimental observationsmore » provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  20. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electronic structure of merocyanines in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Kulinich, Andrii V.; Bondarev, Stanislav L.; Raichenok, Tamara F.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-phase absorption spectra of a merocyanine vinylogous series have been studied for the first time. In vapour, their long-wavelength absorption bands were found to be considerably shifted hypsochromically, broader, more symmetrical, less intense, and their vinylene shift much smaller than even in low-polarity n-hexane. This indicates that in the gas phase their electronic structure closely approaches the nonpolar polyene limiting structure. The TDDFT calculations of the long-wavelength electronic transitions in the studied merocyanines in vacuo demonstrated good-to-excellent correlation - depending on the functional used - with the obtained experimental data. For comparison, the solvent effects was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) with n-hexane and ethanol as low-polarity and high-polarity media, and compared with the UV-Vis spectral data in these solvents. In this case, the discrepancy between theory and experiment was much greater, increasing at that with the polymethine chain length.

  1. Sharp Absorption Peaks in THz Spectra Valuable for Crystal Quality Evaluation of Middle Molecular Weight Pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Middle molecular weight (MMW) pharmaceuticals (MW 400 4000) are attracting attention for their possible use in new medications. Sharp absorption peaks were observed in MMW pharmaceuticals at low temperatures by measuring with a high-resolution terahertz (THz) spectrometer. As examples, high-resolution THz spectra for amoxicillin trihydrate, atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, probucol, and α,β,γ,δ-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP) were obtained at 10 K. Typically observed as peaks with full width at half-height (FWHM) values as low as 5.639 GHz at 0.96492 THz in amoxicillin trihydrate and 8.857 GHz at 1.07974 THz for probucol, many sharp peaks of MMW pharmaceuticals could be observed. Such narrow absorption peaks enable evaluation of the crystal quality of MMW pharmaceuticals and afford sensitive detection of impurities.

  2. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina; ...

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis complementing experimental observationsmore » provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  3. X-ray absorption spectra: Graphene, h-BN, and their alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Somnath; Rusz, Jan; Eriksson, Olle

    2013-04-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, in conjunction with the Mahan-Nozières-de Dominicis theory, we calculate the x-ray absorption spectra of the alloys of graphene and monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on a Ni (111) substrate. The chemical neighborhood of the constituent atoms (B, C, and N) inside the alloy differs from that of the parent phases. In a systematic way, we capture the change in the K-edge spectral shape, depending on the chemical neighborhood of B, C, and N. Our work also reiterates the importance of the dynamical core-hole screening for a proper description of the x-ray absorption process in sp2-bonded layered materials.

  4. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina; Sadoughi, Golnaz; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Félix, Roberto; Wilks, Regan G; Snaith, Henry J; Bär, Marcus; Draxl, Claudia

    2018-04-19

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3 ) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2 . The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.

  5. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption spectra of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, S. S.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of InP/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots have been studied in a broad temperature range of T = 6.5-296 K. Using the second-order derivative spectrophotometry technique, the energies of optical transitions at room temperature were found to be E 1 = 2.60 ± 0.02 eV (for the first peak of excitonic absorption in the InP core) and E 2 = 4.70 ± 0.02 eV (for processes in the ZnS shell). The experimental curve of E 1( T) has been approximated for the first time in the framework of a linear model and in terms of the Fan's formula. It is established that the temperature dependence of E 1 is determined by the interaction of excitons and longitudinal acoustic phonons with hω = 15 meV.

  6. Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-03

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9681 Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 59 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited-state

  7. IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekal', N. D.; Motevich, I. G.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine adsorbed on a silver hydrosol and on the surface of a silver electrode for different potentials. Based on quantum chemical calculations, for the first time we have assigned the vibrations in the berberine molecule according to vibrational mode. The effect of the potential of the silver electrode on the geometry of sorption of the molecule on the surface is considered, assuming a short-range mechanism for enhancement of Raman scattering.

  8. Disentangling atomic-layer-specific x-ray absorption spectra by Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kato, Yukako; Hashimoto, Mie; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer at subsurface, we have proposed a new method, Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy, which is the combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) techniques. We have measured a series of Ni LMM AED patterns of the Ni film grown on Cu(001) surface for various thicknesses. Then we deduced a set of atomic-layer-specific AED patterns in a numerical way. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm to disentangle XANES spectra from different atomic layers using these atomic-layer-specific AED patterns. Surface and subsurface core level shift were determined for each atomic layer.

  9. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3 and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Lead metal was vaporized and trapped in solid xenon at 12K. Electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra were recorded of the resulting matrix, which was shown to contain Pb2, Pb3, and possibly Pb4 molecular species. The vibrational frequency for Pb2 is determined to be 108/cm for the ground state, with a dissociation energy of 82000/cm. Ad3h symmetry is indicated for the Pb3 species, with nu sub 1=117/cm and nu sub 2 = 96 /cm. The existence of Pb4 is suggested by a fundamental and overtone of 111/cm spacing.

  10. The Intervening Galaxies Hypothesis of the Absorption Spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects: Some Statistical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duari, Debiprosad; Narlikar, Jayant V.

    This paper examines, in the light of the available data, the hypothesis that the heavy element absorption line systems in the spectra of QSOs originate through en-route absorption by intervening galaxies, halos etc. Several statistical tests are applied in two different ways to compare the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis (IGH) with actual observations. The database is taken from a recent 1991 compilation of absorption line systems by Junkkarinen, Hewitt and Burbidge. Although, prima facie, a considerable gap is found between the predictions of the intervening galaxies hypothesis and the actual observations despite inclusion of any effects of clustering and some likely selection effects, the gap narrows after invoking evolution in the number density of absorbers and allowing for the incompleteness and inhomogeneity of samples examined. On the latter count the gap might be bridgeable by stretching the parameters of the theory. It is concluded that although the intervening galaxies hypothesis is a possible natural explanation to account for the absorption line systems and may in fact do so in several cases, it seems too simplistic to be able to account for all the available data. It is further stressed that the statistical techniques described here will be useful for future studies of complete and homogenous samples with a view to deciding the extent of applicability of the IGH.

  11. Temperature-dependent mid-IR absorption spectra of gaseous hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Adam E.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative mid-IR absorption spectra (2500 3400 cm-1) for 12 pure hydrocarbon compounds are measured at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 °C using an FTIR spectrometer. The hydrocarbons studied are n-pentane, n-heptane, n-dodecane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), 2-methyl-butane, 2-methyl-pentane, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, propene, toluene, m-xylene, and ethylbenzene. Room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbon vapor were made with an instrument resolution of both 0.1 and 1 cm-1 (FWHM) to confirm that the high-resolution setting was required only to resolve the propene absorption spectrum while the spectra of the other hydrocarbons could be resolved with 1 cm-1 resolution. High-resolution (0.1 cm-1), room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbons were made at low pressure (˜1 Torr, 133 Pa) and compared to measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure to verify that no pressure broadening could be observed over this pressure range. The temperature was varied between 25 and 500 °C for atmospheric-pressure measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures (Xhydrocarbon˜0.06 1.5%) and it was found that the absorption cross section shows simple temperature-dependent behavior for a fixed wavelength over this temperature range. Comparisons with previous FTIR data over a limited temperature range and with high-resolution laser absorption data over a wide temperature range show good agreement.

  12. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  13. Quantitative comparison of the absorption spectra of the gas mixtures in analogy to the criterion of Pearson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Sandykova, E. A.; Shapovalov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    An approach to the reduction of the space of the absorption spectra, based on the original criterion for profile analysis of the spectra, was proposed. This criterion dates back to the known statistics chi-square test of Pearson. Introduced criterion allows to quantify the differences of spectral curves.

  14. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r < 6000 km s‑1 is a safe boundary to constrain the vast majority of associated Mg II systems, although we find some doublets at υ r > 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r < 6000 km s‑1, ∼33.3% of the absorbers are supposed to be contaminants of intervening systems. Removing the 33.3% contaminants, ∼4.5% of the quasars present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  15. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  16. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le; ...

    2017-09-13

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  17. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  18. First principles absorption spectra of Cu{sub n} (n = 2 - 20) clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Baishya, K.; Idrobo, J. C.; Ogut, S.

    2011-06-17

    Optical absorption spectra for the computed ground state structures of copper clusters (Cu{sub n}, n = 2-20) are investigated from first principles using time-dependent density functional theory in the adiabatic local density approximation (TDLDA). The results are compared with available experimental data, existing calculations, and with results from our previous computations on silver and gold clusters. The main effects of d electrons on the absorption spectra, quenching the oscillator strengths, and getting directly involved in low-energy excitations increase in going from Ag{sub n} to Au{sub n} to Cu{sub n} due to the increase in the hybridization of the occupied, yetmore » shallow, d orbitals and the partially occupied s orbitals. We predict that while Cu nanoparticles of spherical or moderately ellipsoidal shape do not exhibit Mie (surface plasmon) resonances, unlike the case for Ag and Au, extremely prolate or oblate Cu nanoparticles with eccentricities near unity should give rise to Mie resonances in the lower end of the visible range and in the infrared. This tunable resonance predicted by the classical Mie-Gans theory is reproduced with remarkable accuracy by our TDLDA computations on hypothetical Cu clusters in the form of zigzag chains with as few as 6 to 20 atoms.« less

  19. Effect of ladder diagrams on optical absorption spectra in a quasiparticle self-consistent GW framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sgr B2 los molecular absorption line spectra (Corby+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra covering transitions of c-C3H2, c-H1 SO, CCS, H2CS, HCS+, OH, SiO, 29SiO, H2CO, H2(13C)O, l-C3H, and l-C3H+ with line-of-sight absorption observed in the 1-50 GHz data from the PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Data were observed between 2001 and 2014, with the majority of the data obtained in 2007 in GBT Key Science project ID GBT07A-051. Spectra have been baseline-subtracted using best fit polynomials as described in the paper, and normalized by the continuum, so that the y-axis represents (T/TC-1). Data are provided in the FITS format; each FITS file contains all lines of a single molecule that are observed to have foreground absorption. Please refer to Table 1 of the paper to obtain molecular transition rest frequencies, energies, GBT beam sizes, and transition quantum numbers. (2 data files).

  1. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin.

    PubMed

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-15

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-01

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0 → S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.

  3. A wavelet analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Penfold, T. J.; Ecole polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de chimie et biochimie computationnelles, ISIC, FSB-BCH, CH-1015 Lausanne; SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen

    2013-01-07

    We present a Wavelet transform analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules. In contrast to the traditionally used Fourier transform approach, this analysis yields a 2D correlation plot in both R- and k-space. As a consequence, it is possible to distinguish between different scattering pathways at the same distance from the absorbing atom and between the contributions of single and multiple scattering events, making an unambiguous assignment of the fine structure oscillations for complex systems possible. We apply this to two previously studied transition metal complexes, namely iron hexacyanide in both its ferric and ferrous form, and a rheniummore » diimine complex, [ReX(CO){sub 3}(bpy)], where X = Br, Cl, or ethyl pyridine (Etpy). Our results demonstrate the potential advantages of using this approach and they highlight the importance of multiple scattering, and specifically the focusing phenomenon to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of these complexes. We also shed light on the low sensitivity of the EXAFS spectrum to the Re-X scattering pathway.« less

  4. Single crystal absorption spectra of synthetic Ti, Fe-substituted pyropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, V. M.; Langer, K.; Andrut, M.; Koch-Müller, M.; Vishnevsky, A. A.

    1994-11-01

    Synthetic pyrope crystals up to 0.5 mm in diameter, substituted by titanium or by titanium plus iron, were grown under defined conditions of P, T, f_{O_2 } in the presence of water using a piston-cylinder device. The crystals were characterized by X-ray and microprobe techniques. Their single-crystal optical absorption spectra were measured by means of a microscope-spectrometer. Two absorption bands at 16100 and 22300 cm{cm-1} in the spectra of pale-blue Fe-free Ti-bearing pyropes, grown under reduced conditions, were identified as originating from spin-allowed transitions, derived from 2 T 2g → 2 E g of octahedral Ti3+ ions. The splitting value of the excited 2E g state, 6200 cm-1, and the crystal field parameter of Ti3+ in pyrope Δ 0 = 19 200 cm-1 are both in agreement with literature data. In spectra of brown Fe, Ti-bearing garnets, a broad band at 23000 cm-1 was interpreted as a Fe2+[8] → Ti4+[6] charge-transfer band. The spectral position and width of this band agree with those observed for a FeTi charge transfer band in natural garnets. Fe, Ti-containing garnets synthesized at relatively high oxygen fugacity (10-11,0 atm), which permits a fraction of Fe3+ to enter the garnet, show an additional Fe2+[8] → Fe3+[6] charge transfer band at 19800 cm-1.

  5. A Statistical Study of the Southern Fermi Bubble in UV Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Md. Tanveer; Fox, Andrew; Jenkins, Edward; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Wakker, Bart; Savage, Blair D.; Lockman, Felix; Crawford, Steve; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Jorgenson, Regina A.

    2018-01-01

    The Fermi Bubbles are two giant lobes of plasma situated at the center of the Milky Way, extending 55° above and below the Galactic Midplane. Although the Bubbles have been widely studied in multiple wavelengths, few studies have been done in UV absorption. Here we present a statistical study of the Southern Fermi Bubble using 17 QSO sightlines — 6 inside the Bubble, 11 outside — using UV absorption spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS). We searched for high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in 11 metal lines from ions of Aluminium, Carbon and Silicon. We detected HVCs in 83% of the sightlines inside the Bubble and 64% outside the Bubble, showing an enhancement in the covering fraction of HVCs in the Southern Bubble region. We also observed a decrease in vLSR of the HVCs as a function of the galactic latitude, consistent with a scenario where the identified HVCs trace the Galactic nuclear outflow, as sightlines closer to the central engine are expected to show a higher velocity. Combined with previous studies, our analysis indicates that the Southern Fermi Bubble is a dynamic environment giving rise to complex absorption features.

  6. The origin of absorptive features in the two-dimensional electronic spectra of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Farag, Marwa H; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper

    2018-05-09

    In rhodopsin, the absorption of a photon causes the isomerization of the 11-cis isomer of the retinal chromophore to its all-trans isomer. This isomerization is known to occur through a conical intersection (CI) and the internal conversion through the CI is known to be vibrationally coherent. Recently measured two-dimensional electronic spectra (2DES) showed dramatic absorptive spectral features at early waiting times associated with the transition through the CI. The common two-state two-mode model Hamiltonian was unable to elucidate the origin of these features. To rationalize the source of these features, we employ a three-state three-mode model Hamiltonian where the hydrogen out-of plane (HOOP) mode and a higher-lying electronic state are included. The 2DES of the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin are calculated and compared with the experiment. Our analysis shows that the source of the observed features in the measured 2DES is the excited state absorption to a higher-lying electronic state and not the HOOP mode.

  7. Polarized electronic absorption spectra of Cr2SiO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, A.; Langer, K.

    Polarized electronic absorption spectra, E∥a(∥X), E∥b(∥Y) and E∥c(∥Z), in the energy range 3000-5000 cm-1 were obtained for the orthorhombic thenardite-type phase Cr2SiO4, unique in its Cr2+-allocation suggesting some metal-metal bonding in Cr2+Cr2+ pairs with Cr-Cr distance 2.75 Å along [001]. The spectra were scanned at 273 and 120 K on single crystal platelets ∥(100), containing optical Y and Z, and ∥(010), containing optical X and Z, with thicknesses 12.3 and 15.6 μm, respectively. Microscope-spectrometric techniques with a spatial resolution of 20 μm and 1 nm spectral resolution were used. The orientations were obtained by means of X-ray precession photographs. The xenomorphic, strongly pleochroic crystal fragments (X deeply greenish-blue, Y faint blue almost colourless, Z deeply purple almost opaque) were extracted from polycrystalline Cr2SiO4, synthesized at 35 kbar, above 1440 °C from high purity Cr2O3, Cr (10% excess) and SiO2 in chromium capsules. The Cr2SiO4-phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Four strongly polarized bands, at about 13500 (I), 15700 (II), 18700 (III) and 19700 (IV) cm-1, in the absorption spectra of Cr2SiO4 single crystals show properties (temperature behaviour of linear and integral absorption coefficients, polarization behaviour, molar absorptivities) which are compatible with an assignment to localized spin-allowed transitions of Cr2+ in a distorted square planar coordination of point symmetry C2. The crystal field parameter of Cr2+ is estimated to be 10 Dq =10700 cm-1. A relatively intense, sharp band at 18400 cm-1 and three other minor features can, from their small half widths, be assigned to spin-forbidden dd-transitions of Cr2+. The intensity of such bands strongly decreases on decreasing temperature. The large half widths, near 5000 cm-1 of band III are indicative of some Cr-Cr interactions, i.e. δ-δ* transitions of Cr24+, whereas the latter alone would be in conflict with the strong

  8. Ionic species produced on gamma radiolysis: Studies by matrix isolation technique—I. Electronic absorption spectra of perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou-te, Lian C. T.; Mittal, Jai P.

    The absorption spectra of several perfluorosubstituted aromatic radical anions are compared with the corresponding perhydro compounds in which the various transitions involved have been assigned to those predicted theoretically. The electronic absorption spectra were obtained for pentafluorostyrene, pentafluorobenzaldehyde, pentafluorobenzoic acid, pentafluorobenzonitride, tetrafluorophthalic acid and pentafluoroaniline, by gamma radiolysis in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran at 77 K. A general similarity in the absorption spectra between the perfluorinated and the corresponding perhydro radical anion is observed except for a shift in the absorption band.

  9. Laboratory absorption spectra of molecules at interstellar cloud temperatures - First measurements on CO at about 97 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Yoshino, K.; Stark, G.; Ito, K.; Stevens, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    In the 91-100 nm spectral region, where absorption of photons by interstellar CO usually leads to dissociation, laboratory spectra obtained at 295 K show that most CO bands are both overlapped and perturbed. Reliable band oscillator strengths cannot be extracted from such spectra. As a consequence, synthetic extreme-ultraviolet absorption spectra for CO at the low temperatures that prevail in interstellar clouds are uncertain. A supersonic expansion technique has been used to cool CO to 30 K and three bands in the 97-nm region have been studied with high spectral resolution. The measured spectrum at 30 K is in reasonable agreement with some published modeled spectra, but the ratios of integrated cross sections are somewhat different from those determined from low resolution spectra obtained at 295 K, in which the bands are blended.

  10. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  11. Exploring the Time Evolution of Cool Metallic Absorption Features in UV Burst Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmes, K.; Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    UV bursts are compact brightenings in active regions that appear in UV images. They are identified through three spectroscopic features: (1) broadening and intensification of NUV/FUV emission lines, (2) the presence of optically thin Si IV emission, and (3) the presence of absorption features from cool metallic ions. Properties (2) and (3) imply that bursts exist at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) but are located in the cooler lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Their energetic and dynamical properties remain poorly constrained. Improving our understanding of this phenomena could help us further constrain the energetic and dynamical properties of the chromosphere, as well as give us insight into whether or not UV bursts contribute to chromospheric and/or coronal heating. We analyzed the time evolution of UV bursts using spectral data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We inspected Si IV 1393.8 Å line profiles for Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption features to look for signs of heating. Weakening of absorption features over time could indicate heating of the cool ions above the burst, implying that thermal energy from the burst could rapidly conduct upward through the chromosphere. To detect the spectral profiles corresponding to bursts, we applied a four-parameter Gaussian fit to every profile in each observation and took cuts in parameter space to isolate the bursts. We then manually reviewed the remaining profiles by looking for a statistically significant appearance of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption. We quantified these absorption features by normalizing the Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles and measuring the maximum fractional extinction in each. Our preliminary results indicate that Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption may undergo a cycle of strengthening and weakening throughout a burst's lifetime. However, further investigation is needed for confirmation. This work is supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313.

  12. The absorption- and luminescence spectra of Mn3+ in beryl and vesuvianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Maria; Lisiecki, Radosław; Chrobak, Artur; Sitko, Rafał; Mazurak, Zbigniew

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption-, photoluminescence- and electron paramagnetic-resonance spectra of Mn3+ in red beryl from Wah Wah Mountains (Utah USA) and of pink- and purple vesuvianite from Jeffrey Mine (Asbestos, Canada) were measured at room- and low temperatures. The crystal field stabilization energies are equal to 130.9 kJ/mol for the red beryl, and 151.5-158.0 and 168.0 kJ/mol for for the pink- and the purple vesuvianite, respectively. The red photoluminescence of Mn3+ was not intensive either at room- or at low temperatures. The high Mn content in the crystals caused the emergence of an additional emission band and short photoluminescence-decay lifetimes. The latter are only 183 μs for beryl and 17 μs for vesuvianite.

  13. The absorption- and luminescence spectra of Mn3+ in beryl and vesuvianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Maria; Lisiecki, Radosław; Chrobak, Artur; Sitko, Rafał; Mazurak, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    The electron absorption-, photoluminescence- and electron paramagnetic-resonance spectra of Mn3+ in red beryl from Wah Wah Mountains (Utah USA) and of pink- and purple vesuvianite from Jeffrey Mine (Asbestos, Canada) were measured at room- and low temperatures. The crystal field stabilization energies are equal to 130.9 kJ/mol for the red beryl, and 151.5-158.0 and 168.0 kJ/mol for for the pink- and the purple vesuvianite, respectively. The red photoluminescence of Mn3+ was not intensive either at room- or at low temperatures. The high Mn content in the crystals caused the emergence of an additional emission band and short photoluminescence-decay lifetimes. The latter are only 183 μs for beryl and 17 μs for vesuvianite.

  14. Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M. A.; Briddon, P. R.; Jaros, M.

    1997-08-01

    We have applied the multiband effective mass/valence force field method to the calculation of optical transitions and absorption spectra in InAs/GaAs self-organized dots of different sizes. We have found that the apparently conflicting assignments of luminescence features to optical transitions in different experiments are in fact entirely compatible with each other. Whether the optical signature of a dot is constructed from transitions between states of the same quantum numbers, or via additional processes between the ground conduction state and a low-lying valence state depends on the aspect ratio of the quantum dot radius and height. The states involved can be predicted from a simple particle in a rigid rectangular box model.

  15. Comparison of absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresunko, O. P.; Zelinska, N. V.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  16. Effect of Pressure on Absorption Spectra of Lycopene in n-Hexane and CS2 Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wei-Long; Zheng, Zhi-Ren; Huo, Ming-Ming; Li, Ai-Hua; Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    The absorption spectra of lycopene in n-hexane and CS2 are measured under high pressure and the results are compared with β-carotene. In the lower pressure range, the deviation from the linear dependence on the Bayliss parameter (BP) for β-carotene is more visible than that for lycopene. With the further increase of the solvent BP, the 0-0 bands of lycopene and β-carotene red shift at almost the same rate in n-hexane; however, the 0-0 band of lycopene red shifts slower than that of β-carotene in CS2. The origins of these diversities are discussed taking into account the dispersion interactions and structures of solute and solvent molecules.

  17. X-ray K-edge absorption spectra of Fe minerals and model compounds: II. EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waychunas, Glenn A.; Brown, Gordon E.; Apted, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of Fe in varying environments in a suite of well-characterized silicate and oxide minerals were collected using synchrotron radiation and analyzed using single scattering approximation theory to yield nearest neighbor Fe-O distances and coordination numbers. The partial inverse character of synthetic hercynite spinal was verified in this way. Comparison of the results from all samples with structural data from X-ray diffraction crystal structure refinements indicates that EXAFS-derived first neighbor distances are generally accurate to ±0.02 Å using only theoretically generated phase information, and may be improved over this if similar model compounds are used to determine EXAFS phase functions. Coordination numbers are accurate to ±20 percent and can be similarly improved using model compound EXAFS amplitude information. However, in particular cases the EXAFS-derived distances may be shortened, and the coordination number reduced, by the effects of static and thermal disorder or by partial overlap of the longer Fe-O first neighbor distances with second neighbor distances in the EXAFS structure function. In the former case the total information available in the EXAFS is limited by the disorder, while in the latter case more accurate results can in principle be obtained by multiple neighbor EXAFS analysis. The EXAFS and XANES spectra of Fe in Nain, Labrador osumulite and Lakeview, Oregon plagioclase are also analyzed as an example of the application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to metal ion site occupation determination in minerals.

  18. C IV broad absorption line variability in QSO spectra from SDSS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, Demetra; Brandt, William N.; Grier, Catherine J.; Paolillo, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in the spectra of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are thought to arise from outflowing winds along our line of sight; winds, in turn, are thought to originate from the accretion disk, in the very surroundings of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and they likely affect the accretion process onto the SMBH, as well as galaxy evolution. BALs can exhibit variability on timescales typically ranging from months to years. We analyze such variability and, in particular, BAL disappearance, with the aim of investigating QSO physics and structure. We search for disappearing C IV BALs in the spectra of 1319 QSOs from different programs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS); the analyzed time span covers 0.28-4.9 yr (rest frame), and the source redshifts are in the range 1.68-4.27. This is to date the largest sample ever used for such a study. We find 67 sources (5.1_{-0.6}^{+0.7}% of the sample) with 73 disappearing BALs in total (3.9_{-0.5}^{+0.5}% of the total number of C IV BALs detected; some sources have more than one BAL that disappears). We compare the sample of disappearing BALs to the whole sample of BALs, and investigate the correlation in the variability of multiple troughs in the same spectrum. We also derive estimates of the average lifetime of a BAL trough and of the BAL phase along our line of sight.

  19. DFT study of the effect of substituents on the absorption and emission spectra of Indigo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Theoretical analyses of the indigo dye molecule and its derivatives with Chlorine (Cl), Sulfur (S), Selenium (Se) and Bromine (Br) substituents, as well as an analysis of the Hemi-Indigo molecule, were performed using the Gaussian 03 software package. Results Calculations were performed based on the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with the Becke 3- parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31 G(d,p) basis set was employed. The configuration interaction singles (CIS) method with the same basis set was employed for the analysis of excited states and for the acquisition of the emission spectra. Conclusions The presented absorption and emission spectra were affected by the substitution position. When a hydrogen atom of the molecule was substituted by Cl or Br, practically no change in the absorbed and emitted energies relative to those of the indigo molecule were observed; however, when N was substituted by S or Se, the absorbed and emitted energies increased. PMID:22809100

  20. Signatures in vibrational and UV-visible absorption spectra for identifying cyclic hydrocarbons by graphene fragments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Wu, Qi; Chen, Lei; Wangmo, Sonam; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Ding, Dajun; Niehaus, Thomas A; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2013-12-21

    To promote possible applications of graphene in molecular identification based on stacking effects, in particular in recognizing aromatic amino acids and even sequencing nucleobases in life sciences, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene segments and different cyclic organic hydrocarbons including benzene (C6H6), cyclohexane (C6H12), benzyne (C6H4), cyclohexene (C6H10), 1,3-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(1)) and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(2)), using the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method. Interestingly, we find obviously different characteristics in Raman vibrational and ultraviolet visible absorption spectra of the small molecules adsorbed on the graphene sheet. Specifically, we find that both spectra involve clearly different characteristic peaks, belonging to the different small molecules upon adsorption, with the ones of ionized molecules being more substantial. Further analysis shows that the adsorptions are almost all due to the presence of dispersion energy in neutral cases and involve charge transfer from the graphene to the small molecules. In contrast, the main binding force in the ionic adsorption systems is the electronic interaction. The results present clear signatures that can be used to recognize different kinds of aromatic hydrocarbon rings on graphene sheets. We expect that our findings will be helpful for designing molecular recognition devices using graphene.

  1. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  2. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films by Resonant Photothermal Bending Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, Toshie; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Hori, Yasuro; Nonomura, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    A resonant photothermal bending spectroscopy (PBS) is demonstrated for the measurement of absorption coefficient spectra in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (μc-3C-SiC:H) films. The resonant vibration technique utilized in PBS establishes the sensitivity as α d˜ 5× 10-5 in a vacuum measurement. Appling resonant PBS to μc-Si:H films, a new extra absorption coefficient αex spectrum is observed from 0.6 to 1.2 eV. The αex spectrum has a peak at ˜1.0 eV, and the localized states inducing the αex are located ˜0.35 eV below the conduction band edge of μc-Si:H. A possible explanation for the observed localized state is that an oxidation produces weak bonds at the grain boundaries and/or amorphous silicon tissues. In μc-3C-SiC:H film, an optical band-gap energy of ˜2.2 eV was demonstrated assuming an indirect optical transition. The temperature coefficient of the optical band-gap energy was ˜2.3× 10-4 eV K-1. The αex spectrum of μc-3C-SiC:H film is plateau-shaped and its magnitude is in accord with an increase in grain size.

  3. Ultraviolet spectra of quenched carbonaceous composite derivatives: Comparison to the '217 nanometer' interstellar absorption feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, Akira; Wada, Setsuko; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Narisawa, Takatoshi; Nakagawa, Hidehiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    QCCs (quenched carbonaceous composite) are amorphus carbonaceous material formed from a hydrocarbon plasma. We present the UV-visible spectra of 'filmy QCC; (obtained outside of the beam ejected from the hydrocarbon plasma) and 'dark QCC' (obtained very near to the beam) for comparison to the stellar extinction curve. When filmy QCC is heated to 500-700 C (thermally altered), the wavelength of the absorption maximum increases form 204 nm to 220-222 nm. The dark QCC has an absorption maximum at 217-222 nm. In addition, the thermally altered filmy QCC has a slope change at about 500 nm which resmbles that in the interstellar extinction curve. The resemblance of the extinction curve of the QCCs to that of the interstellar medium suggests that QCC derivatives may be representative of the type of interstellar material that produces the 217 nm interstellar medium feature. The peak extinction of the dark QCC is higher than the average interstellar extinction curve while that of the thermally altered filmy QCC is lower, so that a mixture of dark and thermally altered filmy QCC can match the peak extinction observed in the interstellar medium. It is shown from electron micrographs that most of the thermally altered flimy QCC is in the form of small grainy structure less than 4 nm in diameter. This shows that the structure unit causing the 217-222 nm feature in QCC is very small.

  4. Substituent and Solvent Effects on the Absorption Spectra of Cation-π Complexes of Benzene and Borazine: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Nabajit; Bhattacharyya, Pradip Kr; Bania, Kusum K

    2014-05-29

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to predict the absorption spectra of cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Both polarized continuum model (PCM) and discrete solvation model (DSM) and a combined effect of PCM and DSM on the absorption spectra have been elucidated. With decrease in size of the cation, the π → π* transitions of benzene and borazine are found to undergo blue and red shift, respectively. A number of different substituents (both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating) and a range of solvents (nonpolar to polar) have been considered to understand the effect of substituent and solvents on the absorption spectra of the cation-π complexes of benzene and borazine. Red shift in the absorption spectra of benzene cation-π complexes are observed with both electron-donating groups (EDGs) and electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs). The same trend has not been observed in the case of substituted borazine cation-π complexes. The wavelength of the electronic transitions corresponding to cation-π complexes correlates well with the Hammet constants (σ p and σ m ). This correlation indicates that the shifting of spectral lines of the cation-π complexes on substitution is due to both resonance and inductive effect. On incorporation of solvent phases, significant red or blue shifting in the absorption spectra of the complexes has been observed. Kamlet-Taft multiparametric equation has been used to explain the effect of solvent on the absorption spectra of complexes. Polarity and polarizability are observed to play an important role in the solvatochromism of the cation-π complexes.

  5. Computing the Absorption and Emission Spectra of 5-Methylcytidine in Different Solvents: A Test-Case for Different Solvation Models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, L; Pepino, A J; Segarra-Martí, J; Banyasz, A; Garavelli, M; Improta, R

    2016-09-13

    The optical spectra of 5-methylcytidine in three different solvents (tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, and water) is measured, showing that both the absorption and the emission maximum in water are significantly blue-shifted (0.08 eV). The absorption spectra are simulated based on CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculations but including solvent effects with three different approaches: (i) a hybrid implicit/explicit full quantum mechanical approach, (ii) a mixed QM/MM static approach, and (iii) a QM/MM method exploiting the structures issuing from molecular dynamics classical simulations. Ab-initio Molecular dynamics simulations based on CAM-B3LYP functionals have also been performed. The adopted approaches all reproduce the main features of the experimental spectra, giving insights on the chemical-physical effects responsible for the solvent shifts in the spectra of 5-methylcytidine and providing the basis for discussing advantages and limitations of the adopted solvation models.

  6. Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-04

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--17-9723 Equilibrium Structures and Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular...Absorption Spectra for SixOy-nH2O Molecular Clusters using Density Functional Theory L. Huang, S.G. Lambrakos, and L. Massa1 Naval Research Laboratory, Code...and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The size of the clusters considered is relatively large compared to those considered in

  7. The manifestation of optical centers in UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra of white blood human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terent'yeva, Yu G.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Zaika, L. A.; Snitserova, O. M.; Losytsky, M. Yu

    2016-12-01

    A white blood human cells spectral investigation is presented. The aim of this series of experiments was to obtain and analyze the absorption and luminescence (fluorescence and phosphorescence) spectra at room temperature and at 78 K of newly isolated white blood human cells and their organelles. As a result the optical centers and possible biochemical components that form the studied spectra where identified. Also the differences between the spectra of abnormal cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia BCLL) and normal ones were studied for the whole cells and individual organelles.

  8. Analysis of atmospheric trace constituents from high resolution infrared balloon-borne and ground-based solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of ongoing studies of high-resolution solar absorption spectra aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents of importance in the chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere are presented. An analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/cm covering the 700-2200/cm interval is presented. The 0.0025/cm spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of quantifying trace constituents. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species are presented. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra are also discussed.

  9. Detection of absorption lines in the spectra of X-ray bursts from X1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Inoue, Hajime; Tanaka, Yasuo

    X-ray bursts from X 1608-52 were observed with the gas scintillation proportional counters on the Tenma satellite. Absorption features were detected in the spectra of three bursts among 17 bursts observed. These absorption features are consistent with a common absorption line at 4.1 keV. The energy and the properties of the absorption lines of the X 1608-52 bursts are very similar to those observed from the X 1636-53 bursts by Waki et al. (1984). Near equality of the absorption-line energies for X 1636-53 and X 1608-52 would imply that mass and radius of the neutron stars in these two systems are very similar to each other.

  10. Wavelet based de-noising of breath air absorption spectra profiles for improved classification by principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The comparison results of different mother wavelets used for de-noising of model and experimental data which were presented by profiles of absorption spectra of exhaled air are presented. The impact of wavelets de-noising on classification quality made by principal component analysis are also discussed.

  11. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  12. Hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation towards the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2017-05-01

    A theoretically solid and numerically exact method is presented for the calculation of absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of molecular aggregates immersed in a harmonic bath constituted as the combination of some prominent quantized vibrational modes and continuous overdamped Brownian oscillators. The feasibility and the validity of newly proposed method are affirmed in the analytical monomer spectra. To go beyond the independent local bath approximation, all the correlations of site energy fluctuations and excitonic coupling fluctuations are included in our strategy, and their influence on the absorption and CD spectra is investigated based on the Frenkel exciton model of homodimer. In the end, a good fit of the absorption and part of CD spectra for the entire B800-B850 ring in the light-harvesting complexes 2 of purple bacteria to the experimental data is given, and the simulation results suggest that the asymmetry in the 800 nm region of CD spectra is actually an indication of B800-B850 inter-ring coupling.

  13. Exploration of faint absorption bands in the reflectance spectra of the asteroids by method of optimal smoothing: Vestoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; McFadden, L. A.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2007-04-01

    An optimization method of smoothing noisy spectra was developed to investigate faint absorption bands in the visual spectral region of reflectance spectra of asteroids and the compositional information derived from their analysis. The smoothing algorithm is called "optimal" because the algorithm determines the best running box size to separate weak absorption bands from the noise. The method is tested for its sensitivity to identifying false features in the smoothed spectrum, and its correctness of forecasting real absorption bands was tested with artificial spectra simulating asteroid reflectance spectra. After validating the method we optimally smoothed 22 vestoid spectra from SMASS1 [Xu, Sh., Binzel, R.P., Burbine, T.H., Bus, S.J., 1995. Icarus 115, 1-35]. We show that the resulting bands are not telluric features. Interpretation of the absorption bands in the asteroid spectra was based on the spectral properties of both terrestrial and meteorite pyroxenes. The bands located near 480, 505, 530, and 550 nm we assigned to spin-forbidden crystal field bands of ferrous iron, whereas the bands near 570, 600, and 650 nm are attributed to the crystal field bands of trivalent chromium and/or ferric iron in low-calcium pyroxenes on the asteroids' surface. While not measured by microprobe analysis, Fe 3+ site occupancy can be measured with Mössbauer spectroscopy, and is seen in trace amounts in pyroxenes. We believe that trace amounts of Fe 3+ on vestoid surfaces may be due to oxidation from impacts by icy bodies. If that is the case, they should be ubiquitous in the asteroid belt wherever pyroxene absorptions are found. Pyroxene composition of four asteroids of our set is determined from the band position of absorptions at 505 and 1000 nm, implying that there can be orthopyroxenes in all range of ferruginosity on the vestoid surfaces. For the present we cannot unambiguously interpret of the faint absorption bands that are seen in the spectra of 4005 Dyagilev, 4038

  14. Prediction of Iron K-Edge Absorption Spectra Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    George, S.DeBeer; Petrenko, T.; Neese, F.

    2009-05-14

    Iron K-edge X-ray absorption pre-edge features have been calculated using a time-dependent density functional approach. The influence of functional, solvation, and relativistic effects on the calculated energies and intensities has been examined by correlation of the calculated parameters to experimental data on a series of 10 iron model complexes, which span a range of high-spin and low-spin ferrous and ferric complexes in O{sub h} to T{sub d} geometries. Both quadrupole and dipole contributions to the spectra have been calculated. We find that good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained by using the BP86 functional with the CP(PPP) basis setmore » on the Fe and TZVP one of the remaining atoms. Inclusion of solvation yields a small improvement in the calculated energies. However, the inclusion of scalar relativistic effects did not yield any improved correlation with experiment. The use of these methods to uniquely assign individual spectral transitions and to examine experimental contributions to backbonding is discussed.« less

  15. Simulation of X-ray absorption spectra with orthogonality constrained density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2015-06-14

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) [F. A. Evangelista, P. Shushkov and J. C. Tully, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 7378] is a variational time-independent approach for the computation of electronic excited states. In this work we extend OCDFT to compute core-excited states and generalize the original formalism to determine multiple excited states. Benchmark computations on a set of 13 small molecules and 40 excited states show that unshifted OCDFT/B3LYP excitation energies have a mean absolute error of 1.0 eV. Contrary to time-dependent DFT, OCDFT excitation energies for first- and second-row elements are computed with near-uniform accuracy. OCDFT core excitation energies are insensitive to the choice of the functional and the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange. We show that OCDFT is a powerful tool for the assignment of X-ray absorption spectra of large molecules by simulating the gas-phase near-edge spectrum of adenine and thymine.

  16. Two-photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers measured over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ron K.; Liess, Martin; Benner, Robert E.; Gellermann, Werner; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi; Ding, Yi W.; Barton, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    We report the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of poly(2,5-dibutoxy-p-phenylene acetylene) (PPA-DBO), poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV-DOO), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) in the spectral range extending from 576 nm to 846 nm. Using the Z-scan technique on the polymers in solution, we measured a strong two-photon allowed transition in all three materials which we attribute to the mAg essential state. In the case of PPA-DBO and PPV-DOO, TPA peaks were coincident with dispersion in the nonlinear refractive indices as detected by reduced aperture Z scan. In all three polymers this peak occurs at approximately 1.3 the bandgap energy. The excitonic nature of the excited electronic states in PPA-DBO is indicated by the lack of a TPA band at or near the 1Bu exciton position. Saturation was observed in the nonlinear index of refraction near spectral peaks, as well as an apparent reverse Kramers- Kronig effect.

  17. Excitation Dynamics in Phycoerythrin 545: Modeling of Steady-State Spectra and Transient Absorption with Modified Redfield Theory

    PubMed Central

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Doust, Alexander B.; Curutchet, Carles; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We model the spectra and excitation dynamics in the phycobiliprotein antenna complex PE545 isolated from the unicellular photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS24. The excitonic couplings between the eight bilins are calculated using the CIS/6-31G method. The site energies are extracted from a simultaneous fit of the absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra together with the transient absorption kinetics using the modified Redfield approach. Quantitative fit of the data enables us to assign the eight exciton components of the spectra and build up the energy transfer picture including pathways and timescales of energy relaxation, thus allowing a visualization of excitation dynamics within the complex. PMID:20643051

  18. Electronic and nuclear contributions to time-resolved optical and X-ray absorption spectra of hematite and insights into photoelectrochemical performance

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes, Dugan; Hadt, Ryan G.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Ultrafast time-resolved studies of photocatalytic thin films can provide a wealth of information crucial for understanding and thereby improving the performance of these materials by directly probing electronic structure, reaction intermediates, and charge carrier dynamics. The interpretation of transient spectra, however, can be complicated by thermally induced structural distortions, which appear within the first few picoseconds following excitation due to carrier–phonon scattering. Here we present a comparison of ex situ steady-state thermal difference spectra and transient absorption spectra spanning from NIR to hard X-ray energies of hematite thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. We find that beyond the firstmore » 100 picoseconds, the transient spectra measured for all excitation wavelengths and probe energies are almost entirely due to thermal effects as the lattice expands in response to the ultrafast temperature jump and then cools to room temperature on the microsecond timescale. At earlier times, a broad excited state absorption band that is assigned to free carriers appears at 675 nm, and the lifetime and shape of this feature also appear to be mostly independent of excitation wavelength. The combined spectroscopic data, which are modeled with density functional theory and full multiple scattering calculations, support an assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of hematite that involves two LMCT bands that nearly span the visible spectrum. Lastly, our results also suggest a framework for shifting the ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption bands of ferric oxide films from the near-UV further into the visible part of the solar spectrum to improve solar conversion efficiency.« less

  19. First-Principles Predictions of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra of Semiconducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gregory M.; Patel, Shrayesh N.; Pemmaraju, C. D.

    The electronic structure and molecular orientation of semiconducting polymers in thin films determine their ability to transport charge. Methods based on near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy can be used to probe both the electronic structure and microstructure of semiconducting polymers in both crystalline and amorphous films. However, it can be challenging to interpret NEXAFS spectra on the basis of experimental data alone, and accurate, predictive calculations are needed to complement experiments. Here, we show that first-principles density functional theory (DFT) can be used to model NEXAFS spectra of semiconducting polymers and to identify the nature of transitions inmore » complicated NEXAFS spectra. Core-level X-ray absorption spectra of a set of semiconducting polymers were calculated using the excited electron and core-hole (XCH) approach based on constrained-occupancy DFT. A comparison of calculations on model oligomers and periodic structures with experimental data revealed the requirements for accurate prediction of NEXAFS spectra of both conjugated homopolymers and donor–acceptor polymers. The NEXAFS spectra predicted by the XCH approach were applied to study molecular orientation in donor–acceptor polymers using experimental spectra and revealed the complexity of using carbon edge spectra in systems with large monomeric units. The XCH approach has sufficient accuracy in predicting experimental NEXAFS spectra of polymers that it should be considered for design and analysis of measurements using soft X-ray techniques, such as resonant soft X-ray scattering and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy.« less

  20. Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Constituents from High Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results and ongoing studies of high resolution solar absorption spectra will be presented. The analysis of these spectra is aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents important in atmospheric chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/ cm covering the 700-2200/ cm interval will be presented. Results from ground-based 0.02/ cm solar spectra, from several locations such as Denver, South Pole, M. Loa, and New Zealand will also be shown. The 0.0025/ cm spectra show many new spectroscopic features. The analysis of these spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of trace constituents quantification. The combination of the recent balloon flights, with earlier flights data since 1978 at 0.02/ cm resolution, provides trends analysis of several stratospheric trace species. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species will be presented. Analysis of several ground-based solar spectra provides trends for HCl, HF and other species. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra will be presented. These are extended for the analysis of the ground-based spectra to be obtained by the high resolution interferometers of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Progress or the University of Denver studies for the NDSC will be presented. This will include intercomparison of solar spectra and trace gases retrievals obtained from simultaneous scans by the high resolution (0.0025/ cm) interferometers of BRUKER and BOMEM.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  2. Recording of absorption spectra by a three-beam integral technique with a tunable laser and external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolenko, P. V.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Ochkin, V. N.; Tskhai, S. N.

    2014-04-01

    An integral method is considered for recording absorption using three laser beams transmitted through and reflected from an external cavity with the absorbing medium (R-ICOS). The method is the elaboration of a known single-beam ICOS method and allows suppression of the influence of radiation phase fluctuations in the resonator on recording weak absorption spectra. First of all, this reduces high-frequency instabilities and gives a possibility to record spectra during short time intervals. In this method, mirrors of the resonator may have moderate reflection coefficients. Capabilities of the method have been demonstrated by the examples of weak absorption spectra of atmospheric methane and natural gas in a spectral range around 1650 nm. With the mirrors having the reflection coefficients of 0.8-0.99, a spectrum can be recorded for 320 μs with the accuracy sufficient for detecting a background concentration of methane in atmosphere. For the acquisition time of 20 s, the absorption coefficients of ~2×10-8 cm-1 can be measured, which corresponds to a 40 times less molecule concentration than the background value.

  3. Interpretation of FTIR spectra of polymers and Raman spectra of car paints by means of likelihood ratio approach supported by wavelet transform for reducing data dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Michalska, Aleksandra; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    The problem of interpretation of common provenance of the samples within the infrared spectra database of polypropylene samples from car body parts and plastic containers as well as Raman spectra databases of blue solid and metallic automotive paints was under investigation. The research involved statistical tools such as likelihood ratio (LR) approach for expressing the evidential value of observed similarities and differences in the recorded spectra. Since the LR models can be easily proposed for databases described by a few variables, research focused on the problem of spectra dimensionality reduction characterised by more than a thousand variables. The objective of the studies was to combine the chemometric tools easily dealing with multidimensionality with an LR approach. The final variables used for LR models' construction were derived from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a data dimensionality reduction technique supported by methods for variance analysis and corresponded with chemical information, i.e. typical absorption bands for polypropylene and peaks associated with pigments present in the car paints. Univariate and multivariate LR models were proposed, aiming at obtaining more information about the chemical structure of the samples. Their performance was controlled by estimating the levels of false positive and false negative answers and using the empirical cross entropy approach. The results for most of the LR models were satisfactory and enabled solving the stated comparison problems. The results prove that the variables generated from DWT preserve signal characteristic, being a sparse representation of the original signal by keeping its shape and relevant chemical information.

  4. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  5. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  6. 40 CFR 796.1050 - Absorption in aqueous solution: Ultraviolet/visible spectra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by both molar absorption coefficient (molar extinction coefficient) and band width. However, the..., expressed in cm; and the molar absorption (extinction) coefficient,εi, of each species. The absorbance...

  7. Theoretical infrared and electronic absorption spectra of C16H10 isomers, their ions and doubly ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathappa, Mahadevappa; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2012-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or PAH-related molecules are considered to be responsible for the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.2 μm. However, the exact identification of PAH or PAH-related molecules is difficult. There have been several investigations on the spectroscopic characterization of PAH molecules. But none of them compared the spectra of isomers of PAHs, which might have help in the identification of the UIR emission features. This work presents the infrared and electronic absorption spectra of isomers of C16H10. The aim of the present work is to compare infrared and electronic absorption spectra of four isomers of C16H10 PAH viz. pyrene, aceanthrylene, acephenanthrylene and fluoranthene, their ions and doubly ions. We also compare the spectra of pyrene in the gas-phase and in H2O ice. We have used the density functional theory with B3LYP exchange and correlation functional and 6-311++g** basis set to study the infrared spectra. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to obtain the electronic absorption spectra. Significant difference in the CC stretching, CH in-plane bending and CH out-of-plane bending vibration modes is observed for the isomers of C16H10 whereas there is no large difference in the CH stretching vibration band. A significant change in the vibrational band is observed for pyrene in H2O ice compared to gas-phase pyrene. Though isomers of C16H10 PAH have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, their spectroscopic characteristics are different. This study should help in identifying the isomers of C16H10, their ions and doubly cation in the interstellar medium.

  8. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:27389070

  9. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A.; Kesler, Benjamin A.; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A.; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M.; Dallesasse, John M.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-07-01

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid’s absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  10. Compact characterization of liquid absorption and emission spectra using linear variable filters integrated with a CMOS imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuhang; Carlson, John A; Kesler, Benjamin A; Peng, Wang; Su, Patrick; Al-Mulla, Saoud A; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M; Dallesasse, John M; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-07-08

    A compact analysis platform for detecting liquid absorption and emission spectra using a set of optical linear variable filters atop a CMOS image sensor is presented. The working spectral range of the analysis platform can be extended without a reduction in spectral resolution by utilizing multiple linear variable filters with different wavelength ranges on the same CMOS sensor. With optical setup reconfiguration, its capability to measure both absorption and fluorescence emission is demonstrated. Quantitative detection of fluorescence emission down to 0.28 nM for quantum dot dispersions and 32 ng/mL for near-infrared dyes has been demonstrated on a single platform over a wide spectral range, as well as an absorption-based water quality test, showing the versatility of the system across liquid solutions for different emission and absorption bands. Comparison with a commercially available portable spectrometer and an optical spectrum analyzer shows our system has an improved signal-to-noise ratio and acceptable spectral resolution for discrimination of emission spectra, and characterization of colored liquid's absorption characteristics generated by common biomolecular assays. This simple, compact, and versatile analysis platform demonstrates a path towards an integrated optical device that can be utilized for a wide variety of applications in point-of-use testing and point-of-care diagnostics.

  11. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics. [including pion absorption spectra and muon spin precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The survey of negative pion absorption reactions on light and medium nuclei was continued. Muon spin precession was studied using an iron target. An impulse approximation model of the pion absorption process implied that the ion will absorb almost exclusively on nucleon pairs, single nucleon absorption being suppressed by energy and momentum conservation requirements. For measurements on both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic iron, the external magnetic field was supplied by a large C-type electromagnet carrying a current of about 100 amperes.

  12. Self-interaction-corrected time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations of x-ray-absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Guangde; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Vahtras, Olav

    We outline an approach within time-dependent density functional theory that predicts x-ray spectra on an absolute scale. The approach rests on a recent formulation of the resonant-convergent first-order polarization propagator [P. Norman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 194103 (2005)] and corrects for the self-interaction energy of the core orbital. This polarization propagator approach makes it possible to directly calculate the x-ray absorption cross section at a particular frequency without explicitly addressing the excited-state spectrum. The self-interaction correction for the employed density functional accounts for an energy shift of the spectrum, and fully correlated absolute-scale x-ray spectra are thereby obtainedmore » based solely on optimization of the electronic ground state. The procedure is benchmarked against experimental spectra of a set of small organic molecules at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K edges.« less

  13. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  14. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  15. Absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Pb2, Pb3, and Pb4 in xenon matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stranz, D. D.; Khanna, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    Matrix isolation techniques are used to investigate the spectra of lead molecules and, in particular, to obtain resonance Raman spectra of lead vapors isolated in solid xenon matrices. The presence of Pb2 is confirmed by the visible adsorption, and Raman spectra yield a vibrational frequency for the ground state of 108 per cm and a dissociation energy of 8200 per cm. A second resonance Raman progression indicates a Pb3 species of D3h symmetry. Finally, two additional Raman features at approximately 111 per cm spacing are evidence for a third species, tentatively identified as Pb4.

  16. Multiconfigurational and DFT analyses of the electromeric formulation and UV-vis absorption spectra of the superoxide adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Attia, Amr A A; Cioloboc, Daniela; Lupan, Alexandru; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-12-01

    The putative initial adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase (SOR) with superoxide has been alternatively formulated as ferric-peroxo or ferrous-superoxo. The ~600-nm UV-vis absorption band proposed to be assigned to this adduct (either as sole intermediate in the SOR catalytic cycle, or as one of the two intermediates) has recently been interpreted as due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer, involving thiolate and superoxide in a ferrous complex, contrary to an alternative assignment as a predominantly cysteine thiolate-to-ferric charge transfer in a ferric-peroxo electromer. In an attempt to clarify the electromeric formulation of this adduct, we report a computational study using a multiconfigurational complete active space self-consistent field (MC-CASSCF) wave function approach as well as modelling the UV-vis absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The MC-CASSCF calculations disclose a weak interaction between iron and the dioxygenic ligand and a dominant configuration with an essentially ferrous-superoxo character. The computed UV-vis absorption spectra reveal a marked dependence on the choice of density functional - both in terms of location of bands and in terms of orbital contributors. For the main band in the visible region, besides the recently reported thiolate-to-superoxide charge transfer, a more salient, and less functional-dependent, feature is a thiolate-to-ferric iron charge transfer, consistent with a ferric-peroxo electromer. By contrast, the computed UV-vis spectra of a ferric-hydroperoxo SOR model match distinctly better (and with no qualitative dependence on the DFT methodology) the 600-nm band as due to a mainly thiolate-to-ferric character - supporting the assignment of the SOR "600-nm intermediate" as a S=5/2 ferric-hydroperoxo species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Mass Specific Absorption Spectra for Suites of Black Carbon-like, Biomass Burning and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radney, J.; Zangmeister, C.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols can be grouped into three categories: black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC) or mineral dust (MD). In many cases, the absorption of these species is best quantified using a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) since the particles are in the Rayleigh regime (BC) or optically thin (BrC and MD); notably, MAC values are both traceable to the SI and transferrable between photoacoustic spectroscopy and filter-based absorption measurements. Here, we present laboratory measurements of MAC for all three light-absorbing aerosol classes. Particles were size- and mass-selected using a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer, respectively, with absorption coefficients (αabs) and number concentrations (N) being measured by a broadband photoacoustic spectrometer and condensation particle counter, respectively. This suite of instrumentation allows for direct quantification of MAC from the measured parameters (MAC = αabs/Nmp). Further, the measurements contained > 8 data points spanning λ = 405 nm to 840 nm allowing for spectral curvatures (i.e. the Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE) to be fit from many data points versus the more common 2-point interpolations. For the carbonaceous, BC-like aerosols - five samples generated from flames, spark discharge soot (i.e. fullerene soot), graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and fullerene (C60) - we found: 1) measured MAC ranged between 2.4 m2 g-1 and 8.6 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) most AAEs ranged between 0.5 and 1.3; C60 AAE was 7.5 ± 0.9 and 3) MAC spectra were dependent on fuel type and formation conditions. For BrC particles generated from smoldering combustion of 3 hardwood (Oak, Hickory and Mesquite) and 3 softwood species (Western redcedar, Blue spruce and Baldcypress), we found: 1) median MAC values ranged from 1.4 x 10-2 m2 g-1 to 7.9 x 10-2 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) AAE values ranged between 3.5 and 6.2, and 3) Oak, Western redcedar and Blue spruce

  18. The effect of pathological processes on absorption and scattering spectra of samples of bile and pancreatic juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Magomedov, M. A.; Murtazaeva, A. A.; Medzhidov, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Spectra of optical transmission coefficients and optical reflectance for bile and pancreatic juice samples were measured experimentally for different forms of pathologies of the pancreas within the range of 250-2500 nm. The absorption and scattering spectra, as well as the spectrum of the anisotropy factor of scattering, were determined based on the results obtained using the reverse Monte Carlo method. The surface morphology for the corresponding samples of the biological media was studied employing electron microscopy. The dynamics of the optical properties of the biological media was determined depending on the stage of the pathology. It has been demonstrated that the results of the study presented are in a good agreement with pathophysiological data and could supplement and broaden the results of conventional methods for diagnostics of the pancreas.

  19. Methane absorption in the visible spectra of the outer planets and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Cess, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    New spectra of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan show weak methane bands in the region below 6000 A which have been known for many years in the spectra of Uranus and Neptune. Adopting the known abundance of methane on Jupiter, we have used a band model to determine CH4 abundances and broadening pressures for the other objects. The results indicate high values of the CH4 to H2 concentration ratio for Uranus and Neptune; for Titan, a surface pressure in excess of 1 atm is implied.

  20. The Fundamental Quadrupole Band of (14)N2: Line Positions from High-Resolution Stratospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Zander, R.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Grunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to report accurate measurements of the positions of O- and S-branch lines of the (1-0) vibration-rotation quadrupole band of molecular nitrogen ((14)N2) and improved Dunham coefficients derived from a simultaneous least-squares analysis of these measurements and selected infrared and far infrared data taken from the literature. The new measurements have been derived from stratospheric solar occultation spectra recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) instruments operated at unapodized spectral resolutions of 0.002 and 0.01 /cm. The motivation for the present investigation is the need for improved N2 line parameters for use in IR atmospheric remote sensing investigations. The S branch of the N2 (1-0) quadrupole band is ideal for calibrating the line-of-sight airmasses of atmospheric spectra since the strongest lines are well placed in an atmospheric window, their absorption is relatively insensitive to temperature and is moderately strong (typical line center depths of 10 to 50% in high-resolution ground-based solar spectra and in lower stratospheric solar occultation spectra), and the volume mixing ratio of nitrogen is constant in the atmosphere and well known. However, a recent investigation has'shown the need to improve the accuracies of the N2 fine positions, intensities, air-broadened half-widths, and their temperature dependences to fully exploit this calibration capability (1). The present investigation addresses the problem of improving the accuracy of the N2 line positions.

  1. Dynamics of intramolecular electron transfer reaction of FAD studied by magnetic field effects on transient absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masaaki; Maeda, Kiminori; Arai, Tatsuo

    2005-07-07

    The kinetics of intermediates generated from intramolecular electron-transfer reaction by photo irradiation of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) molecule was studied by a magnetic field effect (MFE) on transient absorption (TA) spectra. Existence time of MFE and MFE action spectra have a strong dependence on the pH of solutions. The MFE action spectra have indicated the existence of interconversion between the radical pair and the cation form of the triplet excited state of flavin part. All rate constants of the triplet and the radical pair were determined by analysis of the MFE action spectra and decay kinetics of TA. The obtained values for the interconversion indicate that the formation of cation radical promotes the back electron-transfer reaction to the triplet excited state. Further, rate constants of spin relaxation and recombination have been studied by the time profiles of MFE at various pH. The drastic change of those two factors has been obtained and can be explained by SOC (spin-orbit coupling) induced back electron-transfer promoted by the formation of a stacking conformation at pH > 2.5.

  2. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  3. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  5. Optical absorption spectra and energy band gap in manganese containing sodium zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarpasha, K. R.; Hanumantharaju, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Optical band gap energy in the system 25Na2O-(75-x)[0.6P2O5-0.4ZnO]-xMnO2 (where x = 0.5,1,5,10 and 20 mol.%) have been studied. The intensity of the absorption band found to increase with increase of MnO2 content. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in MnO2 content in the investigated glasses is attributed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The obtained results were discussed in view of the structure of phosphate glass network.

  6. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadeningmore » of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.« less

  7. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of heterocyclic isomers from long-range-corrected density functional theory in polarizable continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Kityk, Andriy V

    2012-03-22

    Long-range-corrected (LC) DFT/TDDFT methods may provide adequate description of ground and excited state properties; however, accuracy of such an approach depends much on a range separation (exchange screening) representing adjustable model parameter. Its relation to a size or specific of molecular systems has been explored in numerous studies, whereas the effect of solvent environment is usually ignored during the evaluation of state properties. To benchmark and assess the quality of the LC-DFT/TDDFT formalism, we report the optical absorption and fluorescence emission energies of organic heterocyclic isomers, DPIPQ and PTNA, calculated by LC-BLYP DFT/TDDFT method in the polarizable continuum (PCM) approach. The calculations are compared with the optical absorption and fluorescence spectra measured in organic solvents of different polarity. Despite a considerable structural difference, both dyes exhibit quite similar range separations being somewhat different for the optical absorption and fluorescence emission processes. Properly parametrized LC-BLYP xc-potential well reproduces basic features of the optical absorption spectra including the electronic transitions to higher excited states. The DFT/TDDFT/PCM analysis correctly predicts the solvation trends although solvatochromic shifts of the electronic transition energies appear to be evidently underestimated in most cases, especially for the fluorescence emission. Considering the discrepancy between the experiment and theory, evaluated state dipole moments and solvation corrections to the exchange screening are analyzed. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of a solvent-dependent range separation in DFT/TDDFT/PCM calculations for investigating excited state properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-01

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D0) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing.

  9. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of vibration-rotation lines intensities from absorption Fourier spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandin, J. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The method presented allows the line intensities to be calculated from either their equivalent widths, heights, or quantities deduced from spectra obtained by Fourier spectrometry. This method has proven its effectiveness in measuring intensities of 60 lines of the molecule H2O with a precision of 10%. However, this method cannot be applied to isolated lines.

  11. A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Relationship between Response Curves and Absorption Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chia-yu

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment for recording two individual spectrophotometer response curves. The two curves are directly related to the power of transmitted beams that pass through a solvent and solution. An absorption spectrum of the solution can be constructed from the calculated rations of the curves as a function of wavelength. (JN)

  12. Laboratory Measurements of SO2 and N2 Absorption Spectra for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    This laboratory project focuses on the following topics: 1) Measurement of SO2 ultraviolet absorption cross sections; and 2) N2 band and Line Oscillator Strengths and Line Widths in the 80 to 100 nm region. Accomplishments for these projects are summarized.

  13. The absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of α and β-F, Cl, Br-naphthalenes in crystalline matrixes at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, T.; Milea, I.; Abdolrahman, P. M.

    1984-03-01

    The paper studies the absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of α and β-F, Cl, Br-naphtalenes (α, β-F, Cl,BrN) in different matrixes at 77 K and different concentrations. From these spectra one obtaines the vibrational frequences.

  14. Predicting the Shifts of Absorption Maxima of Azulene Derivatives Using Molecular Modeling and ZINDO CI Calculations of UV-Vis Spectra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patalinghug, Wyona C.; Chang, Maharlika; Solis, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    The deep blue color of azulene is drastically changed by the addition of substituents such as CH[subscript 3], F, or CHO. Computational semiempirical methods using ZINDO CI are used to model azulene and azulene derivatives and to calculate their UV-vis spectra. The calculated spectra are used to show the trends in absorption band shifts upon…

  15. Long-Range Chemical Sensitivity in the Sulfur K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Substituted Thiophenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thiophenes are the simplest aromatic sulfur-containing compounds and are stable and widespread in fossil fuels. Regulation of sulfur levels in fuels and emissions has become and continues to be ever more stringent as part of governments’ efforts to address negative environmental impacts of sulfur dioxide. In turn, more effective removal methods are continually being sought. In a chemical sense, thiophenes are somewhat obdurate and hence their removal from fossil fuels poses problems for the industrial chemist. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides key information on thiophenic components in fuels. Here we present a systematic study of the spectroscopic sensitivity to chemical modifications of the thiophene system. We conclude that while the utility of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra in understanding the chemical composition of sulfur-containing fossil fuels has already been demonstrated, care must be exercised in interpreting these spectra because the assumption of an invariant spectrum for thiophenic forms may not always be valid. PMID:25116792

  16. Stark effect spectrophone for continuous absorption spectra monitoring. [a technique for gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A Stark effect spectrophone using a pulsed or continuous wave laser having a beam with one or more absorption lines of a constituent of an unknown gas is described. The laser beam is directed through windows of a closed cell while the unknown gas to be modified flows continuously through the cell between electric field plates disposed in the cell on opposite sides of the beam path through the cell. When the beam is pulsed, energy absorbed by the gas increases at each point along the beam path according to the spectral lines of the constituents of the gas for the particular field strengths at those points. The pressure measurement at each point during each pulse of energy yields a plot of absorption as a function of electric field for simultaneous detection of the gas constituents. Provision for signal averaging and modulation is included.

  17. Performance Enhancement of Polymer Solar Cells by Using Two Polymer Donors with Complementary Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heng; Zhang, Xuejuan; Li, Cuihong; Wei, Hedi; Liu, Qian; Li, Weiwei; Bo, Zhishan

    2015-07-01

    Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is achieved by expanding the absorption of the active layer of devices. To better match the spectrum of solar radiation, two polymers with different band gaps are used as the donor material to fabricate ternary polymer cells. Ternary blend PSCs exhibit an enhanced short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage in comparison with the corresponding HD-PDFC-DTBT (HD)- and DT-PDPPTPT (DPP)-based binary polymer solar cells, respectively. Ternary PSCs show a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.71%, surpassing the corresponding binary PSCs. This work demonstrates that the fabrication of ternary PSCs by using two polymers with complementary absorption is an effective way to improve the device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Simultaneous infrared and UV-visible absorption spectra of matrix-isolated carbon vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Joe; Huffman, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon molecules were suggested as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. In particular, it was proposed that the 443 nm diffuse interstellar band is due to the same molecule which gives rise to the 447 nm absorption feature in argon matrix-isolated carbon vapor. If so, then an associated C-C stretching mode should be seen in the IR. By doing spectroscopy in both the IR and UV-visible regions on the same sample, the present work provides evidence for correlating UV-visible absorption features with those found in the IR. Early data indicates no correlation between the strongest IR feature (1997/cm) and the 447 nm band. Correlation with weaker IR features is being investigated.

  19. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV/vis absorption spectra of 5-(3- and 4-substituted arylazo)-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić, Gordana S.; Perišić-Janjić, Nada U.; Valentić, Nataša V.

    2006-01-01

    Absorption spectra of seventeen 5-(3- and 4-substituted arylazo)-4,6-dimethyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones have been recorded in 12 protic and aprotic solvents in the range 200-600 nm. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of these new azo dyes are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with Hammett equation. The solute-solvent interactions were clarified on the basis of linear solvation energy relationships concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The 2-pyridone/2-hydroxypiridine tautomeric equilibration is found to depend upon substituents as well as on solvents.

  20. The influence of coordination geometry and valency on the K-edge absorption near edge spectra of selected chromium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelouris, A.; Modrow, H.; Pantelouris, M.; Hormes, J.; Reinen, D.

    2004-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the chromium K-edge are reported for a number of selected chromium compounds of known chemical structure. The spectra were obtained with use of synchrotron radiation available at the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The compounds studied include the tetrahedrally coordinated compounds Ca 2Ge 0.8Cr 0.2O 4, Ba 2Ge 0.1Cr 0.9O 4, Sr 2CrO 4, Ca 2(PO 4) x(CrO 4) 1- xCl ( x=0.25,0.5), Ca 5(CrO 4) 3Cl, CrO 3, the octahedrally coordinated compounds Cr(II)-acetate, CrCl 3, CrF 3, Cr 2O 3, KCr(SO 4) 2 · 12H 2O, CrO 2 and cubic coordinated metallic chromium. In these compounds chromium exhibits a wide range of formal oxidation states (0 to VI). The absorption features in the near edge region are shown to be characteristic of the spatial environment of the absorbing atom. The occurrence of a single pre-edge line easily allows one to distinguish between tetrahedral and octahedral coordination geometry, whereas the energy position of the absorption edge is found to be very sensitive to the valency of the excited chromium atom. Calculations of the ionisation potential of Cr in different oxidation states using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method (Froese-Fischer) confirm that the ionisation limit shifts to higher energy with increasing Cr valency. More detailed information on the electronic structure of the different compounds is gained by real-space full multiple scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code.

  1. Ground-based Photon Path Measurements from Solar Absorption Spectra of the O2 A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Z.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cageao, R. P.; Pongetti, T. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sander, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained from Table Mountain Facility (TMF, 34.38degN, 117.68degW, 2286 m elevation) have been analyzed in the region of the O2 A-band. The photon paths of direct sunlight in clear sky cases are retrieved from the O2 absorption lines and compared with ray-tracing calculations based on the solar zenith angle and surface pressure. At a given zenith angle, the ratios of retrieved to geometrically derived photon paths are highly precise (approx.0.2%), but they vary as the zenith angle changes. This is because current models of the spectral lineshape in this band do not properly account for the significant absorption that exists far from the centers of saturated lines. For example, use of a Voigt function with Lorentzian far wings results in an error in the retrieved photon path of as much as 5%, highly correlated with solar zenith angle. Adopting a super-Lorentz function reduces, but does not completely eliminate this problem. New lab measurements of the lineshape are required to make further progress.

  2. Influence of temperature on water and aqueous glucose absorption spectra in the near- and mid-infrared regions at physiologically relevant temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter Snoer; Bak, Jimmy; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Near- and mid-infrared absorption spectra of pure water and aqueous 1.0 g/dL glucose solutions in the wavenumber range 8000-950 cm-1 were measured in the temperature range 30-42 degrees C in steps of 2 degrees C. Measurements were carried out with an FT-IR spectrometer and a variable pathlength transmission cell controlled within 0.02 degree C. Pathlengths of 50 microns and 0.4 mm were used in the mid- and near-infrared spectral region, respectively. Difference spectra were used to determine the effect of temperature on the water spectra quantitatively. These spectra were obtained by subtracting the 37 degrees C water spectrum from the spectra measured at other temperatures. The difference spectra reveal that the effect of temperature is highest in the vicinity of the strong absorption bands, with a number of isosbestic points with no temperature dependence and relatively flat plateaus in between. On the basis of these spectra, prospects for and limitations on data analysis for infrared diagnostic methods are discussed. As an example, the absorptive properties of glucose were studied in the same temperature range in order to determine the effect of temperature on the spectral shape of glucose. The change in water absorption associated with the addition of glucose has also been studied. An estimate of these effects is given and is related to the expected level of infrared signals from glucose in humans.

  3. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, B. A.; Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seenmore » in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.« less

  4. Impurity optical absorption spectra of ZnGa 2Se 4:Ni 2+ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wha-Tek; Jin, Moon-Seog; Cheon, Seung-Ho; Kim, Yong-Geun; Park, Byong-Seo

    1990-04-01

    The optical absorption of single crystals of ZnGa 2Se 4:Ni 2+ grown by the chemical transport reaction method was investigated in the temperature region 20-300 K. In the single crystals the impurity optical absorption peaks due to the transitions 3T1( 3F) → 3T2( 3F), 3T1( 3F) → 3A2( 3F) and 3T1( 3F) → 3T1( 3P) of the Ni 2+ ions sited in the host lattice of the ZnGa 2Se 4 single crystal with Td symmetry appeared at 4444, 7874 and 11 600 cm -1, respectively. The crystal-field parameter and the Racah parameter were given by Dq = 340 cm -1 and B = 615 cm -1, respectively. The peak due to the transition 3T1( 3F) → 3T1( 3P) split into four levels by first order spin-orbit-coupling effects of Ni 2+ ions in the lower temperature below 150 K. The spin-orbit-coupling parameter was found to be λ = -400 cm -1.

  5. Infrared absorption spectra of N(CxF2x+1)3, x = 2-5 perfluoroamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, François; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; Burkholder, James B.

    2018-05-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of the perfluoroamines (N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3) were measured over the 500-4000 cm-1 spectral region at 294 K using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at 1 cm-1 resolution. Spectral measurements were performed using static measurements of dilute perfluoroamines mixtures and by infusion of the pure compound into a calibrated gas flow. The perfluoroamines absorb strongly in the "atmospheric window" with integrated band strengths (10-17 cm2 molecule-1 cm-1) between 570 and 1500 cm-1 of 59.9, 74.9, 88.9, and 98.7 for N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3, respectively. Radiative efficiencies (RE) for the perfluoroamines were estimated to be 0.61, 0.75, 0.87, and 0.95 W m-2 ppb-1 for atmospherically well-mixed conditions and including a +10% stratospheric temperature correction for N(C2F5)3, N(C3F7)3, N(C4F9)3, and N(C5F11)3, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the perfluoroamines were performed at the B97-1/6-311++G(2df,2p) level of theory and optimized perfluoroamine geometries, vibrational band positions, and band strengths are reported. The theoretically calculated infrared spectra are in good agreement with the experimental spectra, while comparison of individual bands was not attempted due to the significant overlap of vibrational bands in the experimental spectra.

  6. Spectral measurements of howardites in support of the interpretation of the Dawn VIR spectra at Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, S.; Ammannito, E.; Di Iorio, T.; De Sanctis, M.; Mittlefehldt, D.

    2014-07-01

    The howardites, eucrites, and diogenites constitute a suite of meteorite lithologies (HED) known to be related to asteroid Vesta [1]. Howardites are physical mixtures of eucrites and diogenites. Howardites are divided in two subtypes: regolithic howardites are actually linked to the true regolith, while fragmental howardites are simple polymict breccias [2]. Mapping of Vesta's surface, as obtained with data from Visible and Infrared mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on Dawn [3,4], showed that it is mainly howarditic, with few regions of diogenite-rich and eucrite-rich terrains [5, 6]. In order to map quantitatively the distribution of lithologic types on Vesta, we are carrying on a study of a set of well-characterized howardites [7]. Spectra were measured on sample powders sieved to 75 μ m in the laboratories of the Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (IAPS-INAF) in Rome (Italy) and Brown University, in Providence (USA). Here we report about the measurements done at IAPS-INAF. The spectra of 33 samples have been acquired with the S.LAB setup, consisting in the FieldSpec Pro spectrometer (range 0.35-2.5 μ m, spatial resolution 0.5 cm^2) coupled with a goniometer (incidence i=30°, emission e=0°) [8]. Some representative spectra of the measured howardites are shown in the figure. The spectra are characterized by the two broad Fe^{2+} absorption bands near 1 and 2 μ m (BI and BII) indicative of pyroxenes. Band parameters relative to BI and BII have been calculated using the algorithm developed to process VIR spectra [4]. This enables us to compare laboratory data directly with the VIR results. Other weaker absorptions also characterize some spectra: the 0.5 μ m feature (Mn^{2+} or Cr^{3+}) and the 1.2 μ m feature possibly due to Fe^{2+} in plagioclases. The PRA04401 sample is characterized by a pyroxene-carbonaceous matter mixture [7].

  7. On the origin of a very close similarity between the spectra of the supernova type 1 in NGC 3198 and the absorption of DQ HeR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustel, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The type 1 supernova discovered late in 1966 in NGC 3198 has broad minima in its spectrum break down into a number of significantly narrower absorption bands. The broad minima of tau, sigma and mu, which usually show no details in the spectra of type supernovas, contain a number of narrow absorption bands. The reality of most of these absorption bands is demonstrated by comparison of recordings of spectra of the supernova presented for two moments in time. These minima (particularly of tau and mu,) are a result of blending of several broad absorption bands. The minimum of tau should be a blend of intensive and very broad Fe absorption lines, in which the lower level is metastable. The wavelengths of these line are: 5169, 5198, 5235, 5276, 5317, 5363A.

  8. Extraction of ice absorptions in comet spectra, and application to VIRTIS/Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Despan, Daniela; Leyrat, Cédric; Drossart, Pierre; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico

    2014-05-01

    Detection of ice spectral features can be difficult on comet surfaces, due to the mixing with dark opaque materials, as shown by Deep Impact and Epoxi observations. We study here the possible use of high-level spectral detection techniques in this context. A method based on wavelet decomposition and a multiscale vision model, partly derived from image analysis techniques, was presented recently (Erard, 2013). It is here used to extract shallow features from spectra in reflected light, up to ~3 µm. The outcome of the analysis is a description of the bands detected, and a quantitative and reliable confidence parameter. The bands can be described either by the most appropriate wavelet scale only (for rapid analyses) or after reconstruction from all scales involved (for more precise measurements). An interesting side effect is the ability to separate even narrow features from random noise, as well as to identify low-frequency variations i.e., wide and shallow bands. Tests are performed on laboratory analogues spectra and available observational data. The technique is expected to provide detection of ice in the early stages of Rosetta observations of 67P this year, from VIRTIS data (Coradini et al., 2009). Strategies are devised to quickly analyze large datasets, e. g., by applying the extraction technique to components first identified by an ACI (Erard et al., 2011). The exact position of the bands can be diagnostic of surface temperature, in particular at 1.6 µm (e. g., Fink & Larson, 1975) and 3.6 µm (Filacchione et al., 2013), and may complement estimates retrieved from the onset of thermal emission longward of 3.5 µm. Erard, S. (2013) 8th EPSC EPSC2013-520. Coradini et al (2009), Rosetta book, Schulz et al Eds. Erard, S. et al (2011) Planet & Space Sc 59, 1842-1852 Fink, U. & Larson, H. (1975) Icarus 24, 411-420 Filacchione et al (2013) AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A7

  9. Discriminating the Mineralogical Composition in Drill Cuttings Based on Absorption Spectra in the Terahertz Range.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xinyang; Li, Hao; Bao, Rima; Feng, Chengjing; Wu, Hang; Zhan, Honglei; Li, Yizhang; Zhao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the geological units of a reservoir is essential to the development and management of the resource. In this paper, drill cuttings from several depths from an oilfield were studied using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to classify and analyze the cuttings. The cuttings were clearly classified based on CA and PCA methods, and the results were in agreement with the lithology. Moreover, calcite and dolomite have stronger absorption of a THz pulse than any other minerals, based on an analysis of the PC1 scores. Quantitative analyses of minor minerals were also realized by building a series of linear and non-linear models between contents and PC2 scores. The results prove THz technology to be a promising means for determining reservoir lithology as well as other properties, which will be a significant supplementary method in oil fields.

  10. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium: The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Menodza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra towards the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 A broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pileup effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 A) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the XSTAR code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain: a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 x 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); ionization parameter of log xi = .2.70 +/- 0.023; oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689(exp +0.015./-0.010); and ionization fractions of O I/O = 0.911, O II/O = 0.077, and O III/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse and Sauval (1998), a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. (2009) yields A(sub O) = 0.952(exp +0.020/-0.013, a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard. We identify several atomic absorption lines.K-alpha , K-beta, and K-gamma in O I and O II; and K-alpha in O III, O VI, and O VII--last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated to ISM cold absorption.

  11. Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium:. [The Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analyses of oxygen K absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM) using four high-resolution Chandra spectra toward the X-ray low-mass binary XTE J1817-330. The 11-25 Angstrom broadband is described with a simple absorption model that takes into account the pile-up effect and results in an estimate of the hydrogen column density. The oxygen K-edge region (21-25 Angstroms) is fitted with the physical warmabs model, which is based on a photoionization model grid generated with the xstar code with the most up-to-date atomic database. This approach allows a benchmark of the atomic data which involves wavelength shifts of both the K lines and photoionization cross sections in order to fit the observed spectra accurately. As a result we obtain a column density of N(sub H) = 1.38 +/- 0.01 × 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2); an ionization parameter of log xi = -2.70 +/- 0.023; an oxygen abundance of A(sub O) = 0.689 (+0.015/-0.010); and ionization fractions of O(sub I)/O = 0.911, O(sub II)/O = 0.077, and O(sub III)/O = 0.012 that are in good agreement with results from previous studies. Since the oxygen abundance in warmabs is given relative to the solar standard of Grevesse & Sauval, a rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. yields A(sub O) = 0.952(+0.020/-0.013), a value close to solar that reinforces the new standard.We identify several atomic absorption lines-K(alpha), K(beta), and K(gamma) in O(sub I) and O(sub II) and K(alpha) in O(sub III), O(sub VI), and O(sub VII)-the last two probably residing in the neighborhood of the source rather than in the ISM. This is the first firm detection of oxygen K resonances with principal quantum numbers n greater than 2 associated with ISM cold absorption.

  12. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Neutral Perylene (C20H12), Terrylene (C30H16), and Quaterrylene (C40H20) and their Positive and Negative Ions: Ne Matrix-Isolation Spectroscopy and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a full experimental and theoretical study of an interesting series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the oligorylenes. The absorption spectra of perylene, terrylene and quaterrylene in neutral, cationic and anionic charge states are obtained by matrix-isolation spectroscopy in Ne. The experimental spectra are dominated by a bright state that red shifts with growing molecular size. Excitation energies and state symmetry assignments are supported by calculations using time dependent density functional theory methods. These calculations also provide new insight into the observed trends in oscillator strength and excitation energy for the bright states: the oscillator strength per unit mass of carbon increases along the series.

  13. Measurement of two-photon-absorption spectra through nonlinear fluorescence produced by a line-shaped excitation beam.

    PubMed

    Hasani, E; Parravicini, J; Tartara, L; Tomaselli, A; Tomassini, D

    2018-05-01

    We propose an innovative experimental approach to estimate the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum of a fluorescent material. Our method develops the standard indirect fluorescence-based method for the TPA measurement by employing a line-shaped excitation beam, generating a line-shaped fluorescence emission. Such a configuration, which requires a relatively high amount of optical power, permits to have a greatly increased fluorescence signal, thus avoiding the photon counterdetection devices usually used in these measurements, and allowing to employ detectors such as charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. The method is finally tested on a fluorescent isothiocyanate sample, whose TPA spectrum, which is measured with the proposed technique, is compared with the TPA spectra reported in the literature, confirming the validity of our experimental approach. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Dynamical effects in x-ray absorption spectra of graphene and monolayered h -BN on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusz, J.; Preobrajenski, A. B.; Ng, May Ling; Vinogradov, N. A.; Mårtensson, N.; Wessely, O.; Sanyal, B.; Eriksson, O.

    2010-02-01

    We present first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra of graphene and hexagonal BN monolayer on the Ni(111) substrate. Including dynamical core-hole screening effects according to the theory of Mahan-Nozières-de Dominics (MND) results in an overall good agreement with previously published experimental data and our new observations. This approach provides a unified first-principles description of the electronic structure and core excitations in the sp2 -bonded materials on metal surfaces and a better insight into the dynamics of screening effects. We demonstrate in particular that the observed spectral features of graphene and hexagonal BN can be well reproduced with the MND theory, and that they are determined by a delicate balance between initial and final-state effects.

  15. FTIR spectrometer with 30 m optical cell and its applications to the sensitive measurements of selective and nonselective absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Solodov, A. A.; Solodov, A. M.; Petrova, T. M.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    A description of the spectroscopic complex at V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS, operating in a wide spectral range with high threshold sensitivity to the absorption coefficient is presented. Measurements of weak lines and nonselective spectra of CO2 and H2O were performed based on the built setup. As new application of this setup, positions and intensities of 152 weak lines of H2O were measured between 2400 and 2560 cm-1 with threshold sensitivity of 8.6×10-10 cm-1, and compared with available calculated and experimental data. Essential deviations between the new intensity measurements and calculated data accepted in HITRAN 2012 and GEISA 2015 forthcoming release are found.

  16. Optical absorption spectra and g factor of MgO: Mn2+explored by ab initio and semi empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreici Eftimie, E.-L.; Avram, C. N.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculations of the optical absorption spectra, ligand field parameters and g factor for the Mn2+ (3d5) ions doped in MgO host crystal. The proposed technique combines two methods: the ab initio multireference (MR) and the semi empirical ligand field (LF) in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) respectively. Both methods of calculations are applied to the [MnO6]10-cluster embedded in an extended point charge field of host matrix ligands based on Gellé-Lepetit procedure. The first step of such investigations was the full optimization of the cubic structure of perfect MgO crystal, followed by the structural optimization of the doped of MgO:Mn2+ system, using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The ab initio MR wave functions approaches, such as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), N-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and spectroscopy oriented configuration interaction (SORCI), are used for the calculations. The scalar relativistic effects have also been taken into account through the second order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) procedure. Ab initio ligand field theory (AILFT) allows to extract all LF parameters and spin-orbit coupling constant from such calculations. In addition, the ECM of ligand field theory (LFT) has been used for modelling theoptical absorption spectra. The perturbation theory (PT) was employed for the g factor calculation in the semi empirical LFT. The results of each of the aforementioned types of calculations are discussed and the comparisons between the results obtained and the experimental results show a reasonable agreement, which justifies this new methodology based on the simultaneous use of both methods. This study establishes fundamental principles for the further modelling of larger embedded cluster models of doped metal oxides.

  17. Where Is the Electronic Oscillator Strength? Mapping Oscillator Strength across Molecular Absorption Spectra.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianjun; Polizzi, Nicholas F; Dave, Adarsh R; Migliore, Agostino; Beratan, David N

    2016-03-24

    The effectiveness of solar energy capture and conversion materials derives from their ability to absorb light and to transform the excitation energy into energy stored in free carriers or chemical bonds. The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule mandates that the integrated (electronic) oscillator strength of an absorber equals the total number of electrons in the structure. Typical molecular chromophores place only about 1% of their oscillator strength in the UV-vis window, so individual chromophores operate at about 1% of their theoretical limit. We explore the distribution of oscillator strength as a function of excitation energy to understand this circumstance. To this aim, we use familiar independent-electron model Hamiltonians as well as first-principles electronic structure methods. While model Hamiltonians capture the qualitative electronic spectra associated with π electron chromophores, these Hamiltonians mistakenly focus the oscillator strength in the fewest low-energy transitions. Advanced electronic structure methods, in contrast, spread the oscillator strength over a very wide excitation energy range, including transitions to Rydberg and continuum states, consistent with experiment. Our analysis rationalizes the low oscillator strength in the UV-vis spectral region in molecules, a step toward the goal of oscillator strength manipulation and focusing.

  18. Collisional Processing of Comet and Asteroid Surfaces: Velocity Effects on Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm has emerged where 3.9 Gyr ago, a violent reshuffling reshaped the placement of small bodies in the solar system (the Nice model). Surface properties of these objects may have been affected by collisions caused by this event, and by collisions with other small bodies since their emplacement. These impacts affect the spectrographic observations of these bodies today. Shock effects (e.g., planar dislocations) manifest in minerals allowing astronomers to better understand geophysical impact processing that has occurred on small bodies. At the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center, we have impacted forsterite and enstatite across a range of velocities. We find that the amount of spectral variation, absorption wavelength, and full width half maximum of the absorbance peaks vary non-linearly with the velocity of the impact. We also find that the spectral variation increases with decreasing crystal size (single solid rock versus granular). Future analyses include quantification of the spectral changes with different impactor densities, temperature, and additional impact velocities. Results on diopside, fayalite, and magnesite can be found in Lederer et al., this meeting.

  19. Optical absorption spectra of the uranium (4+) ion in the thorium germanate matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, Z.; Krupa, J. C.; Antic-Fidancev, E.

    1997-01-01

    Visible and infrared absorption measurements on the 0953-8984/9/2/023/img6 ion in tetragonal zircon-type matrix 0953-8984/9/2/023/img7 are reported and analysed in terms of the standard parametrization scheme. The observed 17 main peaks and a number of less intense lines have been assigned and fitted to most of the 32 allowed electric dipole transitions with the root mean square error equal to 0953-8984/9/2/023/img8. The free-ion parameters obtained for the model Hamiltonian, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img9, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img10, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img11 and 0953-8984/9/2/023/img12, as well as the corresponding crystal-field parameters, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img13, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img14, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img15, 0953-8984/9/2/023/img16 and 0953-8984/9/2/023/img17, agree fairly well with the initial theoretical estimations. The results are discussed in relation to the previous spectroscopic study on the scheelite-type matrix 0953-8984/9/2/023/img18.

  20. Absorption Spectra and Photoreactivity of p-Aminobenzophenone by Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xue-mei; Huang, Yao; Ma, Jian-yi; Li, Xiang-yuan

    2007-06-01

    The absorption spectral properties of para-aminobenzophenone (p-ABP) were investigated in gas phase and in solution by time-dependent density functional theory. Calculations suggest that the singlet states vary greatly with the solvent polarities. In various polar solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl formamide, the excited S1 states with charge transfer character result from π → π* transitions. However, in nonpolar solvents, cyclohexane, and benzene, the S1 states are the result of n → π* transitions related to local excitation in the carbonyl group. The excited T1 states were calculated to have ππ* character in various solvents. From the variation of the calculated excited states, the band due to π → π* transition undergoes a redshift with an increase in solvent polarity, while the band due to n → π* transition undergoes a blueshift with an increase in solvent polarity. In addition, the triplet yields and the photoreactivities of p-ABP in various solvents are discussed.

  1. Structure and electronic absorption spectra of nematogenic alkoxycinnamic acids - a comparative study based on semiempirical and DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Pogula Lakshmi; Ojha, Durga Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Structure of nematogenic p-n-Alkoxy cinnamic acids (nOCAC) with various alkyl chain carbon atoms (n = 2, 4, 6, 8) has been optimized using density functional B3LYP with 6-31+G (d) basis set using crystallographic geometry as input. Using the optimized geometry, electronic structure of the molecules has been evaluated using the semiempirical methods and DFT calculations. Molecular charge distribution and phase stability of these systems have been analyzed based on Mulliken and Löwdin population analysis. The electronic absorption spectra of nOCAC molecules have been simulated by employing DFT method, semiempirical CNDO/S and INDO/S parameterizations. Two types of calculations have been performed for model systems containing single and double molecules of nOCAC. UV-Visible spectra have been calculated for all single molecules. The UV stability of the molecules has been discussed in light of the electronic transition oscillator strength (f). The dimer complexes of higher homologues (n = 6, 8) have also been reported to enable the comparison between single and double molecules.

  2. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almandoz, M. C.; Sancho, M. I.; Blanco, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π*). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  3. The IR Absorption Spectra of Aqueous Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide over the Frequency Range 50-300 cm-1 and the Mobility of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemenkova, Z. S.; Novskova, T. A.; Lyashchenko, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The IR absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with concentrations from 100% H2O to 100% DMSO were recorded over the frequency range 50-500 cm-1. The absorption spectra were described using the theoretical scheme of hindered rotators. A model was developed according to which orientation relaxation in solution was related to separate rotations of H2O and DMSO molecules through fixed small and (or) large angles in a unified network of H-bonds consisting of several subsystems ordered to various degrees. The calculated absorption spectra were in agreement with the experimental data in the far IR region. Elementary motions of molecules were found to slow down in the passage from pure dimethylsulfoxide to its aqueous solutions. The special features of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration of DMSO polar and nonpolar groups were considered.

  4. Calculation of the visible-UV absorption spectra of hydrogen sulfide, bisulfide, polysulfides, and As and Sb sulfides, in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Tossell, JA

    2003-01-01

    Recently we showed that visible-UV spectra in aqueous solution can be accurately calculated for arsenic (III) bisulfides, such as As(SH)3, As(SH)2S- and their oligomers. The calculated lowest energy transitions for these species were diagnostic of their protonation and oligomerization state. We here extend these studies to As and Sb oxidation state III and v sulfides and to polysulfides Sn2-, n = 2–6, the bisulfide anion, SH-, hydrogen sulfide, H2S and the sulfanes, SnH2, n = 2–5. Many of these calculations are more difficult than those performed for the As(iii) bisulfides, since the As and Sb(v) species are more acidic and therefore exist as highly charged anions in neutral and basic solutions. In general, small and/or highly charged anions are more difficult to describe computationally than larger, monovalent anions or neutral molecules. We have used both Hartree-Fock based (CI Singles and Time-Dependent HF) and density functional based (TD B3LYP) techniques for the calculations of absorption energy and intensity and have used both explicit water molecules and a polarizable continuum to describe the effects of hydration. We correctly reproduce the general trends observed experimentally, with absorption energies increasing from polysulfides to As, Sb sulfides to SH- to H2S. As and Sb(v) species, both monomers and dimers, also absorb at characteristically higher energies than do the analogous As and Sb(III)species. There is also a small reduction in absorption energy from monomeric to dimeric species, for both As and Sb III and v. The polysufides, on the other hand, show no simple systematic changes in UV spectra with chain length, n, or with protonation state. Our results indicate that for the As and Sb sulfides, the oxidation state, degree of protonation and degree of oligomerization can all be determined from the visible-UV absorption spectrum. We have also calculated the aqueous phase energetics for the reaction of S8 with SH- to produce the polysulfides

  5. Kα X-Ray Emission Spectra and K X-Ray Absorption-Edge Structures of Fluorine in 3d Transition-Metal Difluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Chikara

    1991-08-01

    The fluorine Kα emission spectra in fluorescence from a series of 3d transition-metal difluorides MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) have been measured with a high-resolution two-crystal vacuum spectrometer. It is shown that the observed FWHM of the Kα1,2 emission band is closely related to the difference in the electronegativity between the metal and fluorine atoms. The measured emission spectra are presented along with the UPS or XPS spectra of the valence bands and the fluorine K absorption spectra of the metal difluorides, reported previously. The structures at the fluorine K absorption edges are interpreted in terms of a molecular orbital (MO) model.

  6. Accounting for nanometer-thick adventitious carbon contamination in X-ray absorption spectra of carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Mangolini, Filippo; McClimon, J Brandon; Rose, Franck; Carpick, Robert W

    2014-12-16

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for characterizing the composition and bonding state of nanoscale materials and the top few nanometers of bulk and thin film specimens. When coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy, it enables chemical imaging of materials with nanometer-scale lateral spatial resolution. However, analysis of NEXAFS spectra is often performed under the assumption of structural and compositional homogeneity within the nanometer-scale depth probed by this technique. This assumption can introduce large errors when analyzing the vast majority of solid surfaces due to the presence of complex surface and near-surface structures such as oxides and contamination layers. An analytical methodology is presented for removing the contribution of these nanoscale overlayers from NEXAFS spectra of two-layered systems to provide a corrected photoabsorption spectrum of the substrate. This method relies on the subtraction of the NEXAFS spectrum of the overlayer adsorbed on a reference surface from the spectrum of the two-layer system under investigation, where the thickness of the overlayer is independently determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach is applied to NEXAFS data acquired for one of the most challenging cases: air-exposed hard carbon-based materials with adventitious carbon contamination from ambient exposure. The contribution of the adventitious carbon was removed from the as-acquired spectra of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) to determine the intrinsic photoabsorption NEXAFS spectra of these materials. The method alters the calculated fraction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon from 5 to 20% and reveals that the adventitious contamination can be described as a layer containing carbon and oxygen ([O]/[C] = 0.11 ± 0.02) with a thickness of 0.6 ± 0.2 nm and a fraction of sp(2)-bonded carbon of 0.19 ± 0.03. This

  7. Investigation of infrared spectra of atmospheric gases to support stratospheric spectroscopic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Four papers are presented which discuss the following: information measures in nonlinear experimental design; information in spectra of collision broadened absorption lines; band analysis by spectral curve fitting; and least squares analysis of Voight shaped lines. Abstracts of five research papers on which the author collaborated and which were delivered at the 34th Symposium of Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, June 1979) are included along with a subroutine for use with BMDP3R to retrieve the parameters of 10 Voight shaped lines.

  8. Spectral study of suggested Apollo sites. [proposals for financial support and the electronic spectra of pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrophotometry (0.3 to 1.1 microns) of visited and proposed Apollo landing sites is presented along with proposals for financial support of the spectral study. The electronic spectra of pyroxenes is investigated along with an interpretation of telescopic spectral reflectivity curves of the moon. Reprints of published articles related to these studies are included.

  9. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-06-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.

  10. Interaction of thioflavin T with amyloid fibrils: stoichiometry and affinity of dye binding, absorption spectra of bound dye.

    PubMed

    Sulatskaya, Anna I; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2011-10-06

    The fluorescence of the benzothiazole dye thioflavin T (ThT) is a well-known test for amyloid fibril formation. It has now become evident that ThT can also be used for structural investigations of amyloid fibrils and even for the treatment of amyloid diseases. In this case, one of the most urgent problems is an accurate determination of ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters: the number of binding modes, stoichiometry, and binding constant for each mode. To obtain information concerning the ThT-amyloid fibril binding parameters, we propose to use absorption spectrophotometry of solutions prepared by equilibrium microdialysis. This approach is inherently designed for the determination of dye-receptor binding parameters. However, it has been very rarely used in the study of dye-protein interactions and has never been used to study the binding parameters of ThT or its analogues to amyloid fibrils. We showed that, when done in corpore, this approach enables the determination of not only binding parameters but also the absorption spectrum and molar extinction coefficient of ThT bound to sites of different binding modes. The proposed approach was used for the examination of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. Two binding modes were found for the ThT-lysozyme amyloid fibril interaction. These binding modes have significantly different binding constants (K(b1) = 7.5 × 10(6) M(-1), K(b2) = 5.6 × 10(4) M(-1)) and a different number of dye binding sites on the amyloid fibrils per protein molecule (n(1) = 0.11, n(2) = 0.24). The absorption spectra of ThT bound to sites of different modes differ from each other (ε(b1,max) = 5.1 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1), ε(b2,max) = 6.7 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 449 nm) and significantly differ from that of free ThT in aqueous solution (ε(max) = 3.2 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1), λ(max) = 412 nm). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. One- and two-photon absorption spectra of the yellow fluorescent protein citrine: effects of intramolecular electron-vibrational coupling and intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fasheng; Zhao, Xinyi; Liang, WanZhen

    2018-04-01

    Both the vibrationally resolved and statistically averaged one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of the anionic form of chromophore (AC) in its micro-environment of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) Citrine have been calculated. The result comparison has been made with those of the AC model compounds in vacuo and methanol solution, which allows us to allocate the individual contribution of the intramolecular electron-vibrational coupling, the electrostatic π-stacking interaction between Tyr203 and AC, and the interaction between AC and its micro-environment to the spectra. The results reveal that the non-Condon vibronic coupling effect is responsible for the blue shift of TPA absorption maximum compared with its OPA counterpart corresponding to S0 → S1, and that the π-stacking interaction between Tyr203 and AC alters the relative intensities of TPA maxima, which further enhances the higher-energy vibronic peaks and weakens the lowest-energy peak. The statically averaged OPA and TPA spectra calculated by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods based on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation largely deviate the experimental spectral lineshapes, which further verifies the significant contribution of non-Condon vibronic coupling effect on the spectra. The interaction of individual amino acid residue or water close to AC+Tyr203 has different effects on the spectra, which may increase/decrease the excitation energy depending on its position and electronic property.

  12. TD-M06-2X insights into the absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and its molecularly imprinted recognition by methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    The absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and the dichlorvos-MAA complex in methanol, water, and chloroform in the molecularly imprinted recognition were investigated systematically. The M06-2X results revealed that: 1) the hydroxyl groups in polar solvents such as methanol and water may markedly influence the weak interactions, and then alter the adsorption and emission spectra; 2) the electronic excitation in absorption spectra of dichlorvos is dominated by the configuration HOMO → LUMO, but in the most stable dichlorvos-MAA it becomes the ππ* excitation of HOMO → LUMO + 1; 3) Mulliken charges reveal that dichlorvos almost dissociates to Cl - and a cation in its S 1 excitation state; 4) the phosphorescence spectra of dichlorvos-MAA are relatively weak. Graphical Abstract The absorption and emission spectra of dichlorvos and the dichlorvos-MAA complex in the molecularly imprinted recognition of dichlorvos were investigated systematically in methanol, water, and chloroform as solvents.

  13. Unexpected solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and benzene: in contrast with non-aromatic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dong; Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Ma, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Xizhang; Liu, Ziteng

    2018-01-01

    Cresol is a prototype molecule in understanding intermolecular interactions in material and biological systems, because it offers different binding sites with various solvents and protonation states under different pH values. It is found that the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene) are characterized by a sharp peak, unlike the broad double-peaks in 11 non-aromatic solvents. Both molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations revealed the formation of intermolecular π-complexation between o-cresol and aromatic solvents. The thermal movements of solvent and solute molecules render the conformations of o-cresol changing between trans and cis isomers. The π-interaction makes the cis configuration a dominant isomer, hence leading to the single keen-edged UV/Vis absorption peak at approximately 283 nm. The free conformation changes between trans and cis in aqueous solution rationalize the broader absorption peaks in the range of 260–280 nm. The pH dependence of the UV/Vis absorption spectra in aqueous solutions is also rationalized by different protonation states of o-cresol. The explicit solvent model with long-ranged interactions is vital to describe the effects of π-complexation and electrostatic interaction on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and alkaline aqueous (pH > 10.3) solutions, respectively. PMID:29657794

  14. Unexpected solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o-cresol in toluene and benzene: in contrast with non-aromatic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Yuan, Xiang-Ai; Ma, Haibo; Li, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Xizhang; Liu, Ziteng; Ma, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Cresol is a prototype molecule in understanding intermolecular interactions in material and biological systems, because it offers different binding sites with various solvents and protonation states under different pH values. It is found that the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o -cresol in aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene) are characterized by a sharp peak, unlike the broad double-peaks in 11 non-aromatic solvents. Both molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations revealed the formation of intermolecular π-complexation between o -cresol and aromatic solvents. The thermal movements of solvent and solute molecules render the conformations of o -cresol changing between trans and cis isomers. The π-interaction makes the cis configuration a dominant isomer, hence leading to the single keen-edged UV/Vis absorption peak at approximately 283 nm. The free conformation changes between trans and cis in aqueous solution rationalize the broader absorption peaks in the range of 260-280 nm. The pH dependence of the UV/Vis absorption spectra in aqueous solutions is also rationalized by different protonation states of o -cresol. The explicit solvent model with long-ranged interactions is vital to describe the effects of π-complexation and electrostatic interaction on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of o -cresol in toluene and alkaline aqueous (pH > 10.3) solutions, respectively.

  15. XAS spectroelectrochemistry: reliable measurement of X-ray absorption spectra from redox manipulated solutions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Best, Stephen P; Levina, Aviva; Glover, Chris; Johannessen, Bernt; Kappen, Peter; Lay, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    The design and operation of a low-volume spectroelectrochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of solutions at room temperature is described. Fluorescence XAS measurements are obtained from samples contained in the void space of a 50 µL reticulated vitreous carbon (sponge) working electrode. Both rapid electrosynthesis and control of the effects of photoreduction are achieved by control over the flow properties of the solution through the working electrode, where a good balance between the rate of consumption of sample and the minimization of decomposition was obtained by pulsing the flow of the solution by 1-2 µL with duty cycle of ∼3 s while maintaining a small net flow rate (26-100 µL h(-1)). The performance of the cell in terms of control of the redox state of the sample and minimization of the effects of photoreduction was demonstrated by XAS measurements of aqueous solutions of the photosensitive Fe(III) species, [Fe(C2O4)3](3-), together with that of the electrogenerated [Fe(C2O4)3](4-) product. The current response from the cell during the collection of XAS spectra provides an independent measure of the stability of the sample of the measurement. The suitability of the approach for the study of small volumes of mM concentrations of protein samples was demonstrated by the measurement of the oxidized and electrochemically reduced forms of cytochrome c.

  16. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of 5-(4-substituted arylazo)-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Gordana S.; Mijin, Dusanˇ Z. ˇ; Valentić, Nataša V.; Vajs, Vlatka V.; Sušić, Biljana M.

    2004-10-01

    Absorption spectra of ten 5-(4-substituted arylazo)-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-cyano-2-pyridones have been recorded in fifteen solvents in the range 200-600 nm. The substituents at the phenyl nucleus are as follows: OH, OCH 3, CH 3, C 2H 5, H, Cl, Br, I, COOH and NO 2. The effects of substituents on the absorption spectra of investigated compounds are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple Hammett equation. The effects of solvent polarity and solvent/solute hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by means of linear solvation energy relationships concept proposed by Kamlet and Taft. The azo-hydrazone tuatomeric equilibration is found to depend upon substituents as well as on solvents.

  17. Phase-dependent absorption features in X-ray spectra of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghese, A.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Turolla, R.; Tiengo, A.; Zane, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed phase-resolved spectroscopy of archival XMM-Newton observations of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINSs) led to the discovery of narrow and strongly phase-dependent absorption features in two of these sources. The first was discovered in the X-ray spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125, followed by a new possible candidate in RX J1308.6+2127. Both spectral lines have similar properties: they are detected for only ˜ 20% of the rotational cycle and appear to be stable over the timespan covered by the observations. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of these phase-variable features and in both cases the outcome has confirmed the detection with a confidence level > 4.6σ. Because of the narrow width and the strong dependence on the pulsar rotational phase, the most likely interpretation for these spectral features is in terms of resonant proton cyclotron absorption scattering in a confined high-B structure close to the stellar surface. Within the framework of this interpretation, our results provide evidence for deviations from a pure dipole magnetic field on small scales for highly magnetized neutron stars and support the proposed scenario of XDINSs being aged magnetars, with a strong non-dipolar crustal B-field component.

  18. Classification of Stellar Spectra with Fuzzy Minimum Within-Class Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-bao, Liu; Wen-ai, Song; Jing, Zhang; Wen-juan, Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Classification is one of the important tasks in astronomy, especially in spectra analysis. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a typical classification method, which is widely used in spectra classification. Although it performs well in practice, its classification accuracies can not be greatly improved because of two limitations. One is it does not take the distribution of the classes into consideration. The other is it is sensitive to noise. In order to solve the above problems, inspired by the maximization of the Fisher's Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and the SVM separability constraints, fuzzy minimum within-class support vector machine (FMWSVM) is proposed in this paper. In FMWSVM, the distribution of the classes is reflected by the within-class scatter in FDA and the fuzzy membership function is introduced to decrease the influence of the noise. The comparative experiments with SVM on the SDSS datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed classifier FMWSVM.

  19. Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapour transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of water-vapour overtone and combination bands at high pressures is complicated by pressure broadening and shifting of individual lines and the blending of neighbouring transitions. An experimental and computational methodology is developed to determine accurate high-pressure absorption spectra. This case study investigates two water-vapour transitions, one near 1388 nm (7203.9 cm-1) and the other near 1345 nm (7435.6 cm-1), for potential two-line absorption measurements of temperature in the range of 400-1050 K with a pressure varying from 5-25 atm. The required quantitative spectroscopy data (line strength, collisional broadening, and pressure-induced frequency shift) of the target transitions and their neighbours (a total of four H2O vapour transitions near 1388 nm and six transitions near 1345 nm) are measured in neat H2O vapour, H2O-air and H2O-CO2 mixtures as a function of temperature (296-1000 K) at low pressures (<800 Torr). Precise values of the line strength S(T), pressure-broadening coefficients γair(T) and \\gamma _{CO_2 } (T), and pressure-shift coefficients δair(T) and \\delta _{CO_2 } (T) for the ten transitions were inferred from the measured spectra and compared with data from HITRAN 2004. A hybrid spectroscopic database was constructed by modifying HITRAN 2004 to incorporate these values for simulation of water-vapour-absorption spectra at high pressures. Simulations using this hybrid database are in good agreement with high pressure experiments and demonstrate that data collected at modest pressures can be used to simulate high-pressure absorption spectra.

  20. A study on the magnetic susceptibilities and optical absorption spectra on single crystals of Gd(III) pyrogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, T.; Ghosh, D.; Wanklyn, B. M.

    1990-04-01

    The paper reports for the first time the experimental results of the measurements of magnetic susceptibilities ( K⊥ and K|) and their anisotropy (Δ K) between 300 and 21.8 K and the optical absorption spectra (UV region) at 12.5 K on single crystals of gadolinium pyrogermanate (GdPG). The anisotropy, which is only 211×10 -6 emu/mol at room temperature and increases by two orders of magnitude at 21 K, is predominantly a crystal field (CF) effect on the 8S {7}/{2} ground term, through higher order perturbations. Interpretation of the observed magnetic data was carried out by considering a conventional spin Hamiltonian ( Hs) to derive expressions for K⊥ and K| in terms of four effective crystal field parameters (ECFP). The value s of ECFP were varied to obtain a very close fitting between the theoretical and experimental values of K⊥, K|, δ K and K¯ The splitting of the 8S {7}/{2} term corresponding to these values of ECFP was found to be large, which suggests a strong CF effect in GdPG, as also observed in other RPG crystal studied earlier. The thermal characteristics of the magnetic anisotropy below 30 K deviate by about 5% which could not be explained by CF effects alone. A series expansion method was adopted to analyse the results of K⊥ and K| below 30 K, however the corresponding coefficient B2α and B3α were observed t o be unusually high indicating the presence of CF effect even in this temperature region. The Schottky specific heat, Csch, between 300 and 21 K for GdPG has been calculated and this shows a maximum at Tmax=17 K.

  1. Influence of the pH value of a colloidal gold solution on the absorption spectra of an LSPR-assisted sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Wenbin; Zhu, Mao

    2014-03-15

    The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of gold particles assembled on a crystal plate are a powerful tool for biological sensors. Here, we prepare gold colloids in different pH solutions. We monitor the effects of the particle radius and particle coverage on the absorption spectra of AT-cut (r-face dihedral angle of about 3°) crystal plates supporting gold nanoparticles. The surface morphologies were monitored on silicon dioxide substrates using ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the gold particle coverage decreases with increasing pH value of the gold colloid solution. This phenomenon demonstrates thatmore » self-assembled gold surfaces were formed via the electrostatic adsorption of gold particles on the positively charged, ionized amino groups on the crystal plates in the acidic solution. The spectrum of gold nanoparticles with different coverage degree on the crystal plates showed that the LSPR properties are highly dependent on pH.« less

  2. Absorption spectra measurements of the x-ray radiation heated SiO2 aerogel plasma in 'dog-bone' targets irradiated by high power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y.-K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Takabe, H.

    2008-05-01

    We studied the opacity effect of the SiO2 aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 Å to 7.4 Å, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.

  3. MODELING THE HARD TeV SPECTRA OF BLAZARS 1ES 0229+200 AND 3C 66A WITH AN INTERNAL ABSORPTION SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharopoulou, O.; Aharonian, F. A.; Khangulyan, D.

    2011-09-10

    We study the applicability of the idea of internal absorption of {gamma}-rays produced through synchrotron radiation of ultrarelativistic protons in highly magnetized blobs to 1ES 0229+200 and 3C 66A, the two TeV blazars which show unusually hard intrinsic {gamma}-ray spectra after being corrected for the intergalactic absorption. We show that for certain combinations of reasonable model parameters, even with quite modest energy requirements, the scenario allows a self-consistent explanation of the non-thermal emission of these objects in the keV, GeV, and TeV energy bands.

  4. DFT Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-31

    of isolated molecules and that of bulk systems. DFT calculated absorption spectra represent quantitative estimates that can be correlated with...spectra, can be correlated with the presence of these hydrocarbons (see reference [1]). Accordingly, the molecular structure and IR absorption spectra of...associated with different types of ambient molecules, e.g., H2O, in order to apply background subtraction or spectral-signature- correlation algorithms

  5. FIRST ULTRAVIOLET REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF PLUTO AND CHARON BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: DETECTION OF ABSORPTION FEATURES AND EVIDENCE FOR TEMPORAL CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Shinn, A.

    We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectralmore » absorption on Charon is also reported.« less

  6. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  7. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  8. Path integral Monte Carlo study on the structure and absorption spectra of alkali atoms (Li, Na, K) attached to superfluid helium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Akira; Yamashita, Koichi

    2001-01-01

    Path integral Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to investigate the microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of the AkṡHeN (Ak=Li, Na, K,N⩽300) clusters at T=0.5 K. Absorption spectra which correspond to the 2P←2S transitions of alkali atoms are also calculated within a pairwise additive model, which employs diatomic Ak-He potential energy curves. The size dependences of the cluster structure and absorption spectra that show the influence of the helium cluster environment are examined in detail. It is found that alkali atoms are trapped in a dimple on the helium cluster's surface and that, from the asymptotic behavior, the AkṡHe300 cluster, at least semiquantitatively, mimics the local structure of experimentally produced large helium clusters in the vicinity of alkali atoms. We have successfully reproduced the overall shapes of the spectra and explained their features from a static and structural point of view. The positions, relative intensities, and line widths of the absorption maxima are calculated to be in moderate agreement with experiments [F. Stienkemeier, J. Higgins, C. Callegari, S. I. Kanorsky, W. E. Ernst, and G. Scoles, Z. Phys. D 38, 253 (1996)].

  9. Artifact suppression in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals with asymmetric absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Wataru; Miyake, Yusuke; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    This article describes an improved method for suppressing image artifacts in the visualization of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals in a single image scan using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The purpose of this work was to solve the problem of asymmetric EPR absorption spectra in spectral processing. A hybrid function of Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes was used to perform spectral line-fitting to successfully separate the two kinds of nitroxyl radicals. This approach can process the asymmetric EPR absorption spectra of the nitroxyl radicals being measured, and can suppress image artifacts due to spectral asymmetry. With this improved visualization method and a 750-MHz continuous-wave EPR imager, a temporal change in the distributions of a two-phase paraffin oil and water/glycerin solution system was visualized using lipophilic and hydrophilic nitroxyl radicals, i.e., 2-(14-carboxytetradecyl)-2-ethyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy (16-DOXYL stearic acid) and 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-15N-1-oxyl (TEMPOL-d17-15N). The results of the two-phase separation experiment verified that reasonable artifact suppression could be achieved by the present method that deals with asymmetric absorption spectra in the EPR imaging of 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.

  10. Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Naixing; Qi Ping

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml ofmore » Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.« less

  11. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.; ...

    2018-04-24

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  12. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  13. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Coastal Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System. Measuring the Absorption of CDOM in the Field Using a Multiple Pathlength Liquid Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, a(sub CDOM), and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values (r > 0.99) and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of a(sub CDOM) measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of a(sub CDOM) for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5/m. At low CDOM concentrations (a(sub 370) < 0.1/m) spectrophotometric a(sub CDOM) were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples. The maximum deviation in replicate MPLCW spectra was less than 0.001 absorbance units. The portability, sampling, and optical characteristics of a MPLCW system provide significant enhancements for routine CDOM absorption measurements in a broad range of natural waters.

  14. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Ethane (C2H6) From Aircraft and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra in the 3000/ cm Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. Malathy; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number or prominent Q-branches or the upsilon(sub 7) band or C2H6 have been identified near 3000/ cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The, ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10(exp 15) molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  15. Infrared measurements of atmospheric ethane (C2H6) from aircraft and ground-based solar absorption spectra in the 3000/cm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Goldman, A.; Rinsland, C. P.; Harvey, G. A.; Devi, V. M.; Stokes, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of prominent Q-branches of the nu-7 band of C2H6 have been identified near 3000/cm in aircraft and ground-based infrared solar absorption spectra. The aircraft spectra provide the column amount above 12 km at various altitudes. The column amount is strongly correlated with tropopause height and can be described by a constant mixing ratio of 0.46 ppbv in the upper troposphere and a mixing ratio scale height of 3.9 km above the tropopause. The ground-based spectra yield a column of 9.0 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm above 2.1 km; combining these results implies a tropospheric mixing ratio of approximately 0.63 ppbv.

  16. Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majzlan, Juraj; Alpers, Charles N.; Bender Koch, Christian; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Myneni, Satish B.C.; Neil, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and M??ssbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, r??merite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3??5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750-4000cm-1 are presented for all studied phases. Position of the FTIR bands is discussed in terms of the vibrations of sulfate ions, hydroxyl groups, and water molecules. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected for selected samples. The feature of greatest interest is a series of weak pre-edge peaks whose position is determined by the number of bridging oxygen atoms between Fe3+ octahedra and sulfate tetrahedra. M??ssbauer spectra of selected samples were obtained at room temperature and 80K for ferric minerals jarosite and rhomboclase and mixed ferric-ferrous minerals r??merite, voltaite, and copiapite. Values of Fe2+/[Fe2++Fe3+] determined by M??ssbauer spectroscopy agree well with those determined by wet chemical analysis. The data presented here can be used as standards in spectroscopic work where spectra of well-characterized compounds are required to identify complex mixtures of minerals and related phases. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majzlan, Juraj; Alpers, Charles N.; Bender Koch, Christian; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Myneni, Satish B.C.; Neil, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, römerite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750–4000 cm−1 are presented for all studied phases. Position of the FTIR bands is discussed in terms of the vibrations of sulfate ions, hydroxyl groups, and water molecules. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected for selected samples. The feature of greatest interest is a series of weak pre-edge peaks whose position is determined by the number of bridging oxygen atoms between Fe3+ octahedra and sulfate tetrahedra. Mössbauer spectra of selected samples were obtained at room temperature and 80 K for ferric minerals jarosite and rhomboclase and mixed ferric–ferrous minerals römerite, voltaite, and copiapite. Values of Fe2+/[Fe2+ + Fe3+] determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy agree well with those determined by wet chemical analysis. The data presented here can be used as standards in spectroscopic work where spectra of well-characterized compounds are required to identify complex mixtures of minerals and related phases.

  18. Ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of Cr2O3 doped-sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate glasses and effects of gamma irradiation: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, M A; ElBatal, F H; Abdelghany, A M

    2013-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on spectral properties of Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses of three varieties, namely sodium metaphosphate, lead metaphosphate and zinc metaphosphate have been investigated. Optical spectra of the undoped samples reveal strong UV absorption bands which are attributed to the presence of trace iron impurities in both the sodium and zinc phosphate glasses while the lead phosphate glass exhibits broad UV near visible bands due to combined absorption of both trace iron impurities and divalent lead ions. The effect of chromium oxide content has been investigated. The three different Cr2O3-doped phosphate glasses reveal spectral visible bands varying in their position and intensity and splitting due to the different field strengths of the Na(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+) cations, together with the way they are housed in the network and their effects on the polarisability of neighboring oxygens ligands. The effects of gamma irradiation on the optical spectral properties of the various glasses have been compared. The different effects for lead and zinc phosphate are related to the ability of Pb(2+), and Zn(2+) to form additional structural units causing stability of the network towards gamma irradiation. Also, the introduction of the transition metal chromium ions reveals some shielding behavior towards irradiation. Infrared absorption spectra of the three different base phosphate glasses show characteristic vibrations due to various phosphate groups depending on the type of glass and Cr2O3 is observed to slightly affect the IR spectra. Gamma irradiation causes minor variations in some of the intensities of the IR spectra but the main characteristic bands due to phosphate groups remain in their number and position. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laboratory Far-infrared Spectroscopy Of Terrestrial Phyllosilicates To Support Analysis Of Cosmic Dust Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet; Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. H.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poster Abstract: 219th AAS Meeting M. Yesiltas1, T. Brusentsova1, R. E. Peale1, D. Maukonen1, P. Figueiredo1, G. E. Harlow2, D. S. Ebel2, A. Nissinboim2, K. Sherman2, and C. M. Lisse3 Remote spectral detection of hydrated minerals is of general interest in the solar system and dusty circumstellar disks. This paper presents spectroscopy of terrestrial phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 15 - 250 µm to support interpretation of returned data from far-IR space-missions such as the Herschel Space Observatory. The far-IR spectral region beyond 15 micron wavelength is especially diagnostic of mineral composition and crystal structure. Relatively little far-IR spectral data exists in the literature on suitably-characterized naturally-occurring phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 60-210 microns corresponding to the PACS instrument of Herschel Space Observatory. Extending the database of laboratory far-IR spectra of terrestrial mineral analogs is therefore desirable and timely. Seventeen phyllosilicate minerals expected in various astronomical environments were sampled from the American Museum of Natural History for diversity and astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric IDP samples, or in meteorites. These include serpentines (Antigorite and Chrysotile), smectites (Talc, Pyrophyllite, Vermiculite, Montmorillonite, Beidellite, Saponite, Nontronite and Hectorite), chlorites (Clinochlore), micas (Muscovite, Paragonite, Margarite, Clintonite, Biotite and Illite), and kaolinites (Dickite, Nacrite, Kaolinite, Halloysite, Attapulgite and Sepiolite). Spectra of micron-sized powder suspensions in polyethelyne pellets reveal prominent and characteristic far-IR features, which differ significantly in some cases from already published spectra, where available. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by NASA-JPL Contract # 1327221. 1Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 USA2

  20. Triosmium Clusters on a Support: Determination of Structure by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and High-Resolution Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shareghe, Mehraeen; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of small, robust metal clusters on a solid support were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods: extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and aberration-corrected STEM. The samples were synthesized from [Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] on MgO powder to provide supported clusters intended to be triosmium. The results demonstrate that the supported clusters are robust in the absence of oxidants. Conventional high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images demonstrate a high degree of uniformity of the clusters, with root-mean-square (rms) radii of 2.03 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. The EXAFS OsOs coordination number ofmore » 2.1 {+-} 0.4 confirms the presence of triosmium clusters on average and correspondingly determines an average rms cluster radius of 2.02 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom}. The high-resolution STEM images show the individual Os atoms in the clusters, confirming the triangular structures of their frames and determining OsOs distances of 2.80 {+-} 0.14 {angstrom}, matching the EXAFS value of 2.89 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. IR and EXAFS spectra demonstrate the presence of CO ligands on the clusters. This set of techniques is recommended as optimal for detailed and reliable structural characterization of supported clusters.« less

  1. Ultraviolet Spectra of Two Magnetic White Dwarfs and Ultraviolet Spectra of Subluminous Objects Found in the Kiso Schmidt Survey and Ultraviolet Absorptions in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Research under NASA Grant NAG5-287 has carried out a number of projects in conjunction with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. These include: (1) studies of the UV spectra of DA white dwarfs which show quasi-molecular bands of H2 and H2(+); (2) the peculiar star HR6560; (3) the UV spectra of two magnetic white dwarfs that also show the quasi-molecular features; (4) investigations of the UV spectra of subluminous stars, primarily identified from visual wavelength spectroscopy in the Kiso survey of UV excess stars, some of which show interesting metal lines in their UV spectra; and (5) completion of studies of UV spectra of DB stars. The main result of this research has been to further knowledge of the structure and compositions of subluminous stars which helps cast light on their formation and evolution.

  2. Effects of solvent polarity on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds: determination of the dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abebe; Libnedengel, Ermias; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-02-01

    The effects of solvent polarity on absorption and fluorescence spectra of biologically active compounds (chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acids (CA)) have been investigated. In both spectra pronounced solvatochromic effects were observed with shift of emission peaks larger than the corresponding UV-vis electronic absorption spectra. From solvatochromic theory the ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined experimentally and theoretically. The differences between the excited and ground state dipole moment determined by Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt equations are quite similar. The ground and excited-state dipole moments were determined by theoretical quantum chemical calculation using density function theory (DFT) method (Gaussian 09) and were also similar to the experimental results. The HOMO-LUMO energy band gaps for CGA and CFA were calculated and found to be 4.1119 and 1.8732 eV respectively. The results also indicated the CGA molecule is more stable than that of CFA. It was also observed that in both compounds the excited state possesses a higher dipole moment than that of the ground state. This confirms that the excited state of the hydroxycinnamic compounds is more polarized than that of the ground state and therefore is more sensitive to the solvent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and FT infrared absorption spectra of some Nd3+-doped soda lime phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Elkashef, I. M.; Elbatal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study by two collective optical and FTIR spectral measurements some prepared Nd2O3-doped soda lime phosphate glasses before and after gamma irradiation with dose (9 Mrad). The spectral data reveal two strong UV absorption peaks which are correlated with unavoidable trace iron impurities beside extended additional characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped glass produces slight decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption and the generation of an induced visible band and these effects are controlled with two photochemical reduction of some Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions together with the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) or phosphorous oxygen hole center (POHC). The impact effect of gamma irradiation on the spectra of Nd2O3-doped glasses is limited due to suggested shielding behavior of neodymium ions. FT-infrared spectra show vibrational modes due to main Q2-Q3 phosphate groups and the response of gamma irradiation of the IR spectra is low and the limited variations are related to suggested changes in some bond angles and bond lengths which cause the observed decrease to the intensities of some IR bands.

  4. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuza, J.; Godlewska, P.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Kadłubański, P.; Lorenc, J.; Łukowiak, A.; Macalik, L.; Gerasymchuk, Yu.; Legendziewicz, J.

    2018-05-01

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln = Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass.

  5. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Hanuza, J; Godlewska, P; Lisiecki, R; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Kadłubański, P; Lorenc, J; Łukowiak, A; Macalik, L; Gerasymchuk, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2018-05-05

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln=Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Circular dichroism and optical absorption spectra of mononuclear and trinuclear chiral Cu(II) amino-alcohol coordinated compounds: A combined theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Israel; Ávila-Torres, Yenny; Barba-Behrens, Norah; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the physicochemical properties of biomimetic compounds of multicopper oxidases are fundamental to understand their reaction mechanisms and catalytic behavior. In this work, electronic, optical, and chiroptical properties of copper(II) complexes with amino-alcohol chiral ligands are theoretically studied by means of time-dependent density functional theory. The calculated absorption and circular dichroism spectra are compared with experimental measurements of these spectra for an uncoordinated pseudoephedrine derivative, as well as for the corresponding mononuclear and trinuclear copper(II)-coordinated complexes. This comparison is useful to gain insights into their electronic structure, optical absorption and optical activity. The optical absorption and circular dichroism bands of the pseudoephedrine derivative are located in the UV-region. They are mainly due to transitions originated from n to π anti-bonding orbitals of the alcohol and amino groups, as well as from π bonding to π anti-bonding orbitals of carboxyl and phenyl groups. In the case of the mononuclear and trinuclear compounds, additional signals in the visible spectral region are present. In both systems, the origin of these bands is due to charge transfer from ligand to metal and d-d transitions.

  7. Intestinal paracellular absorption is necessary to support the sugar oxidation cascade in nectarivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Peña, Nelly; Price, Edwin R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Flores-Ortiz, Cesar M; Karasov, William H

    2016-03-01

    We made the first measurements of the capacity for paracellular nutrient absorption in intact nectarivorous bats. Leptonycteris yerbabuenae (20 g mass) were injected with or fed inert carbohydrate probes L-rhamnose and D(+)-cellobiose, which are absorbed exclusively by the paracellular route, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose), which is absorbed both paracellularly and transcellularly. Using a standard pharmacokinetic technique, we collected blood samples for 2 h after probe administration. As predicted, fractional absorption (f) of paracellular probes declined with increasing Mr in the order of rhamnose (f=0.71)>cellobiose (f=0.23). Absorption of 3OMD-glucose was complete (f=0.85; not different from unity). Integrating our data with those for glucose absorption and oxidation in another nectarivorous bat, we conclude that passive paracellular absorption of glucose is extensive in nectarivorous bat species, as in other bats and small birds, and necessary to support high glucose fluxes hypothesized for the sugar oxidation cascade. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. A support vector machine approach to the automatic identification of fluorescence spectra emitted by biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Peluso, E.; Cenciarelli, O.; Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-10-01

    Two of the major new concerns of modern societies are biosecurity and biosafety. Several biological agents (BAs) such as toxins, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are able to cause damage to living systems either humans, animals or plants. Optical techniques, in particular LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, can be successfully applied to monitoring the release of biological agents into the atmosphere. It is well known that most of biological agents tend to emit specific fluorescence spectra, which in principle allow their detection and identification, if excited by light of the appropriate wavelength. For these reasons, the detection of the UVLight Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) emitted by BAs is particularly promising. On the other hand, the stand-off detection of BAs poses a series of challenging issues; one of the most severe is the automatic discrimination between various agents which emit very similar fluorescence spectra. In this paper, a new data analysis method, based on a combination of advanced filtering techniques and Support Vector Machines, is described. The proposed approach covers all the aspects of the data analysis process, from filtering and denoising to automatic recognition of the agents. A systematic series of numerical tests has been performed to assess the potential and limits of the proposed methodology. The first investigations of experimental data have already given very encouraging results.

  9. Application of Time-Dependent Density Functional and Natural Bond Orbital Theories to the UV-vis Absorption Spectra of Some Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Marković, Svetlana; Tošović, Jelena

    2015-09-03

    The UV-vis properties of 22 natural phenolic compounds, comprising anthraquinones, neoflavonoids, and flavonoids were systematically examined. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach in combination with the B3LYP, B3LYP-D2, B3P86, and M06-2X functionals was used to simulate the UV-vis spectra of the investigated compounds. It was shown that all methods exhibit very good (B3LYP slightly better) performance in reproducing the examined UV-vis spectra. However, the shapes of the Kohn-Sham molecular orbitals (MOs) involved in electronic transitions were misleading in constructing the MO correlation diagrams. To provide better understanding of redistribution of electron density upon excitation, the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was applied. Bearing in mind the spatial and energetic separations, as well as the character of the π bonding, lone pair, and π* antibonding natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs), the "NLMO clusters" were constructed. NLMO cluster should be understood as a part of a molecule characterized with distinguished electron density. It was shown that all absorption bands including all electronic transitions need to be inspected to fully understand the UV-vis spectrum of a certain compound, and, thus, to learn more about its UV-vis light absorption. Our investigation showed that the TDDFT and NBO theories are complementary, as the results from the two approaches can be combined to interpret the UV-vis spectra. Agreement between the predictions of the TDDFT approach and those based on the NLMO clusters is excellent in the case of major electronic transitions and long wavelengths. It should be emphasized that the approach for investigation of UV-vis light absorption based on the NLMO clusters is applied for the first time.

  10. The Production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions in Inert Gas Matrices Doped with Alkali Metals. Electronic Absorption Spectra of the Pentacene Anion (C22H14(-))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).

  11. Use of Isobestic and Isoemission Points in Absorption and Luminescence Spectra for Study of the Transformation of Radiation Defects in Lithium Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Stupak, A. P.; Runets, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    Isobestic and isoemission points are recorded in the combined absorption and luminescence spectra of two types of radiation defects involved in complex processes consisting of several simultaneous parallel and sequential reactions. These points are observed if a constant sum of two terms, each formed by the product of the concentration of the corresponding defect and a characteristic integral coefficient associated with it, is conserved. The complicated processes involved in the transformation of radiation defects in lithium fluoride are studied using these points. It is found that the ratio of the changes in the concentrations of one of the components and the reaction product remains constant in the course of several simultaneous reactions.

  12. Effect of Acid-Base Equilibrium on Absorption Spectra of Humic acid in the Presence of Copper Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between humic acid (HA, sample IHSS) and a metal ion (Cu2+) that was manifested as absorption bands in the range 210-350 nm was recorded using absorption spectroscopy. The reaction was found to be more effective as the pH increased. These data were interpreted in the framework of generally accepted concepts about the influence of acid-base equilibrium on the dissociation of salts, according to which increasing the solution pH increases the concentration of HA anions. It was suggested that [HA-Cu2+] complexes formed.

  13. Review of the absorption spectra of solid O2 and N2 as they relate to contamination of a cooled infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    During contamination studies for the liquid helium cooled shuttle infrared telescope facility, a literature search was conducted to determine the absorption spectra of the solid state of homonuclear molecules of O2 and N2, and ascertain what laboratory measurements of the solid have been made in the infrared. With the inclusion of one unpublished spectrum, the absorption spectrum of the solid oxygen molecule has been thoroughly studied from visible to millimeter wavelengths. Only two lines appear in the solid that do not also appear in the gas or liquid. A similar result is implied for the solid nitrogen molecule because it also is homonuclear. The observed infrared absorption lines result from lattice modes of the alpha phase of the solid, and disappear at the warmer temperatures of the beta, gamma, and liquid phases. They are not observed from polycrystalline forms of O2, while strong scattering is. Scattering, rather than absorption, is considered to be the principal natural contamination problem for cooled infrared telescopes in low earth orbit.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation and TDDFT study of the structures and UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Yujiao; Xie, Xiaomei; Chen, Feifei; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the inclusion ratios and inclusion constants of MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM inclusion complexes were measured by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The inclusion ratios are both 1:1, and the inclusion constants are 60 and 342.5 for MCT-β-CD/PERM and MCT-β-CD/CYPERM, respectively. The stabilities of inclusion complexes were investigated by MD simulation. MD shows that VDW energy plays a vital role in the stability of inclusion complex, and the destruction of inclusion complex is due to the increasing temperature. The UV-vis absorption spectra of MCT-β-CD and its inclusion complexes were studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method employing BLYP-D3, B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X-D3 functionals. BLYP-D3 well reproduces the UV-vis absorption spectrum and reveals that the absorption bands of MCT-β-CD mainly arise from n→π(∗) and n→σ(∗) transition, and those of inclusion complexes mainly arise from intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). ICT results in the shift of main absorption bands of MCT-β-CD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Absorption Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gaseous- and Particle- Phase Emissions from Peat Fuel Combustion Under Controlled Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J. I.; Samburova, V.; Moosmüller, H.; Khlystov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass and fossil fuel burning processes emit important organic pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the atmosphere. Smoldering combustion of peat is one of the largest contributors (up to 70%) of carbonaceous species and, therefore, it may be one of the main sources of these PAHs. PAHs can be detrimental to health, they are known to be potent mutagens and suspected carcinogens. They may also contribute to solar light absorption as the particles absorb in the blue and near ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum ("brown carbon" species). There is very little knowledge and large ambiguity regarding the contribution of PAHs to optical properties of organic carbon (OC) emitted from smoldering biomass combustion. This study focuses on quantifying and analyzing PAHs emitted from peat smoldering combustion to gain more knowledge on their optical properties. Five peat fuels collected in different regions of the world (Russia, USA) were burned under controlled conditions (e.g., relative humidity, combustion efficiency, fuel-moisture content) at the Desert Research Institute Biomass Burning facility (Reno, NV, USA). Combustion aerosols collected on TIGF filters followed by XAD resin cartridges were extracted and analyzed for gas-phase (semi-volatile) and particle-phase PAHs. Filter and XAD samples were extracted separately with dichloromethane followed by acetone using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ACE 300, Dionex). To determine absorption properties, absorption spectra of extracts and standard PAHs were recorded between 190 and 900 nm with a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer, Lambda 650). This poster will discuss the potential contribution of PAHs to brown carbon emitted from peat combustion and give a brief comparison with absorption spectra from biomass burning aerosols.

  16. Experimental and theoretical comparison of the O K-edge nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectra of NaReO4.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Joseph A; Yang, Ping; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Burns, Carol J; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; Seidler, Gerald T; Scott, Brian L; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilkerson, Marianne P; Wolfsberg, Laura E

    2010-10-06

    Accurate X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of first row atoms, e.g., O, are notoriously difficult to obtain due to the extreme sensitivity of the measurement to surface contamination, self-absorption, and saturation affects. Herein, we describe a comprehensive approach for determining reliable O K-edge XAS data for ReO(4)(1-) and provide methodology for obtaining trustworthy and quantitative data on nonconducting molecular systems, even in the presence of surface contamination. This involves comparing spectra measured by nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS), a bulk-sensitive technique that is not prone to X-ray self-absorption and provides exact peak intensities, with XAS spectra obtained by three different detection modes, namely total electron yield (TEY), fluorescence yield (FY), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). For ReO(4)(1-), TEY measurements were heavily influenced by surface contamination, while the FY and STXM data agree well with the bulk NRIXS analysis. These spectra all showed two intense pre-edge features indicative of the covalent interaction between the Re 5d and O 2p orbitals. Density functional theory calculations were used to assign these two peaks as O 1s excitations to the e and t(2) molecular orbitals that result from Re 5d and O 2p covalent mixing in T(d) symmetry. Electronic structure calculations were used to determine the amount of O 2p character (%) in these molecular orbitals. Time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) was also used to calculate the energies and intensities of the pre-edge transitions. Overall, under these experimental conditions, this analysis suggests that NRIXS, STXM, and FY operate cooperatively, providing a sound basis for validation of bulk-like excitation spectra and, in combination with electronic structure calculations, suggest that NaReO(4) may serve as a well-defined O K-edge energy and intensity standard for future O K-edge XAS studies.

  17. Collision-Induced Absorption Spectra of Binary Mixtures of Molecular Hydrogen with Molecular Deuterium and Argon and of Pure Hydrogen, D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Tsang William

    In the present research project a systematic study of the collision-induced infrared absorption (CIA) spectra of the binary mixtures of H_2 - D_2 in the region of the double fundamental vibrations of H_2 and D_2, and H_2 - Ar in the fundamental band of H_2, and of pure HD in its fundamental and first overtone regions was undertaken. The experiments were carried out with a 2.0 m high-pressure low-temperature transmission-type absorption cell at 77, 201 and 296 K at total gas densities up to 550 amagat. Infrared prism and grating spectrometers equipped with a microprocessor -controlled stepping motor were used to record the spectra. All the experimental results obtained represent first-time observations in collision-induced absorption. Collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of the double transitions of H_2(v=1>=ts 0) and D_2(v=1>=ts 0) have been observed at 77 and 201 K in the spectral region 7000-8000 cm^{-1} for total gas densities up to 550 amagat with a partial gas density ratio of 1:1 of H_2 and D_2. The observed spectra are interpreted in terms of the transitions, Q_1(J) of H_2+Q_1(J) of D _2, Q_1(J) of H_2+S _1(J) of D_2, S_1(J) of H_2 + Q_1(J) of D_2, and S_1(J) of H_2 + S_1(J) of D_2 for J = 0 and 1 for H _2 and J = 0, 1, and 2 for D_2. Analysis of the experimental absorption profiles was carried out using appropriate lineshape functions. The absorption coefficients, lineshape parameters, etc., are obtained from the analysis. Collision-induced enhancement absorption spectra of the fundamental band of H_2 in H_2 - Ar mixtures were recorded at room temperature for a base density of 72 amagat of H_2 for several partial densities of Ar up to 440 amagat. Hexadecapole-induced U transitions, U_1(1), U_1(2), Q_1(0)+U _0(1), and Q_1(1) + U_0(1) have been identified in the spectral region 5400 -6200 cm^{-1}. A "cage" model has been proposed to account for the double transitions of H_2 - H_2 in the H _2 - Ar enhancement spectra. From the analysis of the

  18. Dynamical core-hole screening in the x-ray absorption spectra of hydrogenated carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessely, O.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Nilsson, A.; Nikitin, A.; Ogasawara, H.; Odelius, M.; Sanyal, B.; Eriksson, O.

    2007-10-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of a hydrogenated single graphite plane, in order to simulate recent experimental results on hydrogenated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as hydrogenated graphene. We find that the presence of H induces a substantial component of sp3 bonding and as a result the π and π* components to the electronic structure vanish. We have calculated a theoretical x-ray absorption spectrum using a multiband version of the Mahan-Nozières-De Dominicis theory. By making a fitting of the XA signal of C atoms that have H attached to them and C atoms without H in the vicinity we obtain a good representation of the experimental data and we can draw the conclusion that in the experiments [A. Nikitin , Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 225507 (2005)] some 35-50 % H have been absorbed in the SWCNT.

  19. Excited state absorption spectra of dissolved and aggregated distyrylbenzene: A TD-DFT state and vibronic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliezer Fernando; Shi, Junqing; Lavarda, Francisco Carlos; Lüer, Larry; Milián-Medina, Begoña; Gierschner, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    A time-dependent density functional theory study is performed to reveal the excited state absorption (ESA) features of distyrylbenzene (DSB), a prototype π-conjugated organic oligomer. Starting with a didactic insight to ESA based on simple molecular orbital and configuration considerations, the performance of various density functional theory functionals is tested to reveal the full vibronic ESA features of DSB at short and long probe delay times.

  20. First-principles calculations of K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zi; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei

    2016-05-15

    X-ray absorption spectrum is a powerful tool for atomic structure detection on warm dense matter. Here, we perform first-principles molecular dynamics and X-ray absorption spectrum calculations on warm dense nitrogen along a Hugoniot curve. From the molecular dynamics trajectory, the detailed atomic structures are examined for each thermodynamical condition. The K-shell X-ray absorption spectrum is calculated, and its changes with temperature and pressure along the Hugoniot curve are discussed. The warm dense nitrogen systems may contain isolated nitrogen atoms, N{sub 2} molecules, and nitrogen clusters, which show quite different contributions to the total X-ray spectrum due to their different electronmore » density of states. The changes of X-ray spectrum along the Hugoniot curve are caused by the different nitrogen structures induced by the temperature and the pressure. Some clear signatures on X-ray spectrum for different thermodynamical conditions are pointed out, which may provide useful data for future X-ray experiments.« less

  1. A search for formic acid in the upper troposphere - A tentative identification of the 1105-per cm nu-6 band Q branch in high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.02-per cm resolution during a balloon flight from Alamogordo, NM (33 deg N), on March 23, 1981, have been analyzed for the possible presence of absorption by formic acid (HCOOH). An absorption feature at 1105 per cm has been tentatively identified in upper tropospheric spectra as due to the nu-6 band Q branch. A preliminary analysis indicates a concentration of about 0.6 ppbv and 0.4 ppbv near 8 and 10 km, respectively.

  2. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: a study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as the state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger π-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to π∗-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate π∗-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to this

  3. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: A study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fransson, Thomas; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as themore » state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger {pi}-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to {pi}*-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate {pi}*-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to

  4. [Determination of critical micelle concentration of alkyl polyglucoside (APG) nonionic surfactant aqueous system by multi-peaks Gaussian fitting of visible absorption spectra line shape].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Kong, Kai-Qing; He, Zheng-Ling; Liu, Zi-Li

    2007-07-01

    A multi-peaks Gaussian fitting on the line shape of visible spectra was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of alkyl polyglucoside (APG) nonionic surfactant aqueous system such as octyl beta D mono-glucoside (C8 G1) and decyl beta D mono-glucoside (C10 G1). Visible electronic absorption spectra of a series of different concentration C8G1 or C10G1 with crystal violet (CV) used as a probe were measured respectively and characterized by the overlap of the principal peak with lambda(max) at 598-609 nm and a shoulder at 538-569 nm assigned to monomer and dimer CV respectively. A multi-peaks Gaussian fitting was used to interpret the spectra and give relative integrating absorbance (A2/A1) of two peaks, red-shift (deltalambda) and half-width. A sudden change occurred at CMC in the curves of the relative integrating absorbance (A2/A1), red-shift (deltalambda) and half-width (w1, w2) versus the C8G1 or C10G1 surfactant concentrations. Significantly the dependence of the CMC upon the half-width was ob-served for the first time and successfully used to determine CMC of nonionic surfactant such as APG.

  5. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-05

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pK a '. The determination of pK a ' is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pK a =7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of -1 and the blue form that of -2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. v. redshift evolution of lyman limit absorption in the spectra of a large sample of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik A.; Boksenberg, Alec; Steidel, Charles, C.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bacall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.

    1995-01-01

    Using a sample of 119 QSOs, containing objects we have selected having previously available high quality ground-based and IUE spectral observations, together with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 26 QSOs from Bahcall et al. (1993, 1995) and Impey et al. (1995) and new optical observations of 41 objects by Steidel & Sargent (1995), we study the redshift evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs; tau greater than 1.0) over the reshift range 0.32 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 4.11. The HST observations significantly improve the determination of the low redshift (0.4 less than or equal to z(sub LLS) less than or equal to 1.4) distribution. We find the effect which may have been responsible for the apparent strong evolution at a(sub LLS) greater than or equal to 2.5 found by Lanzetta (1991), which led him to consider a broken, not single power law as a better description of the redshift distribution of LLSs. After removing objects which may bias our sample, leaving a total of 169 QSOs, we find the distribution is well described by a single power law, and obtain for the number density as a function of redshift the form N(z) = N(sub 0)(1 + z)(exp gamma) with gamma = 1.50 =/- 0.39 and N(sub 0) = 0.25(sup -0.10)(sub +0.17), consistent with a constant comoving density of absorbers in a Firedmann universe with q(sub 0) = 0 but indicating evolution if q(sub 0) = 1/2.

  8. Absorption spectra and nonlinear transmission (at λ = 2940 nm) of a diffusion-doped Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetova, G A; Gulyamova, E S; Il'ichev, N N

    2015-06-30

    Transmission spectra of a ZnSe sample diffusion-doped with Fe{sup 2+} ions have been measured in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm. A broad absorption band in the range 500 – 1500 nm has been observed in both doped and undoped regions of the sample. This band is possibly due to deviations from stoichiometry in the course of diffusion doping. The transmission of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe sample at a wavelength of 2940 nm has been measured at various dopant concentrations and high peak pulse intensities (up to 8 MW cm{sup -2}). The samples have been shown to be incompletely bleached:more » during a laser pulse, the transmission first increases, reaches a maximum, and then falls off. Our results suggest that the incomplete bleaching cannot be accounted for by excited-state absorption. The incomplete bleaching (as well as the transmission maximum) is due to the heating of the sample, which leads to a reduction in upper level lifetime and, accordingly, to an increase in absorption saturation intensity. (nonlinear optical phenomena)« less

  9. Absorption spectra of localized surface plasmon resonance observed in an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell fabricated by a near ultraviolet femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Michiko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2018-03-01

    Absorption spectra based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) were obtained with an inline/picoliter spectrometer cell. The spectrometer cell was fabricated into an optical glass fiber by focusing a near UV (NUV) femtosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 400 nm with an energy of 30 μJ. The laser beam was focused from two directions opposite to each other to fabricate a through-hole spectrometer cell. A diameter of the cell was approximately 3 μm, and the length was approximately 62.5 μm, which was nearly equal to the core diameter of the optical fiber. Liquid solution of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with a diameter of 5-10 nm was injected into the spectrometer cell with its volume of 0.4 pL. The absorption peak centered at 518 nm was observed. An increase of absorption associated with the increase of the number of nanoparticles was in agreement with the numerical calculation based on the Lambert-Beer law.

  10. A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part 2: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    geometrical properties of ice crystals before the influence of ice crystal shape on cirrus radiative properties can be adequately understood. This study provides a way of coupling the radiative properties of absorption, extinction, and single scatter albedo to the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. The dependence of extinction and absorption on ice crystal shape was not just due to geometrical differences between crystal types, but was also due to the effect these differences had on the evolution of ice particle size spectra. The ice particle growth model in Part 1 and the radiative properties treated here are based on analytical formulations, and thus represent a computationally efficient means of modeling the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds.

  11. Space Shuttle Crawler Transporter Vibration Analysis in Support of Rollout Fatigue Load Spectra Verification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi N.; Meyer, Karl A.; Nerolich, Shaun M.; Burton, Roy C.; Gosselin, Armand M.

    2004-01-01

    The Crawler Transporter (CT), designed and built for the Apollo Program in the 1960's and surpassing its initial operational life, has become an integral part of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). The CT transports the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) stack, atop the Mobile Launch Platform (MLP), from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the launch pad. This support structure provides hydraulic jacking, leveling and load equalization for the 12 million pound stack on its 3.5-5.0 mile rollout to the launch pad. Major elements of the SSV, consisting of the orbiter, solid rocket boosters (SRB) and external tank (ET) have required fatigue analyses as part of the mission life certification. Compared to rollout vibration, the SSV sees relatively high vibration loads during launch, ascent, descent and landing phases of the mission. Although preliminary measured SRB vibration levels during rollout were of low amplitude and frequency, the duration of the rollout phase is typically high, from 5-6 hours. As part of an expanded mission life assessment, additional certification effort was initiated to define fatigue load spectra for rollout. This study addresses the CT vibration analyses in support of the rollout fatigue study. Structural models developed for modal and vibration analyses were used to identify unique CT, CT/MLP and CT/MLP/SRB vibration characteristics for comparison to instrumented rollout tests. Whereas the main structural and vibration characteristics of the SSV are well defined, minimum analytical and vibration test data on the Crawler Transporter were available. Unique vibration characteristics of the CT are attributable to the drive mechanism, hydraulic jacking system, structural framing and the CT-to-MLP support pad restraints. Initial tests performed on the CT/MLP/SRB configuration showed reasonable correlation with predicted mode shapes and frequencies.

  12. Prediction of the Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Dibenzo and Naphtho) Derivatives of Fluoranthene.

    PubMed

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara

    2017-06-01

    The annellation theory method has been used to predict the locations of maximum absorbance (LMA) of the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectral bands in the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) C 24 H 14 (dibenzo and naphtho) derivatives of fluoranthene (DBNFl). In this group of 21 PAHs, ten PAHs present a sextet migration pattern with four or more benzenoid rings that is potentially related to a high molecular reactivity and high mutagenic conduct. This is the first time that the locations of maximum absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of naphth[1,2- a]aceanthrylene, dibenz[ a,l]aceanthrylene, indeno[1,2,3- de]naphthacene, naphtho[1,2- j]fluoranthene, naphth[2,1- e]acephenanthrylene, naphth[2,1- a]aceanthrylene, dibenz[ a,j]aceanthrylene, naphth[1,2- e]acephenanthrylene, and naphtho[2,1- j]fluoranthene have been predicted. Also, this represents the first report about the application of the annellation theory for the calculation of the locations of maximum absorbance in the UV-Vis spectra of PAHs with five-membered rings. Furthermore, this study constitutes the premier investigation beyond the pure benzenoid classical approach toward the establishment of a generalized annellation theory that will encompass not only homocyclic benzenoid and non-benzenoid PAHs, but also heterocyclic compounds.

  13. Hourly, daily, and seasonal variability in the absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a eutrophic, humic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. A.; Kothawala, D. N.; Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlée, E.; Koehler, B.; Tranvik, L. J.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    The short-term (hourly and daily) variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in lakes is largely unknown. We assessed the spectral characteristics of light absorption by CDOM in a eutrophic, humic shallow mixed lake of temperate Sweden at a high-frequency (30 min) interval and during a full growing season (May to October). Physical time series, such as solar radiation, temperature, wind, and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in water and air, were measured synchronously. We identified a strong radiation-induced summer CDOM loss (25 to 50%) that developed over 4 months, which was accompanied by strong changes in CDOM absorption spectral shape. The magnitude of the CDOM loss exceeded subhourly to daily variability by an order of magnitude. Applying Fourier analysis, we demonstrate that variation in CDOM remained largely unaffected by rapid shifts in weather, and no apparent response to in-lake dissolved organic carbon production was found. In autumn, CDOM occasionally showed variation at hourly to daily time scales, reaching a maximum daily coefficient of variation of 15%. We suggest that lake-internal effects on CDOM are quenched in humic lake waters by dominating effects associated with imported CDOM and solar exposure. Since humic lake waters belong to one of the most abundant lake types on Earth, our results have important implications for the understanding of global CDOM cycling.

  14. Dynamical Core-Hole Screening in the X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Carbon Nanotubes And Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wessely, O.; /Uppsala U. /Imperial Coll., London; Katsnelson, M.I.

    2009-04-30

    We have calculated the electronic structure and the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of a hydrogenated single graphite plane, in order to simulate recent experimental results on hydrogenated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as hydrogenated graphene. We find that the presence of H induces a substantial component of sp{sup 3} bonding and as a result the {pi} and {pi}* components to the electronic structure vanish. We have calculated a theoretical x-ray absorption spectrum using a multiband version of the Mahan-Nozieres-De Dominicis theory. By making a fitting of the XA signal of C atoms that have H attached to themmore » and C atoms without H in the vicinity we obtain a good representation of the experimental data and we can draw the conclusion that in the experiments [A. Nikitin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 225507 (2005)] some 35-50 % H have been absorbed in the SWCNT.« less

  15. Combined experimental and computational investigation of the absorption spectra of E- and Z-cinnamic acids in solution: The peculiarity of Z-cinnamics.

    PubMed

    Salum, María L; Arroyo Mañez, Pau; Luque, F Javier; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Cinnamic acids are present in all kinds of plant tissues and hence in herbs and derived medicines, cosmetics and foods. The interest in their role in plants and their therapeutic applications has grown exponentially. Because of their molecular structure they can exist in E- and Z-forms, which are both found in plants. However, since only the E-forms are commercially available, very few in vitro and in vivo studies of the Z-form have been reported. In this work the physico-chemical properties of Z-cinnamic acids in solution have been examined by means of UV-absorption spectroscopy and high-level quantum mechanical computations. For each isomer similar absorption spectra were obtained in methanol and acetonitrile. However, distinct trends were found for Z- and E forms of cinnamic acids in water, where a higher hypsochromic shift of the Z-isomer relative to the E-form was observed. In general the wavelength of maximal absorption of the Z-form is dramatically blue shifted (-30 to -40 nm) to λ<280 nm, while a slightly blue shift of the absorption maxima for the corresponding E-form (+3 to -4 nm) was observed. This difference is associated with the non-planar, largely distorted, Z-structure and to the almost complete flat structure of the E-form. The results provide a basis for the study of functional and biotechnological roles of cinnamic acids and for the analysis of samples containing mixture of both geometric isomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting Structure of the LSD Wave in an Energy Absorption Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Akihiro; Hatai, Keigo; Cho, Shinatora

    In Repetitively Pulsed (RP) Laser Propulsion, laser energy irradiated to a vehicle is converted to blast wave enthalpy during the Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) regime. Based on the measured post-LSD electron number density profiles by two-wavelength Mach Zehnder interferometer in a line-focusing optics, electron temperature and absorption coefficient were estimated assuming Local Thermal Equilibrium. A 10J/pulse CO{sub 2} laser was used. As a result, laser absorption was found completed in the layer between the shock wave and the electron density peak. Although the LSD-termination timing was not clear from the shock-front/ionization-front separation in the shadowgraph images, there observed drastic changesmore » in the absorption layer thickness from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm and in the peak heating rate from 12-17x10{sup 13} kW/m{sup 3} to 5x10{sup 13} kW/m{sup 3} at the termination.« less

  17. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  18. Ab Initio Theory of Dynamical Core-Hole Screening in Graphite from X-Ray Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessely, O.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eriksson, O.

    2005-04-01

    We have implemented the effect of dynamical core-hole screening, as given by Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis, in a first-principles based method and applied the theory to the x-ray absorption (XA) spectrum of graphite. It turns out that two of the conspicuous peaks of graphite are well described, both regarding the position, shape, and relative intensity, whereas one peak is absent in the theory. Only by incorporation of both excitonic and delocalized processes can a full account of the experimental spectrum be obtained theoretically, and we interpret the XA spectrum in graphite to be the result of a well screened and a poor screened process, much in the same way as is done for core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. [Discrimination of varieties of borneol using terahertz spectra based on principal component analysis and support vector machine].

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Hu, Bing; Wang, Ming-wei

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper, the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) identification model of borneol based on principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was established. As one Chinese common agent, borneol needs a rapid, simple and accurate detection and identification method for its different source and being easily confused in the pharmaceutical and trade links. In order to assure the quality of borneol product and guard the consumer's right, quickly, efficiently and correctly identifying borneol has significant meaning to the production and transaction of borneol. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is a new spectroscopy approach to characterize material using terahertz pulse. The absorption terahertz spectra of blumea camphor, borneol camphor and synthetic borneol were measured in the range of 0.2 to 2 THz with the transmission THz-TDS. The PCA scores of 2D plots (PC1 X PC2) and 3D plots (PC1 X PC2 X PC3) of three kinds of borneol samples were obtained through PCA analysis, and both of them have good clustering effect on the 3 different kinds of borneol. The value matrix of the first 10 principal components (PCs) was used to replace the original spectrum data, and the 60 samples of the three kinds of borneol were trained and then the unknown 60 samples were identified. Four kinds of support vector machine model of different kernel functions were set up in this way. Results show that the accuracy of identification and classification of SVM RBF kernel function for three kinds of borneol is 100%, and we selected the SVM with the radial basis kernel function to establish the borneol identification model, in addition, in the noisy case, the classification accuracy rates of four SVM kernel function are above 85%, and this indicates that SVM has strong generalization ability. This study shows that PCA with SVM method of borneol terahertz spectroscopy has good classification and identification effects, and provides a new method for species

  20. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  1. Limits on the time variation of the electromagnetic fine-structure constant in the low energy limit from absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars.

    PubMed

    Srianand, R; Chand, H; Petitjean, P; Aracil, B

    2004-03-26

    We present the results of a detailed many-multiplet analysis performed on a new sample of Mg ii systems observed in high quality quasar spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope. The weighted mean value of the variation in alpha derived from our analysis over the redshift range 0.4absorption line systems.

  2. Assignment of Pre-edge Features in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra of Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Getty, Kendra; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the lowest energy bound-state transition in the Ru K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra for a series of Grubbs-type ruthenium complexes was investigated. The pre-edge feature was unambiguously assigned as resulting from formally electric dipole forbidden Ru 4d←1s transitions. The intensities of these transitions are extremely sensitive to the ligand environment and the symmetry of the metal centre. In centrosymmetric complexes the pre-edge is very weak since it is limited by the weak electric quadrupole intensity mechanism. By contrast, upon breaking centrosymmetry, Ru 5p-4d mixing allows for introduction of electric dipole allowed character resulting in a dramatic increase in the pre-edge intensity. The information content of this approach is explored as it relates to complexes of importance in olefin metathesis and its relevance as a tool for the study of reactive intermediates. PMID:20151030

  3. [Influence of electromagnetic emission at the frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of oxygen and nitrogen oxide on the adhesion and formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm].

    PubMed

    Pronina, E A; Shvidenko, I G; Shub, G M; Shapoval, O G

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the influence of electromagnetic emission (EME) at the frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen oxide (MAES 02 and MAES NO respectively) on the adhesion, population progress and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adhesive activity was evaluated by mean adhesion index (MAI) of bacteria on human erythrocytes. Population growth dynamic was assessed by optical density index of broth cultures; biofilm formation--by values of optical density of the cells attached to the surface of polystyrol wells. P.aeruginosa bacteria had high adhesive properties that have increased under the influence of MAES 02 frequency emission and have not changed under the influence of MAES NO frequency. Exposure of bacteria to MAES NO frequency did not influence the population progress; exposure to MAES 02 frequency stimulated the biofilm formation ability of the bacteria, and MAES NO--decreased this ability. EME at MAES NO frequency can be used to suppress bacterial biofilm formation by pseudomonas.

  4. [The effect of electromagnetic waves of very high frequency of molecular spectra of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide on the functional activity of platelets].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Maĭborodin, A V; Volin, M V; Krenitskiĭ, A P; Tupikin, V D

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of electromagnetic EMI MMD-fluctuation on the frequencies of molecular spectra of radiation, and nitric oxide absorption under in vitro conditions on the functional activity of platelets in patients with unstable angina pectoris, with the help of a specially created generator. At amplitude-modulated and continuous modes of EMI MMD-irradiation of platelet-rich plasma for 5, 15 and 30 min the platelet functional activity decreases, which was shown up in reduction of their activation and fall of aggregative ability. The degree, to which platelet functional activity was inhibited, depended on the mode of irradiation and on duration of EMI MMD effect. The most obvious changes in platelet activation and in their readiness to aggregative response were observed at a continuous mode of irradiation within a 15 min interval.

  5. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moment of laser dyes C504T and C521T using solvatochromic shifts of absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Basavaraja, Jana; Suresh Kumar, H M; Inamdar, S R; Wari, M N

    2016-02-05

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of laser dyes: coumarin 504T (C504T) and coumarin 521T (C521T) have been recorded at room temperature in a series of non-polar and polar solvents. The spectra of these dyes showed bathochromic shift with increasing in solvent polarity indicating the involvement of π→π⁎ transition. Kamlet-Taft and Catalan solvent parameters were used to analyze the effect of solvents on C504T and C521T molecules. The study reveals that both general solute-solvent interactions and specific interactions are operative in these two systems. The ground state dipole moment was estimated using Guggenheim's method and also by quantum mechanical calculations. The solvatochromic data were used to determine the excited state dipole moment (μ(e)). It is observed that dipole moment value of excited state (μ(e)) is higher than that of the ground state in both the laser dyes indicating that these dyes are more polar in nature in the excited state than in the ground state. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  7. Predicting Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra with the Spin-Free Exact-Two-Component Hamiltonian and Orthogonality Constrained Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prakash; Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-01-12

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) provides near-edge X-ray absorption (NEXAS) spectra of first-row elements within one electronvolt from experimental values. However, with increasing atomic number, scalar relativistic effects become the dominant source of error in a nonrelativistic OCDFT treatment of core-valence excitations. In this work we report a novel implementation of the spin-free exact-two-component (X2C) one-electron treatment of scalar relativistic effects and its combination with a recently developed OCDFT approach to compute a manifold of core-valence excited states. The inclusion of scalar relativistic effects in OCDFT reduces the mean absolute error of second-row elements core-valence excitations from 10.3 to 2.3 eV. For all the excitations considered, the results from X2C calculations are also found to be in excellent agreement with those from low-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess relativistic Hamiltonians. The X2C-OCDFT NEXAS spectra of three organotitanium complexes (TiCl4, TiCpCl3, TiCp2Cl2) are in very good agreement with unshifted experimental results and show a maximum absolute error of 5-6 eV. In addition, a decomposition of the total transition dipole moment into partial atomic contributions is proposed and applied to analyze the nature of the Ti pre-edge transitions in the three organotitanium complexes.

  8. Electronic Absorption Spectra of Mass-Selected Hydrocarbon Cations in Solid Neon: C_nH_4+ (n=5-8,10,12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Fulara, J.; Garkusha, I.; Maier, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    Small, unsaturated hydrocarbons, C_nH_m (n,m≤6), play an important role in astrochemical models as they have been detected in various space objects such as the interstellar medium or envelopes of carbon-rich stars. Although identification of most of these species was based on rotational studies, they are candidate carriers of the infamous diffuse interstellar bands. It has been proposed that corresponding cationic species formed upon UV radiation may also be of astrophysical relevance; therefore, their optical spectra need to be determined. In this contribution, electronic absorption spectra of mass-selected C_nH_4+ (n=5-8,10,12) ions trapped in neon matrices are presented. The cations were produced in a hot-cathode discharge source, guided through a series of electrostatic lenses, mass filtered and co-deposited with excess of neon onto a rhodium-coated sapphire plate held at 6 K. In the same experiments, neutral species were generated from the cations by a photobleaching procedure.

  9. Evidence does not support absorption of intact solid lipid nanoparticles via oral delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiongwei; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and simulated mixed micelles (SMMs) to intestinal mucus, but no evidence of penetration of integral nanocarriers. Both SLNs and SMMs exhibit significant cellular uptake, but fail to penetrate cell monolayers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that nanocarriers mainly concentrate on the surface of the monolayers, and no evidence of penetration of intact vehicles can be obtained. The mucous layer acts as a barrier to the penetration of both SLNs and SMMs. Both bile salt-decoration and SMM formulation help to strengthen the interaction with biomembranes. It is concluded that evidence does not support absorption of intact SLNs via oral delivery.Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and

  10. Load-unloading response of intact and artificially degraded articular cartilage correlated with near infrared (NIR) absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Afara, I O; Singh, S; Oloyede, A

    2013-04-01

    The conventional mechanical properties of articular cartilage, such as compressive stiffness, have been demonstrated to be limited in their capacity to distinguish intact (visually normal) from degraded cartilage samples. In this paper, we explore the correlation between a new mechanical parameter, namely the reswelling of articular cartilage following unloading from a given compressive load, and the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The capacity to distinguish mechanically intact from proteoglycan-depleted tissue relative to the "reswelling" characteristic was first established, and the result was subsequently correlated with the NIR spectral data of the respective tissue samples. To achieve this, normal intact and enzymatically degraded samples were subjected to both NIR probing and mechanical compression based on a load-unload-reswelling protocol. The parameter δr, characteristic of the osmotic "reswelling" of the matrix after unloading to a constant small load in the order of the osmotic pressure of cartilage, was obtained for the different sample types. Multivariate statistics was employed to determine the degree of correlation between δr and the NIR absorption spectrum of relevant specimens using Partial Least Squared (PLS) regression. The results show a strong relationship (R(2)=95.89%, p<0.0001) between the spectral data and δr. This correlation of δr with NIR spectral data suggests the potential for determining the reswelling characteristics non-destructively. It was also observed that δr values bear a significant relationship with the cartilage matrix integrity, indicated by its proteoglycan content, and can therefore differentiate between normal and artificially degraded proteoglycan-depleted cartilage samples. It is therefore argued that the reswelling of cartilage, which is both biochemical (osmotic) and mechanical (hydrostatic pressure) in origin, could be a strong candidate for characterizing the tissue, especially in regions surrounding focal

  11. Electronic structure, bonding, charge distribution, and x-ray absorption spectra of the (001) surfaces of fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulis, Paul; Yao, Hongzhi; Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fluorapatite (FAP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are two very important bioceramic crystals. The (001) surfaces of FAP and HAP crystals are studied by ab initio density functional calculations using a supercell slab geometry. It is shown that in both crystals, the O-terminated (001) surface is more stable with calculated surface energies of 0.865 and 0.871J/m2 for FAP and HAP, respectively. In FAP, the two surfaces are symmetric. In HAP, the orientation of the OH group along the c axis reduces the symmetry such that the top and bottom surfaces are no longer symmetric. It is revealed that the atoms near the surface and subsurface are significantly relaxed especially in the case of HAP. The largest relaxations occurred via the lateral movements of the O ions at the subsurface level. The electronic structures of the surface models in the form of layer-by-layer resolved partial density of states for all the atoms show systematic variation from the surface region toward the bulk region. The calculated Mulliken effective charge on each type of atom and the bond order values between cations (Ca, P) and anions (O, F) show different charge transfers and bond strength variations from the bulk crystal values. Electron charge density calculations show that the surfaces of both FAP and HAP crystals are mostly positively charged due to the presence of Ca ions at the surface. The positively charged surfaces have implications for the absorption on apatite surfaces of water and other organic molecules in an aqueous environment which are an important part of its bioactivity. The x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra ( Ca-K , O-K , F-K , P-K , and P-L3 edges) of both the surface models and the bulk crystals are calculated and compared. The calculations use a supercell approach which takes into account the electron-core-hole interaction. It is shown that the site-specific XANES spectra show significant differences between atoms near the surface and in the bulk and are very

  12. Molecular and electronic structure, magnetotropicity and absorption spectra of benzene-trinuclear copper(I) and silver(I) trihalide columnar binary stacks.

    PubMed

    Tsipis, A C; Stalikas, A V

    2012-02-20

    The molecular and electronic structures, stabilities, bonding features, magnetotropicity and absorption spectra of benzene-trinuclear Cu(I) and Ag(I) trihalide columnar binary stacks with the general formula [c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)](n)(C(6)H(6))(m) (M = Cu, Ag; X = halide; n, m ≤ 2) have been investigated by means of electronic structure calculation methods. The interaction of c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters with one and two benzene molecules yields 1:1 and 1:2 binary stacks, while benzene sandwiched 2:1 stacks are formed upon interaction of two c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters with one benzene molecule. In all binary stacks the plane of the alternating c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) and benzene components adopts an almost parallel orientation. The separation distance between the centroids of the benzene and the proximal c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) metallic cluster found in the range 2.97-3.33 Å at the B97D/Def2-TZVP level is indicative of a π···π stacking interaction mode, for the centroid separation distance is very close to the sum of the van der Waals radii of Cu···C (3.10 Å) and Ag···C (3.44 Å). Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) at the SSB-D/TZP level revealed that the dominant term in the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3)···C(6)H(6) interaction arises from dispersion and electrostatic forces while the covalent interactions are predicted to be negligible. On the other hand, charge decomposition analysis (CDA) illustrated very small charge transfer from C(6)H(6) toward the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) clusters, thus reflecting weak π-base/π-acid interactions which are further corroborated by the respective electrostatic potentials and the fact that the total dipole moment vector points to the center of the metallic ring of the c-M(3)(μ(2)-X)(3) cluster. The absorption spectra of all aromatic columnar binary stacks simulated by means of TD-DFT calculations showed strong absorptions in the UV region. The main features of the simulated absorption spectra are thoroughly analyzed, and assignments of

  13. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Heather Marie; Lanier, Nicholas Edward; Kline, John L.

    Here, we present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi 6O 12 at 75 mg/cm 3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV T e range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for T e = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power revealsmore » spectral sensitivity to T e changes of ~3 eV.« less

  14. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, H. M., E-mail: hjohns@lanl.gov; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi{sub 6}O{sub 12} at 75 mg/cm{sup 3} density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV T{sub e} range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for T{sub e} = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectralmore » sensitivity to T{sub e} changes of ∼3 eV.« less

  15. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Johns, Heather Marie; Lanier, Nicholas Edward; Kline, John L.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Here, we present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi 6O 12 at 75 mg/cm 3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV T e range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for T e = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power revealsmore » spectral sensitivity to T e changes of ~3 eV.« less

  16. Self-Supported Copper Oxide Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation at Low Overpotential and Confirmation of Its Robustness by Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang; Cui, Shengsheng; Sun, Zijun

    Developing efficient water oxidation catalysts made of earth-abundant elements is a demanding challenge that should be met to fulfill the promise of water splitting for clean energy. Herein we report an annealing approach to synthesize binder-free, self-supported heterogeneous copper oxide (CuO) on conductive electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), producing electrodes with excellent electrocatalytic properties such as high efficiency, low overpotential, and good stability. The catalysts were grown in situ on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) by electrodeposition from a simple Cu(II) salt solution, followed by annealing at a high temperature. Under optimal conditions, the CuO-based OER catalyst shows an onsetmore » potential of <0.58 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in 1.0 M KOH at pH 13.6. From the Tafel plot, the required overpotentials for current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 mA/cm2 are only 360 and 430 mV, respectively. The structure and the presence of a CuO motif in the catalyst have been identified by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD), Cu K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra including X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). To the best of our knowledge, this represents the best catalytic activity for CuO-based OER catalysts to date.« less

  17. High resolution jet-cooled infrared absorption spectra of (HCOOH)2, (HCOOD)2, and HCOOH—HCOOD complexes in 7.2 μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuluan; Li, Wenguang; Luo, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-06-01

    The rotationally resolved infrared spectra of (HCOOH)2, (HCOOD)2, and HCOOH—HCOOD complexes have been measured in 7.2 μm region by using a segmented rapid-scan distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer to probe a slit supersonic jet expansion. The observed spectra are assigned to the v21 (H—C/O—H in-plane bending) fundamental band of (HCOOH)2, the v15 (H—C/O—D in-plane bending) fundamental band of HCOOH—HCOOD, and the v20 (H—C—O in-plane bending) fundamental band of (HCOOD)2. Strong local perturbations caused by the rotation-tunneling coupling between two tunneling components are observed in (HCOOH)2. The v21 fundamental band of (HCOOH)2 and the previously measured v22 fundamental and v12 + v14 combination bands [K. G. Goroya et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 164311 (2014)] are analyzed together, yielding a more precise tunneling splitting in the ground state, 0.011 367(92) cm-1. The band-origin of the v21 band of (HCOOH)2 is 1371.776 74(8) cm-1, and the tunneling splitting decreases to 0.000 38(18) cm-1 upon the vibrational excitation. The vibrational energy is 1386.755 49(16) cm-1 for the v15 vibrational mode of HCOOH—HCOOD and 1391.084 39(17) cm-1 for the v20 vibrational mode of (HCOOD)2. No apparent spectral splittings are resolved for HCOOH—HCOOD and (HCOOD)2 under our experimental conditions. The tunneling splitting in the ground state of HCOOH—HCOOD is estimated to be 0.001 13 cm-1 from its average linewidth.

  18. The solvation structure of Mg ions in dichloro complex solutions from first-principles molecular dynamics and simulated X-ray absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge of Mg solvation structure in the electrolyte is requisite to understand the transport behavior of Mg ions and their dissolution/deposition mechanism at electrolyte/electrode interfaces. In the first established rechargeable Mg-ion battery system [D. Aurbach et al. Nature 2000, 407, 724], the electrolyte is of the dichloro complex (DCC) solution family, Mg(AlCl2BuEt)2/THF, resulting from the reaction of Bu2Mg and EtAlCl2 with a molar ratio of 1:2. There is disagreement in the literature regarding the exact solvation structure of Mg ions in such solutions, i.e., whether Mg(2+) is tetra- or hexacoordinated by a combination of Cl(-) and THF. In this work, theoretical insight into the solvation complexes present is provided based on first-principles molecular dynamics simulations (FPMD). Both Mg monomer and dimer structures are considered in both neutral and positively charged states. We found that, at room temperature, the Mg(2+) ion tends to be tetracoordinated in the THF solution phase instead of hexacoordinated, which is the predominant solid-phase coordination. Simulating the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the Mg K-edge by sampling our FPMD trajectories, our predicted solvation structure can be readily compared with experimental measurements. It is found that when changing from tetra- to hexacoordination, the onset of X-ray absorption should exhibit at least a 1 eV blue shift. We propose that this energy shift can be used to monitor changes in the Mg solvation sphere as it migrates through the electrolyte to electrolyte/electrode interfaces and to elucidate the mechanism of Mg dissolution/deposition.

  19. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  20. Four-Component Damped Density Functional Response Theory Study of UV/Vis Absorption Spectra and Phosphorescence Parameters of Group 12 Metal-Substituted Porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Saue, Trond; Norman, Patrick

    2016-05-10

    The influences of group 12 (Zn, Cd, Hg) metal-substitution on the valence spectra and phosphorescence parameters of porphyrins (P) have been investigated in a relativistic setting. In order to obtain valence spectra, this study reports the first application of the damped linear response function, or complex polarization propagator, in the four-component density functional theory framework [as formulated in Villaume et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2010 , 133 , 064105 ]. It is shown that the steep increase in the density of states as due to the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling yields only minor changes in overall computational costs involved with the solution of the set of linear response equations. Comparing single-frequency to multifrequency spectral calculations, it is noted that the number of iterations in the iterative linear equation solver per frequency grid-point decreases monotonously from 30 to 0.74 as the number of frequency points goes from one to 19. The main heavy-atom effect on the UV/vis-absorption spectra is indirect and attributed to the change of point group symmetry due to metal-substitution, and it is noted that substitutions using heavier atoms yield small red-shifts of the intense Soret-band. Concerning phosphorescence parameters, the adoption of a four-component relativistic setting enables the calculation of such properties at a linear order of response theory, and any higher-order response functions do not need to be considered-a real, conventional, form of linear response theory has been used for the calculation of these parameters. For the substituted porphyrins, electronic coupling between the lowest triplet states is strong and results in theoretical estimates of lifetimes that are sensitive to the wave function and electron density parametrization. With this in mind, we report our best estimates of the phosphorescence lifetimes to be 460, 13.8, 11.2, and 0.00155 s for H2P, ZnP, CdP, and HgP, respectively, with the corresponding transition

  1. Atomistic absorption spectra and non-adiabatic dynamics of the LH2 complex with a GPU-accelerated ab initio exciton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, David

    Recently, we outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground/excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail. In this paper, we apply our ab initioexciton framework to the 27 coupled bacteriocholorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute linear absorption spectra and short-time, on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) dynamics of electronically excited LH2. Our ab initio exciton model includes two key parameters whose values are determined by fitting to experiment: d, which is added to the diagonal elements, corrects for the error in TDDFT vertical excitation energies on a single chromophore; and e, which occurs on the off-diagonal matrix elements, describes the average dielectric screening of the inter-chromophore transition-dipole coupling. Using snapshots obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of LH2, best-fit values of both d and e were obtained by fitting to the thermally broadened experimental absorption spectrum within the Frank-Condon approximation, providing a linear absorption spectrum that agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. We follow the nonadiabatic dynamics using surface hopping to construct time-resolved visualizations of the EET dynamics in the sub-picosecond regime following photoexcitation. This provides some qualitative insight into the excitonic energy transfer (EET) that results from atomically resolved vibrational fluctuations of the chromophores. The dynamical picture that emerges is one of rapidly fluctuating eigenstates that are delocalized over multiple chromophores and undergo frequent crossing on a femtosecond timescale as a result of the underlying chromophore vibrational dynamics. The eigenstate fluctuations arise from disorder in both the diagonal chromophore site energies and the off-diagonal inter

  2. Absorption and emission spectra of Ga1.7Ge25As8.3S65 glasses doped with rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, E. V.; Iaseniuc, O. V.; Ciornea, V. I.; Iovu, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Excellent optical properties of chalcogenide glasses make them interesting for optoelectronic devices in the visible (VIS) and, especially, in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectral regions. The rare-earth (RE3+) doped Ga17Ge25As8.3S65 glasses were prepared in evacuated ( 10-5 Pa) silica-glass ampoules which were heated up to 1000 °C at 2-4°C min-1, and then the melt was quenched. The absorption and photoluminescence spectra in the visible and near IR regions for GA1.7Ge25As8.3S65 doped with rare-earth RE+) ions (Sm3+, Nd3+, Pr3+, Dy3+ and co-doped with Ho3++Dy3+) are investigated. The energy transfer of the absorbed light in the broad band Urbach region of the host glass to the RE3+ ions is suggested for increasing the emission efficiency. The investigated Ga17Ge25As8.3S65 glasses doped with RE3+ ions are promising materials for optical amplifiers operating at 1300 and 1500 nm telecommunication windows.

  3. Correction of Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra for Telluric Absorption at 0.90–1.35 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kondo, Sohei; Fukue, Kei; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Mizumoto, Misaki; Arai, Akira; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Asano, Akira; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2018-07-01

    We report a method of correcting a near-infrared (0.90–1.35 μm) high-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 28,000) spectrum for telluric absorption using the corresponding spectrum of a telluric standard star. The proposed method uses an A0 V star or its analog as a standard star from which on the order of 100 intrinsic stellar lines are carefully removed with the help of a reference synthetic telluric spectrum. We find that this method can also be applied to feature-rich objects having spectra with heavily blended intrinsic stellar and telluric lines and present an application to a G-type giant using this approach. We also develop a new diagnostic method for evaluating the accuracy of telluric correction and use it to demonstrate that our method achieves an accuracy better than 2% for spectral parts for which the atmospheric transmittance is as low as ∼20% if telluric standard stars are observed under the following conditions: (1) the difference in airmass between the target and the standard is ≲ 0.05; and (2) that in time is less than 1 hr. In particular, the time variability of water vapor has a large impact on the accuracy of telluric correction and minimizing the difference in time from that of the telluric standard star is important especially in near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic observation.

  4. Artificial neural networks for retrieving absorption and reduced scattering spectra from frequency-domain diffuse reflectance spectroscopy at short source-detector separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Po-Jung; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) based on the frequency-domain (FD) technique has been employed to investigate the optical properties of deep tissues such as breast and brain using source to detector separation up to 40 mm. Due to the modeling and system limitations, efficient and precise determination of turbid sample optical properties from the FD diffuse reflectance acquired at a source-detector separation (SDS) of around 1 mm has not been demonstrated. In this study, we revealed that at SDS of 1 mm, acquiring FD diffuse reflectance at multiple frequencies is necessary for alleviating the influence of inevitable measurement uncertainty on the optical property recovery accuracy. Furthermore, we developed artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained by Monte Carlo simulation generated databases that were capable of efficiently determining FD reflectance at multiple frequencies. The ANNs could work in conjunction with a least-square optimization algorithm to rapidly (within 1 second), accurately (within 10%) quantify the sample optical properties from FD reflectance measured at SDS of 1 mm. In addition, we demonstrated that incorporating the steady-state apparatus into the FD DRS system with 1 mm SDS would enable obtaining broadband absorption and reduced scattering spectra of turbid samples in the wavelength range from 650 to 1000 nm. PMID:27446671

  5. Quantitative treatment of the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of acridines and phenazines. The ground and first excited singlet-state dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jean Jacques; Maafi, Mounir; Párkányi, Cyril; Boniface, Christian

    1995-04-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of four acridines (acridine, Acridine Yellow, 9-aminoacridine and proflavine) and three phenazines (phenazine, neutral Red and safranine) are determined at room temperature (298 K) in several solvents of various polarities (dioxane, chloroform, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide). The effect of the solvent upon the spectral characteristics of the above compounds, is studied. In combination with the ground-state dipole moments of these compounds, the spectral data are used to evaluate their first excited singlet-state dipole moments by means of the solvatochromic shift method (Bakhshiev's and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's correlations). The theoretical ground and excited singlet-state dipole moments for acridines and phenazines are also calculated as a vector sum of the π-component (obtained by the PPP method) and the σ-component (obtained from σ-bond moments). For most acridines and phenazines under study, the experimental excited singlet-state dipole moments are found to be higher than their ground state counterpart. The application of the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft solvatochromic parameters to the solvent effect on spectral properties of acridine and phenazine derivatives is discussed.

  6. A consensus least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) for analysis of near-infrared spectra of plant samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yankun; Shao, Xueguang; Cai, Wensheng

    2007-04-15

    Consensus modeling of combining the results of multiple independent models to produce a single prediction avoids the instability of single model. Based on the principle of consensus modeling, a consensus least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) method for calibrating the near-infrared (NIR) spectra was proposed. In the proposed approach, NIR spectra of plant samples were firstly preprocessed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for filtering the spectral background and noise, then, consensus LS-SVR technique was used for building the calibration model. With an optimization of the parameters involved in the modeling, a satisfied model was achieved for predicting the content of reducing sugar in plant samples. The predicted results show that consensus LS-SVR model is more robust and reliable than the conventional partial least squares (PLS) and LS-SVR methods.

  7. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M; Darvish Ganji, M; Jameh-Bozorghi, S; Niazi, A

    2018-04-05

    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω + ) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C 60 -Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C 60 -P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C 60 -P-Mptriad system due to C 60 -Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes

  8. DFT/TD-semiempirical study on the structural and electronic properties and absorption spectra of supramolecular fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine triads based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvani, M.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Jameh-Bozorghi, S.; Niazi, A.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω+) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry. Moreover the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) was calculated by means of the oscillator strengths which are obtained by TD-ZINDO/S calculation. Theoretical studies of the electronic spectra by ZINDO/S method were helpful in interpreting the observed electronic transitions. This aspect was systematically explored in a series of C60-Porphyrine-Metalloporphyrine (C60-P-Mp) triad system with M being Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, and Zn. Generally, transition metal coordination compounds are used as effective sensitizers, due to their intense charge-transfer absorption over the whole visible range and highly efficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer. We aim to optimize the performance of the title solar cells by altering the frontier orbital energy gaps. The results reveal that cell efficiency can be enhanced by metal functionalization of the free base porphyrin. Ti-porphyrin was found to be the most efficient dye sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on C60-P-Mptriad system due to C60-Por-TiP complex has lower chemical hardness, gap energy and chemical potential as well as higher electron accepting power among other complexes. In

  9. Transition metal atomic multiplets in the ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectra and multiple oxidation states in the L2,3 emission of strongly correlated compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Mier, J.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Yang, W.-L.; Denlinger, J.

    2014-07-01

    We present results that show that atomic multiplet ligand field calculations are in very good agreement with experimental x-ray absorption spectra at the L2,3 edge of transition metal (TM) di-fluorides (MF2, MCrCu). For chromium more than one TM oxidation state is needed to achieve such an agreement. We also show that signature of the TM atomic multiplet can be found at the pre-edge of the fluorine K-edge x-ray absorption spectra. TM atomic multiplet ligand field calculations with a structureless core hole show good agreement with the observed pre-edges in the experimental fluorine absorption spectra. Preliminary results for the comparison between calculated and experimental resonant x-ray emission spectra for nominal CrF2 with more than one oxidation state indicate the presence of three chromium oxidation states in the bulk.

  10. Study on the interactions of antiemetic drugs and 12-tungstophosphoric acid by absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    In 0.1 mol L-1 HCl medium, antiemetic drugs (ATM), such as granisetron hydrochloride (GS) and tropisetron hydrochloride (TS), reacted with H3PW12O40·nH2O and formed 3:1 ion-association complex of [(ATM)3PW12O40], then self-aggregated into nanoparticles-[(ATM)3PW12O40]n with an average size of 100 nm. The reaction resulted in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and the absorption spectra. The increments of scattering intensity (ΔIRRS) and the change of absorbance (ΔA) were both directly proportional to the concentrations of ATM in certain ranges. Accordingly, two new RRS and spectrophotometric methods were proposed for ATM detection. The detection limits (3σ) of GS and TS were 3.2 ng mL-1 and 4.0 ng mL-1(RRS method), 112.5 ng mL-1 and 100.0 ng mL-1(spectrophotometric method). These two methods were applied to determine GS in orally disintegrating tablets and the results were in good agreement with the official method. The ground-state geometries and electronic structures of GS and TS were optimized by the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) method and the shape of [(ATM)3PW12O40]n was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Take the RRS method with higher sensitivity as an example, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for enhancement of scattering were discussed.

  11. Time-domain calculations of the polarized Raman spectra, the transient infrared absorption anisotropy, and the extent of delocalization of the OH stretching mode of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hajime

    2006-08-03

    The polarized Raman spectrum and the time dependence of the transient infrared (TRIR) absorption anisotropy are calculated for the OH stretching mode of liquid water (neat liquid H2O) by using time-domain formulations, which include the effects of both the diagonal frequency modulations (of individual oscillators) induced by the interactions between the dipole derivatives and the intermolecular electric field, and the off-diagonal (intermolecular) vibrational coupling described by the transition dipole coupling (TDC) mechanism. The IR spectrum of neat liquid H2O and the TRIR anisotropy of a liquid mixture of H2O/HDO/D2O are also calculated. It is shown that the calculated features of these optical signals, including the temperature dependence of the polarized Raman and IR spectra, are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the frequency separation between the isotropic and anisotropic components of the polarized Raman spectrum and the rapid decay (approximately 0.1 ps) of the TRIR anisotropy of the OH stretching mode of neat liquid H2O are mainly controlled by the resonant intermolecular vibrational coupling described by the TDC mechanism. Comparing with the time evolution of vibrational excitations, it is suggested that the TRIR anisotropy decays in the time needed for the initially localized vibrational excitations to delocalize over a few oscillators. It is also shown that the enhancement of the dipole derivatives by the interactions with surrounding molecules is an important factor in generating the spectral profiles of the OH stretching Raman band. The time-domain behavior of the molecular motions that affect the spectroscopic features is discussed.

  12. A Catalog of Absorption in the Spectra of Quasi-stellar Objects: Erratum (Orig. paper in 77, 203, 47-B1 (1991))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V.; Hewitt, A.; Burbidge, G.

    1992-07-01

    In the paper entitled "A Catalog of Absorption in the Spectra of Quasi- stellar Objects" by V. Junkkarinen, A. Hewitt, & G. Burbidge (ApJS, 77,203(1991]) there is an error in Table l. Because of an error in the computer program used to generate the final version of Table 1, the J2000 coordinates for all the objects are incorrect. The error involves the printed values for the J2000 seconds of time in right ascension and the J2000 seconds of arc in declination. The following table gives corrected J2000 coordinates for all the objects in Table 1 of our paper. Table 1 should be consulted for the 1950 coordinates and to check for coordinates which are poorly known. The J2000 coordinate names in Table 1 are correct (except that a few may change as more accurate coordinates become available for those QSOs with poorly determined coordinates), and the B1950 coordinates and coordinate names are not affected by the programming error. Additional corrections: In Table 3, 1040+015 should be QNB1:49, not QNB1:22. Two references were omitted (the numbers appear in Table 1, but the references are not listed): 1720. Djorgovski, S., Strauss, M. A., Perley, R. A., Spinrad, H., and McCarthy, P. 1987, AJ, 93,1318. 2115. Turnshek, D. A., Wolfe, A. M., Lanzetta, K. M., Briggs, F. H., Cohen, R. D., Foltz, C. B., Smith, H. E., and Wilkes, B. J. 1989, ApJ, 344,567. We would like to thank Marion Schmitz (IPAC) for pointing out the missing references and QNB1:49.

  13. Electronic Absorption and MCD Spectra for Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+), and Related Platinum-Centered Gold Cluster Complexes.

    PubMed

    Adrowski, Michael J.; Mason, W. Roy

    1997-03-26

    Electronic absorption and 7.0 T magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the UV-vis region, 1.6 to approximately 4.0 &mgr;m(-)(1) (1 &mgr;m(-)(1) = 10(4) cm(-)(1)) are reported for [Pd(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) and [Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2) in acetonitrile solutions at room temperature. The MCD spectra are better resolved than the absorption spectra and consist of both A and B terms. The spectra are interpreted in terms of D(4)(d)() skeletal geometry and MO's that are approximated by 5s and 6s orbitals for Pd and Pt/Au atoms, respectively. The lowest energy excited configurations and states are attributed to intraframework (IF) Au(8)(2+) transitions. Evidence is also presented for Pt 5d --> Au 6s transitions in the MCD spectra for Pt(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+). Acetonitrile solution absorption and MCD spectra for the related Pt-centered cluster complexes [Pt(CO)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AuP(p-tolyl)(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(CuCl)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(AgNO(3))(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(Hg)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](NO(3))(2), [Pt(HgCl)(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2), and [Pt(HgNO(3))(2)(AuPPh(3))(8)](BF(4))(2) are also reported and interpreted within the context of the model developed for the M(AuPPh(3))(8)(2+) complexes.

  14. Importance of colonic support for energy absorption as small-bowel failure proceeds.

    PubMed

    Nordgaard, I; Hansen, B S; Mortensen, P B

    1996-08-01

    Digestive processes in the human colon are affected by the bacterial fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrates and protein to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and supply energy. Energy absorption was measured by assessing fecal bomb calorimetry in 148 patients with extremely different small-bowel lengths. Colectomy increased fecal loss of energy by 0.8 MJ/d and carbohydrate excretion fivefold in patients with a small-bowel length between normal and 150-200 cm. Patients with 100-150 cm small bowel, with and without a colon, excreted 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.5 MJ/d, respectively (P = 0.002), a difference of 3.4 MJ/d. Patients with < 100 cm small bowel excreted 3.1 +/- 0.4 and 8.0 +/- 1.3 MJ/d, respectively (P = 0.03), a difference of 4.9 MJ/d. Similar and highly significant differences were calculated by linear-regression analysis. Considerably less energy was excreted as carbohydrate than as fat in patients with preserved colonic function, probably because fermentation removed carbohydrate as absorbed short-chain fatty acids, whereas a comparable amount of energy was lost as carbohydrate and fat in patients without colonic function. The correlation between malabsorbed energy and small-bowel length was poor (r = -0.41) but increased when data for patients with and without a colon were separated (r = -0.56 and r = -0.58, respectively). Small-bowel length, however, was still an inaccurate measure of intestinal failure to absorb nutrient energy. In conclusion, colonic digestion may support energy supply with up to approximately 4.2 MJ/d as small-bowel failure proceeds, but it is of minor importance in patients with a small-bowel length > 200 cm or malabsorption < 2.1 MJ/d.

  15. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  16. Gritty Surface Sample Holder Invented To Obtain Correct X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra for Concentrated Materials by Fluorescence Yield.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hitoshi; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masao; Murakami, Youichi; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-04-05

    A gritty surface sample holder has been invented to obtain correct XAFS spectra for concentrated samples by fluorescence yield (FY). Materials are usually mixed with boron nitride (BN) to prepare proper concentrations to measure XAFS spectra. Some materials, however, could not be mixed with BN and would be measured in too concentrated conditions to obtain correct XAFS spectra. Consequently, XAFS spectra will be incorrect typically with decreased intensities of the peaks. We have invented the gritty surface sample holders to obtain correct XAFS spectra even for concentrated materials for FY measurements. Pure Cu and CuO powders were measured mounted on the sample holders, and the same spectra were obtained as transmission spectra of properly prepared samples. This sample holder is useful to measure XAFS for any concentrated materials.

  17. Mars Ozone Absorption Line Shapes from Infrared Heterodyne Spectra Applied to GCM-Predicted Ozone Profiles and to MEX/SPICAM Column Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly E.; Kostiuk, T.; Annen, J.; Hewagama, T.; Delgado, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lefevre, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of infrared heterodyne line shapes of ozone on Mars to those produced by radiative transfer modeling of ozone profiles predicted by general circulation models (GCM), and to contemporaneous column abundances measured by Mars Express SPICAM. Ozone is an important tracer of photochemistry Mars' atmosphere, serving as an observable with which to test predictions of photochemistry-coupled GCMs. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at 9.5 microns with spectral resolving power >1,000,000 is the only technique that can directly measure fully-resolved line shapes of Martian ozone features from the surface of the Earth. Measurements were made with Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne instrument for Planetary Wind And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii on February 21-24 2008 UT at Ls=35deg on or near the MEX orbital path. The HIPWAC observations were used to test GCM predictions. For example, a GCM-generated ozone profile for 60degN 112degW was scaled so that a radiative transfer calculation of its absorption line shape matched an observed HIPWAC absorption feature at the same areographic position, local time, and season. The RMS deviation of the model from the data was slightly smaller for the GCM-generated profile than for a line shape produced by a constant-with-height profile, even though the total column abundances were the same, showing potential for testing and constraining GCM ozone-profiles. The resulting ozone column abundance from matching the model to the HIPWAC line shape was 60% higher than that observed by SPICAM at the same areographic position one day earlier and 2.5 hours earlier in local time. This could be due to day-to-day, diurnal, or north polar region variability, or to measurement sensitivity to the ozone column and its distribution, and these possibilities will be explored. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program.

  18. Lick optical spectra of quasar HS 1946+7658 at 10 kilometers per second resolution Lyman-alpha forest and metal absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xiao-Ming; Tytler, David

    1994-01-01

    We present optical spectra of the most luminous known quasi stellar object (QSO) HS 1946+7658 (z(sub em) = 3.051). Our spectra have both full wavelength coverage, 3240-10570 A, and in selected regions, either high signal-to-noise ratio, SNR approximately equals 40-100, or unusually high approximately 10 km/sec resolution, and in parts of the Ly alpha forest and to the red of Ly alpha emission they are among the best published. We find 113 Ly alpha systems and six metal-line systems, three of which are new. The metal systems at z(sub abs) = 2.844 and 3.050 have complex velocity structure with four and three prominent components, respectively. We find that the system at z(sub abs) = 2.844 is a damped Ly alpha absorption (DLA) system, with a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I) = 20.2 +/- 0.4, and it is the cause of the Lyman limit break at lambda approximately equals 3520 A. We believe that most of the H I column density in this system is in z(sub abs) = 2.8443 component which shows the strongest low-ionization absorption lines. The metal abundance in the gas phase of the system is (M/H) approximately equals -2.6 +/- 0.3, with a best estimate of (M/H) = -2.8, with ionizaion parameter log gamma = -2.75, from a photoionization model. The ratios of the logarithmic abundances of C, O, Al, and Si are all within a factor of 2 of solar, which is important for two reasons. First, we believe that the gas abundances which we measure are close to the total abundances, because the ratio of aluminum to other elements is near cosmic, and Al is a refractory element which depletes very readily like chromium, in the interstellar medium. Second, we do not see the enhancement of O with respect to C of (O/C) approximately equals 0.5-0.9 reported in three partial Lyman limit systems by Reimers et al. (1992) and Vogel & Reimers (1993); we measure (O/C) = -0.06 for observed ions and (O/C) approximately equals 0.2 after ionization corrections, which is consistent with solar

  19. Complex polarization propagator approach in the restricted open-shell, self-consistent field approximation: the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of allyl and copper phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Linares, Mathieu; Stafström, Sven; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans; Norman, Patrick

    2011-05-12

    A presentation of the complex polarization propagator in the restricted open-shell self-consistent field approximation is given. It rests on a formulation of a resonant-convergent, first-order polarization propagator approach that makes it possible to directly calculate the X-ray absorption cross section at a particular frequency without explicitly addressing the excited states. The quality of the predicted X-ray spectra relates only to the type of density functional applied without any separate treatment of dynamical relaxation effects. The method is applied to the calculation of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of allyl and copper phthalocyanine. Comparison is made between the spectra of the radicals and those of the corresponding cations and anions to assess the effect of the increase of electron charge in the frontier orbital. The method offers the possibility for unique assignment of symmetry-independent atoms. The overall excellent spectral agreement motivates the application of the method as a routine precise tool for analyzing X-ray absorption of large systems of technological interest.

  20. Direct deconvolution of two-state pump-probe X-ray absorption spectra and the structural changes in a 100 ps transient of Ni(II)-tetramesitylporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Della-Longa, S; Chen, L X; Frank, P; Hayakawa, K; Hatada, K; Benfatto, M

    2009-05-04

    Full multiple scattering (FMS) Minuit XANES (MXAN) has been combined with laser pump-probe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine the structure of photoexcited Ni(II)tetramesitylporphyrin, Ni(II)TMP, in dilute toluene solution. It is shown that an excellent simulation of the XANES spectrum is obtained, excluding the lowest-energy bound-state transitions. In ground-state Ni(II)TMP, the first-shell and second-shell distances are, respectively, d(Ni-N) = (1.93 +/- 0.02) A and d(Ni-C) = (2.94 +/- 0.03) A, in agreement with a previous EXAFS result. The time-resolved XANES difference spectrum was obtained (1) from the spectra of Ni(II)TMP in its photoexcited T(1) state and its ground state, S(0). The XANES difference spectrum has been analyzed to obtain both the structure and the fraction of the T(1) state. If the T(1) fraction is kept fixed at the value (0.37 +/- 0.10) determined by optical transient spectroscopy, a 0.07 A elongation of the Ni-N and Ni-C distances [d(Ni-N) and d(Ni-C)] is found, in agreement with the EXAFS result. However, an evaluation of both the distance elongation and the T(1) fraction can also be obtained using XANES data only. According to experimental evidence, and MXAN simulations, the T(1) fraction is (0.60 +/- 0.15) with d(Ni-N) = (1.98 +/- 0.03) A (0.05 A elongation). The overall uncertainty of these results depends on the statistical correlation between the distances and T(1) fraction, and the chemical shift of the ionization energy because of subtle changes of metal charge between the T(1) and S(0) states. The T(1) excited-state structure results, independently obtained without the excited-state fraction from optical transient spectroscopy, are still in agreement with previous EXAFS investigations. Thus, full multiple scattering theory applied through the MXAN formalism can be used to provide structural information, not only on the ground-state molecules but also on very short-lived excited states through differential

  1. Electronic absorption and MCD spectra of M sub 2 (TMB) sub 4 sup 2+ , M = Rh and Ir. A valence-bond description of the upper electronic excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.C.; Miskowski, V.M.; Gray, H.B.

    1990-05-09

    Electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of Rh{sub 2}(TMB){sub 4}{sup 2+} and Ir{sub 2}(TMB){sub 4}{sup 2+} are reported along with polarized single-crystal absorption spectra of (Ir{sub 2}(TMB){sub 4})(B(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}){sub 2} {times} CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5} (TMB = 2,5-diisocyano-2,5-dimethylhexane). Interpretation of the spectra is based on a valence-bond model that accommodates highly perturbed dimer transitions as well as monomer-like dimer excitations. In this model, half of the dimer electronic excited states possess ionic character; these states involve metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT). The most prominent of the weak features ({approximately} 430 nm) is assigned to the transition tomore » {sup 1}A{sub 1g} (a single-center d{sub z{sup 2}} {yields} p{sub z} excitation). High-energy features ({lambda} < 300 nm) in the spectra of Rh{sub 2}(TMB){sub 4}{sup 2+} and Ir{sub 2}(TMB){sub 4}{sup 2+} are assigned to MMCT arising from d{sub xzyz} {yields} p{sub z} excitations.« less

  2. A study of ultraviolet absorption lines through the complete Galactic halo by the analysis of HST faint object spectrograph spectra of active Galactic nuclei, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Geoffrey S.; Bartko, Frank; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Sachs, Elise R.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Harms, Richard J.; Massa, Derck

    1994-01-01

    The ultraviolet (1150 - 2850 A) spectra of a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) have been used to study the properties of the Galactic halo. The objects that served as probes are 3C 273, PKS 0454-220, Pg 1211+143, CSO 251, Ton 951, and PG 1351+640. The equivalent widths of certain interstellar ions have been measured, with special attention paid to the C IV/C II and Si IV/Si II ratios. These ratios have been intercompared, and the highest values are found in the direction of 3C 273, where C IV/C II = 1.2 and Si IV/Si II greater than 1. These high ratios may be due to a nearby supernova remnant, rather than to ionized gas higher up in the Galactic halo. Our data give some support to the notion that QSO metal-line systems may arise from intervening galaxies which contain high supernova rates, galactic fountains, and turbulent mixing layers.

  3. Franck-Condon Simulations including Anharmonicity of the Ã(1)A''-X̃(1)A' Absorption and Single Vibronic Level Emission Spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel W K; Lee, Edmond P F; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2009-03-10

    RCCSD(T) and/or CASSCF/MRCI calculations have been carried out on the X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A'' states of HSiCl employing basis sets of up to the aug-cc-pV5Z quality. Contributions from core correlation and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit were included in determining the computed equilibrium geometrical parameters and relative electronic energy of these two states of HSiCl. Franck-Condon factors which include allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation between these two states of HSiCl and DSiCl were calculated employing RCCSD(T) and CASSCF/MRCI potential energy functions, and were used to simulate the Ã(1)A'' ← X̃(1)A' absorption and Ã(1)A'' → X̃(1)A' single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl. Simulated absorption and experimental LIF spectra, and simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,0,0) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra, of HSiCl and DSiCl are in very good agreement. However, agreement between simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,1,0) → X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A''(0,2,1) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra of DSiCl is not as good. Preliminary calculations on low-lying excited states of HSiCl suggest that vibronic interaction between low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state and highly excited vibrational levels of the ã(3)A'' is possible. Such vibronic interaction may change the character of the low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state, which would lead to perturbation in the SVL emission spectra from these vibrational levels.

  4. Effect of aluminum on the local structure of silicon in zeolites as studied by Si K edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure: spectra simulation with a non-muffin tin atomic background.

    PubMed

    Bugaev, Lusegen A; Bokhoven, Jeroen A van; Khrapko, Valerii V

    2009-04-09

    Experimental Si K edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) of zeolite faujasite, mordenite, and beta are interpreted by means of the FEFF8 code, replacing the theoretical atomic background mu(0) by a background that was extracted from an experimental spectrum. To some extent, this diminished the effect of the inaccuracy introduced by the MT potential and accounted for the intrinsic loss of photoelectrons. The agreement of the theoretical and experimental spectra at energies above the white lines enabled us to identify structural distortion around silicon, which occurs with increasing aluminum content. The Si K edge XANES spectra are very sensitive to slight distortions in the silicon coordination. Placing an aluminum atom on a nearest neighboring T site causes a distortion in the silicon tetrahedron, shortening one of the silicon-oxygen bonds relative to the other three.

  5. Development of program package for investigation and modeling of carbon nanostructures in diamond like carbon films with the help of Raman scattering and infrared absorption spectra line resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, David B.; Hovhannisyan, Levon; Mantashyan, Paytsar A.

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of complex spectra is an actual problem for modern science. The work is devoted to the creation of a software package, which analyzes spectrum in the different formats, possesses by dynamic knowledge database and self-study mechanism, performs automated analysis of the spectra compound based on knowledge database by application of certain algorithms. In the software package as searching systems, hyper-spherical random search algorithms, gradient algorithms and genetic searching algorithms were used. The analysis of Raman and IR spectrum of diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were performed by elaborated program. After processing the data, the program immediately displays all the calculated parameters of DLC.

  6. Energy absorption of seated occupants exposed to horizontal vibration and role of back support condition.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Subhash; Mandapuram, Santosh; Dong, Ren G

    2008-12-01

    Absorbed power characteristics of seated human subjects under fore-aft (x-axis) and lateral (y-axis) vibration are investigated through measurements of dynamic interactions at the two driving-points formed by the body and the seat pan, and upper body and the backrest. The experiments involved: (i) three back support conditions (no back support, and back supported against a vertical and an inclined backrest); (ii) three seat pan heights (425, 390 and 350 mm); and three magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s2 rms acceleration) of band limited random excitations in 0.5-10 Hz frequency range, applied independently along the x- and y- axes. The force responses, measured at the seat pan and the backrest are applied to characterize total energy transfer reflected on the seat pan and the backrest. The mean responses suggest strong contributions due to back support, and direction and magnitude of vibration. In the absence of a back support, the seat pan responses dominated in lower frequency bands centered at 0.63 and 1.25 Hz under both directions of motion. Most significant interactions of the upper body against the back support was observed under fore-aft vibration. The addition of back support caused the seat pan response to converge to a single primary peak near a higher frequency of 4 Hz under x- axis, with only little effect on the y-axis responses. The back support serves as an additional source of vibration to the occupant and an important constraint to limit the fore-aft movement of the upper body and thus relatively higher energy transfer under. The mean responses were further explored to examine the Wd frequency-weighting used for assessing exposure to horizontal vibration. The results show that the current weighting is suited for assessing the vibration exposure of human subjects seated only without a back support.

  7. Electronic Structure and Absorption Spectra of Sodium 2-Hydroxy-5-({2-Methoxy-4[(4-Sulfophenyl)Diazenyl]Phenyl}Diazenyl)Benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almodarresiyeh, H. A.; Shahab, S. N.; Zelenkovsky, V. M.; Agabekov, V. E.

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structure and geometry of the synthesized azodye sodium 2-hydroxy-5-({2-methoxy-4[(4-sulfophenyl) diazenyl]phenyl}diazenyl)benzoate (M12) were calculated theoretically by an ab initio Hartree-Fock method in basis set 6-31G. The nature of absorption bands in the visible and near-UV spectral regions was interpreted.

  8. Electronic and chemical state of aluminum from the single- (K) and double-electron excitation (KL II&III, KL I) x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of α-alumina, sodium aluminate, aqueous Al³⁺•(H₂O)₆, and aqueous Al(OH)₄⁻

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Govind, Niranjan; Huthwelker, Thomas

    2015-07-02

    We probe, at high energy resolution, the double electron excitation (KL II&II) x-ray absorption region that lies approximately 115 eV above the main Al K-edge (1566 eV) of α-alumina and sodium aluminate. The two solid standards, α-alumina (octahedral) and sodium aluminate (tetrahedral) are compared to aqueous species that have the same Al coordination symmetries, Al³⁺•6H₂O (octahedral) and Al(OH)₄⁻ (tetrahedral). For the octahedral species, the edge height of the KL II&III-edge is approximately 10% of the main K-edge however the edge height is much weaker (3% of K-edge height) for Al species with tetrahedral symmetry. For the α-alumina and aqueous Al³⁺•6H₂Omore » the KL II&III spectra contain white line features and extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) that mimics the K-edge spectra. The KL II&III-edge feature interferes with an important region of the extended-XAFS region of the spectra for the K-edge of the crystalline and aqueous standards. The K-edge spectra and K-edge positions are predicted using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The TDDFT calculations for the K-edge XANES spectra reproduce the observed transitions in the experimental spectra of the four Al species. The KL II&III and KL I onsets and their corresponding chemical shifts for the four standards are estimated using the delta self-consistent field (ΔSCF) method. Research by JLF, NG, EJB, AV, TDS was supported by U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. NG thanks Amity Andersen for help with the α-Al₂O₃ and tetrahedral sodium aluminate (NaAlO₂) clusters. All the calculations were performed using the Molecular Science Computing Capability at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL

  9. Kinetics and its accompanying thermodynamics studies on simultaneous complexation of heterobimetallic neodymium (III) with zinc (II) and L-tryptophan in aquated DMF using 4f-4f absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Huidrom, Bimola; Singh, N Rajmuhon

    2014-01-24

    The 4f-4f absorption spectra of the simultaneous heterobimetallic complexation of trivalent neodymium ion with l-tryptophan and divalent zinc ion in aquated DMF (50%, v/v) at pH 6.0 was recorded at the time interval of 1h. From the observed absorption spectra, the values of intensity parameters such as oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (Tλ) parameters, kinetics and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The rate constant increases with an increase in the temperature along with the oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The positive values of the change in the standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) indicate that the complexation is endothermic. The negative values of the change in the standard free energy (ΔG°) in the range from 293.15 K to 308.15 K, indicate that the reaction occurs spontaneously and hence the formation of heterobimetallic complex in the solution is favored kinetically and thermodynamically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics and its accompanying thermodynamics studies on simultaneous complexation of heterobimetallic neodymium (III) with zinc (II) and L-tryptophan in aquated DMF using 4f-4f absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huidrom, Bimola; Rajmuhon Singh, N.

    2014-01-01

    The 4f-4f absorption spectra of the simultaneous heterobimetallic complexation of trivalent neodymium ion with L-tryptophan and divalent zinc ion in aquated DMF (50%, v/v) at pH 6.0 was recorded at the time interval of 1 h. From the observed absorption spectra, the values of intensity parameters such as oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (Tλ) parameters, kinetics and thermodynamics parameters were evaluated. The rate constant increases with an increase in the temperature along with the oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The positive values of the change in the standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) indicate that the complexation is endothermic. The negative values of the change in the standard free energy (ΔG°) in the range from 293.15 K to 308.15 K, indicate that the reaction occurs spontaneously and hence the formation of heterobimetallic complex in the solution is favored kinetically and thermodynamically.

  11. Near sulfur L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of methanethiol in isolation and adsorbed on a Au(111) surface: a theoretical study using the four-component static exchange approximation.

    PubMed

    Villaume, Sebastien; Ekström, Ulf; Ottosson, Henrik; Norman, Patrick

    2010-06-07

    The relativistic four-component static exchange approach for calculation of near-edge X-ray absorption spectra has been reviewed. Application of the method is made to the Au(111) interface and the adsorption of methanethiol by a study of the near sulfur L-edge spectrum. The binding energies of the sulfur 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) sublevels in methanethiol are determined to be split by 1.2 eV due to spin-orbit coupling, and the binding energy of the 2p(3/2) shell is lowered from 169.2 eV for the isolated system to 167.4 and 166.7-166.8 eV for methanethiol in mono- and di-coordinated adsorption sites, respectively (with reference to vacuum). In the near L-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum only the sigma*(S-C) peak at 166 eV remains intact by surface adsorption, whereas transitions of predominantly Rydberg character are largely quenched in the surface spectra. The sigma*(S-H) peak of methanethiol is replaced by low-lying, isolated, sigma*(S-Au) peak(s), where the number of peaks in the latter category and their splittings are characteristic of the local bonding situation of the sulfur.

  12. Poster 2:Ab initio calculations of low temperature hydrocarbon spectra for astrophysics: application to the modeling of methane absorption in the Titan atmosphere in a wide IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei; Bezard, Bruno; Rannou, Pascal; Coustenis, Athena; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of intensities of spectral transitions in various temperature ranges including very low-T conditions is essential for the modeling of optical properties of planetary atmospheres and for other astrophysical applications. The temperature dependence of spectral features is crucial, but quantified experimental information in a wide spectral range is generally missing. A significant progress has been recently achieved in first principles quantum mechanical predictions (ab initio electronic structure + variational nuclear motion calculations) of rotationally resolved spectra for hydrocarbon molecules such as methane , ethylene and their isotopic species [1,2] . We have recently reported the TheoReTS information system (theorets.univ-reims.fr, theorets.tsu.ru) for theoretical spectra based on variational predictions from molecular potential energy and dipole moment surfaces [3] that permits online simulation of radiative properties including low-T conditions of cold planets. In this work, we apply ab initio predictions of the spectra of methane isotopologues down to T=80 K for the modeling of the transmittance in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest satellite explored by the Cassini-Huygens space mission. A very good agreement over the whole infrared range from 6,000 to 11,000 cm-1 compared with observations obtained by the Descent Imager / Spectral Radiometer (DISR) on the Huygens probe [4,5] at various altitudes will be reported.

  13. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  14. Exchange, interpretation, and database-search of ion mobility spectra supported by data format JCAMP-DX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, J. I.; Davies, A. N.; Vonirmer, A.; Lampen, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    To assist peak assignment in ion mobility spectrometry it is important to have quality reference data. The reference collection should be stored in a database system which is capable of being searched using spectral or substance information. We propose to build such a database customized for ion mobility spectra. To start off with it is important to quickly reach a critical mass of data in the collection. We wish to obtain as many spectra combined with their IMS parameters as possible. Spectra suppliers will be rewarded for their participation with access to the database. To make the data exchange between users and system administration possible, it is important to define a file format specially made for the requirements of ion mobility spectra. The format should be computer readable and flexible enough for extensive comments to be included. In this document we propose a data exchange format, and we would like you to give comments on it. For the international data exchange it is important, to have a standard data exchange format. We propose to base the definition of this format on the JCAMP-DX protocol, which was developed for the exchange of infrared spectra. This standard made by the Joint Committee on Atomic and Molecular Physical Data is of a flexible design. The aim of this paper is to adopt JCAMP-DX to the special requirements of ion mobility spectra.

  15. Part 1: Synthesis and visible absorption spectra of some new monoazo dyes derived from ethyl 2-amino-4-(4";-substitutedphenyl)thiophenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babür, Banu; Ertan, Nermin

    2014-10-01

    Series of monoazo dyes from some ethyl 2-amino-4-(4";-substitutedphenyl) thiophenes were prepared and characterized. The structure of the substances was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The relationship among the structure of the dyes, their absorption characteristics and the solvatochromic and halochromic behaviors of the dyes were investigated. Introduction of electron-accepting substituent into the diazo moiety results in large bathochromic shifts in all solvents used. The dyes exhibited positive solvatochromism and their solvatochromic properties were discussed in relation to tautomerism.

  16. Optical activity and electronic absorption spectra of some simple nucleosides related to cytidine and uridine: all-valence-shell molecular orbital calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D W; Redington, P K; Miles, D L; Eyring, H

    1981-01-01

    The circular dichroism and electronic absorption of three simple model systems for cytidine and uridine have been measured to 190 nm. The molecular spectral properties (excitation wavelengths, oscillator strengths, rotational strengths, and polarization directions) and electronic transitional patterns were investigated by using wave functions of the entire nucleoside with the goal of establishing the reliability of the theoretical method. The computed electronic absorption quantities were shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. It was found that the computed optical rotatory strengths of the B2u and E1u electronic transitions and lowest observed n-pi transition are in good agreement with experimental values. Electronic transitions were characterized by their electronic transitional patterns derived from population analysis of the transition density matrix. The theoretical rotational strengths associated with the B2u and E1u transitions stabilize after the use of just a few singly excited configurations in the configuration interaction basis and, hypothetically, are more reliable as indicators of conformation in pyrimidine nucleosides related to cytidine. PMID:6950393

  17. Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: explicit treatment of the vibronic transitions.

    PubMed

    D'Abramo, Marco; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea

    2014-04-28

    Here, we extend a recently introduced theoretical-computational procedure [M. D'Alessandro, M. Aschi, C. Mazzuca, A. Palleschi, and A. Amadei, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114102 (2013)] to include quantum vibrational transitions in modelling electronic spectra of atomic molecular systems in condensed phase. The method is based on the combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations within the Perturbed Matrix Method approach. The main aim of the presented approach is to reproduce as much as possible the spectral line shape which results from a subtle combination of environmental and intrinsic (chromophore) mechanical-dynamical features. As a case study, we were able to model the low energy UV-vis transitions of pyrene in liquid acetonitrile in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Electronic absorption, vibrational spectra, nonlinear optical properties, NBO analysis and thermodynamic properties of N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, T; Muthu, S; Karabacak, M

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-100 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively, for N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The frontier orbital energy gap and dipole moment illustrates the high reactivity of the title molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of the molecule were also calculated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) anti-bonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-500 nm in ethanol and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were calculated by TD-DFT/B3LYP, CIS and TD-HF methods using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels are also constructed. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures and the results reveals the heat capacity (C), and entropy (S) increases with rise in temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. VUV Absorption Spectra of Gas-Phase Quinoline in the 3.5 - 10.7 eV Photon Energy Range.

    PubMed

    Leach, Sydney; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Un, Sun

    2018-06-16

    The absorption spectrum of quinoline was measured in the gas phase between 3.5 and 10.7 eV using a synchrotron photon source. A large number of sharp and broad spectral features were observed, some of which have plasmon-type collective π-electron modes contributing to their intensities. Eight valence electronic transitions were assigned, considerably extending the number of π-π* transitions previously observed mainly in solution. The principal factor in solution red-shifts is found to be the Lorentz-Lorenz polarizability parameter. Rydberg bands, observed for the first time, are analysed into eight different series, converging to the D0 ground and two excited electronic states, D3 and D4, of the quinoline cation. The R1 series limit is 8.628 eV for the first ionization energy of quinoline, a value more precise than previously published. This value, combined with cation electronic transition data provides precise energies, respectively 10.623 eV and 11.355 eV, for the D3 and D4 states. The valence transition assignments are based on DFT calculations as well as on earlier Pariser-Parr-Pople SCF LCAO MO results. The relative quality of the P-P-P and DFT data is discussed. Both are far from spectroscopic accuracy concerning electronic excited states but were nevertheless useful for our assignments. Our time-dependent DFT calculations of quinoline are excellent for its ground state properties such as geometry, rotational constants, dipole moment and vibrational frequencies, which agree well with experimental observations. Vibrational components of the valence and Rydberg transitions mainly involve C-H bend and C=C and C=N stretch modes. Astrophysical applications of the VUV absorption of quinoline are briefly discussed.

  20. Photobleaching response of different sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter exposed to natural solar radiation using absorption and excitation-emission matrix spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN:TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN:TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0-9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%-5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  1. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.

    2011-09-15

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm{sup 3}. The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treatmore » part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the {Delta}n=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.« less

  2. Ultrasensitive determination of cadmium in seawater by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-fu; He, Bin; Hu, Xia-lin; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2007-05-01

    A new procedure, based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection, was developed for the determination of trace Cd in seawater samples. With 1-octanol that contained a mixture of dithizone (carrier) and oleic acid immobilized in the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber as a liquid membrane, Cd was selectively extracted from water samples into 0.05 M HNO 3 that filled the lumen of the hollow fiber as a stripping solution. The main extraction related parameters were optimized, and the effects of salinity and some coexisting interferants were also evaluated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, an enrichment factor of 387 was obtained for a 100-mL sample solution. In combination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, a very low detection limit (0.8 ng L - 1 ) and a relative standard deviation (2.5% at 50 ng L - 1 level) were achieved. Five seawater samples were analyzed by the proposed method without dilution, with detected Cd concentration in the range of 56.4-264.8 ng L - 1 and the relative spiked recoveries over 89%. For comparison, these samples were also analyzed by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after a 10-fold dilution for matrix effect elimination. Statistical analysis with a one-way ANOVA shows no significant differences (at 0.05 level) between the results obtained by the proposed and ICP-MS methods. Additionally, analysis of certified reference materials (GBW (E) 080040) shows good agreement with the certified value. These results indicate that this present method is very sensitive and reliable, and can effectively eliminate complex matrix interferences in seawater samples.

  3. Photobleaching Response of Different Sources of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Exposed to Natural Solar Radiation Using Absorption and Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L.; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN∶TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN∶TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0–9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%–5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  4. Efficient simultaneous reverse Monte Carlo modeling of pair-distribution functions and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectra of crystalline disordered materials.

    PubMed

    Németh, Károly; Chapman, Karena W; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Shyam, Badri; Chupas, Peter J; Heald, Steve M; Newville, Matt; Klingler, Robert J; Winans, Randall E; Almer, Jonathan D; Sandi, Giselle; Srajer, George

    2012-02-21

    An efficient implementation of simultaneous reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of pair distribution function (PDF) and EXAFS spectra is reported. This implementation is an extension of the technique established by Krayzman et al. [J. Appl. Cryst. 42, 867 (2009)] in the sense that it enables simultaneous real-space fitting of x-ray PDF with accurate treatment of Q-dependence of the scattering cross-sections and EXAFS with multiple photoelectron scattering included. The extension also allows for atom swaps during EXAFS fits thereby enabling modeling the effects of chemical disorder, such as migrating atoms and vacancies. Significant acceleration of EXAFS computation is achieved via discretization of effective path lengths and subsequent reduction of operation counts. The validity and accuracy of the approach is illustrated on small atomic clusters and on 5500-9000 atom models of bcc-Fe and α-Fe(2)O(3). The accuracy gains of combined simultaneous EXAFS and PDF fits are pointed out against PDF-only and EXAFS-only RMC fits. Our modeling approach may be widely used in PDF and EXAFS based investigations of disordered materials. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. Power and polarization dependences of ultra-narrow electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) spectra of 85 Rb atoms in degenerate two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated ultra-narrow EIA spectral features with respect to variations of polarizations and powers of pump laser beam in a degenerate two-level system of the transition of 85 Rb D2 transition line. Polarizations of the probe laser beam in two separate experiments were fixed at right circular and horizontal linear polarizations, respectively while the polarizations of the pump lasers were varied from initial polarizations same as the probe laser beams to orthogonal to probe polarizations. One homemade laser combined with AOMs was used to the pump and probe laser beams instead of two different lasers to overcome broad linewidths of the homemade lasers. Theoretically, probe absorption coefficients have been calculated from optical Bloch equations of the degenerate two level system prepared by a pump laser beam. In the case of the circular polarization, EIA signal was obtained as expected theoretically although both pump and probe beams have same polarization. The EIA signal become smaller as power increases and polarizations of the pump and probe beams were same. When the polarization of the pump beam was linear polarization, maximum EIA signal was obtained theoretically and experimentally. Experimental EIA spectral shapes with respect to variations of the pump beam polarization shows similar trends as the theoretical results.

  6. Erratum: "Photoionization Modeling of Oxygen K Absorption in the Interstellar Medium, the Chandra Grating Spectra of XTE J1817-330" (2013, Apj, 768, 60)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatuzz, E.; Garcia, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Witthoeft, Michael C.; Lohfink, A.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, there are some minor inaccuracies in the absorption-line wavelengths listed in Table 4 as a result of a faulty reduction procedure of the Obs6615 spectrum. The shifts have been detected in a comparison with the wavelengths listed for this spectrum in the Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive (TGCat8). They are due to incorrect centroid positions of the zero-order image in both reductions as determined by the tgdetect utility which, when disentangled, yield the improved line positions of the amended Table 4 given below. It must also be pointed out that other quantitative findings of the original paper: 1. Table 5, p. 9: the column density (NH), ionization parameter, oxygen abundance of the warmabs model and the normalization and photon index of the power-law model; 2. Table 6, p. 9: the hydrogen column density of the warmabs fit; 3. Table 7, p. 9: the present oxygen equivalent widths of XTE J1817-330; and 4. Table 8, p. 10: the present oxygen column densities of XTE J1817-330 derived from both the curve of growth and warmabs model fit have been revised in the new light and are, within the estimated uncertainty ranges, in good accord with the new rendering.

  7. High Electrochemical Sensitivity of TiO2- x Nanosheets and an Electron-Induced Mutual Interference Effect toward Heavy Metal Ions Demonstrated Using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Yi; Li, Shan-Shan; Song, Jie-Yao; Jiang, Min; Jiang, Tian-Jia; Liu, Jin-Yun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2018-04-03

    Mutual interference is a severe issue that occurs during the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. This limitation presents a notable drawback for its high sensitivity to specific targets. Here, we present a high electrochemical sensitivity of ∼237.1 μA cm -2 μM -1 toward copper(II) [Cu(II)] based on oxygen-deficient titanium dioxide (TiO 2- x ) nanosheets. We fully demonstrated an atomic-level relationship between electrochemical behaviors and the key factors, including the high-energy (001) facet percentage, oxygen vacancy concentration, surface -OH content, and charge carrier density, is fully demonstrated. These four factors were quantified using Raman, electron spin resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra, and Mott-Schottky plots. In the mutual interference investigation, we selected cadmium(II) [Cd(II)] as the target ion because of the significant difference in its stripping potential (∼700 mV). The results show that the Cd(II) can enhance the sensitivity of TiO 2- x nanosheets toward Cu(II), exhibiting an electron-induced mutual interference effect, as demonstrated by X-ray absorption fine structure spectra.

  8. Photochemical parameters of atmospheric source gases: accurate determination of OH reaction rate constants over atmospheric temperatures, UV and IR absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orkin, V. L.; Khamaganov, V. G.; Martynova, L. E.; Kurylo, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    instrumental uncertainties related to our FP-RF experiment proves a total uncertainty of the OH reaction rate constant to be as small as ca. 2-3%. The high precision of kinetic measurements allows reliable determination of weak temperature dependences of the rate constants and clear resolution of the curvature of the Arrhenius plots for the OH reaction rate constants of various compounds. The results of OH reaction rate constant determinations between 220 K and 370 K will be presented. Similarly, the accuracy of UV and IR absorption measurements will be highlighted to provide an improved basis for atmospheric modeling.

  9. Structural characterization of vanadium oxide catalysts supported on nanostructured silica SBA-15 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The local structure of vanadium oxide supported on nanostructured SiO2 (VxOy/SBA-15) was investigated by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Because the number of potential parameters in XAS data analysis often exceeds the number of "independent" parameters, evaluating the reliability and significance of a particular fitting procedure is mandatory. The number of independent parameters (Nyquist) may not be sufficient. Hence, in addition to the number of independent parameters, a novel approach to evaluate the significance of structural fitting parameters in XAS data analysis is introduced. Three samples with different V loadings (i.e. 2.7 wt %, 5.4 wt %, and 10.8 wt %) were employed. Thermal treatment in air at 623 K resulted in characteristic structural changes of the V oxide species. Independent of the V loading, the local structure around V centers in dehydrated VxOy/SBA-15 corresponded to an ordered arrangement of adjacent V2O7 units. Moreover, the V2O7 units were found to persist under selective oxidation reaction conditions. PMID:20181222

  10. Structural characterization of vanadium oxide catalysts supported on nanostructured silica SBA-15 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walter, Anke; Herbert, Rita; Hess, Christian; Ressler, Thorsten

    2010-02-11

    The local structure of vanadium oxide supported on nanostructured SiO2 (VxOy/SBA-15) was investigated by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Because the number of potential parameters in XAS data analysis often exceeds the number of "independent" parameters, evaluating the reliability and significance of a particular fitting procedure is mandatory. The number of independent parameters (Nyquist) may not be sufficient. Hence, in addition to the number of independent parameters, a novel approach to evaluate the significance of structural fitting parameters in XAS data analysis is introduced. Three samples with different V loadings (i.e. 2.7 wt %, 5.4 wt %, and 10.8 wt %) were employed. Thermal treatment in air at 623 K resulted in characteristic structural changes of the V oxide species. Independent of the V loading, the local structure around V centers in dehydrated VxOy/SBA-15 corresponded to an ordered arrangement of adjacent V2O7 units. Moreover, the V2O7 units were found to persist under selective oxidation reaction conditions.

  11. Notable effects of metal salts on UV-vis absorption spectra of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopheroxyl radicals in acetonitrile solution. The complex formation between tocopheroxyls and metal cations.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kazuo; Kohno, Yutaro; Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2012-08-02

    The measurements of the UV-vis absorption spectra of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopheroxyl (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•)) radicals were performed by reacting aroxyl (ArO(•)) radical with α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-TocH), respectively, in acetonitrile solution including three kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiClO(4), NaClO(4), and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) (MX or MX(2)), using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The maximum wavelengths (λ(max)) of the absorption spectra of the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•) located at 425-428 nm without metal salts increased with increasing concentrations of metal salts (0-0.500 M) in acetonitrile and approached some constant values, suggesting (Toc(•)···M(+) (or M(2+))) complex formations. Similarly, the values of the apparent molar extinction coefficient (ε(max)) increased drastically with increasing concentrations of metal salts in acetonitrile and approached some constant values. The result suggests that the formations of Toc(•) dimers were suppressed by the metal ion complex formations of Toc(•) radicals. The stability constants (K) were determined for Li(+), Na(+), and Mg(2+) complexes of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•). The K values increased in the order of NaClO(4) < LiClO(4) < Mg(ClO(4))(2), being independent of the kinds of Toc(•) radicals. Furthermore, the K values increased in the order of δ- < γ- < β- < α-Toc(•) radicals for each metal salt. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having a smaller ionic radius of the cation and a larger charge of the cation gave a larger shift of the λ(max) value, a larger ε(max) value, and a larger K value. The result of the DFT molecular orbital calculations indicated that the α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Toc(•) radicals were stabilized by the (1:1) complex formation with metal cations (Li(+), Na(+), and Mg(2+)). Stabilization energy (E(S)) due to the complex formation increased in the order of Na(+) < Li(+) < Mg(2+) complexes, being

  12. Retrieval Analysis of the CO2 1.6 μm Band in Solar Absorption Spectra Measured by a Ground-Based High-Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Tsukuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, H.; Morino, I.; Nagahama, T.; Suto, H.; Oguma, H.; Machida, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Nakane, H.; Nakagawa, K.

    2006-12-01

    The global measurements of greenhouse gases from space are being planned, such as GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). Satellite remote sensing needs validations with other measurement techniques, for example, in-situ or sampling measurement by aircraft or ground station, or remote sensing measurement by ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The ground-based FTS measurement can provide the column amounts of atmospheric composition by a retrieval analysis with relatively high precision. In 2001, we started a project to observe the atmospheric compositions in solar absorption spectra by a ground- based high-resolution FTS (Bruker IFS 120 HR) located at Tsukuba, Japan. Three years ago, optical components of the FTS were replaced for measuring greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the near-infrared region: a CaF2 beam splitter, an InSb detector, and a 1.4-2.4 μm optical filter. The measurements were carried out once a day for ~100 days per year. We also made simultaneous FTS and aircraft in-situ measurements on August 10, 2004 and March 30, 2005. The retrieval analysis was performed for the measured spectra in the CO2 1.6 μm band. We used SEASCRAPE PLUS (Sequential Evaluation Algorithm for Simultaneous and Concurrent Retrieval of Atmospheric Parameter Estimates PLUS, Remote Sensing Analysis Systems, Inc.) as a retrieval analysis program. The column amounts were compared with those derived from in-situ measurements complemented by model data; differences are less than 1%. We have derived the diurnal variations of CO2 on the same days as in-situ measurements, and they showed tendencies similar to the tower measurements at the Meteorological Research Institute in Tsukuba.

  13. NARROW LINE ABSORPTION IN CACO3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBONATES), (*CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, (*ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CALCITE), (*CALCITE, RADIATION EFFECTS), ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE, SINGLE CRYSTALS , NEUTRONS, X RAYS, GAMMA RAYS, IONS, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE.

  14. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  15. Simultaneous observations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system of 87Rb and theoretical simulation of the observed spectra using a multi-mode approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Das, Arpita; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; De, Sankar

    2016-12-01

    We report here simultaneous experimental observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system in D2 transition of 87Rb, i.e., F =2 →F' with a strong pump and a weak probe beam. We studied the probe spectrum by locking the probe beam to the transition F =2 →F'=2 while the pump is scanned from F =2 →F' . EIA is observed for the open transition (F =2 →F'=2 ) whereas EIT is observed in the closed transition (F =2 →F'=3 ). Sub natural line-width is observed for the EIA. To simulate the observed spectra theoretically, Liouville equation for the three-level V-type system is solved analytically with a multi-mode approach for the density matrix elements. We assumed both the pump and the probe beams can couple the excited states. A multi-mode approach for the coherence terms facilitates the study of all the frequency contributions due to the pump and the probe fields. Since the terms contain higher harmonics of the pump and the probe frequencies, we expressed them in Fourier transformed forms. To simulate the probe spectrum, we have solved inhomogeneous difference equations for the coherence terms using the Green's function technique and continued fraction theory. The experimental line-widths of the EIT and the EIA are compared with our theoretical model. Our system can be useful in optical switching applications as it can be precisely tuned to render the medium opaque and transparent simultaneously.

  16. Simultaneous observations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system of 87Rb and theoretical simulation of the observed spectra using a multi-mode approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Das, Arpita; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; De, Sankar

    2016-12-14

    We report here simultaneous experimental observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) in a multi-level V-type system in D 2 transition of Rb87, i.e., F=2→F ' with a strong pump and a weak probe beam. We studied the probe spectrum by locking the probe beam to the transition F=2→F ' =2 while the pump is scanned from F=2→F ' . EIA is observed for the open transition (F=2→F ' =2) whereas EIT is observed in the closed transition (F=2→F ' =3). Sub natural line-width is observed for the EIA. To simulate the observed spectra theoretically, Liouville equation for the three-level V-type system is solved analytically with a multi-mode approach for the density matrix elements. We assumed both the pump and the probe beams can couple the excited states. A multi-mode approach for the coherence terms facilitates the study of all the frequency contributions due to the pump and the probe fields. Since the terms contain higher harmonics of the pump and the probe frequencies, we expressed them in Fourier transformed forms. To simulate the probe spectrum, we have solved inhomogeneous difference equations for the coherence terms using the Green's function technique and continued fraction theory. The experimental line-widths of the EIT and the EIA are compared with our theoretical model. Our system can be useful in optical switching applications as it can be precisely tuned to render the medium opaque and transparent simultaneously.

  17. Sound absorption by clamped poroelastic plates.

    PubMed

    Aygun, H; Attenborough, K

    2008-09-01

    Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the results for the different materials differ as a consequence mainly of their different elasticity, thickness, and cell structure.

  18. Inequality spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  19. Thermal conductance of interfaces with molecular layers - low temperature transient absorption study on gold nanorods supported on self assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Jingyu; Murphy, Catherine; Cahill, David; University of Illinois At Urbana Champaign, Department of Materials Science; Engineering Team; Department Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    While heat transfer via phonons across solid-solid boundary has been a core field in condense matter physics for many years, vibrational energy transport across molecular layers has been less well elucidated. We heat rectangular-shaped gold nanocrystals (nanorods) with Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser at their longitudinal surface plasmon absorption wavelength to watch how their temperature evolves in picoseconds transient. We observed single exponential decay behavior, which suggests that the heat dissipation is only governed by a single interfacial conductance value. The ``RC'' time constant was 300ps, corresponding to a conductance value of 95MW/ m 2 K. This interfacial conductance value is also a function of ambient temperature since at temperatures as low as 80K, which are below the Debye temperature of organic layers, several phonon modes were quenched, which shut down the dominating channels that conduct heat at room temperature.

  20. Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Soos, Z. G.

    1996-01-01

    Vibronic structure of nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficients is developed within the Condon approximation, displaced harmonic oscillators, and crude adiabatic states. The displacements of backbone modes of conjugated polymers are taken from vibrational data on the ground and 1B excited state. NLO resonances are modeled by three excitations and transition moments taken from Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) theory and optimized to polydiacetylene (PDA) spectra in crystals and films, with blue-shifted 1B exciton. The joint analysis of third-harmonic-generation, two-photon absorption, and nondegenerate four-wave-mixing spectra of PDA crystals and films shows weak two-photon absorption to 2A below 1B, leading to overlapping resonances in the THG spectrum, strong two-photon absorption to an nA state some 35% above 1B, and weak Raman resonances in nondegenerate FWM spectra. The full π-π* spectrum contributes to Stark shifts and field-induced transitions, as shown by PPP results for PDA oligomers. The Stark shift dominates high-resolution electroabsorption (EA) spectra of PDA crystals below 10 K. The close correspondence between EA and the first-derivative I'(ω) of the linear absorption above the 1B exciton in PDA crystals provides an experimental separation of vibrational and electronic contributions that limits any even-parity state in this 0.5 eV interval. An oscillator-strength sum rule is applied to the convergence of PDA oligomers with increasing length, N, and the crystal oscillator strengths are obtained without adjustable parameters. The sum rule for the 1B exciton implies large transition moments to higher-energy Ag states, whose locations in recent models are contrasted to PPP results. Joint analysis of NLO and EA spectra clarifies when a few electronic excitations are sufficient, distinguishes between vibrational and electronic contributions, and supports similar π-electron interactions in conjugated molecules and polymers.

  1. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  2. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forming galaxies of different morphological type and activity class using a sample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for a wide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presented in the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overall characteristics according to morphology and activity class and in the form of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption and emission features of individual objects. The data support the picture based on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of the Astronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubble class have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiral galaxies of earlier Hubble class.

  3. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  4. Martian neutron leakage spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1988-06-01

    A high-energy nucleon-meson transport code is used to calculate energy spectra of Martian leakage neutrons. Four calculations are used to simulate a uniform surface layer containing various amounts of water, different burial depths of a 50 percent water layer underneath a 1 percent water layer, changing atmospheric pressure, and a thick carbon dioxide ice sheet overlying a "dirty" water ice sheet. Calculated spectra at energies less than about 1000 eV were fitted by a superposition of thermal and epithermal functions having four free parameters, two of which (thermal and epithermal amplitudes) were found to vary systematically and to specify uniquely the configuration in each of the series. Parameter variations depend on the composition of the assumed surface layers through the average atomic mass and the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections. It is concluded that measurements of leakage neutron spectra should allow determination of the hydrogen content of surface layers buried to depths up to about 100 g/sq. cm and determination of the thickness of a polar dry ice cap up to a thickness of about 250 g/sq. cm.

  5. Probing the formation mechanism and chemical states of carbon-supported Pt-Ru nanoparticles by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing Joe; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Jiun-Ming; Wang, Guo-Rung; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2006-04-06

    The understanding of the formation mechanism of nanoparticles is essential for the successful particle design and scaling-up process. This paper reports findings of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation, comprised of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) regions, to understand the mechanism of the carbon-supported Pt-Ru nanoparticles (NPs) formation process. We have utilized Watanabe's colloidal reduction method to synthesize Pt-Ru/C NPs. We slightly modified the Watanabe method by introducing a mixing and heat treatment step of Pt and Ru oxidic species at 100 degrees C for 8 h with a view to enhance the mixing efficiency of the precursor species, thereby one can achieve improved homogeneity and atomic distribution in the resultant Pt-Ru/C NPs. During the reduction process, in situ XAS measurements allowed us to follow the evolution of Pt and Ru environments and their chemical states. The Pt LIII-edge XAS indicates that when H2PtCl6 is treated with NaHSO3, the platinum compound is found to be reduced to a Pt(II) form corresponding to the anionic complex [Pt(SO3)4]6-. Further oxidation of this anionic complex with hydrogen peroxide forms dispersed [Pt(OH)6]2- species. Analysis of Ru K-edge XAS results confirms the reduction of RuIIICl3 to [RuII(OH)4]2- species upon addition of NaHSO3. Addition of hydrogen peroxide to [RuII(OH)4]2- causes dehydrogenation and forms RuOx species. Mixing of [Pt(OH)6]2- and RuOx species and heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 8 h produced a colloidal sol containing both Pt and Ru metallic as well as ionic contributions. The reduction of this colloidal mixture at 300 degrees C in hydrogen atmosphere for 2 h forms Pt-Ru nanoparticles as indicated by the presence of Pt and Ru atoms in the first coordination shell. Determination of the alloying extent or atomic distribution of Pt and Ru atoms in the resulting Pt-Ru/C NPs reveals that the alloying extent of Ru (JRu) is

  6. In Situ Water Vapor Measurements Using Coupled UV Fragment Fluorescence/Absorption Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the coupling of dynamics, chemistry, and radiation within the context of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the national Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) requires, as a first-order priority, high spatial resolution, high-accuracy observations of water in its various phases. Given the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of water vapor is of central importance to CRYSTAL FACE (CF). This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-11548 to perform the following tasks for the CF mission: 1. Prepare the water vapor instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2. Calibrate and prepare the water vapor instrument for the Summer 2002 CF science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3. Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4. Analyze and interpret the CF data in collaboration with other mission scientists. 5. Attend the science workshop in Spring 2003. 6. Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  7. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  8. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  9. [Absorption Characteristics and Simulation of LLM-105 in the Terahertz Range].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zeng-rui; Shang, Li-ping; Du, Yu; Deng, Hu

    2015-07-01

    2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), a novel explosive with high energy and low sensibility. In order to study the molecular structure characteristics of the explosive, the absorption spectra of LLM-105 in the frequency range of 0.2-2.4 THz were detected by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The results showed that a number of characteristic absorption peaks with different intensity located at 1.27, 1.59, 2.00, 2.08, 2.20, 2.29 THz. The article also simulated the absorption spectra of LLM-105 molecular crystal within 0.2-2.5 THz region by using Materials Studio 6.0 software based on density functional theory (DFT), and the simulated results agreed well with the experimental data except for the peak at 2.29 THz, which verified theoretically the accuracy of the experimental data. In addition, the vibrational modes of the characteristic peaks in the experimental absorption spectra were analyzed and identified, the results showed that the forming of the characteristic absorption peaks and the molecular vibration were closely related, which further provided important laboratory and technology support for the study of the transformation of molecule structure of LLM-105. There was no simulated frequency agreed with the experimental absorption peak at 2.29 THz, which may be caused by the vibration of the crystal lattice or other reasons.

  10. The electronic spectra and the structures of the individual copper(II) chloride and bromide complexes in acetonitrile according to steady-state absorption spectroscopy and DFT/TD-DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshin, Pavel K.; Myasnikova, Olesya S.; Kashina, Maria V.; Gorbunov, Artem O.; Bogachev, Nikita A.; Kompanets, Viktor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Pulkin, Sergey A.; Kochemirovsky, Vladimir A.; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.; Mereshchenko, Andrey S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of spectrophotometric study and quantum chemical calculations for copper(II) chloro- and bromocomplexes in acetonitrile are reported. Electronic spectra of the individual copper(II) halide complexes were obtained in a wide spectral range 200-2200 nm. Stability constants of the individual copper(II) halide complexes in acetonitrile were calculated: log β1 = 8.5, log β2 = 15.6, log β3 = 22.5, log β4 = 25.7 for [CuCln]2-n and log β1 = 17.0, log β2 = 24.6, log β3 = 28.1, log β4 = 30.4 for [CuBrn]2-n. Structures of the studied complexes were optimized and electronic spectra were simulated using DFT and TD-DFT methodologies, respectively. According to the calculations, the more is the number of halide ligands the less is coordination number of copper ion.

  11. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic spectra of some substituted phenoxyacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Shanthi, M; Kabilan, S

    2007-06-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 19 para- and ortho-substituted phenoxyacetic acids in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituent on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed.

  12. Substituent and solvent effects on electronic spectra of some substituted phenoxyacetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, M.; Kabilan, S.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of substituents and solvents have been studied through the absorption spectra of nearly 19 para- and ortho-substituted phenoxyacetic acids in the range of 200-400 nm. The effects of substituent on the absorption spectra of compounds under present investigation are interpreted by correlation of absorption frequencies with simple and extended Hammett equations. Effect of solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding on the absorption spectra are interpreted by means of Kamlet equation and the results are discussed.

  13. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  14. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the

  15. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  16. UV-Visible Spectra of PAHs and Derivatives Seeded in Supersonic Jet. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salma, Bejaoui; Salama, Farid

    2018-06-01

    Laboratory absorption spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives measured under astrophysical relevant conditions are crucial to test the PAHs-DIBs hypothesis as well as the PAH model for the IR emission bands. Our dedicated experimental setup on the COsmic SImulation Chamber (COSmIC) provides an excellent platform to study neutral and ionized PAHs under the low temperature and pressure conditions that are representative of interstellar environments [1]. In this work, we study the effect of the substitution of CH bond(s) by a nitrogen atom(s) on the electronic spectra of phenanthrene. The electronic transitions associated with the lower excited states of neutral phenanthrene (C14H10) and phenanthridine (C13H9N) are measured in gas phase in the 315-345 nm region. Molecules are seeded in a supersonic expansion of argon gas and the absorption spectra are measured using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Additional measurements of the absorption spectra of phenanthrene, phenantridine and 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2) isolated in 10 K argon matrices are also performed. The comparison between the CRDS spectra with the absorption of the matrix-isolated molecules highlight the matrix-induced perturbations in band position, profiles and broadening and illustrates the need of gas phase measurements for more accurate comparisons with astronomical spectra.[1] Salama, F., Galazutdinov, G., Krelowski, et al. ApJ 728, 154[FS1] (2011).[2] A. Tielens, ApJ 526 Pt 1265–273 (2008),Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the APRA Program of NASA SMD

  17. Tunable absorption resonances in the ultraviolet for InP nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Anttu, Nicklas; Nylund, Gustav; Samuelson, Lars; Lehmann, Sebastian; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2014-11-17

    The ability to tune the photon absorptance spectrum is an attracting way of tailoring the response of devices like photodetectors and solar cells. Here, we measure the reflectance spectra of InP substrates patterned with arrays of vertically standing InP nanowires. Using the reflectance spectra, we calculate and analyze the corresponding absorptance spectra of the nanowires. We show that we can tune absorption resonances for the nanowire arrays into the ultraviolet by decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. When we compare our measurements with electromagnetic modeling, we generally find good agreement. Interestingly, the remaining differences between modeled and measured spectra are attributed to a crystal-phase dependence in the refractive index of InP. Specifically, we find indication of significant differences in the refractive index between the modeled zinc-blende InP nanowires and the measured wurtzite InP nanowires in the ultraviolet. We believe that such crystal-phase dependent differences in the refractive index affect the possibility to excite optical resonances in the large wavelength range of 345 < λ < 390 nm. To support this claim, we investigated how resonances in nanostructures can be shifted in wavelength by geometrical tuning. We find that dispersion in the refractive index can dominate over geometrical tuning and stop the possibility for such shifting. Our results open the door for using crystal-phase engineering to optimize the absorption in InP nanowire-based solar cells and photodetectors.

  18. Quantitative Infrared Absorption Spectra and Vibrational Assignments of Crotonaldehyde and Methyl Vinyl Ketone Using Gas-Phase Mid-Infrared, Far-Infrared, and Liquid Raman Spectra: s-cis vs s-trans Composition Confirmed via Temperature Studies and ab Initio Methods.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Williams, Stephen D; Sams, Robert L; Johnson, Timothy J

    2017-02-16

    Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and crotonaldehyde are chemical isomers; both are also important species in tropospheric chemistry. We report quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of crotonaldehyde and MVK vapors over the 540-6500 cm -1 range. Vibrational assignments of all fundamental modes are made for both molecules on the basis of far- and mid-infrared vapor-phase spectra, liquid Raman spectra, along with density functional theory and ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical models (W1BD). Theoretical results indicate that at room temperature the crotonaldehyde equilibrium mixture is approximately 97% s-trans and only 3% s-cis conformer. Nearly all observed bands are thus associated with the s-trans conformer, but a few appear to be uniquely associated with the s-cis conformer, notably ν 16 c at 730.90 cm -1 , which displays a substantial intensity increase with temperature (70% upon going from 5 to 50 o C). The intensity of the corresponding mode of the s-trans conformer decreases with temperature. Under the same conditions, the MVK equilibrium mixture is approximately 69% s-trans conformer and 31% s-cis. W1BD calculations indicate that for MVK this is one of those (rare) cases where there are comparable populations of both conformers, approximately doubling the number of observed bands and exacerbating the vibrational assignments. We uniquely assign the bands associated with both the MVK s-cis conformer as well as those of the s-trans, thus completing the vibrational analyses of both conformers from the same set of experimental spectra. Integrated band intensities are reported for both molecules along with global warming potential values. Using the quantitative IR data, potential bands for atmospheric monitoring are also discussed.

  19. Quantitative Infrared Absorption Spectra and Vibrational Assignments of Crotonaldehyde and Methyl Vinyl Ketone Using Gas-Phase Mid-Infrared, Far-Infrared, and Liquid Raman Spectra: s-cis vs s-trans Composition Confirmed via Temperature Studies and ab Initio Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Williams, Stephen D.; Sams, Robert L.

    Methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and crotonaldehyde are chemical isomers; both are also important species in tropospheric chemistry. We report quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectra of crotonaldehyde and MVK vapors over the 540-6500 cm-1 range. Vibrational assignments of all fundamental modes are made for both molecules based on far- and mid-infrared vapor-phase spectra, liquid Raman spectra, along with density functional theory and ab initio MP2 and high energy-accuracy compound theoretical models (W1BD). Theoretical results indicate that at room temperature the crotonaldehyde equilibrium mixture is approximately 97% s-trans and only 3% s-cis conformer. Nearly all observed bands are thus associated with the s-transmore » conformer, but a few appear to be uniquely associated the s-cis conformer, notably ν16c at 730.90 cm-1, which displays a substantial intensity increase with temperature (62% upon going from 5 to 50 oC). The intensity of the corresponding mode of the s-trans conformer decreases with temperature. Under the same conditions, the MVK equilibrium mixture is approximately 69% s-trans conformer and 31% s-cis. W1BD calculations indicate that for MVK this is one of those (rare) cases where there are comparable populations of both conformers, ~doubling the number of observed bands and exacerbating the vibrational assignments. We uniquely assign the bands associated with both the MVK s-cis conformer as well as those of the s-trans, thus completing the vibrational analyses of both conformers from the same set of experimental spectra. Integrated band intensities are reported for both molecules along with global warming potential values. Using the quantitative IR data, potential bands for atmospheric monitoring are also discussed.« less

  20. Excitonic nature of optical transitions in electroabsorption spectra of perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Fabian; Magin, Alice; Schultes, Moritz; Ahlswede, Erik; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of solution-processed perovskite solar cells using temperature-dependent electroabsorption (EA) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of absorption and electromodulated spectra of semitransparent methylammonium lead iodide solar cells facilitate a direct comparison of the specific features. The EA spectra can be transformed to peak-like line shapes utilizing an approach based on the Kramers-Kronig relations. The resulting peak positions correspond well to the discrete excitonic—rather than the continuum—contribution of the absorption spectra derived from generalized Elliott fits. This indicates the excitonic nature of the observed EA resonance and is found to be consistent over the whole temperature range investigated (from T = 10 K up to room temperature). To further confirm these findings, a line shape analysis of the measured EA spectra was performed. The best agreement was achieved using a first-derivative-like functional form which is expected for excitonic systems and supports the conclusion of an excitonic optical transition. Exciton binding energies EB are estimated for the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases as 26 meV and 19 meV, respectively. Nevertheless, power-conversion efficiencies η up to 13% (11.5% stabilized) demonstrate good charge-carrier separation in the devices due to sufficient thermal dissociation and Sommerfeld-enhanced absorption.

  1. Different mathematical processing of absorption, ratio and derivative spectra for quantification of mixtures containing minor component: An application to the analysis of the recently co-formulated antidiabetic drugs; canagliflozin and metformin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mohamed, Dalia; Elshahed, Mona S.

    2018-01-01

    In the presented work several spectrophotometric methods were performed for the quantification of canagliflozin (CGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MTF) simultaneously in their binary mixture. Two of these methods; response correlation (RC) and advanced balance point-spectrum subtraction (ABP-SS) were developed and introduced for the first time in this work, where the latter method (ABP-SS) was performed on both the zero order and the first derivative spectra of the drugs. Besides, two recently established methods; advanced amplitude modulation (AAM) and advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS) were also accomplished. All the proposed methods were validated in accordance to the ICH guidelines, where all methods were proved to be accurate and precise. Additionally, the linearity range, limit of detection and limit of quantification were determined and the selectivity was examined through the analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form of the drugs. The proposed methods were capable of determining the two drugs in the ratio present in the pharmaceutical formulation CGZ:MTF (1:17) without the requirement of any preliminary separation, further dilution or standard spiking. The results obtained by the proposed methods were in compliance with the reported chromatographic method when compared statistically, proving the absence of any significant difference in accuracy and precision between the proposed and reported methods.

  2. IDEOS: Fitting Infrared Spectra from Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Vincent; Rupke, D.

    2014-01-01

    We fit models to heavily obscured infrared spectra taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope and prepare them for cataloguing in the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). When completed, IDEOS will contain homogeneously measured mid-infrared spectroscopic observables of more than 4200 galaxies beyond the Local Group. The software we use, QUESTFit, models the spectra using up to three extincted blackbodies (including silicate, water ice, and hydrocarbon absorption) and PAH templates. We present results from a sample of the approximately 200 heavily obscured spectra that will be present in IDEOS.

  3. Synthesis, DFT calculations, electronic structure, electronic absorption spectra, natural bond orbital (NBO) and nonlinear optical (NLO) analysis of the novel 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6] naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (MBCND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Ibrahim, Magdy A.

    2017-02-01

    New derivative of heteroannulated chromone identified as 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6]naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (5, MBCND) was easily and efficiently synthesized from DBU catalyzed condensation reaction of 2-aminochromone-3-carboxaldehyde (1) with 4-hydroxy-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (2). The same product 5 was isolated from condensation reaction of aldeyde 1 with 3-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-3-oxopropanoic acid (3) or ethyl 4-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate (4). Structure of compound (5, MBCND) was deduced based on their elemental analyses and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra). Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the novel compound (5, MBCND). Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, the dipole moment, theoretical study of the electronic structure, nonlinear optical properties (NLO), and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and orientation have been performed and discussed. Also the electronic absorption spectra were measured in polar (methanol) as well as non polar (dioxane) solvents and the assignment of the observed bands has been discussed by TD-DFT calculations. The correspondences between calculated and experimental transitions energies are satisfactory.

  4. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  5. Online Spectral Fit Tool for Analyzing Reflectance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Online Spectral Fit Tool is developed for analyzing Vis-NIR spectral behavior of asteroids and meteorites. Implementation is done using JavaScript/HTML. Fitted spectra consist of spline continuum and gamma distributions for absorption bands.

  6. Temperature dependence of the hydrated electron's excited-state relaxation. I. Simulation predictions of resonance Raman and pump-probe transient absorption spectra of cavity and non-cavity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zho, Chen-Chen; Farr, Erik P.; Glover, William J.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2017-08-01

    We use one-electron non-adiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations to explore the temperature dependence of both the ground-state structure and the excited-state relaxation dynamics of the hydrated electron. We compare the results for both the traditional cavity picture and a more recent non-cavity model of the hydrated electron and make definite predictions for distinguishing between the different possible structural models in future experiments. We find that the traditional cavity model shows no temperature-dependent change in structure at constant density, leading to a predicted resonance Raman spectrum that is essentially temperature-independent. In contrast, the non-cavity model predicts a blue-shift in the hydrated electron's resonance Raman O-H stretch with increasing temperature. The lack of a temperature-dependent ground-state structural change of the cavity model also leads to a prediction of little change with temperature of both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the hydrated electron following photoexcitation. This is in sharp contrast to the predictions of the non-cavity model, where both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time are expected to decrease significantly with increasing temperature. These simulation-based predictions should be directly testable by the results of future time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Finally, the temperature-dependent differences in predicted excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the two models also lead to different predicted pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy of the hydrated electron as a function of temperature. We perform such experiments and describe them in Paper II [E. P. Farr et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074504 (2017)], and find changes in the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time with temperature that match well with the predictions of the non-cavity model. In particular, the experiments

  7. Finding consistency between different views of the absorption enhancement of black carbon: An observationally constrained hybrid model to support a transition in optical properties with mass fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Whitehead, J.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Villegas, E.; Kong, S.; Williams, P. I.; Ting, Y. C.; Haslett, S.; Taylor, J.; Morgan, W.; McFiggans, G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    The mixing state of black carbon is uncertain yet has a significant influence on the efficiency with which a particle absorbs light. In turn, this may make a significant contribution to the uncertainty in global model predictions of the black carbon radiative budget. Previous modelling studies that have represented this mixing state using a core-shell approach have shown that aged black carbon particles may be considerably enhanced compared to freshly emitted black carbon due to the addition of co-emitted, weakly absorbing species. However, recent field results have demonstrated that any enhancement of absorption is minor in the ambient atmosphere. Resolving these differences in absorption efficiency is important as they will have a major impact on the extent to which black carbon heats the atmospheric column. We have made morphology-independent measurements of refractory black carbon mass and associated weakly absorbing material in single particles from laboratory-generated diesel soot and black carbon particles in ambient air influenced by traffic and wood burning sources and related these to the optical properties of the particles. We compared our calculated optical properties with optical models that use varying mixing state assumptions and by characterising the behaviour in terms of the relative amounts of weakly absorbing material and black carbon in a particle we show a sharp transition in mixing occurs. We show that the majority of black carbon particles from traffic-dominated sources can be treated as externally mixed and show no absorption enhancement, whereas models assuming internal mixing tend to give the best estimate of the absorption enhancement of thickly coated black carbon particles from biofuel or biomass burning. This approach reconciles the differences in absorption enhancement previously observed and offers a systematic way of treating the differences in behaviour observed.

  8. Compositional Analyses and Implications of Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra of Outer Irregular Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Faith; Hendrix, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    The existence of a visible-near infrared absorption feature attributed to aqueous alteration products has been suggested in both grey and reddened broadband photometry of some outer irregular jovian satellites. Moderate resolution VNIR narrowband spectroscopy was obtained of the jovian irregular satellites JVI Himalia, JVII Elara, JVIII Pasiphae, JIX Sinope, JX Lysithea, JXI Carme, JXII Ananke and JXVII Callirrhoe in 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2010 using the MMT Observatory facility Red Channel spectrograph to confirm the presence of this feature. The spectra are centered near 0.64 μm in order to cover the 0.7-μm feature entirely (generally ranging from 0.57 to 0.83 μm). The spectra generally have a dispersion/element of ~0.6 nm (6Å) some spectra are smoothed. These spectra sample three prograde (i = 28o), four retrograde (i = 149o, 165o) and one independent satellite.We observe these findings among the spectra:- An absorption feature centered near 0.7 µm exists in the spectra of the three prograde (i = 28o) satellites. This feature is spectrally broader than the 0.7-µm feature observed in C-complex asteroids. None appears spectrally reddened. This suggests that these prograde satellites have a common parent body.- A different absorption feature appears in the spectra of the three retrograde (i = 149o) satellites, also suggesting a common parent body. Varying reddening is observed. This feature is similar in spectral location and width to the 0.7-µm feature.- Reddening is observed in the individual observation of JXI Carme (i = 165o), and independent satellite JIX Sinope, similar to the D-class asteroid spectra dominating the Trojan population. A suggested absorption feature is being investigated.Mixing modeling of combinations of both expected and proposed compositions including carbonaceous materials, phyllosilicates, mafic silicates, and other opaque materials, is currently underway. Results will be reported and discussed at the meeting.Acknowledgments: The

  9. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  10. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  11. THEORETICAL TRANSIT SPECTRA FOR GJ 1214b AND OTHER 'SUPER-EARTHS'

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam S., E-mail: arhowe@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2012-09-10

    We present new calculations of transit spectra of super-Earths that allow for atmospheres with arbitrary proportions of common molecular species and haze. We test this method with generic spectra, reproducing the expected systematics and absorption features, then apply it to the nearby super-Earth GJ 1214b, which has produced conflicting observational data, leaving the questions of a hydrogen-rich versus hydrogen-poor atmosphere and the water content of the atmosphere ambiguous. We present representative transit spectra for a range of classes of atmosphere models for GJ 1214b. Our analysis supports a hydrogen-rich atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer, although a hydrogen-poor modelmore » with {approx}<10% water is not ruled out. Several classes of models are ruled out, however, including hydrogen-rich atmospheres with no haze, hydrogen-rich atmospheres with a haze of {approx}0.01 {mu}m tholin particles, and hydrogen-poor atmospheres with major sources of absorption other than water. We propose an observational test to distinguish hydrogen-rich from hydrogen-poor atmospheres. Finally, we provide a library of theoretical transit spectra for super-Earths with a broad range of parameters to facilitate future comparison with anticipated data.« less

  12. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  13. Spectra of Particulate Backscattering in Natural Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard, R.; Lewis, Marlon R.; McLean, Scott D.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Freeman, Scott A.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Boynton, Chris G.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance in natural waters (oligotrophic and mesotrophic) are combined with inverse radiative transfer to obtain high resolution spectra of the absorption coefficient (a) and the backscattering coefficient (bb) of the water and its constituents. The absorption coefficient at the mesotrophic station clearly shows spectral absorption features attributable to several phytoplankton pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, c, and Carotenoids). The backscattering shows only weak spectral features and can be well represented by a power-law variation with wavelength (lambda): b(sub b) approx. Lambda(sup -n), where n is a constant between 0.4 and 1.0. However, the weak spectral features in b(sub b), suggest that it is depressed in spectral regions of strong particle absorption. The applicability of the present inverse radiative transfer algorithm, which omits the influence of Raman scattering, is limited to lambda < 490 nm in oligotrophic waters and lambda < 575 nm in mesotrophic waters.

  14. Structural properties and UV to NIR absorption spectra of metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) thin films P. B. Thakor, P. N. Gajjar and A. R. Jani: Different reference systems in the study of structural properties of some simple liquid metals Shazia Bashir, M. S. Rafique, M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Faizan-ul-Haq and B. R. Alvina: CO2 and Nd:YAG laser radiation induced damage in aluminium Smail Bougouffa: The study of atomic transitions by use of Numerov technique in schematic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Farid, A. M.; Attia, A. A.; Ali, H. A. M.

    The structural properties and absorption spectra of H2Pc thin films have been studied. The films used in these studies were thermally evaporated on glass/quartz substrates with thickness ranging from 60 to 460 nm. The XRD studies of H2Pc thin films showed that the as-deposited films have a-form with monoclinic system. The mean crystallite size (L), the dislocation density (d) and the strain (x) were evaluated. The molecular structure of H2Pc thin films is confirmed by analysis of (FTIR) spectra. The surface morphology of H2Pc thin films was examined by scanning electron microscope. The absorption spectra of H2Pc recorded in the UV - VIS - IR region for the as-deposited and the annealed thin films of different thickness have been analyzed. The spectra showed two absorption bands namely the Q-band and the Soret (B)-band. The Q-band shows its characteristic splitting (Davydove splitting) with DQ = 0.21 eV. Values of some important optical parameters, namely optical absorption coefficient (a¢), molar extinction coefficient (emolar), half-band-width (Dl), electronic dipole strength (q2) and oscillator strength (f) were calculated. The fundamental and the onset of the indirect energy gaps were also determined as 2.47 and 1.4 eV, respectively.

  15. Unravelling the mechanisms of vibrational relaxation in solution† †All experimental data are archived in the University of Bristol's Research Data Storage Facility (DOI: 10.5523/bris.2vk036f35m5aq2dnlb79c0wcsh). ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further discussion of spectral lineshapes, concentration dependence of transient absorption data, theoretical calculations, IR-pump IR-probe spectra, transient absorption spectra including animation of spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05234g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Michael P.; Coulter, Philip M.; Marroux, Hugo J. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the mode-specific vibrational relaxation of NO2 in six weakly-interacting solvents (perfluorohexane, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, perfluorodecalin, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and d-chloroform), chosen to elucidate the dominant energy transfer mechanisms in the solution phase. Broadband transient vibrational absorption spectroscopy has allowed us to extract quantum state-resolved relaxation dynamics of the two distinct NO2 fragments produced from the 340 nm photolysis of N2O4 → NO2(X) + NO2(A) and their separate paths to thermal equilibrium. Distinct relaxation pathways are observed for the NO2 bending and stretching modes, even at energies as high as 7000 cm–1 above the potential minimum. Vibrational energy transfer is governed by different interaction mechanisms in the various solvent environments, and proceeds with timescales ranging from 20–1100 ps. NO2 relaxation rates in the perfluorocarbon solvents are identical despite differences in acceptor mode state densities, infrared absorption cross sections, and local solvent structure. Vibrational energy is shown to be transferred to non-vibrational solvent degrees of freedom (V-T) through impulsive collisions with the perfluorocarbon molecules. Conversely, NO2 relaxation in chlorinated solvents is reliant on vibrational resonances (V-V) while V-T energy transfer is inefficient and thermal excitation of the surrounding solvent molecules inhibits faster vibrational relaxation through direct complexation. Intramolecular vibrational redistribution allows the symmetric stretch of NO2 to act as a gateway for antisymmetric stretch energy to exit the molecule. This study establishes an unprecedented level of detail for the cooling dynamics of a solvated small molecule, and provides a benchmark system for future theoretical studies of vibrational relaxation processes in solution. PMID:28451375

  16. Octahedron Fe3O4 particles supported on 3D MWCNT/graphene foam: In-situ method and application as a comprehensive microwave absorption material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Luolin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Ye; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Tong

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we used in-situ method to directly prepare a novel structure consisting of well-distributed octahedron Fe3O4 particles, porous graphene foam (GF) and fibrous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT): started with an intense stir to anchor Fe3+ on the surfaces of graphene oxide and oxided MWCNT, followed by solvothermal reaction to synthesize 3D lightweight Fe3O4/MWCNT/GF hybrids with high performance microwave absorption (MA). The maximum Reflection Loss (RL) value of -35.30 dB and 9.01 GHz bandwidth with RL below -10 dB detected with the thickness of 3.0 mm are achieved by Fe3O4/MWCNT/GF with an ultralow bulk density of 5.0 mg cm-3, of which the Specific Microwave Absorption Performance is much higher than most available MA materials reported. Impedance matching, high loss characteristic, interfacial polarization and polarization relaxation significantly improve MA properties, which serves as a guide for fabricating comprehensive MA materials enjoying numerous advantages of high RL value, broad bandwidth, low density and thin thickness.

  17. Particle-in-a-box model of exciton absorption and electroabsorption in conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas G.

    2000-12-01

    The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces a line shape characterized by a square-root singularity in agreement with experimental spectra near the absorption edge. The effects of finite conjugation length on both absorption and electroabsorption spectra are analyzed.

  18. Simulation of Infrared Spectra of Carbonaceous Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadswell, G.; Duley, W. W.

    1997-02-01

    Random covalent network (RCN) theory is applied to describe the infrared spectroscopic properties of carbonaceous solids with compositions containing a mixture of aromatic, aliphatic, and diamond-like hydrocarbons. Application of this technique to carbonaceous dust is equivalent to the synthesis of solids whose structure and bonding satisfy stoicheometry while minimizing strain energy. The result involves a range of compositions compatible with carbon bonding and the hydrogen concentration incorporated in the network. In general, only a limited range of compositions is available rather than the infinite number of possible compositions expected without the inclusion of these constraints. When compositions have been defined in this way, infrared spectra may be synthesized for comparison with astronomical spectra of interstellar carbonaceous solids. Such spectra contain components corresponding to absorption by CHn groups in which n = 1-3. We find, however, that additional spectral features, not included in our simple chemical model, must be present also in dust. We give plots of such spectra in the 3100-2800 cm-1 (3.2-3.6 μm) region for comparison with infrared spectra of interstellar dust. We have also developed an RCN formalism that incorporates oxygen into the carbon network as OH groups, and we show that this inclusion introduces a strong additional absorption band in the 3300 cm-1 (3.0 μm) region.

  19. Amplification of anharmonicities in multiphoton vibrational action spectra.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Parneix, P

    2012-01-16

    The influence of one or several infrared laser pulses on the stability of bare and argon-tagged sodium chloride clusters is investigated theoretically by a combination of computational methods involving explicit molecular dynamics and properly calibrated unimolecular rate theories. The fragmentation spectra obtained by varying the laser frequency in the far-IR range is compared to the linear absorption spectrum resulting from the dipole moment autocorrelation function. Under appropriate laser field parameters, the action spectra are found to resemble the absorption spectra quite accurately in terms of positions, line widths, and even relative intensities. However, the action spectra exhibit residual and systematic redshifts of a few percent, which are partly due to the finite spectral bandwidth but are amplified by the progressive heating by the laser. A quantitative analysis suggests that these anharmonicity effects should generally arise upon multiple photon absorption. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Precise Wavelengths and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III, and Branching Fractions for the Spectra of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian

    I propose to measure wavelengths and energy levels for the spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm, and oscillator strengths for Fe II and Cr II in the region 120 nm to 2500 nm. I shall also produce intensity calibrated atlases and linelists of the iron-neon and chromium-neon hollow cathode lamps that can be compared with astrophysical spectra. The spectra will be obtained from archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory and additional experimental observations as necessary from Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectrometers at NIST. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. The radiometric calibration of the spectra will be improved in order to reduce the uncertainty of measured oscillator strengths in the near UV region and extend the wavelength range of these measurements down to 120 nm. These will complement and support the measurements of lifetimes and branching fractions by J. E. Lawler in the near UV region. An intensive effort by NIST and Imperial College London that was partly funded by previous NASA awards has resulted in comprehensive analyses of the spectra of Fe II, Cr II and Cu II, with similar analyses of Mn II, Ni II, and Sc II underway. The species included in this proposal will complete the analysis of the first two ionization stages of the elements titanium through nickel using the same techniques, and add the spectrum of Mn III - one of the most important doubly-ionized elements. The elements Cr I and Mn I give large numbers of spectral lines in spectra of cool stars and important absorption lines in the interstellar medium. The spectrum of Mn III is important in chemically peculiar stars and can often only be studied in the UV region. Analyses of many stellar spectra depend on comprehensive analyses of iron-group elements and are hampered by incomplete spectroscopic data. As a result of many decades of work by the group at the

  1. On the Matter Probed by Quasar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroux, Celine

    2010-10-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) constitutes a reservoir of baryons from which galaxies form and is, in turn, affected by the processes of galaxy formation. These latter processes are responsible for the reionisation of most of the hydrogen content of the intergalactic medium and later on, for the reionisation of helium with a contribution from quasars. Galactic winds due to massive stars and supernovae pollute the IGM with metals. The mechanical energy released by the collisional excitation due to galaxy and structure formation heats the medium into the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Most of the baryons are probably in this hotter phase, since only a small fraction has been observed in galaxies and the ionised medium so far. In turn, these modifications of the IGM state impact the star formation history by providing a mechanism for global cold gas accretion. Therefore the interactions between galaxies and the intergalactic medium play a major role in the cosmological evolution of structures and the history of baryons, which cannot be solely traced by the starlight from galaxies (representing only 10% of the baryons).

  2. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films.

    PubMed

    Scholz, R; Gisslén, L; Schuster, B-E; Casu, M B; Chassé, T; Heinemeyer, U; Schreiber, F

    2011-01-07

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A(g)-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  3. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.; Gisslén, L.; Schuster, B.-E.; Casu, M. B.; Chassé, T.; Heinemeyer, U.; Schreiber, F.

    2011-01-01

    Resonant and preresonant Raman spectra obtained on diindenoperylene (DIP) thin films are interpreted with calculations of the deformation of a relaxed excited molecule with density functional theory (DFT). The comparison of excited state geometries based on time-dependent DFT or on a constrained DFT scheme with observed absorption spectra of dissolved DIP reveals that the deformation pattern deduced from constrained DFT is more reliable. Most observed Raman peaks can be assigned to calculated A_g-symmetric breathing modes of DIP or their combinations. As the position of one of the laser lines used falls into a highly structured absorption band, we have carefully analyzed the Raman excitation profile arising from the frequency dependence of the dielectric tensor. This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case.

  4. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthik@nitt.edu; Hariharan, S.; Udayabhaskar, R.

    2016-07-11

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO throughmore » hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.« less

  5. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  6. On the inclusion of the hydrogen dimer in the analysis of Voyager IRIS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Ma, Qiancheng; Lacis, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Empirical formulas are fitted to existing theoretical absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the far-infrared allowing the inclusion of dimer absorption, parameterized with the height dependence of the para-hydrogen profile, in the calculations. Comparison between synthetic and Voyager IRIS spectra shows that once the dimer absorption is included it is now possible to reproduce the hydrogen portion of the IRIS spectrum to within the precision of the measurements.

  7. REACTION OF AMINO-ACIDS AND PEPTIDE BONDS WITH FORMALDEHYDE AS MEASURED BY CHANGES IN THE ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMINO ACIDS , CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*PEPTIDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*FORMALDEHYDE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY, PROTEINS), ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CHEMICAL BONDS, AMIDES, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, REACTION KINETICS

  8. Interpretation of comet spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpigny, C.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra of comets are discussed by considering successively a number of molecules that have been studied recently: CN, CH, C2, C3, OH, CH(+). The first two of this list, CN and CH, have been analyzed in greatest detail. A classification of the spectra of cometary heads is introduced.

  9. Reflection spectra, 2.5-7 microns, of some solids of planetary interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, U.; Burk, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Reflection spectra of 42 compounds of possible planetary interest were run from 2.5 to 7 microns. They were supplemented by some transmission spectra extending the wavelength coverage to 15 microns. The spectra were organized according to their constituent radicals and an attempt was made at the identification of the absorption features.

  10. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  11. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  12. Computer-Graphics Emulation of Chemical Instrumentation: Absorption Spectrophotometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, D. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes interactive, computer-graphics program emulating behavior of high resolution, ultraviolet-visible analog recording spectrophotometer. Graphics terminal behaves as recording absorption spectrophotometer. Objective of the emulation is study of optimization of the instrument to yield accurate absorption spectra, including…

  13. Lily Pad Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.

  14. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blackbody absorption efficiencies for six lamp pumped Nd laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Barnes, Norman P.; Skolaut, Milton W., Jr.; Storm, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing high resolution spectra, the absorption efficiencies for six Nd laser materials were calculated as functions of the effective blackbody temperature of the lamp and laser crystal size. The six materials were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:Q-98 Glass, Nd:YVO4, Nd:BEL, and Nd:Cr:GSGG. Under the guidelines of this study, Nd:Cr:GSGG's absorption efficiency is twice the absorption efficiency of any of the other laser materials.

  16. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of redox reactions of nickel species with variable particle sizes supported on silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yusaku; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Naoki; Katagiri, Masaki; Yamashita, Shohei; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Misaki; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The chemical states of Ni species were systematically investigated using an in situ XAFS technique for a series of SiO2-supported Ni catalysts with different Ni particle sizes. The Ni particles were refined by varying the Ni loading in the range between 0.10 and 5 wt% and by adding citric acid into the precursor solution. An in situ observation cell for fluorescence-yield XAFS measurements was developed for the dilute Ni catalysts. The chemical state of the supported Ni species converted between Ni(0) and NiO, and no other stable species were formed during the temperature-programmed oxidation and reduction processes. Refinement of the Ni particles resulted in decreasing the oxidation temperature and increasing the reduction temperature. These shifts were explained by the affinity of NiO to SiO2, and more effective stabilization was thus anticipated for flattened small NiO particles with an increased contact area. In addition, the inhomogeneous distribution of small Ni particles observed for dilute catalysts was explained in terms of the precursor solution volume when nuclei of the precursor compound precipitated on SiO2 during the drying process.

  17. Narrow absorption lines complex I: one form of broad absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Jian; Lin, Ying-Ru

    2018-03-01

    We discover that some of the broad absorption lines (BALs) are actually a complex of narrow absorption lines (NALs). As a pilot study of this type of BAL, we show this discovery through a typical example in this paper. Utilizing the two-epoch observations of J002710.06-094435.3 (hereafter J0027-0944) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that each of the C IV and Si IV BAL troughs contains at least four NAL doublets. By resolving the Si IV BAL into multiple NALs, we present the following main results and conclusions. First, all these NALs show coordinated variations between the two-epoch SDSS observations, suggesting that they all originate in the quasar outflow, and that their variations are due to global changes in the ionization condition of the absorbing gas. Secondly, a BAL consisting of a number of NAL components indicates that this type of BAL is basically the same as the intrinsic NAL, which tends to support the inclination model rather than the evolution model. Thirdly, although both the C IV and Si IV BALs originate from the same clumpy substructures of the outflow, they show different profile shapes: multiple absorption troughs for the Si IV BAL in a wider velocity range, while P-Cygni for the C IV BAL in a narrower velocity range. This can be interpreted by the substantial differences in fine structure and oscillator strength between the Si IVλλ1393, 1402 and C IVλλ1548, 1551 doublets. Based on the above conclusions, we consider that the decomposition of a BAL into NALs can serve as a way to resolve the clumpy structure for outflows, and it can be used to learn more about characteristics of the clumpy structure and to test the outflow model, when utilizing high-resolution spectra and photoionization model.

  18. Uranus Cloud Layers As Constrained By HST STIS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2007-10-01

    Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of Uranus were obtained in 2002. We analyzed observations taken with the slit parallel to Uranus' spin axis and positioned on the central meridian, combining 430L and 750L grating observations to obtain a rectified spectrum spanning the wavelength range of 290 nm to 1050 nm. At the time of these observations the subearth planetocentric latitude was -20.5 degrees, making latitudes of 43 S and 7.6 N latitudes of approximately equal view angle. Comparing wavelengths that probe different depths of the Uranian atmosphere, controlled mainly by Rayleigh and Raman scattering at short wavelengths, and by Methane absorption at longer wavelengths, we are able to estimate the pressure levels at which cloud bands reside in the Uranus atmosphere and identify asymmetries in cloud and haze properties. At 399 nm we find that the southern hemisphere is darker than the northern hemispheres at comparable view angles, providing evidence of stratospheric haze absorption. At 467 nm there is nearly perfect symmetry about the center of the disk, with Rayleigh scattering obscuring views of deeper cloud bands. At 590 nm, which is more deeply penetrating, there appears a strong asymmetry in which the southern hemisphere is brighter than corresponding view angles in the northern hemisphere. Wavelengths of 725 nm and 789 nm imply that the bright band near seen at 45 S at 789 nm but not seen at 725 nm lies between about 1.7 bars and 3-4 bars. Quantitative radiation transfer models of these spectra are currently stymied by calibration issues identified by comparison of central disk spectra with central disk I/F values obtained from WFPC2 bandpass filter images. This research was supported by the Outer Planets Research Program.

  19. Microscopic Theory and Simulation of Quantum-Well Intersubband Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Ning, C. Z.

    2004-01-01

    We study the linear intersubband absorption spectra of a 15 nm InAs quantum well using the intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations with a three-subband model and a constant dephasing rate. We demonstrate the evolution of intersubband absorption spectral line shape as a function of temperature and electron density. Through a detailed examination of various contributions, such as the phase space filling effects, the Coulomb many-body effects and the non-parabolicity effect, we illuminate the underlying physics that shapes the spectra. Keywords: Intersubband transition, linear absorption, semiconductor heterostructure, InAs quantum well

  20. Vibronic spectra of Cu(2+) in ZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared-absorption spectra of substitutional Cu(2+) ions in ZnTe have been measured at 4.6 K. Several distinct absorption peaks are observed between 800 and 2000/cm. Absorption peaks at 1002 and 1069/cm are identified as zero-phonon lines arising from 2T2-2E transitions. Between 1069 and 2000/cm, several sets of sharp absorption lines are seen to recur regularly at an interval of 210/cm, corresponding to the LO phonon energy. Within each set distinct vibronic sidebands that cannot be identified with critical-point energies of TA, LA, TO or LO phonon modes are observed. A dynamic Jahn-Teller effect, involving coupling between a single-phonon mode and the electronic states of the 2E level, is proposed to account for the observed spectra.

  1. Spectroscopic identification of individual fluorophores using photoluminescence excitation spectra.

    PubMed

    Czerski, J; Colomb, W; Cannataro, F; Sarkar, S K

    2018-01-25

    The identity of a fluorophore can be ambiguous if other fluorophores or nonspecific fluorescent impurities have overlapping emission spectra. The presence of overlapping spectra makes it difficult to differentiate fluorescent species using discrete detection channels and unmixing of spectra. The unique absorption and emission signatures of fluorophores provide an opportunity for spectroscopic identification. However, absorption spectroscopy may be affected by scattering, whereas fluorescence emission spectroscopy suffers from signal loss by gratings or other dispersive optics. Photoluminescence excitation spectra, where excitation is varied and emission is detected at a fixed wavelength, allows hyperspectral imaging with a single emission filter for high signal-to-background ratio without any moving optics on the emission side. We report a high throughput method for measuring the photoluminescence excitation spectra of individual fluorophores using a tunable supercontinuum laser and prism-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. We used the system to measure and sort the photoluminescence excitation spectra of individual Alexa dyes, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), and fluorescent polystyrene beads. We used a Gaussian mixture model with maximum likelihood estimation to objectively separate the spectra. Finally, we spectroscopically identified different species of fluorescent nanodiamonds with overlapping spectra and characterized the heterogeneity of fluorescent nanodiamonds of varying size. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  3. Interstellar lines in the spectra of four stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of optical interstellar absorption lines arising from Na I, K I, and/or Ca II are reported in the spectra of HD 72127, Iota(1) Sco, 102 Her, and 6 Cas. Line components showing strikingly large Ca II/Na I ratios are found toward HD 72127 and are verified for 102 Her. The absorption toward Iota(1) Sco and 6 Cas illustrates features of the local galactic distribution of interstellar gas.

  4. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, P; Emmert, S; Gulich, R; Köhler, M; Wolf, M; Schwab, M; Loidl, A

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  5. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Köhler, M.; Wolf, M.; Schwab, M.; Loidl, A.

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  6. A Case For Free-free Absorption In The GPS Sources 1321+410 And 0026+346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Jonathan M.; Perry, T. M.; Read, J. W.; Taylor, G. B.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the results of VLBI observations of two gigahertz-peaked spectrum sources, 1321+410 and 0026+346, at five frequencies bracketing the spectral peaks. By comparing the three lower-frequency flux-density maps with extrapolations of the high frequency spectra we obtained maps of the optical depths as a function of frequency. The morphologies of the optical depth maps of 1321+410, at all frequencies, are strikingly uniform, consistent with there being a foreground screen of absorbing gas. We also find that the flux densities across the map fit free-free absorption spectra within the uncertainties. The required free-free optical depths are satisfied with reasonable gas parameters (ne 4000 cm-3, T 104 K, and L 1 pc). We conclude that the case for free-free absorption in 1321+410 is strong. In 0026+346, there is a compact feature with an inverted spectrum at the highest frequencies which we take to be the core. The optical depth maps, even excluding the possible core component, exhibit a noticeable amount of structure, but the morphology does not correlate with that in the flux-density maps, as would be expected if the absorption was due to synchrotron self-absorption. Additionally, the spectra (except at the core component) are consistent with free-free absorption, to within the uncertainties, and require column depths about one half of that in 1321+410. We conclude that free-free absorption by a relatively thin amount of gas with structure apparent on the scale of our maps in 0026+346 is likely, although the case is weaker than in 1321+410. This research was supported by an award from the Research Corporation, a NASA NY Space Grant, and by a Booth-Ferris Research Fellowship. The VLBA is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Orbital phase dependent IUE spectra of the nova like binary II Arietis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Nine low dispersion IUE spectra of the nova like binary TT Ari over its 3h17m orbital period were obtained. Four short wave spectra and five long wave spectra exhibit marked changes in line strength and continuum shape with orbital phase. The short wave spectra show the presence in absorption of C III, Lyman alpha, SiIII, NV, SiIV, CIV, HeII, AlIII, and NIV. The CIV shows a P Cygni profile on two of the spectra. Implications of these spectra for the nature of nova like variables are discussed.

  8. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  9. Modelling Stellar Optical and Mid-Ultraviolet Spectra from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.; Carney, B. W.; Dorman, B.; Green, E. M.; Landsman, W.; Liebert, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Rood, R. T.; Schiavon, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    We present comparisons of theoretical and observational high-resolution spectra for a half-dozen stars of a wide range of temperature and abundance, from A star to K giant. These show the fits achieved to date by our ab initio spectral calculations. These comparisons form the first phase of our three-year Hubble Treasury program GO-9455/9974, aimed at providing mid-ultraviolet spectral templates to improve the determination of the age and metallicity of old stellar systems. From matches such as these, we have modified the input atomic-line parameters and guessed the identifications of spectral lines missing from the calculations, as described by Peterson, Dorman, & Rood (2001, ApJ, 559, 372). With this new line list, we now match well the optical spectra of stars of all line strengths. We have begun to calculate a grid of optical indices from the theoretical spectra. In the mid-UV, while the fits at solar abundance are much improved, we are still missing very weak absorption lines near 2650Å and 2900Å. This will be addressed as additional mid-ultraviolet spectra are taken for a larger range of stellar targets during Cycle 13. Support for this work includes grants GO-9455 and GO-9974 from the Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute, and an award from the NASA-OSS Long Term Space Astrophysics program.

  10. Computer Processing Of Tunable-Diode-Laser Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.

    1991-01-01

    Tunable-diode-laser spectrometer measuring transmission spectrum of gas operates under control of computer, which also processes measurement data. Measurements in three channels processed into spectra. Computer controls current supplied to tunable diode laser, stepping it through small increments of wavelength while processing spectral measurements at each step. Program includes library of routines for general manipulation and plotting of spectra, least-squares fitting of direct-transmission and harmonic-absorption spectra, and deconvolution for determination of laser linewidth and for removal of instrumental broadening of spectral lines.

  11. Study on Properties of Energy Spectra of the Molecular Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Rong

    The energy-spectra of nonlinear vibration of molecular crystals such as acetanilide have been calculated by using discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation appropriate to the systems, containing various interactions. The energy levels including higher excited states are basically consistent with experimental values obtained by infrared absorption and Raman scattering in acetanilide. We further give the features of distribution of the energy-spectra for the acetanilide. Using the energy spectra we also explained well experimental results obtained by Careri et al..

  12. X-ray absorption of a warm dense aluminum plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecherbourg, L.; Renaudin, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J.-P.; Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.; Faussurier, G.; Shepherd, R.; Audebert, P.

    2007-05-01

    Point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure absorption spectra of transient aluminum plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse. The 1s-2p and 1s-3p absorption lines of weakly ionized aluminum were measured for an extended range of densities in a low-temperature regime. Independent plasma characterization was obtained using frequency domain interferometry diagnostic (FDI) that allows the interpretation of the absorption spectra in terms of spectral opacities. A detailed opacity code using the density and temperature inferred from the FDI reproduce the measured absorption spectra except in the last stage of the recombination phase.

  13. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  14. Simultaneous optimization method for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Simms, Jean M; An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Ramesh, Varun; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-05-10

    A simultaneous optimization method is proposed for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing. This method is particularly useful for thermometry measurements based on congested spectra, as commonly encountered in combustion applications of H2O absorption spectroscopy. A comparison test demonstrated that the simultaneous optimization method had greater accuracy, greater precision, and was more user-independent than the common step-wise postprocessing method previously used by the authors. The simultaneous optimization method was also used to process experimental data from an environmental chamber and a constant volume combustion chamber, producing results with errors on the order of only 1%.

  15. Quantum Spectra and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Julio Cesar

    1992-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent quantum theory and methods for the study of the spectra and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. Specifically, we have addressed the following two problems: (i) Development of a time-dependent spectral method for the construction of spectra of simple quantum systems--This includes the calculation of eigenenergies, the construction of bound and continuum eigenfunctions, and the calculation of photo cross-sections. Computational applications include the quadrupole photoabsorption spectra and dissociation cross-sections of molecular hydrogen from various vibrational states in its ground electronic potential -energy curve. This method is seen to provide an advantageous alternative, both from the computational and conceptual point of view, to existing standard methods. (ii) Explicit time-dependent formulation of photoabsorption processes --Analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are constructed and employed for the calculation of probability densities, momentum distributions, fluxes, transition rates, expectation values and correlation functions. These quantities are seen to establish the link between the dynamics and the calculated, or measured, spectra and cross-sections, and to clarify the dynamical nature of the excitation, transition and ejection processes. Numerical calculations on atomic and molecular hydrogen corroborate and complement the previous results, allowing the identification of different regimes during the photoabsorption process.

  16. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  17. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  18. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (4). Examples of the IR spectra obtained and variance as a function of time at the two sites will be presented. The spectra are taken in Kubelka - Munk format, which also allows the infrared absorption strengths to be evaluated as function of wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n + ik) in the infrared spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham,Environ. Sci. Technol. 27 2864-2869 (1993). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham, Spectroscopy 7 44-53 (1992). 3. J.S. Gaffney and N.A. Marley, Atmospheric Environment, New Directions contribution, 32, 2873-2874 (1998). 4. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX- Mex) under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328.

  19. Far-infrared spectra of acetanilide revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spire, A.; Barthes, M.; Kellouai, H.; De Nunzio, G.

    2000-03-01

    A new investigation of the temperature dependence of the far-infrared spectra of acetanilide and some isotopomers is presented. Four absorption bands are considered at 31, 42, 64, and 80 cm-1, and no significant change of their integrated intensity is observed when reducing the temperature. The temperature induced frequency shift values and other properties of these bands are consistent with an assignment as anharmonic lattice phonons. These results rule out the assignment of the 64, 80, and 106 cm-1 bands as normal modes of the polaronic excitation, as previously suggested.

  20. Online spectral fit tool (OSFT) for analyzing reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.; Muinonen, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm and its implementation for fitting continuum and absorption bands to UV/VIS/NIR reflectance spectra. The implementation is done completely in JavaScript and HTML, and will run in any modern web browser without requiring external libraries to be installed.

  1. Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectra of Carbon White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Strong ultraviolet carbon lines were detected in additional white DC (continuous visual spectra) dwarfs using the IUE. These lines are not seen in the ultraviolet spectrum of the cool DC star Stein 2051 B. The bright DA white dwarf LB 3303 has a strong unidentified absorption near lambda 1400.

  2. The Lowest Triplet of Tetracyanoquinodimethane via UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy with Br-Containing Solvents.

    PubMed

    Khvostenko, Olga G; Kinzyabulatov, Renat R; Khatymova, Laysan Z; Tseplin, Evgeniy E

    2017-10-05

    This study was undertaken to find the previously unknown lowest triplet of the isolated molecule of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), which is a widely used organic semiconductor. The problem is topical because the triplet excitation of this compound is involved in some processes which occur in electronic devices incorporating TCNQ and its derivatives, and information on the TCNQ triplet is needed for better understanding of these processes. The lowest triplet of TCNQ was obtained at 1.96 eV using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with Br-containing solvents. Production of the triplet band with sufficient intensity in the spectra was provided by the capacity of the Br atom to augment the triplet excitation and through using a 100 mm cuvette. The assignment of the corresponding spectral band to the triplet transition was made by observation that this band appeared only in the spectra recorded in Br-containing solvents but not in spectra recorded in other solvents. Additional support for the triplet assignment came from the overall UV-vis absorption spectra of TCNQ recorded in various solvents, using a 10 mm cuvette, in the 1.38-6.5 eV energy range. Singlet transitions of the neutral TCNQ o molecule and doublet transitions of the TCNQ ¯ negative ion were identified in these overall spectra and were assigned with TD B3LYP/6-31G calculations. Determination of the lowest triplet of TCNQ attained in this work may be useful for theoretical studies and practical applications of this important compound.

  3. Photochemically Generated Thiyl Free Radicals Observed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sneeden, Eileen Y.; Hackett, Mark J.; Cotelesage, Julien J. H.; ...

    2017-07-27

    Sulfur-based thiyl radicals are known to be involved in a wide range of chemical and biological processes, but they are often highly reactive, which makes them difficult to observe directly. We report herein X-ray absorption spectra and analysis that support the direct observation of two different thiyl species generated photochemically by X-ray irradiation. The thiyl radical sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of both species are characterized by a uniquely low energy transition at about 2465 eV, which occurs at a lower energy than any previously observed feature at the sulfur K-edge and corresponds to a 1s → 3p transition tomore » the singly occupied molecular orbital of the free radical. In conclusion, our results constitute the first observation of substantial levels of thiyl radicals generated by X-ray irradiation and detected by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.« less

  4. First light with Trident: multi-platform synthetic quasar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvia, Devin W.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton

    2017-01-01

    Observational efforts to better understand the nature of the intergalactic and circumgalactic media have relied heavily on the information encoded in the absorption line systems of quasar spectra. Numerical simulations of large-scale structure and galaxy evolution are well-suited to explore the properties of those same media owing to the relative ease with which one can access physical quantities from complex, three-dimensional data. However, a difficulty arises when one tries to make direct “apple-to-apples” comparisons between observed spectra and simulated data. In an effort to provide a common language capable of linking theory and observation, we announce the release of Trident. Trident is a publicly available software tool that enables the creation of realistic synthetic absorption spectra from virtually all widely-used hydrodynamics simulation codes. Through user-controlled levels of spectral realism, direct comparisons between simulated and observed data become not only possible, but greatly simplified. We present the methods for extracting artificial quasar sightlines and generating spectra as well as early-stage applications of those spectra to intergalactic and circumgalactic absorption line studies.

  5. Parmeterization of spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornish, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Following reception and analog to digital conversion (A/D) conversion, atmospheric radar backscatter echoes need to be processed so as to obtain desired information about atmospheric processes and to eliminate or minimize contaminating contributions from other sources. Various signal processing techniques have been implemented at mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar facilities to estimate parameters of interest from received spectra. Such estimation techniques need to be both accurate and sufficiently efficient to be within the capabilities of the particular data-processing system. The various techniques used to parameterize the spectra of received signals are reviewed herein. Noise estimation, electromagnetic interference, data smoothing, correlation, and the Doppler effect are among the specific points addressed.

  6. Multispectral processing without spectra.

    PubMed

    Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out,for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1553 (1994)] we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 3 x 3 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model [G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3003 (1994)]. We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting.

  7. Multispectral processing without spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out, for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 1553 (1994) we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 33 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 3003 (1994). We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting. 2003 Optical Society of America

  8. Double-Resonance Facilitated Decomposion of Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryota; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2016-06-01

    Emission spectra provide us with rich information about the excited-state processes such as proton-transfer, charge-transfer and so on. In the cases that more than one excited states are involved, emission spectra from different excited states sometimes overlap and a decomposition of the overlapped spectra is desired. One of the methods to perform a decomposition is a time-resolved fluorescence technique. It uses a difference in time evolutions of components involved. However, in the gas-phase, a concentration of the sample is frequently too small to carry out this method. On the other hand, double-resonance technique is a very powerful tool to discriminate or identify a common species in the spectra in the gas-phase. Thus, in the present study, we applied the double-resonance technique to resolve the overlapped emission spectra. When transient IR absorption spectra of the excited state are available, we can label the population of the certain species by the IR excitation with a proper selection of the IR wavenumbers. Thus, we can obtain the emission spectra of labeled species by subtracting the emission spectra with IR labeling from that without IR. In the present study, we chose the charge-transfer emission spectra of cyanophenyldisilane (CPDS) as a test system. One of us reported that two charge-transfer (CT) states are involved in the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process of CPDS-water cluster and recorded the transient IR spectra. As expected, we have succeeded in resolving the CT emission spectra of CPDS-water cluster by the double resonance facilitated decomposion technique. In the present paper, we will report the details of the experimental scheme and the results of the decomposition of the emission spectra. H. Ishikawa, et al., Chem. Phys. Phys. Chem., 9, 117 (2007).

  9. On the nature of solvatochromic effect: The riboflavin absorption spectrum as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea; Aschi, Massimiliano; Zanetti-Polzi, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We present here the calculation of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide using a hybrid quantum/classical approach, namely the perturbed matrix method, based on quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated spectra are compared to the absorption spectrum of riboflavin previously calculated in water and to the experimental spectra obtained in all three solvents. The experimentally observed variations in the absorption spectra upon change of the solvent environment are well reproduced by the calculated spectra. In addition, the nature of the excited states of riboflavin interacting with different solvents is investigated, showing that environment effects determine a recombination of the gas-phase electronic states and that such a recombination is strongly affected by the polarity of the solvent inducing significant changes in the absorption spectra.

  10. Estimating Spectra from Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Connolly, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring the physical properties of galaxies such as redshift frequently requires the use of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). SED template sets are, however, often small in number and cover limited portions of photometric color space. Here we present a new method to estimate SEDs as a function of color from a small training set of template SEDs. We first cover the mathematical background behind the technique before demonstrating our ability to reconstruct spectra based upon colors and then compare our results to other common interpolation and extrapolation methods. When the photometric filters and spectra overlap, we show that the error in the estimated spectra is reduced by more than 65% compared to the more commonly used techniques. We also show an expansion of the method to wavelengths beyond the range of the photometric filters. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our technique by generating 50 additional SED templates from an original set of 10 and by applying the new set to photometric redshift estimation. We are able to reduce the photometric redshifts standard deviation by at least 22.0% and the outlier rejected bias by over 86.2% compared to original set for z ≤ 3.

  11. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  12. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  13. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  14. Excited state electron and energy relays in supramolecular dinuclear complexes revealed by ultrafast optical and X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis schemes, experimental methods, NMR spectra, X-ray crystallographic information, emission spectra, cyclic voltammetry, electronic structure calculations, data analysis and numerical methods, and other additional figures. CCDC 1561879. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04055e

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Lars; Hadt, Ryan G.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Cunming

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of photoinduced electron and energy transfer in a family of tetrapyridophenazine-bridged heteroleptic homo- and heterodinuclear copper(i) bis(phenanthroline)/ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complexes were studied using ultrafast optical and multi-edge X-ray transient absorption spectroscopies. This work combines the synthesis of heterodinuclear Cu(i)–Ru(ii) analogs of the homodinuclear Cu(i)–Cu(i) targets with spectroscopic analysis and electronic structure calculations to first disentangle the dynamics at individual metal sites by taking advantage of the element and site specificity of X-ray absorption and theoretical methods. The excited state dynamical models developed for the heterodinuclear complexes are then applied to model the more challenging homodinuclear complexes. These results suggest that both intermetallic charge and energy transfer can be observed in an asymmetric dinuclear copper complex in which the ground state redox potentials of the copper sites are offset by only 310 meV. We also demonstrate the ability of several of these complexes to effectively and unidirectionally shuttle energy between different metal centers, a property that could be of great use in the design of broadly absorbing and multifunctional multimetallic photocatalysts. This work provides an important step toward developing both a fundamental conceptual picture and a practical experimental handle with which synthetic chemists, spectroscopists, and theoreticians may collaborate to engineer cheap and efficient photocatalytic materials capable of performing coulombically demanding chemical transformations. PMID:29629153

  15. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  16. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  17. One-shot calculation of temperature-dependent optical spectra and phonon-induced band-gap renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Marios; Giustino, Feliciano

    Electron-phonon interactions are of fundamental importance in the study of the optical properties of solids at finite temperatures. Here we present a new first-principles computational technique based on the Williams-Lax theory for performing predictive calculations of the optical spectra, including quantum zero-point renormalization and indirect absorption. The calculation of the Williams-Lax optical spectra is computationally challenging, as it involves the sampling over all possible nuclear quantum states. We develop an efficient computational strategy for performing ''one-shot'' finite-temperature calculations. These require only a single optimal configuration of the atomic positions. We demonstrate our methodology for the case of Si, C, and GaAs, yielding absorption coefficients in good agreement with experiment. This work opens the way for systematic calculations of optical spectra at finite temperature. This work was supported by the UK EPSRC (EP/J009857/1 and EP/M020517/) and the Leverhulme Trust (RL-2012-001), and the Graphene Flagship (EU-FP7-604391).

  18. Transient Spectra in TDDFT: Corrections and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhill, John; Nguyen, Triet

    We introduce an atomistic, all-electron, black-box electronic structure code to simulate transient absorption (TA) spectra and apply it to simulate pyrazole and a GFP chromophore derivative. The method is an application of OSCF2, our dissipative extension of time-dependent density functional theory. We compare our simulated spectra directly with recent ultra-fast spectroscopic experiments, showing that they are usefully predicted. We also relate bleaches in the TA signal to Fermi-blocking which would be missed in a simplified model. An important ingredient in the method is the stationary-TDDFT correction scheme recently put forwards by Fischer, Govind, and Cramer which allows us to overcome a limitation of adiabatic TDDFT. We demonstrate that OSCF2 is able to predict both the energies of bleaches and induced absorptions, as well as the decay of the transient spectrum, with only the molecular structure as input. With remaining time we will discuss corrections which resolve the non-resonant behavior of driven TDDFT, and correlated corrections to mean-field dynamics.

  19. Computational study of the absorption spectrum of defected ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michos, F. I.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Energy levels and absorption spectra of defected ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT. Several types of defects were examined such as vacancies and substitutions. NPs with S vacancies were found to have their absorption spectra moved to lower energies well inside the visible spectrum with significantly high oscillator strength. Also, NPs with substitution of S atoms with Cl, Br, or I showed significant absorption. In general, this type of defect moves the absorption spectra in lower energies, thus bringing the absorption edge into the visible spectrum, while the unperturbed NPs have absorption edges in the UV region. In addition, ZnS NPs are made from more abundant and less toxic elements than the more commonly used CdSe NPs. For that reason, they may find significant applications in solar cells and other photonic applications, as well as in biosensing applications as biomarkers.

  20. Comparison of experimental and calculated chiroptical spectra for chiral molecular structure determination.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Covington, Cody L

    2014-09-01

    For three different chiroptical spectroscopic methods, namely, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and Raman optical activity (ROA), the measures of similarity of the experimental spectra to the corresponding spectra predicted using quantum chemical theories are summarized. In determining the absolute configuration and/or predominant conformations of chiral molecules, these similarity measures provide numerical estimates of agreement between experimental observations and theoretical predictions. Selected applications illustrating the similarity measures for absorption, circular dichroism, and corresponding dissymmetry factor (DF) spectra, in the case of VCD and ECD, and for Raman, ROA, and circular intensity differential (CID) spectra in the case of ROA, are presented. The analysis of similarity in DF or CID spectra is considered to be much more discerning and accurate than that in absorption (or Raman) and circular dichroism (or ROA) spectra, undertaken individually. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. OH absorption spectroscopy in a flame using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartula, Renata J.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.; Sanders, Scott T.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Fred L.; Harlander, John M.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate measurements of OH absorption spectra in the post-flame zone of a McKenna burner using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS). SHS permits high-resolution, high-throughput measurements. In this case the spectra span ~308-310 nm with a resolution of 0.03 nm, even though an extended source (extent of ~2×10-7 m2 rad2) was used. The high spectral resolution is important for interpreting spectra when multiple absorbers are present for inferring accurate gas temperatures from measured spectra and for monitoring weak absorbers. The present measurement paves the way for absorption spectroscopy by SHS in practical combustion devices, such as reciprocating and gas-turbine engines.

  2. Temperature dependence of Fe/++/ crystal field spectra - Implications to mineralogical mapping of planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, C.-M.; Singer, R. B.; Parkin, K. M.; Burns, R. G.; Osborne, M.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported of Fe(++) crystal field spectral measurements for olivines and pyroxenes up to 400 C. The results are correlated with crystal structure data at elevated temperatures, and the validity of remote-sensed identifications of minerals on hot surfaces of the moon and Mercury is assessed. Two techniques were used to obtain spectra of minerals at elevated temperatures using a spectrophotometer. One employed a diamond cell assembly or a specially designed sample holder to measure polarized absorption spectra of heated single crystals. For the other technique, a sample holder was designed to attach to a diffuse reflectance accessory to produce reflectance spectra of heated powdered samples. Polarized absorption spectra of forsterite at 20-400 C are shown in a graph. Other graphs show the temperature dependence of Fe(++) crystal field bands in olivines, the diffuse reflectance spectra of olivine at 40-400 C, the polarization absorption spectra of orthopyroxene at 30-400 C, the diffuse reflectance spectra of pigeonite at 40-400 C, and unpolarized absorption spectra of lunar pyroxene from Apollo 15 rock 15058.

  3. Mineral Spectra from Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Spectra collected by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) indicate the presence of three distinct minerals. The graphed information comes from an observation of terrain in the Nili Fossae area of northern Mars. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    Iron-magnesium smectite clay is formed through alteration of rocks by liquid water and is characterized by distinctive absorptions at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.3 micrometers due to water (H2O) and OH in the atomic structure of the mineral. Olivine is an iron magnesium silicate and primary igneous mineral, and water is not in its structure. Its spectrum is characterized by a strong and broad absorption at 1.0 micrometer due to ferrous iron (Fe2+). Carbonate is an alteration mineral identified by the distinctive paired absorptions at 2.3 and 2.5 micrometers. The precise band positions at 2.31 and 2.51 micrometers identify the carbonate at this location as magnesium carbonate. The broad 1.0 micrometer band indicates some small amount of ferrous iron is also present and the feature at 1.9 micrometers indicates the presence of water. CRISM researchers believe the magnesium carbonate found in the Nili Fossae region formed from alteration of olivine by water.

    The data come from a CRISM image catalogued as FRT00003E12. The spectra shown here are five-pixel-by-five-pixel averages of CRISM L-detector spectra taken from three different areas within the image that have then been ratioed to a five-pixel-by-five-pixel common denominator spectrum taken from a spectrally unremarkable area with no distinctive mineralogic signatures. This technique highlights the spectral contrasts between regions due to their unique mineralogy. The spectral wavelengths near 2.0 micrometers are affected by atmospheric absorptions and have been removed for clarity.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars

  4. Solvatochromic Effects on the Absorption Spectrum of 2-Thiocytosine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The solvatochromic effects of six different solvents on the UV absorption spectrum of 2-thiocytosine have been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The steady-state absorption spectra show significant shifts of the absorption bands, where in more polar solvents the first absorption maximum shifts to higher transition energies and the second maximum to lower energies. The observed solvatochromic shifts have been rationalized using three popular solvatochromic scales and with high-level multireference quantum chemistry calculations including implicit and explicit solvent effects. It has been found that the dipole moments of the excited states account for some general shifts in the excitation energies, whereas the explicit solvent interactions explain the differences in the spectra recorded in the different solvents. PMID:28452483

  5. VUV absorption spectroscopy of bacterial spores and DNA components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure plasmas can be used to inactivate bacterial spores and sterilize goods for medical and pharmaceutical applications. A crucial factor are damages induced by UV and VUV radiation emitted by the plasma. To analyze inactivation processes and protection strategies of spores, absorption spectra of two B. subtilis strains are measured. The results indicate, that the inner and outer coat of the spore significantly contribute to the absorption of UV-C and also of the VUV, protecting the spore against radiation based damages. As the sample preparation can significantly influence the absorption spectra due to salt residues, the cleaning procedure and sample deposition is tested for its reproducibility by measuring DNA oligomers and pUC18 plasmid DNA. The measurements are compared and discussed with results from the literature, showing a strong decrease of the salt content enabling the detection of absorption structures in the samples.

  6. Infrared absorption cross sections of propane broadened by hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Billinghurst, B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption cross-sections of pure propane (C3H8) and propane broadened with H2 have been calculated from transmittance spectra recorded at temperatures from 292 K to 205 K. Transmittance spectra were recorded at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) Far-Infrared beamline, utilizing both the synchrotron source and the internal glowbar source. The absorption cross-sections have been calibrated to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) reference cross-sections of propane and can be used to interpret astronomical observations of giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn as well as exoplanets.

  7. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of 8-amino-riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.; Mack, M.; Ghisla, S.

    2009-10-01

    The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl- D-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2-5 ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.

  8. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (<520 nm), which contains much of the surplus energy that is not used for photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat. The PAR absorptance of a whole leaf shows no substantial difference based on the spectra of direct or diffuse solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density

  9. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    ), and nitrated PAH compounds for comparison. Potential organic aerosol components are identified which contribute to the enhanced absorption observed in the field. The wavelength dependence of the mass specific absorption is obtained from these spectra and total carbon measurements. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n +ik) in the UV-visible spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  10. Molecular hydrogen absorption systems in Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashev, S. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.; Petitjean, P.; Noterdaeme, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present a systematic search for molecular hydrogen absorption systems at high redshift in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II Data Release 7 and SDSS-III Data Release 9. We have selected candidates using a modified profile fitting technique taking into account that the Lyα forest can effectively mimic H2 absorption systems at the resolution of SDSS data. To estimate the confidence level of the detections, we use two methods: a Monte Carlo sampling and an analysis of control samples. The analysis of control samples allows us to define regions of the spectral quality parameter space where H2 absorption systems can be confidently identified. We find that H2 absorption systems with column densities log NH2 > 19 can be detected in only less than 3 per cent of SDSS quasar spectra. We estimate the upper limit on the detection rate of saturated H2 absorption systems (NH2 > 19) in damped Lyα (DLA) systems to be about 7 per cent. We provide a sample of 23 confident H2 absorption system candidates that would be interesting to follow up with high-resolution spectrographs. There is a 1σ r - i colour excess and non-significant AV extinction excess in quasar spectra with an H2 candidate compared to standard DLA-bearing quasar spectra. The equivalent widths of C II, Si II and Al III (but not Fe II) absorptions associated with H2 candidate DLAs are larger compared to standard DLAs. This is probably related to a larger spread in velocity of the absorption lines in the H2-bearing sample.

  11. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  12. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.

    2008-12-05

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  13. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-06

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  14. Polarized IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogenselenate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2005-10-01

    The polarized IR-microscope spectra of C(NH2)3.HSeO4 small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed with the framework of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the O...O distance of 2.616 A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polarizer angle are described. Detailed assignment for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of selenate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarized infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  15. Far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Far-infrared specular reflectance spectra of six optically black coatings near normal incidence are presented. The spectra were obtained using nine bandpass transmission filters in the wavelength range between 12 and 300 microns. Data on the construction, thickness, and rms surface roughness of the coatings are also presented. The chemical composition of two coatings can be distinguished from that of the others by a strong absorption feature between 20 and 40 microns which is attributed to amorphous silicate material. Inverse relationships between these spectra and coating roughness and thickness are noted and lead to development of a reflecting-layer model for the measured reflectance. The model is applied to the spectra of several coatings whose construction falls within its constraints.

  16. Polarised IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogensulphate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2006-07-01

    Polarised IR-microscope spectra of C(NH(2))(3)*HSO(4) small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed on the basis of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the Ocdots, three dots, centeredO distance of 2.603A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polariser angle are described. Detailed assignments for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of sulphate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarised infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  17. Control spectra for Quito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Roberto; Rivas-Medina, Alicia; Caiza, Pablo; Quizanga, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The Metropolitan District of Quito is located on or very close to segments of reverse blind faults, Puengasí, Ilumbisí-La Bota, Carcelen-El Inca, Bellavista-Catequilla and Tangahuilla, making it one of the most seismically dangerous cities in the world. The city is divided into five areas: south, south-central, central, north-central and north. For each of the urban areas, elastic response spectra are presented in this paper, which are determined by utilizing some of the new models of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) NGA-West2 program. These spectra are calculated considering the maximum magnitude that could be generated by the rupture of each fault segment, and taking into account the soil type that exists at different points of the city according to the Norma Ecuatoriana de la Construcción (2015). Subsequently, the recurrence period of earthquakes of high magnitude in each fault segment is determined from the physical parameters of the fault segments (size of the fault plane and slip rate) and the pattern of recurrence of type Gutenberg-Richter earthquakes with double truncation magnitude (Mmin and Mmax) is used.

  18. Low Temperature Reflectance Spectra of Titan Tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Dalton, J. B.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositional interpretation of remotely obtained reflectance spectra of outer solar system surfaces is achieved by a variety of methods. These include matching spectral curves, matching spectral features, quantitative spectral interpretation, and theoretical modeling of spectra. All of these approaches rely upon laboratory measurements of one kind or another. The bulk of these laboratory measurements are obtained with the sample of interest at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, surface temperatures of planets, satellites, and asteroids in the outer solar system are significantly cooler than ambient laboratory conditions on Earth. The infrared spectra of many materials change as a function of temperature. As has been recently demonstrated it is important to assess what effects colder temperatures have on spectral properties and hence, compositional interpretations. Titan tholin is a solid residue created by energetic processing of H-, C-, and N-bearing gases. Such residues can also be created by energetic processing if the gases are condensed into ices. Titan tholin has been suggested as a coloring agent for several surfaces in the outer solar system. Here we report laboratory measurements of Titan tholin at a temperature of 100 K and compare these to measurements of the same sample near room temperature. At low temperature the absorption features beyond 1 micrometer narrow slightly. At wavelengths greater than approx. 0.8 micrometer the overall reflectance of the sample decreases slightly making the sample less red at low temperatures. We will discuss the implications of the laboratory measurements for interpretation of cold outer solar system surfaces.

  19. The Rovibronic Spectra of the Cyclopentadienyl Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ketan; Miller, Terry A.; Stanton, John F.; Nesbitt, David

    2017-06-01

    Cyclopentadienyl (Cp) radical has been subject to numerous studies for the greater part of half a century. Experimental work has involved photo-electron spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence excitation and emission, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and recently rotationally resolved spectra in the CH stretch region taken at JILA. Even more theoretical works appear in the literature, but substantial advances in computation have occurred since their completion. Cp's highly symmetric (D_{5h}) structure and doubly degenerate electronic ground (˜{X}^2E_1^{''}), which is subject to linear Jahn-Teller distortion, have been a great motivation for work on it. We have commenced new computational work to obtain a broad understanding of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational, i.e. rovibronic, structure of the Cp radical as revealed by its spectra, with particular emphasis on the new infrared spectra. The goal is to guide experiments and their analyses and reconcile results from spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. T. Ichino, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084310 (2008) L. Yu, S. C. Foster, J. M. Williamson, M. C. Heaven and T. A. Miller J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4263 (1988) B. E. Applegate, A. J. Bezant and T. A. Miller J. Chem. Phys 114, 4869 (2001) D. Leicht, M. Kaufmann, G. Schwaab, and M. Havenith J. Chem. Phys. 145, 7 (2016), 074304.

  20. The earthshine s spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanes Rodriguez, P.; Palle, E.; Goode, P.; Koonin, S.; Hickey, J.; Qiu, J.; Yurchysyn, V.

    The Earthshine project, was run by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) between 1993 and 1995. Since 1998, it has been a collaborative effort between Caltech and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO)/New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). Our primary goal is the precise determination of a global and absolutely calibrated Earth's albedo and its synoptic, seasonal, and annual variability; as well as the measurement and investigation of the resolved reflected spectrum of the integrated Earth in the infrared region. The absorption in the infrared region, mainly due to rotational and vibrational transitions of the molecules, show the absorption bands of various telluric and solar components allowing the analysis of the Earth's spectrum such as it would be observed from the outer space. In this paper we present preliminary results of spectroscopic observations, made at Palomar Observatory with the 60-inch telescope's echelle spectrograph. They targeted the visible and near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and were performed in the spectral range (< 1μm) of the bands of Oxygen A, Oxygen B, water and Hydrogen alpha (H). The first three are typically terrestrial molecular bands. The fourth line, H, is a solar line, used mainly for spectral calibration.