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Sample records for absorption spectral analysis

  1. Spectral Absorption By Particulate Impurities in Snow Determined By Photometric Analysis Of Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Clarke, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Our work is motivated by the 1983-84 survey by Clarke and Noone (Atmos. Environ., 1985) of soot in Arctic snow. Our objective is to resurvey the original area they covered and to extend the observations around the entire Arctic Basin under the auspices of the IPY program. We use the filtering and integrating sandwich techniques developed by Clarke and Noone to process the snow samples. Among the advantages of this method are that (a) it provides a direct measure of light absorption and the result is closely related to the actual absorption of sunlight in the snow or ice, (b) processing and filtering of the snow samples can be carried out in remote locations and (c) it is not necessary to transport large quantities of snow back to our home laboratory. Here we describe the construction, calibration, and some applications of an integrating sphere spectrophotometer system designed to take advantage of recent advances in instrumentation to improve the accuracy of measurements of absorption by particulate impurities collected on nuclepore filters used in our survey. Filter loading in terms of effective black carbon (BC) amount is determined together with the ratio of non-BC to BC concentrations using a set of reference filters with known loadings of Monarch 71 BC prepared by A. D. Clarke. The new spectrophotometer system has (a) system stability of approximately 0.5%; (b) precision relative to ADC standards of 3-4% for filter loadings greater than about 0.5 microgm Carbon/cm2. (c) We can distinguish BC from non-BC from relative spectral shapes of the energy absorption curves with an accuracy that depends on our knowledge of the spectral absorption curves of the non-BC components; and (d) by-eye estimates are consistent with spectrophotometric results. The major outstanding uncertainty is the appropriate value to use for the mass absorption efficiency for BC.

  2. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  3. Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Odelle L; Corrigan, Craig E; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2008-11-15

    This study presents a method for analyzing the black carbon (BC) mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration on the basis of derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAEs) of BC and char. The fractions of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO2) at temperatures higher than 480 degrees C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected in northern California. The uncertainty in the measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12% to 100%, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 microg of BC, and the uncertainty approached 20% for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 microg of BC.

  4. Spectral Classification of Heavily Reddened Stars by CO Absorption Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garling, Christopher; Bary, Jeffrey S.; Huard, Tracy L.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of dust grains in dense molecular clouds can be explored by obtaining spectra of giant stars located behind the clouds and examining the wavelength-dependent attentuation of their light. This approach requires the intrinsic spectra of the background stars to be known, which can be achieved by determining their spectral types. In the K-band spectra of cool giant stars, several temperature-sensitive CO absorption bands serve as good spectral type indicators. Taking advantage of the SpeX Infrared Telescope Facility Spectral Library, near-infrared spectra collected with TripleSpec and the 3.5-meter ARC Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, and a previously constructed CO spectral index, we make precise spectral determinations of 20 giant stars located behind two dense cloud cores: CB188 and L429C. With spectral types in hand, we then utilize Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to constrain extinctions along these lines of sight. The spectral typing method will be described and assessed as well as its success at finding a couple of incorrectly spectral typed stars in the SpeX Library. Funding for this program was provided by a NSF REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium and a grant from the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  5. Spectral Analysis and Metastable Absorption Measurements of High Pressure Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency Argon-Helium Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    density of the s5 and s3 metastable states for different discharge parameters. The absorption data was fit to an approximated Voigt profile from which...pressures are required in order to have enough spin-orbit relaxation to maintain CW lasing without significant bottlenecking. There are many methods to...for just that [(5),(12)]. This method allows for a wide study of energy levels since the limiting factor is the sensitivity of the detector and modern

  6. Equivalent Black Carbon measurements and spectral analysis of absorption coefficient during a biomass burning episode in the city of Bogotá, Colombia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirama, M.; Morales, R.

    2016-12-01

    Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol is recognized as a significant short lived climate pollutant that can contribute to direct and indirect radiative forcing. In urban environments, black carbon is an important contributor to the deterioration of local air quality. In this study, we report measurements of equivalent Black Carbon performed during the months of January, February, and March 2016 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. During this period, a persistent condition of atmospheric stability lead to high concentrations of particulate matter throughout the city. During the month of February, the city was further impacted by a series of small-scale forest fires that took place on hills neighboring the city center. Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations were monitored before, during, and after a mayor forest fire episode with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. The monitoring instruments were located at a traffic impacted site, 18.3 km from the forest fire. To evaluate the contribution of biomass burning to the light-absorbing aerosol particle concentration, spectral analysis of the absorption coefficient of the sampled aerosol particles was performed. When the biomass burning plume directly impacted the monitoring station during the night of February 4, eBC concentrations of up to 40 µg/m3 were observed at nighttime. This concentration was significantly higher than average nighttime concentrations of eBC, observed to be 4 µg/m3 at the site. However, during the period most intensely affected by the biomass burning plume, the angstrom exponent computed between the 450nm and the 970 nm channel, was found to be close to 1. Angstrom exponent close to 1 is an indication that the contribution from traffic generated black carbon is dominant compared to the contribution of biomass burning. The data set collected during this period suggests that despite the significant contribution of the fresh biomass burning plume to the particulate matter concentration in the city, the

  7. Two-photon absorption by spectrally shaped entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hisaki

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate two-photon excitation by spectrally shaped entangled photons with energy anticorrelation in terms of how the real excitation of an intermediate state affects two-photon absorption by entangled photons. Spectral holes are introduced in the entangled photons around the energy levels of an intermediate state so that two-step excitation via the real excitation of the intermediated state can be suppressed. Using a three-level atomic system as an example, we show that the spectral holes well suppress the real excitation of the intermediate state and recover two-photon absorption via a virtual state. Furthermore, for a short pulse close to a monocycle, we show that the excitation efficiency by the spectrally shaped entangled photons can be enhanced a thousand times as large as that by uncorrelated photons.

  8. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  9. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    2017-03-06

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  10. Spectral analysis using CCDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, C. R.; Brodersen, R. W.; De Wit, M.; Buss, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are ideally suited for performing sampled-data transversal filtering operations in the analog domain. Two algorithms have been identified for performing spectral analysis in which the bulk of the computation can be performed in a CCD transversal filter; the chirp z-transform and the prime transform. CCD implementation of both these transform algorithms is presented together with performance data and applications.

  11. Interactions of praseodymium and neodymium with nucleosides and nucleotides: absorption difference and comparative absorption spectral study.

    PubMed

    Misra, S N; Anjaiah, K; Joseph, G; Abdi, S H

    1992-02-01

    The interactions of praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different stoichiometry in water and water-DMF mixtures by employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The 4f-4f bands were analysed by linear curve analysis followed by gaussian curve analysis, and various spectral parameters were computed, using partial and multiple regression method. The magnitude of changes in both energy interaction and intensity were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere coordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Crystalline complexes of the type [Ln(nucleotide)2(H2O)2]- (where nucleotide--GMP or IMP) were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR data. These studies indicated that the binding of the nucleotide is through phosphate oxygen in a bidentate manner and the complexes undergo substantial ionisation in aqueous medium, thereby supporting the observed weak 4f-4f bands and lower values for nephelauxetic effect (1-beta), bonding (b) and covalency (delta) parameters derived from coulombic and spin orbit interaction parameters.

  12. Quantifying the effect of finite spectral bandwidth on extinction coefficient of species in laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Baljit; Ghanshyam, C.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the finite spectral bandwidth effect on laser absorption spectroscopy for a wide-band laser source. Experimental analysis reveals that the extinction coefficient of an analyte is affected by the bandwidth of the spectral source, which may result in the erroneous conclusions. An approximate mathematical model has been developed for optical intensities having Gaussian line shape, which includes the impact of source's spectral bandwidth in the equation for spectroscopic absorption. This is done by introducing a suitable first order and second order bandwidth approximation in the Beer-Lambert law equation for finite bandwidth case. The derived expressions were validated using spectroscopic analysis with higher SBW on a test sample, Rhodamine B. The concentrations calculated using proposed approximation, were in significant agreement with the true values when compared with those calculated with conventional approach.

  13. A High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on Absorption Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piironen, Paivi

    1996-01-01

    A High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) that uses an iodine absorption filter and a tunable, narrow bandwidth Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The iodine absorption filter provides better performance than the Fabry-Perot etalon that it replaces. This study presents an instrument design that can be used a the basis for a design of a simple and robust lidar for the measurement of the optical properties of the atmosphere. The HSRL provides calibrated measurements of the optical properties of the atmospheric aerosols. These observations include measurements of aerosol backscatter cross sections, optical depth, backscatter phase function depolarization, and multiple scattering. The errors in the HSRL data are discussed and the effects of different errors on the measured optical parameters are shown.

  14. Detailed Spectral Analysis of the 260 ks XMM-Newton Data of 1E 1207.4-5209 and Significance of a 2.1 keV Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Chonko, James C.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2005-10-01

    We have reanalyzed the 260 ks XMM-Newton observation of 1E 1207.4-5209. There are several significant improvements over previous work. First, a much broader range of physically plausible spectral models was used. Second, we have used a more rigorous statistical analysis. The standard F-distribution was not employed, but rather the exact finite statistics F-distribution was determined by Monte Carlo simulations. This approach was motivated by the recent work of Protassov and coworkers and Freeman and coworkers. They demonstrated that the standard F-distribution is not even asymptotically correct when applied to assess the significance of additional absorption features in a spectrum. With our improved analysis we do not find a third and fourth spectral feature in 1E 1207.4-5209 but only the two broad absorption features previously reported. Two additional statistical tests, one line model dependent and the other line model independent, confirmed our modified F-test analysis. For all physically plausible continuum models in which the weak residuals are strong enough to fit, the residuals occur at the instrument Au M edge. As a sanity check we confirmed that the residuals are consistent in strength and position with the instrument Au M residuals observed in 3C 273.

  15. Method of multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.; Kotula, Paul G.

    2004-01-06

    A method of determining the properties of a sample from measured spectral data collected from the sample by performing a multivariate spectral analysis. The method can include: generating a two-dimensional matrix A containing measured spectral data; providing a weighted spectral data matrix D by performing a weighting operation on matrix A; factoring D into the product of two matrices, C and S.sup.T, by performing a constrained alternating least-squares analysis of D=CS.sup.T, where C is a concentration intensity matrix and S is a spectral shapes matrix; unweighting C and S by applying the inverse of the weighting used previously; and determining the properties of the sample by inspecting C and S. This method can be used to analyze X-ray spectral data generated by operating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an attached Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS).

  16. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, P.; Rabbette, M.

    2001-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to characterize approximately 7000 downwelling solar irradiance spectra retrieved at the Southern Great Plains site during an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) shortwave intensive operating period. This analysis technique has proven to be very effective in reducing a large set of variables into a much smaller set of independent variables while retaining the information content. It is used to determine the minimum number of parameters necessary to characterize atmospheric spectral irradiance or the dimensionality of atmospheric variability. It was found that well over 99% of the spectral information was contained in the first six mutually orthogonal linear combinations of the observed variables (flux at various wavelengths). Rotation of the principal components was effective in separating various components by their independent physical influences. The majority of the variability in the downwelling solar irradiance (380-1000 nm) was explained by the following fundamental atmospheric parameters (in order of their importance): cloud scattering, water vapor absorption, molecular scattering, and ozone absorption. In contrast to what has been proposed as a resolution to a clear-sky absorption anomaly, no unexpected gaseous absorption signature was found in any of the significant components.

  18. Guided-wave approaches to spectrally selective energy absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments designed to demonstrate spectrally selective absorption in dielectric waveguides on semiconductor substrates are reported. These experiments were conducted with three waveguides formed by sputtering films of PSK2 glass onto silicon-oxide layers grown on silicon substrates. The three waveguide samples were studied at 633 and 532 nm. The samples differed only in the thickness of the silicon-oxide layer, specifically 256 nm, 506 nm, and 740 nm. Agreement between theoretical predictions and measurements of propagation constants (mode angles) of the six or seven modes supported by these samples was excellent. However, the loss measurements were inconclusive because of high scattering losses in the structures fabricated (in excess of 10 dB/cm). Theoretical calculations indicated that the power distribution among all the modes supported by these structures will reach its steady state value after a propagation length of only 1 mm. Accordingly, the measured loss rates were found to be almost independent of which mode was initially excited. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment leads to the conclusion that low loss waveguides confirm the predicted loss rates.

  19. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  1. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (<520 nm), which contains much of the surplus energy that is not used for photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat. The PAR absorptance of a whole leaf shows no substantial difference based on the spectra of direct or diffuse solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density

  2. Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation by Aerosols during ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Pommier, J.; Rabbette, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redermann, J.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.; Quinn, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the upward and downward spectral solar radiant fluxes were measured with the Spectral Solar Flux Radiometer (SSFR), and the aerosol optical depth was measured with the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) aboard the Center for INterdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. IN this paper, we examine the data obtained for two cases: a moderately thick aerosol layer, 12 April, and a relatively thin aerosol case, 16 April 2001. ON both days, the Twin Otter flew vertical profiles in the Korean Strait southeast of Gosan Island. For both days we determine the aerosol spectral absorption of the layer and estimate the spectral aerosol absorption optical depth and single-scattering albedo. The results for 12 April show that the single-scattering albedo increases with wavelength from 0.8 at 400 nm to 0.95 at 900 nm and remains essentially constant from 950 to 1700 nm. On 16 April the amount of aerosol absorption was very low; however, the aerosol single-scattering albedo appears to decrease slightly with wavelength in the visible region. We interpret these results in light of the two absorbing aerosol species observed during the ACE-asia study: mineral dust and black carbon. The results for 12 April are indicative of a mineral dust-black carbon mixture. The 16 April results are possibly caused by black carbon mixed with nonabsorbing pollution aerosols. For the 12 April case we attempt to estimate the relative contributions of the black carbon particles and the mineral dust particles. We compare our results with other estimates of the aerosol properties from a Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite analysis and aerosol measurements made aboard the Twin Otter, aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ronald H Brown ship, and at ground sites in Gosan and Japan. The results indicate a relatively complicated aerosol

  3. Modeling ocean primary production: Sensitivity to spectral resolution of attenuation and absorption of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, Helen; Merchant, Chris J.

    2008-08-01

    Modeling the vertical penetration of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) through the ocean, and its utilization by phytoplankton, is fundamental to simulating marine primary production. The variation of attenuation and absorption of light with wavelength suggests that photosynthesis should be modeled at high spectral resolution, but this is computationally expensive. To model primary production in global 3d models, a balance between computer time and accuracy is necessary. We investigate the effects of varying the spectral resolution of the underwater light field and the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton ( α∗), on primary production using a 1d coupled ecosystem ocean turbulence model. The model is applied at three sites in the Atlantic Ocean (CIS (∼60°N), PAP (∼50°N) and ESTOC (∼30°N)) to include the effect of different meteorological forcing and parameter sets. We also investigate three different methods for modeling α∗ - as a fixed constant, varying with both wavelength and chlorophyll concentration [Bricaud, A., Morel, A., Babin, M., Allali, K., Claustre, H., 1998. Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters. Analysis and implications for bio-optical models. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044], and using a non-spectral parameterization [Anderson, T.R., 1993. A spectrally averaged model of light penetration and photosynthesis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1403-1419]. After selecting the appropriate ecosystem parameters for each of the three sites we vary the spectral resolution of light and α∗ from 1 to 61 wavebands and study the results in conjunction with the three different α∗ estimation methods. The results show modeled estimates of ocean primary productivity are highly sensitive to the degree of spectral resolution and α∗. For accurate simulations of primary production and chlorophyll distribution we recommend a spectral resolution of at least six wavebands

  4. Spectral analysis of the structure of ultradispersed diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, V. V.; Shimanski, V. I.; Rusalsky, D. P.; Samtsov, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    The structure of ultradispersed diamonds (UDD) is studied by spectral methods. The presence of diamond crystal phase in the UDD is found based on x-ray analysis and Raman spectra. The Raman spectra also show sp2-and sp3-hybridized carbon. Analysis of IR absorption spectra suggests that the composition of functional groups present in the particles changes during the treatment.

  5. Spectral properties of molecular iodine in absorption cells filled to specified saturation pressure.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Burck, Frédéric Du; Chiodo, Nicola; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of measurement and evaluation of spectral properties of iodine absorption cells filled at certain saturation pressure. A set of cells made of borosilicate glass instead of common fused silica was tested for their spectral properties in greater detail with special care for the long-term development of the absorption media purity. The results were compared with standard fused silica cells and the high quality of iodine was verified. A measurement method based on an approach relying on measurement of linewidth of the hyperfine transitions is proposed as a novel technique for iodine cell absorption media purity evaluation. A potential application in laser metrology of length is also discussed.

  6. [Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents in the estuary of Zhujiang River].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yong-bo; Fu, Qing-hua; Yin, Bin; Li, Yun-mei

    2014-12-01

    Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents is the main factor affecting the light field under the surface of the water and the spectrum above the surface of the water. Thus, the study is useful for understanding of the water spectral property and the remote reversing of water quality parameters. Absorption properties of total suspended particles, non-algal particles, phytoplankton and CDOM were analyzed using the 30 samples collected in July 2013 in the estuary of Zhujiang River. The results indicated that: (1) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the absorption of the total suspended particles; (2) the absorption coefficient of the non-algal particles, which mainly came from the terrigenous deposits, decreased exponentially from short to long wavelength. In addition, the average value and spatial variation of the slope S(d) were higher than those in inland case- II waters; (3) the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 440 nm showed a better polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration, while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 675 nm linearly related with the chlorophyll a concentration. Moreover, the influence of accessory pigments on phytoplankton absorption coefficient mainly existed in the range of short wavelength, and Chlorophyll a was the main influencing factor for phytoplankton absorption in long wavelength. The specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased the power exponentially with the increase of the chlorophyll a concentration; (4) CDOM mainly came from the terrigenous sources and its spectral curve had an absorption shoulder between 250-290 nm. Thus, a piecewise S(g) fitting function could effectively express CDOM absorption properties, i.e., M value and S(g) value in period A (240-260 nm) showed a strong positive correlation. The M value was low, and the humic acid had a high proportion in CDOM; (5) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the total absorption in the estuary of

  7. Method of photon spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gehrke, Robert J.; Putnam, Marie H.; Killian, E. Wayne; Helmer, Richard G.; Kynaston, Ronnie L.; Goodwin, Scott G.; Johnson, Larry O.

    1993-01-01

    A spectroscopic method to rapidly measure the presence of plutonium in soils, filters, smears, and glass waste forms by measuring the uranium L-shell x-ray emissions associated with the decay of plutonium. In addition, the technique can simultaneously acquire spectra of samples and automatically analyze them for the amount of americium and .gamma.-ray emitting activation and fission products present. The samples are counted with a large area, thin-window, n-type germanium spectrometer which is equally efficient for the detection of low-energy x-rays (10-2000 keV), as well as high-energy .gamma. rays (>1 MeV). A 8192- or 16,384 channel analyzer is used to acquire the entire photon spectrum at one time. A dual-energy, time-tagged pulser, that is injected into the test input of the preamplifier to monitor the energy scale, and detector resolution. The L x-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a linear-least-squares spectral fitting technique. The .gamma.-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a standard Ge .gamma.-ray analysis program. This method can be applied to any analysis involving x- and .gamma.-ray analysis in one spectrum and is especially useful when interferences in the x-ray region can be identified from the .gamma.-ray analysis and accommodated during the x-ray analysis.

  8. Method of photon spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gehrke, R.J.; Putnam, M.H.; Killian, E.W.; Helmer, R.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Goodwin, S.G.; Johnson, L.O.

    1993-04-27

    A spectroscopic method to rapidly measure the presence of plutonium in soils, filters, smears, and glass waste forms by measuring the uranium L-shell x-ray emissions associated with the decay of plutonium. In addition, the technique can simultaneously acquire spectra of samples and automatically analyze them for the amount of americium and [gamma]-ray emitting activation and fission products present. The samples are counted with a large area, thin-window, n-type germanium spectrometer which is equally efficient for the detection of low-energy x-rays (10-2,000 keV), as well as high-energy [gamma] rays (>1 MeV). A 8,192- or 16,384 channel analyzer is used to acquire the entire photon spectrum at one time. A dual-energy, time-tagged pulser, that is injected into the test input of the preamplifier to monitor the energy scale, and detector resolution. The L x-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a linear-least-squares spectral fitting technique. The [gamma]-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a standard Ge [gamma]-ray analysis program. This method can be applied to any analysis involving x- and [gamma]-ray analysis in one spectrum and is especially useful when interferences in the x-ray region can be identified from the [gamma]-ray analysis and accommodated during the x-ray analysis.

  9. Brown carbon absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, András; Tóth, Ádám; Pósfai, Mihály; Eddy Chung, Chul; Gelencsér, András

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols have often been assumed to be the only light-absorbing carbonaceous particles in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Here we report that tar balls (a specific type of organic aerosol particles from biomass burning) do absorb red and near-infrared radiation significantly. Tar balls were produced in a laboratory experiment, and their chemical and optical properties were measured. The absorption of these particles in the range between 470 and 950 nm was measured with an aethalometer, which is widely used to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. We find that the absorption coefficient of tar balls at 880 nm is more than 10 % of that at 470 nm. The considerable absorption of red and infrared light by tar balls also follows from their relatively low absorption Ångström coefficient (and significant mass absorption coefficient) in the spectral range between 470 and 950 nm. Our results support the previous finding that tar balls may play an important role in global warming. Due to the non-negligible absorption of tar balls in the near-infrared region, the absorption measured in the field at near-infrared wavelengths cannot solely be due to soot particles.

  10. Absorption spectral analysis of 4f-4f transitions for the complexation of Pr(III) and Nd(III) with thiosemicarbazide in absence and presence of Zn(II) in aqueous and organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anita, K.; Rajmuhon Singh, N.

    2011-10-01

    The complexation of thiosemicarbazide with Pr(III) and Nd(III) in absence and presence of Zn(II), a soft metal ion in aqueous and organic solvents like CH 3OH,CH 3CN, dioxane (C 4H 8O 2) and DMF (C 3H 7NO) and their equimolar mixtures are discussed by employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. Complexation of thiosemicarbazide with Pr(III) and Nd(III) is indicated by the changes in the absorption intensity following the subsequent changes in the oscillator strength of different 4f-4f bands and Judd-Ofelt intensity ( Tλ) parameters. The other spectral parameters like energy interaction parameters namely Slater-Condon ( Fk), Racah ( Ek), Lande ( ξ4f), Nephelauxetic ratio ( β) and bonding parameters ( b1/2) are further computed to explain the nature of complexation. The difference in the energy parameters with respect to donor atoms and solvents reveal that the chemical environment around the lanthanide ions has great impact on f-f transition and any change in the environment result in modification of the spectra. Various solvents and their equimolar mixtures are also used to discuss the participation of solvents in the complexation.

  11. Temperature dependence of aggregated structure of β-carotene by absorption spectral experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liping; Wu, Jie; Wei, Liangshu; Wu, Fang

    2016-12-01

    β-carotene can self-assemble to form J- or H-type aggregate in hydrophilic environments, which is crucial for the proper functioning of biological system. Although several ways controlling the formation of the two types of aggregate in hydrated ethanol have been investigated in recent years, our study provided another way to control whether J- or H- β-carotene was formed and presented a method to investigate the aggregated structure. For this purpose, the aggregates of β-carotene formed at different temperatures were studied by UV-Vis spectra and a computational method based on Frenkel exciton was applied to simulate the absorption spectra to obtain the aggregated structure of the β-carotene. The analysis showed that β-carotene formed weakly coupled H-aggregate at 15 °C in 1:1 ethanol-water solvent, and with the increase of temperature it tended to form J-type of aggregate. The absorption spectral simulation based on one-dimensional Frenkel exciton model revealed that good fit with the experiment was obtained with distance between neighbor molecules r = 0.82 nm, disorder of the system D = 1500 cm- 1 for H-type and r = 1.04 nm, D = 1800 cm- 1 for J-type.

  12. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.

    2002-01-01

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  13. Particulate and dissolved spectral absorption on the continental shelf of the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, James R.; Guarda, Sonia

    1995-05-01

    Visible absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved materials were characterized on the continental shelf off the southeastern United States (the South Atlantic Bight), emphasizing cross-shelf and seasonal variability. A coastal front separates turbid coastal waters from clearer midshelf waters. Spatial and seasonal patterns were evident in absorption coefficients for phytoplankton, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); spectral shape parameters for CDOM and detritus; and phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption. The magnitude of CDOM absorption reflected seasonal differences in freshwater discharge and the salinity of the midshelf waters. In the spring of 1993 (high discharge), CDOM absorption at 443 nm was >10 times that of total particulate absorption between 12 and 50 km offshore (0.28-0.69 m-1 versus 0.027-0.062 m-1) and up to 10 times the CDOM absorption measured in the previous summer (low discharge). Phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption in the blue increased with distance from shore (from <0.03 m2 mg-1 in inner shelf waters to ˜0.1 m2 mg-1 at the most seaward stations in summer) and, for similar chlorophyll concentrations, was higher in summer than in the winter-spring. These spatial and seasonal patterns in phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption can be attributed to a shift in phytoplankton species composition (from predominantly diatoms inshore to a cyanobacteria-dominated assemblage midshelf in summer), pigment packaging, and higher carotenoid:chlorophyll with distance from shore.

  14. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  15. Spectral analysis of extinguished sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagury, Frédéric; Goutail, Florence

    2003-08-01

    SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénitale) is a balloon-borne experiment which determines the column density of several molecular species from the visible spectrum of sunlight. We will use sequence of spectra collected during a sunset to discuss atmospheric extinction, and the nature of the radiation field in the atmosphere. The radiation field in the atmosphere is, from daylight to sunset, and with a clear sky, dominated by light coming from the direction of the sun. This light is composed of direct sunlight (extinguished by the gas), and of sunlight forward-scattered by aerosols. As the sun sets, aerosol scattering is first perceived towards the UV. It progressively replaces direct sunlight over all of the spectrum. Our analysis permits fixing the main parameters of each component of the radiation field at any time. The fits we find for the extinction of sunlight in the atmosphere must also apply to starlight. Thus, the present work can be used in astronomy to correct ground-based spectral observations for extinction in the atmosphere.

  16. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.

    2004-03-23

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following prediction or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The hybrid method herein means a combination of an initial calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A spectral shape herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The shape can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  17. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  18. Spectral Absorption Properties of Aerosol Particles from 350-2500nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martins, J. Vanderlei; Artaxo, Paulo; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Castanho, Andrea D.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2009-01-01

    The aerosol spectral absorption efficiency (alpha (sub a) in square meters per gram) is measured over an extended wavelength range (350 2500 nm) using an improved calibrated and validated reflectance technique and applied to urban aerosol samples from Sao Paulo, Brazil and from a site in Virginia, Eastern US, that experiences transported urban/industrial aerosol. The average alpha (sub a) values (approximately 3 square meters per gram at 550 nm) for Sao Paulo samples are 10 times larger than alpha (sub a) values obtained for aerosols in Virginia. Sao Paulo aerosols also show evidence of enhanced UV absorption in selected samples, probably associated with organic aerosol components. This extra UV absorption can double the absorption efficiency observed from black carbon alone, therefore reducing by up to 50% the surface UV fluxes, with important implications for climate, UV photolysis rates, and remote sensing from space.

  19. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  20. Synthetic Absorption Lines for a Clumpy Medium: A Spectral Signature for Cloud Acceleration in AGN?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Tim; Proga, Daniel; Dannen, Randall; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the highly ionized multiphase components of AGN disc winds may be due to thermal instability. The ions responsible for forming the observed X-ray absorption lines may only exist in relatively cool clumps that can be identified with the so-called warm absorbers. Here we calculate synthetic absorption lines for such warm absorbers from first principles by combining 2D hydrodynamic solutions of a two-phase medium with a dense grid of photoionization models to determine the detailed ionization structure of the gas. Our calculations reveal that cloud disruption, which leads to a highly complicated velocity field (i.e. a clumpy flow), will only mildly affect line shapes and strengths when the warm gas becomes highly mixed but not depleted. Prior to complete disruption, clouds that are optically thin to the driving UV resonance lines will cause absorption at an increasingly blueshifted line-of-sight velocity as they are accelerated. This behavior will imprint an identifiable signature on the line profile if warm absorbers are enshrouded in an even broader absorption line produced by a high column of intercloud gas. Interestingly, we show that it is possible to develop a spectral diagnostic for cloud acceleration by differencing the absorption components of a doublet line, a result that can be qualitatively understood using a simple partial covering model. Our calculations also permit us to comment on the spectral differences between cloud disruption and ionization changes driven by flux variability. Notably, cloud disruption offers another possibility for explaining absorption line variability.

  1. Apparatus and system for multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.; Kotula, Paul G.

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and system for determining the properties of a sample from measured spectral data collected from the sample by performing a method of multivariate spectral analysis. The method can include: generating a two-dimensional matrix A containing measured spectral data; providing a weighted spectral data matrix D by performing a weighting operation on matrix A; factoring D into the product of two matrices, C and S.sup.T, by performing a constrained alternating least-squares analysis of D=CS.sup.T, where C is a concentration intensity matrix and S is a spectral shapes matrix; unweighting C and S by applying the inverse of the weighting used previously; and determining the properties of the sample by inspecting C and S. This method can be used by a spectrum analyzer to process X-ray spectral data generated by a spectral analysis system that can include a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an Energy Dispersive Detector and Pulse Height Analyzer.

  2. Measuring high spectral resolution specific absorption coefficients for use with hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.; Bostater, C.

    1997-06-01

    A portable, long path length (50 cm), flow through, absorption tube system is utilized to obtain in-situ specific absorption coefficients from various water environments consisting of both clear and turbid water conditions from an underway ship or vessel. The high spectral resolution absorption signatures can be obtained and correlated with measured water quality parameters along a ship track. The long path cuvette system is capable of measuring important water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston or total suspended matter, tannins, humics, fulvic acids, or dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The various concentrations of these substances can be determinedmore » and correlated with laboratory measurements using the double inflection ratio (DIR) of the spectra based upon derivative spectroscopy. The DIR is determined for all of the possible combinations of the bands ranging from 362-1115 nm using 252 channels, as described previously by Bostater. The information gathered from this system can be utilized in conjunction with hyperspectral imagery that allows one to relate reflectance and absorption to water quality of a particular environment. A comparison is made between absorption signatures and reflectance obtained from the Banana River, Florida.« less

  3. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  4. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  5. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  6. Pixel Dynamics Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-13

    absorption lines centered at 6301.5 Å and 6302.5 Å. The two smaller absorption lines are telluric lines. The analysis is carried out for a range of...cadence and consist of 251 scan lines. These two new sets of SOLIS VSM data also revealed more inconsistent instrument movements between scans, forcing us...SOLIS VSM instrument. The wavelength range shows two photospheric absorption lines, Fe I 6301.5 Å and Fe I 6302.5 Å ), and two smaller telluric

  7. [Study of the Detecting System of CH4 and SO2 Based on Spectral Absorption Method and UV Fluorescence Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-tao; Wang, Zhi-fang; Liu, Ming-hua; Wei, Meng; Chen, Dong-ying; Wang, Xing-long

    2016-01-01

    According to the spectral absorption characteristics of polluting gases and fluorescence characteristics, a time-division multiplexing detection system is designed. Through this system we can detect Methane (CH4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by using spectral absorption method and the SO2 can be detected by using UV fluorescence method. The system consists of four parts: a combination of a light source which could be switched, the common optical path, the air chamber and the signal processing section. The spectral absorption characteristics and fluorescence characteristics are measured first. Then the experiment of detecting CH4 and SO2 through spectral absorption method and the experiment of detecting SO2 through UV fluorescence method are conducted, respectively. Through measuring characteristics of spectral absorption and fluorescence, we get excitation wavelengths of SO2 and CH4 measured by spectral absorption method at the absorption peak are 280 nm and 1.64 μm, respectively, and the optimal excitation wavelength of SO2 measured by UV fluorescence method is 220 nm. we acquire the linear relation between the concentration of CH4 and relative intensity and the linear relation between the concentration of SO2 and output voltage after conducting the experiment of spectral absorption method, and the linearity are 98.7%, 99.2% respectively. Through the experiment of UV fluorescence method we acquire that the relation between the concentration of SO2 and the voltage is linear, and the linearity is 99.5%. Research shows that the system is able to be applied to detect the polluted gas by absorption spectrum method and UV fluorescence method. Combing these two measurement methods decreases the costing and the volume, and this system can also be used to measure the other gases. Such system has a certain value of application.

  8. Functional mixed effects spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    KRAFTY, ROBERT T.; HALL, MARTICA; GUO, WENSHENG

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY In many experiments, time series data can be collected from multiple units and multiple time series segments can be collected from the same unit. This article introduces a mixed effects Cramér spectral representation which can be used to model the effects of design covariates on the second-order power spectrum while accounting for potential correlations among the time series segments collected from the same unit. The transfer function is composed of a deterministic component to account for the population-average effects and a random component to account for the unit-specific deviations. The resulting log-spectrum has a functional mixed effects representation where both the fixed effects and random effects are functions in the frequency domain. It is shown that, when the replicate-specific spectra are smooth, the log-periodograms converge to a functional mixed effects model. A data-driven iterative estimation procedure is offered for the periodic smoothing spline estimation of the fixed effects, penalized estimation of the functional covariance of the random effects, and unit-specific random effects prediction via the best linear unbiased predictor. PMID:26855437

  9. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  10. Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, T; Maxwell, S E; Reed, Z D; Lin, H; Hodges, J T; Sung, K; Devi, V M; Warneke, T; Spietz, P; Tran, H

    2016-06-27

    In this article we describe a high-precision laboratory measurement targeting the R(6) manifold of the 2 ν 3 band of 12 CH 4 . Accurate physical models of this absorption spectrum will be required by the Franco-German, Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR (MERLIN) space mission for retrievals of atmospheric methane. The analysis uses the Hartmann-Tran profile for modeling line shape and also includes line-mixing effects. To this end, six high-resolution and high signal-to-noise absorption spectra of air-broadened methane were recorded using a frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy apparatus. Sample conditions corresponded to room temperature and spanned total sample pressures of 40 hPa - 1013 hPa with methane molar fractions between 1 μmol mol -1 and 12 μmol mol -1 . All spectroscopic model parameters were simultaneously adjusted in a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fit to the six measured spectra. Comparison of the fitted model to the measured spectra reveals the ability to calculate the room-temperature, methane absorption coefficient to better than 0.1% at the on-line position of the MERLIN mission. This is the first time that such fidelity has been reached in modeling methane absorption in the investigated spectral region, fulfilling the accuracy requirements of the MERLIN mission. We also found excellent agreement when comparing the present results with measurements obtained over different pressure conditions and using other laboratory techniques. Finally, we also evaluated the impact of these new spectral parameters on atmospheric transmissions spectra calculations.

  11. Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye, T.; Maxwell, S.E.; Reed, Z.D.; Lin, H.; Hodges, J.T.; Sung, K.; Devi, V.M.; Warneke, T.; Spietz, P.; Tran, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a high-precision laboratory measurement targeting the R(6) manifold of the 2ν3 band of 12CH4. Accurate physical models of this absorption spectrum will be required by the Franco-German, Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR (MERLIN) space mission for retrievals of atmospheric methane. The analysis uses the Hartmann-Tran profile for modeling line shape and also includes line-mixing effects. To this end, six high-resolution and high signal-to-noise absorption spectra of air-broadened methane were recorded using a frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy apparatus. Sample conditions corresponded to room temperature and spanned total sample pressures of 40 hPa – 1013 hPa with methane molar fractions between 1 μmol mol−1 and 12 μmol mol−1. All spectroscopic model parameters were simultaneously adjusted in a multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fit to the six measured spectra. Comparison of the fitted model to the measured spectra reveals the ability to calculate the room-temperature, methane absorption coefficient to better than 0.1% at the on-line position of the MERLIN mission. This is the first time that such fidelity has been reached in modeling methane absorption in the investigated spectral region, fulfilling the accuracy requirements of the MERLIN mission. We also found excellent agreement when comparing the present results with measurements obtained over different pressure conditions and using other laboratory techniques. Finally, we also evaluated the impact of these new spectral parameters on atmospheric transmissions spectra calculations. PMID:27551656

  12. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements Using an I2 Absorption Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.; Piironen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measures optical properties of the atmosphere by separating the Doppler-broadened molecular backscatter return from the unbroadened aerosol return. The HSRL was modified to use an I2 absorption cell The modified HSRL transmitter uses a continuously pumped, Q-switched, injection seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at a 4 kHz pulse repetition rate. This laser is tunable over a 124 GHz frequency range by temperature tuning the seed laser under computer control.

  13. Fast Fourier Transform Spectral Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, J. A., Jr.; Graves, M. L.; Hovey, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform Spectral Analysis Program is used in frequency spectrum analysis of postflight, space vehicle telemetered trajectory data. This computer program with a digital algorithm can calculate power spectrum rms amplitudes and cross spectrum of sampled parameters at even time increments.

  14. Interactive Spectral Analysis and Computation (ISAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Isaac is a task in the NSO external package for IRAF. A descendant of a FORTRAN program written to analyze data from a Fourier transform spectrometer, the current implementation has been generalized sufficiently to make it useful for general spectral analysis and other one dimensional data analysis tasks. The user interface for Isaac is implemented as an interpreted mini-language containing a powerful, programmable vector calculator. Built-in commands provide much of the functionality needed to produce accurate line lists from input spectra. These built-in functions include automated spectral line finding, least squares fitting of Voigt profiles to spectral lines including equality constraints, various filters including an optimal filter construction tool, continuum fitting, and various I/O functions.

  15. Phytoplankton Pigment Communities Can be Modeled Using Unique Relationships With Spectral Absorption Signatures in a Dynamic Coastal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlett, D.; Siegel, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the roles of phytoplankton community composition in the functioning of marine ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles is important for many ocean science problems of societal relevance. Remote sensing currently offers the only feasible method for continuously assessing phytoplankton community structure on regional to global scales. However, methods are presently hindered by the limited spectral resolution of most satellite sensors and by uncertainties associated with deriving quantitative indices of phytoplankton community structure from phytoplankton pigment concentrations. Here we analyze a data set of concurrent phytoplankton pigment concentrations and phytoplankton absorption coefficient spectra from the Santa Barbara Channel, California, to develop novel optical oceanographic models for retrieving metrics of phytoplankton community composition. Cluster and Empirical Orthogonal Function analyses of phytoplankton pigment concentrations are used to define up to five phytoplankton pigment communities as a representation of phytoplankton functional types. Unique statistical relationships are found between phytoplankton pigment communities and absorption features isolated using spectral derivative analysis and are the basis of predictive models. Model performance is substantially better for phytoplankton pigment community indices compared with determinations of the contributions of individual pigments or taxa to chlorophyll a. These results highlight the application of data-driven chemotaxonomic approaches for developing and validating bio-optical algorithms and illustrate the potential and limitations for retrieving phytoplankton community composition from hyperspectral satellite ocean color observations.

  16. ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

    2014-03-01

    ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.

  17. Spectral interferometric microscopy reveals absorption by individual optical nanoantennas from extinction phase

    PubMed Central

    Gennaro, Sylvain D.; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Verellen, Niels; Van Dorpe, Pol; Moshchalkov, Victor V.; Maier, Stefan A.; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2014-01-01

    Optical antennas transform light from freely propagating waves into highly localized excitations that interact strongly with matter. Unlike their radio frequency counterparts, optical antennas are nanoscopic and high frequency, making amplitude and phase measurements challenging and leaving some information hidden. Here we report a novel spectral interferometric microscopy technique to expose the amplitude and phase response of individual optical antennas across an octave of the visible to near-infrared spectrum. Although it is a far-field technique, we show that knowledge of the extinction phase allows quantitative estimation of nanoantenna absorption, which is a near-field quantity. To verify our method we characterize gold ring-disk dimers exhibiting Fano interference. Our results reveal that Fano interference only cancels a bright mode’s scattering, leaving residual extinction dominated by absorption. Spectral interference microscopy has the potential for real-time and single-shot phase and amplitude investigations of isolated quantum and classical antennas with applications across the physical and life sciences. PMID:24781663

  18. Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in water: linear absorption and onset of nonlinear spectral transformation.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Alexei V; Naveira, Lucas M; Poudel, Milan P; Strohaber, James; Trendafilova, Cynthia S; Buck, William C; Wang, Jieyu; Strycker, Benjamin D; Wang, Chao; Schuessler, Hans; Kolomenskii, Alexandre; Kattawar, George W

    2010-01-20

    We study propagation of short laser pulses through water and use a spectral hole filling technique to essentially perform a sensitive balanced comparison of absorption coefficients for pulses of different duration. This study is motivated by an alleged violation of the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law at low light intensities, where the pulse propagation is expected to be linear, and by a possible observation of femtosecond optical precursors in water. We find that at low intensities, absorption of laser light is determined solely by its spectrum and does not directly depend on the pulse duration, in agreement with our earlier work and in contradiction to some work of others. However, as the laser fluence is increased, interaction of light with water becomes nonlinear, causing energy exchange among the pulse's spectral components and resulting in peak-intensity dependent (and therefore pulse-duration dependent) transmission. For 30 fs pulses at 800 nm center wavelength, we determine the onset of nonlinear propagation effects to occur at a peak value of about 0.12 mJ/cm(2) of input laser energy fluence.

  19. Absolute high spectral resolution measurements of surface solar radiation for detection of water vapour continuum absorption.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, T D; Coleman, M; Browning, H; Tallis, L; Ptashnik, I V; Shine, K P

    2012-06-13

    Solar-pointing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy offers the capability to measure both the fine scale and broadband spectral structure of atmospheric transmission simultaneously across wide spectral regions. It is therefore suited to the study of both water vapour monomer and continuum absorption behaviours. However, in order to properly address this issue, it is necessary to radiatively calibrate the FTIR instrument response. A solar-pointing high-resolution FTIR spectrometer was deployed as part of the 'Continuum Absorption by Visible and Infrared radiation and its Atmospheric Relevance' (CAVIAR) consortium project. This paper describes the radiative calibration process using an ultra-high-temperature blackbody and the consideration of the related influence factors. The result is a radiatively calibrated measurement of the solar irradiation at the ground across the IR region from 2000 to 10 000 cm(-1) with an uncertainty of between 3.3 and 5.9 per cent. This measurement is shown to be in good general agreement with a radiative-transfer model. The results from the CAVIAR field measurements are being used in ongoing studies of atmospheric absorbers, in particular the water vapour continuum.

  20. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  1. Ultrafast transient absorption revisited: Phase-flips, spectral fingers, and other dynamical features

    SciTech Connect

    Cina, Jeffrey A., E-mail: cina@uoregon.edu; Kovac, Philip A.; Jumper, Chanelle C.

    We rebuild the theory of ultrafast transient-absorption/transmission spectroscopy starting from the optical response of an individual molecule to incident femtosecond pump and probe pulses. The resulting description makes use of pulse propagators and free molecular evolution operators to arrive at compact expressions for the several contributions to a transient-absorption signal. In this alternative description, which is physically equivalent to the conventional response-function formalism, these signal contributions are conveniently expressed as quantum mechanical overlaps between nuclear wave packets that have undergone different sequences of pulse-driven optical transitions and time-evolution on different electronic potential-energy surfaces. Using this setup in application to amore » simple, multimode model of the light-harvesting chromophores of PC577, we develop wave-packet pictures of certain generic features of ultrafast transient-absorption signals related to the probed-frequency dependence of vibrational quantum beats. These include a Stokes-shifting node at the time-evolving peak emission frequency, antiphasing between vibrational oscillations on opposite sides (i.e., to the red or blue) of this node, and spectral fingering due to vibrational overtones and combinations. Our calculations make a vibrationally abrupt approximation for the incident pump and probe pulses, but properly account for temporal pulse overlap and signal turn-on, rather than neglecting pulse overlap or assuming delta-function excitations, as are sometimes done.« less

  2. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  3. Classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis method that adds spectral shapes describing non-calibrated components and system effects (other than baseline corrections) present in the analyzed mixture to the prediction phase of the method. These improvements decrease or eliminate many of the restrictions to the CLS-type methods and greatly extend their capabilities, accuracy, and precision. One new application of PACLS includes the ability to accurately predict unknown sample concentrations when new unmodeled spectral components are present in the unknown samples. Other applications of PACLS include the incorporation of spectrometer drift into the quantitative multivariate model and the maintenance of a calibration on a drifting spectrometer. Finally, the ability of PACLS to transfer a multivariate model between spectrometers is demonstrated.

  4. SVD analysis of Aura TES spectral residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard; Kulawik, Susan S.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Bowman, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis is both a powerful diagnostic tool and an effective method of noise filtering. We present the results of an SVD analysis of an ensemble of spectral residuals acquired in September 2004 from a 16-orbit Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Global Survey and compare them to alternative methods such as zonal averages. In particular, the technique highlights issues such as the orbital variation of instrument response and incompletely modeled effects of surface emissivity and atmospheric composition.

  5. [Near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the north area of Yellow Sea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yan-Long

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) near ultraviolet absorption spectra contains CDOM molecular structure, composition and other important physical and chemical information. Based on the measured data of CDOM absorption coefficient in March 2009 in the north area of Yellow Sea, the present paper analyzed near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of CDOM. The results showed that due to the impact of near-shore terrigenous input, the composition of CDOM is quite different in the north area of Yellow Sea, and this area is a typical case II water; fitted slope with specific range of spectral band and absorption coefficient at specific band can indicate the relative size of CDOM molecular weight, correlation between spectral slope of the Sg,275-300), Sg,300-350, Sg,350-400 and Sg,250-275 and the relative size of CDOM molecular weight indicative parameter M increases in turn and the highest is up to 0.95. Correlation between a(g)(lambda) and M value increases gradually with the increase in wavelength, and the highest is up to 0.92 at 400 nm; being correlated or not between spectral slope and absorption coefficient is decided by the fitting-band wavelength range for the spectra slope and the wavelength for absorption coefficient. Correlation between Sg,275-300 and a(g)(400) is the largest, up to 0.87.

  6. Numerical calculations of spectral turnover and synchrotron self-absorption in CSS and GPS radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of the turnover frequency on the linear size is presented for a sample of Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum radio sources derived from complete samples. The dependence of the luminosity of the emission at the peak frequency with the linear size and the peak frequency is also presented for the galaxies in the sample. The luminosity of the smaller sources evolve strongly with the linear size. Optical depth effects have been included to the 3D model for the radio source of Kaiser to study the spectral turnover. Using this model, the observed trend can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. The observed trend in the peak-frequency-linear-size plane is not affected by the luminosity evolution of the sources.

  7. Terahertz Josephson spectral analysis and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, A. V.; Gundareva, I. I.; Lyatti, M. V.; Volkov, O. Y.; Pavlovskiy, V. V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Principles of Hilbert-transform spectral analysis (HTSA) are presented and advantages of the technique in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are discussed. THz HTSA requires Josephson junctions with high values of characteristic voltages I c R n and dynamics described by a simple resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. To meet these requirements, [001]- and [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions with deviations from the RSJ model less than 1% have been developed. Demonstrators of Hilbert-transform spectrum analyzers with various cryogenic environments, including integration into Stirling coolers, are described. Spectrum analyzers have been characterized in the spectral range from 50 GHz to 3 THz. Inside a power dynamic range of five orders, an instrumental function of the analyzers has been found to have a Lorentz form around a single frequency of 1.48 THz with a spectral resolution as low as 0.9 GHz. Spectra of THz radiation from optically pumped gas lasers and semiconductor frequency multipliers have been studied with these spectrum analyzers and the regimes of these radiation sources were optimized for a single-frequency operation. Future applications of HTSA will be related with quick and precise spectral characterization of new radiation sources and identification of substances in the THz frequency range.

  8. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers measured over wide spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ron K.; Liess, Martin; Benner, Robert E.; Gellermann, Werner; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi; Ding, Yi W.; Barton, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    We report the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra of poly(2,5-dibutoxy-p-phenylene acetylene) (PPA-DBO), poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV-DOO), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) in the spectral range extending from 576 nm to 846 nm. Using the Z-scan technique on the polymers in solution, we measured a strong two-photon allowed transition in all three materials which we attribute to the mAg essential state. In the case of PPA-DBO and PPV-DOO, TPA peaks were coincident with dispersion in the nonlinear refractive indices as detected by reduced aperture Z scan. In all three polymers this peak occurs at approximately 1.3 the bandgap energy. The excitonic nature of the excited electronic states in PPA-DBO is indicated by the lack of a TPA band at or near the 1Bu exciton position. Saturation was observed in the nonlinear index of refraction near spectral peaks, as well as an apparent reverse Kramers- Kronig effect.

  10. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  11. Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range for the geographic classification of Italian exravirgin olive oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Cimato, Antonio; Sani, Graziano; Smith, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range are innovately used to analyze samples of extra virgin olive oils coming from selected areas of Tuscany, a famous Italian region for the production of extra virgin olive oil. The measured spectra are processed by means of the Principal Component Analysis method, so as to create a 3D map capable of clustering the Tuscan oils within the wider area of Italian extra virgin olive oils.

  12. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Analysis of the absorption spectra and spectral hole burning in zero-phonon lines of F+3 and N1 colour centres in LiF crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Martyshkin, D. V.; Fedorov, V. V.

    2010-09-01

    The temperature dependences and mechanisms of broadening of zero-phonon lines of F+3 (488 nm) and N1 (523 nm) colour centres in LiF crystals are investigated. The results obtained make it possible to determine the quadratic electronic—vibrational coupling constant for N1 colour centres. The experimental data on the spectral hole burning in zero-phonon lines of F+3 and N1 colour centres indicate that the latter are positively charged.

  13. X-ray absorption spectral studies of copper (II) mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, B.; Dar, Davood Ah; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the K-edge of copper have been studied in two copper mixed ligand complexes, one having tetramethyethylenediamine (tmen) and the other having tetraethyethylenediamine (teen) as one of the ligands. The spectra have been recorded at BL-8 dispersive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beamline at the 2.5 GeV INDUS- 2 synchrotron, RRCAT, Indore, India. The data obtained has been processed using the data analysis program Athena. The energy of the K-absorption edge, chemical shift, edge-width and shift of the principal absorption maximum in the complexes have been determined and discussed. The values of these parameters have been found to be approximately the same in both the complexes indicating that the two complexes possess similar chemical environment around the copper metal atom. The chemical shift has been utilized to estimate effective nuclear charge on the absorbing atom. The normalized EXAFS spectra have been Fourier transformed. The position of the first peak in the Fourier transform gives the value of first shell bond length, which is shorter than the actual bond length because of energy dependence of the phase factors in the sine function of the EXAFS equation. This distance is thus the phase- uncorrected bond length. Bond length has also been determined by Levy's, Lytle's and Lytle, Sayers and Stern's (LSS) methods. The results obtained from LSS and the Fourier transformation methods are comparable with each other, since both are phase uncorrected bond lengths.

  14. EDDIE Seismology: Introductory spectral analysis for undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soule, D. C.; Gougis, R.; O'Reilly, C.

    2016-12-01

    We present a spectral seismology lesson in which students use spectral analysis to describe the frequency of seismic arrivals based on a conceptual presentation of waveforms and filters. The goal is for students to surpass basic waveform terminology and relate a time domain signals to their conjugates in the frequency domain. Although seismology instruction commonly engages students in analysis of authentic seismological data, this is less true for lower-level undergraduate seismology instruction due to coding barriers to many seismological analysis tasks. To address this, our module uses Seismic Canvas (Kroeger, 2015; https://seiscode.iris.washington.edu/projects/seismiccanvas), a graphically interactive application for accessing, viewing and analyzing waveform data, which we use to plot earthquake data in the time domain. Once students are familiarized with the general components of the waveform (i.e. frequency, wavelength, amplitude and period), they use Seismic Canvas to transform the data into the frequency domain. Bypassing the mathematics of Fourier Series allows focus on conceptual understanding by plotting and manipulating seismic data in both time and frequency domains. Pre/post-tests showed significant improvements in students' use of seismograms and spectrograms to estimate the frequency content of the primary wave, which demonstrated students' understanding of frequency and how data on the spectrogram and seismogram are related. Students were also able to identify the time and frequency of the largest amplitude arrival, indicating understanding of amplitude and use of a spectrogram as an analysis tool. Students were also asked to compare plots of raw data and the same data filtered with a high-pass filter, and identify the filter used to create the second plot. Students demonstrated an improved understanding of how frequency content can be removed from a signal in the spectral domain.

  15. Multitaper spectral analysis of atmospheric radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, V.; Pan, C.; Rajalakshmi, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

    2004-11-01

    Multitaper spectral analysis using sinusoidal taper has been carried out on the backscattered signals received from the troposphere and lower stratosphere by the Gadanki Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar under various conditions of the signal-to-noise ratio. Comparison of study is made with sinusoidal taper of the order of three and single tapers of Hanning and rectangular tapers, to understand the relative merits of processing under the scheme. Power spectra plots show that echoes are better identified in the case of multitaper estimation, especially in the region of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Further analysis is carried out to obtain three lower order moments from three estimation techniques. The results show that multitaper analysis gives a better signal-to-noise ratio or higher detectability. The spectral analysis through multitaper and single tapers is subjected to study of consistency in measurements. Results show that the multitaper estimate is better consistent in Doppler measurements compared to single taper estimates. Doppler width measurements with different approaches were studied and the results show that the estimation was better in the multitaper technique in terms of temporal resolution and estimation accuracy.

  16. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  17. Selective absorption processes as the origin of puzzling spectral line polarization from the Sun.

    PubMed

    Trujillo Bueno, J; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E; Collados, M; Merenda, L; Manso Sainz, R

    2002-01-24

    Magnetic fields play a key role in most astrophysical systems, from the Sun to active galactic nuclei. They can be studied through their effects on atomic energy levels, which produce polarized spectral lines. In particular, anisotropic radiation 'pumping' processes (which send electrons to higher atomic levels) induce population imbalances that are modified by weak magnetic fields. Here we report peculiarly polarized light in the He I 10,830-A multiplet observed in a coronal filament located at the centre of the solar disk. We show that the polarized light arises from selective absorption from the ground level of the triplet system of helium, and that it implies the presence of magnetic fields of the order of a few gauss that are highly inclined with respect to the solar radius vector. This disproves the common belief that population imbalances in long-lived atomic levels are insignificant in the presence of inclined fields of the order of a few gauss, and opens up a new diagnostic window for the investigation of solar magnetic fields.

  18. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  19. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  20. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  1. Spectral analysis of major heart tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejkowski, W.; Dobrowolski, A. P.; Majka, K.; Olszewski, R.

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) figures clearly indicate that cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and disability in the world. Early detection of cardiovascular pathologies may contribute to reducing such a high mortality rate. Auscultatory examination is one of the first and most important step in cardiologic diagnostics. Unfortunately, proper diagnosis is closely related to long-term practice and medical experience. The article presents the author's system of recording phonocardiograms and the way of saving data, as well as the outline of the analysis algorithm, which will allow to assign a case to a patient with heart failure or healthy voluntaries' with a certain high probability. The results of a pilot study of phonocardiographic signals were also presented as an introduction to further research aimed at the development of an efficient diagnostic algorithm based on spectral analysis of the heart tone.

  2. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  3. New in situ Aerosol Spectral Optical Measurements over 300-700 nm, Extinction and Total Absorption, Paired with Absorption from Water- and Methanol-soluble Aerosol Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Stauffer, R. M.; Lamb, B.; Novak, M. G.; Mannino, A.; Hudgins, C.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Crosbie, E.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B.; Martin, R.; Shook, M.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C.

    2017-12-01

    A new in situ spectral aerosol extinction instrument (custom built, SpEx) built to cover the 300-700 nm range at 1 nm spectral resolution and temporal resolution of 4 minutes was deployed on the top deck ( 10 m above the water surface) of the R/V Onnuri during the KORUS-OC research cruise around South Korea in spring 2016. This new instrument was one component of a suite of in situ aerosol optical measurements that included 3-visible-wavelength scattering (Airphoton IN101 Nephelometer, at 450, 532, & 632 nm) and absorption (Brechtel Tricolor Absorption Photometer Model 2901, at 467, 528, & 652 nm) with sub-minute temporal resolution; two sets of filters (Teflon and glass fiber, both collected over 3 hour daytime and 12 hour overnight intervals) to provide aerosol absorption spectra over the same wavelength range as SpEx. The glass fiber filters were placed in the center of an integrating sphere (Labsphere DRA-CA-30) attached to a dual beam spectrophotometer (Cary 100 Bio UV-Visible Spectrophotometer) to measure total aerosol absorption spectra via an established method used by the ocean color community to obtain absorption spectra from particles suspended in sea water. Adapting this methodology for atmospheric aerosol measurements provides a new avenue to obtain spectral total aerosol absorption, particularly useful for expanding in situ measurement capabilities into the UV range. The Teflon filters were cut in half with one half extracted in deionized water and the other half extracted in methanol. The solutions were filtered and injected into a liquid waveguide capillary cell (World Precision Instruments LWCC-3100, 100 cm pathlength) to measure the absorption spectra for each solution. In addition, the water extracts were measured via ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography System) to obtain water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations, as well as via aerosol mass spectrometry (Aerodyne Research, Inc. HR-ToF High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

  4. Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Regions: Status report 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renee; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; hide

    2016-01-01

    The activity Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone (ACSO) started in 2008 as a joint initiative of the International Ozone Commission (IO3C), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the IGACO (Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations) O3/UV subgroup to study, evaluate, and recommend the most suitable ozone absorption cross-section laboratory data to be used in atmospheric ozone measurements. The evaluation was basically restricted to ozone absorption cross-sections in the UV range with particular focus on the Huggins band. Up until now, the data of Bass and Paur published in 1985 (BP, 1985) are still officially recommended for such measurements. During the last decade it became obvious that BP (1985) cross-section data have deficits for use in advanced space-borne ozone measurements. At the same time, it was recognized that the origin of systematic differences in ground-based measurements of ozone required further investigation, in particular whether the BP (1985) cross-section data might contribute to these differences. In ACSO, different sets of laboratory ozone absorption cross-section data (including their dependence on temperature) of the group of Reims (France) (Brion et al., 1993, 1998, 1992, 1995, abbreviated as BDM, 1995) and those of Serdyuchenko et al. (2014), and Gorshelev et al. (2014), (abbreviated as SER, 2014) were examined for use in atmospheric ozone measurements in the Huggins band. In conclusion, ACSO recommends:(a) The spectroscopic data of BP (1985) should no longer be used for retrieval of atmospheric ozone measurements.(b) For retrieval of ground-based instruments of total ozone and ozone profile measurements by the Umkehr method performed by Brewer and Dobson instruments data of SER (2014) are recommended to be used. When SER (2014) is used, the difference between total ozone measurements of Brewer and Dobson instruments are very small and the difference between Dobson measurements at AD and CD wavelength pairs are

  5. EXOPLANETARY DETECTION BY MULTIFRACTAL SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John S.; Sordo, Fabio Del

    2017-01-01

    Owing to technological advances, the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies timescales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star and those that arise from stellar features such as spots. Without fitting stellar models to spectral data, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source ofmore » information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the timescales obtained to primary and secondary eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via Doppler shift detection. Finally, we have analyzed synthetic spectra obtained using the SOAP 2.0 tool, which simulates a stellar spectrum and the influence of the presence of a planet or a spot on that spectrum over one orbital period. We have demonstrated that, so long as the signal-to-noise-ratio ≥ 75, our approach reconstructs the planetary orbital period, as well as the rotation period of a spot on the stellar surface.« less

  6. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  7. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), Scdm (units: nm−1), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving Scdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360–500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of Scdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors. PMID:29201583

  8. Quantitative filter technique measurements of spectral light absorption by aquatic particles using a portable integrating cavity absorption meter (QFT-ICAM).

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; Doxaran, David; Dupouy, Cecile

    2016-01-25

    The accurate determination of light absorption coefficients of particles in water, especially in very oligotrophic oceanic areas, is still a challenging task. Concentrating aquatic particles on a glass fiber filter and using the Quantitative Filter Technique (QFT) is a common practice. Its routine application is limited by the necessary use of high performance spectrophotometers, distinct problems induced by the strong scattering of the filters and artifacts induced by freezing and storing samples. Measurements of the sample inside a large integrating sphere reduce scattering effects and direct field measurements avoid artifacts due to sample preservation. A small, portable, Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter setup (QFT-ICAM) is presented, that allows rapid measurements of a sample filter. The measurement technique takes into account artifacts due to chlorophyll-a fluorescence. The QFT-ICAM is shown to be highly comparable to similar measurements in laboratory spectrophotometers, in terms of accuracy, precision, and path length amplification effects. No spectral artifacts were observed when compared to measurement of samples in suspension, whereas freezing and storing of sample filters induced small losses of water-soluble pigments (probably phycoerythrins). Remaining problems in determining the particulate absorption coefficient with the QFT-ICAM are strong sample-to-sample variations of the path length amplification, as well as fluorescence by pigments that is emitted in a different spectral region than that of chlorophyll-a.

  9. Absorption spectral change of peripheral-light harvesting complexes 2 induced by magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Huiying; Zhao, Chungui; Li, Kai; Yang, Suping

    2015-02-01

    Several spectrally different types of peripheral light harvesting complexes (LH) have been reported in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in response to environmental changes. In this study, two spectral forms of LH2 (T-LH2 and U-LH2) were isolated from Rhodobacter azotoformans. The absorption of T-LH2 was extremely similar to the LH2 isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. U-LH2 showed an extra peak at ∼423 nm in the carotenoid region. To explore the spectral origin of this absorption peak, the difference in pigment compositions of two LH2 was analyzed. Spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP were both contained in the two LH2. And magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) was only contained in U-LH2. It is known that spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP do not produce ∼423 nm absorption peak either in vivo or in vitro. Whether MPE accumulation was mainly responsible for the formation of the ∼423 nm peak? The interactions between MPE and different proteins were further studied. The results showed that the maximum absorption of MPE was red-shifted from ∼415 nm to ∼423 nm when it was mixed with T-LH2 and its apoproteins, nevertheless, the Qy transitions of the bound bacteriochlorophylls in LH2 were almost unaffected, which indicated that the formation of the ∼423 nm peak was related to MPE-LH2 protein interaction. MPE did not bind to sites involved in the spectral tuning of BChls, but the conformation of integral LH2 was affected by MPE association, the alkaline stability of U-LH2 was lower than T-LH2, and the fluorescence intensity at 860 nm was decreased after MPE combination.

  10. Absorption spectral change of peripheral-light harvesting complexes 2 induced by magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester association.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huiying; Zhao, Chungui; Li, Kai; Yang, Suping

    2015-02-25

    Several spectrally different types of peripheral light harvesting complexes (LH) have been reported in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in response to environmental changes. In this study, two spectral forms of LH2 (T-LH2 and U-LH2) were isolated from Rhodobacter azotoformans. The absorption of T-LH2 was extremely similar to the LH2 isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. U-LH2 showed an extra peak at ∼423 nm in the carotenoid region. To explore the spectral origin of this absorption peak, the difference in pigment compositions of two LH2 was analyzed. Spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP were both contained in the two LH2. And magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) was only contained in U-LH2. It is known that spheroidene and bacteriochlorophyll aP do not produce ∼423 nm absorption peak either in vivo or in vitro. Whether MPE accumulation was mainly responsible for the formation of the ∼423 nm peak? The interactions between MPE and different proteins were further studied. The results showed that the maximum absorption of MPE was red-shifted from ∼415 nm to ∼423 nm when it was mixed with T-LH2 and its apoproteins, nevertheless, the Qy transitions of the bound bacteriochlorophylls in LH2 were almost unaffected, which indicated that the formation of the ∼423 nm peak was related to MPE-LH2 protein interaction. MPE did not bind to sites involved in the spectral tuning of BChls, but the conformation of integral LH2 was affected by MPE association, the alkaline stability of U-LH2 was lower than T-LH2, and the fluorescence intensity at 860 nm was decreased after MPE combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-tone and two-tone AM-FM spectral calculations for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Sachse, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.

  12. Characterization of aerosol scattering and spectral absorption by unique methods: a polar/imaging nephelometer and spectral reflectance measurements of aerosol samples collected on filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A.; Correia, Alexandre L.; Tabacniks, Manfredo; Lima, Adriana R.

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of aerosol scattering and absorption properties is essential to accurate radiative transfer calculations in the atmosphere. Applications of this work include remote sensing of aerosols, corrections for aerosol distortions in satellite imagery of the surface, global climate models, and atmospheric beam propagation. Here we demonstrate successful instrument development at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics at UMBC that better characterizes aerosol scattering phase matrix using an imaging polar nephelometer (LACO-I-Neph) and enables measurement of spectral aerosol absorption from 200 nm to 2500 nm. The LACO-I-Neph measures the scattering phase function from 1.5° to 178.5° scattering angle with sufficient sensitivity to match theoretical expectations of Rayleigh scattering of various gases. Previous measurements either lack a sufficiently wide range of measured scattering angles or their sensitivity is too low and therefore the required sample amount is prohibitively high for in situ measurements. The LACO-I-Neph also returns expected characterization of the linear polarization signal of Rayleigh scattering. Previous work demonstrated the ability of measuring spectral absorption of aerosol particles using a reflectance technique characterization of aerosol samples collected on Nuclepore filters. This first generation methodology yielded absorption measurements from 350 nm to 2500 nm. Here we demonstrate the possibility of extending this wavelength range into the deep UV, to 200 nm. This extended UV region holds much promise in identifying and characterizing aerosol types and species. The second generation, deep UV, procedure requires careful choice of filter substrates. Here the choice of substrates is explored and preliminary results are provided.

  13. Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, Ψ(T) and Ψ(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. Ψ(T) and Ψ(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)).

  14. Analysis of spectrally resolved autofluorescence images by support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateasik, A.; Chorvat, D.; Chorvatova, A.

    2013-02-01

    Spectral analysis of the autofluorescence images of isolated cardiac cells was performed to evaluate and to classify the metabolic state of the cells in respect to the responses to metabolic modulators. The classification was done using machine learning approach based on support vector machine with the set of the automatically calculated features from recorded spectral profile of spectral autofluorescence images. This classification method was compared with the classical approach where the individual spectral components contributing to cell autofluorescence were estimated by spectral analysis, namely by blind source separation using non-negative matrix factorization. Comparison of both methods showed that machine learning can effectively classify the spectrally resolved autofluorescence images without the need of detailed knowledge about the sources of autofluorescence and their spectral properties.

  15. Spectral absorption of marine stratocumulus clouds derived from in situ cloud radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Hobbs, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    A multiwavelength scanning radiometer was used to measure the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer at discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 microns. The relative angular distribution of the intensity field at each wavelength is used to determine the similarity parameter, and hence single scattering albedo, of the cloud at that wavelength using the diffusion domain method. In addition to the spectral similarity parameter, the analysis provides a good estimate of the optical thickness of the cloud beneath the aircraft. In addition to the radiation measurements, microphysical and thermodynamic measurements were obtained from which the expected similarity parameter spectrum was calculated using accepted values of the refractive index of liquid water and the transmission function of water vapor. An analysis is presented for the results obtained for a 50 km section of clean marine stratocumulus clouds on 10 July 1987. These observations were obtained off the coast of California from the University of Washington Convair C-131A aircraft as part of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). A comparison of the experimentally-derived similarity parameter spectrum with that expected theoretically from the cloud droplet size distribution measured simultaneously from the aircraft is presented. The measurements and theory are in very close agreement for this case of clean maritime clouds.

  16. Spectral analysis using the CCD Chirp Z-transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversole, W. L.; Mayer, D. J.; Bosshart, P. W.; Dewit, M.; Howes, C. R.; Buss, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    The charge coupled device (CCD) Chirp Z transformation (CZT) spectral analysis techniques were reviewed and results on state-of-the-art CCD CZT technology are presented. The CZT algorithm was examined and the advantages of CCD implementation are discussed. The sliding CZT which is useful in many spectral analysis applications is described, and the performance limitations of the CZT are studied.

  17. Power Spectral Density Error Analysis of Spectral Subtraction Type of Speech Enhancement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Peter

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical framework for analysis of speech enhancement algorithms is introduced for performance assessment of spectral subtraction type of methods. The quality of the enhanced speech is related to physical quantities of the speech and noise (such as stationarity time and spectral flatness), as well as to design variables of the noise suppressor. The derived theoretical results are compared with the outcome of subjective listening tests as well as successful design strategies, performed by independent research groups.

  18. Pressure Measurements Using an Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar. Part 1; Analysis of the Systematic Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.

  19. Spectral signature verification using statistical analysis and text mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoster, Mallory E.; Firpi, Alexe H.; Jacobs, Samantha K.; Cone, Shelli R.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the spectral science community, numerous spectral signatures are stored in databases representative of many sample materials collected from a variety of spectrometers and spectroscopists. Due to the variety and variability of the spectra that comprise many spectral databases, it is necessary to establish a metric for validating the quality of spectral signatures. This has been an area of great discussion and debate in the spectral science community. This paper discusses a method that independently validates two different aspects of a spectral signature to arrive at a final qualitative assessment; the textual meta-data and numerical spectral data. Results associated with the spectral data stored in the Signature Database1 (SigDB) are proposed. The numerical data comprising a sample material's spectrum is validated based on statistical properties derived from an ideal population set. The quality of the test spectrum is ranked based on a spectral angle mapper (SAM) comparison to the mean spectrum derived from the population set. Additionally, the contextual data of a test spectrum is qualitatively analyzed using lexical analysis text mining. This technique analyzes to understand the syntax of the meta-data to provide local learning patterns and trends within the spectral data, indicative of the test spectrum's quality. Text mining applications have successfully been implemented for security2 (text encryption/decryption), biomedical3 , and marketing4 applications. The text mining lexical analysis algorithm is trained on the meta-data patterns of a subset of high and low quality spectra, in order to have a model to apply to the entire SigDB data set. The statistical and textual methods combine to assess the quality of a test spectrum existing in a database without the need of an expert user. This method has been compared to other validation methods accepted by the spectral science community, and has provided promising results when a baseline spectral signature is

  20. [Application of AOTF in spectral analysis. 3. Application of AOTF in atomic emission spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze-yong; Peng, Rong-fei; Zhang, Zhan-xia

    2002-06-01

    An atomic emission spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was self-constructed and was used to evaluate its practical use in atomic emission analysis. The AOTF used was of model TEAF5-0.36-0.52-S (Brimrose, USA) and the frequency of the direct digital RF synthesizer ranges from 100 MHz to 200 MHz. ICP and PMT were used as light source and detector respectively. The software, written in Visual C++ and running on the Windows 98 platform, is of an utility program system having two data banks and multiwindows. The wavelength calibration was performed with 14 emission lines of Ca, Y, Li, Eu, Sr and Ba using a tenth-order polynomial for line fitting method. The absolute error of the peak position was less than 0.1 nm, and the peak deviation was only 0.04 nm as the PMT varied from 337.5 V to 412.5 V. The scanning emission spectra and the calibration curves of Ba, Y, Eu, Sc and Sr are presented. Their average correlation coefficient was 0.9991 and their detection limits were in the range of 0.051 to 0.97 micrograms.mL-1 respectively. The detection limit can be improved under optimized operating conditions. However, the spectral resolution is only 2.1 nm at the wavelength of 488 nm. Evidently, this poor spectral resolution would restrict the application of AOTF in atomic emission spectral analysis, unless an enhancing techniques is integrated in it.

  1. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region for measurements of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Flores, J. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Rudich, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere, and it strongly affects photochemistry through its photolysis. We describe simultaneous measurements of CH2O and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region. The light source consists of a continuous-wave diode laser focused into a Xenon bulb to produce a plasma that emits high-intensity, broadband light. The plasma discharge is optically filtered and coupled into a 1 m optical cavity. The reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is 0.99930 ± 0.00003 (1- reflectivity = 700 ppm loss) at 338 nm, as determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and zero air. This mirror reflectivity corresponds to an effective path length of 1.43 km within the 1 m cell. We measure the cavity output over the 315-350 nm spectral region using a grating monochromator and charge-coupled device array detector. We use published reference spectra with spectral fitting software to simultaneously retrieve CH2O and NO2 concentrations. Independent measurements of NO2 standard additions by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy agree within 2 % (slope for linear fit = 1.02 ± 0.03 with r2 = 0.998). Standard additions of CH2O measured by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and calculated based on flow dilution are also well correlated, with r2 = 0.9998. During constant mixed additions of NO2 and CH2O, the 30 s measurement precisions (1σ) of the current configuration were 140 and 210 pptv, respectively. The current 1 min detection limit for extinction measurements at 315-350 nm provides sufficient sensitivity for measurement of trace gases in laboratory experiments and ground-based field experiments. Additionally, the instrument provides highly accurate, spectroscopically based trace gas detection that may complement higher precision techniques based on non

  2. Structural, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectral studies of Sm3+ ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Rama Krishna Reddy, K.; Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Srinivas Prasad, M. V. V. K.; Rao, A. S.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ ions doped Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique and characterized using the spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, optical absorption, emission and decay spectral measurements to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices. From absorption spectra, the bonding parameters, nephelauxetic ratios were determined to know the nature of bonding between Sm3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. From the measured oscillator strengths, the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters were evaluated and in turn used to estimate various radiative parameters for the fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ions in AEBT glasses. The PL spectra of Sm3+ ions exhibit three emission bands corresponding to the transitions 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 in the visible region for which the emission cross-sections and branching ratios were evaluated. The decay spectral profiles measured for 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition showed single exponential for lower concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration of doped rare earth ion in the as prepared glasses. Conversion of decay spectral profiles from single to non-exponential have been analyzed using Inokuti-Hirayama (I-H) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism involved in the decay process. CIE Chromaticity coordinates were measured using emission spectral data to identify the exact region of emission from the as-prepared glasses. From the evaluated radiative parameters, emission cross-sections and quantum efficiencies, it was observed that AEBT glass with 1 mol% of Sm3+ ions is more suitable for designing optoelectronic devices.

  3. Gravity-induced absorption changes in Phycomyces blakesleeanus during parabolic flights: first spectral approach in the visible.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Werner

    2006-12-01

    Gravity-induced absorption changes as experienced during a series of parabolas on the Airbus 300 Zero-G have been measured previously pointwise on the basis of dual-wavelength spectroscopy. Only the two wavelengths of 460 and 665 nm as generated by light-emitting diodes have been utilised during our first two parabolic-flight campaigns. In order to gain complete spectral information throughout the wavelength range from 400 to 900 nm, a miniaturized rapid scan spectrophotometer was designed. The difference of spectra taken at 0 g and 1.8 g presents the first gravity-induced absorption change spectrum measured on wild-type Phycomyces blakesleeanus sporangiophores, exhibiting a broad positive hump in the visible range and negative values in the near infrared with an isosbestic point near 735 nm. The control experiment performed with the stiff mutant A909 of Phycomyces blakesleeanus does not show this structure. These results are in agreement with those obtained with an array spectrophotometer. In analogy to the more thoroughly understood so-called light-induced absorption changes, we assume that gravity-induced absorption changes reflect redox changes of electron transport components such as flavins and cytochromes localised within the plasma membrane.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  5. Spectral- and size-resolved mass absorption efficiency of mineral dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum: a simulation chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponi, Lorenzo; Formenti, Paola; Massabó, Dario; Di Biagio, Claudia; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Chevaillier, Servanne; Landrot, Gautier; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Piketh, Stuart; Saeed, Thuraya; Seibert, Dave; Williams, Earle; Balkanski, Yves; Prati, Paolo; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) between 375 and 850 nm for 12 individual samples of mineral dust from different source areas worldwide and in two size classes: PM10. 6 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10.6 µm) and PM2. 5 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 µm). The experiments were performed in the CESAM simulation chamber using mineral dust generated from natural parent soils and included optical and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the MAE values are lower for the PM10. 6 mass fraction (range 37-135 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) than for the PM2. 5 (range 95-711 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) and decrease with increasing wavelength as λ-AAE, where the Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) averages between 3.3 and 3.5, regardless of size. The size independence of AAE suggests that, for a given size distribution, the dust composition did not vary with size for this set of samples. Because of its high atmospheric concentration, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive with black and brown carbon even during atmospheric transport over heavy polluted regions, when dust concentrations are significantly lower than at emission. The AAE values of mineral dust are higher than for black carbon (˜ 1) but in the same range as light-absorbing organic (brown) carbon. As a result, depending on the environment, there can be some ambiguity in apportioning the aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) based on spectral dependence, which is relevant to the development of remote sensing of light-absorbing aerosols and their assimilation in climate models. We suggest that the sample-to-sample variability in our dataset of MAE values is related to regional differences in the mineralogical composition of the parent soils. Particularly in the PM2. 5 fraction, we found a strong linear correlation between the dust light-absorption properties and

  6. Solar absorption by elemental and brown carbon determined from spectral observations.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Ranjit; Praveen, Puppala S; Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, V

    2012-10-23

    Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TC) and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). However, organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC), which is typically not represented in climate models. We propose an observationally based analytical method for rigorously partitioning measured absorption aerosol optical depths (AAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) among EC and BrC, using multiwavelength measurements of total (EC, OC, and dust) absorption. EC is found to be strongly absorbing (SSA of 0.38) whereas the BrC SSA varies globally between 0.77 and 0.85. The method is applied to the California region. We find TC (EC + BrC) contributes 81% of the total absorption at 675 nm and 84% at 440 nm. The BrC absorption at 440 nm is about 40% of the EC, whereas at 675 nm it is less than 10% of EC. We find an enhanced absorption due to OC in the summer months and in southern California (related to forest fires and secondary OC). The fractions and trends are broadly consistent with aerosol chemical-transport models as well as with regional emission inventories, implying that we have obtained a representative estimate for BrC absorption. The results demonstrate that current climate models that treat OC as nonabsorbing are underestimating the total warming effect of carbonaceous aerosols by neglecting part of the atmospheric heating, particularly over biomass-burning regions that emit BrC.

  7. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Joshua J; Clemons, Paul A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices) and interactions (edges) that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis) and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors). Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from . Source code is available upon request. PMID:16236170

  8. SpectralNET--an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joshua J; Clemons, Paul A; Schreiber, Stuart L; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2005-10-19

    Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices) and interactions (edges) that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis) and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors). SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is available upon request.

  9. Analysis Using Bi-Spectral Related Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-17

    filtering is employed as the data is processed (equation 1). Earlier results have shown that in contrast to the Wigner - Ville Distribution ( WVD ) no spectral...Technique by-o -~ Ralph Hippenstiel November 17, 1993 94 2 22 1 0 Approved for public reslease; distribution unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Command Control...Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION ’.ODE Approved for public relkase; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum

  10. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  11. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Experimental and Ab Initio Studies of the HDO Absorption Spectrum in the 13165-13500 1/cm Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David; Naumenko, Olga; Bertseva, Elena; Campargue, Alain; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The HDO absorption spectrum has been recorded in the 13165 - 13500 cm(exp-1) spectral region by Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The spectrum (615 lines), dominated by the 2n2 + 3n3 and n1+3n3 bands was assigned and modeled leading to the derivation of 196 accurate energy levels of the (103) and (023) vibrational states. Finally, 150 of these levels have been reproduced by an effective Hamiltonian involving two vibrational dark states interacting with the (023) and ( 103) bright states. The rms deviation achieved by variation of 28 parameters is 0.05-1 cm, compared to an averaged experimental uncertainty of 0.007-1 cm, indicating the limit of validity of the effective Hamiltonian approach for HDO at high vibrational excitation. The predictions of previous ab initio calculations of the HDO spectrum were extensively used in the assignment process. The particular spectral region under consideration has been used to test and discuss the improvements of new ab initio calculations recently performed on the basis of the same potential energy surface but with an improved dipole moment surface. The improvements concern both the energy levels and the line intensities. In particular, the strong hybrid character of the n1+3n3 band is very well accounted for by the the new ab initio calculations.

  13. 2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

  15. M3 spectral analysis of lunar swirls and the link between optical maturation and surface hydroxyl formation at magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Clark, Roger N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L.A.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the lunar swirls using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). The improved spectral and spatial resolution of M3 over previous spectral imaging data facilitates distinction of subtle spectral differences, and provides new information about the nature of these enigmatic features. We characterized spectral features of the swirls, interswirl regions (dark lanes), and surrounding terrain for each of three focus regions: Reiner Gamma, Gerasimovich, and Mare Ingenii. We used Principle Component Analysis to identify spectrally distinct surfaces at each focus region, and characterize the spectral features that distinguish them. We compared spectra from small, recent impact craters with the mature soils into which they penetrated to examine differences in maturation trends on- and off-swirl. Fresh, on-swirl crater spectra are higher albedo, exhibit a wider range in albedos and have well-preserved mafic absorption features compared with fresh off-swirl craters. Albedoand mafic absorptions are still evident in undisturbed, on-swirl surface soils, suggesting the maturation process is retarded. The spectral continuum is more concave compared with off-swirl spectra; a result of the limited spectral reddening being mostly constrained to wavelengths less than ∼1500 nm. Off-swirl spectra show very little reddening or change in continuum shape across the entire M3 spectral range. Off-swirl spectra are dark, have attenuated absorption features, and the narrow range in off-swirl albedos suggests off-swirl regions mature rapidly. Spectral parameter maps depicting the relative OH surface abundance for each of our three swirl focus regions were created using the depth of the hydroxyl absorption feature at 2.82 μm. For each of the studied regions, the 2.82 μm absorption feature is significantly weaker on-swirl than off-swirl, indicating the swirls are depleted in OH relative to their surroundings. The spectral characteristics of the swirls and adjacent terrains

  16. Spectral response analysis of PVDF capacitive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ramírez, B.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the spectral response to ultrasound waves in water of low-noise capacitive sensors based on PVDF polymer piezoelectric films. First, we analyze theoretically the mechanical-to-electrical transduction as a function of the frequency of ultrasonic signals and derive an analytic expression of the sensor's transfer function. Then we present experimental results of the frequency response of a home-made PDVF in water to test signals from 1 to 20 MHz induced by a commercial hydrophone powered by a signal generator and compare with our theoretical model.

  17. Spectral analysis of variable-length coded digital signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariolaro, G. L.; Pierobon, G. L.; Pupolin, S. G.

    1982-05-01

    A spectral analysis is conducted for a variable-length word sequence by an encoder driven by a stationary memoryless source. A finite-state sequential machine is considered as a model of the line encoder, and the spectral analysis of the encoded message is performed under the assumption that the sourceword sequence is composed of independent identically distributed words. Closed form expressions for both the continuous and discrete parts of the spectral density are derived in terms of the encoder law and sourceword statistics. The jump part exhibits jumps at multiple integers of per lambda(sub 0)T, where lambda(sub 0) is the greatest common divisor of the possible codeword lengths, and T is the symbol period. The derivation of the continuous part can be conveniently factorized, and the theory is applied to the spectral analysis of BnZS and HDBn codes.

  18. The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS): Software for integrated analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Boardman, J. W.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Shapiro, A. T.; Barloon, P. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) is a software package developed by the Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in response to a perceived need to provide integrated tools for analysis of imaging spectrometer data both spectrally and spatially. SIPS was specifically designed to deal with data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), but was tested with other datasets including the Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS), GEOSCAN images, and Landsat TM. SIPS was developed using the 'Interactive Data Language' (IDL). It takes advantage of high speed disk access and fast processors running under the UNIX operating system to provide rapid analysis of entire imaging spectrometer datasets. SIPS allows analysis of single or multiple imaging spectrometer data segments at full spatial and spectral resolution. It also allows visualization and interactive analysis of image cubes derived from quantitative analysis procedures such as absorption band characterization and spectral unmixing. SIPS consists of three modules: SIPS Utilities, SIPS_View, and SIPS Analysis. SIPS version 1.1 is described below.

  19. Studying soil properties using visible and near infrared spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, S.; Garfagnoli, F.; Innocenti, L.; Chiarantini, L.

    2009-04-01

    This research is carried out inside the DIGISOIL Project, whose purposes are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies, for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going form the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in digital soil mapping. The study area is located in the Virginio river basin, about 30 km south of Firenze, in the Chianti area, where soils with agricultural suitability have a high economic value connected to the production of internationally famous wines and olive oils. The most common soil threats, such as erosion and landslide, may determine huge economic losses, which must be considered in farming management practices. This basin has a length of about 23 km for a basin area of around 60,3 Km2. Geological formations outcropping in the area are Pliocene to Pleistocene marine and lacustrine sediments in beds with almost horizontal bedding. Vineyards, olive groves and annual crops are the main types of land use. A typical Mediterranean climate prevails with a dry summer followed by intense and sometimes prolonged rainfall in autumn, decreasing in winter. In this study, three types of VNIR and SWIR techniques, operating at different scales and in different environments (laboratory spectroscopy, portable field spectroscopy) are integrated to rapidly quantify various soil characteristics, in order to acquire data for assessing the risk of occurrence for typically agricultural practice-related soil threats (swelling, compaction, erosion, landslides, organic matter decline, ect.) and to collect ground data in order to build up a spectral library to be used in image analysis from air-borne and satellite sensors. Difficulties encountered in imaging spectroscopy, such as influence of measurements conditions, atmospheric attenuation, scene dependency and sampling representation are investigated and mathematical pre-treatments, using proper algorithms, are applied and

  20. Clues to Coral Reef Ecosystem Health: Spectral Analysis Coupled with Radiative Transfer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.; Johnson, L.; Garfield, N.

    2003-12-01

    Coral reefs are among the world's most productive and biologically rich ecosystems and are some of the oldest ecosystems on Earth. Coralline structures protect coastlines from storms, maintain high diversity of marine life, and provide nurseries for marine species. Coral reefs play a role in carbon cycling through high rates of organic carbon metabolism and calcification. Coral reefs provide fisheries habitat that are the sole protein source for humans on remote islands. Reefs respond immediately to environmental change and therefore are considered "canaries" of the oceans. However, the world's reefs are in peril: they have shrunk 10-50% from their historical extent due to climate change and anthropogenic activity. An important contribution to coral reef research is improved spectral distinction of reef species' health where anthropogenic activity and climate change impacts are high. Relatively little is known concerning the spectral properties of coral or how coral structures reflect and transmit light. New insights into optical processes of corals under stressed conditions can lead to improved interpretation of airborne and satellite data and forecasting of immediate or long-term impacts of events such as bleaching and disease in coral. We are investigating the spatial and spectral resolution required to detect remotely changes in reef health by coupling spectral analysis of in situ spectra and airborne spectral data with a new radiative transfer model called CorMOD2. Challenges include light attenuation by the water column, atmospheric scattering, and scattering caused by the coral themselves that confound the spectral signal. In CorMOD2, input coral reflectance measurements produce modeled absorption through an inversion at each visible wavelength. The first model development phase of CorMOD2 imposes a scattering baseline that is constant regardless of coral condition, and further specifies that coral is optically thick. Evolution of CorMOD2 is towards a coral

  1. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-05-25

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  2. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  3. A critical review of measurements of water vapor absorption in the 840 to 1100 cm(-1) spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1987-01-01

    A set of eleven measurements of the water vapor continuum absorption in the 840 to 1100 sq cm spectral region is reviewed and compared with spectral models maintained by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The measurements were made in four different ways: spectrometer with a White cell, CO2 laser with a White cell, CO2 laser with a spectrophone, and broadband radiation source over a long atmospheric path. Where possible, the data were selected at a water vapor partial pressure of ten torr buffered to 760 torr with N2 or synthetic air and a temperature of between 296 and 300 K. The intercomparison of the data leads to several observations and conclusions. First, there are four sets of laboratory data taken with nitrogen as the buffer gas which generally agree well mutually and with AFGL's HITRAN code. Second, there is one set of laboratory data that shows that using air as the buffer gas gives a few percent decrease in the water vapor continuum compared with using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Third, the atmospheric long-path measurements for water vapor partial pressure below about 12 torr are roughly grouped within 20 percent of the HITRAN values. Fourth, there are three sets of spectrophone data for water vapor in synthetic air which are significantly higher than any of the other measurements. This discrepancy is attributed to the effects of impurity gases in the cell.

  4. Antepartum Fetal Monitoring and Spectral Analysis of Preterm Birth Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.

  5. Decomposition of Spectral Signatures of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter Absorption and its Spatial Distribution Along Southeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamed Ashraf, P.; Souda, V. P.; Minu, P.

    2016-02-01

    The process of photosynthesis involves the conversion of inorganic carbon into organic carbon and the light availability is the crucial factor affecting photosynthesis in case 2 waters. Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a major competitor for light apart from suspended sediments and phytoplankton. The objective was 1) to understand the spatial, vertical and seasonal variability of CDOM by decomposing spectral signatures of absorption in the UV region and to identify the source of CDOM in the study area. The study was carried out for the period 2013 May to 2014 December on monthly basis. Samples from 9 spatial stations, covering estuarine, barmouth and marine region were collected along coastal waters off Kochi, Southeastern Arabian Sea. Two spectral range from 200nm to 400nm were selected for the study, ie. between 275-295 and 350-400. Slope between 275-295nm (S275-295) showed no variation spatially and seasonally except for estuarine station. But slope between 350-400nm (S350-400) exhibited considerable variations spatially, seasonally and vertically. Lower values of ratio between S275-295 and S350-400 in surface waters during monsoon season indicated presence of CDOM with heavy molecular weight of terrigenous origin. Premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons had higher ratio indicating presence of CDOM with lighter molecular weight. Autocthonous origin and degradation of terrigenous matter produces CDOM with light molecular weight. The ratio is found to be increasing from estuary to offshore stations. Hence it is inferred that, the chemical nature of CDOM is affected by both physical and biological components in dynamically unstable case 2 coastal waters. The results presented here shows difference in spectral slope to estimate optical properties of CDOM which is relevant for the description of underwater optics and to the development of ocean colour remote sensing algorithms in the region.

  6. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (DEC VAX/VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  7. Relationships between visual field sensitivity and spectral absorption properties of the neuroretinal rim in glaucoma by multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Denniss, Jonathan; Schiessl, Ingo; Nourrit, Vincent; Fenerty, Cecilia H; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B

    2011-11-07

    To investigate the relationship between neuroretinal rim (NRR) differential light absorption (DLA, a measure of spectral absorption properties) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Patients diagnosed with (n = 22) or suspected of having (n = 7) POAG were imaged with a multispectral system incorporating a modified digital fundus camera, 250-W tungsten-halogen lamp, and fast-tuneable liquid crystal filter. Five images were captured sequentially within 1.0 second at wavelengths selected according to absorption properties of hemoglobin (range, 570-610 nm), and a Beer-Lambert law model was used to produce DLA maps of residual NRR from the images. Patients also underwent VF testing. Differences in NRR DLA in vertically opposing 180° and 45° sectors either side of the horizontal midline were compared with corresponding differences in VF sensitivity on both decibel and linear scales by Spearman's rank correlation. The decibel VF sensitivity scale showed significant relationships between superior-inferior NRR DLA difference and sensitivity differences between corresponding VF areas in 180° NRR sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.68; P < 0.0001), superior-/inferior-temporal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.002), and superior-/inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.59; P < 0.001). Using the linear VF sensitivity scale significant relationships were found for 180° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.62; P < 0.0002) and superior-inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.53; P < 0.002). No significant difference was found between correlations using the linear or decibel VF sensitivity scales. Residual NRR DLA is related to VF sensitivity in POAG. Multispectral imaging may provide clinically important information for the assessment and management of POAG.

  8. Relationships between Visual Field Sensitivity and Spectral Absorption Properties of the Neuroretinal Rim in Glaucoma by Multispectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Denniss, Jonathan; Schiessl, Ingo; Nourrit, Vincent; Fenerty, Cecilia H.; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between neuroretinal rim (NRR) differential light absorption (DLA, a measure of spectral absorption properties) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Patients diagnosed with (n = 22) or suspected of having (n = 7) POAG were imaged with a multispectral system incorporating a modified digital fundus camera, 250-W tungsten-halogen lamp, and fast-tuneable liquid crystal filter. Five images were captured sequentially within 1.0 second at wavelengths selected according to absorption properties of hemoglobin (range, 570–610 nm), and a Beer-Lambert law model was used to produce DLA maps of residual NRR from the images. Patients also underwent VF testing. Differences in NRR DLA in vertically opposing 180° and 45° sectors either side of the horizontal midline were compared with corresponding differences in VF sensitivity on both decibel and linear scales by Spearman's rank correlation. Results. The decibel VF sensitivity scale showed significant relationships between superior–inferior NRR DLA difference and sensitivity differences between corresponding VF areas in 180° NRR sectors (Spearman ρ = 0.68; P < 0.0001), superior-/inferior-temporal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.002), and superior-/inferior-nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.59; P < 0.001). Using the linear VF sensitivity scale significant relationships were found for 180° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.62; P < 0.0002) and superior–inferior–nasal 45° NRR sectors (ρ = 0.53; P < 0.002). No significant difference was found between correlations using the linear or decibel VF sensitivity scales. Conclusions. Residual NRR DLA is related to VF sensitivity in POAG. Multispectral imaging may provide clinically important information for the assessment and management of POAG. PMID:21980002

  9. Demodulation circuit for AC motor current spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hendrix, Donald E.; Smith, Stephen F.

    1990-12-18

    A motor current analysis method for the remote, noninvasive inspection of electric motor-operated systems. Synchronous amplitude demodulation and phase demodulation circuits are used singly and in combination along with a frequency analyzer to produce improved spectral analysis of load-induced frequencies present in the electric current flowing in a motor-driven system.

  10. In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Mass Concentration and Spectral Absorption at Three Location in and Around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Z.; Martins, V.; Li, Z.

    2006-12-01

    As a result of population growth and increasing industrialization, air pollution in heavily populated urban areas is one of the central environmental problems of the century. As a part of the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) study, Nuclepore filters were collected in two size ranges (PM10 and PM2.5) at 12 hour intervals at three location in Mexico during March, 2006. Sampling stations were located at the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (T0), at the Rancho La Bisnago in the State of Hidalgo (T2) and along the Gulf Coast in Tampico (Tam). Each filter was analyzed for mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption efficiencies. Mass concentrations at T0 ranged from 47 to 179 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 96 μg/m3, and from 20 to 93 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 41 μg/m3. Mass concentrations at T2 ranged from 12 to 154 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 51 μg/m3, and from 7 to 50 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 25 μg/m3. Mass concentrations at Tam ranged from 34 to 80 μg/m3 for PM10 with an average concentration of 52 μg/m3, and from 8 to 23 μg/m3 for PM2.5 with an average concentration of 13 μg/m3. While some of the extreme values are likely linked to local emissions, regional air pollution episodes also played important roles. Each of the sampling stations experienced a unique atmospheric condition. The site at T0 was influenced by urban air pollution and dust storms, the site at T2 was significantly less affected by air pollution but more affected by regional dust storms and local dust devils while Tam was influenced by air pollution, dust storms and the natural marine environment. The spectral mass absorption efficiency was measured from 350 to 2500 nm and shows large differences between the absorption properties of soil dust, black carbon, and organic aerosols. The strong spectral differences observed can be related to differences in

  11. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  12. Spectral analysis of lunar analogue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    source. Together with taking an average over ±600 measurements per sample this leads to the best spectral signals that can be acquired with this set-up. Obtained spectra can be tested for accuracy by comparing them with stationary laboratory spectrometers such as the FTIR spectrometer. Future campaigns involving the employment of the spectrometers on the ExoGeoLab lander would prove the applicability of the equipment in the field.

  13. Mapping vegetation in Yellowstone National Park using spectral feature analysis of AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Despain, Don G.; Clark, Roger N.; Livo, K. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of vegetation on the landscape can be used to investigate ecosystem functioning. The sizes and movements of animal populations can be linked to resources provided by different plant species. This paper demonstrates the application of imaging spectroscopy to the study of vegetation in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) using spectral feature analysis of data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data, acquired on August 7, 1996, were calibrated to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer model and field reflectance measurements of a ground calibration site. A spectral library of canopy reflectance signatures was created by averaging pixels of the calibrated AVIRIS data over areas of known forest and nonforest vegetation cover types in Yellowstone. Using continuum removal and least squares fitting algorithms in the US Geological Survey's Tetracorder expert system, the distributions of these vegetation types were determined by comparing the absorption features of vegetation in the spectral library with the spectra from the AVIRIS data. The 0.68 μm chlorophyll absorption feature and leaf water absorption features, centered near 0.98 and 1.20 μm, were analyzed. Nonforest cover types of sagebrush, grasslands, willows, sedges, and other wetland vegetation were mapped in the Lamar Valley of Yellowstone. Conifer cover types of lodgepole pine, whitebark pine, Douglas fir, and mixed Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir forests were spectrally discriminated and their distributions mapped in the AVIRIS images. In the Mount Washburn area of Yellowstone, a comparison of the AVIRIS map of forest cover types to a map derived from air photos resulted in an overall agreement of 74.1% (kappa statistic=0.62).

  14. Atmospheric Optical Properties and Spectral Analysis of Desert Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvgeni, D.; Karnieli, A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Andreae, M. O.; Holben, B. N.; Maenhaut, W.

    2002-05-01

    Scientific background Aerosols can interact directly with solar and terrestrial radiation by scattering as well as absorption. In addition, they can indirectly alter the planetary albedo by modifying the properties of clouds. Objectives Investigations have been devoted to two main areas: (1) Aerosol climatology situation in the Negev desert, investigations of physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, and study of the local and long-range transport trajectory of polluted air masses over the Negev desert; and (2) An estimation of the optical properties throughout the atmospheric column by surface measurements via performance of spectral and statistical analysis of the data received from two measurement systems. Results and conclusions Analyzed data from the Sede Boker site, in the Negev Desert of Israel, shows an increase in aerosol optical depth during the summer seasons and a decrease during winter. One of the possible reasons for this characteristic is an increase of the precipitable water (reaches 3.0-3.5 cm) due to a constant wind stream from the Mediterranean Sea in same time. The highest probability distribution of the aerosol optical depth is in the range of 0.15-0.20; and of the Angstrom parameter is in range of 0.83 - 1.07. During dust storm events, the scattering coefficient range at 670 nm and 440 nm wavelengths were inverted. It was discovered that the dust particles in this case had non-spherical character. Comparison between optical depth, measured through all atmospheric column, and scattering coefficient from surface measurements provides correlation coefficient (r) equal to 0.64. The Angstrom parameter, calculated via optical depth and via scattering coefficient, provides a correlation coefficient of 0.66. Thus we can obtain an estimate of the influence of the surface aerosol situation on column optical properties. The combined analysis of dust cloud altitude and optical depth as a function of the time indicates long-term transport and

  15. Spectral Analysis of B Stars: An Application of Bayesian Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnes, J.-M.; Robert, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the processes involved in stellar physics, it is necessary to obtain accurate stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, abundances…). Spectral analysis is a powerful tool for investigating stars, but it is also vital to reduce uncertainties at a decent computational cost. Here we present a spectral analysis method based on a combination of Bayesian statistics and grids of synthetic spectra obtained with TLUSTY. This method simultaneously constrains the stellar parameters by using all the lines accessible in observed spectra and thus greatly reduces uncertainties and improves the overall spectrum fitting. Preliminary results are shown using spectra from the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic.

  16. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Sleep Neurophysiological Dynamics Through the Lens of Multitaper Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prerau, Michael J.; Brown, Ritchie E.; Bianchi, Matt T.; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.; Purdon, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs. By representing sleep as a coarsely discretized progression of stages, vital neurophysiological information on the dynamic interplay between sleep and arousal is lost. However, by using principled time-frequency spectral analysis methods, the rich dynamics of the sleep EEG are immediately visible—elegantly depicted and quantified at time scales ranging from a full night down to individual microevents. In this paper, we review the neurophysiology of sleep through this lens of dynamic spectral analysis. We begin by reviewing spectral estimation techniques traditionally used in sleep EEG analysis and introduce multitaper spectral analysis, a method that makes EEG spectral estimates clearer and more accurate than traditional approaches. Through the lens of the multitaper spectrogram, we review the oscillations and mechanisms underlying the traditional sleep stages. In doing so, we will demonstrate how multitaper spectral analysis makes the oscillatory structure of traditional sleep states instantaneously visible, closely paralleling the traditional hypnogram, but with a richness of information that suggests novel insights into the neural mechanisms of sleep, as well as novel clinical and research applications. PMID:27927806

  18. Automated spectral and timing analysis of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, F.; Karas, V.; Guainazzi, M.

    2006-12-01

    % We have developed an autonomous script that helps the user to automate the XMM-Newton data analysis for the purposes of extensive statistical investigations. We test this approach by examining X-ray spectra of bright AGNs pre-selected from the public database. The event lists extracted in this process were studied further by constructing their energy-resolved Fourier power-spectrum density. This analysis combines energy distributions, light-curves, and their power-spectra and it proves useful to assess the variability patterns present is the data. As another example, an automated search was based on the XSPEC package to reveal the emission features in 2-8 keV range.

  19. Spectral analysis of the Elatina varve series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    1988-01-01

    The Elatina formation in South America, which provides a rich fossil record of presumptive solar activity in the late Precambrian, is of great potential significance for the physics of the sun because it contains luminae grouped in cycles of about 12, an appearance suggestive of the solar cycle. Here, the laminae are treated as varves laid down yearly and modulated in thickness in accordance with the late Precambrian sunspot activity for the year of deposition. The purpose is to present a simple structure, or intrinsic spectrum, that will be uncovered by appropriate data analysis.

  20. Spectral analysis of groove spacing on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of groove spacing on Ganymede is described. Fourier transforms of a large number of photometric profiles across groove sets are calculated and the resulting power spectra are examined for the position and strength of peaks representing topographic periodicities. The geographic and global statistical distribution of groove wavelengths are examined, and these data are related to models of groove tectonism. It is found that groove spacing on Ganymede shows an approximately long-normal distribution with a minimum of about 3.5 km, a maximum of about 17 km, and a mean of 8.4 km. Groove spacing tends to be quite regular within a single groove set but can vary substantially from one groove set to another within a single geographic region.

  1. Wetlands delineation by spectral signature analysis and legal implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderon, R. R.; Carter, V.

    1972-01-01

    High altitude analysis of wetland resources and the use of such information in an operational mode to address specific problems of wetland preservation at a state level are discussed. Work efforts were directed toward: (1) developing techniques for using large scale color IR photography in state wetlands mapping program, (2) developing methods for obtaining wetlands ecology information from high altitude photography, (3) developing means by which spectral data can be more accurately analyzed visually, and (4) developing spectral data for automatic mapping of wetlands.

  2. Experimental recovery of intrinsic fluorescence and fluorophore concentration in the presence of hemoglobin: spectral effect of scattering and absorption on fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Le, Vinh Nguyen; Patterson, Michael S.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Hayward, Joseph E.; Fang, Qiyin

    2015-12-01

    The ability to recover the intrinsic fluorescence of biological fluorophores is crucial to accurately identify the fluorophores and quantify their concentrations in the media. Although some studies have successfully retrieved the fluorescence spectral shape of known fluorophores, the techniques usually came with heavy computation costs and did not apply for strongly absorptive media, and the intrinsic fluorescence intensity and fluorophore concentration were not recovered. In this communication, an experimental approach was presented to recover intrinsic fluorescence and concentration of fluorescein in the presence of hemoglobin (Hb). The results indicated that the method was efficient in recovering the intrinsic fluorescence peak and fluorophore concentration with an error of 3% and 10%, respectively. The results also suggested that chromophores with irregular absorption spectra (e.g., Hb) have more profound effects on fluorescence spectral shape than chromophores with monotonic absorption and scattering spectra (e.g., black India ink and polystyrene microspheres).

  3. Spectral line shapes of collision-induced light scattering (CILS) and collision-induced absorption (CIA) using isotropic intermolecular potential for H2-Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kader, M. S. A.; Godet, J.-L.; El-Sadek, A. A.; Maroulis, G.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum mechanical line shapes of collision-induced light scattering at room temperature (295 K) and collision-induced absorption at T = 195 K are computed for gaseous mixtures of molecular hydrogen and argon using theoretical values for pair-polarisability trace and anisotropy and induced dipole moments as input. Comparison with other theoretical spectra of isotropic and anisotropic light scattering and measured spectra of absorption shows satisfactory agreement, for which the uncertainty in measurement of its spectral moments is seen to be large. Ab initio models of the trace and anisotropy polarisability which reproduce the recent spectra of scattering are given. Empirical model of the dipole moment which reproduce the experimental spectra and the first three spectral moments more closely than the fundamental theory are also given. Good agreement between computed and/or experimental line shapes of both absorption and scattering is obtained when the potential model which is constructed from the transport and thermo-physical properties is used.

  4. Impact of absorption in the top layer of a two layer sample on spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry of the bottom layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, F.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Rajendram, R.; Podoleanu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry and spectroscopic optical coherence tomography combine depth information with spectrally-resolved localised absorption data. These additional data can improve diagnostics by giving access to functional information of the investigated sample. One possible application is measuring oxygenation levels at the retina for earlier detection of several eye diseases. Here measurements with different hollow glass tube phantoms are shown to measure the impact of a superficial absorbing layer on the precision of reconstructed attenuation spectra of a deeper layer. Measurements show that a superficial absorber has no impact on the reconstructed absorption spectrum of the deeper absorber. Even when diluting the concentration of the deeper absorber so far that an incorrect absorption maximum is obtained, still no influence of the superficially placed absorber is identified.

  5. Application of high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry to reveal, evaluate and overcome certain spectral effects in Pb determination of unleaded gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Laskowska, Hanna; Gzylewski, Michał

    2017-06-01

    scattering. For LS FAAS, the determination of Pb using the 283 nm line, a 0.1 nm bandpass and a fuel lean flame is strongly recommended. The analysis of certified reference materials, recovery studies and the analysis of real samples with low Pb content supported the satisfactory accuracy of Pb determination in automotive or aviation gasoline when the recommended analytical variants are applied. The studies in this work shed new light on spectral phenomena in air-acetylene flames. The structured background due to absorption by the OH molecules must be taken into account during Pb determination in other materials as well as in some other elemental determinations, especially at low absorbance levels. The usefulness of HR-CS FAAS for revealing and investigating a structured background was demonstrated. HR-CS FAAS does not reveal fully corrected spectral effects with a continuous character, which can be found in LS FAAS.

  6. MEM spectral analysis for predicting influenza epidemics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Ayako; Kamo, Ken-ichi

    2012-03-01

    The prediction of influenza epidemics has long been the focus of attention in epidemiology and mathematical biology. In this study, we tested whether time series analysis was useful for predicting the incidence of influenza in Japan. The method of time series analysis we used consists of spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain. Using this time series analysis, we analyzed the incidence data of influenza in Japan from January 1948 to December 1998; these data are unique in that they covered the periods of pandemics in Japan in 1957, 1968, and 1977. On the basis of the MEM spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated with the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. An extension of the LSF curve could be used to predict the incidence of influenza quantitatively. Our study suggested that MEM spectral analysis would allow us to model temporal variations of influenza epidemics with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than by using the method of conventional time series analysis, which has been used previously to investigate the behavior of temporal variations in influenza data.

  7. Distribution of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Reko Diq, Pakistan mineralized area based on spectral analysis of ASTER data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Schmidt, R.G.; Mars, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Reko Diq, Pakistan mineralized study area, approximately 10??km in diameter, is underlain by a central zone of hydrothermally altered rocks associated with Cu-Au mineralization. The surrounding country rocks are a variable mixture of unaltered volcanic rocks, fluvial deposits, and eolian quartz sand. Analysis of 15-band Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the study area, aided by laboratory spectral reflectance and spectral emittance measurements of field samples, shows that phyllically altered rocks are laterally extensive, and contain localized areas of argillically altered rocks. In the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) phyllically altered rocks are characterized by Al-OH absorption in ASTER band 6 because of molecular vibrations in muscovite, whereas argillically altered rocks have an absorption feature in band 5 resulting from alunite. Propylitically altered rocks form a peripheral zone and are present in scattered exposures within the main altered area. Chlorite and muscovite cause distinctive absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20????m, respectively, although less intense 2.33????m absorption is also present in image spectra of country rocks. Important complementary lithologic information was derived by analysis of the spectral emittance data in the 5 thermal-infrared (TIR) bands. Silicified rocks were not distinguished in the 9 VNIR + SWIR bands because of the lack of diagnostic spectral absorption features in quartz in this wavelength region. Quartz-bearing surficial deposits, as well as hydrothermally silicified rocks, were mapped in the TIR bands by using a band 13/band 12 ratio image, which is sensitive to the intensity of the quartz reststrahlen feature. Improved distinction between the quartzose surficial deposits and silicified bedrock was achieved by using matched-filter processing with TIR image spectra for reference. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Periodic Nuclear Decay Data with Spectral Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P.; Buncher, J.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, T.; Hoft, A.; Horan, T.; Jenkins, J.; Kerford, J.; Lee, R.; Mattes, J.; Morris, D.; Mudry, R.; Newport, J.; Petrelli, M.; Silver, M.; Stewart, C.; Terry, B.; Willenberg, H.

    2009-12-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay experiments displaying unexplained periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data was from 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, 32Si decay reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt in Germany. All three data sets possess the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additionally a spectral comparison of the local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and the plasma speed and latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) was performed. Following analysis of these six possible causal factors, their reciprocals, and their linear combinations, a possible link between nuclear decay rate fluctuations and the linear combination of the HCS latitude and 1/R motivates searching for a possible mechanism with such properties.

  9. Spectral Analysis and Experimental Modeling of Ice Accretion Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, D. J.; Breuer, K. S.; Torres, B. E.; Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A self-consistent scheme for relating wind tunnel ice accretion roughness to the resulting enhancement of heat transfer is described. First, a spectral technique of quantitative analysis of early ice roughness images is reviewed. The image processing scheme uses a spectral estimation technique (SET) which extracts physically descriptive parameters by comparing scan lines from the experimentally-obtained accretion images to a prescribed test function. Analysis using this technique for both streamwise and spanwise directions of data from the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) are presented. An experimental technique is then presented for constructing physical roughness models suitable for wind tunnel testing that match the SET parameters extracted from the IRT images. The icing castings and modeled roughness are tested for enhancement of boundary layer heat transfer using infrared techniques in a "dry" wind tunnel.

  10. Effective approach to spectroscopy and spectral analysis techniques using Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Lv, Yong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electronic information, computer and network, modern education technology has entered new era, which would give a great impact on teaching process. Spectroscopy and spectral analysis is an elective course for Optoelectronic Information Science and engineering. The teaching objective of this course is to master the basic concepts and principles of spectroscopy, spectral analysis and testing of basic technical means. Then, let the students learn the principle and technology of the spectrum to study the structure and state of the material and the developing process of the technology. MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, Based on the teaching practice, this paper summarizes the new situation of applying Matlab to the teaching of spectroscopy. This would be suitable for most of the current school multimedia assisted teaching

  11. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  12. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis. PMID:22408503

  13. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  14. Jupiter Systems Data Analysis Program Galileo Multi-Spectral Analysis of the Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Amanda; Carlson, Robert; Smythe, William

    2002-01-01

    Progress was made on this project at the University of Colorado, particularly concerning analysis of data of the galilean moons Io and Europa. The goal of the Io portion of this study is to incorporate Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) frost amounts into models used with Ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) spectra, in order to better constrain SO2 gas amounts determined by the UVS. The overall goal of this portion of the study is to better understand the thickness and distribution of Io's SO2 atmosphere. The goal of the analysis of the Europa data is to better understand the source of the UV absorption feature centered near 280 rim which has been noted in disk-integrated spectra primarily on the trailing hemisphere. The NIMS data indicate asymmetric water ice bands on Europa, particularly over the trailing hemisphere, and especially concentrated in the visibly dark regions associated with chaotic terrain and lines. The UPS data, the first-ever disk-resolved UV spectra of Europa, shown that the UV absorber is likely concentrated in regions where the NIMS data show asymmetric water ice bands. The material that produces both spectral features is likely the same, and we use data from both wavelength regions to better understand this material, and whether it is endogenically or exogenically produced. This work is still in progress at JPL.

  15. Investigation of spectral analysis techniques for randomly sampled velocimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that velocimetry (LV) generates individual realization velocity data that are randomly or unevenly sampled in time. Spectral analysis of such data to obtain the turbulence spectra, and hence turbulence scales information, requires special techniques. The 'slotting' technique of Mayo et al, also described by Roberts and Ajmani, and the 'Direct Transform' method of Gaster and Roberts are well known in the LV community. The slotting technique is faster than the direct transform method in computation. There are practical limitations, however, as to how a high frequency and accurate estimate can be made for a given mean sampling rate. These high frequency estimates are important in obtaining the microscale information of turbulence structure. It was found from previous studies that reliable spectral estimates can be made up to about the mean sampling frequency (mean data rate) or less. If the data were evenly samples, the frequency range would be half the sampling frequency (i.e. up to Nyquist frequency); otherwise, aliasing problem would occur. The mean data rate and the sample size (total number of points) basically limit the frequency range. Also, there are large variabilities or errors associated with the high frequency estimates from randomly sampled signals. Roberts and Ajmani proposed certain pre-filtering techniques to reduce these variabilities, but at the cost of low frequency estimates. The prefiltering acts as a high-pass filter. Further, Shapiro and Silverman showed theoretically that, for Poisson sampled signals, it is possible to obtain alias-free spectral estimates far beyond the mean sampling frequency. But the question is, how far? During his tenure under 1993 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, the author investigated from his studies on the spectral analysis techniques for randomly sampled signals that the spectral estimates can be enhanced or improved up to about 4-5 times the mean sampling frequency by using a suitable

  16. Harmonic component detection: Optimized Spectral Kurtosis for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, J.-L.; Tawfiq, I.; Chevallier, G.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution in the field of Operational Modal Analysis to identify the modal parameters of mechanical structures using only measured responses. The study deals with structural responses coupled with harmonic components amplitude and frequency modulated in a short range, a common combination for mechanical systems with engines and other rotating machines in operation. These harmonic components generate misleading data interpreted erroneously by the classical methods used in OMA. The present work attempts to differentiate maxima in spectra stemming from harmonic components and structural modes. The detection method proposed is based on the so-called Optimized Spectral Kurtosis and compared with others definitions of Spectral Kurtosis described in the literature. After a parametric study of the method, a critical study is performed on numerical simulations and then on an experimental structure in operation in order to assess the method's performance.

  17. Fast algorithm for spectral mixture analysis of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Klein Gebbinck, Maurice S.; Liu, Z. K.; Chen, Shaowei

    1996-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers acquire images in many narrow spectral bands but have limited spatial resolution. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is used to determine the fractions of the ground cover categories (the end-members) present in each pixel. In this paper a new iterative SMA method is presented and tested using a 30 band MAIS image. The time needed for each iteration is independent of the number of bands, thus the method can be used for spectrometers with a large number of bands. Further a new method, based on K-means clustering, for obtaining endmembers from image data is described and compared with existing methods. Using the developed methods the available MAIS image was analyzed using 2 to 6 endmembers.

  18. Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP): Initial Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey; Kong, J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP) has been observing nearby (z < 0.1) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) both photometrically and spectroscopically for over two decades. Using telescopes at both Lick and Keck Observatories, we have amassed an extensive collection of well-sampled optical light curves with complementary spectra covering, on average, 3400-10,000 Å. In total, we have obtained nearly 600 spectra of over 200 SNe Ia with densely sampled multi-color light curves. The initial analysis of this dataset consists of accurately and robustly measuring the strength and position of various spectral features near maximum brightness. We determine the endpoints, pseudo-continuum, expansion velocity, equivalent width, and depth of each major feature observed in our wavelength range. For objects with multiple spectra near maximum brightness we investigate how these values change with time. From these measurements we also calculate velocity gradients and various flux ratios within a given spectrum which will allow us to explore correlations between spectral and photometric observables. Some possible correlations have been studied previously, but our dataset is unique in how self-consistent the data reduction and spectral feature measurements have been, and it is a factor of a few larger than most earlier studies. We will briefly summarize the contents of the full dataset as an introduction to our initial analysis. Some of our measurements of SN Ia spectral features, along with a few initial results from those measurements, will be presented. Finally, we will comment on our current progress and planned future work. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of NSF grant AST-0908886, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellowship in Astronomy.

  19. Spectral decomposition of asteroid Itokawa based on principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Sumire C.; Sugita, Seiji; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishiguro, Masateru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Tatsumi, Eri; Sasaki, Sho

    2018-01-01

    The heliocentric stratification of asteroid spectral types may hold important information on the early evolution of the Solar System. Asteroid spectral taxonomy is based largely on principal component analysis. However, how the surface properties of asteroids, such as the composition and age, are projected in the principal-component (PC) space is not understood well. We decompose multi-band disk-resolved visible spectra of the Itokawa surface with principal component analysis (PCA) in comparison with main-belt asteroids. The obtained distribution of Itokawa spectra projected in the PC space of main-belt asteroids follows a linear trend linking the Q-type and S-type regions and is consistent with the results of space-weathering experiments on ordinary chondrites and olivine, suggesting that this trend may be a space-weathering-induced spectral evolution track for S-type asteroids. Comparison with space-weathering experiments also yield a short average surface age (< a few million years) for Itokawa, consistent with the cosmic-ray-exposure time of returned samples from Itokawa. The Itokawa PC score distribution exhibits asymmetry along the evolution track, strongly suggesting that space weathering has begun saturated on this young asteroid. The freshest spectrum found on Itokawa exhibits a clear sign for space weathering, indicating again that space weathering occurs very rapidly on this body. We also conducted PCA on Itokawa spectra alone and compared the results with space-weathering experiments. The obtained results indicate that the first principal component of Itokawa surface spectra is consistent with spectral change due to space weathering and that the spatial variation in the degree of space weathering is very large (a factor of three in surface age), which would strongly suggest the presence of strong regional/local resurfacing process(es) on this small asteroid.

  20. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data.

  1. Spectacle and SpecViz: New Spectral Analysis and Visualization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Nicholas; Peeples, Molly; JDADF Developers

    2018-01-01

    A new era of spectroscopic exploration of our universe is being ushered in with advances in instrumentation and next-generation space telescopes. The advent of new spectroscopic instruments has highlighted a pressing need for tools scientists can use to analyze and explore these new data. We have developed Spectacle, a software package for analyzing both synthetic spectra from hydrodynamic simulations as well as real COS data with an aim of characterizing the behavior of the circumgalactic medium. It allows easy reduction of spectral data and analytic line generation capabilities. Currently, the package is focused on automatic determination of absorption regions and line identification with custom line list support, simultaneous line fitting using Voigt profiles via least-squares or MCMC methods, and multi-component modeling of blended features. Non-parametric measurements, such as equivalent widths, delta v90, and full-width half-max are available. Spectacle also provides the ability to compose compound models used to generate synthetic spectra allowing the user to define various LSF kernels, uncertainties, and to specify sampling.We also present updates to the visualization tool SpecViz, developed in conjunction with the JWST data analysis tools development team, to aid in the exploration of spectral data. SpecViz is an open source, Python-based spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built around high-performance interactive plotting. It supports handling general and instrument-specific data and includes advanced tool-sets for filtering and detrending one-dimensional data, along with the ability to isolate absorption regions using slicing and manipulate spectral features via spectral arithmetic. Multi-component modeling is also possible using a flexible model fitting tool-set that supports custom models to be used with various fitting routines. It also features robust user extensions such as custom data loaders and support for user

  2. DFT analysis and spectral characteristics of Celecoxib a potent COX-2 inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Kannappan, V.; Sathyanarayanamoorthi, V.

    2016-10-01

    Extensive quantum mechanical studies are carried out on Celecoxib (CXB), a new generation drug to understand the vibrational and electronic spectral characteristics of the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of CXB are computed by HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The theoretical scaled vibrational frequencies have been assigned and they agreed satisfactorily with experimental FT-IR and Raman frequencies. The theoretical maximum wavelength of absorption of CXB are calculated in water and ethanol by TD-DFT method and these values are compared with experimentally determined λmax values. The spectral and Natural bonds orbital (NBO) analysis in conjunction with spectral data established the presence of intra molecular interactions such as mesomeric, hyperconjugative and steric effects in CXB. The electron density at various positions and reactivity descriptors of CXB indicate that the compound functions as a nucleophile and establish that aromatic ring system present in the molecule is the site of drug action. Electronic distribution and HOMO - LUMO energy values of CXB are discussed in terms of intra-molecular interactions. Computed values of Mulliken charges and thermodynamic properties of CXB are reported.

  3. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF FERMI -LAT BLAZARS ABOVE 50 GEV

    DOE PAGES

    Domínguez, Alberto; Ajello, Marco

    2015-11-04

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic (unattenuated by the extragalactic background light, EBL) power-law spectral indices of 128 extragalactic sources detected up to z ~ 2 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) at very high energies (VHEs, E ≥50 GeV). The median of the intrinsic index distribution is 2.20 (versus 2.54 for the observed distribution). We also analyze the observed spectral breaks (i.e., the difference between the VHE and high energy, HE, 100 MeV ≤ E ≤ 300 GeV, spectral indices). The Fermi-LAT has now provided a large sample of sources detected both at VHE and HE with comparablemore » exposure that allows us to test models of extragalactic γ-ray photon propagation. We find that our data are compatible with simulations that include intrinsic blazar curvature and EBL attenuation. There is also no evidence of evolution with redshift of the physics that drives the photon emission in high-frequency synchrotron peak (HSP) blazars. This makes HSP blazars excellent probes of the EBL.« less

  4. Dynamics of fractional condensation of a substance on a probe for spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Yu. A.; Kokorina, O. B.; Lysogorskiĭ, Yu. V.; Sevastianov, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    The fractional separation of trace metals on a cold tungsten probe from salt matrix vapor, which interferes with the spectral analysis, is studied. The spatial structure of the vapor flows of sodium chloride, potassium sulfate, and indium atoms is visualized at characteristic wavelengths as they interact with the probe. The vapor flow rate and the probe orientation were varied. It is found that the smoke of the matrix does not prevent the deposition of the metal on the probe because of spatial separation of these fractions and that the detrimental effect of thermal gas expansion and other factors is eliminated. The sensitivity of the atomic absorption analysis of indium impurities in these salts is increased by an order of magnitude.

  5. Spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurements of laser-produced plasma and semiautomated spectral measurement-control and analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S. Q.; Su, M. G.; Min, Q.; Sun, D. X.; O'Sullivan, G.; Dong, C. Z.

    2018-02-01

    A spatio-temporally resolved spectral measurement system of highly charged ions from laser-produced plasmas is presented. Corresponding semiautomated computer software for measurement control and spectral analysis has been written to achieve the best synchronicity possible among the instruments. This avoids the tedious comparative processes between experimental and theoretical results. To demonstrate the capabilities of this system, a series of spatio-temporally resolved experiments of laser-produced Al plasmas have been performed and applied to benchmark the software. The system is a useful tool for studying the spectral structures of highly charged ions and for evaluating the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-produced plasmas.

  6. Europa in the Far-UV: Spatial and Spectral Analysis from HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Roth, Lorenz; Hendrix, Amanda R.; McGrath, Melissa; Alday, Juan; Saur, Joachim; Molyneux, Philippa M.; Raut, Ujjwal; Teolis, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a spatial and spectral analysis of Europa using far-UV observations from 1999 - 2015 made by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Disk-integrated observations show that the far-UV spectrum from ~130 nm - 170 nm is blue (increasing albedo with decreasing wavelength) for the studied hemispheres: the leading, trailing, and anti-Jovian hemispheres. At Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), the albedo of the trailing hemisphere continues the blue trend, but it reddens for the leading hemisphere. At wavelengths shorter than 133.5 nm, the leading hemisphere, which is brighter than the trailing hemisphere at near-UV and visible wavelengths, becomes darker than the trailing hemisphere. We find no evidence of a sharp water-ice absorption edge at 165 nm on any hemisphere of Europa, which is intriguing since such an absorption feature has been observed on most icy moons. This suggests the possibility that radiolytic alteration by Jovian magnetospheric plasma has made the surface more strongly absorbing, masking the absorption edge. We will also present a spatial map of Lyman-alpha across the entire surface of Europa. This map can then be used to distinguish variable H emissions in the atmosphere from surface reflectance, improving our ability to detect potential plumes occurring on the disk of Europa during an observation.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise ofmore » an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.« less

  8. Monitoring Urban Greenness Dynamics Using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Muye; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Xinyu; Hong, Yang; Wang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Urban greenness is increasingly recognized as an essential constituent of the urban environment and can provide a range of services and enhance residents’ quality of life. Understanding the pattern of urban greenness and exploring its spatiotemporal dynamics would contribute valuable information for urban planning. In this paper, we investigated the pattern of urban greenness in Hangzhou, China, over the past two decades using time series Landsat-5 TM data obtained in 1990, 2002, and 2010. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was used to derive vegetation cover fractions at the subpixel level. An RGB-vegetation fraction model, change intensity analysis and the concentric technique were integrated to reveal the detailed, spatial characteristics and the overall pattern of change in the vegetation cover fraction. Our results demonstrated the ability of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis to accurately model the vegetation cover fraction in pixels despite the complex spectral confusion of different land cover types. The integration of multiple techniques revealed various changing patterns in urban greenness in this region. The overall vegetation cover has exhibited a drastic decrease over the past two decades, while no significant change occurred in the scenic spots that were studied. Meanwhile, a remarkable recovery of greenness was observed in the existing urban area. The increasing coverage of small green patches has played a vital role in the recovery of urban greenness. These changing patterns were more obvious during the period from 2002 to 2010 than from 1990 to 2002, and they revealed the combined effects of rapid urbanization and greening policies. This work demonstrates the usefulness of time series of vegetation cover fractions for conducting accurate and in-depth studies of the long-term trajectories of urban greenness to obtain meaningful information for sustainable urban development. PMID:25375176

  9. Autoregressive modeling for the spectral analysis of oceanographic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Cornillon, Peter; Jackson, Leland B.

    1989-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number and volume of data sets useful for oceanographic studies. Many of these data sets consist of long temporal or spatial series derived from satellites and large-scale oceanographic experiments. These data sets are, however, often 'gappy' in space, irregular in time, and always of finite length. The conventional Fourier transform (FT) approach to the spectral analysis is thus often inapplicable, or where applicable, it provides questionable results. Here, through comparative analysis with the FT for different oceanographic data sets, the possibilities offered by autoregressive (AR) modeling to perform spectral analysis of gappy, finite-length series, are discussed. The applications demonstrate that as the length of the time series becomes shorter, the resolving power of the AR approach as compared with that of the FT improves. For the longest data sets examined here, 98 points, the AR method performed only slightly better than the FT, but for the very short ones, 17 points, the AR method showed a dramatic improvement over the FT. The application of the AR method to a gappy time series, although a secondary concern of this manuscript, further underlines the value of this approach.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, W.; Christen, J.-L.; Zine, A.-M.; Ichchou, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sound absorption in porous media is a complex phenomenon, which is usually addressed with homogenized models, depending on macroscopic parameters. Since these parameters emerge from the structure at microscopic scale, they may be correlated. This paper deals with sensitivity analysis methods of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs. Specifically, the Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (JCA) is chosen as the objective model with correlation effects generated by a secondary micro-macro semi-empirical model. To deal with this case, a relatively new sensitivity analysis method Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test with Correlation design (FASTC), based on Iman's transform, is taken into application. This method requires a priori information such as variables' marginal distribution functions and their correlation matrix. The results are compared to the Correlation Ratio Method (CRM) for reference and validation. The distribution of the macroscopic variables arising from the microstructure, as well as their correlation matrix are studied. Finally the results of tests shows that the correlation has a very important impact on the results of sensitivity analysis. Assessment of correlation strength among input variables on the sensitivity analysis is also achieved.

  11. Chemical and spectral behavior of nitric acid in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: Absorption spectrum and molar absorption coefficient of nitronium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).

  12. Spectral analysis and slow spreading dynamics on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Odor, Géza

    2013-09-01

    The susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model is one of the simplest memoryless systems for describing information or epidemic spreading phenomena with competing creation and spontaneous annihilation reactions. The effect of quenched disorder on the dynamical behavior has recently been compared to quenched mean-field (QMF) approximations in scale-free networks. QMF can take into account topological heterogeneity and clustering effects of the activity in the steady state by spectral decomposition analysis of the adjacency matrix. Therefore, it can provide predictions on possible rare-region effects, thus on the occurrence of slow dynamics. I compare QMF results of SIS with simulations on various large dimensional graphs. In particular, I show that for Erdős-Rényi graphs this method predicts correctly the occurrence of rare-region effects. It also provides a good estimate for the epidemic threshold in case of percolating graphs. Griffiths Phases emerge if the graph is fragmented or if we apply a strong, exponentially suppressing weighting scheme on the edges. The latter model describes the connection time distributions in the face-to-face experiments. In case of a generalized Barabási-Albert type of network with aging connections, strong rare-region effects and numerical evidence for Griffiths Phase dynamics are shown. The dynamical simulation results agree well with the predictions of the spectral analysis applied for the weighted adjacency matrices.

  13. Spectral analysis for automated exploration and sample acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi

    1992-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will rely heavily on the use of complex instrument data for determining the geologic, chemical, and elemental character of planetary surfaces. One important instrument is the imaging spectrometer, which collects complete images in multiple discrete wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Extensive computational effort is required to extract information from such high-dimensional data. A hierarchical classification scheme allows multispectral data to be analyzed for purposes of mineral classification while limiting the overall computational requirements. The hierarchical classifier exploits the tunability of a new type of imaging spectrometer which is based on an acousto-optic tunable filter. This spectrometer collects a complete image in each wavelength passband without spatial scanning. It may be programmed to scan through a range of wavelengths or to collect only specific bands for data analysis. Spectral classification activities employ artificial neural networks, trained to recognize a number of mineral classes. Analysis of the trained networks has proven useful in determining which subsets of spectral bands should be employed at each step of the hierarchical classifier. The network classifiers are capable of recognizing all mineral types which were included in the training set. In addition, the major components of many mineral mixtures can also be recognized. This capability may prove useful for a system designed to evaluate data in a strange environment where details of the mineral composition are not known in advance.

  14. Overlapping communities detection based on spectral analysis of line graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Chun; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Huang, Guoming; Wei, Jiaxuan

    2018-05-01

    Community in networks are often overlapping where one vertex belongs to several clusters. Meanwhile, many networks show hierarchical structure such that community is recursively grouped into hierarchical organization. In order to obtain overlapping communities from a global hierarchy of vertices, a new algorithm (named SAoLG) is proposed to build the hierarchical organization along with detecting the overlap of community structure. SAoLG applies the spectral analysis into line graphs to unify the overlap and hierarchical structure of the communities. In order to avoid the limitation of absolute distance such as Euclidean distance, SAoLG employs Angular distance to compute the similarity between vertices. Furthermore, we make a micro-improvement partition density to evaluate the quality of community structure and use it to obtain the more reasonable and sensible community numbers. The proposed SAoLG algorithm achieves a balance between overlap and hierarchy by applying spectral analysis to edge community detection. The experimental results on one standard network and six real-world networks show that the SAoLG algorithm achieves higher modularity and reasonable community number values than those generated by Ahn's algorithm, the classical CPM and GN ones.

  15. Groupwise shape analysis of the hippocampus using spectral matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Lombaert, Hervé; Lippé, Sarah; Kadoury, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is a prominent subcortical feature of interest in many neuroscience studies. Its subtle morphological changes often predicate illnesses, including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or epilepsy. The precise location of structural differences requires a reliable correspondence between shapes across a population. In this paper, we propose an automated method for groupwise hippocampal shape analysis based on a spectral decomposition of a group of shapes to solve the correspondence problem between sets of meshes. The framework generates diffeomorphic correspondence maps across a population, which enables us to create a mean shape. Morphological changes are then located between two groups of subjects. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on a dataset of 42 hippocampus shapes and compared with a state-of-the-art structural shape analysis approach, using spherical harmonics. Difference maps between mean shapes of two test groups demonstrates that the two approaches showed results with insignificant differences, while Gaussian curvature measures calculated between matched vertices showed a better fit and reduced variability with spectral matching.

  16. Efficient geometric rectification techniques for spectral analysis algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Pang, S. S.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral analysis algorithm is a viable technique for processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in near real time throughput rates by trading the image resolution. One major challenge of the spectral analysis algorithm is that the output image, often referred to as the range-Doppler image, is represented in the iso-range and iso-Doppler lines, a curved grid format. This phenomenon is known to be the fanshape effect. Therefore, resampling is required to convert the range-Doppler image into a rectangular grid format before the individual images can be overlaid together to form seamless multi-look strip imagery. An efficient algorithm for geometric rectification of the range-Doppler image is presented. The proposed algorithm, realized in two one-dimensional resampling steps, takes into consideration the fanshape phenomenon of the range-Doppler image as well as the high squint angle and updates of the cross-track and along-track Doppler parameters. No ground reference points are required.

  17. Power spectral analysis of heart rate in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cacciatori, V; Bellavere, F; Pezzarossa, A; Dellera, A; Gemma, M L; Thomaseth, K; Castello, R; Moghetti, P; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system by separately analyzing the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate. Heart rate variability was evaluated by autoregressive power spectral analysis. This method allows a reliable quantification of the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of the heart rate power spectral density; these are considered to be under mainly sympathetic and pure parasympathetic control, respectively. In 10 newly diagnosed untreated hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease, we analyzed power spectral density of heart rate cyclic variations at rest, while lying, and while standing. In addition, heart rate variations during deep breathing, lying and standing, and Valsalva's maneuver were analyzed. The results were compared to those obtained from 10 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control subjects. In 8 hyperthyroid patients, the same evaluation was repeated after the induction of stable euthyroidism by methimazole. Heart rate power spectral analysis showed a sharp reduction of HF components in hyperthyroid subjects compared to controls [lying, 13.3 +/- 4.1 vs. 32.0 +/- 5.6 normalized units (NU; P < 0.01); standing, 6.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 15.0 +/- 4.0 NU (P < 0.01); mean +/- SEM]. On the other hand components were comparable in the 2 groups (lying, 64.0 +/- 6.9 vs. 62.0 +/- 6.5 NU; standing, 77.0 +/- 6.5 vs. 78.0 +/- 5.4 NU). Hence, the LF/HF ratio, which is considered an index of sympathovagal balance, was increased in hyperthyroid subjects while both lying (11.3 +/- 4.5 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.1; P < 0.05) and standing (54.0 +/- 12.6 vs. 9.8 +/- 2.6; P < 0.02). This parameter was positively correlated with both T3 (r = 0.61; P < 0.05) and free T4 (r = 0.63; P < 0.05) serum levels. Among traditional cardiovascular autonomic tests, the reflex response of heart rate during lying to standing was significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients than in controls (1

  18. Optimization design of spectral discriminator for high-spectral-resolution lidar based on error analysis.

    PubMed

    Di, Huige; Zhang, Zhanfei; Hua, Hangbo; Zhang, Jiaqi; Hua, Dengxin; Wang, Yufeng; He, Tingyao

    2017-03-06

    Accurate aerosol optical properties could be obtained via the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique, which employs a narrow spectral filter to suppress the Rayleigh or Mie scattering in lidar return signals. The ability of the filter to suppress Rayleigh or Mie scattering is critical for HSRL. Meanwhile, it is impossible to increase the rejection of the filter without limitation. How to optimize the spectral discriminator and select the appropriate suppression rate of the signal is important to us. The HSRL technology was thoroughly studied based on error propagation. Error analyses and sensitivity studies were carried out on the transmittance characteristics of the spectral discriminator. Moreover, ratwo different spectroscopic methods for HSRL were described and compared: one is to suppress the Mie scattering; the other is to suppress the Rayleigh scattering. The corresponding HSRLs were simulated and analyzed. The results show that excessive suppression of Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering in a high-spectral channel is not necessary if the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals can be well characterized. When the ratio of transmittance of the spectral filter for aerosol scattering and molecular scattering is less than 0.1 or greater than 10, the detection error does not change much with its value. This conclusion implies that we have more choices for the high-spectral discriminator in HSRL. Moreover, the detection errors of HSRL regarding the two spectroscopic methods vary greatly with the atmospheric backscattering ratio. To reduce the detection error, it is necessary to choose a reasonable spectroscopic method. The detection method of suppressing the Rayleigh signal and extracting the Mie signal can achieve less error in a clear atmosphere, while the method of suppressing the Mie signal and extracting the Rayleigh signal can achieve less error in a polluted atmosphere.

  19. Improved spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategy of wide band k-distribution model used for calculation of infrared remote sensing signal of hot exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-07-01

    A new strategy for grouping spectral absorption coefficients, considering the influences of both temperature and species mole ratio inhomogeneities on correlated-k characteristics of the spectra of gas mixtures, has been deduced to match the calculation method of spectral overlap parameter used in multiscale multigroup wide band k-distribution model. By comparison with current spectral absorption coefficient grouping strategies, for which only the influence of temperature inhomogeneity on the correlated-k characteristics of spectra of single species was considered, the improvements in calculation accuracies resulting from the new grouping strategy were evaluated using a series of 0D cases in which radiance under 3-5-μm wave band emitted by hot combustion gas of hydrocarbon fuel was attenuated by atmosphere with quite different temperature and mole ratios of water vapor and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Finally, evaluations are presented on the calculation of remote sensing thermal images of transonic hot jet exhausted from a chevron ejecting nozzle with solid wall cooling system.

  20. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules. PMID:28119705

  1. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules.

  2. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  3. Clinical measurements analysis of multi-spectral photoplethysmograph biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asare, Lasma; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars; Spigulis, Janis

    2014-05-01

    The developed portable multi-spectral photoplethysmograph (MS-PPG) optical biosensor device, intended for analysis of peripheral blood volume pulsations at different vascular depths, has been clinically verified. Multi-spectral monitoring was performed by means of a four - wavelengths (454 nm, 519 nm, 632 nm and 888 nm) light emitted diodes and photodiode with multi-channel signal output processing. Two such sensors can be operated in parallel and imposed on the patient's skin. The clinical measurements confirmed ability to detect PPG signals at four wavelengths simultaneously and to record temporal differences in the signal shapes (corresponding to different penetration depths) in normal and pathological skin. This study analyzed wavelengths relations between systole and diastole peak difference at various tissue depths in normal and pathological skin. The difference between parameters of healthy and pathological skin at various skin depths could be explain by oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin dominance at different wavelengths operated in sensor. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications in dermatology for skin assessment are discussed.

  4. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Aboelmagd; Armstrong, Justin; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Karamat, Tashfeen; McGaughey, Don; Korenberg, Michael; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS) and the global positioning system (GPS) are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency) inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  5. Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    1995-03-01

    We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute

  6. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  7. Semiclassical analysis of spectral singularities and their applications in optics

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2011-08-15

    Motivated by possible applications of spectral singularities in optics, we develop a semiclassical method of computing spectral singularities. We use this method to examine the spectral singularities of a planar slab gain medium whose gain coefficient varies due to the exponential decay of the intensity of the pumping beam inside the medium. For both singly and doublypumped samples, we obtain universal upper bounds on the decay constant beyond which no lasing occurs. Furthermore, we show that the dependence of the wavelength of the spectral singularities on the value of the decay constant is extremely mild. This is an indication ofmore » the stability of optical spectral singularities.« less

  8. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software packagePySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is

  9. The spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm as a real-time early warning proxy for detecting faecal pollution events at alpine karst water resources.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Klock, E; Skritek, P; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2010-01-01

    Because spring water quality from alpine karst aquifers can change very rapidly during event situations, water abstraction management has to be performed in near real-time. Four summer events (2005-2008) at alpine karst springs were investigated in detail in order to evaluate the spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm (SAC254) as a real-time early warning proxy for faecal pollution. For the investigation Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellite-based data communication between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations and an automated microbiological sampling device was used. The method for event triggered microbial sampling and analyzing was already established and described in a previous paper. Data analysis including on-line event characterisation (i.e. precipitation, discharge, turbidity, SAC254) and comprehensive E. coli determination (n>800) indicated that SAC254 is a useful early warning proxy. Irrespective of the studied event situations SAC254 always increased 3 to 6 hours earlier than the onset of faecal pollution, featuring different correlation phases. Furthermore, it seems also possible to use SAC254 as a real-time proxy parameter for estimating the extent of faecal pollution after establishing specific spring and event-type calibrations that take into consideration the variability of the occurrence and the transferability of faecal material It should be highlighted that diffuse faecal pollution from wildlife and live stock sources was responsible for spring water contamination at the investigated catchments. In this respect, the SAC254 can also provide useful information to support microbial source tracking efforts where different situations of infiltration have to be investigated.

  10. Vegetation species composition and canopy architecture information expressed in leaf water absorption measured in the 1000 nm and 2200 spectral region by an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.

    1995-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring, and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local to regional and even synoptic scales. Classical approaches rely on vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate biophysical parameters such as leaf area index or intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR). Another approach is to apply a variety of classification schemes to map vegetation and thus extrapolate fine-scale information about specific sites to larger areas of similar composition. Imaging spectrometry provides additional information that is not obtainable through broad-band sensors and that may provide improved inputs both to direct biophysical estimates as well as classification schemes. Some of this capability has been demonstrated through improved discrimination of vegetation, estimates of canopy biochemistry, and liquid water estimates from vegetation. We investigate further the potential of leaf water absorption estimated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as a means for discriminating vegetation types and deriving canopy architectural information. We expand our analysis to incorporate liquid water estimates from two spectral regions, the 1000-nm region and the 2200-nm region. The study was conducted in the vicinity of Jasper Ridge, California, which is located on the San Francisco peninsula to the west of the Stanford University campus. AVIRIS data were acquired over Jasper Ridge, CA, on June 2, 1992, at 19:31 UTC. Spectra from three sites in this image were analyzed. These data are from an area of healthy grass, oak woodland, and redwood forest, respectively. For these analyses, the AVIRIS-measured upwelling radiance spectra for the entire Jasper

  11. Accurately Measuring the Color of the Ocean on Earth and from Space: Uncertainties Revisited and A Report from the Community-Led Spectral Absorption Workshop to Update and Revise the NASA Inherent Optical Properties Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeley, Aimee Renee

    2014-01-01

    The color of the ocean (apparent optical properties or AOPs) is determined by the spectral scattering and absorption of light by its dissolved and particulate constituents.The absorption and scattering properties of the water column are the so-called inherent optical properties.

  12. Spectral reflectance of surface soils - A statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, K. R.; Henninger, D. L.; Thompson, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the physical and chemical properties of soils to their spectral reflectance as measured at six wavebands of Thematic Mapper (TM) aboard NASA's Landsat-4 satellite was examined. The results of performing regressions of over 20 soil properties on the six TM bands indicated that organic matter, water, clay, cation exchange capacity, and calcium were the properties most readily predicted from TM data. The middle infrared bands, bands 5 and 7, were the best bands for predicting soil properties, and the near infrared band, band 4, was nearly as good. Clustering 234 soil samples on the TM bands and characterizing the clusters on the basis of soil properties revealed several clear relationships between properties and reflectance. Discriminant analysis found organic matter, fine sand, base saturation, sand, extractable acidity, and water to be significant in discriminating among clusters.

  13. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  14. Estimation of the molar absorption coefficient of copper salicylate within the spectral range 300-350 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2017-12-01

    Additional absorption was detected in absorption spectra within the range 300-350 nm after addition of copper sulfate CuSO4(aq) to a solution of sodium salicylate NaНSal (рН = 7.8). The additional maximum absorption was observed at 320 nm. Assuming that the additional absorption depends on the formation of copper salicylate CuSal, the molar absorption coefficient εCuSal of this complex was determined to be (3.8 ± 0.02) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1. This value is almost equal to that of monoanion HSal-, εHSal - = (3.6 ± 0.04) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1, and is 2.5 times as much as εFe3 + HSal - = (1.55 ± 0.05) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1 for iron salicylate. The difference in εCuSal and εFe3 + HSal - is due to the difference in the initial electron states of Cu2 + and Fe3 + ions that have the d9 and d5 configurations, respectively.

  15. Development of spectral analysis math models and software program and spectral analyzer, digital converter interface equipment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, W. L.; Robinson, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spectral analyses of angle-modulated communication systems is studied by: (1) performing a literature survey of candidate power spectrum computational techniques, determining the computational requirements, and formulating a mathematical model satisfying these requirements; (2) implementing the model on UNIVAC 1230 digital computer as the Spectral Analysis Program (SAP); and (3) developing the hardware specifications for a data acquisition system which will acquire an input modulating signal for SAP. The SAP computational technique uses extended fast Fourier transform and represents a generalized approach for simple and complex modulating signals.

  16. Waveguide-based electro-absorption modulator performance: comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-06-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function for data communication. Given the vast amount of data handled, understanding the intricate physics and trade-offs of modulators on-chip allows revealing performance regimes not explored yet. Here we show a holistic performance analysis for waveguide-based electro-absorption modulators. Our approach centers around material properties revealing obtainable optical absorption leading to effective modal cross-section, and material broadening effects. Taken together both describe the modulator physical behavior entirely. We consider a plurality of material modulation classes to include two-level absorbers such as quantum dots, free carrier accumulation or depletion such as ITO or Silicon, two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductors such as quantum wells, Pauli blocking in Graphene, and excitons in two-dimensional atomic layered materials such as found in transition metal dichalcogendies. Our results show that reducing the modal area generally improves modulator performance defined by the amount of induced electrical charge, and hence the energy-per-bit function, required switching the signal. We find that broadening increases the amount of switching charge needed. While some material classes allow for reduced broadening such as quantum dots and 2-dimensional materials due to their reduced Coulomb screening leading to increased oscillator strengths, the sharpness of broadening is overshadowed by thermal effects independent of the material class. Further we find that plasmonics allows the switching charge and energy-per-bit function to be reduced by about one order of magnitude compared to bulk photonics. This analysis is aimed as a guide for the community to predict anticipated modulator performance based on both existing and emerging materials.

  17. Gradient spectral analysis of solar radio flare superevents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. R.; Veronese, T. B.; Sych, R. A.; Bolzan, M. A.; Sandri, S. A.; Drummond, I. A.; Becceneri, J. C.; Sawant, H. S.

    2011-12-01

    Some of complex solar active regions exhibit rare and sudden transitions that occur over time intervals that are short compared to the characteristic time scales of their evolution. Usually, extreme radio emission is driven by a latent nonlinear process involving magnetic reconnection among coronal loops and such extreme events (e.g., X-class flares and coronal mass ejections) express the presence of plasma and magnetic activity usually hidden inside the solar convective layer. Recently, the scaling exponent obtained from Detrended Fluctuation Analysis has been used to characterize the formation of solar flare superevents - SFS (integrated flux of radiation greater than 1.5 J/m2) when it is observed in the decimetric range of 1-3 GHz (Veronese et al., 2011). Here, we show a complementary computational analisys of four X-class solar flares observed in 17GHz from Nobeyama Radioheliograph. Our analysis is based on the combination of DFA and Gradient Spectral Analysis (GSA) which can be used to characterize the evolution of SFSs under the condition that the emission threshold is large enough (fmax > 300 S.F.U.) and the solar flux unit variability is greater than 50% of the average taken from the minimum flux to the extreme value. Preliminary studies of the gradient spectra of Nobeyama data in 17 GHz can be found in Sawant et al. (JASTP 73(11), 2011). Future applications of GSA on the images which will be observed from the Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) are discusssed.

  18. Spectral Analysis: From Additive Perspective to Multiplicative Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The early usage of trigonometric functions can be traced back to at least 17th century BC. It was Bhaskara II of the 12th century CE who first proved the mathematical equivalence between the sum of two trigonometric functions of any given angles and the product of two trigonometric functions of related angles, which has been taught these days in middle school classroom. The additive perspective of trigonometric functions led to the development of the Fourier transform that is used to express any functions as the sum of a set of trigonometric functions and opened a new mathematical field called harmonic analysis. Unfortunately, Fourier's sum cannot directly express nonlinear interactions between trigonometric components of different periods, and thereby lacking the capability of quantifying nonlinear interactions in dynamical systems. In this talk, the speaker will introduce the Huang transform and Holo-spectrum which were pioneered by Norden Huang and emphasizes the multiplicative perspective of trigonometric functions in expressing any function. Holo-spectrum is a multi-dimensional spectral expression of a time series that explicitly identifies the interactions among different scales and quantifies nonlinear interactions hidden in a time series. Along with this introduction, the developing concepts of physical, rather than mathematical, analysis of data will be explained. Various enlightening applications of Holo-spectrum analysis in atmospheric and climate studies will also be presented.

  19. Raman spectral analysis for rapid screening of dengue infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T.; Nawaz, H.; Ditta, A.; Majeed, M. I.; Hanif, M. A.; Rashid, N.; Bhatti, H. N.; Nargis, H. F.; Saleem, M.; Bonnier, F.; Byrne, H. J.

    2018-07-01

    Infection with the dengue virus is currently clinically detected according to different biomarkers in human blood plasma, commonly measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, including non-structural proteins (Ns1), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, there is little or no mutual correlation between the biomarkers, as demonstrated in this study by a comparison of their levels in samples from 17 patients. As an alternative, the label free, rapid screening technique, Raman spectroscopy has been used for the characterisation/diagnosis of healthy and dengue infected human blood plasma samples. In dengue positive samples, changes in specific Raman spectral bands associated with lipidic and amino acid/protein content are observed and assigned based on literature and these features can be considered as markers associated with dengue development. Based on the spectroscopic analysis of the current, albeit limited, cohort of samples, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) coupled Factorial Discriminant Analysis, yielded values of 97.95% sensitivity and 95.40% specificity for identification of dengue infection. Furthermore, in a comparison of the normal samples to the patient samples which scored low for only one of the biomarker tests, but high or medium for either or both of the other two, PCA-FDA demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.38% and specificity of 86.18%, thus providing an unambiguous screening technology.

  20. Spectral Unmixing Analysis of Time Series Landsat 8 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, R.; Xu, L.; Peng, J.; Chen, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Temporal analysis of Landsat 8 images opens up new opportunities in the unmixing procedure. Although spectral analysis of time series Landsat imagery has its own advantage, it has rarely been studied. Nevertheless, using the temporal information can provide improved unmixing performance when compared to independent image analyses. Moreover, different land cover types may demonstrate different temporal patterns, which can aid the discrimination of different natures. Therefore, this letter presents time series K-P-Means, a new solution to the problem of unmixing time series Landsat imagery. The proposed approach is to obtain the "purified" pixels in order to achieve optimal unmixing performance. The vertex component analysis (VCA) is used to extract endmembers for endmember initialization. First, nonnegative least square (NNLS) is used to estimate abundance maps by using the endmember. Then, the estimated endmember is the mean value of "purified" pixels, which is the residual of the mixed pixel after excluding the contribution of all nondominant endmembers. Assembling two main steps (abundance estimation and endmember update) into the iterative optimization framework generates the complete algorithm. Experiments using both simulated and real Landsat 8 images show that the proposed "joint unmixing" approach provides more accurate endmember and abundance estimation results compared with "separate unmixing" approach.

  1. Multisensor Analysis of Spectral Dimensionality and Soil Diversity in the Great Central Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Daniel; Small, Christopher

    2018-02-14

    Planned hyperspectral satellite missions and the decreased revisit time of multispectral imaging offer the potential for data fusion to leverage both the spectral resolution of hyperspectral sensors and the temporal resolution of multispectral constellations. Hyperspectral imagery can also be used to better understand fundamental properties of multispectral data. In this analysis, we use five flight lines from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) archive with coincident Landsat 8 acquisitions over a spectrally diverse region of California to address the following questions: (1) How much of the spectral dimensionality of hyperspectral data is captured in multispectral data?; (2) Is the characteristic pyramidal structure of the multispectral feature space also present in the low order dimensions of the hyperspectral feature space at comparable spatial scales?; (3) How much variability in rock and soil substrate endmembers (EMs) present in hyperspectral data is captured by multispectral sensors? We find nearly identical partitions of variance, low-order feature space topologies, and EM spectra for hyperspectral and multispectral image composites. The resulting feature spaces and EMs are also very similar to those from previous global multispectral analyses, implying that the fundamental structure of the global feature space is present in our relatively small spatial subset of California. Finally, we find that the multispectral dataset well represents the substrate EM variability present in the study area - despite its inability to resolve narrow band absorptions. We observe a tentative but consistent physical relationship between the gradation of substrate reflectance in the feature space and the gradation of sand versus clay content in the soil classification system.

  2. Multisensor Analysis of Spectral Dimensionality and Soil Diversity in the Great Central Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Small, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Planned hyperspectral satellite missions and the decreased revisit time of multispectral imaging offer the potential for data fusion to leverage both the spectral resolution of hyperspectral sensors and the temporal resolution of multispectral constellations. Hyperspectral imagery can also be used to better understand fundamental properties of multispectral data. In this analysis, we use five flight lines from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) archive with coincident Landsat 8 acquisitions over a spectrally diverse region of California to address the following questions: (1) How much of the spectral dimensionality of hyperspectral data is captured in multispectral data?; (2) Is the characteristic pyramidal structure of the multispectral feature space also present in the low order dimensions of the hyperspectral feature space at comparable spatial scales?; (3) How much variability in rock and soil substrate endmembers (EMs) present in hyperspectral data is captured by multispectral sensors? We find nearly identical partitions of variance, low-order feature space topologies, and EM spectra for hyperspectral and multispectral image composites. The resulting feature spaces and EMs are also very similar to those from previous global multispectral analyses, implying that the fundamental structure of the global feature space is present in our relatively small spatial subset of California. Finally, we find that the multispectral dataset well represents the substrate EM variability present in the study area – despite its inability to resolve narrow band absorptions. We observe a tentative but consistent physical relationship between the gradation of substrate reflectance in the feature space and the gradation of sand versus clay content in the soil classification system. PMID:29443900

  3. Detection of hidden mineral deposits by airborne spectral analysis of forest canopies. [Spirit Lake, Washington; Catheart Mountain, Maine; Blacktail Mountain, Montana; and Cotter Basin, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Data from field surveys and biogeochemical tests conducted in Maine, Montana, and Washington strongly correlate with results obtained using high resolution airborne spectroradiometer which detects an anomalous spectral waveform that appears definitely associated with sulfide mineralization. The spectral region most affected by mineral stress is between 550 nm and 750 nm. Spectral variations observed in the field occur on the wings of the red chlorophyll band centered at about 690 nm. The metal-stress-induced variations on the absorption band wing are most successfully resolved in the high spectral resolution field data using a waveform analysis technique. The development of chlorophyll pigments was retarded in greenhouse plants doped with copper and zinc in the laboratory. The lowered chlorophyll production resulted in changes on the wings of the chlorophyll bands of reflectance spectra of the plants. The airborne spectroradiometer system and waveform analysis remains the most sensitive technique for biogeochemical surveys.

  4. Measurements and modeling of absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures in the spectral region beyond the CO2 ν3-band head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Turbet, M.; Chelin, P.; Landsheere, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we measured the absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures from 2400 to 2600 cm-1 which corresponds to the spectral region beyond the ν3 band head of CO2. Transmission spectra of CO2 mixed with water vapor were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for various pressure, temperature and concentration conditions. The continuum absorption by CO2 due to the presence of water vapor was determined by subtracting from measured spectra the contribution of local lines of both species, that of the continuum of pure CO2 as well as of the self- and CO2-continua of water vapor induced by the H2O-H2O and H2O-CO2 interactions. The obtained results are in very good agreement with the unique previous measurement (in a narrower spectral range). They confirm that the H2O-continuum of CO2 is significantly larger than that observed for pure CO2. This continuum thus must be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations for media involving CO2+ H2O mixture. An empirical model, using sub-Lorentzian line shapes based on some temperature-dependent correction factors χ is proposed which enables an accurate description of the experimental results.

  5. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  6. Spectral analysis of scattered light from flowers' petals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Atsumi; Uehara, Tomomi; Sekiguchi, Fumihiko; Imai, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for studying absorption characteristics of opaque samples based on the light scattering spectroscopy. Measurements were made in white, red and violet petals of Petunia hybrida, and gave the absorption spectra in a non-destructive manner without damaging the cell structures of the petal. The red petal has absorption peak at 550 nm and the violet has three absorption peaks: at 450, 670, and 550 nm. The results were discussed in correlation with the microscopic cell structures of the petal observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only the cells placed in the surface have the pigments giving the color of the petal.

  7. [Preparation and spectral analysis of a new type of blue light-emitting material delta-Alq3].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-ying; Gao, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, He-feng; Xu, Bing-she

    2006-10-01

    In the present article, delta-Alq3, a new type of blue light-emitting material, was synthesized and investigated by IR spectra, XRD spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electroluminescence (EL) spectra. The relationship between molecular spatial structure and spectral characteristics was studied by the spectral analysis of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3. Results show that a new phase of Alq3 (delta-Alq3) can be obtained by vacuum heating alpha-Alq3, and the molecular spatial structure of alpha-Alq3 changes during the vacuum heating. The molecular spatial structure of delta-Alq3 lacks symmetry compared to alpha-Alq3. This transformation can reduce the electron cloud density on phenoxide of Alq3 and weaken the intermolecular conjugated interaction between adjacent Alq3 molecules. Hence, the pi--pi* electron transition absorption peak of delta-Alq3 shifts toward short wavelength in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the maximum emission peak of delta-Alq3 (lamda max = 480 nm) blue-shifts by 35 nm compared with that of alpha-Alq3 (lamda max = 515 nm) in PL spectra. The maximum emission peaks of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3 are all at 520 nm in EL spectra.

  8. Multicolor spectral karyotype analysis of a transplantable human ileal carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, H; Nilsson, O; Behrendt, M; Kölby, L; Jacobsen Levin, A M; Ahlman, H; Stenman, G

    2000-12-01

    In this report we present the results of a combined cytogenetic and multicolor spectral karyotype (SKY) analysis of a transplantable human ileal carcinoid (GOT1). By using SKY it was possible to identify the origin and organization of all clonal marker chromosomes and to identify cryptic translocations not detectable by conventional chromosome banding. The stemline karyotype of low passage GOT1 cells was interpreted as 43,XX, der(1)del(1)(?), inv(2)(p25q13), del(3)(p21), del(5)(q13q31), del(6)(q13), -9, -13, -15, del(16) (q22). Analysis of the GOT1 cells after about 2.5 years of propagation in nude mice allowed us to follow the in vivo progression of this tumor. Relatively few additional rearrangements had occurred during this period, indicating that the GOT1 cells are genetically stable. Most of the abnormalities detected result in loss of whole or parts of chromosomes, suggesting that loss of multiple chromosomal regions, presumably containing tumor suppressor genes, might be important genetic events in ileal carcinoids.

  9. Spectral Analysis Tool 6.2 for Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Feiming; Sue, Miles; Peng, Ted; Tan, Harry; Liang, Robert; Kinman, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Spectral Analysis Tool 6.2 is the latest version of a computer program that assists in analysis of interference between radio signals of the types most commonly used in Earth/spacecraft radio communications. [An earlier version was reported in Software for Analyzing Earth/Spacecraft Radio Interference (NPO-20422), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 4 (April 2001), page 52.] SAT 6.2 calculates signal spectra, bandwidths, and interference effects for several families of modulation schemes. Several types of filters can be modeled, and the program calculates and displays signal spectra after filtering by any of the modeled filters. The program accommodates two simultaneous signals: a desired signal and an interferer. The interference-to-signal power ratio can be calculated for the filtered desired and interfering signals. Bandwidth-occupancy and link-budget calculators are included for the user s convenience. SAT 6.2 has a new software structure and provides a new user interface that is both intuitive and convenient. SAT 6.2 incorporates multi-tasking, multi-threaded execution, virtual memory management, and a dynamic link library. SAT 6.2 is designed for use on 32- bit computers employing Microsoft Windows operating systems.

  10. Informed spectral analysis: audio signal parameter estimation using side information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourer, Dominique; Marchand, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Parametric models are of great interest for representing and manipulating sounds. However, the quality of the resulting signals depends on the precision of the parameters. When the signals are available, these parameters can be estimated, but the presence of noise decreases the resulting precision of the estimation. Furthermore, the Cramér-Rao bound shows the minimal error reachable with the best estimator, which can be insufficient for demanding applications. These limitations can be overcome by using the coding approach which consists in directly transmitting the parameters with the best precision using the minimal bitrate. However, this approach does not take advantage of the information provided by the estimation from the signal and may require a larger bitrate and a loss of compatibility with existing file formats. The purpose of this article is to propose a compromised approach, called the 'informed approach,' which combines analysis with (coded) side information in order to increase the precision of parameter estimation using a lower bitrate than pure coding approaches, the audio signal being known. Thus, the analysis problem is presented in a coder/decoder configuration where the side information is computed and inaudibly embedded into the mixture signal at the coder. At the decoder, the extra information is extracted and is used to assist the analysis process. This study proposes applying this approach to audio spectral analysis using sinusoidal modeling which is a well-known model with practical applications and where theoretical bounds have been calculated. This work aims at uncovering new approaches for audio quality-based applications. It provides a solution for challenging problems like active listening of music, source separation, and realistic sound transformations.

  11. Temperature dependence of the water vapor continuum absorption in the 3-5 μm spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeshina, T. E.; Rodimova, O. B.

    2013-04-01

    Asymptotic line wing theory allows one to construct the line shape describing the frequency and temperature dependence of the self-broadened H2O continuum in the 3-5 μm spectral region obtained experimentally by CAVIAR and NIST. The H2O transmission functions are adequately described as well, using this line shape up to temperatures of ˜675 K and pressures of ˜10 atm.

  12. An absorption spectral study of Nd (III) with glutathione (reduced), GSH in aqueous and aquated organic solvent in presence and absence of Zn (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Jignasu P.; Bhatt, Prashant N.; Misra, Sudhindra N.

    2003-02-01

    The coordination chemistry of glutathione (reduced) GSH is of great importance as it acts as an excellent model system for the binding of metal ions. The GSH complexation with metal ions is involved in the toxicology of different metal ions. Its coordination behaviour for soft metal ions and hard metal ions is found different because of the structure of GSH and its different potential binding sites. We have studied two chemically dissimilar metal ions viz. Nd (III) being hard metal ion, which will prefer hard donor sites like carboxylic groups, and Zn (II) the soft metal ion more suited to peptide-NH and sulfhydryl groups. The absorption difference and comparative absorption spectroscopy involving 4f-4f transitions of the heterobimetallic complexation of GSH with Nd (III) and Zn (II) has been explored in aqueous and aquated organic solvents. The changes in the oscillator strengths of different 4f-4f bands and Judd-Ofelt intensity (Tλ) parameters determined experimentally is being used to investigate the complexation of GSH. The in vivo intracellular complexation of GSH with Ca (II) in presence of Zn (II) ion has been mimicked through Nd (III)-GSH-Zn (II) absorption spectral studies in vitro.

  13. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  14. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  15. On Holo-Hilbert Spectral Analysis: A Full Informational Spectral Representation for Nonlinear and Non-Stationary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Huang; Peng, Chung Kang; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through convolutional integral transforms based on additive expansions of an a priori determined basis, mostly under linear and stationary assumptions. Thus, for non-stationary processes, the best one could do historically was to use the time- frequency representations, in which the amplitude (or energy density) variation is still represented in terms of time. For nonlinear processes, the data can have both amplitude and frequency modulations (intra-mode and inter-mode) generated by two different mechanisms: linear additive or nonlinear multiplicative processes. As all existing spectral analysis methods are based on additive expansions, either a priori or adaptive, none of them could possibly represent the multiplicative processes. While the earlier adaptive HHT spectral analysis approach could accommodate the intra-wave nonlinearity quite remarkably, it remained that any inter-wave nonlinear multiplicative mechanisms that include cross-scale coupling and phase-lock modulations were left untreated. To resolve the multiplicative processes issue, additional dimensions in the spectrum result are needed to account for the variations in both the amplitude and frequency modulations simultaneously. HHSA accommodates all the processes: additive and multiplicative, intra-mode and inter-mode, stationary and nonstationary, linear and nonlinear interactions. The Holo prefix in HHSA denotes a multiple dimensional representation with both additive and multiplicative capabilities.

  16. On Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis: a full informational spectral representation for nonlinear and non-stationary data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H.; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R.; Wu, Zhauhua

    2016-01-01

    The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through convolutional integral transforms based on additive expansions of an a priori determined basis, mostly under linear and stationary assumptions. Thus, for non-stationary processes, the best one could do historically was to use the time–frequency representations, in which the amplitude (or energy density) variation is still represented in terms of time. For nonlinear processes, the data can have both amplitude and frequency modulations (intra-mode and inter-mode) generated by two different mechanisms: linear additive or nonlinear multiplicative processes. As all existing spectral analysis methods are based on additive expansions, either a priori or adaptive, none of them could possibly represent the multiplicative processes. While the earlier adaptive HHT spectral analysis approach could accommodate the intra-wave nonlinearity quite remarkably, it remained that any inter-wave nonlinear multiplicative mechanisms that include cross-scale coupling and phase-lock modulations were left untreated. To resolve the multiplicative processes issue, additional dimensions in the spectrum result are needed to account for the variations in both the amplitude and frequency modulations simultaneously. HHSA accommodates all the processes: additive and multiplicative, intra-mode and inter-mode, stationary and non-stationary, linear and nonlinear interactions. The Holo prefix in HHSA denotes a multiple dimensional representation with both additive and multiplicative capabilities. PMID:26953180

  17. Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Wu, J.; Huang, H.; Liu, J.

    2012-08-01

    Dimensionality reduction algorithms, which aim to select a small set of efficient and discriminant features, have attracted great attention for Hyperspectral Image Classification. The manifold learning methods are popular for dimensionality reduction, such as Locally Linear Embedding, Isomap, and Laplacian Eigenmap. However, a disadvantage of many manifold learning methods is that their computations usually involve eigen-decomposition of dense matrices which is expensive in both time and memory. In this paper, we introduce a new dimensionality reduction method, called Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis (SRDA). SRDA casts the problem of learning an embedding function into a regression framework, which avoids eigen-decomposition of dense matrices. Also, with the regression based framework, different kinds of regularizes can be naturally incorporated into our algorithm which makes it more flexible. It can make efficient use of data points to discover the intrinsic discriminant structure in the data. Experimental results on Washington DC Mall and AVIRIS Indian Pines hyperspectral data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Analysis of spectral light guidance in specialty fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Arne W.; Raithel, Philipp; Belz, Mathias; Klein, Karl-Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    A novel experimental set-up for measuring the spectral dependency of light-guidance of specialty non-active multimodefibers will be introduced. Light coupling into the test fiber is realized and controlled with a micro-structured single mode (SM) fiber and an image-system based on a microscope objective The far- and near-field profiles of the SM-fiber will be shown. The inverse far field method is modified and improved by using three wavelengths simultaneously under the same input conditions; the coupling conditions into the test-fiber and the far- and near-field at fiber output are observed with cameras. The numerical aperture (NA) and mode-conversion or focal-ratio-degradation (FRD) are measured in respect to wavelength at three wavelengths in the VIS region. For the analysis, the patterns are captured at varying exposure times to increase the dynamic range and finally analyzed using image processing methods. Characteristic parameters, such as skew mode propagation and ray-conversion, of circular and non-circular MM-fibers will be discussed, taking the surface roughness into account.

  19. Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

  20. Spectral Analysis Flare ribbons by NST and IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Nengyi; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin; Jing, Ju

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most powerful phenomena of solar activities, flares have long been observed and studied extensively. Taking advantages of observing capabilities of modern solar telescopes and focal-plane instruments such as the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar observatory (BBSO), we are able to obtain high resolution imaging spectroscopic data in UV, visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here we present the spectral analysis of an M6.5 flare (SOL2015-06-22T18:23) which was well covered by the joint observation of IRIS and NST. In the visible wavelengths H-alpha and TiO, we can separate the flare ribbon into a very narrow leading front and faint trailing component, of which the former is characterized by the intense emission and significant Doppler signals. In the IRIS UV spectra, the ribbon front shows distinct properties, such as the line broadening, Doppler shifts and central reversal pattern, which are consistent with the visible observations. These characteristics suggest that the ribbon front to be the p

  1. Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Mohammad, Hameed GHH

    2008-01-01

    Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1) estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2) ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000) migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000) of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000) among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582) (95% CI: 19 -23), ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16) in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41) in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741) trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03) peak located at a frequency (radians) 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575). Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021%) was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants was

  2. Derivative component analysis for mass spectral serum proteomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Han, Henry

    2014-01-01

    As a promising way to transform medicine, mass spectrometry based proteomics technologies have seen a great progress in identifying disease biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. However, there is a lack of effective feature selection methods that are able to capture essential data behaviors to achieve clinical level disease diagnosis. Moreover, it faces a challenge from data reproducibility, which means that no two independent studies have been found to produce same proteomic patterns. Such reproducibility issue causes the identified biomarker patterns to lose repeatability and prevents it from real clinical usage. In this work, we propose a novel machine-learning algorithm: derivative component analysis (DCA) for high-dimensional mass spectral proteomic profiles. As an implicit feature selection algorithm, derivative component analysis examines input proteomics data in a multi-resolution approach by seeking its derivatives to capture latent data characteristics and conduct de-noising. We further demonstrate DCA's advantages in disease diagnosis by viewing input proteomics data as a profile biomarker via integrating it with support vector machines to tackle the reproducibility issue, besides comparing it with state-of-the-art peers. Our results show that high-dimensional proteomics data are actually linearly separable under proposed derivative component analysis (DCA). As a novel multi-resolution feature selection algorithm, DCA not only overcomes the weakness of the traditional methods in subtle data behavior discovery, but also suggests an effective resolution to overcoming proteomics data's reproducibility problem and provides new techniques and insights in translational bioinformatics and machine learning. The DCA-based profile biomarker diagnosis makes clinical level diagnostic performances reproducible across different proteomic data, which is more robust and systematic than the existing biomarker discovery based diagnosis. Our findings demonstrate

  3. New robust bilinear least squares method for the analysis of spectral-pH matrix data.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2005-07-01

    A new second-order multivariate method has been developed for the analysis of spectral-pH matrix data, based on a bilinear least-squares (BLLS) model achieving the second-order advantage and handling multiple calibration standards. A simulated Monte Carlo study of synthetic absorbance-pH data allowed comparison of the newly proposed BLLS methodology with constrained parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and with the combination multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) technique under different conditions of sample-to-sample pH mismatch and analyte-background ratio. The results indicate an improved prediction ability for the new method. Experimental data generated by measuring absorption spectra of several calibration standards of ascorbic acid and samples of orange juice were subjected to second-order calibration analysis with PARAFAC, MCR-ALS, and the new BLLS method. The results indicate that the latter method provides the best analytical results in regard to analyte recovery in samples of complex composition requiring strict adherence to the second-order advantage. Linear dependencies appear when multivariate data are produced by using the pH or a reaction time as one of the data dimensions, posing a challenge to classical multivariate calibration models. The presently discussed algorithm is useful for these latter systems.

  4. An experimental study of the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectral properties of new p-substituted-N-phenylpyrroles and their electrosynthesized polymers.

    PubMed

    Diaw, A K D; Gningue-Sall, D; Yassar, A; Brochon, J-C; Henry, E; Aaron, J-J

    2015-01-25

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectral properties of new p-substituted-N-phenylpyrroles (N-PhPys), including HOPhPy, MeOPhPy, ThPhPy, PhDPy, DPhDPy, PyPhThThPhPy, and their available, electrosynthesized polymers were investigated. Electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yields (ΦF) and lifetimes (τF), and other photophysical parameters of these N-PhPy derivatives and their polymers were measured in DMF, DMSO diluted solutions and/or solid state at room temperature. The electronic absorption spectra of N-PhPy derivatives and their polymers included one to several bands, located in the 270-395 nm region, according to the p-phenyl substituent electron-donating effect and conjugated heteroaromatic system length. The fluorescence excitation spectra were characterized by one broad main peak, with, in most cases, one (or more) poorly resolved shoulder (s), appearing in the 270-405 nm region, and their emission spectra were generally constituted of several bands located in the 330-480 nm region. No significant shift of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra wavelengths was found upon going from the monomers to the corresponding polymers. ΦF values were high, varying between 0.11 and 0.63, according to the nature of substituents(s) and to the conjugated system extension. Fluorescence decays were mono-exponential for the monomers and poly-exponential for PyPhThThPhPy and for polymers. τF values were relatively short (0.35-5.17 ns), and markedly decreased with the electron-donor character of the phenyl group p-substituent and the conjugated system extension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. All-optical laser spectral narrowing and line fixing at atomic absorption transition by injection competition and gain knock-down techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacheva, Lazarina I.; Deneva, Margarita A.; Kalbanov, Mihail H.; Nenchev, Marin N.

    2008-12-01

    We present two original, all optical techniques, to produce a narrowline laser light, fixed at the frequency of a chosen reference atomic absorption transition. The first type of systems is an essential improvement of our method 3,4 for laser spectral locking using a control by two frequency scanned, competitive injections with disturbed power ratio by the absorption at the reference line. The new development eliminates the narrowing limiting problem, related with the fixed laser longitudinal mode structure. We have proposed an original new technique for continuously tunable single mode laser operation in combination with synchronously and equal continuous tuning of the modes of the amplifier. By adapting the laser differential rate equations, the system is analyzed theoretically in details and is shown its feasibility. The results are in agreement with previous our experiments. The essential advantage, except simplicity of realization, is that the laser line can be of order of magnitude and more narrowed than the absorption linewidth. The second system is based of the laser amplifier arrangement with a gain knock-down from the competitive frequency scanned pulse, except at the wavelength of the desired absorption reference line. The essential advantages of the last system are that the problem of fixing laser mode presence is naturally avoided. The theoretical modeling and the numerical investigations show the peculiarity and advantages of the system proposed. The developed approaches are of interest for applications in spectroscopy, in DIAL monitoring of the atmospheric pollutants, in isotope separation system and potentially - for creation of simple, all optical, frequency standards for optical communications. Also, the continuously tunable single mode laser (and the combination with the simultaneously tunable amplifier) presents itself the interest for many practical applications in spectroscopy, metrology, and holography. We compare the action and the

  6. Optimizing spectral resolutions for the classification of C3 and C4 grass species, using wavelengths of known absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjorlolo, Clement; Cho, Moses A.; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote-sensing approaches are suitable for detection of the differences in 3-carbon (C3) and four carbon (C4) grass species phenology and composition. However, the application of hyperspectral sensors to vegetation has been hampered by high-dimensionality, spectral redundancy, and multicollinearity problems. In this experiment, resampling of hyperspectral data to wider wavelength intervals, around a few band-centers, sensitive to the biophysical and biochemical properties of C3 or C4 grass species is proposed. The approach accounts for an inherent property of vegetation spectral response: the asymmetrical nature of the inter-band correlations between a waveband and its shorter- and longer-wavelength neighbors. It involves constructing a curve of weighting threshold of correlation (Pearson's r) between a chosen band-center and its neighbors, as a function of wavelength. In addition, data were resampled to some multispectral sensors-ASTER, GeoEye-1, IKONOS, QuickBird, RapidEye, SPOT 5, and WorldView-2 satellites-for comparative purposes, with the proposed method. The resulting datasets were analyzed, using the random forest algorithm. The proposed resampling method achieved improved classification accuracy (κ=0.82), compared to the resampled multispectral datasets (κ=0.78, 0.65, 0.62, 0.59, 0.65, 0.62, 0.76, respectively). Overall, results from this study demonstrated that spectral resolutions for C3 and C4 grasses can be optimized and controlled for high dimensionality and multicollinearity problems, yet yielding high classification accuracies. The findings also provide a sound basis for programming wavebands for future sensors.

  7. Spectral Clustering and Geomorphological Analysis on Mercury Hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, A.; Pajola, M.; Galluzzi, V.; Giacomini, L.; Carli, C.; Cremonese, G.; Marzo, G. A.; Massironi, M.; Roush, T.

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of hollows located in different craters to understand whether there is a similar trend from a compositional point of view, and whether a possible correlation exists between spectral behavior of hollows and geomorphological units.

  8. Spectral analysis of crater central peak material (ccp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiano, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Raponi, A.; Tosi, F.; Ammannito, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    We spectrally investigated 32 ccp units, which stand out in geologic maps of Ceres as they exhibit a different color and morphology with respect to the surrounding floor. We focus our attention on spectral parameters related to Mg-phyllosilicates (2.7 μm band), ammoniated phyllosilicates (3.1 μm band) and carbonates (bands at about 3.4 and 4.0 μm).

  9. Auditory spectral versus spatial temporal order judgment: Threshold distribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey

    2017-05-01

    Some researchers suggested that one central mechanism is responsible for temporal order judgments (TOJ), within and across sensory channels. This suggestion is supported by findings of similar TOJ thresholds in same modality and cross-modality TOJ tasks. In the present study, we challenge this idea by analyzing and comparing the threshold distributions of the spectral and spatial TOJ tasks. In spectral TOJ, the tones differ in their frequency ("high" and "low") and are delivered either binaurally or monaurally. In spatial (or dichotic) TOJ, the two tones are identical but are presented asynchronously to the two ears and thus differ with respect to which ear received the first tone and which ear received the second tone ("left"/"left"). Although both tasks are regarded as measures of auditory temporal processing, a review of data published in the literature suggests that they trigger different patterns of response. The aim of the current study was to systematically examine spectral and spatial TOJ threshold distributions across a large number of studies. Data are based on 388 participants in 13 spectral TOJ experiments, and 222 participants in 9 spatial TOJ experiments. None of the spatial TOJ distributions deviated significantly from the Gaussian; while all of the spectral TOJ threshold distributions were skewed to the right, with more than half of the participants accurately judging temporal order at very short interstimulus intervals (ISI). The data do not support the hypothesis that 1 central mechanism is responsible for all temporal order judgments. We suggest that different perceptual strategies are employed when performing spectral TOJ than when performing spatial TOJ. We posit that the spectral TOJ paradigm may provide the opportunity for two-tone masking or temporal integration, which is sensitive to the order of the tones and thus provides perceptual cues that may be used to judge temporal order. This possibility should be considered when interpreting

  10. Generalized five-dimensional dynamic and spectral factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    El Fakhri, Georges; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Zimmerman, Robert E.

    2006-04-15

    We have generalized the spectral factor analysis and the factor analysis of dynamic sequences (FADS) in SPECT imaging to a five-dimensional general factor analysis model (5D-GFA), where the five dimensions are the three spatial dimensions, photon energy, and time. The generalized model yields a significant advantage in terms of the ratio of the number of equations to that of unknowns in the factor analysis problem in dynamic SPECT studies. We solved the 5D model using a least-squares approach. In addition to the traditional non-negativity constraints, we constrained the solution using a priori knowledge of both time and energy, assuming thatmore » primary factors (spectra) are Gaussian-shaped with full-width at half-maximum equal to gamma camera energy resolution. 5D-GFA was validated in a simultaneous pre-/post-synaptic dual isotope dynamic phantom study where {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I activities were used to model early Parkinson disease studies. 5D-GFA was also applied to simultaneous perfusion/dopamine transporter (DAT) dynamic SPECT in rhesus monkeys. In the striatal phantom, 5D-GFA yielded significantly more accurate and precise estimates of both primary {sup 99m}Tc (bias=6.4%{+-}4.3%) and {sup 123}I (-1.7%{+-}6.9%) time activity curves (TAC) compared to conventional FADS (biases=15.5%{+-}10.6% in {sup 99m}Tc and 8.3%{+-}12.7% in {sup 123}I, p<0.05). Our technique was also validated in two primate dynamic dual isotope perfusion/DAT transporter studies. Biases of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 123}I-DAT activity estimates with respect to estimates obtained in the presence of only one radionuclide (sequential imaging) were significantly lower with 5D-GFA (9.4%{+-}4.3% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and 8.7%{+-}4.1% for {sup 123}I-DAT) compared to biases greater than 15% for volumes of interest (VOI) over the reconstructed volumes (p<0.05). 5D-GFA is a novel and promising approach in dynamic SPECT imaging that can also be used in other modalities. It allows accurate and

  11. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  12. Absorption spectra analysis of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    2000-11-01

    Absorption spectra of powdered samples of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides of the formulas NH 4UCl 4 · 4H 2O and CsUCl 4 · 3H 2O have been recorded at 4.2 K in the 4000-26 000 cm -1 range. The analysis of the spectra enabled the determination of crystal-field parameters and assignment of 83 and 77 crystal-field levels for the tetrahydrate and trihydrate, respectively. The energies of the levels were computed by applying a simplified angular overlap model as well as a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions. Ab initio calculations have enabled the application of a simplified parameterization and the determination of the starting values of the AOM parameters. The received results have proved that the AOM approach can quite well predict both the structure of the ground multiplet and the positions of the crystal-field levels in the 17 000-25 000 cm -1 range, usually obscured by strong f-d bands.

  13. Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Samulski, Edward T; Lopez, Rene

    2009-04-27

    We analyze optical absorption enhancements and quasiguided mode properties of organic solar cells with highly ordered nanostructured photoactive layers comprised of the bulk heterojunction blend, poly-3-hexylthiophene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and a low index of refraction conducting material (LICM). This photonic crystal geometry is capable of enhancing spectral absorption by approximately 17% in part due to the excitation of quasiguided modes near the band edge of P3HT:PCBM. A nanostructure thickness between 200 nm and 300 nm is determined to be optimal, while the LICM must have an index of refraction approximately 0.3 lower than P3HT:PCBM to produce absorption enhancements. Quasiguided modes that differ in lifetime by an order of magnitude are also identified and yield absorption that is concentrated in the P3HT:PCBM flash layer.

  14. An Analysis of AERONET Aerosol Absorption Properties and Classifications Representative of Aerosol Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Smirnov, Alexander; Slutsker, Ilya; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of mineral dust, pollution, smoke, and mixtures using remote sensing techniques can help improve accuracy of satellite retrievals and assessments of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Spectral aerosol optical depth (tau) and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0) ) from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements are used to form absorption [i.e., omega (sub 0) and absorption Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub abs))] and size [i.e., extinction Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub ext)) and fine mode fraction of tau] relationships to infer dominant aerosol types. Using the long-term AERONET data set (1999-2010), 19 sites are grouped by aerosol type based on known source regions to: (1) determine the average omega (sub 0) and alpha(sub abs) at each site (expanding upon previous work); (2) perform a sensitivity study on alpha(sub abs) by varying the spectral omega (sub 0); and (3) test the ability of each absorption and size relationship to distinguish aerosol types. The spectral omega (sub 0) averages indicate slightly more aerosol absorption (i.e., a 0.0 < delta omega (sub 0) <= 0.02 decrease) than in previous work and optical mixtures of pollution and smoke with dust show stronger absorption than dust alone. Frequency distributions of alpha(sub abs) show significant overlap among aerosol type categories and at least 10% of the alpha(sub abs) retrievals in each category are below 1.0. Perturbing the spectral omega (sub 0) by +/- 0.03 induces significant alpha(sub abs) changes from the unperturbed value by at least approx. +/- 0.6 for Dust, approx. +/-0.2 for Mixed, and approx. +/-0.1 for Urban/Industrial and Biomass Burning. The omega (sub 0)440nm and alpha(sub ext) 440-870nm relationship shows the best separation among aerosol type clusters, providing a simple technique for determining aerosol type from surface- and future space-based instrumentation.

  15. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John C.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 μm and 2.31–2.33 μm, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 μm caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 μm due to muscovite and illite.Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 μm (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a preexisting geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 μm, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain muscovite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator.A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy and global analysis of CF4 rovibrational bands to model its atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M.; Gruson, O.; Richard, C.; Boudon, V.; Rotger, M.; Thomas, X.; Maul, C.; Sydow, C.; Domanskaya, A.; Georges, R.; Soulard, P.; Pirali, O.; Goubet, M.; Asselin, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    CF4, or tetrafluoromethane, is a chemically inert and strongly absorbing greenhouse gas, mainly of anthropogenic origin. In order to monitor and reduce its atmospheric emissions and concentration, it is thus necessary to obtain an accurate model of its infrared absorption. Such models allow opacity calculations for radiative transfer atmospheric models. In the present work, we perform a global analysis (divided into two distinct fitting schemes) of 17 rovibrational bands of CF4. This gives a reliable model of many of its lower rovibrational levels and allows the calculation of the infrared absorption in the strongly absorbing ν3 region (1283 cm-1 / 7.8 μm), including the main hot band, namely ν3 +ν2 -ν2 as well as ν3 +ν1 -ν1 ; we could also extrapolate the ν3 +ν4 -ν4 absorption. This represents almost 92% of the absorption at room temperature in this spectral region. A new accurate value of the C-F bond length is evaluated to re = 1.314860(21) Å. The present results have been used to update the HITRAN, GEISA and TFMeCaSDa (VAMDC) databases.

  17. Absorption spectrum analysis based on singular value decomposition for photoisomerization and photodegradation in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.

  18. X-ray Spectral Analysis of the Cataclysmic Variable LS Peg using XMM-Newton Observatory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebpour Sheshvan, N.; Nabizadeh, A.; Balman, S.

    2017-10-01

    LS Peg is a Cataclysmic Variable (CV) suggested as Intermediate Polar (IP) because of similar properties to those observed in IP systems. We used archival XMM-Newton observation of LS Peg in order to study the X-ray characteristics of the system. We show LS Peg light curves in several different energy bands, and discuss about orbital modulations and power spectral analysis. Unlike the previous spectral analysis of the EPIC-MOS data by fitting a hot optically thin plasma emission model with a single temperature, we simultaneously fit EPIC spectrum (pn+MOS) using a composite model of absorption (tbabs) along with two different partial covering absorbers plus a multi-temperature plasma emission component in XSPEC. In addition, we find a Gaussian emission line at 6.4 keV. For LS Peg the maximum temperature of the plasma distribution is found to be ˜ 17.8 keV with a luminosity of ˜ 7.4×10^{32}erg s^{-1} translating to an accretion rate of ˜ 1.7×10 ^{-10} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}. We present spectra for orbital minimum and orbital maximum. In addition, we use SWIFT observations of the source in order to make a comparison. We elaborate on the geometry of accretion and absorption in the X-ray emitting region with articulation on the magnetic nature.

  19. Hurricane coastal flood analysis using multispectral spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogashawara, I.; Ferreira, C.; Curtarelli, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is one of the main hazards caused by extreme events such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Therefore, flood maps are a crucial tool to support policy makers, environmental managers and other government agencies for emergency management, disaster recovery and risk reduction planning. However traditional flood mapping methods rely heavily on the interpolation of hydrodynamic models results, and most recently, the extensive collection of field data. These methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and costly. Efficient and fast response alternative methods should be developed in order to improve flood mapping, and remote sensing has been proved as a valuable tool for this application. Our goal in this paper is to introduce a novel technique based on spectral analysis in order to aggregate knowledge and information to map coastal flood areas. For this purpose we used the Normalized Diference Water Index (NDWI) which was derived from two the medium resolution LANDSAT/TM 5 surface reflectance product from the LANDSAT climate data record (CDR). This product is generated from specialized software called Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS). We used the surface reflectance products acquired before and after the passage of Hurricane Ike for East Texas in September of 2008. We used as end member a classification of estimated flooded area based on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm surge network that was deployed for Hurricane Ike. We used a dataset which consisted of 59 water levels recording stations. The estimated flooded area was delineated interpolating the maximum surge in each location using a spline with barriers method with high tension and a 30 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Our results showed that, in the flooded area, the NDWI values decreased after the hurricane landfall on average from 0.38 to 0.18 and the median value decreased from 0.36 to 0.2. However

  20. Eta Carinae across the 2003.5 Minimum: Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. Vieira; Weis, K.; Gull, T.; Stahl, O.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present analysis of the visible through near infrared spectrum of eta Car and its ejecta obtained during the 'eta Car Campaign with the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)'. This is a part of larger effort to present a complete eta Car spectrum, and extends the previously presented analyses with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) in the UV (1240-3159 A) to 10,430 A. The spectrum in the mid and near UV is characterized by the ejecta absorption. At longer wavelengths, stellar wind features from the central source and narrow emission lines from the Weigelt condensations dominate the spectrum. However, narrow absorption lines from the circumstellar shells are present. This paper provides a description of the spectrum between 3060 and 10,430 A, including line identifications of the ejecta absorption spectrum, the emission spectrum from the Weigelt condensations and the P-Cygni stellar wind features. The high spectral resolving power of VLT/UVES enables equivalent width measurements of atomic and molecular absorption lines for elements with no transitions at the shorter wavelengths. However, the ground based seeing and contributions of nebular scattered radiation prevent direct comparison of measured equivalent widths in the VLT/UVES and HST/STIS spectra. Fortunately, HST/STIS and VLT/UVES have a small overlap in wavelength coverage which allows us to compare and adjust for the difference in scattered radiation entering the instruments apertures. This paper provide a complete online VLT/UVES spectrum with line identifications and a spectral comparison between HST/STIS and VLT/UVES between 3060 and 3160 A.

  1. Eta Carinae across the 2003.5 Minimum: Analysis in the Visible and Near Infrared Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. Vieira; Weis, K.; Gull, T. R.; Stahl, O.; Bomans, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the visible through near infrared spectrum of Eta Car and its ejecta obtained during the "Eta Car Campaign with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)". This is a part of the larger effort to present a complete Eta Car spectrum, and extends the previously presented analyses with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) in the UV (1240-3159 Angstrom) to 10,430 Angstrom. The spectrum in the mid and near UV is characterized by the ejecta absorption. At longer wavelengths, stellar wind features from the central source and narrow emission lines from the Weigelt condensations dominate the spectrum. However, narrow absorption lines from the circumstellar shells are present. This paper provides a description of the spectrum between 3060 and 10,430 Angstroms, including line identifications of the ejecta absorption spectrum, the emission spectrum from the Weigelt condensations and the P-Cygni stellar wind features. The high spectral resolving power of VLT/UVES enables equivalent width measurements of atomic and molecular absorption lines for elements with no transitions at the shorter wavelengths. However, the ground based seeing and contributions of nebular scattered radiation prevent direct comparison of measured equivalent widths in the VLT/UVES and HST/STIS spectra. Fortunately, HST/STIS and VLT/UVES have a small overlap in wavelength coverage which allows us to compare and adjust for the difference in scattered radiation entering the instruments' apertures. This paper provides a complete online VLT/UVES spectrum with line identifications and a spectral comparison between HST/STIS and VLT/UVES between 3060 and 3160 Angstroms.

  2. Multitaper Spectral Analysis and Wavelet Denoising Applied to Helioseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, R. W.; Gu, Y.; Hill, F.; Stark, P. B.; Fodor, I. K.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of solar normal mode frequencies from helioseismic observations can be improved by using Multitaper Spectral Analysis (MTSA) to estimate spectra from the time series, then using wavelet denoising of the log spectra. MTSA leads to a power spectrum estimate with reduced variance and better leakage properties than the conventional periodogram. Under the assumption of stationarity and mild regularity conditions, the log multitaper spectrum has a statistical distribution that is approximately Gaussian, so wavelet denoising is asymptotically an optimal method to reduce the noise in the estimated spectra. We find that a single m-upsilon spectrum benefits greatly from MTSA followed by wavelet denoising, and that wavelet denoising by itself can be used to improve m-averaged spectra. We compare estimates using two different 5-taper estimates (Stepian and sine tapers) and the periodogram estimate, for GONG time series at selected angular degrees l. We compare those three spectra with and without wavelet-denoising, both visually, and in terms of the mode parameters estimated from the pre-processed spectra using the GONG peak-fitting algorithm. The two multitaper estimates give equivalent results. The number of modes fitted well by the GONG algorithm is 20% to 60% larger (depending on l and the temporal frequency) when applied to the multitaper estimates than when applied to the periodogram. The estimated mode parameters (frequency, amplitude and width) are comparable for the three power spectrum estimates, except for modes with very small mode widths (a few frequency bins), where the multitaper spectra broadened the modest compared with the periodogram. We tested the influence of the number of tapers used and found that narrow modes at low n values are broadened to the extent that they can no longer be fit if the number of tapers is too large. For helioseismic time series of this length and temporal resolution, the optimal number of tapers is less than 10.

  3. Analysis of wheezes using wavelet higher order spectral features.

    PubMed

    Taplidou, Styliani A; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-07-01

    Wheezes are musical breath sounds, which usually imply an existing pulmonary obstruction, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although many studies have addressed the problem of wheeze detection, a limited number of scientific works has focused in the analysis of wheeze characteristics, and in particular, their time-varying nonlinear characteristics. In this study, an effort is made to reveal and statistically analyze the nonlinear characteristics of wheezes and their evolution over time, as they are reflected in the quadratic phase coupling of their harmonics. To this end, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used in combination with third-order spectra to define the analysis domain, where the nonlinear interactions of the harmonics of wheezes and their time variations are revealed by incorporating instantaneous wavelet bispectrum and bicoherence, which provide with the instantaneous biamplitude and biphase curves. Based on this nonlinear information pool, a set of 23 features is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of wheezes. Two complementary perspectives, i.e., general and detailed, related to average performance and to localities, respectively, were used in the construction of the feature set, in order to embed trends and local behaviors, respectively, seen in the nonlinear interaction of the harmonic elements of wheezes over time. The proposed feature set was evaluated on a dataset of wheezes, acquired from adult patients with diagnosed asthma and COPD from a lung sound database. The statistical evaluation of the feature set revealed discrimination ability between the two pathologies for all data subgroupings. In particular, when the total breathing cycle was examined, all 23 features, but one, showed statistically significant difference between the COPD and asthma pathologies, whereas for the subgroupings of inspiratory and expiratory phases, 18 out of 23 and 22 out of 23 features exhibited discrimination power, respectively

  4. Estimation of sub-pixel water area on Tibet plateau using multiple endmembers spectral mixture spectral analysis from MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qian; Shi, Jiancheng; Xu, Yuanliu

    2011-12-01

    Water is the basic needs for human society, and the determining factor of stability of ecosystem as well. There are lots of lakes on Tibet Plateau, which will lead to flood and mudslide when the water expands sharply. At present, water area is extracted from TM or SPOT data for their high spatial resolution; however, their temporal resolution is insufficient. MODIS data have high temporal resolution and broad coverage. So it is valuable resource for detecting the change of water area. Because of its low spatial resolution, mixed-pixels are common. In this paper, four spectral libraries are built using MOD09A1 product, based on that, water body is extracted in sub-pixels utilizing Multiple Endmembers Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) using MODIS daily reflectance data MOD09GA. The unmixed result is comparing with contemporaneous TM data and it is proved that this method has high accuracy.

  5. Multi-Spectral Image Analysis for Improved Space Object Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, M.; Riker, J.; Glass, W.; Bush, K.; Briscoe, D.; Klein, M.; Pugh, M.; Engberg, B.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is studying the application and utility of various ground based and space-based optical sensors for improving surveillance of space objects in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). At present, ground-based optical and radar sensors provide the bulk of remotely sensed information on satellites and space debris, and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. However, in recent years, the Space Based Visible (SBV) sensor was used to demonstrate that a synthesis of space-based visible data with ground-based sensor data could provide enhancements to information obtained from any one source in isolation. The incentives for space-based sensing include improved spatial resolution due to the absence of atmospheric effects and cloud cover and increased flexibility for observations. Though ground-based optical sensors can use adaptive optics to somewhat compensate for atmospheric turbulence, cloud cover and absorption are unavoidable. With recent advances in technology, we are in a far better position to consider what might constitute an ideal system to monitor our surroundings in space. This work has begun at the AFRL using detailed optical sensor simulations and analysis techniques to explore the trade space involved in acquiring and processing data from a variety of hypothetical space-based and ground-based sensor systems. In this paper, we briefly review the phenomenology and trade space aspects of what might be required in order to use multiple band-passes, sensor characteristics, and observation and illumination geometries to increase our awareness of objects in space.

  6. Multi-spectral image analysis for improved space object characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, William; Duggin, Michael J.; Motes, Raymond A.; Bush, Keith A.; Klein, Meiling

    2009-08-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is studying the application and utility of various ground-based and space-based optical sensors for improving surveillance of space objects in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). This information can be used to improve our catalog of space objects and will be helpful in the resolution of satellite anomalies. At present, ground-based optical and radar sensors provide the bulk of remotely sensed information on satellites and space debris, and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. However, in recent years, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor was used to demonstrate that a synthesis of space-based visible data with ground-based sensor data could provide enhancements to information obtained from any one source in isolation. The incentives for space-based sensing include improved spatial resolution due to the absence of atmospheric effects and cloud cover and increased flexibility for observations. Though ground-based optical sensors can use adaptive optics to somewhat compensate for atmospheric turbulence, cloud cover and absorption are unavoidable. With recent advances in technology, we are in a far better position to consider what might constitute an ideal system to monitor our surroundings in space. This work has begun at the AFRL using detailed optical sensor simulations and analysis techniques to explore the trade space involved in acquiring and processing data from a variety of hypothetical space-based and ground-based sensor systems. In this paper, we briefly review the phenomenology and trade space aspects of what might be required in order to use multiple band-passes, sensor characteristics, and observation and illumination geometries to increase our awareness of objects in space.

  7. Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkamp, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used asmore » a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.« less

  8. Correction of pathlength amplification in the filter-pad technique for measurements of particulate absorption coefficient in the visible spectral region.

    PubMed

    Stramski, Dariusz; Reynolds, Rick A; Kaczmarek, Sławomir; Uitz, Julia; Zheng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Spectrophotometric measurement of particulate matter retained on filters is the most common and practical method for routine determination of the spectral light absorption coefficient of aquatic particles, ap(λ), at high spectral resolution over a broad spectral range. The use of differing geometrical measurement configurations and large variations in the reported correction for pathlength amplification induced by the particle/filter matrix have hindered adoption of an established measurement protocol. We describe results of dedicated laboratory experiments with a diversity of particulate sample types to examine variation in the pathlength amplification factor for three filter measurement geometries; the filter in the transmittance configuration (T), the filter in the transmittance-reflectance configuration (T-R), and the filter placed inside an integrating sphere (IS). Relationships between optical density measured on suspensions (ODs) and filters (ODf) within the visible portion of the spectrum were evaluated for the formulation of pathlength amplification correction, with power functions providing the best functional representation of the relationship for all three geometries. Whereas the largest uncertainties occur in the T method, the IS method provided the least sample-to-sample variability and the smallest uncertainties in the relationship between ODs and ODf. For six different samples measured with 1 nm resolution within the light wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm, a median error of 7.1% is observed for predicted values of ODs using the IS method. The relationships established for the three filter-pad methods are applicable to historical and ongoing measurements; for future work, the use of the IS method is recommended whenever feasible.

  9. Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Development of photothermal microactuator based on spectral analysis of photothermal expansion material].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Dong-Xian; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2009-11-01

    The spectral characteristic of materials is the key factor of the photothermal microactuator's performance. The present article introduces the operating principle, and analyzes the relationship between the material spectral characteristic and its expansion. As the photothermal microactuator is an innovative microactuator based on photothermal expansion that absorbs the laser energy and converts it into internal energy to realize the microdrive, the optimal photothermal expansion material with proper absorption spectrum characteristic matching the spectrum of light driving source needs to be found. The reflection and absorption spectra of four types of polymeric material, including PVC, HDPE, LDPE and PET, were obtained by using the single integrating sphere method. The results indicate that the reflection spectrum of the dyed high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is of double-peak structure in visible band, and there is strong absorption within the range of 600-690 nm, which means it would match the light driving source quite well in the broad spectral range. Therefore, HDPE was chosen as the photothermal expansion material. In order to check out the feasibility and performance of the photothermal microactuactor based on HDPE, a prototyping microactuator 1 500 mm in length and 30 mm in thickness was manufactured by using an excimer laser micromachining system. With a laser diode (10 mW/650 nm) as the external power source to activate the microactuator, performance measurement experiments were carried out by using a self-produced video movement measurement system with a CCD-coupled microscope. The experiment results demonstrate that the deflection of the microactuator reaches 18.7 mm at 10 mW of laser power, showing that the characteristics of spectral absorption and light-heat transition are quite well at 650 nm. This novel photothermal microactuator has simple structure, adjustable displacement output, and more mobility, and can be controlled remotely, so it will be

  11. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%.

  12. Effect of solvent on the electronic absorption spectral properties of some mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-tetraphenylporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhyrappa, P.; Sankar, M.

    2018-01-01

    A series of mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-porphyrins, 2,3,12,13-tetra(chloro/cyano/methyl)-5,7,8,10,15,17,18,20-octaphenylporphinato zinc(II), ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = CN, Cl and CH3) have been examined by electronic absorption spectroscopy in various solvents. These Zn(II)-porphyrins exhibited varying degree of red-shift of absorption bands as high as 20-30 nm in 'B' band and 50-60 nm in longest wavelength band, 'Q(0,0)' band in polar solvents relative to that found in nonpolar solvents. The red-shift of B and Q(0,0) bands showed an unusual trend, ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 but fails to follow an anticipated anodic shift in first porphyrin ring oxidation (vs Ag/AgCl) potential: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 (0.74 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 (0.38 V). Such a trend suggests the combined effect of non-planarity of the macrocycle and electronic effect of the peripheral substituents. The equilibrium constants for the binding of nitrogenous bases with the Zn(II)-porphyrins showed as high as twenty fold increase for ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = Br and CN) relative to ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 and follow the order: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 ≤ ZnTPP which is approximately in line with an increase in anodic shift of their first ring redox potentials (ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 (0.72 V) > ZnTPP (0.84 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4) (0.38 V).

  13. Statistical Analysis of Spectral Properties and Prosodic Parameters of Emotional Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibil, J.; Přibilová, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses reflection of microintonation and spectral properties in male and female acted emotional speech. Microintonation component of speech melody is analyzed regarding its spectral and statistical parameters. According to psychological research of emotional speech, different emotions are accompanied by different spectral noise. We control its amount by spectral flatness according to which the high frequency noise is mixed in voiced frames during cepstral speech synthesis. Our experiments are aimed at statistical analysis of cepstral coefficient values and ranges of spectral flatness in three emotions (joy, sadness, anger), and a neutral state for comparison. Calculated histograms of spectral flatness distribution are visually compared and modelled by Gamma probability distribution. Histograms of cepstral coefficient distribution are evaluated and compared using skewness and kurtosis. Achieved statistical results show good correlation comparing male and female voices for all emotional states portrayed by several Czech and Slovak professional actors.

  14. Time-resolved spectral analysis of Radachlorin luminescence in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belik, V. P.; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Semenova, I. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2017-05-01

    We report results of spectral- and time-resolved study of Radachlorin photosensitizer luminescence in water in the spectral range of 950-1350nm and for determination of the photosensitizer triplet state and the singlet oxygen lifetimes responsible for singlet oxygen generation and degradation. At any wavelength within the explored spectral range the luminescence decay contained two major contributions: a fast decay at the ns time scale and a slow evolution at the μs time scale. The fast decay was attributed to electric dipole fluorescence transitions in photosensitizer molecules and the slow evolution to intercombination phosphorescence transitions in singlet oxygen and photosensitizer molecules. Relatively high-amplitude ns peak observed at all wavelengths suggests that singlet oxygen monitoring with spectral isolation methods alone, without additional temporal resolution can be controversial. In the applied experimental conditions the total phosphorescence signal at any wavelength contained a contribution from the photosensitizer triplet state decay, while at 1274nm the singlet oxygen phosphorescence dominated. The results obtained can be used for optimization of the methods of singlet oxygen monitoring and imaging.

  15. Analysis of spectral operators in one-dimensional domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results are proven concerning certain projection operators on the space of all polynomials of degree less than or equal to N with respect to a class of one-dimensional weighted Sobolev spaces. The results are useful in the theory of the approximation of partial differential equations with spectral methods.

  16. Spectral and Temporal Laser Fluorescence Analysis Such as for Natural Aquatic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chekalyuk, Alexander (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) can combine spectrally and temporally resolved measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for characterization of dissolved and particulate matter, including fluorescence constituents, in liquids. Spectral deconvolution (SDC) analysis of LSE spectral measurements can accurately retrieve information about individual fluorescent bands, such as can be attributed to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments, or chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), among others. Improved physiological assessments of photosynthesizing organisms can use SDC analysis and temporal LSE measurements to assess variable fluorescence corrected for SDC-retrieved background fluorescence. Fluorescence assessments of Chl-a concentration based on LSE spectral measurements can be improved using photo-physiological information from temporal measurements. Quantitative assessments of PBP pigments, CDOM, and other fluorescent constituents, as well as basic structural characterizations of photosynthesizing populations, can be performed using SDC analysis of LSE spectral measurements.

  17. Spectral identification of melon seeds variety based on k-nearest neighbor and Fisher discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiling; Jiang, Kai; Zhao, Xueguan; Fan, Pengfei; Wang, Xiu; Liu, Chuan

    2017-10-01

    Impurity of melon seeds variety will cause reductions of melon production and economic benefits of farmers, this research aimed to adopt spectral technology combined with chemometrics methods to identify melon seeds variety. Melon seeds whose varieties were "Yi Te Bai", "Yi Te Jin", "Jing Mi NO.7", "Jing Mi NO.11" and " Yi Li Sha Bai "were used as research samples. A simple spectral system was developed to collect reflective spectral data of melon seeds, including a light source unit, a spectral data acquisition unit and a data processing unit, the detection wavelength range of this system was 200-1100nm with spectral resolution of 0.14 7.7nm. The original reflective spectral data was pre-treated with de-trend (DT), multiple scattering correction (MSC), first derivative (FD), normalization (NOR) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing methods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method was adopted to reduce the dimensions of reflective spectral data and extract principal components. K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) methods were used to develop discriminant models of melon seeds variety based on PCA. Spectral data pretreatments improved the discriminant effects of KNN and FDA, FDA generated better discriminant results than KNN, both KNN and FDA methods produced discriminant accuracies reaching to 90.0% for validation set. Research results showed that using spectral technology in combination with KNN and FDA modelling methods to identify melon seeds variety was feasible.

  18. Bedload transport from spectral analysis of seismic noise near rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    Channel change in rivers is driven by bedload sediment transport. However, the nonlinear nature of sediment transport combined with the difficulty of making direct observations in rivers at flood hinder prediction of the timing and magnitude of bedload movement. Recent studies have shown that spectral analysis of seismic noise from seismometers near rivers illustrate a correlation between the relative amplitude of high frequency (>1 Hz) seismic noise and conditions for bedload transport, presumably from the energy transferred from clast collisions with the channel. However, a previous study in the Himalayas did not contain extensive bedload transport or discharge measurements, and the correspondence of seismic noise with proxy variables such as regional hydrologic and meteorologic data was not exact. A more complete understanding of the relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise would be valuable for extending the spatial and temporal extent of bedload data. To explore the direct relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise, we examine data from several seismic stations near the Trinity River in California, where the fluvial morphodynamics and bedload rating curves have been studied extensively. We compare the relative amplitude of the ambient seismic noise with records of water discharge and sediment transport. We also examine the noise at hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales to determine other possible sources of noise. We report the influence of variables such as local river slope, adjacent geology, anthropogenic noise, and distance from the river. The results illustrate the feasibility of using existing seismic arrays to sense radiated energy from processes of bedload transport. In addition, the results can be used to design future seismic array campaigns to optimize information about bedload transport. This technique provides great spatial and temporal coverage, and can be performed where direct bedload measurements are difficult or

  19. Spectral compression algorithms for the analysis of very large multivariate images

    DOEpatents

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2007-10-16

    A method for spectrally compressing data sets enables the efficient analysis of very large multivariate images. The spectral compression algorithm uses a factored representation of the data that can be obtained from Principal Components Analysis or other factorization technique. Furthermore, a block algorithm can be used for performing common operations more efficiently. An image analysis can be performed on the factored representation of the data, using only the most significant factors. The spectral compression algorithm can be combined with a spatial compression algorithm to provide further computational efficiencies.

  20. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  1. Analysis of gaseous ammonia (NH3) absorption in the visible spectrum of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Bowles, Neil; Braude, Ashwin S.; Garland, Ryan; Calcutt, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the visible/near-infrared reflectance spectrum of Jupiter have been made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument in the spectral range 0.48-0.93 μm in support of the NASA/Juno mission. These spectra contain spectral signatures of gaseous ammonia (NH3), whose abundance above the cloud tops can be determined if we have reliable information on its absorption spectrum. While there are a number of sources of NH3 absorption data in this spectral range, they cover small sub-ranges, which do not necessarily overlap and have been determined from a variety of sources. There is thus considerable uncertainty regarding the consistency of these different sources when modelling the reflectance of the entire visible/near-IR range. In this paper we analyse the VLT/MUSE observations of Jupiter to determine which sources of ammonia absorption data are most reliable. We find that the band model coefficients of Bowles et al. (2008) provide, in general, the best combination of reliability and wavelength coverage over the MUSE range. These band data appear consistent with ExoMOL ammonia line data of Yurchenko et al. (2011), at wavelengths where they overlap, but these latter data do not cover the ammonia absorption bands at 0.79 and 0.765 μm, which are prominent in our MUSE observations. However, we find the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) are not reliable at wavelengths less than 0.758 μm. At shorter wavelengths we find the laboratory observations of Lutz and Owen (1980) provide a good indication of the position and shape of the ammonia absorptions near 0.552 μm and 0.648 μm, but their absorption strengths appear inconsistent with the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) at longer wavelengths. Finally, we find that the line data of the 0.648 μm absorption band of Giver et al. (1975) are not suitable for modelling these data as they account for only 17% of the band absorption and cannot be extended reliably to the cold

  2. Automated computation of autonomous spectral submanifolds for nonlinear modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsioen, Sten; Pedergnana, Tiemo; Haller, George

    2018-04-01

    We discuss an automated computational methodology for computing two-dimensional spectral submanifolds (SSMs) in autonomous nonlinear mechanical systems of arbitrary degrees of freedom. In our algorithm, SSMs, the smoothest nonlinear continuations of modal subspaces of the linearized system, are constructed up to arbitrary orders of accuracy, using the parameterization method. An advantage of this approach is that the construction of the SSMs does not break down when the SSM folds over its underlying spectral subspace. A further advantage is an automated a posteriori error estimation feature that enables a systematic increase in the orders of the SSM computation until the required accuracy is reached. We find that the present algorithm provides a major speed-up, relative to numerical continuation methods, in the computation of backbone curves, especially in higher-dimensional problems. We illustrate the accuracy and speed of the automated SSM algorithm on lower- and higher-dimensional mechanical systems.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Spectral Analysis Method to Eliminate Organic Interference with Cavity Ring-Down Measurements of Water Isotope Ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Kim-Hak, D.; Popp, B. N.; Wallsgrove, N.; Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Johnson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a technology based on the spectral absorption of gas molecules of interest at specific spectral regions. The CRDS technique enables the analysis of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water by directly measuring individual isotopologue absorption peaks such as H16OH, H18OH, and D16OH. Early work demonstrated that the accuracy of isotope analysis by CRDS and other laser-based absorption techniques could be compromised by spectral interference from organic compounds, in particular methanol and ethanol, which can be prevalent in ecologically-derived waters. There have been several methods developed by various research groups including Picarro to address the organic interference challenge. Here, we describe an organic fitter and a post-processing algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of the isotopic analysis of the "organic contaminated" water specifically for Picarro models L2130-i and L2140-i. To create the organic fitter, the absorption features of methanol around 7200 cm-1 were characterized and incorporated into spectral analysis. Since there was residual interference remaining after applying the organic fitter, a statistical model was also developed for post-processing correction. To evaluate the performance of the organic fitter and the postprocessing correction, we conducted controlled experiments on the L2130-i for two water samples with different isotope ratios blended with varying amounts of methanol (0-0.5%) and ethanol (0-5%). When the original fitter was not used for spectral analysis, the addition of 0.5% methanol changed the apparent isotopic composition of the water samples by +62‰ for δ18O values and +97‰ for δ2H values, and the addition of 5% ethanol changed the apparent isotopic composition by -0.5‰ for δ18O values and -3‰ for δ2H values. When the organic fitter was used for spectral analysis, the maximum methanol-induced errors were reduced to +4‰ for δ18O values and +5‰ for δ2

  4. Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jilge, Marianne; Heiden, Uta; Habermeyer, Martin; Mende, André; Juergens, Carsten

    2017-08-08

    High resolution imaging spectroscopy data have been recognised as a valuable data resource for augmenting detailed material inventories that serve as input for various urban applications. Image-specific urban spectral libraries are successfully used in urban imaging spectroscopy studies. However, the regional- and sensor-specific transferability of such libraries is limited due to the wide range of different surface materials. With the developed methodology, incomplete urban spectral libraries can be utilised by assuming that unknown surface material spectra are dissimilar to the known spectra in a basic spectral library (BSL). The similarity measure SID-SCA (Spectral Information Divergence-Spectral Correlation Angle) is applied to detect image-specific unknown urban surfaces while avoiding spectral mixtures. These detected unknown materials are categorised into distinct and identifiable material classes based on their spectral and spatial metrics. Experimental results demonstrate a successful redetection of material classes that had been previously erased in order to simulate an incomplete BSL. Additionally, completely new materials e.g., solar panels were identified in the data. It is further shown that the level of incompleteness of the BSL and the defined dissimilarity threshold are decisive for the detection of unknown material classes and the degree of spectral intra-class variability. A detailed accuracy assessment of the pre-classification results, aiming to separate natural and artificial materials, demonstrates spectral confusions between spectrally similar materials utilizing SID-SCA. However, most spectral confusions occur between natural or artificial materials which are not affecting the overall aim. The dissimilarity analysis overcomes the limitations of working with incomplete urban spectral libraries and enables the generation of image-specific training databases.

  5. Detecting Unknown Artificial Urban Surface Materials Based on Spectral Dissimilarity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jilge, Marianne; Heiden, Uta; Habermeyer, Martin; Mende, André; Juergens, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    High resolution imaging spectroscopy data have been recognised as a valuable data resource for augmenting detailed material inventories that serve as input for various urban applications. Image-specific urban spectral libraries are successfully used in urban imaging spectroscopy studies. However, the regional- and sensor-specific transferability of such libraries is limited due to the wide range of different surface materials. With the developed methodology, incomplete urban spectral libraries can be utilised by assuming that unknown surface material spectra are dissimilar to the known spectra in a basic spectral library (BSL). The similarity measure SID-SCA (Spectral Information Divergence-Spectral Correlation Angle) is applied to detect image-specific unknown urban surfaces while avoiding spectral mixtures. These detected unknown materials are categorised into distinct and identifiable material classes based on their spectral and spatial metrics. Experimental results demonstrate a successful redetection of material classes that had been previously erased in order to simulate an incomplete BSL. Additionally, completely new materials e.g., solar panels were identified in the data. It is further shown that the level of incompleteness of the BSL and the defined dissimilarity threshold are decisive for the detection of unknown material classes and the degree of spectral intra-class variability. A detailed accuracy assessment of the pre-classification results, aiming to separate natural and artificial materials, demonstrates spectral confusions between spectrally similar materials utilizing SID-SCA. However, most spectral confusions occur between natural or artificial materials which are not affecting the overall aim. The dissimilarity analysis overcomes the limitations of working with incomplete urban spectral libraries and enables the generation of image-specific training databases. PMID:28786947

  6. [Spectral analysis of transient species of quinoline degradation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Long; Zhu, Da-Zhang; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Jun; Ni, Ya-Ming; Wang, Wen-Feng; Yao, Si-De

    2006-08-01

    Quinoline's degradation was studied by pulse radiolysis. It was found that hydrated electron, hydrogen radical, hydroxyl radical and SO4*- can react with quinoline. The absorption spectra of the transient species of quinoline were obtained, and related constants were determined, but it was found that the species of Br2*- and N3*- can't react with quinoline. The results give us some advices for studing the degradation of quinoline.

  7. Field Spectroscopy And Spectral Analysis Of Caribbean Scleractinian Reef Corals And Related Benthic Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.; Corredor, J. E.; Polanco, R.; Zuluaga-Montero, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Coral reefs are highly heterogenic ecosystems with a plethora of photosynthetic organisms forming most of the benthic communities. Usually coral reef benthos is a composite of reef corals, different groups of algae, seagrasses, sandy bottoms, dead rubble, and even mangrove forests living in a relatively small area. The remote characterization of these important tropical ecosystems represents a challenge to scientists, particularly due to the similarity of the spectral signatures among some of these components. As such, we examined the similarities and differences between nine Scleractinian Caribbean shallow-water reef corals' spectral reflectance curves. Samples were also collected from each species for pigment analysis using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Reflectance curves were obtained with the aid of a GER-1500 hand-held field spectroradiometer enclosed in an underwater housing. Our findings showed that even though most of the pigmentation was directly related to the relationship of corals with their symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), the presence of other endolithic photosynthetic organisms can also contribute to the light absorption of corals and, hence, the reflectance spectra of each species. Also, the relative contribution of chlorophylls vs. carotenes or xanthophylls depends on the coral species with some species relying more on Chlorophyll a and other species relying on Chlorophyl c2 and Peridinin with a small Chlorophyll a component. Pigments associated with the xanthophyll cycle of dinoflagellates (Diadinoxanthin and Diatoxanthin) were detected in most species. Pigments typical of endolithic organisms such as Zeaxanthin, Fucoxanthin, Violaxanthin and Siphonaxanthin were also detected in some coral species. The influence of major pigments on the reflectance curve was evidenced with a 2nd derivative analysis. This could be used to discriminate among most species. Further, an analysis of the integration of the area under the

  8. Spectral analysis for GNSS coordinate time series using chirp Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengtao; Bo, Wanju; Ma, Qingzun; Wang, Zifan

    2017-12-01

    Spectral analysis for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) coordinate time series provides a principal tool to understand the intrinsic mechanism that affects tectonic movements. Spectral analysis methods such as the fast Fourier transform, Lomb-Scargle spectrum, evolutionary power spectrum, wavelet power spectrum, etc. are used to find periodic characteristics in time series. Among spectral analysis methods, the chirp Fourier transform (CFT) with less stringent requirements is tested with synthetic and actual GNSS coordinate time series, which proves the accuracy and efficiency of the method. With the length of series only limited to even numbers, CFT provides a convenient tool for windowed spectral analysis. The results of ideal synthetic data prove CFT accurate and efficient, while the results of actual data show that CFT is usable to derive periodic information from GNSS coordinate time series.

  9. Spectral Analysis of the Effects of Daylight Saving Time on Motor Vehicle Fatal Traffic Accidents

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-04-01

    This report shows that Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces the number of persons killed in motor vehicle fatal traffic accidents by about one percent. This estimate is based on a spectral (Fourier) analysis of these fatalities which utilizes a filteri...

  10. Vertical shear-wave velocity profiles generated from spectral analysis of surface waves : field examples

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-04-01

    Surface wave (Rayleigh wave) seismic data were acquired at six separate bridge sites in southeast Missouri. Each acquired surface wave data set was processed (spectral analysis of surface waves; SASW) and transformed into a site-specific vertical she...

  11. Ground-based eye-safe networkable micro-pulse differential absorption and high spectral resolution lidar for water vapor and aerosol profiling in the lower troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repasky, K. S.; Spuler, S.; Hayman, M. M.; Bunn, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a greenhouse gas that is known to be a significant driver of weather and climate. Several National Research Council (NRC) reports have highlighted the need for improved water vapor measurements that can capture its spatial and temporal variability as a means to improve weather predictions. Researchers at Montana State University (MSU) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an eye-safe diode laser based micro-pulse differential absorption lidar (MP-DIAL) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere. The MP-DIAL is capable of long term unattended operation and is capable of monitoring water vapor in the lower troposphere in most weather conditions. Two MP-DIAL instruments are currently operational and have been deployed at the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Plains elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment, the Perdigão experiment, and the Land Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE). For each of these field experiments, the MP-DIAL was run unattended and provided near-continuous water vapor profiles, including periods of bright daytime clouds, from 300 m above the ground level to 4 km (or the cloud base) with 150 m vertical resolution and 5 minute temporal resolution. Three additional MP-DIAL instruments are currently under construction and will result in a network of five eye-safe MP-DIAL instruments for ground based weather and climate research experiments. Taking advantage of the broad spectral coverage and modularity or the diode based architecture, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) measurement capabilities was added to the second MP-DIAL instrument. The HSRL capabilities will be operational during the deployment at the LAFE field experiment. The instrument architecture will be presented along with examples of data collected during recent field experiments.

  12. Spectral and correlation analysis with applications to middle-atmosphere radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, Prabhat K.

    1989-01-01

    The correlation and spectral analysis methods for uniformly sampled stationary random signals, estimation of their spectral moments, and problems arising due to nonstationary are reviewed. Some of these methods are already in routine use in atmospheric radar experiments. Other methods based on the maximum entropy principle and time series models have been used in analyzing data, but are just beginning to receive attention in the analysis of radar signals. These methods are also briefly discussed.

  13. Chemometric analysis of correlations between electronic absorption characteristics and structural and/or physicochemical parameters for ampholytic substances of biological and pharmaceutical relevance.

    PubMed

    Judycka-Proma, U; Bober, L; Gajewicz, A; Puzyn, T; Błażejowski, J

    2015-03-05

    Forty ampholytic compounds of biological and pharmaceutical relevance were subjected to chemometric analysis based on unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms. This enabled relations to be found between empirical spectral characteristics derived from electronic absorption data and structural and physicochemical parameters predicted by quantum chemistry methods or phenomenological relationships based on additivity rules. It was found that the energies of long wavelength absorption bands are correlated through multiparametric linear relationships with parameters reflecting the bulkiness features of the absorbing molecules as well as their nucleophilicity and electrophilicity. These dependences enable the quantitative analysis of spectral features of the compounds, as well as a comparison of their similarities and certain pharmaceutical and biological features. Three QSPR models to predict the energies of long-wavelength absorption in buffers with pH=2.5 and pH=7.0, as well as in methanol, were developed and validated in this study. These models can be further used to predict the long-wavelength absorption energies of untested substances (if they are structurally similar to the training compounds). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral analysis of a family of binary inflation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baake, Michael; Grimm, Uwe; Mañibo, Neil

    2018-01-01

    The family of primitive binary substitutions defined by 1 \\mapsto 0 \\mapsto 0 1^m with m\\in N is investigated. The spectral type of the corresponding diffraction measure is analysed for its geometric realisation with prototiles (intervals) of natural length. Apart from the well-known Fibonacci inflation (m=1 ), the inflation rules either have integer inflation factors, but non-constant length, or are of non-Pisot type. We show that all of them have singular diffraction, either of pure point type or essentially singular continuous.

  15. Effective numerical method of spectral analysis of quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Víctor; Rabinovich, Vladimir S.

    2017-05-01

    We present in the paper an effective numerical method for the determination of the spectra of periodic metric graphs equipped by Schrödinger operators with real-valued periodic electric potentials as Hamiltonians and with Kirchhoff and Neumann conditions at the vertices. Our method is based on the spectral parameter power series method, which leads to a series representation of the dispersion equation, which is suitable for both analytical and numerical calculations. Several important examples demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for some periodic graphs of interest that possess potentials usually found in quantum mechanics.

  16. Eigensolution analysis of spectral/hp continuous Galerkin approximations to advection-diffusion problems: Insights into spectral vanishing viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study addresses linear dispersion-diffusion analysis for the spectral/hp continuous Galerkin (CG) formulation in one dimension. First, numerical dispersion and diffusion curves are obtained for the advection-diffusion problem and the role of multiple eigencurves peculiar to spectral/hp methods is discussed. From the eigencurves' behaviour, we observe that CG might feature potentially undesirable non-smooth dispersion/diffusion characteristics for under-resolved simulations of problems strongly dominated by either convection or diffusion. Subsequently, the linear advection equation augmented with spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) is analysed. Dispersion and diffusion characteristics of CG with SVV-based stabilization are verified to display similar non-smooth features in flow regions where convection is much stronger than dissipation or vice-versa, owing to a dependency of the standard SVV operator on a local Péclet number. First a modification is proposed to the traditional SVV scaling that enforces a globally constant Péclet number so as to avoid the previous issues. In addition, a new SVV kernel function is suggested and shown to provide a more regular behaviour for the eigencurves along with a consistent increase in resolution power for higher-order discretizations, as measured by the extent of the wavenumber range where numerical errors are negligible. The dissipation characteristics of CG with the SVV modifications suggested are then verified to be broadly equivalent to those obtained through upwinding in the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Nevertheless, for the kernel function proposed, the full upwind DG scheme is found to have a slightly higher resolution power for the same dissipation levels. These results show that improved CG-SVV characteristics can be pursued via different kernel functions with the aid of optimization algorithms.

  17. An Improved Spectral Analysis Method for Fatigue Damage Assessment of Details in Liquid Cargo Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng-yuan; Huang, Xiao-ping

    2018-03-01

    Errors will be caused in calculating the fatigue damages of details in liquid cargo tanks by using the traditional spectral analysis method which is based on linear system, for the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic stress and the ship acceleration. An improved spectral analysis method for the assessment of the fatigue damage in detail of a liquid cargo tank is proposed in this paper. Based on assumptions that the wave process can be simulated by summing the sinusoidal waves in different frequencies and the stress process can be simulated by summing the stress processes induced by these sinusoidal waves, the stress power spectral density (PSD) is calculated by expanding the stress processes induced by the sinusoidal waves into Fourier series and adding the amplitudes of each harmonic component with the same frequency. This analysis method can take the nonlinear relationship into consideration and the fatigue damage is then calculated based on the PSD of stress. Take an independent tank in an LNG carrier for example, the accuracy of the improved spectral analysis method is proved much better than that of the traditional spectral analysis method by comparing the calculated damage results with the results calculated by the time domain method. The proposed spectral analysis method is more accurate in calculating the fatigue damages in detail of ship liquid cargo tanks.

  18. Determination of awareness in patients with severe brain injury using EEG power spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldfine, Andrew M.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Conte, Mary M.; Bardin, Jonathan C.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether EEG spectral analysis could be used to demonstrate awareness in patients with severe brain injury. Methods We recorded EEG from healthy controls and three patients with severe brain injury, ranging from minimally conscious state (MCS) to locked-in-state (LIS), while they were asked to imagine motor and spatial navigation tasks. We assessed EEG spectral differences from 4 to 24 Hz with univariate comparisons (individual frequencies) and multivariate comparisons (patterns across the frequency range). Results In controls, EEG spectral power differed at multiple frequency bands and channels during performance of both tasks compared to a resting baseline. As patterns of signal change were inconsistent between controls, we defined a positive response in patient subjects as consistent spectral changes across task performances. One patient in MCS and one in LIS showed evidence of motor imagery task performance, though with patterns of spectral change different from the controls. Conclusion EEG power spectral analysis demonstrates evidence for performance of mental imagery tasks in healthy controls and patients with severe brain injury. Significance EEG power spectral analysis can be used as a flexible bedside tool to demonstrate awareness in brain-injured patients who are otherwise unable to communicate. PMID:21514214

  19. Spectral analysis techniques for characterizing cadmium zinc telluride polarization modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, William R.; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-04-01

    The low frequency electro-optic characteristics of cadmium zinc telluride are demonstrated in the mid-infrared, in the spectral range 2.5-11 μm. Conventional methods for characterizing the dynamic response by monitoring the amplitude of the time-varying light intensity do not account for spatial variation in material properties. In such cases, a more revealing method involves monitoring two distinct frequency components in order to characterize the dynamic and static contributions to the optical retardation. We demonstrate that, while this method works well for a ZnSe photo-elastic modulator, it does not fully capture the response of a cadmium zinc telluride electro-optic modulator. Ultimately, we show that acquiring the full waveform of the optical response enables a model to be created that accounts for inhomogeneity in the material that results in an asymmetric response with respect to the polarity of the driving voltage. This technique is applicable to broadband and fixed-wavelength applications in a variety of spectral ranges.

  20. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, I.; Curé, M.

    2017-07-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of A and B supergiant stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and, finally, the chemical composition. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters (α, k and δ) obtained from the standard line-driven wind theory. To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ˜ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  1. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Ignacio; Curé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of a wide range of massive stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and the Si abundance. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters α, k and δ (from the line-driven wind theory). To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ~ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  2. [Spectral features analysis of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean].

    PubMed

    Ke, Chang-qing; Xie, Hong-jie; Lei, Rui-bo; Li, Qun; Sun, Bo

    2012-04-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate change, and its quick change and impact are the scientists' focus all over the world. The spectra of different kinds of sea ice were measured with portable ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer during the long-term ice station of the 4th Chinese national Arctic Expedition in 2010, and the spectral features were analyzed systematically. The results indicated that the reflectance of sea ice covered by snow is the highest one, naked sea ice the second, and melted sea ice the lowest. Peak and valley characteristics of spectrum curves of sea ice covered by thick snow, thin snow, wet snow and snow crystal are very significant, and the reflectance basically decreases with the wavelength increasing. The rules of reflectance change with wavelength of natural sea ice, white ice and blue ice are basically same, the reflectance of them is medium, and that of grey ice is far lower than natural sea ice, white ice and blue ice. It is very significant for scientific research to analyze the spectral features of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and to implement the quantitative remote sensing of sea ice, and to further analyze its response to the global warming.

  3. Global spectral graph wavelet signature for surface analysis of carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Majid; Rezaei, Mahsa; Ben Hamza, A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative shape comparison is a fundamental problem in computer vision, geometry processing and medical imaging. In this paper, we present a spectral graph wavelet approach for shape analysis of carpal bones of the human wrist. We employ spectral graph wavelets to represent the cortical surface of a carpal bone via the spectral geometric analysis of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the discrete domain. We propose global spectral graph wavelet (GSGW) descriptor that is isometric invariant, efficient to compute, and combines the advantages of both low-pass and band-pass filters. We perform experiments on shapes of the carpal bones of ten women and ten men from a publicly-available database of wrist bones. Using one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and permutation testing, we show through extensive experiments that the proposed GSGW framework gives a much better performance compared to the global point signature embedding approach for comparing shapes of the carpal bones across populations.

  4. Global spectral graph wavelet signature for surface analysis of carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Majid; Rezaei, Mahsa; Ben Hamza, A

    2018-02-05

    Quantitative shape comparison is a fundamental problem in computer vision, geometry processing and medical imaging. In this paper, we present a spectral graph wavelet approach for shape analysis of carpal bones of the human wrist. We employ spectral graph wavelets to represent the cortical surface of a carpal bone via the spectral geometric analysis of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the discrete domain. We propose global spectral graph wavelet (GSGW) descriptor that is isometric invariant, efficient to compute, and combines the advantages of both low-pass and band-pass filters. We perform experiments on shapes of the carpal bones of ten women and ten men from a publicly-available database of wrist bones. Using one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and permutation testing, we show through extensive experiments that the proposed GSGW framework gives a much better performance compared to the global point signature embedding approach for comparing shapes of the carpal bones across populations.

  5. Vibrational and electronic absorption spectral studies of 5-amino-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-phenyl-1-H-pyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, M. V. S.; Chaitanya, Kadali; Udaya Sri, N.; Veeraiah, V.

    2012-12-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-amino-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-phenyl-1-H-pyrazole have been measured in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been carried out with the help of DFT method. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The first-order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ, α0, and Δα) of 5A4BP3PP are calculated by using HF/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite field approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirms the occurrence of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by TDDFT using 6-31G(d,p). The HOMO-LUMO calculations indicating the charge transfer takes place within the molecule.

  6. Laser-induced plasma characterization through self-absorption quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, JiaJia; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Xingyu; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2018-07-01

    A self-absorption quantification method is proposed to quantify the self-absorption degree of spectral lines, in which plasma characteristics including electron temperature, elemental concentration ratio, and absolute species number density can be deduced directly. Since there is no spectral intensity involved in the calculation, the analysis results are independent of the self-absorption effects and the additional spectral efficiency calibration is not required. In order to evaluate the practicality, the limitation for application and the precision of this method are also discussed. Experimental results of aluminum-lithium alloy prove that the proposed method is qualified to realize semi-quantitative measurements and fast plasma characteristics diagnostics.

  7. Continental Spatio-Temporal Data Analysis with Linear Spectral Mixture Model Using FOSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Uttam; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ganguly, Sangram; Milesi, Cristina; Raja, Kumar; Wang, Weile; Votava, Petr; Michaelis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the development and implementation of a Fully Constrained Least Squares (FCLS) unmixing model developed in C++ programming language with OpenCV package and boost C++ libraries in the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX). Visualization of the results is supported by GRASS GIS and statistical analysis is carried in R in a Linux system environment. FCLS was first tested on computer simulated data with Gaussian noise of various signal-to-noise ratio, and Landsat data of an agricultural scenario and an urban environment using a set of global end members of substrate (soils, sediments, rocks, and non-photosynthetic vegetation), vegetation that includes green photosynthetic plants and dark objects which encompasses absorptive substrate materials, clear water, deep shadows, etc. For the agricultural scenario, a spectrally diverse collection of 11 scenes of Level 1 terrain corrected, cloud free Landsat-5 TM data of Fresno, California, USA were unmixed and the results were validated with the corresponding ground data. To study an urbanized landscape, a clear sky Landsat-5 TM data were unmixed and validated with coincident World View-2 abundance maps (of 2 m spatial resolution) for an area of San Francisco, California, USA. The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, RMSE, probability of success, boxplot and bivariate distribution function. Finally, FCLS was used for sub-pixel land cover analysis of the monthly WELD (Wen-enabled Landsat data) repository from 2008 to 2011 of North America. The abundance maps in conjunction with DMSP-OLS nighttime lights data were used to extract the urban land cover features and analyze their spatial-temporal growth.

  8. Continental Spatio-temporal Data Analysis with Linear Spectral Mixture Model using FOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, U.; Nemani, R. R.; Ganguly, S.; Milesi, C.; Raja, K. S.; Wang, W.; Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the development and implementation of a Fully Constrained Least Squares (FCLS) unmixing model developed in C++ programming language with OpenCV package and boost C++ libraries in the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX). Visualization of the results is supported by GRASS GIS and statistical analysis is carried in R in a Linux system environment. FCLS was first tested on computer simulated data with Gaussian noise of various signal-to-noise ratio, and Landsat data of an agricultural scenario and an urban environment using a set of global endmembers of substrate (soils, sediments, rocks, and non-photosynthetic vegetation), vegetation that includes green photosynthetic plants and dark objects which encompasses absorptive substrate materials, clear water, deep shadows, etc. For the agricultural scenario, a spectrally diverse collection of 11 scenes of Level 1 terrain corrected, cloud free Landsat-5 TM data of Fresno, California, USA were unmixed and the results were validated with the corresponding ground data. To study an urbanized landscape, a clear sky Landsat-5 TM data were unmixed and validated with coincident World View-2 abundance maps (of 2 m spatial resolution) for an area of San Francisco, California, USA. The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, RMSE, probability of success, boxplot and bivariate distribution function. Finally, FCLS was used for sub-pixel land cover analysis of the monthly WELD (Wen-enabled Landsat data) repository from 2008 to 2011 of North America. The abundance maps in conjunction with DMSP-OLS nighttime lights data were used to extract the urban land cover features and analyze their spatial-temporal growth.

  9. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  10. EPIC/DSCOVR's Oxygen Absorption Channels: A Cloud Profiling Information Content Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L. C.; Cornet, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Ferlay, N.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Yang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    EPIC/DSCOVR has several spectral channels dedicated to cloud characterization, most notably O2 A- and B-band. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) ratios of in-band and reference channels are less prone to calibration error than the 4 individual signals. Using these ratios, we have replicated for mono-directional (quasi-backscattering) EPIC observations the recent cloud information content analysis by Merlin et al. (AMT-D,8:12709-12758,2015) that was focused on A-band-only but multi-angle observations by POLDER in the past, by AirMSPI in the present, and by 3MI and MAIA in the future. The methodology is based on extensive forward 1D radiative transfer (RT) computations using the ARTDECO model that implements a k-distribution technique for the absorbing (in-band) channels. These synthetic signals are combined into a Bayesian Rodgers-type framework for estimating posterior uncertainty on retrieved quantities. Recall that this formalism calls explicitly for: (1) estimates of instrument error, and (2) prior uncertainty on the retrieved quantities, to which we add (3) reasonable estimates of uncertainty in the non- or otherwise-retrieved properties. Wide ranges of cloud top heights (CTHs) and cloud geometrical thicknesses (CGTs) are examined for a representative selection of cloud optical thicknesses (COTs), solar angles, and surface reflectances. We found that CTH should be reliably retrieved from EPIC data under most circumstances as long as COT can be inferred from non-absorbing channels, and the bias from in-cloud absorption is removed. However, CGT will be hard to determine unless CTH is constrained by independent means. EPIC has several UV channels that could be brought to bear. These findings conflict those of Yang et al. (JQSRT,122:141-149,2013), so we also revisit that more preliminary study that did not account for a realistic level of residual instrument noise in the DOAS ratios. In conclusion, we believe that the present information content

  11. Absorption coefficients and frequency shifts measurement in the spectral range of 1071.88-1084.62 cm-1 vs. pressure for chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2) using tunable CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif

    2013-02-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption in the spectral range of (1071.88-1084.62 cm-1) vs. pressure in chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22, F-22, and CHClF2) was studied using a tunable continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser radiation on 9R branch lines with a maximum output power of about 2.12 W, provided with an absorber cell located outside the laser cavity. The absorption coefficients were determined vs. the gas pressure between 0.2 mbar and 170 mbar at lines from 9R branch for CFC-22. The frequency shifts of the absorption lines of CFC-22 in relative to the central frequencies of laser lines were calculated vs. the pressure on the basis of these absorption coefficients. The chosen lines were selected according to IR spectrum of the studied gas given by HITRAN cross section database. So the absorption was achieved for CFC-22 at the spectral lines of 9R branch situated from 9R (10) to 9R (30) emitted by a tunable CW CO2 laser. The absorption cross sections of CFC-22 determined in this work were compared with the relevant data given by HITRAN cross section database and a reasonable agreement was observed.

  12. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle—A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanabar, Bhaveshkumar Kantilal; Ramani, Bharatkumar Maganbhai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, an energy crisis and the energy consumption have become global problems which restrict the sustainable growth. In these scenarios the scientific energy recovery and the utilization of various kinds of waste heat become very important. The waste heat can be utilized in many ways and one of the best practices is to use it for vapour absorption refrigeration system. To ensure efficient working of absorption cycle and utilization of optimum heat, exergy is the best tool for analysis. This paper provides the comprehensive picture of research and development of absorption refrigeration technology, practical and theoretical analysis with different arrangements of the cycle.

  13. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  14. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm(-1). Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm(-1), calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm(-1), hydroxyl apatite 959 cm(-1), struvite 575 cm(-1), uric acid 1283 cm(-1) and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm(-1) are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectral analysis of two-signed microarray expression data.

    PubMed

    Higham, Desmond J; Kalna, Gabriela; Vass, J Keith

    2007-06-01

    We give a simple and informative derivation of a spectral algorithm for clustering and reordering complementary DNA microarray expression data. Here, expression levels of a set of genes are recorded simultaneously across a number of samples, with a positive weight reflecting up-regulation and a negative weight reflecting down-regulation. We give theoretical support for the algorithm based on a biologically justified hypothesis about the structure of the data, and illustrate its use on public domain data in the context of unsupervised tumour classification. The algorithm is derived by considering a discrete optimization problem and then relaxing to the continuous realm. We prove that in the case where the data have an inherent 'checkerboard' sign pattern, the algorithm will automatically reveal that pattern. Further, our derivation shows that the algorithm may be regarded as imposing a random graph model on the expression levels and then clustering from a maximum likelihood perspective. This indicates that the output will be tolerant to perturbations and will reveal 'near-checkerboard' patterns when these are present in the data. It is interesting to note that the checkerboard structure is revealed by the first (dominant) singular vectors--previous work on spectral methods has focussed on the case of nonnegative edge weights, where only the second and higher singular vectors are relevant. We illustrate the algorithm on real and synthetic data, and then use it in a tumour classification context on three different cancer data sets. Our results show that respecting the two-signed nature of the data (thereby distinguishing between up-regulation and down-regulation) reveals structures that cannot be gleaned from the absolute value data (where up- and down-regulation are both regarded as 'changes').

  16. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    PubMed

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level.

  17. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  18. Spectral reconstruction analysis for enhancing signal-to-noise in time-resolved spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a new spectral analysis for the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in time-resolved spectroscopies. Unlike the simple linear average which produces a single representative spectrum with enhanced SNR, this Spectral Reconstruction analysis (SRa) improves the SNR (by a factor of ca. 0 . 6 √{ n } ) for all n experimentally recorded time-resolved spectra. SRa operates by eliminating noise in the temporal domain, thereby attenuating noise in the spectral domain, as follows: Temporal profiles at each measured frequency are fit to a generic mathematical function that best represents the temporal evolution; spectra at each time are then reconstructed with data points from the fitted profiles. The SRa method is validated with simulated control spectral data sets. Finally, we apply SRa to two distinct experimentally measured sets of time-resolved IR emission spectra: (1) UV photolysis of carbonyl cyanide and (2) UV photolysis of vinyl cyanide.

  19. Comparative 4f-4f absorption spectral study for the interactions of Nd(III) with some amino acids: Preliminary thermodynamics and kinetic studies of interaction of Nd(III):glycine with Ca(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaienla, T.; Bendangsenla, N.; David Singh, Th.; Sumitra, Ch.; Rajmuhon Singh, N.; Indira Devi, M.

    2012-02-01

    Spectral analysis of Nd(III) complexes with some amino acids viz.; glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid in the presence and absence of Ca 2+ was carried out in some organic solvents; CH 3OH, CH 3CN, DMF and dioxane using comparative absorption spectra of 4f-4f transitions. The study was carried out by evaluating various energy interaction parameters like Slator-Condon ( Fk), Lande factor ( ξ4f), nephelauxetic ratio ( β), bonding parameter ( b1/2), percent-covalency ( δ) by applying partial and multiple regression analysis. The values of oscillator strength ( Pobs) and Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameter Tλ ( λ = 2, 4, 6) for different 4f-4f transitions have been calculated. On analysis of the variation of the various energy interaction parameters as well as the changes in the oscillator strength ( Pobs) and Tλ values, reveal the mode of binding with the different ligands. Kinetic studies for the complexation of Nd(III):glycine:Ca(II) have also been discussed at different temperatures in DMF medium and from it the values of activation energy ( Ea) and thermodynamic parameters like Δ H°, Δ S° and Δ G° for the complexation are evaluated.

  20. Graphite furnace atomic absorption elemental analysis of ecstasy tablets.

    PubMed

    French, Holly E; Went, Michael J; Gibson, Stuart J

    2013-09-10

    Six metals (copper, magnesium, barium, nickel, chromium and lead) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 parts per million (ppm) and in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly higher 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) content than batch 2, barium was the only element which discriminated between the two ecstasy seizures (batch 1: 0.19-0.66 ppm, batch 2: 3.77-5.47 ppm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of atmospheric trace constituents from high resolution infrared balloon-borne and ground-based solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of ongoing studies of high-resolution solar absorption spectra aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents of importance in the chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere are presented. An analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/cm covering the 700-2200/cm interval is presented. The 0.0025/cm spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of quantifying trace constituents. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species are presented. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra are also discussed.

  2. Structural determination of individual chemical species in a mixed system by iterative transformation factor analysis-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with UV-visible absorption and quantum chemical calculation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Hennig, Christoph; Rossberg, André; Tsushima, Satoru; Scheinost, Andreas C; Bernhard, Gert

    2008-02-15

    A multitechnique approach using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy based on iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been performed in order to investigate the speciation of uranium(VI) nitrate species in acetonitrile and to identify the complex structure of individual species in the system. UV-visible spectral titration suggests that there are four different species in the system, that is, pure solvated species, mono-, di-, and trinitrate species. The pure EXAFS spectra of these individual species are extracted by ITFA from the measured spectral mixtures on the basis of the speciation distribution profile calculated from the UV-visible data. Data analysis of the extracted EXAFS spectra, with the help of DFT calculations, reveals the most probable complex structures of the individual species. The pure solvated species corresponds to a uranyl hydrate complex with an equatorial coordination number (CNeq) of 5, [UO2(H2O)5]2+. Nitrate ions tend to coordinate to the uranyl(VI) ion in a bidentate fashion rather than a unidentate one in acetonitrile for all the nitrate species. The mononitrate species forms the complex of [UO2(H2O)3NO3]+ with a CNeq value of 5, while the di- and trinitrate species have a CNeq value of 6, corresponding to [UO2(H2O)2(NO3)2]0 (D2h) and [UO2(NO3)3]- (D3h), respectively.

  3. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  4. Turbulent Fluid Motion 5: Fourier Analysis, the Spectral Form of the Continuum Equations, and Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    Background material on Fourier analysis and on the spectral form of the continuum equations, both averaged and unaveraged, are given. The equations are applied to a number of cases of homogeneous turbulence with and without mean gradients. Spectral transfer of turbulent activity between scales of motion is studied in some detail. The effects of mean shear, heat transfer, normal strain, and buoyancy are included in the analyses.

  5. Investigating cardiorespiratory interaction by cross-spectral analysis of event series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Carsten; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Pikovsky, Arkady S.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2000-02-01

    The human cardiovascular and respiratory systems interact with each other and show effects of modulation and synchronization. Here we present a cross-spectral technique that specifically considers the event-like character of the heartbeat and avoids typical restrictions of other spectral methods. Using models as well as experimental data, we demonstrate how modulation and synchronization can be distinguished. Finally, we compare the method to traditional techniques and to the analysis of instantaneous phases.

  6. A fluctuation-induced plasma transport diagnostic based upon fast-Fourier transform spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.; Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A diagnostic, based on fast Fourier-transform spectral analysis techniques, that provides experimental insight into the relationship between the experimentally observable spectral characteristics of the fluctuations and the fluctuation-induced plasma transport is described. The model upon which the diagnostic technique is based and its experimental implementation is discussed. Some characteristic results obtained during the course of an experimental study of fluctuation-induced transport in the electric field dominated NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma are presented.

  7. Post-analysis report on Chesapeake Bay data processing. [spectral analysis and recognition computer signature extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    The additional processing performed on data collected over the Rhode River Test Site and Forestry Site in November 1970 is reported. The techniques and procedures used to obtain the processed results are described. Thermal data collected over three approximately parallel lines of the site were contoured, and the results color coded, for the purpose of delineating important scene constituents and to identify trees attacked by pine bark beetles. Contouring work and histogram preparation are reviewed and the important conclusions from the spectral analysis and recognition computer (SPARC) signature extension work are summarized. The SPARC setup and processing records are presented and recommendations are made for future data collection over the site.

  8. Label free aggressive prostate cancer identification with ultraviolet photoacoustic spectral analysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Davis, Mandy A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Chao, Wan-yu; Tomlins, Scott A.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men for the past decades. PCa has a relatively low progression rate but the 5 year survival rate decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Differentiating aggressive from indolent PCa is critical for improving PCa patient outcomes and preventing metastasis and death. Prostate biopsy is the standard procedure for evaluating the presence and aggressiveness of PCa. The microarchitecture of the biopsied tissues visualized by histology process is evaluated by pathologists and assigned a Gleason score as a quantification of the aggressiveness. In our previous study, we have shown that photoacoustic spectral analysis (PASA) is capable of quantifying the Gleason scores of the H&E stained human prostate tissues. In this study, we attempt to assess the Gleason scores without any staining by taking advantage of the strong optical absorption of nucleic acid at ultraviolet wavelengths. PA signals were generated by wide field illumination at 266 nm and received by a hydrophone with a bandwidth of 0-20 MHz. DU145 prostate cancer cells at the concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.05, 0.025 and 0.0125 million per cm3 simulating those in cancerous and normal tissues were first attempted. The measurements were repeated for 10 times at each concentration. A correlation of 0.86 was observed between the PA signal intensities and the cell concentrations. Human PCa tissues with Gleason score 6, 7 and 8 and normal tissues were assessed. With 11 samples, a correlation of 0.89 was found between the Gleason scores and PASA slopes.

  9. Spectral Analysis of the Accretion Flow in NGC 1052 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Weaver, K. A.; Kadler, M.; Tueller, J.; Marscher, A.; Ros, E.; Zensus,A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Aller, M.; Aller, H.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of the 101 ks, 2007 Suzaku spectrum of the LINER galaxy NGC 1052. The 0:3..10 keV continuum is well-modeled by a power-law continuum modified by Galactic and intrinsic absorption, and exhibits a soft, thermal emission component below 1 keV. Both a narrow core and a broader component of Fe-Ka emission are robustly detected at 6:4 keV. While the narrow line is consistent with an origin in material distant from the black hole, the broad line is best fit empirically by a model that describes fluorescent emission from the inner accretion disk around a rapidly rotating black hole. We find no direct evidence for Comptonized reflection of the hard X-ray source by the disk above 10 keV, however, which casts doubt on the hypothesis that the broad iron line is produced in a standard accretion disk. We explore other possible scenarios for producing this spectral feature and conclude that the high equivalent width and full width half maximum velocity of the broad iron line (v greater than or equals 0:37c) necessitate an origin within d approx. 8r(sub g) of the hard X-ray source. Based on the confirmed presence of a strong radio jet in this source, the broad iron line may be produced in dense plasma at the base of the jet, implying that emission mechanisms in the central-most portions of active galactic nuclei are more complex than previously thought.

  10. Robust and transferable quantification of NMR spectral quality using IROC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrello, Matthew A.; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Schuyler, Adam D.; Weatherby, Gerard; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2017-12-01

    Non-Fourier methods are increasingly utilized in NMR spectroscopy because of their ability to handle nonuniformly-sampled data. However, non-Fourier methods present unique challenges due to their nonlinearity, which can produce nonrandom noise and render conventional metrics for spectral quality such as signal-to-noise ratio unreliable. The lack of robust and transferable metrics (i.e. applicable to methods exhibiting different nonlinearities) has hampered comparison of non-Fourier methods and nonuniform sampling schemes, preventing the identification of best practices. We describe a novel method, in situ receiver operating characteristic analysis (IROC), for characterizing spectral quality based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. IROC utilizes synthetic signals added to empirical data as "ground truth", and provides several robust scalar-valued metrics for spectral quality. This approach avoids problems posed by nonlinear spectral estimates, and provides a versatile quantitative means of characterizing many aspects of spectral quality. We demonstrate applications to parameter optimization in Fourier and non-Fourier spectral estimation, critical comparison of different methods for spectrum analysis, and optimization of nonuniform sampling schemes. The approach will accelerate the discovery of optimal approaches to nonuniform sampling experiment design and non-Fourier spectrum analysis for multidimensional NMR.

  11. FESTR: Finite-Element Spectral Transfer of Radiation spectroscopic modeling and analysis code

    DOE PAGES

    Hakel, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Here we report on the development of a new spectral postprocessor of hydrodynamic simulations of hot, dense plasmas. Based on given time histories of one-, two-, and three-dimensional spatial distributions of materials, and their local temperature and density conditions, spectroscopically-resolved signals are computed. The effects of radiation emission and absorption by the plasma on the emergent spectra are simultaneously taken into account. This program can also be used independently of hydrodynamic calculations to analyze available experimental data with the goal of inferring plasma conditions.

  12. FESTR: Finite-Element Spectral Transfer of Radiation spectroscopic modeling and analysis code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakel, Peter

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of a new spectral postprocessor of hydrodynamic simulations of hot, dense plasmas. Based on given time histories of one-, two-, and three-dimensional spatial distributions of materials, and their local temperature and density conditions, spectroscopically-resolved signals are computed. The effects of radiation emission and absorption by the plasma on the emergent spectra are simultaneously taken into account. This program can also be used independently of hydrodynamic calculations to analyze available experimental data with the goal of inferring plasma conditions.

  13. Stark effect spectrophone for continuous absorption spectra monitoring. [a technique for gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A Stark effect spectrophone using a pulsed or continuous wave laser having a beam with one or more absorption lines of a constituent of an unknown gas is described. The laser beam is directed through windows of a closed cell while the unknown gas to be modified flows continuously through the cell between electric field plates disposed in the cell on opposite sides of the beam path through the cell. When the beam is pulsed, energy absorbed by the gas increases at each point along the beam path according to the spectral lines of the constituents of the gas for the particular field strengths at those points. The pressure measurement at each point during each pulse of energy yields a plot of absorption as a function of electric field for simultaneous detection of the gas constituents. Provision for signal averaging and modulation is included.

  14. Spectral analysis comparisons of Fourier-theory-based methods and minimum variance (Capon) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbanzo-Salas, Marcial; Hocking, Wayne. K.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, adaptive (data dependent) methods have been introduced into many areas where Fourier spectral analysis has traditionally been used. Although the data-dependent methods are often advanced as being superior to Fourier methods, they do require some finesse in choosing the order of the relevant filters. In performing comparisons, we have found some concerns about the mappings, particularly when related to cases involving many spectral lines or even continuous spectral signals. Using numerical simulations, several comparisons between Fourier transform procedures and minimum variance method (MVM) have been performed. For multiple frequency signals, the MVM resolves most of the frequency content only for filters that have more degrees of freedom than the number of distinct spectral lines in the signal. In the case of Gaussian spectral approximation, MVM will always underestimate the width, and can misappropriate the location of spectral line in some circumstances. Large filters can be used to improve results with multiple frequency signals, but are computationally inefficient. Significant biases can occur when using MVM to study spectral information or echo power from the atmosphere. Artifacts and artificial narrowing of turbulent layers is one such impact.

  15. Analysis and parameterization of absorption properties of northern Norwegian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Coastal water bodies are generally classified as Case 2 water, in which non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contribute significantly to the optical properties in addition to phytoplankton. These three constituents vary independently in Case 2 water and tend to be highly variable in space and time. We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to CDOM, total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and NAP in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn.

  16. Systematic wavelength selection for improved multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for determining in a biological material one or more unknown values of at least one known characteristic (e.g. the concentration of an analyte such as glucose in blood or the concentration of one or more blood gas parameters) with a model based on a set of samples with known values of the known characteristics and a multivariate algorithm using several wavelength subsets. The method includes selecting multiple wavelength subsets, from the electromagnetic spectral region appropriate for determining the known characteristic, for use by an algorithm wherein the selection of wavelength subsets improves the model's fitness of the determination for the unknown values of the known characteristic. The selection process utilizes multivariate search methods that select both predictive and synergistic wavelengths within the range of wavelengths utilized. The fitness of the wavelength subsets is determined by the fitness function F=.function.(cost, performance). The method includes the steps of: (1) using one or more applications of a genetic algorithm to produce one or more count spectra, with multiple count spectra then combined to produce a combined count spectrum; (2) smoothing the count spectrum; (3) selecting a threshold count from a count spectrum to select these wavelength subsets which optimize the fitness function; and (4) eliminating a portion of the selected wavelength subsets. The determination of the unknown values can be made: (1) noninvasively and in vivo; (2) invasively and in vivo; or (3) in vitro.

  17. Koopmans' analysis of chemical hardness with spectral-like resolution.

    PubMed

    Putz, Mihai V

    2013-01-01

    Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable "observational" effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the "frozen spin-orbitals" approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates.

  18. Koopmans' Analysis of Chemical Hardness with Spectral-Like Resolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Three approximation levels of Koopmans' theorem are explored and applied: the first referring to the inner quantum behavior of the orbitalic energies that depart from the genuine ones in Fock space when the wave-functions' Hilbert-Banach basis set is specified to solve the many-electronic spectra of spin-orbitals' eigenstates; it is the most subtle issue regarding Koopmans' theorem as it brings many critics and refutation in the last decades, yet it is shown here as an irrefutable “observational” effect through computation, specific to any in silico spectra of an eigenproblem; the second level assumes the “frozen spin-orbitals” approximation during the extracting or adding of electrons to the frontier of the chemical system through the ionization and affinity processes, respectively; this approximation is nevertheless workable for great deal of chemical compounds, especially organic systems, and is justified for chemical reactivity and aromaticity hierarchies in an homologue series; the third and the most severe approximation regards the extension of the second one to superior orders of ionization and affinities, here studied at the level of chemical hardness compact-finite expressions up to spectral-like resolution for a paradigmatic set of aromatic carbohydrates. PMID:23970834

  19. Spectral analysis and markov switching model of Indonesia business cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Muhammad; Darwis, Sutawanir; Darmawan, Gumgum

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the Indonesia business cycle encompassing the determination of smoothing parameter (λ) on Hodrick-Prescott filter. Subsequently, the components of the filter output cycles were analyzed using a spectral method useful to know its characteristics, and Markov switching regime modeling is made to forecast the probability recession and expansion regimes. The data used in the study is real GDP (1983Q1 - 2016Q2). The results of the study are: a) Hodrick-Prescott filter on real GDP of Indonesia to be optimal when the value of the smoothing parameter is 988.474, b) Indonesia business cycle has amplitude varies between±0.0071 to±0.01024, and the duration is between 4 to 22 quarters, c) the business cycle can be modelled by MSIV-AR (2) but regime periodization is generated this model not perfect exactly with real regime periodzation, and d) Based on the model MSIV-AR (2) obtained long-term probabilities in the expansion regime: 0.4858 and in the recession regime: 0.5142.

  20. Quantitative characterization of surface topography using spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Junge, Till; Pastewka, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Roughness determines many functional properties of surfaces, such as adhesion, friction, and (thermal and electrical) contact conductance. Recent analytical models and simulations enable quantitative prediction of these properties from knowledge of the power spectral density (PSD) of the surface topography. The utility of the PSD is that it contains statistical information that is unbiased by the particular scan size and pixel resolution chosen by the researcher. In this article, we first review the mathematical definition of the PSD, including the one- and two-dimensional cases, and common variations of each. We then discuss strategies for reconstructing an accurate PSD of a surface using topography measurements at different size scales. Finally, we discuss detecting and mitigating artifacts at the smallest scales, and computing upper/lower bounds on functional properties obtained from models. We accompany our discussion with virtual measurements on computer-generated surfaces. This discussion summarizes how to analyze topography measurements to reconstruct a reliable PSD. Analytical models demonstrate the potential for tuning functional properties by rationally tailoring surface topography—however, this potential can only be achieved through the accurate, quantitative reconstruction of the PSDs of real-world surfaces.

  1. Spectral analysis of hearing protector impulsive insertion loss.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Cameron J; Berger, Elliott H; Murphy, William J; Stergar, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    To characterise the performance of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in impulsive-noise conditions and to compare various protection metrics between impulsive and steady-state noise sources with different characteristics. HPDs were measured per the impulsive test methods of ANSI/ASA S12.42- 2010 . Protectors were measured with impulses generated by both an acoustic shock tube and an AR-15 rifle. The measured data were analysed for impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) and impulsive spectral insertion loss (ISIL). These impulsive measurements were compared to insertion loss measured with steady-state noise and with real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT). Tested HPDs included a foam earplug, a level-dependent earplug and an electronic sound-restoration earmuff. IPIL for a given protector varied between measurements with the two impulse noise sources, but ISIL agreed between the two sources. The level-dependent earplug demonstrated level-dependent effects both in IPIL and ISIL. Steady-state insertion loss and REAT measurements tended to provide a conservative estimate of the impulsively-measured attenuation. Measurements of IPIL depend strongly on the source used to measure them, especially for HPDs with less attenuation at low frequencies. ISIL provides an alternative measurement of impulse protection and appears to be a more complete description of an HPD's performance.

  2. Spectral analysis of hearing protector impulsive insertion loss

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Cameron J.; Berger, Elliott H.; Murphy, William J.; Stergar, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterize the performance of hearing protection devices in impulsive-noise conditions and to compare various protection metrics between impulsive and steady-state noise sources with different characteristics. Design Hearing protectors were measured per the impulsive test methods of ANSI/ASA S12.42-2010. Protectors were measured with impulses generated by both an acoustic shock tube and an AR-15 rifle. The measured data were analyzed for impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) and impulsive spectral insertion loss (ISIL). These impulsive measurements were compared to insertion loss measured with steady-state noise and with real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT). Study Sample Tested devices included a foam earplug, a level-dependent earplug, and an electronic sound-restoration earmuff. Results IPIL for a given protector varied between measurements with the two impulse noise sources, but ISIL agreed between the two sources. The level-dependent earplug demonstrated level-dependent effects both in IPIL and ISIL. Steady-state insertion loss and REAT measurements tended to provide a conservative estimate of the impulsively-measured attenuation. Conclusions Measurements of IPIL depend strongly on the source used to measure them, especially for hearing protectors with less attenuation at low frequencies. ISIL provides an alternative measurement of impulse protection and appears to be a more complete description of an HPD’s performance. PMID:27885881

  3. Power Spectral Density Specification and Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2009-01-01

    The 2-dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) can be used to characterize the mid- and the high-spatial frequency components of the surface height errors of an optical surface. We found it necessary to have a complete, easy-to-use approach for specifying and evaluating the PSD characteristics of large optical surfaces, an approach that allows one to specify the surface quality of a large optical surface based on simulated results using a PSD function and to evaluate the measured surface profile data of the same optic in comparison with those predicted by the simulations during the specification-derivation process. This paper provides a complete mathematical description of PSD error, and proposes a new approach in which a 2-dimentional (2D) PSD is converted into a 1-dimentional (1D) one by azimuthally averaging the 2D-PSD. The 1D-PSD calculated this way has the same unit and the same profile as the original PSD function, thus allows one to compare the two with each other directly.

  4. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  5. Vibrations Detection in Industrial Pumps Based on Spectral Analysis to Increase Their Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Belhadef; Hafaifa, Ahmed; Boumehraz, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Spectral analysis is the key tool for the study of vibration signals in rotating machinery. In this work, the vibration analysis applied for conditional preventive maintenance of such machines is proposed, as part of resolved problems related to vibration detection on the organs of these machines. The vibration signal of a centrifugal pump was treated to mount the benefits of the approach proposed. The obtained results present the signal estimation of a pump vibration using Fourier transform technique compared by the spectral analysis methods based on Prony approach.

  6. Spectral analysis of time series of categorical variables in earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Dorador, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Time series of categorical variables often appear in Earth Science disciplines and there is considerable interest in studying their cyclic behavior. This is true, for example, when the type of facies, petrofabric features, ichnofabrics, fossil assemblages or mineral compositions are measured continuously over a core or throughout a stratigraphic succession. Here we deal with the problem of applying spectral analysis to such sequences. A full indicator approach is proposed to complement the spectral envelope often used in other disciplines. Additionally, a stand-alone computer program is provided for calculating the spectral envelope, in this case implementing the permutation test to assess the statistical significance of the spectral peaks. We studied simulated sequences as well as real data in order to illustrate the methodology.

  7. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%. PMID:26504638

  8. Spectral characterization as a tool for parchment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radis, Michela; Iacomussi, Paola; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents an investigation on the correlation between spectral characteristics and conservation conditions of parchment to define a NON invasive methodology able to detect and monitor deterioration process in historical parchment without the need of taking small samples. To verify the feasibility and define the most appropriate measurement method, several samples of contemporary parchments, produced following ancient recipes and coming from different animal species, with different degrees of artificially induced damage, were analyzed. The SRF and STF of each sample were measured in the same point, before and after each step of the artificial ageing treatment. Having at disposal a parchment coming from a whole lamb leather, allowed also the study of the correlations between the variations of SRF - STF and the intrinsic factors of a parchment like the variability of animal skin anatomy and of manufacturing. Analyzing different samples allowed also the definition of the measuring method sensitivity and of reference spectrum for the different animal species parchments with accuracy limits. The definition of a reference spectrum of not damaged parchment with acceptability limits is a necessary step for understanding, through SRF - STF measurements, historical parchments conservation conditions: indeed it is necessary to know if deviations from the reference spectrum are ascribable to damage or only to parchment anatomic/production variability. As a case study, the method has been applied to two historical parchment scrolls stored at the Archivio di Stato di Torino (Italy). The SRF - STF of both scrolls was acquired in several points of the scroll, the average spectrum of each scroll was compared with the reference spectra with the relative tolerance limits, recognizing the animal species and damage alterations and demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

  9. Spectral analysis of localized rotating waves in parabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Beyn, Wolf-Jürgen; Otten, Denny

    2018-04-13

    In this paper, we study the spectra and Fredholm properties of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operators [Formula: see text]where [Formula: see text] is the profile of a rotating wave satisfying [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text], the map [Formula: see text] is smooth and the matrix [Formula: see text] has eigenvalues with positive real parts and commutes with the limit matrix [Formula: see text] The matrix [Formula: see text] is assumed to be skew-symmetric with eigenvalues (λ 1 ,…,λ d )=(±i σ 1 ,…,±i σ k ,0,…,0). The spectra of these linearized operators are crucial for the nonlinear stability of rotating waves in reaction-diffusion systems. We prove under appropriate conditions that every [Formula: see text] satisfying the dispersion relation [Formula: see text]belongs to the essential spectrum [Formula: see text] in L p For values Re λ to the right of the spectral bound for [Formula: see text], we show that the operator [Formula: see text] is Fredholm of index 0, solve the identification problem for the adjoint operator [Formula: see text] and formulate the Fredholm alternative. Moreover, we show that the set [Formula: see text]belongs to the point spectrum [Formula: see text] in L p We determine the associated eigenfunctions and show that they decay exponentially in space. As an application, we analyse spinning soliton solutions which occur in the Ginzburg-Landau equation and compute their numerical spectra as well as associated eigenfunctions. Our results form the basis for investigating the nonlinear stability of rotating waves in higher space dimensions and truncations to bounded domains. This article is part of the themed issue 'Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Comparative study of thylakoid membranes in terminal heterocysts and vegetative cells from two cyanobacteria, Rivularia M-261 and Anabaena variabilis, by fluorescence and absorption spectral microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Shuho; Katayama, Mitsunori; Terazima, Masahide; Kumazaki, Shigeichi

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyst is a nitrogen-fixing cell differentiated from a cell for oxygen-evolving photosynthesis (vegetative cell) in some filamentous cyanobacteria when fixed nitrogen (e.g., ammonia and nitrate) is limited. Heterocysts appear at multiple separated positions in a single filament with an interval of 10-20 cells in some genera (including Anabaena variabilis). In other genera, a single heterocyst appears only at the basal terminal in a filament (including Rivularia M-261). Such morphological diversity may necessitate different properties of heterocysts. However, possible differences in heterocysts have largely remained unexplored due to the minority of heterocysts among major vegetative cells. Here, we have applied spectroscopic microscopy to Rivularia and A. variabilis to analyze their thylakoid membranes in individual cells. Absorption and fluorescence spectral imaging enabled us to estimate concentrations and interconnections of key photosynthetic components like photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and subunits of light-harvesting phycobilisome including phycocyanin (PC). The concentration of PC in heterocysts of Rivularia is far higher than that of A. variabilis. Fluorescence quantum yield of PC in Rivularia heterocysts was found to be virtually the same as those in its vegetative cells, while fluorescence quantum yield of PC in A. variabilis heterocysts was enhanced in comparison with its vegetative cells. PSI concentration in the thylakoid membranes of heterocysts seems to remain nearly the same as those of the vegetative cells in both the species. The average stoichiometric ratio between PSI monomer and PC hexamer in Rivularia heterocysts is estimated to be about 1:1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Spectral analysis as related to C-band radar data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Work performed on spectral analysis of data from the C-band radars tracking GEOS-2 and on the development of a data compaction method for the GEOS-2 C-band radar data is described. The purposes of the spectral analysis study were to determine the optimum data recording and sampling rates for C-band radar data and to determine the optimum method of filtering and smoothing the data. The optimum data recording and sampling rate is defined as the rate which includes an optimum compromise between serial correlation and the effects of frequency folding. The goal in development of a data compaction method was to reduce to a minimum the amount of data stored, while maintaining all of the statistical information content of the non-compacted data. A digital computer program for computing estimates of the power spectral density function of sampled data was used to perform the spectral analysis study.

  12. The 1.5 Ms Observing Campaign on IRAS 13224-3809: X-ray Spectral Analysis I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Alston, W. N.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Cackett, E. M.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Dauser, T.; Gallo, L. C.; García, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A. M.; De Marco, B.; Kara, E.; Miller, J. M.; Miniutti, G.; Pinto, C.; Walton, D. J.; Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the recent 1.5 Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809, taken simultaneously with 500 ks of NuSTAR data. The X-ray lightcurve shows three flux peaks, registering at about 100 times the minimum flux seen during the campaign, and rapid variability with a time scale of kiloseconds. The spectra are well fit with a primary powerlaw continuum, two relativistic-blurred reflection components from the inner accretion disk with very high iron abundance, and a simple blackbody-shaped model for the remaining soft excess. The spectral variability is dominated by the power law continuum from a corona region within a few gravitational radii from the black hole. Additionally, blueshifted Ne X, Mg XII, Si XIV and S XVI absorption lines are identified in the stacked low-flux spectrum, confirming the presence of a highly ionized outflow with velocity up to v = 0.263 and 0.229 c. We fit the absorption features with xstar models and find a relatively constant velocity outflow through the whole observation. Finally, we replace the bbody and supersolar abundance reflection models by fitting the soft excess successfully with the extended reflection model relxillD, which allows for higher densities than the standard relxill model. This returns a disk electron density ne > 1018.7 cm-3 and lowers the iron abundance from Z_Fe=24^{+3}_{-4}Z_⊙ with ne ≡ 1015 cm-3 to Z_Fe=6.6^{+0.8}_{-2.1}Z_⊙.

  13. The 1.5 Ms observing campaign on IRAS 13224-3809 - I. X-ray spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Alston, W. N.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Cackett, E. M.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Dauser, T.; Gallo, L. C.; García, J. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Lohfink, A. M.; De Marco, B.; Kara, E.; Miller, J. M.; Miniutti, G.; Pinto, C.; Walton, D. J.; Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-07-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the recent 1.5 Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809, taken simultaneously with 500 ks of NuSTAR data. The X-ray light curve shows three flux peaks, registering at about 100 times the minimum flux seen during the campaign, and rapid variability with a time-scale of kiloseconds. The spectra are well fit with a primary power-law continuum, two relativistic-blurred reflection components from the inner accretion disc with very high iron abundance, and a simple blackbody-shaped model for the remaining soft excess. The spectral variability is dominated by the power-law continuum from a corona region within a few gravitational radii from the black hole. Additionally, blueshifted Ne X, Mg XII, Si XIV, and S XVI absorption lines are identified in the stacked low-flux spectrum, confirming the presence of a highly ionized outflow with velocity up to v = 0.267 and 0.225 c. We fit the absorption features with xstar models and find a relatively constant velocity outflow through the whole observation. Finally, we replace the bbody and supersolar abundance reflection models by fitting the soft excess successfully with the extended reflection model relxillD, which allows for higher densities than the standard relxill model. This returns a disc electron density ne > 1018.7 cm-3 and lowers the iron abundance from Z_Fe = 24^{+3}_{-4} Z_{⊙} with ne ≡ 1015 cm-3 to Z_Fe = 6.6^{+0.8}_{-2.1} Z_{⊙}.

  14. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  15. Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

  16. Objective determination of image end-members in spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.; Forsyth, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Spectral mixture analysis has been shown to be a powerful, multifaceted tool for analysis of multi- and hyper-spectral data. Applications of AVIRIS data have ranged from mapping soils and bedrock to ecosystem studies. During the first phase of the approach, a set of end-members are selected from an image cube (image end-members) that best account for its spectral variance within a constrained, linear least squares mixing model. These image end-members are usually selected using a priori knowledge and successive trial and error solutions to refine the total number and physical location of the end-members. However, in many situations a more objective method of determining these essential components is desired. We approach the problem of image end-member determination objectively by using the inherent variance of the data. Unlike purely statistical methods such as factor analysis, this approach derives solutions that conform to a physically realistic model.

  17. Spectral variability of plagioclase-mafic mixtures (3): Quantitative analysis applying the MGM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serventi, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian; Sgavetti, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Among the techniques to detect planet's mineralogical composition remote sensing, visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy is a powerful tool, because crystal field absorption bands are related to particular transitional metals in well-defined crystal structures, e.g., Fe2+ in M1 and M2 sites of olivine (OL) or pyroxene (PX). Although OL, PX and their mixtures have been widely studied, plagioclase (PL), considered a spectroscopically transparent mineral, has been poorly analyzed. In this work we quantitatively investigate the influence of plagioclase absorption band on the absorption bands of Fe, Mg minerals using the Modified Gaussian Model - MGM (Sunshine, J.M. et al. [1990]. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 6955-6966). We consider three plagioclase compositions of varying FeO wt.% contents and five mafic end-members (1) 56% orthopyroxene and 44% clinopyroxene, (2) 28% olivine and 72% orthopyroxene, (3) 30% orthopyroxene and 70% olivine, (4) 100% olivine and (5) 100% orthopyroxene, at two different particle sizes. The spectral parameters considered here are: band depth, band center, band width, c0 (the continuum intercept) and c1 (the continuum offset). In particular, we show the variation of the plagioclase and composite (plagioclase-olivine) band spectral parameters versus the volumetric iron content related to the plagioclase abundance in mixtures. Generally, increasing the vol. FeO% due to the PL: (1) 1250 nm band deepens with linear trend in mixtures with pyroxenes, while it decreases in mixtures with olivine, with trend shifting from parabolic to linear increasing the olivine content in end-member; (2) 1250 nm band center moves towards longer wavelengths with linear trend in pyroxene-rich mixtures and parabolic trend in olivine-rich mixtures; and (3) 1250 nm band clearly widens with linear trend in olivine-free mixtures, while the widening is only slight in olivine-rich mixtures. We also outline how spectral parameters can be ambiguous leading to an

  18. Comparative Analysis of Haar and Daubechies Wavelet for Hyper Spectral Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, I.; Khare, S.

    2014-11-01

    With the number of channels in the hundreds instead of in the tens Hyper spectral imagery possesses much richer spectral information than multispectral imagery. The increased dimensionality of such Hyper spectral data provides a challenge to the current technique for analyzing data. Conventional classification methods may not be useful without dimension reduction pre-processing. So dimension reduction has become a significant part of Hyper spectral image processing. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the efficacy of Haar and Daubechies wavelets for dimensionality reduction in achieving image classification. Spectral data reduction using Wavelet Decomposition could be useful because it preserves the distinction among spectral signatures. Daubechies wavelets optimally capture the polynomial trends while Haar wavelet is discontinuous and resembles a step function. The performance of these wavelets are compared in terms of classification accuracy and time complexity. This paper shows that wavelet reduction has more separate classes and yields better or comparable classification accuracy. In the context of the dimensionality reduction algorithm, it is found that the performance of classification of Daubechies wavelets is better as compared to Haar wavelet while Daubechies takes more time compare to Haar wavelet. The experimental results demonstrate the classification system consistently provides over 84% classification accuracy.

  19. Photoplethysmographic imaging via spectrally demultiplexed erythema fluctuation analysis for remote heart rate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deglint, Jason; Chung, Audrey G.; Chwyl, Brendan; Amelard, Robert; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wang, Xiao Yu; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems use the red, green, and blue (RGB) broadband measurements of a consumer digital camera to remotely estimate a patients heart rate; however, these broadband RGB signals are often corrupted by ambient noise, making the extraction of subtle fluctuations indicative of heart rate difficult. Therefore, the use of narrow-band spectral measurements can significantly improve the accuracy. We propose a novel digital spectral demultiplexing (DSD) method to infer narrow-band spectral information from acquired broadband RGB measurements in order to estimate heart rate via the computation of motion- compensated skin erythema fluctuation. Using high-resolution video recordings of human participants, multiple measurement locations are automatically identified on the cheeks of an individual, and motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are acquired at each measurement location over time via measurement location tracking. The motion-compensated broadband reflectance measurements are spectrally demultiplexed using a non-linear inverse model based on the spectral sensitivity of the camera's detector. A PPG signal is then computed from the demultiplexed narrow-band spectral information via skin erythema fluctuation analysis, with improved signal-to-noise ratio allowing for reliable remote heart rate measurements. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, a set of experiments involving human motion in a front-facing position were performed under ambient lighting conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system achieves robust and accurate heart rate measurements and can provide additional information about the participant beyond the capabilities of traditional PPGI methods.

  20. Spectral Electroencephalogram Analysis for the Evaluation of Encephalopathy Grade in Children With Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Press, Craig A; Morgan, Lindsey; Mills, Michele; Stack, Cynthia V; Goldstein, Joshua L; Alonso, Estella M; Wainwright, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Spectral electroencephalogram analysis is a method for automated analysis of electroencephalogram patterns, which can be performed at the bedside. We sought to determine the utility of spectral electroencephalogram for grading hepatic encephalopathy in children with acute liver failure. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients between 0 and 18 years old who presented with acute liver failure and were admitted to the PICU. None. Electroencephalograms were analyzed by spectral analysis including total power, relative δ, relative θ, relative α, relative β, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio. Normal values and ranges were first derived using normal electroencephalograms from 70 children of 0-18 years old. Age had a significant effect on each variable measured (p < 0.03). Electroencephalograms from 33 patients with acute liver failure were available for spectral analysis. The median age was 4.3 years, 14 of 33 were male, and the majority had an indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure. Neuroimaging was performed in 26 cases and was normal in 20 cases (77%). The majority (64%) survived, and 82% had a good outcome with a score of 1-3 on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended at the time of discharge. Hepatic encephalopathy grade correlated with the qualitative visual electroencephalogram scores assigned by blinded neurophysiologists (rs = 0.493; p < 0.006). Spectral electroencephalogram characteristics varied significantly with the qualitative electroencephalogram classification (p < 0.05). Spectral electroencephalogram variables including relative Δ, relative θ, relative α, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio all significantly varied with the qualitative electroencephalogram (p < 0.025). Moderate to severe hepatic encephalopathy was correlated with a total power of less than or equal to 50% of normal for children 0-3 years old, and with a relative θ of less than or equal to 50% normal for children more than 3 years old (p

  1. An experiment with spectral analysis of emotional speech affected by orthodontic appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračková, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The contribution describes the effect of the fixed and removable orthodontic appliances on spectral properties of emotional speech. Spectral changes were analyzed and evaluated by spectrograms and mean Welch’s periodograms. This alternative approach to the standard listening test enables to obtain objective comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. Obtained results of analysis performed on short sentences of a female speaker in four emotional states (joyous, sad, angry, and neutral) show that, first of all, the removable orthodontic appliance affects the spectrograms of produced speech.

  2. Analysis of biomass dynamics derived from spectral trajectories.

    Treesearch

    S.L. Powell; W.B. Cohen; R.E. Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of the rates and variability of forest disturbance and regrowth at continental scales remains a critical challenge. We have undertaken an effort to address these issues, through funding from NASA, by coordinating research efforts between the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We present...

  3. A Molecular Iodine Spectral Data Set for Rovibronic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Kafader, Rachael A.

    2013-01-01

    A data set of 7,381 molecular iodine vapor rovibronic transitions between the X and B electronic states has been prepared for an advanced undergraduate spectroscopic analysis project. Students apply standard theoretical techniques to these data and determine the values of three X-state constants (image omitted) and four B-state constants (image…

  4. Possibility of successive SRXFA use along with chemical-spectral methods for palladium analysis in geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, E. V.; Kulikov, A. A.; Kulikova, A. B.

    1989-10-01

    Samples of basit-ultrabasit rocks and NiCu ores of the Ioko-Dovyren and Chaya massifs were analysed by SRXFA and a chemical-spectral method. SRXFA perfectly satisfies the quantitative noble-metals analysis of ore-free rocks. Combination of SRXFA and chemical-spectral analysis has good prospects. After analysis of a great number of samples by SRXFA it is necessary to select samples which would show minimal and maximal results for the chemical-spectral method.

  5. Influence of quantum well inhomogeneities on absorption, spontaneous emission, photoluminescence decay time, and lasing in polar InGaN quantum wells emitting in the blue-green spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Syperek, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Siekacz, M.; Cywinski, G.; Khachapuridze, A.; Suski, T.; Skierbiszewski, C.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that in polar InGaN QWs emitting in the blue-green spectral region a Stokes shift between spontaneous emission (SE) and optical transition observed in contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectrum (absorption-like technique) can be observed even at room temperature, despite the fact that the SE is not associated with localized states. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements clearly confirm that the SE is strongly localized at low temperatures whereas at room temperature the carrier localization disappears and the SE can be attributed to the fundamental transition in this QW. The Stokes shift is observed in this QW system because of the large built-in electric field, i.e., the CER transition is a superposition of all optical transitions with non-zero electron-hole overlap integrals and, therefore, the energy of this transition does not correspond to the fundamental transition of InGaN QW. Lasing from this QW has been observed at the wavelength of 475 nm, whereas the SE was observed at 500 nm. The 25 nm shift between the lasing and SE is observed because of a screening of the built-in electric field by photogenerated carriers. However, our analysis shows that the built-in electric field inside the InGaN QW region is not fully screened under the lasing conditions.

  6. Spectral analysis of amazon canopy phenology during the dry season using a tower hyperspectral camera and modis observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Hilker, Thomas; Wu, Jin; Saleska, Scott; do Amaral, Cibele Hummel; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Lopes, Aline Pontes; Wiedeman, Kenia K.; Prohaska, Neill; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Machado, Carolyne Bueno; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2017-09-01

    The association between spectral reflectance and canopy processes remains challenging for quantifying large-scale canopy phenological cycles in tropical forests. In this study, we used a tower-mounted hyperspectral camera in an eastern Amazon forest to assess how canopy spectral signals of three species are linked with phenological processes in the 2012 dry season. We explored different approaches to disentangle the spectral components of canopy phenology processes and analyze their variations over time using 17 images acquired by the camera. The methods included linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA); principal component analysis (PCA); continuum removal (CR); and first-order derivative analysis. In addition, three vegetation indices potentially sensitive to leaf flushing, leaf loss and leaf area index (LAI) were calculated: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the entitled Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index. We inspected also the consistency of the camera observations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and available phenological data on new leaf production and LAI of young, mature and old leaves simulated by a leaf demography-ontogeny model. The results showed a diversity of phenological responses during the 2012 dry season with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values. Because of the differences in timing and intensity of leaf flushing and leaf shedding, Erisma uncinatum, Manilkara huberi and Chamaecrista xinguensis presented different green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) SMA fractions; distinct PCA scores; changes in depth, width and area of the 681-nm chlorophyll absorption band; and variations over time in the EVI, GRND and NDVI. At the end of dry season, GV increased for Erisma uncinatum, while NPV increased for Chamaecrista xinguensis. For Manilkara huberi, the NPV first increased in the beginning of August and then decreased toward

  7. Spectral analysis of amazon canopy phenology during the dry season using a tower hyperspectral camera and modis observations

    SciTech Connect

    de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Hilker, Thomas

    The association between spectral reflectance and canopy processes remains challenging for quantifying large-scale canopy phenological cycles in tropical forests. In this paper, we used a tower-mounted hyperspectral camera in an eastern Amazon forest to assess how canopy spectral signals of three species are linked with phenological processes in the 2012 dry season. We explored different approaches to disentangle the spectral components of canopy phenology processes and analyze their variations over time using 17 images acquired by the camera. The methods included linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA); principal component analysis (PCA); continuum removal (CR); and first-order derivative analysis. In addition, threemore » vegetation indices potentially sensitive to leaf flushing, leaf loss and leaf area index (LAI) were calculated: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the entitled Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index. We inspected also the consistency of the camera observations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and available phenological data on new leaf production and LAI of young, mature and old leaves simulated by a leaf demography-ontogeny model. The results showed a diversity of phenological responses during the 2012 dry season with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values. Because of the differences in timing and intensity of leaf flushing and leaf shedding, Erisma uncinatum, Manilkara huberi and Chamaecrista xinguensis presented different green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) SMA fractions; distinct PCA scores; changes in depth, width and area of the 681-nm chlorophyll absorption band; and variations over time in the EVI, GRND and NDVI. At the end of dry season, GV increased for Erisma uncinatum, while NPV increased for Chamaecrista xinguensis. For Manilkara huberi, the NPV first increased in the beginning of August and then decreased

  8. Spectral analysis of amazon canopy phenology during the dry season using a tower hyperspectral camera and modis observations

    DOE PAGES

    de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Hilker, Thomas; ...

    2017-09-01

    The association between spectral reflectance and canopy processes remains challenging for quantifying large-scale canopy phenological cycles in tropical forests. In this paper, we used a tower-mounted hyperspectral camera in an eastern Amazon forest to assess how canopy spectral signals of three species are linked with phenological processes in the 2012 dry season. We explored different approaches to disentangle the spectral components of canopy phenology processes and analyze their variations over time using 17 images acquired by the camera. The methods included linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA); principal component analysis (PCA); continuum removal (CR); and first-order derivative analysis. In addition, threemore » vegetation indices potentially sensitive to leaf flushing, leaf loss and leaf area index (LAI) were calculated: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the entitled Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index. We inspected also the consistency of the camera observations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and available phenological data on new leaf production and LAI of young, mature and old leaves simulated by a leaf demography-ontogeny model. The results showed a diversity of phenological responses during the 2012 dry season with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values. Because of the differences in timing and intensity of leaf flushing and leaf shedding, Erisma uncinatum, Manilkara huberi and Chamaecrista xinguensis presented different green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) SMA fractions; distinct PCA scores; changes in depth, width and area of the 681-nm chlorophyll absorption band; and variations over time in the EVI, GRND and NDVI. At the end of dry season, GV increased for Erisma uncinatum, while NPV increased for Chamaecrista xinguensis. For Manilkara huberi, the NPV first increased in the beginning of August and then decreased

  9. Real-time spectral analysis of HRV signals: an interactive and user-friendly PC system.

    PubMed

    Basano, L; Canepa, F; Ottonello, P

    1998-01-01

    We present a real-time system, built around a PC and a low-cost data acquisition board, for the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability signal. The Windows-like operating environment on which it is based makes the computer program very user-friendly even for non-specialized personnel. The Power Spectral Density is computed through the use of a hybrid method, in which a classical FFT analysis follows an autoregressive finite-extension of data; the stationarity of the sequence is continuously checked. The use of this algorithm gives a high degree of robustness of the spectral estimation. Moreover, always in real time, the FFT of every data block is computed and displayed in order to corroborate the results as well as to allow the user to interactively choose a proper AR model order.

  10. Combined spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral imaging applied for tissue analysis: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, S.; Miclos, S.; Savastru, D.; Tautan, M.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years many optoelectronic techniques have been developed for improvement and the development of devices for tissue analysis. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a new medical interferometric imaging modality that provides depth resolved tissue structure information with resolution in the μm range. However, SD-OCT has its own limitations and cannot offer the biochemical information of the tissue. These data can be obtained with hyperspectral imaging, a non-invasive, sensitive and real time technique. In the present study we have combined Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) with Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for tissue analysis. The Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two methods that have demonstrated significant potential in this context. Preliminary results using different tissue have highlighted the capabilities of this technique of combinations.

  11. SearchLight: a freely available web-based quantitative spectral analysis tool (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhat, Prashant; Peet, Michael; Erdogan, Turan

    2016-03-01

    In order to design a fluorescence experiment, typically the spectra of a fluorophore and of a filter set are overlaid on a single graph and the spectral overlap is evaluated intuitively. However, in a typical fluorescence imaging system the fluorophores and optical filters are not the only wavelength dependent variables - even the excitation light sources have been changing. For example, LED Light Engines may have a significantly different spectral response compared to the traditional metal-halide lamps. Therefore, for a more accurate assessment of fluorophore-to-filter-set compatibility, all sources of spectral variation should be taken into account simultaneously. Additionally, intuitive or qualitative evaluation of many spectra does not necessarily provide a realistic assessment of the system performance. "SearchLight" is a freely available web-based spectral plotting and analysis tool that can be used to address the need for accurate, quantitative spectral evaluation of fluorescence measurement systems. This tool is available at: http://searchlight.semrock.com/. Based on a detailed mathematical framework [1], SearchLight calculates signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio for multiple combinations of fluorophores, filter sets, light sources and detectors. SearchLight allows for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the compatibility of filter sets with fluorophores, analysis of bleed-through, identification of optimized spectral edge locations for a set of filters under specific experimental conditions, and guidance regarding labeling protocols in multiplexing imaging assays. Entire SearchLight sessions can be shared with colleagues and collaborators and saved for future reference. [1] Anderson, N., Prabhat, P. and Erdogan, T., Spectral Modeling in Fluorescence Microscopy, http://www.semrock.com (2010).

  12. A Spectral Analysis Approach for Acoustic Radiation from Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Singh, Mahendra P.; Mei, Chuh

    2004-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the vibration response of a composite panel and the resulting far-field acoustic radiation due to acoustic excitation. The acoustic excitation is assumed to consist of obliquely incident plane waves. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. The approach can easily include other effects such as shape memory alloy (SMA) ber reinforcement, large detection thermal postbuckling, and non-symmetric SMA distribution or lamination. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Results for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement. The mechanisms for further transmission loss improvement are identified and discussed.

  13. Conditional adaptive Bayesian spectral analysis of nonstationary biomedical time series.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Scott A; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J; Krafty, Robert T

    2018-03-01

    Many studies of biomedical time series signals aim to measure the association between frequency-domain properties of time series and clinical and behavioral covariates. However, the time-varying dynamics of these associations are largely ignored due to a lack of methods that can assess the changing nature of the relationship through time. This article introduces a method for the simultaneous and automatic analysis of the association between the time-varying power spectrum and covariates, which we refer to as conditional adaptive Bayesian spectrum analysis (CABS). The procedure adaptively partitions the grid of time and covariate values into an unknown number of approximately stationary blocks and nonparametrically estimates local spectra within blocks through penalized splines. CABS is formulated in a fully Bayesian framework, in which the number and locations of partition points are random, and fit using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Estimation and inference averaged over the distribution of partitions allows for the accurate analysis of spectra with both smooth and abrupt changes. The proposed methodology is used to analyze the association between the time-varying spectrum of heart rate variability and self-reported sleep quality in a study of older adults serving as the primary caregiver for their ill spouse. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.

  15. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  16. Spectral analysis of the Crab Nebula and GRB 160530A with the Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleator, Clio; Boggs, Steven E.; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Kierans, Carolyn; Lowell, Alexander; Tomsick, John; Zoglauer, Andreas; Amman, Mark; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Yang, Chien-Ying; Lin, Chih H.; Jean, Pierre; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-5 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources including gamma-ray bursts and compact objects. As a compact Compton telescope, COSI has inherent sensitivity to polarization. COSI utilizes 12 germanium detectors to provide excellent spectral resolution. On May 17, 2016, COSI was launched from Wanaka, New Zealand and completed a successful 46-day flight on NASA’s new Superpressure balloon. To perform spectral analysis with COSI, we have developed an accurate instrument model as required for the response matrix. With carefully chosen background regions, we are able to fit the background-subtracted spectra in XSPEC. We have developed a model of the atmosphere above COSI based on the NRLMSISE-00 Atmosphere Model to include in our spectral fits. The Crab and GRB 160530A are among the sources detected during the 2016 flight. We present spectral analysis of these two point sources. Our GRB 160530A results are consistent with those from other instruments, confirming COSI’s spectral abilities. Furthermore, we discuss prospects for measuring the Crab polarization with COSI.

  17. Non destructive defect detection by spectral density analysis.

    PubMed

    Krejcar, Ondrej; Frischer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The potential nondestructive diagnostics of solid objects is discussed in this article. The whole process is accomplished by consecutive steps involving software analysis of the vibration power spectrum (eventually acoustic emissions) created during the normal operation of the diagnosed device or under unexpected situations. Another option is to create an artificial pulse, which can help us to determine the actual state of the diagnosed device. The main idea of this method is based on the analysis of the current power spectrum density of the received signal and its postprocessing in the Matlab environment with a following sample comparison in the Statistica software environment. The last step, which is comparison of samples, is the most important, because it is possible to determine the status of the examined object at a given time. Nowadays samples are compared only visually, but this method can't produce good results. Further the presented filter can choose relevant data from a huge group of data, which originate from applying FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). On the other hand, using this approach they can be subjected to analysis with the assistance of a neural network. If correct and high-quality starting data are provided to the initial network, we are able to analyze other samples and state in which condition a certain object is. The success rate of this approximation, based on our testing of the solution, is now 85.7%. With further improvement of the filter, it could be even greater. Finally it is possible to detect defective conditions or upcoming limiting states of examined objects/materials by using only one device which contains HW and SW parts. This kind of detection can provide significant financial savings in certain cases (such as continuous casting of iron where it could save hundreds of thousands of USD).

  18. An analysis of OH excited state absorption lines in DR 21 and K3-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. N.; Doel, R. C.; Field, D.; Gray, M. D.; Walker, R. N. F.

    1992-10-01

    We present an analysis of the OH absorption line zones observed toward the compact H II regions DR 21 and K3-50. Using as parameters the kinetic and dust temperatures, the H2 number density and the ratio of OH-H2 number densities to the velocity gradient, the model quantitatively reproduces the absorption line data for the six main line transitions in 2 Pi3/2 J = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2. Observed upper limits for the absorption or emission in the satellite lines of 2 Pi3/2 J = 5/2 are crucial in constraining the range of derived parameters. Physical conditions derived for DR 21 show that the kinetic temperature centers around 140 K, the H2 number density around 10 exp 7/cu cm, and that the OH column density in the excited state absorption zone lies between 1 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and 2 x 10 exp 15/sq cm. Including contributions from a J = 3/2 absorption zone, the total OH column density is more than a factor of 2 lower than estimates based upon LTE (Walmsley et al., 1986). The OH absorption zone in K3-50 tends toward higher density and displays a larger column density, while the kinetic temperature is similar. For both sources, the dust temperature is found to be significantly lower than the kinetic temperature.

  19. On spectral techniques in analysis of Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Juha; Rämö, Pauli; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2005-06-01

    In this work we present results that can be used for analysis of Boolean networks. The results utilize Fourier spectra of the functions in the network. An accurate formula is given for Derrida plots of networks of finite size N based on a result on Boolean functions presented in another context. Derrida plots are widely used to examine the stability issues of Boolean networks. For the limit N→∞, we give a computationally simple form that can be used as a good approximation for rather small networks as well. A formula for Derrida plots of random Boolean networks (RBNs) presented earlier in the literature is given an alternative derivation. It is shown that the information contained in the Derrida plot is equal to the average Fourier spectrum of the functions in the network. In the case of random networks the mean Derrida plot can be obtained from the mean spectrum of the functions. The method is applied to real data by using the Boolean functions found in genetic regulatory networks of eukaryotic cells in an earlier study. Conventionally, Derrida plots and stability analysis have been computed with statistical sampling resulting in poorer accuracy.

  20. Spectral saliency via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Dai, Jialun; Zhu, Yafei; Zheng, Haiyong; Qiao, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    Suppressing nonsalient patterns by smoothing the amplitude spectrum at an appropriate scale has been shown to effectively detect the visual saliency in the frequency domain. Different filter scales are required for different types of salient objects. We observe that the optimal scale for smoothing amplitude spectrum shares a specific relation with the size of the salient region. Based on this observation and the bottom-up saliency detection characterized by spectrum scale-space analysis for natural images, we propose to detect visual saliency, especially with salient objects of different sizes and locations via automatic adaptive amplitude spectrum analysis. We not only provide a new criterion for automatic optimal scale selection but also reserve the saliency maps corresponding to different salient objects with meaningful saliency information by adaptive weighted combination. The performance of quantitative and qualitative comparisons is evaluated by three different kinds of metrics on the four most widely used datasets and one up-to-date large-scale dataset. The experimental results validate that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art saliency models for predicting human eye fixations in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  1. Diagnostics of Carbon Nanotube Formation in a Laser Produced Plume: Spectroscopic in situ nanotube detection using spectral absorption and surface temperature measurements by black body emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBoer, Gary D.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes hold great promise for material advancements in the areas of composites and electronics. The advancement of research in these areas is dependent upon the availability of carbon nanotubes to a broad spectrum of academic and industrial researchers. Although there has been much progress made in reducing the costs of carbon nanotubes and increasing the quality and purity of the products, an increase in demand for still less expensive and specific nanotubes types has also grown. This summer's work has involved two experiments that have been designed to further the understanding of the dynamics and chemical mechanisms of carbon nanotube formation. It is expected that a better understanding of the process of formation of nanotubes will aid current production designs and stimulate ideas for future production designs increasing the quantity, quality, and production control of carbon nanotubes. The first experiment involved the measurement of surface temperature of the target as a function of time with respect to the ablation lasers. A peak surface temperature of 5000 K was determined from spectral analysis of black body emission from the target surface. The surface temperature as a function of various changes in operating parameters was also obtained. This data is expected to aid the modeling of ablation and plume dynamics. The second experiment involved a time and spatial measurement of the spectrally resolved absorbance of the laser produced plume. This experiment explored the possibility of developing absorbance and fluorescence to detect carbon nanotubes during production. To attain control over the production of nanotubes with specific properties and reduce costs, a real time in situ diagnostics method would be very beneficial. Results from this summer's work indicate that detection of nanotubes during production may possibly be used for production feed back control.

  2. Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen.

  3. A Modified Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis to Extract the Fractions of Major Land Cover Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.

    2015-12-01

    As an effective method of extracting land cover fractions based on spectral endmembers, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has been applied using remotely sensed imagery in different spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. A number of studies focused on arid/semiarid ecosystem have used SMA to obtain the land cover fractions of GV, NPV/litter, and bare soil (BS) using MODIS reflectance products to understand ecosystem phenology, track vegetation dynamics, and evaluate the impact of major disturbances. However, several challenges remain in the application of SMA in studying ecosystem phenology, including obtaining high quality endmembers and increasing computational efficiency when considering to long time series that cover a broad spatial extent. Okin (2007) proposes a variation of SMA, named as relative spectra mixture analysis (RSMA) to address the latter challenge by calculating the relative change of fraction of GV, NPV/litter, and BS compared with a baseline date. This approach assumes that the baseline image contains the spectral information of the bare soil that can be used as an endmember for spectral mixture analysis though it is mixed with the spectral reflectance of other non-soil land cover types. Using the baseline image, one can obtain the change of fractions of GV, NPV/litter, BS, and snow compared with the baseline image. However, RSMA results depend on the selection of baseline date and the fractional components during this date. In this study, we modified the strategy of implementing RSMA by introducing a step of obtaining a soil map as the baseline image using multiple-endmember SMA (MESMA) before applying RSMA. The fractions of land cover components from this modified RSMA are also validated using the field observations from two study area in semiarid savanna and grassland of Queensland, Australia.

  4. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references. (JFP)

  5. Evaluation of skin melanoma in spectral range 450-950 nm using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, D.; Lihacova, I.; Kuzmina, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) of multi-spectral imaging data in the wavelength range 450- 950 nm for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical data by means of PCA resulted in clear separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  6. Skylab S-191 spectrometer single spectral scan analysis program. [user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    Documentation and user information for the S-191 single spectral scan analysis program are reported. A breakdown of the computational algorithms is supplied, followed by the program listing and examples of sample output. A copy of the flow chart which describes the driver routine in the body of the main program segment is included.

  7. Library Optimization in EDXRF Spectral Deconvolution for Multi-element Analysis of Ambient Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    In multi-element analysis of atmospheric aerosols, attempts are made to fit overlapping elemental spectral lines for many elements that may be undetectable in samples due to low concentrations. Fitting with many library reference spectra has the unwanted effect of raising the an...

  8. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  9. A comprehensive multiphonon spectral analysis in MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livneh, Tsachi; Spanier, Jonathan E.

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive multiphonon Raman and complementary infrared analysis for bulk and monolayer MoS2. For the bulk the analysis consists of symmetry assignment from which we obtain a broad set of allowed second-order transitions at the high symmetry M, K and Γ Brillouin zone (BZ) points. The attribution of about 80 transitions of up to fifth order processes are proposed in the low temperature (95 K) resonant Raman spectrum measured with excitation energy of 1.96 eV, which is slightly shifted in energy from the A exciton. We propose that the main contributions come from four phonons: A1g (M), E12g (M1), E22g (M1) (TA‧ (M)) and E22g (M2) (LA‧ (M)). The last three are single degenerate phonons at M with an origin of the E12g (Γ) and E22g (Γ) phonons. Among the four phonons, we identify in the resonant Raman spectra all (but one) of the second-order overtones, combination and difference-bands and many of the third order bands. Consistent with the expectation that at the M point only combinations with the same inversion symmetry (g or u) are Raman-allowed, the contribution of combinations with the longitudinal acoustic (LA(M)) mode can not be considered with the above four phonons. Although minor, contributions from K point and possibly Γ-point phonons are also evident. The ‘2LA band’, measured at ˜460 cm-1 is reassigned. Supported by the striking similarity between this band, measured under off-resonant conditions, and recently published two phonon density of states, we explain the lower part of the band, previously attributed to 2LA(M), as being due to a van Hove singularity between K and M. The higher part, previously attributed exclusively to the A2u (Γ) phonon, is mostly due to the LA and LA‧ phonons at M. For the monolayer MoS2 the second-order phonon processes from the M and Γ BZ points are also analyzed and are discussed within similar framework to that of the bulk.

  10. Effectiveness of Spectral Similarity Measures to Develop Precise Crop Spectra for Hyperspectral Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, H.; Krishna Mohan, B.

    2014-11-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective to check effectiveness of spectral similarity measures to develop precise crop spectra from the collected hyperspectral field spectra. In Multispectral and Hyperspectral remote sensing, classification of pixels is obtained by statistical comparison (by means of spectral similarity) of known field or library spectra to unknown image spectra. Though these algorithms are readily used, little emphasis has been placed on use of various spectral similarity measures to select precise crop spectra from the set of field spectra. Conventionally crop spectra are developed after rejecting outliers based only on broad-spectrum analysis. Here a successful attempt has been made to develop precise crop spectra based on spectral similarity. As unevaluated data usage leads to uncertainty in the image classification, it is very crucial to evaluate the data. Hence, notwithstanding the conventional method, the data precision has been performed effectively to serve the purpose of the present research work. The effectiveness of developed precise field spectra was evaluated by spectral discrimination measures and found higher discrimination values compared to spectra developed conventionally. Overall classification accuracy for the image classified by field spectra selected conventionally is 51.89% and 75.47% for the image classified by field spectra selected precisely based on spectral similarity. KHAT values are 0.37, 0.62 and Z values are 2.77, 9.59 for image classified using conventional and precise field spectra respectively. Reasonable higher classification accuracy, KHAT and Z values shows the possibility of a new approach for field spectra selection based on spectral similarity measure.

  11. Electron spin resonance spectral analysis of irradiated royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2014-01-15

    The analysis of unpaired electron components in royal jelly was carried out using electron spin resonance (ESR) with the aim to develop a detection method for irradiated royal jelly. The ESR spectrum of royal jelly had natural signals derived from transition metals, including Fe(3+) and Cu(2+), and a signal line near g=2.00. After irradiation, a new splitting asymmetric spectrum with overall spectrum width ca. 10mT at g=2.004 was observed. The intensities of the signals at g=2.004 increased in proportion to the absorbed dose in samples under different storage conditions: fresh frozen royal jelly and dried royal jelly powder at room temperature. The signal intensity of the fresh frozen sample was stable after irradiation. One year after 10kGy irradiation of dried powder, the signal intensity was sevenfold greater than before irradiation, although the intensity continued to steadily decrease with time. This stable radiation-induced radical component was derived from the poorly soluble constituent of royal jelly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectral Variability among Rocks in Visible and Near Infrared Multispectral Pancam Data Collected at Gusev Crater: Examinations using Spectral Mixture Analysis and Related Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit s Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analysed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three endmember mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover s Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional endmembers. In the Columbia Hills there were a number of scenes in which additional rock endmembers were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces, as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are: Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes, but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts.

  13. Multi-decade Measurements of the Long-Term Trends of Atmospheric Species by High-Spectral-Resolution Infrared Solar Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra were recorded for the first time in 5 years with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer at the US National solar Observatory on Kitt Peak in southern Arizona, USA (31.91 N latitude, 111.61 W longitude, 2.09 km altitude). The solar absorption spectra cover 750-1300 and 1850-5000 cm(sup -1) and were recorded on 20 days during March-June 2009. The measurements mark the continuation of a long-term record of atmospheric chemical composition measurements that have been used to quantify seasonal cycles and long-term trends of both tropospheric and stratospheric species from observations that began i 1977. Fits to the measured spectra have been performed, and they indicate the spectra obtained since return to operational status are nearly free of channeling and the instrument line shape function is well reproduced taking into account the measurement parameters. We report updated time series measurements of total columns for six atmospheric species and their analysis for seasonal cycles and long-term trends. An sn example, the time series fit shows a decrease in the annual increase rate i Montreal-Protocol-regulated chlorofluorocarbon CCL2F2 from 1.51 plus or minus 0.38% yr(sup -1) at the beginning of the time span to -1.54 plus or minus 1.28 yr(sup -1) at the end of the time span, 1 sigma, and hence provides evidence for the impact of those regulations on the trend.

  14. Solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral analysis of benzimidazoles and their N 1-protonated salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, B. B.

    2005-11-01

    A stereo structural characterization of 2,5,6-thrimethylbenzimidazole (MBIZ) and 2-amino-benzimidaziole (2-NH 2-BI) and their N 1 protonation salts was carried out using a polarized solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis in nematic liquid crystal suspension. All experimental predicted structures were compared with the theoretical ones, obtained by ab initio calculations. The Cs to C2v* symmetry transformation as a result of protonation processes, with a view of its reflection on the infrared spectral characteristics was described.

  15. Spectral Analysis within the Virtual Observatory: The GAVO Service TheoSSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringat, E.

    2012-03-01

    In the last decade, numerous Virtual Observatory organizations were established. One of these is the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) that e.g. provides access to spectral energy distributions via the service TheoSSA. In a pilot phase, these are based on the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) and suitable for hot, compact stars. We demonstrate the power of TheoSSA in an application to the sdOB primary of AA Doradus by comparison with a “classical” spectral analysis.

  16. Spectral analysis of highly aliased sea-level signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1998-10-01

    Observing high-wavenumber ocean phenomena with a satellite altimeter generally calls for "along-track" analyses of the data: measurements along a repeating satellite ground track are analyzed in a point-by-point fashion, as opposed to spatially averaging data over multiple tracks. The sea-level aliasing problems encountered in such analyses can be especially challenging. For TOPEX/POSEIDON, all signals with frequency greater than 18 cycles per year (cpy), including both tidal and subdiurnal signals, are folded into the 0-18 cpy band. Because the tidal bands are wider than 18 cpy, residual tidal cusp energy, plus any subdiurnal energy, is capable of corrupting any low-frequency signal of interest. The practical consequences of this are explored here by using real sea-level measurements from conventional tide gauges, for which the true oceanographic spectrum is known and to which a simulated "satellite-measured" spectrum, based on coarsely subsampled data, may be compared. At many locations the spectrum is sufficently red that interannual frequencies remain unaffected. Intra-annual frequencies, however, must be interpreted with greater caution, and even interannual frequencies can be corrupted if the spectrum is flat. The results also suggest that whenever tides must be estimated directly from the altimetry, response methods of analysis are preferable to harmonic methods, even in nonlinear regimes; this will remain so for the foreseeable future. We concentrate on three example tide gauges: two coastal stations on the Malay Peninsula where the closely aliased K1 and Ssa tides are strong and at Canton Island where trapped equatorial waves are aliased.

  17. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 2: Accurate calibration of high spectral-resolution infrared measurements of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus; Sussmann, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor absorption is crucial for accurate climate simulations. An open science question in this context concerns the strength of the water vapor continuum in the near infrared (NIR) at atmospheric temperatures, which is still to be quantified by measurements. This issue can be addressed with radiative closure experiments using solar absorption spectra. However, the spectra used for water vapor continuum quantification have to be radiometrically calibrated. We present for the first time a method that yields sufficient calibration accuracy for NIR water vapor continuum quantification in an atmospheric closure experiment. Our method combines the Langley method with spectral radiance measurements of a high-temperature blackbody calibration source (< 2000 K). The calibration scheme is demonstrated in the spectral range 2500 to 7800 cm-1, but minor modifications to the method enable calibration also throughout the remainder of the NIR spectral range. The resulting uncertainty (2σ) excluding the contribution due to inaccuracies in the extra-atmospheric solar spectrum (ESS) is below 1 % in window regions and up to 1.7 % within absorption bands. The overall radiometric accuracy of the calibration depends on the ESS uncertainty, on which at present no firm consensus has been reached in the NIR. However, as is shown in the companion publication Reichert and Sussmann (2016), ESS uncertainty is only of minor importance for the specific aim of this study, i.e., the quantification of the water vapor continuum in a closure experiment. The calibration uncertainty estimate is substantiated by the investigation of calibration self-consistency, which yields compatible results within the estimated errors for 91.1 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 range. Additionally, a comparison of a set of calibrated spectra to radiative transfer model calculations yields consistent results within the estimated errors for 97.7 % of the spectral range.

  18. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. 1; Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.45(+0.01 -0.02) (a value considerably harder 0.02 than typically found), e-folding energy E(sub f) = 162(+9 -8) keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kT(sub bb) = 1.2(+0.0 -0.1) keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fit with a reflected power law with Gamma = 1.81 + or - 0.01 and covering fraction f = 0.35 + or - 0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range is included, as there is no observed hardening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman (1997a) - where the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth pi = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kT(sub c) = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X(exp 2 sub red) = 1.55). These models deviate from red the data by up to 7% in the 5 - 10 keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering bow successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10 - 200 keV data, such "pboton-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  19. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., <300 nm). In preparation for anticipated future hyperspectral satellite missions, we take the first step here of exploring global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  20. A spectral analysis of Deneb (A2 Iae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, B.

    2000-12-01

    This study presents a detailed model atmosphere abundance analysis of Deneb which was performed using Kurucz LTE ATLAS9 model atmospheres. The atmospheric parameters were determined from Mg I/II and Fe I/II equilibrium, and by fitting the Hgamma profile and optical region spectrophotometry. The compromise values which best satisfy these criteria are T_eff = 9000 K and log g = 1.45. The Mg I, Mg II, Si II, Ti II, Cr II, Fe I, and Fe II lines yield microturbulences of 3.60, 6.50, 8.50, 8.00, 11.90, 3.60, and 10.40 km s-1, respectively. An average microturbulence of 7 km s-1 was used for the other atomic species. From a comparision of the synthetic spectrum with the observations, the best value for the rotational velocity is v sin i = 25 km s-1, and for the macroturbulent velocity is zeta = 14 km s-1, which are similar to those of some earlier derived values. Also, the individual spectrograms have a range of radial velocity variation of ~ 15 km s-1 which is approximately equal to macroturbulent velocity. These values of the macroturbulence and the range of radial velocity variation are close to the sum of the amplitudes (10.44 km s-1) of all the pulsation periods found by Lucy (\\cite{lucy}), who also suggested that the surface motions of the atmosphere of Deneb can be identified with macroturbulence. Deneb showed a definite helium underabundance with a well determined He/H value = 0.071. The CNO values (C being mildly deficient, N being in moderate excess, and an O being slightly deficient) are consistent with the mixing of the CNO-cycled products into the surface layers from the processed materials presumably dredged-up from the interior. Aluminium is mildly deficient by ~ 0.24 dex with respect to solar value, while sulfur is moderately underabundant by ~ 0.43 dex in Deneb. Mg and Si have the solar abundances. The metal abundances (Ca to Ni) tend to be greater than solar except for Sc which is slightly deficient. The heavy elements abundances (Sr, Y, and Zr) are all

  1. A Study on Spectral Signature Analysis of Wetland Vegetation Based on Ground Imaging Spectrum Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Chengxing; Liu, Hua; Ju, Hongbo; Zhang, Huaiqing; You, Jia; Li, Weina

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the application of imaging spectrometer in wetland vegetation remote sensing monitoring, based on analysis of wetland vegetation spectral features. Spectral information of Carex vegetation spectral data under different water environment was collected bySOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3; Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents of wheat leaves were tested in the lab. A total 9 typical vegetation indices were calculated by using two instruments’ data which were spectral values from 400nm to 1000 nm. Then features between the same vegetation indices and soil water contents for two applications were analyzed and compared. The results showed that there were same spectrum curve trends of Carex vegetation (soil moisture content of 51%, 32%, 14% and three regional comparative analysis)reflectance between SOC710VP and ASD FieldSpec 3, including the two reflectance peak of 550nm and 730 nm, two reflectance valley of 690 nm and 970nm, and continuous near infrared reflectance platform. However, The two also have a very clear distinction: (1) The reflection spectra of SOC710VP leaves of Carex Carex leaf spectra in the three soil moisture environment values are greater than ASD FieldSpec 3 collected value; (2) The SOC710VP reflectivity curve does not have the smooth curve of the original spectrum measured by the ASD FieldSpec 3, the amplitude of fluctuation is bigger, and it is more obvious in the near infrared band. It is concluded that SOC710VP spectral data are reliable, with the image features, spectral curve features reliable. It has great potential in the research of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in the development of wetland near earth, remote sensing monitoring of wetland resources.

  2. Nearest clusters based partial least squares discriminant analysis for the classification of spectral data.

    PubMed

    Song, Weiran; Wang, Hui; Maguire, Paul; Nibouche, Omar

    2018-06-07

    Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is one of the most effective multivariate analysis methods for spectral data analysis, which extracts latent variables and uses them to predict responses. In particular, it is an effective method for handling high-dimensional and collinear spectral data. However, PLS-DA does not explicitly address data multimodality, i.e., within-class multimodal distribution of data. In this paper, we present a novel method termed nearest clusters based PLS-DA (NCPLS-DA) for addressing the multimodality and nonlinearity issues explicitly and improving the performance of PLS-DA on spectral data classification. The new method applies hierarchical clustering to divide samples into clusters and calculates the corresponding centre of every cluster. For a given query point, only clusters whose centres are nearest to such a query point are used for PLS-DA. Such a method can provide a simple and effective tool for separating multimodal and nonlinear classes into clusters which are locally linear and unimodal. Experimental results on 17 datasets, including 12 UCI and 5 spectral datasets, show that NCPLS-DA can outperform 4 baseline methods, namely, PLS-DA, kernel PLS-DA, local PLS-DA and k-NN, achieving the highest classification accuracy most of the time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying mineral abundances of complex mixtures by coupling spectral deconvolution of SWIR spectra (2.1-2.4 μm) and regression tree analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; Plotze, Michael; de Bruin, Sytze; Schaepman, Michael E.; Mavris, C.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Egli, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing mineral abundances of mixtures having more than two constituents using absorption features in the 2.1-2.4 μm wavelength region. In the first step, the absorption behaviour of mineral mixtures is parameterised by exponential Gaussian optimisation. Next, mineral abundances are predicted by regression tree analysis using these parameters as inputs. The approach is demonstrated on a range of prepared samples with known abundances of kaolinite, dioctahedral mica, smectite, calcite and quartz and on a set of field samples from Morocco. The latter contained varying quantities of other minerals, some of which did not have diagnostic absorption features in the 2.1-2.4 μm region. Cross validation showed that the prepared samples of kaolinite, dioctahedral mica, smectite and calcite were predicted with a root mean square error (RMSE) less than 9 wt.%. For the field samples, the RMSE was less than 8 wt.% for calcite, dioctahedral mica and kaolinite abundances. Smectite could not be well predicted, which was attributed to spectral variation of the cations within the dioctahedral layered smectites. Substitution of part of the quartz by chlorite at the prediction phase hardly affected the accuracy of the predicted mineral content; this suggests that the method is robust in handling the omission of minerals during the training phase. The degree of expression of absorption components was different between the field sample and the laboratory mixtures. This demonstrates that the method should be calibrated and trained on local samples. Our method allows the simultaneous quantification of more than two minerals within a complex mixture and thereby enhances the perspectives of spectral analysis for mineral abundances.

  4. The classification of the patients with pulmonary diseases using breath air samples spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.

    2016-08-01

    Technique of exhaled breath sampling is discussed. The procedure of wavelength auto-calibration is proposed and tested. Comparison of the experimental data with the model absorption spectra of 5% CO2 is conducted. The classification results of three study groups obtained by using support vector machine and principal component analysis methods are presented.

  5. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  6. Analysis of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides in Vegetable Matrices Using HPLC-UV Followed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Bom, Laura; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad; Millet, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    A simple method combining ion-pair methylation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with detection at 272 nm and atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in order to determine 10 dithiocarbamate fungicides (Dazomet, Metam-sodium, Ferbam, Ziram, Zineb, Maneb, Mancozeb, Metiram, Nabam and Propineb) and distinguish ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDTCs) Zineb, Maneb and Mancozeb in diverse matrices. This method associates reverse phase analysis by HPLC analysis with detection at 272 nm, with atomic absorption spectrometry in order to distinguish, with the same extraction protocol, Maneb, Mancozeb and Zineb. The limits of detection (0.4, 0.8, 0.5, 1.25 and 1.97) and quantification (1.18, 2.5, 1.52, 4.2 and 6.52) calculated in injected nanogram, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDTCs), EBDTCs and propylenebisdithiocarbamates (PBDTCs) justify the sensitivity of the method used. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.9985, 0.9978, 0.9949, 0.988 and 0.9794, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, DMDTCs, EBDTCs and PBDTCs, and the recovery from fortified apple and leek samples was above 90%. Results obtained with the atomic absorption method in comparison with spectrophotometric analysis focus on the importance of the atomic absorption as a complementary specific method for the distinction between different EBDTCs fungicides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  8. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS BY PH-SELECTIVE HYDRIDE GENERATION-ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory


    A method based on pH-selective generation and separation of arsines is commonly used for analysis of inorganic, methylated, and dimethylated trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). We have optimized this method to pe...

  9. Analysis of multimode fiber bundles for endoscopic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Risi, Matthew D.; Makhlouf, Houssine; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the use of a fiber bundle in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems is presented. The fiber bundle enables a flexible endoscopic design and provides fast, parallelized acquisition of the OCT data. However, the multimode characteristic of the fibers in the fiber bundle affects the depth sensitivity of the imaging system. A description of light interference in a multimode fiber is presented along with numerical simulations and experimental studies to illustrate the theoretical analysis. PMID:25967012

  10. A statistical evaluation of spectral fingerprinting methods using analysis of variance and principal component analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six methods were compared with respect to spectral fingerprinting of a well-characterized series of broccoli samples. Spectral fingerprints were acquired for finely-powdered solid samples using Fourier transform-infrared (IR) and Fourier transform-near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and for aqueous met...

  11. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speetjens, M. F. M.; Meleshko, V. V.; van Heijst, G. J. F.

    2014-06-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N\\leqslant 7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N\\leqslant 6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. Dedicated to the memory of Slava Meleshko, a dear friend and inspiring colleague.

  12. Spectral Analysis of Ultrasound Radiofrequency Backscatter for the Detection of Intercostal Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Jon D; Haggard, Asher; Fedewa, Russell J; Qiang, Beidi; Cummings, Kenneth; DeGrande, Sean; Vince, D Geoffrey; Elsharkawy, Hesham

    2018-04-19

    Spectral analysis of ultrasound radiofrequency backscatter has the potential to identify intercostal blood vessels during ultrasound-guided placement of paravertebral nerve blocks and intercostal nerve blocks. Autoregressive models were used for spectral estimation, and bandwidth, autoregressive order and region-of-interest size were evaluated. Eight spectral parameters were calculated and used to create random forests. An autoregressive order of 10, bandwidth of 6 dB and region-of-interest size of 1.0 mm resulted in the minimum out-of-bag error. An additional random forest, using these chosen values, was created from 70% of the data and evaluated independently from the remaining 30% of data. The random forest achieved a predictive accuracy of 92% and Youden's index of 0.85. These results suggest that spectral analysis of ultrasound radiofrequency backscatter has the potential to identify intercostal blood vessels. (jokling@siue.edu) © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Data analysis of multi-laser standoff spectral identification of chemical and biological compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, R.; Zaharov, V.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.; Passian, A.

    2013-06-01

    With the availability of tunable broadband coherent sources that emit mid-infrared radiation with well-defined beam characteristics, spectroscopies that were traditionally not practical for standoff detection1 or for development of miniaturized infrared detectors2, 3 have renewed interest. While obtaining compositional information for objects from a distance remains a major challenge in chemical and biological sensing, recently we demonstrated that capitalizing on mid-infrared excitation of target molecules by using quantum cascade lasers and invoking a pump probe scheme can provide spectral fingerprints of substances from a variable standoff distance.3 However, the standoff data is typically associated with random fluctuations that can corrupt the fine spectral features and useful data. To process the data from standoff experiments toward better recognition we consider and apply two types of denoising techniques, namely, spectral analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT). Using these techniques, infrared spectral data have been effectively improved. The result of the analysis illustrates that KLT can be adapted as a powerful data denoising tool for the presented pump-probe infrared standoff spectroscopy.

  14. Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

    1989-01-01

    A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

  15. A comparison of spectral mixture analysis an NDVI for ascertaining ecological variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Carol A.; Bateson, C. Ann; Curtiss, Brian; Benning, Tracy L.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we compare the performance of spectral mixture analysis to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting change in a grassland across topographically-induced nutrient gradients and different management schemes. The Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas, is a relatively homogeneous tallgrass prairie in which change in vegetation productivity occurs with respect to topographic positions in each watershed. The area is the site of long-term studies of the influence of fire and grazing on tallgrass production and was the site of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) from 1987 to 1989. Vegetation indices such as NDVI are commonly used with imagery collected in few (less than 10) spectral bands. However, the use of only two bands (e.g. NDVI) does not adequately account for the complex of signals making up most surface reflectance. Influences from background spectral variation and spatial heterogeneity may confound the direct relationship with biological or biophysical variables. High dimensional multispectral data allows for the application position of techniques such as derivative analysis and spectral curve fitting, thereby increasing the probability of successfully modeling the reflectance from mixed surfaces. The higher number of bands permits unmixing of a greater number of surface components, separating the vegetation signal for further analyses relevant to biological variables.

  16. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Retrievals from eMAS During SEAC4RS Using Bi-Spectral Reflectance Measurements Within the 1.88 micron Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, K.; Platnick, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Holz, R. E.; Veglio, P.; Yorks, J.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or midwave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASAs SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 micron water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 micron channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy TOA reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption, as well as reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  17. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  18. EEG resolutions in detecting and decoding finger movements from spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ran; Ding, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Mu/beta rhythms are well-studied brain activities that originate from sensorimotor cortices. These rhythms reveal spectral changes in alpha and beta bands induced by movements of different body parts, e.g., hands and limbs, in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. However, less can be revealed in them about movements of different fine body parts that activate adjacent brain regions, such as individual fingers from one hand. Several studies have reported spatial and temporal couplings of rhythmic activities at different frequency bands, suggesting the existence of well-defined spectral structures across multiple frequency bands. In the present study, spectral principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on EEG data, obtained from a finger movement task, to identify cross-frequency spectral structures. Features from identified spectral structures were examined in their spatial patterns, cross-condition pattern changes, detection capability of finger movements from resting, and decoding performance of individual finger movements in comparison to classic mu/beta rhythms. These new features reveal some similar, but more different spatial and spectral patterns as compared with classic mu/beta rhythms. Decoding results further indicate that these new features (91%) can detect finger movements much better than classic mu/beta rhythms (75.6%). More importantly, these new features reveal discriminative information about movements of different fingers (fine body-part movements), which is not available in classic mu/beta rhythms. The capability in decoding fingers (and hand gestures in the future) from EEG will contribute significantly to the development of non-invasive BCI and neuroprosthesis with intuitive and flexible controls. PMID:26388720

  19. Analysis of Vibration and Noise of Construction Machinery Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Spectral Correlation Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuebiao; Zhou, Yiqi; Yu, Gang; Lu, Dan

    In order to analyze the effect of engine vibration on cab noise of construction machinery in multi-frequency bands, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and spectral correlation analysis is proposed. Firstly, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of vibration and noise signals were obtained by EEMD method, and then the IMFs which have the same frequency bands were selected. Secondly, we calculated the spectral correlation coefficients between the selected IMFs, getting the main frequency bands in which engine vibration has significant impact on cab noise. Thirdly, the dominated frequencies were picked out and analyzed by spectral analysis method. The study result shows that the main frequency bands and dominated frequencies in which engine vibration have serious impact on cab noise can be identified effectively by the proposed method, which provides effective guidance to noise reduction of construction machinery.

  20. Spectral Properties and Dynamics of Gold Nanorods Revealed by EMCCD Based Spectral-Phasor Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongtao; Digman, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanorods (NRs) with tunable plasmon-resonant absorption in the near-infrared region have considerable advantages over organic fluorophores as imaging agents. However, the luminescence spectral properties of NRs have not been fully explored at the single particle level in bulk due to lack of proper analytic tools. Here we present a global spectral phasor analysis method which allows investigations of NRs' spectra at single particle level with their statistic behavior and spatial information during imaging. The wide phasor distribution obtained by the spectral phasor analysis indicates spectra of NRs are different from particle to particle. NRs with different spectra can be identified graphically in corresponding spatial images with high spectral resolution. Furthermore, spectral behaviors of NRs under different imaging conditions, e.g. different excitation powers and wavelengths, were carefully examined by our laser-scanning multiphoton microscope with spectral imaging capability. Our results prove that the spectral phasor method is an easy and efficient tool in hyper-spectral imaging analysis to unravel subtle changes of the emission spectrum. Moreover, we applied this method to study the spectral dynamics of NRs during direct optical trapping and by optothermal trapping. Interestingly, spectral shifts were observed in both trapping phenomena. PMID:25684346

  1. Exploring the potential of hyper-spectral imaging for the biogeochemical analysis of varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Christoph; Grosjean, Martin; Enters, Dirk; Tylmann, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Varved lake sediments have successfully been used to make inferences about past environmental and climate conditions from annual to multi-millennial scales. Among other proxies, concentrations of sedimentary photopigments have been used for temperature reconstructions. However, obtaining well calibrated annually resolved records from sediments still remains challenging. Most laboratory methods used to analyse lake sediments require physical subsampling and are destructive in the process. Hence, temporal resolution and number of data are limited by the amount of material available in the core. Furthermore, for very low sediment accumulation rates annual subsampling is often very difficult or even impossible. To address these problems we explore hyper-spectral imaging as a new method to analyse lake sediments based on their reflectance spectra in the visible and near infrared spectrum. In contrast to other fast and non-destructive methods like X-ray fluorescence, VIS/NIR reflectance spectrometry distinguishes between biogeochemical substances rather than single elements. Rein (2003) has shown that VIS-RS can be used to detect relative concentrations of sedimentary photopigments (e.g. chlorins, carotenoids) and clay minerals. This study presents an advanced approach using a hyper-spectral camera and remote sensing techniques to infer climate proxy data from reflectance spectra of varved lake sediments. Hyper-spectral imaging allows analysing an entire sediment core in a single measurement, producing a spectral dataset with very high spatial (30x30µm/pixel) and spectral resolutions (~1nm) and a higher spectral range (400-1000nm) compared to previously used spectrophotometers. This allows the analysis of data time series at sub-varve scales or spatial mapping of sedimentary substances (e.g. chlorophyll-a and diagenetic products) at very high resolution. The method is demonstrated on varved lake sediments from northern Poland showing the change of the relative

  2. Novel Spectral Representations and Sparsity-Driven Algorithms for Shape Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ming

    In this dissertation, we focus on extending classical spectral shape analysis by incorporating spectral graph wavelets and sparsity-seeking algorithms. Defined with the graph Laplacian eigenbasis, the spectral graph wavelets are localized both in the vertex domain and graph spectral domain, and thus are very effective in describing local geometry. With a rich dictionary of elementary vectors and forcing certain sparsity constraints, a real life signal can often be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation. The many successful applications of sparse signal representation in computer vision and image processing inspire us to explore the idea of employing sparse modeling techniques with dictionary of spectral basis to solve various shape modeling problems. Conventional spectral mesh compression uses the eigenfunctions of mesh Laplacian as shape bases, which are highly inefficient in representing local geometry. To ameliorate, we advocate an innovative approach to 3D mesh compression using spectral graph wavelets as dictionary to encode mesh geometry. The spectral graph wavelets are locally defined at individual vertices and can better capture local shape information than Laplacian eigenbasis. The multi-scale SGWs form a redundant dictionary as shape basis, so we formulate the compression of 3D shape as a sparse approximation problem that can be readily handled by greedy pursuit algorithms. Surface inpainting refers to the completion or recovery of missing shape geometry based on the shape information that is currently available. We devise a new surface inpainting algorithm founded upon the theory and techniques of sparse signal recovery. Instead of estimating the missing geometry directly, our novel method is to find this low-dimensional representation which describes the entire original shape. More specifically, we find that, for many shapes, the vertex coordinate function can be well approximated by a very sparse coefficient representation with

  3. [Analysis of software for identifying spectral line of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on LabVIEW].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Yan, Xiao-juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhi; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-03-01

    Self-designed identifying software for LIBS spectral line was introduced. Being integrated with LabVIEW, the soft ware can smooth spectral lines and pick peaks. The second difference and threshold methods were employed. Characteristic spectrum of several elements matches the NIST database, and realizes automatic spectral line identification and qualitative analysis of the basic composition of sample. This software can analyze spectrum handily and rapidly. It will be a useful tool for LIBS.

  4. Spectral stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  5. Polychromatic spectral pattern analysis of ultra-weak photon emissions from a human body.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Iwasa, Torai; Tada, Mika

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE), often designated as biophoton emission, is generally observed in a wide range of living organisms, including human beings. This phenomenon is closely associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal metabolic processes and pathological states induced by oxidative stress. Application of UPE extracting the pathophysiological information has long been anticipated because of its potential non-invasiveness, facilitating its diagnostic use. Nevertheless, its weak intensity and UPE mechanism complexity hinder its use for practical applications. Spectroscopy is crucially important for UPE analysis. However, filter-type spectroscopy technique, used as a conventional method for UPE analysis, intrinsically limits its performance because of its monochromatic scheme. To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, the authors developed a polychromatic spectroscopy system for UPE spectral pattern analysis. It is based on a highly efficient lens systems and a transmission-type diffraction grating with a highly sensitive, cooled, charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. Spectral pattern analysis of the human body was done for a fingertip using the developed system. The UPE spectrum covers the spectral range of 450-750nm, with a dominant emission region of 570-670nm. The primary peak is located in the 600-650nm region. Furthermore, application of UPE source exploration was demonstrated with the chemiluminescence spectrum of melanin and coexistence with oxidized linoleic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Time Series in the Presence of Within-Group Spectral Variability.

    PubMed

    Krafty, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies record replicated time series epochs from different groups with the goal of using frequency domain properties to discriminate between the groups. In many applications, there exists variation in cyclical patterns from time series in the same group. Although a number of frequency domain methods for the discriminant analysis of time series have been explored, there is a dearth of models and methods that account for within-group spectral variability. This article proposes a model for groups of time series in which transfer functions are modeled as stochastic variables that can account for both between-group and within-group differences in spectra that are identified from individual replicates. An ensuing discriminant analysis of stochastic cepstra under this model is developed to obtain parsimonious measures of relative power that optimally separate groups in the presence of within-group spectral variability. The approach possess favorable properties in classifying new observations and can be consistently estimated through a simple discriminant analysis of a finite number of estimated cepstral coefficients. Benefits in accounting for within-group spectral variability are empirically illustrated in a simulation study and through an analysis of gait variability.

  7. Assessment of insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp: Comparison with the spectral analysis of photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Aglecio Luiz; Batista, Gisele Almeida; Alegre, Sarah Monte

    2017-01-01

    We compare spectral analysis of photoplethysmography (PTG) with insulin resistance measured by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) technique. A total of 100 nondiabetic subjects, 43 men and 57 women aged 20-63years, 30 lean, 42 overweight and 28 obese were enrolled in the study. These patients underwent an examination with HEC, and an examination with the PTG spectral analysis and calculation of the PTG Total Power (PTG-TP). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of PTG-TP in the assessment of insulin resistance. There is a moderate correlation between insulin sensitivity (M-value) and PTG-TP (r=- 0.64, p<0.0001). The ROC curves showed that the most relevant cutoff to the whole study group was a PTG-TP>406.2. This cut-off had a sensitivity=95.7%, specificity =84,4% and the area under the ROC curve (AUC)=0.929 for identifying insulin resistance. All AUC ROC curve analysis were significant (p<0.0001). The use of the PTG-TP marker measured from the PTG spectral analysis is a useful tool in screening and follow up of IR, especially in large-scale studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis of lipid bodies by compound Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Le, Thuc T; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-05-28

    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We used a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of the compound Raman microscope was evaluated on lipid bodies of cultured cells and live animals. Our data indicate that the in vivo fat contains much more unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) than the fat formed via de novo synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of subcutaneous adipocytes and glands revealed a dramatic difference not only in the unsaturation level but also in the thermodynamic state of FAs inside their lipid bodies. Additionally, the compound Raman microscope allows tracking of the cellular uptake of a specific fatty acid and its abundance in nascent cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The high-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis capability renders compound Raman microscopy an indispensible analytical tool for the study of lipid-droplet biology.

  9. Spectral analysis of bacanora (agave-derived liquor) by using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The industry of the agave-derived bacanora, in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, has been growing substantially in recent years. However, this higher demand still lies under the influences of a variety of social, legal, cultural, ecological and economic elements. The governmental institutions of the state have tried to encourage a sustainable development and certain levels of standardization in the production of bacanora by applying different economical and legal strategies. However, a large portion of this alcoholic beverage is still produced in a traditional and rudimentary fashion. Beyond the quality of the beverage, the lack of proper control, by using adequate instrumental methods, might represent a health risk, as in several cases traditional-distilled beverages can contain elevated levels of harmful materials. The present article describes the qualitative spectral analysis of samples of the traditional-produced distilled beverage bacanora in the range from 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 by using a Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer. This particular technique has not been previously explored for the analysis of bacanora, as in the case of other beverages, including tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement for the spectral analysis has been built by combining conventional hardware parts (Michelson interferometer, photo-diodes, visible laser, etc.) and a set of self-developed evaluation algorithms. The resulting spectral information has been compared to those of pure samples of ethanol and to the spectra from different samples of the alcoholic beverage tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement can be used the analysis of bacanora.

  10. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-03

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data.

  11. ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectropscopy using IFEFFIT

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.; UC)

    2010-07-20

    A software package for the analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data is presented. This package is based on the IFEFFIT library of numerical and XAS algorithms and is written in the Perl programming language using the Perl/Tk graphics toolkit. The programs described here are: (i) ATHENA, a program for XAS data processing, (ii) ARTEMIS, a program for EXAFS data analysis using theoretical standards from FEFF and (iii) HEPHAESTUS, a collection of beamline utilities based on tables of atomic absorption data. These programs enable high-quality data analysis that is accessible to novices while still powerful enough to meet the demandsmore » of an expert practitioner. The programs run on all major computer platforms and are freely available under the terms of a free software license.« less

  12. (F)UV Spectral Analysis of 15 Hot, Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of PNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Marc

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was the precise determination of basic stellar parameters and metal abundances for a sample of 15 ionizing stars of gaseous nebulae. Strategic lines of metals for the expected parameter range are located in the ultraviolet (UV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) range. Thus high-resolution, high-S/N UV and FUV observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) were used for the analysis. For the calculation of the necessary spectral energy distributions the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) was used. The model atmospheres included most elements from H - Ni in order to account for line-blanketing effects. For each object a small grid of model atmospheres was calculated. As the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints its influence in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and especially the FUSE range, the program OWENS was employed to calculate the interstellar absorption features. Both, the photospheric model spectral energy distribution (SED) as well as the ISM models were combined to enable the identification of most of the observed absorption lines. The analyzed sample covers a range of 70 kK < Teff < 136 kK, and surface gravities from log (g/cm/sec^2) = 5.4 - 7.4, thus representing different stages of stellar evolution. For a large number of elements, abundances were determined for the first time in these objects. Lines of C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, and Ar allowed to determine the corresponding abundances. For none of the objects lines of Ca, Sc, Ti, and V could be found. Only a few objects were rich in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni lines. Most of the analyzed stars exhibited only lines of Fe (ionization stages V - VIII) from the iron-group elements. No signs for gravitational settling (the gravitational force exceeds the radiation pressure and elements begin to sink from the atmosphere into deeper layers) were found. This is expected as the values of the surface gravities of

  13. UV spectroscopy including ISM line absorption: of the exciting star of Abell 35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    Reliable spectral analysis that is based on high-resolution UV observations requires an adequate, simultaneous modeling of the interstellar line absorption and reddening. In the case of the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 35, BD-22 3467, we demonstrate our current standard spectral-analysis method that is based on the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP). We present an on- going spectral analysis of FUSE and HST/STIS observations of BD-22 3467.

  14. Hyperspectral Image Denoising Using a Nonlocal Spectral Spatial Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Xu, L.; Peng, J.; Ma, J.

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral images (HSIs) denoising is a critical research area in image processing duo to its importance in improving the quality of HSIs, which has a negative impact on object detection and classification and so on. In this paper, we develop a noise reduction method based on principal component analysis (PCA) for hyperspectral imagery, which is dependent on the assumption that the noise can be removed by selecting the leading principal components. The main contribution of paper is to introduce the spectral spatial structure and nonlocal similarity of the HSIs into the PCA denoising model. PCA with spectral spatial structure can exploit spectral correlation and spatial correlation of HSI by using 3D blocks instead of 2D patches. Nonlocal similarity means the similarity between the referenced pixel and other pixels in nonlocal area, where Mahalanobis distance algorithm is used to estimate the spatial spectral similarity by calculating the distance in 3D blocks. The proposed method is tested on both simulated and real hyperspectral images, the results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to several other popular methods in HSI denoising.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging of polymer banknotes for building and analysis of spectral library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-11-01

    The use of counterfeit banknotes increases crime rates and cripples the economy. New countermeasures are required to stop counterfeiters who use advancing technologies with criminal intent. Many countries started adopting polymer banknotes to replace paper notes, as polymer notes are more durable and have better quality. The research on authenticating such banknotes is of much interest to the forensic investigators. Hyperspectral imaging can be employed to build a spectral library of polymer notes, which can then be used for classification to authenticate these notes. This is however not widely reported and has become a research interest in forensic identification. This paper focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging on polymer notes to build spectral libraries, using a pushbroom hyperspectral imager which has been previously reported. As an initial study, a spectral library will be built from three arbitrarily chosen regions of interest of five circulated genuine polymer notes. Principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction and to convert the information in the spectral library to principal components. A 99% confidence ellipse is formed around the cluster of principal component scores of each class and then used as classification criteria. The potential of the adopted methodology is demonstrated by the classification of the imaged regions as training samples.

  16. Assessing and monitoring of urban vegetation using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.

    2013-08-01

    During last years urban vegetation with significant health, biological and economical values had experienced dramatic changes due to urbanization and human activities in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. We investigated the utility of remote sensing approaches of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) applied to IKONOS and Landsat TM/ETM satellite data for estimating fractional cover of urban/periurban forest, parks, agricultural vegetation areas. Because of the spectral heterogeneity of same physical features of urban vegetation increases with the increase of image resolution, the traditional spectral information-based statistical method may not be useful to classify land cover dynamics from high resolution imageries like IKONOS. So we used hierarchy tree classification method in classification and MESMA for vegetation land cover dynamics assessment based on available IKONOS high-resolution imagery of Bucharest town. This study employs thirty two endmembers and six hundred and sixty spectral models to identify all Earth's features (vegetation, water, soil, impervious) and shade in the Bucharest area. The mean RMS error for the selected vegetation land cover classes range from 0.0027 to 0.018. The Pearson correlation between the fraction outputs from MESMA and reference data from all IKONOS images 1m panchromatic resolution data for urban/periurban vegetation were ranging in the domain 0.7048 - 0.8287. The framework in this study can be applied to other urban vegetation areas in Romania.

  17. A distributed microcomputer-controlled system for data acquisition and power spectral analysis of EEG.

    PubMed

    Vo, T D; Dwyer, G; Szeto, H H

    1986-04-01

    A relatively powerful and inexpensive microcomputer-based system for the spectral analysis of the EEG is presented. High resolution and speed is achieved with the use of recently available large-scale integrated circuit technology with enhanced functionality (INTEL Math co-processors 8087) which can perform transcendental functions rapidly. The versatility of the system is achieved with a hardware organization that has distributed data acquisition capability performed by the use of a microprocessor-based analog to digital converter with large resident memory (Cyborg ISAAC-2000). Compiled BASIC programs and assembly language subroutines perform on-line or off-line the fast Fourier transform and spectral analysis of the EEG which is stored as soft as well as hard copy. Some results obtained from test application of the entire system in animal studies are presented.

  18. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  19. Spectral analysis of the He-enriched sdO-star HD 127493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsch, Matti; Latour, Marilyn; Heber, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    The bright sdO star HD127493 is known to be of mixed H/He composition and excellent archival spectra covering both optical and ultraviolet ranges are available. UV spectra play a key role as they give access to many chemical species that do not show spectral lines in the optical, such as iron and nickel. This encouraged the quantitative spectral analysis of this prototypical mixed H/He composition sdO star. We determined atmospheric parameters for HD127493 in addition to the abundance of C, N, O, Si, S, Fe, and Ni in the atmosphere using non-LTE model atmospheres calculated with TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. A comparison between the parallax distance measured by Hipparcos and the derived spectroscopic distance indicate that the derived atmospheric parameters are realistic. From our metal abundance analysis, we find a strong CNO signature and enrichment in iron and nickel.

  20. [Local Regression Algorithm Based on Net Analyte Signal and Its Application in Near Infrared Spectral Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-guang; Lu, Jian-gang

    2016-02-01

    Abstract To overcome the problems of significant difference among samples and nonlinearity between the property and spectra of samples in spectral quantitative analysis, a local regression algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, net signal analysis method(NAS) was firstly used to obtain the net analyte signal of the calibration samples and unknown samples, then the Euclidean distance between net analyte signal of the sample and net analyte signal of calibration samples was calculated and utilized as similarity index. According to the defined similarity index, the local calibration sets were individually selected for each unknown sample. Finally, a local PLS regression model was built on each local calibration sets for each unknown sample. The proposed method was applied to a set of near infrared spectra of meat samples. The results demonstrate that the prediction precision and model complexity of the proposed method are superior to global PLS regression method and conventional local regression algorithm based on spectral Euclidean distance.

  1. Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Constituents from High Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results and ongoing studies of high resolution solar absorption spectra will be presented. The analysis of these spectra is aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents important in atmospheric chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/ cm covering the 700-2200/ cm interval will be presented. Results from ground-based 0.02/ cm solar spectra, from several locations such as Denver, South Pole, M. Loa, and New Zealand will also be shown. The 0.0025/ cm spectra show many new spectroscopic features. The analysis of these spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of trace constituents quantification. The combination of the recent balloon flights, with earlier flights data since 1978 at 0.02/ cm resolution, provides trends analysis of several stratospheric trace species. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species will be presented. Analysis of several ground-based solar spectra provides trends for HCl, HF and other species. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra will be presented. These are extended for the analysis of the ground-based spectra to be obtained by the high resolution interferometers of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Progress or the University of Denver studies for the NDSC will be presented. This will include intercomparison of solar spectra and trace gases retrievals obtained from simultaneous scans by the high resolution (0.0025/ cm) interferometers of BRUKER and BOMEM.

  2. Multi-site recording and spectral analysis of spontaneous photon emission from human body.

    PubMed

    Wijk, Eduard P A Van; Wijk, Roeland Van

    2005-04-01

    In the past years, research on ultraweak photon emission (UPE) from human body has increased for isolated cells and tissues. However, there are only limited data on UPE from the whole body, in particular from the hands. To describe a protocol for the management of subjects that (1) avoids interference with light-induced longterm delayed luminescence, and (2) includes the time slots for recording photon emission. The protocol was utilised for multi-site recording of 4 subjects at different times of the day and different seasons, and for one subject to complete spectral analysis of emission from different body locations. An especially selected low-noise end-window photomultiplier was utilised for the detection of ultraviolet / visible light (200-650 nm) photon emission. For multi-site recording it was manipulated in three directions in a darkroom with a very low count rate. A series of cut-off filters was used for spectral analysis of UPE. 29 body sites were selected such that the distribution in UPE could be studied as right-left symmetry, dorsal-ventral symmetry, and the ratio between the central body part and extremities. Generally, the fluctuation in photon counts over the body was lower in the morning than in the afternoon. The thorax-abdomen region emitted lowest and most constantly. The upper extremities and the head region emitted most and increasingly over the day. Spectral analysis of low, intermediate and high emission from the superior frontal part of the right leg, the forehead and the palms in the sensitivity range of the photomultiplier showed the major spontaneous emission at 470-570 nm. The central palm area of hand emission showed a larger contribution of the 420-470 nm range in the spectrum of spontaneous emission from the hand in autumn/winter. The spectrum of delayed luminescence from the hand showed major emission in the same range as spontaneous emission. Examples of multi-site UPE recordings and spectral analysis revealed individual patterns

  3. Spectral Analysis of Breast Cancer on Tissue Microarrays: Seeing Beyond Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Harvey N., Szymanski J.J., Bloch J.J., Mitchell M. investigation of image feature extraction by a genetic algorithm. Proc. SPIE 1999;3812:24-31. 11...automated feature extraction using multiple data sources. Proc. SPIE 2003;5099:190-200. 15 4 Spectral-Spatial Analysis of Urine Cytology Angeletti et al...Appendix Contents: 1. Harvey, N.R., Levenson, R.M., Rimm, D.L. (2003) Investigation of Automated Feature Extraction Techniques for Applications in

  4. A New View of Earthquake Ground Motion Data: The Hilbert Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden; Busalacchi, Antonio J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A brief description of the newly developed Empirical Mode Decomposition (ENID) and Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) method will be given. The decomposition is adaptive and can be applied to both nonlinear and nonstationary data. Example of the method applied to a sample earthquake record will be given. The results indicate those low frequency components, totally missed by the Fourier analysis, are clearly identified by the new method. Comparisons with Wavelet and window Fourier analysis show the new method offers much better temporal and frequency resolutions.

  5. Mapping asphalt pavement aging and condition using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yifan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tian, Jie; Jin, Xu; Luo, Lun; Yang, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Asphalt road reflectance spectra change as pavement ages. This provides the possibility for remote sensing to be used to monitor a change in asphalt pavement conditions. However, the relatively narrow geometry of roads and the relatively coarse spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery result in mixtures between pavement and adjacent landcovers (e.g., vegetation, buildings, and soil), increasing uncertainties in spectral analysis. To overcome this problem, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) was used to map the asphalt pavement condition using Worldview-2 satellite imagery in this study. Based on extensive field investigation and in situ measurements, aged asphalt pavements were categorized into four stages-preliminarily aged, moderately aged, heavily aged, and distressed. The spectral characteristics in the first three stages were further analyzed, and a MESMA unmixing analysis was conducted to map these three kinds of pavement conditions from the Worldview-2 image. The results showed that the road pavement conditions could be detected well and mapped with an overall accuracy of 81.71% and Kappa coefficient of 0.77. Finally, a quantitative assessment of the pavement conditions for each road segment in this study area was conducted to inform road maintenance management.

  6. The measurement and analysis of leaf spectral reflectance of two stands of loblolly pine populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Anthony D.

    1993-01-01

    My research was conducted under the mentorship of Dr. Jeff Luvall. I worked at Marshall from June 1 through August 6, 1993. My proposal is titled 'The Measurement and Analysis of Leaf Spectral Reflectance of Two Stands of Loblolly Pine Populations.' The populations for this study were chosen from a larger population of 31 families managed by the International Forest Seed Company, Odenville, Alabama. The technology for mobile ground base spectral detecting is new and therefore the majority of time, June 2 through July 9, was spent on learning the techniques of the Spectrometer 2 spectroradiometer used in the gathering of spectra information. The activities included in the learning process were as follows: calibration of the equipment, programming the associated computer for data management, operation of the spectral devices, and input and output of data. From July 12 through August 3 the time was spent on learning the 'STATGRAP' computer software. This software will be used in the analysis of the data retrieved by the Spectrometer 2 spectroradiometer. Dr. Greg Carter, at Stennis, a colleague of Dr. Luvall, has been conducting similar work with different instruments and procedures and has agreed to host us for a training session on data gathering and analysis. This visit, which has previously planned for July 9, 1993, but had to be postponed because of schedule conflicts, is now confirmed for August 18-22, 1993. This trip to Stennis will provide the knowledge for conducting the field operations in my study, i.e., gathering of data and file conversions.

  7. Identification of neuronal network properties from the spectral analysis of calcium imaging signals in neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Tibau, Elisenda; Valencia, Miguel; Soriano, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are prominent systems to study the development of connections in living neuronal networks and the interplay between connectivity, activity and function. These cultured networks show a rich spontaneous activity that evolves concurrently with the connectivity of the underlying network. In this work we monitor the development of neuronal cultures, and record their activity using calcium fluorescence imaging. We use spectral analysis to characterize global dynamical and structural traits of the neuronal cultures. We first observe that the power spectrum can be used as a signature of the state of the network, for instance when inhibition is active or silent, as well as a measure of the network's connectivity strength. Second, the power spectrum identifies prominent developmental changes in the network such as GABAA switch. And third, the analysis of the spatial distribution of the spectral density, in experiments with a controlled disintegration of the network through CNQX, an AMPA-glutamate receptor antagonist in excitatory neurons, reveals the existence of communities of strongly connected, highly active neurons that display synchronous oscillations. Our work illustrates the interest of spectral analysis for the study of in vitro networks, and its potential use as a network-state indicator, for instance to compare healthy and diseased neuronal networks.

  8. Spectral analysis and multigrid preconditioners for two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaderi, Hamid; Dehghan, Mehdi; Donatelli, Marco; Mazza, Mariarosa

    2017-12-01

    Fractional diffusion equations (FDEs) are a mathematical tool used for describing some special diffusion phenomena arising in many different applications like porous media and computational finance. In this paper, we focus on a two-dimensional space-FDE problem discretized by means of a second order finite difference scheme obtained as combination of the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the so-called weighted and shifted Grünwald formula. By fully exploiting the Toeplitz-like structure of the resulting linear system, we provide a detailed spectral analysis of the coefficient matrix at each time step, both in the case of constant and variable diffusion coefficients. Such a spectral analysis has a very crucial role, since it can be used for designing fast and robust iterative solvers. In particular, we employ the obtained spectral information to define a Galerkin multigrid method based on the classical linear interpolation as grid transfer operator and damped-Jacobi as smoother, and to prove the linear convergence rate of the corresponding two-grid method. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed grid transfer operator is strong enough for working also with the V-cycle method and the geometric multigrid. On this basis, we introduce two computationally favourable variants of the proposed multigrid method and we use them as preconditioners for Krylov methods. Several numerical results confirm that the resulting preconditioning strategies still keep a linear convergence rate.

  9. Spectral variability among rocks in visible and near-infrared mustispectral Pancam data collected at Gusev crater: Examinations using spectral mixture analysis and related techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analyzed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three end-member mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional end-members. In the Columbia Hills, there were a number of scenes in which additional rock end-members were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined, and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks, which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron-bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Performance analysis of improved methodology for incorporation of spatial/spectral variability in synthetic hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, Neil W.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic imagery has traditionally been used to support sensor design by enabling design engineers to pre-evaluate image products during the design and development stages. Increasingly exploitation analysts are looking to synthetic imagery as a way to develop and test exploitation algorithms before image data are available from new sensors. Even when sensors are available, synthetic imagery can significantly aid in algorithm development by providing a wide range of "ground truthed" images with varying illumination, atmospheric, viewing and scene conditions. One limitation of synthetic data is that the background variability is often too bland. It does not exhibit the spatial and spectral variability present in real data. In this work, four fundamentally different texture modeling algorithms will first be implemented as necessary into the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model environment. Two of the models to be tested are variants of a statistical Z-Score selection model, while the remaining two involve a texture synthesis and a spectral end-member fractional abundance map approach, respectively. A detailed comparative performance analysis of each model will then be carried out on several texturally significant regions of the resultant synthetic hyperspectral imagery. The quantitative assessment of each model will utilize a set of three peformance metrics that have been derived from spatial Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) analysis, hyperspectral Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR) measures, and a new concept termed the Spectral Co-Occurrence Matrix (SCM) metric which permits the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral texture. Previous research efforts on the validation and performance analysis of texture characterization models have been largely qualitative in nature based on conducting visual inspections of synthetic textures in order to judge the degree of similarity to the original sample texture imagery. The quantitative

  11. Performance analysis of improved methodology for incorporation of spatial/spectral variability in synthetic hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, Neil W.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.

    2003-12-01

    Synthetic imagery has traditionally been used to support sensor design by enabling design engineers to pre-evaluate image products during the design and development stages. Increasingly exploitation analysts are looking to synthetic imagery as a way to develop and test exploitation algorithms before image data are available from new sensors. Even when sensors are available, synthetic imagery can significantly aid in algorithm development by providing a wide range of "ground truthed" images with varying illumination, atmospheric, viewing and scene conditions. One limitation of synthetic data is that the background variability is often too bland. It does not exhibit the spatial and spectral variability present in real data. In this work, four fundamentally different texture modeling algorithms will first be implemented as necessary into the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model environment. Two of the models to be tested are variants of a statistical Z-Score selection model, while the remaining two involve a texture synthesis and a spectral end-member fractional abundance map approach, respectively. A detailed comparative performance analysis of each model will then be carried out on several texturally significant regions of the resultant synthetic hyperspectral imagery. The quantitative assessment of each model will utilize a set of three peformance metrics that have been derived from spatial Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) analysis, hyperspectral Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR) measures, and a new concept termed the Spectral Co-Occurrence Matrix (SCM) metric which permits the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral texture. Previous research efforts on the validation and performance analysis of texture characterization models have been largely qualitative in nature based on conducting visual inspections of synthetic textures in order to judge the degree of similarity to the original sample texture imagery. The quantitative

  12. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of volatile chemicals in vitro by thermal gravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Rauma, Matias; Isaksson, Tina S; Johanson, Gunnar

    2006-10-01

    Potential health hazards of dermal exposure, variability in reported dermal absorption rates and potential losses from the skin by evaporation indicate a need for a simple, inexpensive and standardized procedure to measure dermal absorption and desorption of chemical substances. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility to measure dermal absorption and desorption of volatile chemicals using a new gravimetric technique, namely thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and trypsinated stratum corneum from pig. Changes in skin weight were readily detected before, during and after exposure to vapours of water, 2-propanol, methanol and toluene. The shape and height of the weight curves differed between the four chemicals, reflecting differences in diffusivity and partial pressure and skin:air partitioning, respectively. As the skin weight is highly sensitive to the partial pressure of volatile chemicals, including water, this technique requires carefully controlled conditions with respect to air flow, temperature, chemical vapour generation and humidity. This new technique may help in the assessment of dermal uptake of volatile chemicals. Only a small piece of skin is needed and skin integrity is not necessary, facilitating the use of human samples. The high resolution weight-time curves obtained may also help to elucidate the characteristics of absorption, desorption and diffusion of chemicals in skin.

  13. Lipid-associated Oral Delivery: Mechanisms and Analysis of Oral Absorption Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of permeation through the intestinal mucosa, and triggering drug precipitation upon lipid emulsion depletion (e.g., by digestion). The effect of lipids on drug absorption is currently not quantitatively predictable, in part due to the multiple complex dynamic processes that can be impacted by lipids. Quantitative mechanistic analysis of the processes significant to lipid system function and overall impact on drug absorption can aid understanding of drug-lipid interactions in the GI tract and exploitation of such interactions to achieve optimal lipid-based drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the impact of co-delivered lipids and lipid digestion on drug dissolution, partitioning, and absorption in the context of the experimental tools and associated kinetic expressions used to study and model these processes. The potential benefit of a systems-based consideration of the concurrent multiple dynamic processes occurring upon co-dosing lipids and drugs to predict the impact of lipids on drug absorption and enable rational design of lipid-based delivery systems is presented. PMID:27520734

  14. Lipid-associated oral delivery: Mechanisms and analysis of oral absorption enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca

    2016-10-28

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of permeation through the intestinal mucosa, and triggering drug precipitation upon lipid emulsion depletion (e.g., by digestion). The effect of lipids on drug absorption is currently not quantitatively predictable, in part due to the multiple complex dynamic processes that can be impacted by lipids. Quantitative mechanistic analysis of the processes significant to lipid system function and overall impact on drug absorption can aid in the understanding of drug-lipid interactions in the GI tract and exploitation of such interactions to achieve optimal lipid-based drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the impact of co-delivered lipids and lipid digestion on drug dissolution, partitioning, and absorption in the context of the experimental tools and associated kinetic expressions used to study and model these processes. The potential benefit of a systems-based consideration of the concurrent multiple dynamic processes occurring upon co-dosing lipids and drugs to predict the impact of lipids on drug absorption and enable rational design of lipid-based delivery systems is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Analysis of effects of salt stress on absorption and accumulation of mineral elements in Elymus spp. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ya-xiong; Sun, Lei; He, Feng; Wan, Li-qiang; Yuan, Qing-hua; Li, Xiang-lin

    2008-12-01

    Salinization contributes significantly to soil degradation and the growth and survival of plants. A high level of salts imposes both ionic and osmotic stresses on plants, resulting in an excessive accumulation of sodium (Na) in plant tissues. Na toxicity disrupts the uptake of soil nutrients. Plant uptake and absorption of macro-elements under salt stress have been studied in plants, but there is little literature addressing the effect of salt stress on plant accumulation and absorption of micro-elements. Species in Elymus genus are among the most important forage plants on high-salinity soils in China An experiment was conducted to study the effect of salt stress on accumulation and absorption of both macro- and micro-elements by wild plants of Elymus genus. Plant samples taken from two populations with different salt tolerance were tested and the level of 4 macro-elements, namely Na, K, Ca and Mg, and 4 micro-elements, namely Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The relationship between the selection of elements in the process of absorption and accumulation and salt tolerance was also analyzed. The results showed that the level of Na in root and leaf tissues increased with increasing salt stress. The level of Na in leaf tissue of plants with high salt tolerance (HS) was significantly higher than that in plants with low salt tolerance (P<0.05). The level of K and Ca decreased in response to increasing salt stress, while that in HS was higher than in LS. The level of Fe and Zn in the tissues of both roots and leaves increased. No significant difference was detected between HS and LS samples in the level of Cu in root tissues, while that of Cu in leaf tissue of both samples increased. The level of Mn decreased with increasing salt stress, but was higher in HS than in LS. Fe and Zn in roots and leaves of HS were lower than in those of LS.

  16. Using spectral imaging for the analysis of abnormalities for colorectal cancer: When is it helpful?

    PubMed

    Awan, Ruqayya; Al-Maadeed, Somaya; Al-Saady, Rafif

    2018-01-01

    The spectral imaging technique has been shown to provide more discriminative information than the RGB images and has been proposed for a range of problems. There are many studies demonstrating its potential for the analysis of histopathology images for abnormality detection but there have been discrepancies among previous studies as well. Many multispectral based methods have been proposed for histopathology images but the significance of the use of whole multispectral cube versus a subset of bands or a single band is still arguable. We performed comprehensive analysis using individual bands and different subsets of bands to determine the effectiveness of spectral information for determining the anomaly in colorectal images. Our multispectral colorectal dataset consists of four classes, each represented by infra-red spectrum bands in addition to the visual spectrum bands. We performed our analysis of spectral imaging by stratifying the abnormalities using both spatial and spectral information. For our experiments, we used a combination of texture descriptors with an ensemble classification approach that performed best on our dataset. We applied our method to another dataset and got comparable results with those obtained using the state-of-the-art method and convolutional neural network based method. Moreover, we explored the relationship of the number of bands with the problem complexity and found that higher number of bands is required for a complex task to achieve improved performance. Our results demonstrate a synergy between infra-red and visual spectrum by improving the classification accuracy (by 6%) on incorporating the infra-red representation. We also highlight the importance of how the dataset should be divided into training and testing set for evaluating the histopathology image-based approaches, which has not been considered in previous studies on multispectral histopathology images.

  17. Using spectral imaging for the analysis of abnormalities for colorectal cancer: When is it helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maadeed, Somaya; Al-Saady, Rafif

    2018-01-01

    The spectral imaging technique has been shown to provide more discriminative information than the RGB images and has been proposed for a range of problems. There are many studies demonstrating its potential for the analysis of histopathology images for abnormality detection but there have been discrepancies among previous studies as well. Many multispectral based methods have been proposed for histopathology images but the significance of the use of whole multispectral cube versus a subset of bands or a single band is still arguable. We performed comprehensive analysis using individual bands and different subsets of bands to determine the effectiveness of spectral information for determining the anomaly in colorectal images. Our multispectral colorectal dataset consists of four classes, each represented by infra-red spectrum bands in addition to the visual spectrum bands. We performed our analysis of spectral imaging by stratifying the abnormalities using both spatial and spectral information. For our experiments, we used a combination of texture descriptors with an ensemble classification approach that performed best on our dataset. We applied our method to another dataset and got comparable results with those obtained using the state-of-the-art method and convolutional neural network based method. Moreover, we explored the relationship of the number of bands with the problem complexity and found that higher number of bands is required for a complex task to achieve improved performance. Our results demonstrate a synergy between infra-red and visual spectrum by improving the classification accuracy (by 6%) on incorporating the infra-red representation. We also highlight the importance of how the dataset should be divided into training and testing set for evaluating the histopathology image-based approaches, which has not been considered in previous studies on multispectral histopathology images. PMID:29874262

  18. Spectral analysis of coniferous foliage and possible links to soil chemistry: are spectral chlorophyll indices related to forest floor dissolved organic C and N?

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Jana; Seidl, Zdenek; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Rock, Barrett N; Alexander, Jess E; Malenovský, Zbynek; McDowell, William H

    2008-10-15

    Dissolved organic matter in soils can be predicted from forest floor C:N ratio, which in turn is related to foliar chemistry. Little is known about the linkages between foliar constituents such as chlorophylls, lignin, and cellulose and the concentrations of water-extractable forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Lignin and cellulose are not mobile in foliage and thus may be indicative of growing conditions during prior years, while chlorophylls respond more rapidly to the current physiological status of a tree and reflect nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to examine potential links among spectral foliar data, and the organic C and N of forest soils. Two coniferous species (red spruce and balsam fir) were studied in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, USA. Six trees of each species were sampled at 5 watersheds (2 in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 3 in the Bartlett Experimental Forest). We hypothesized that in a coniferous forest, chemistry of old foliage would better predict the chemical composition of the forest floor litter layer than younger foliage, which is the more physiologically active and the most likely to be captured by remote sensing of the canopy. Contrary to our expectations, chlorophyll concentration of young needles proved to be most tightly linked to soil properties, in particular water-extractable dissolved organic carbon. Spectral indices related to the chlorophyll content of needles could be used to predict variation in forest floor dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Strong correlations were found between optical spectral indices based on chlorophyll absorption and forest floor dissolved organic carbon, with higher foliage chlorophyll content corresponding to lower forest floor dissolved organic carbon. The mechanisms behind these correlations are uncertain and need further investigation. However, the direction of the linkage from soil to tree via nutrient

  19. An Excel-based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro-arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T-wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. © 2014 The Author. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. An Excel‐based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearman, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro‐arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T‐wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. PMID:25501439

  1. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy--digital detection of gas absorption harmonics based on Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a detailed study of the theoretical aspects of the Fourier analysis method, which has been utilized for gas absorption harmonic detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lock-in detection of the harmonic signal is accomplished by studying the phase term of the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier spectrum that corresponds to the harmonic signal. The mathematics and the corresponding simulation results are given for each procedure when applying the Fourier analysis method. The present work provides a detailed view of the WMS technique when applying the Fourier analysis method.

  2. Femtosecond pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy: optimized setup and signal analysis for single-shot spectral referencing.

    PubMed

    Dobryakov, A L; Kovalenko, S A; Weigel, A; Pérez-Lustres, J L; Lange, J; Müller, A; Ernsting, N P

    2010-11-01

    A setup for pump/supercontinuum-probe spectroscopy is described which (i) is optimized to cancel fluctuations of the probe light by single-shot referencing, and (ii) extends the probe range into the near-uv (1000-270 nm). Reflective optics allow 50 μm spot size in the sample and upon entry into two separate spectrographs. The correlation γ(same) between sample and reference readings of probe light level at every pixel exceeds 0.99, compared to γ(consec)<0.92 reported for consecutive referencing. Statistical analysis provides the confidence interval of the induced optical density, ΔOD. For demonstration we first examine a dye (Hoechst 33258) bound in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. A weak 1.1 ps spectral oscillation in the fluorescence region, assigned to DNA breathing, is shown to be significant. A second example concerns the weak vibrational structure around t=0 which reflects stimulated Raman processes. With 1% fluctuations of probe power, baseline noise for a transient absorption spectrum becomes 25 μOD rms in 1 s at 1 kHz, allowing to record resonance Raman spectra of flavine adenine dinucleotide in the S(0) and S(1) state.

  3. Electronically excited states of vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin: theoretical analysis of absorption, CD, and MCD data.

    PubMed

    Solheim, Harald; Kornobis, Karina; Ruud, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2011-02-03

    Linear and quadratic response time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate absorption (Abs), circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic CD (MCD) spectra of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Although electronically excited states of both cobalamins have been probed by applying different experimental techniques, their exact nature remains poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Recent theoretical studies have revealed a lot of relevant information about their properties but also left some unresolved issues related to the nature of individual transitions. In this contribution, not only Abs but also CD and MCD spectra of both cobalamins were computed for direct comparison with experiment. The results were evaluated with respect to the choice of exchange-correlation functional, basis set, and the environment (gas phase or solvent) used in the calculation. Taking into account the complexity of the CNCbl and MeCbl systems, reliable agreement between theory and experiment was achieved based on calculations employing the BP86 functional, particularly for the low-energy α/β bands. This spectral range has been traditionally interpreted as a vibrational progression associated with a single electronic excitation, but according to the present analysis for both cobalamins, these bands are best interpreted as consisting of multiple electronic transitions.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  5. [Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater and sources analysis in summer and winter season].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Jiang, Tao; WeiI, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-Long; Wang, Qi-Lei; Gao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the variability of the optical properties including UV-Vis and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from rainwater in summer and winter seasons. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, together with Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and fire events map, were conducted to characterize DOM and investigate its sources and contributions. The results showed that as compared with aquatic and soil DOM, rainwater DOM showed similar spectral characteristics, suggesting DOM in precipitation was also an important contributor to DOM pool in terrestrial and aquatic systems. The concentrations of DOC in rainwater were 0.88-12.80 mg x L(-1), and the CDOM concentrations were 3.17-21.11 mg x L(-1). Differences of DOM samples between summer and winter were significant (P < 0.05). In comparison to summer, DOM samples in winter had lower molecular weight and aromaticity, and also lower humification. Input of DOM in winter was predominantly derived from local and short-distance distances, while non-special scattering sources were identified as the main contributors in summer. Although absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to identify DOM composition and sources, there were obvious differences in spectra and sources analysis between rainwater DOM and the others from other sources. Thus, the classic differentiation method by "allochthonous (terrigenous) and autochthonous (authigenic)" is possibly too simple and arbitrary for characterization of DOM in rainwater.

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D.C.; Benkstein, K.D.; Hurst, W.S.; Chu, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, −5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals. PMID:28090126

  7. Spectral analysis of /s/ sound with changing angulation of the maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Runte, Christoph; Tawana, Djafar; Dirksen, Dieter; Runte, Bettina; Lamprecht-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Bollmann, Friedhelm; Seifert, Eberhard; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the influence of the maxillary central incisors free from adaptation phenomena using spectral analysis. The maxillary dentures of 18 subjects were duplicated. The central incisors were fixed in a pivoting appliance so that their position could be changed from labial to palatal direction. A mechanical push/pull cable enabled the incisor section to be handled extraorally. Connected to the control was a sound generator producing a sinus wave whose frequency was related to the central incisor angulation. This acoustic signal was recorded on one channel of a digital tape recorder. After calibration of the unit, the denture duplicate was inserted into the subject's mouth, and the signal of the /s/ sounds subsequently produced by the subject was recorded on the second channel during alteration of the inclination angle simultaneously with the generator signal. Spectral analysis was performed using a Kay Speech-Lab 4300B. Labial displacement in particular produced significant changes in spectral characteristics, with the lower boundary frequency of the /s/ sound being raised and the upper boundary frequency being reduced. Maxillary incisor position influences /s/ sound production. Displacement of the maxillary incisors must be considered a cause of immediate changes in /s/ sound distortion. Therefore, denture teeth should be placed in the original tooth position as accurately as possible. Our results also indicate that neuromuscular reactions are more important for initial speech sound distortions than are aerodynamic changes in the anterior speech sound-producing areas.

  8. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  9. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Tonannavar, J; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Patil, Nikhil A; Mulimani, B G

    2016-02-05

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400c m(-1)) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An augmented classical least squares method for quantitative Raman spectral analysis against component information loss.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Cao, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We propose an augmented classical least squares (ACLS) calibration method for quantitative Raman spectral analysis against component information loss. The Raman spectral signals with low analyte concentration correlations were selected and used as the substitutes for unknown quantitative component information during the CLS calibration procedure. The number of selected signals was determined by using the leave-one-out root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) curve. An ACLS model was built based on the augmented concentration matrix and the reference spectral signal matrix. The proposed method was compared with partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) using one example: a data set recorded from an experiment of analyte concentration determination using Raman spectroscopy. A 2-fold cross-validation with Venetian blinds strategy was exploited to evaluate the predictive power of the proposed method. The one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) was used to access the predictive power difference between the proposed method and existing methods. Results indicated that the proposed method is effective at increasing the robust predictive power of traditional CLS model against component information loss and its predictive power is comparable to that of PLS or PCR.

  11. Dynamic Power Spectral Analysis of Solar Measurements from Photospheric, Chromospheric, and Coronal Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouwer, S. D.; Pap, J.; Donnelly, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    An important aspect in the power spectral analysis of solar variability is the quasistationary and quasiperiodic nature of solar periodicities. In other words, the frequency, phase, and amplitude of solar periodicities vary on time scales ranging from active region lifetimes to solar cycle time scales. Here, researchers employ a dynamic, or running, power spectral density analysis to determine many periodicities and their time-varying nature in the projected area of active sunspot groups (S sub act). The Solar Maximum Mission/Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (SMM/ACRIM) total solar irradiance (S), the Nimbus-7 MgII center-to-wing ratio (R (MgII sub c/w)), the Ottawa 10.7 cm flux (F sub 10.7), and the GOES background x ray flux (X sub b) for the maximum, descending, and minimum portions of solar cycle 21 (i.e., 1980 to 1986) are used. The technique dramatically illustrates several previously unrecognized periodicities. For example, a relatively stable period at about 51 days has been found in those indices which are related to emerging magnetic fields. The majority of solar periodicities, particularly around 27, 150 and 300 days, are quasiperiodic because they vary in amplitude and frequency throughout the solar cycle. Finally, it is shown that there are clear differences between the power spectral densities of solar measurements from photospheric, chromospheric, and coronal sources.

  12. Arbitrary-order Hilbert Spectral Analysis and Intermittency in Solar Wind Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Němeček, Zdenek; Šafránková, Jana

    2018-05-01

    The properties of inertial- and kinetic-range solar wind turbulence have been investigated with the arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis method, applied to high-resolution density measurements. Due to the small sample size and to the presence of strong nonstationary behavior and large-scale structures, the classical analysis in terms of structure functions may prove to be unsuccessful in detecting the power-law behavior in the inertial range, and may underestimate the scaling exponents. However, the Hilbert spectral method provides an optimal estimation of the scaling exponents, which have been found to be close to those for velocity fluctuations in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. At smaller scales, below the proton gyroscale, the system loses its intermittent multiscaling properties and converges to a monofractal process. The resulting scaling exponents, obtained at small scales, are in good agreement with those of classical fractional Brownian motion, indicating a long-term memory in the process, and the absence of correlations around the spectral-break scale. These results provide important constraints on models of kinetic-range turbulence in the solar wind.

  13. Assessment of Infrared Sounder Radiometric Noise from Analysis of Spectral Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, E.; Klonecki, A.; Standfuss, C.; Tournier, B.; Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Tjemkes, S.; Stuhlmann, R.

    2016-08-01

    For the preparation and performance monitoring of the future generation of hyperspectral InfraRed sounders dedicated to the precise vertical profiling of the atmospheric state, such as the Meteosat Third Generation hyperspectral InfraRed Sounder, a reliable assessment of the instrument radiometric error covariance matrix is needed.Ideally, an inflight estimation of the radiometrric noise is recommended as certain sources of noise can be driven by the spectral signature of the observed Earth/ atmosphere radiance. Also, unknown correlated noise sources, generally related to incomplete knowledge of the instrument state, can be present, so a caracterisation of the noise spectral correlation is also neeed.A methodology, relying on the analysis of post-retreival spectral residuals, is designed and implemented to derive in-flight the covariance matrix on the basis of Earth scenes measurements. This methodology is successfully demonstrated using IASI observations as MTG-IRS proxy data and made it possible to highlight anticipated correlation structures explained by apodization and micro-vibration effects (ghost). This analysis is corroborated by a parallel estimation based on an IASI black body measurement dataset and the results of an independent micro-vibration model.

  14. Gas and dust spectral analysis of galactic and extragalactic symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2009-02-01

    Symbiotic stars are recognized as unique laboratories for studying a large variety of phenomena that are relevant to a number of important astro-physical problems. This PhD thesis deals with a spectral analysis of galactic and extragalactic symbiotic stars. The former are mainly D-type symbiotic stars for which a comprehensive study, from radio to X-ray spectral region, has been performed. With the latter, we refer to symbiotic stars in the Magellanic Clouds, to be analyzed mainly in the IR range. The common theoretical scenario that lies in the background of this work is the colliding-wind model, developed already during the 80's, supported by first observational evidence at the beginning of 90's (mainly thanks to Nussbaumer and collaborators), and finally completed with detailed and powerful hydrodynamical simulations by various authors in these recent years. In the light of this scenario, we have tried to interpret gas and dust spectra of our targets in a unique and self-consistent way. The spectral analysis has been performed by means of the numerical code SUMA, developed at the Instituto Astronomico e Geofisico of the University of Sao Paulo by Sueli M. Viegas (Aldrovandi) and Marcella Contini from the School of Physics and Astronomy of the Tel-Aviv University.

  15. Towards tests of quark-hadron duality with functional analysis and spectral function data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boito, Diogo; Caprini, Irinel

    2017-04-01

    The presence of terms that violate quark-hadron duality in the expansion of QCD Green's functions is a generally accepted fact. Recently, a new approach was proposed for the study of duality violations (DVs), which exploits the existence of a rigorous lower bound on the functional distance, measured in a certain norm, between a "true" correlator and its approximant calculated theoretically along a contour in the complex energy plane. In the present paper, we pursue the investigation of functional-analysis-based tests towards their application to real spectral function data. We derive a closed analytic expression for the minimal functional distance based on the general weighted L2 norm and discuss its relation with the distance measured in the L∞ norm. Using fake data sets obtained from a realistic toy model in which we allow for covariances inspired from the publicly available ALEPH spectral functions, we obtain, by Monte Carlo simulations, the statistical distribution of the strength parameter that measures the magnitude of the DV term added to the usual operator product expansion. The results show that, if the region with large errors near the end point of the spectrum in τ decays is excluded, the functional-analysis-based tests using either L2 or L∞ norms are able to detect, in a statistically significant way, the presence of DVs in realistic spectral function pseudodata.

  16. Wavelet-based spectral finite element dynamic analysis for an axially moving Timoshenko beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza; Ghayour, Mostafa

    2017-08-01

    In this article, wavelet-based spectral finite element (WSFE) model is formulated for time domain and wave domain dynamic analysis of an axially moving Timoshenko beam subjected to axial pretension. The formulation is similar to conventional FFT-based spectral finite element (SFE) model except that Daubechies wavelet basis functions are used for temporal discretization of the governing partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. The localized nature of Daubechies wavelet basis functions helps to rule out problems of SFE model due to periodicity assumption, especially during inverse Fourier transformation and back to time domain. The high accuracy of WSFE model is then evaluated by comparing its results with those of conventional finite element and SFE results. The effects of moving beam speed and axial tensile force on vibration and wave characteristics, and static and dynamic stabilities of moving beam are investigated.

  17. Recent Applications of Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Nonlinear Aeroelastic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Hajj, Muhammad R.; Dunn, Shane; Strganac, Thomas W.; Powers, Edward J.; Stearman, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Recent applications of higher-order spectral (HOS) methods to nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena are presented. Applications include the analysis of data from a simulated nonlinear pitch and plunge apparatus and from F-18 flight flutter tests. A MATLAB model of the Texas A&MUniversity s Nonlinear Aeroelastic Testbed Apparatus (NATA) is used to generate aeroelastic transients at various conditions including limit cycle oscillations (LCO). The Gaussian or non-Gaussian nature of the transients is investigated, related to HOS methods, and used to identify levels of increasing nonlinear aeroelastic response. Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and LCO phenomena. Standard power spectral density (PSD) techniques and HOS methods are applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.

  18. Paleo-productivity changes revealed by spectral analysis performed on coccoliths assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Eliana; Ornella Amore, Filomena; Perugia, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    functions plus a new function created in order to evaluate cross-wavelet power spectra. Auto-spectral analysis aims to describe the distribution of variance contained in each single signal over frequency or wavelength, while cross-spectral analysis correlates two time series in the frequency domain (Trauth, 2009). We have performed spectral analyses using the complex Fourier transform and the Short time Fourier transform. Both the transforms lose any kind of time information in transforming the signal from time to frequency domain (Jenkins and Watt, 1968). These transforms don't allow us to individuate when an event occurred in the past. In order to overcome this limit we have also applied Wavelet analysis which represents frequency content of a signal over the time thus it allows us to visualize when an event occurred into time domain (Torrence and Compo, 1998; Prokoph and El Bilali, 2008; Grinsted et al., 2004). Moreover we have performed a simple cross and a cross-spectral analysis between different proxy groups to discover their possible correlations into time and frequency domains. References. Berger, A., 1978. J. Atmos. Sc., 35 (12): 2362-2367. Baumann, K.-H., and Freitag, T., 2004. Marine Micropaleontology 52: 195-215. Giraudeau, J., Monteiro, P.M.S., Nikodemus, K., 1993. Mar. Micropalaeontol. 22: 93- 110. Grinsted, A., Moore, J. C., and Jevrejeva, S., 2004. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 11: 561-566. Huybers, P., 2006. Science 313: 508-511. Jenkins, G. M., and Watt, D. G., 1968. Holden Day, pp. 410, Oakland. Loutre, M. F., Paillard, D., Vimeux, F., and Cortijo, E., 2004. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 221, 1-14. McIntyre, A., and Bè, A.H.W., 1967. Deep-Sea Res. 14, pp. 561-597. Prokoph, A., and El Bilali, H., 2008. Math Geosciences 40: 575-586. Torrence, C., and Compo, G. P., 1998. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 79:61-78. Trauth, M.H., 2009. Springer 288 p. Winter, A., and Siesser, W., 1994. Cambridge University Press 242 p.

  19. Solid optical ring interferometer for high-throughput feedback-free spectral analysis and filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Petrak, B.; Peiris, M.; Muller, A., E-mail: mullera@usf.edu

    2015-02-15

    We describe a simple and inexpensive optical ring interferometer for use in high-resolution spectral analysis and filtering. It consists of a solid cuboid, reflection-coated on two opposite sides, in which constructive interference occurs for waves in a rhombic trajectory. Due to its monolithic design, the interferometer’s resonance frequencies are insensitive to environmental disturbances over time. Additional advantages are its simplicity of alignment, high-throughput, and feedback-free operation. If desired, it can be stabilized with a secondary laser without disturbance of the primary signal. We illustrate the use of the interferometer for the measurement of the spectral Mollow triplet from a quantummore » dot and characterize its long-term stability for filtering applications.« less

  20. Spectral Analysis of the sdO Standard Star Feige 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present our current work on the spectral analysis of the hot sdO star Feige 34. We combine high S/N optical spectra and fully-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres to derive its fundamental parameters (Teff, log g) and helium abundance. Our best fits indicate Teff = 63 000 K, log g = 6.0 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.8. We also use available ultraviolet spectra (IUE and FUSE) to measure metal abundances. We find the star to be enriched in iron and nickel by a factor of ten with respect to the solar values, while lighter elements have subsolar abundances. The FUSE spectrum suggests that the spectral lines could be broadened by rotation.

  1. Passive microrheology of soft materials with atomic force microscopy: A wavelet-based spectral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L.; Arneodo, A.

    2016-01-18

    Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale methodmore » to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.« less

  2. Floquet analysis of Kuznetsov-Ma breathers: A path towards spectral stability of rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Maraver, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J; Karachalios, N I; Haragus, M; James, G

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we aim at taking a step towards the spectral stability analysis of Peregrine solitons, i.e., wave structures that are used to emulate extreme wave events. Given the space-time localized nature of Peregrine solitons, this is a priori a nontrivial task. Our main tool in this effort will be the study of the spectral stability of the periodic generalization of the Peregrine soliton in the evolution variable, namely the Kuznetsov-Ma breather. Given the periodic structure of the latter, we compute the corresponding Floquet multipliers, and examine them in the limit where the period of the orbit tends to infinity. This way, we extrapolate towards the stability of the limiting structure, namely the Peregrine soliton. We find that multiple unstable modes of the background are enhanced, yet no additional unstable eigenmodes arise as the Peregrine limit is approached. We explore the instability evolution also in direct numerical simulations.

  3. Quantitative analysis of the effect of supersaturation on in vivo drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ryusuke; Takata, Noriyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Furumoto, Kentaro; Higo, Shoichi; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Machida, Minoru; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shinji

    2010-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of intestinal drug supersaturation on solubility-limited nonlinear absorption. Oral absorption of a novel farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI-2600) from its crystalline free base and its HCl salt was determined in dogs. To clarify the contribution of supersaturation on improving drug absorption, in vivo intraluminal concentration of FTI-2600 after oral administration was estimated from the pharmacokinetics data using a physiologically based model. Dissolution and precipitation characteristics of FTI-2600 in a biorelevant media were investigated in vitro using a miniscale dissolution test and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. In the in vitro study, the HCl salt immediately dissolved but precipitated rapidly. The metastable amorphous free base precipitant, which did not convert into the stable crystalline free base in the simulated intestinal fluids for several hours, generated a 5-fold increase in dissolved concentration compared to the equilibrium solubility of the crystalline free base. By computer simulation, the intraluminal drug concentration after administration of the free base was estimated to reach the saturated solubility, indicating solubility-limited absorption. On the other hand, administration of the HCl salt resulted in an increased intraluminal concentration and the plasma concentration was 400% greater than that after administration of the free base. This in vivo/in vitro correlation of the increased drug concentrations in the small intestine provide clear evidence that not only the increase in the dissolution rate, but also the supersaturation phenomenon, improved the solubility-limited absorption of FTI-2600. These results indicate that formulation technologies that can induce supersaturation may be of great assistance to the successful development of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  4. Investigation of computational and spectral analysis methods for aeroacoustic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanel, Florence O.

    1995-01-01

    Most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) schemes are not adequately accurate for solving aeroacoustics problems, which have wave amplitudes several orders of magnitude smaller yet with frequencies larger than the flow field variations generating the sound. Hence, a computational aeroacoustics (CAA) algorithm should have minimal dispersion and dissipation features. A dispersion relation preserving (DRP) scheme is, therefore, applied to solve the linearized Euler equations in order to simulate the propagation of three types of waves, namely: acoustic, vorticity, and entropy waves. The scheme is derived using an optimization procedure to ensure that the numerical derivatives preserve the wave number and angular frequency of the partial differential equations being discretized. Consequently, simulated waves propagate with the correct wave speeds and exhibit their appropriate properties. A set of radiation and outflow boundary conditions, compatible with the DRP scheme and derived from the asymptotic solutions of the governing equations, are also implemented. Numerical simulations are performed to test the effectiveness of the DRP scheme and its boundary conditions. The computed solutions are shown to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The major restriction appears to be that the dispersion relations can be preserved only for waves with wave lengths longer than four or five spacings. The boundary conditions are found to be transparent to the outgoing disturbances. However, when the disturbance source is placed closer to a boundary, small acoustic reflections start appearing. CAA generates enormous amounts of temporal data which needs to be reduced to understand the physical problem being simulated. Spectral analysis is one approach that helps us in extracting information which often can not be easily interpreted in the time domain. Thus, three different methods for the spectral analysis of numerically generated aeroacoustic data are studied. First, the

  5. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine; ...

    2017-07-18

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  6. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  7. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  8. Step-scan differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS): a spectral deconvolution method for weak absorber detection in the presence of strongly overlapping background absorptions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixian; Mandelis, Andreas; Huan, Huiting; Michaelian, Kirk H

    2017-04-01

    The determination of small absorption coefficients of trace gases in the atmosphere constitutes a challenge for analytical air contaminant measurements, especially in the presence of strongly absorbing backgrounds. A step-scan differential Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (DFTIR-PAS) method was developed to suppress the coherent external noise and spurious photoacoustic (PA) signals caused by strongly absorbing backgrounds. The infrared absorption spectra of acetylene (C2H2) and local air were used to verify the performance of the step-scan DFTIR-PAS method. A linear amplitude response to C2H2 concentrations from 100 to 5000 ppmv was observed, leading to a theoretical detection limit of 5 ppmv. The differential mode was capable of eliminating the coherent noise and dominant background gas signals, thereby revealing the presence of the otherwise hidden C2H2 weak absorption. Thus, the step-scan DFTIR-PAS modality was demonstrated to be an effective approach for monitoring weakly absorbing gases with absorption bands overlapped by strongly absorbing background species.

  9. Strong spectral variation of biomass smoke light absorption and single scattering albedo observed with a novel dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument

    Treesearch

    Kristin Lewis; William P. Arnott; Hans Moosmuller; Cyle E. Wold

    2008-01-01

    A dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument operating at 405 and 870 nm was used during the 2006 Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment to measure light scattering and absorption by smoke from the combustion of a variety of biomass fuels. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering by reciprocal nephelometry within the instrument's acoustic resonator accompany...

  10. Spectral and cross-spectral analysis of uneven time series with the smoothed Lomb-Scargle periodogram and Monte Carlo evaluation of statistical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2012-12-01

    Many spectral analysis techniques have been designed assuming sequences taken with a constant sampling interval. However, there are empirical time series in the geosciences (sediment cores, fossil abundance data, isotope analysis, …) that do not follow regular sampling because of missing data, gapped data, random sampling or incomplete sequences, among other reasons. In general, interpolating an uneven series in order to obtain a succession with a constant sampling interval alters the spectral content of the series. In such cases it is preferable to follow an approach that works with the uneven data directly, avoiding the need for an explicit interpolation step. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a popular choice in such circumstances, as there are programs available in the public domain for its computation. One new computer program for spectral analysis improves the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram approach in two ways: (1) It explicitly adjusts the statistical significance to any bias introduced by variance reduction smoothing, and (2) it uses a permutation test to evaluate confidence levels, which is better suited than parametric methods when neighbouring frequencies are highly correlated. Another novel program for cross-spectral analysis offers the advantage of estimating the Lomb-Scargle cross-periodogram of two uneven time series defined on the same interval, and it evaluates the confidence levels of the estimated cross-spectra by a non-parametric computer intensive permutation test. Thus, the cross-spectrum, the squared coherence spectrum, the phase spectrum, and the Monte Carlo statistical significance of the cross-spectrum and the squared-coherence spectrum can be obtained. Both of the programs are written in ANSI Fortran 77, in view of its simplicity and compatibility. The program code is of public domain, provided on the website of the journal (http://www.iamg.org/index.php/publisher/articleview/frmArticleID/112/). Different examples (with simulated and

  11. Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapour transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of wa