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Sample records for absorption spectrometer co2las

  1. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  2. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  3. Airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer for IPDA Measurements of Tropospheric CO2: Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The National Research Council's decadal survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space[1] recommended the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission for launch in 2013-2016 as a logical follow-on to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 [2]. The use of a laser absorption measurement technique provides the required ability to make day and night measurements of CO2 over all latitudes and seasons. As a demonstrator for an approach to meeting the instrument needs for the ASCENDS mission we have developed the airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) which uses the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer [3] technique operating in the 2 micron wavelength region.. During 2006 a short engineering checkout flight of the CO2LAS was conducted and the results presented previously [4]. Several short flight campaigns were conducted during 2007 and we report results from these campaigns.

  4. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  5. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  6. The Remote Measurement of Carbon Dioxide by the CO2LAS Instrument during the 2011 ASCENDS Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, G. D.; Menzies, R. T.; Jacob, J. C.; Geier, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer, CO2LAS, is a laser based instrument developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the remote measurement of the column weighted carbon dioxide concentration from an aircraft. It has undergone a number of developmental and test flights, the most recent of which which was conducted from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the summer of 2011 as part of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions through Nights, Days, and Seasons, ASCENDS, Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission Development Studies. We present refined results from two flights conducted during that campaign as well as new results from other flights during that campaign. We demonstrate an improvement on our ability to measure CO2 drawdown due to crop activity during flights over the great plains area, revise our ability to make CO2 column measurements over complex terrain in the presence of snow and demonstrate high spatial resolution measurements of CO2 plumes from individual stack clusters of the Four Corners Power plant. In addition we describe improved algorithms that allow us to discriminate against cloud contamination in the instrument field of view without requiring a range resolved measurement. We will conclude with a brief summary of instrument improvements and plans for future campaigns.

  7. Microwave spectrometer for saturated absorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Legrand, J; Ségard, B; Krosta, A; Macke, B

    1978-04-01

    A spectrometer has been built to perform Doppler-free saturated absorption experiments in the millimeter range (30-300 GHz); a plane-cylindrical resonator between Stark plates has been used. With that device, inverted Lamb-dips have been observed at 115 GHz with a width 25 times below the Doppler width. However, the essential feature of this apparatus is to allow the application of Stark field typically of 2500 V/cm, leading to such specific uses as the Stark tuned Lamb-dip, level-crossing, and mode-crossing experiments. Typical examples are given and other applications are proposed.

  8. Absorption spectrometer balloon flight and iodine investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A high altitude balloon flight experiment to determine the technical feasibility of employing absorption spectroscopy to measure SO2 and NO2 gases in the earth's atmosphere from above the atmospheric ozone layer is discussed. In addition to the balloon experiment the contract includes a ground-based survey of natural I emissions from geological sources and studies of the feasibility of mapping I2 from spacecraft. This report is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) the planning engineering and execution of the balloon experiment, (2) data reduction and analysis of the balloon data, and (3) the results of the I2 phase of the contract.

  9. A decay total absorption spectrometer for DESPEC at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Guadilla, V.; Jordan, M. D.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Rubio, B.; Valencia, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gelletly, W.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P.; Simpson, J.; Smith, A. J.; Strachan, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a total absorption γ-ray spectrometer for the determination of β-decay intensity distributions of exotic nuclear species at the focal plane of the FAIR-NUSTAR Super Fragment Separator. The spectrometer is a key instrument in the DESPEC experiment and the proposed implementation follows extensive design studies and prototype tests. Two options were contemplated, based on NaI(Tl) and LaBr3:Ce inorganic scintillation crystals respectively. Monte Carlo simulations and technical considerations determined the optimal configurations consisting of sixteen 15 × 15 × 25cm3 crystals for the NaI(Tl) option and one hundred and twenty-eight 5.5 × 5.5 × 11cm3 crystals for the LaBr3:Ce option. Minimization of dead material was crucial for maximizing the spectrometer full-energy peak efficiency. Module prototypes were build to verify constructional details and characterize their performance. The measured energy and timing resolution was found to agree rather well with estimates based on simulations of scintillation light transport and collection. The neutron sensitivity of the spectrometer, important when measuring β-delayed neutron emitters, was investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. New detector array - the HRIBF Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Karny, Marek; Kuzniak, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Robert; Rasco, Charlie; Miller, David; Gross, Carl J.; Johnson, Jim

    2011-10-01

    The construction of a new Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be presented. The total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS will be used to derive a true beta-feeding pattern and resulting beta strength function for fission products. In particular, the measurements of decay heat released by radioactive nuclei produced in nuclear fuels at power reactors will be performed. MTAS is made up of 19 large NaI(Tl) crystals each encapsulated with a 0.8-mm-thick carbon fiber. There are also two 1-mm- thick Silicon Strip Detectors surrounding a moving tape collector that count beta-energy loss signals. The structure is shielded by more than 1-inch of lead around MTAS which reduces background radiation significantly. MTAS efficiency for full energy deposition of gamma ray approaches nearly 90% for 300 keV gammas and over 75% for a 5 MeV gamma transition. Research supported by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  11. Commissioning of the High Efficiency Total Absorption Spectrometer (HECTOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingold, C. S.; Simon, A.; Spyrou, A.; Naqvi, F.; Dombos, A.; Palmisano, A.; Anderson, T.; Henderson, S. L.; Moylan, S.; Seymour, C.; Skulski, M. A.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Vande Kolk, B.

    2016-09-01

    P-process nucleosynthesis occurs in supernovae where the s-process seeds are present, and is responsible for the production of proton-rich nuclei. Photons from SN explosions induce characteristic (γ,n), (γ,p), and (γ , α) reactions. These reactions are typically studied via the inverse reactions. For this purpose, the High Efficiency Total Absorption Spectrometer (HECTOR), a NaI(Tl) summing detector at the University of Notre Dame, was built. The array is designed to make precision cross section measurements for (p, γ) and (α , γ) reactions. HECTOR is composed of 16 separate NaI(Tl) crystals and 32 photomultiplier tubes read by a digital data acquisition system, with gain-matching and summing done offline. The efficiency of HECTOR is about 52.7 (2.0)% for a 60Co source. The commissioning run for HECTOR was performed via measurements of known resonances in the 27Al(p, γ)28Si reaction to determine the efficiency of the array. The first results from HECTOR will be presented, as well as future plans with the array. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY1614442 and PHY1430152 (JINA-CEE).

  12. DUVAS (derivative uv-absorption spectrometer): instrument description and operating manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dougherty, J.M.; Metcalfe, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    DUVAS is a real-time, field-portable spectrometer capable of monitoring a variety of aromatic organic vapors and inorganic gases at sub-ppM concentrations. The instrument is a prototype, microcomputer-controlled, derivative ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrometer (DUVAS) developed primarily for area monitoring at coal conversion facilities, although other important occupational and environmental monitoring applications for compounds such as SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, NH/sub 3/, and HCHO are also being pursued.

  13. Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.; Webster, Christopher R.

    1993-01-01

    Data processing and calibration methods are described for tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers which produce harmonic absorption spectra as raw data for measuring gas mixing ratios down to parts-per-trillion levels at a variety of pressures. The methods, which take advantage of modern computer speed, memory, and data storage capabilities, are applicable to the detection of weakly absorbing gases in quantitative industrial monitoring, in addition to aircraft and balloon atmospheric measurements for which they were designed. Algorithms for calibration and data analysis, including rejection of erroneous spectra, variation of effective integration time, spectral alignment prior to averaging, and plotting and archiving of results, have been tested on actual stratospheric laser spectra recorded by the Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) spectrometer in numerous flights of NASA's ER-2 aircraft.

  14. A Fourier transform spectrometer for visible and near ultra-violet measurements of atmospheric absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Whitehurst, M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a prototype, ground-based, Sun-pointed Michelson interferometric spectrometer is described. Its intended use is to measure the atmospheric amount of various gases which absorb in the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preliminary spectra which contain the alpha, 0.8 micrometer, and rho sigma tau water vapor absorption bands in the near-infrared are presented to indicate the present capability of the system. Ultimately, the spectrometer can be used to explore the feasible applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet where grating spectrometers were used exclusively.

  15. FTIR-spectrometer-determined absorption coefficients of seven hydrazine fuel gases - Implications for laser remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Grant, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption spectra of three hydrazines and four of their air-oxidation products were measured in the 9-12-micron spectral region with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a 0.05-kayser resolution to determine absorption coefficients at CO2 and tunable diode laser wavelengths. The measurements agreed well with published CO2 laser determinations for many of the absorption coefficients, except where the published values are thought to be in error. The coefficients were then used to estimate the sensitivity for remote detection of these gases using CO2 and tunable diode lasers in long-path differential absorption measurements.

  16. Optical microresonators as single-particle absorption spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylman, Kevin D.; Thakkar, Niket; Horak, Erik H.; Quillin, Steven C.; Cherqui, Charles; Knapper, Kassandra A.; Masiello, David J.; Goldsmith, Randall H.

    2016-12-01

    Optical measurements of nanoscale objects offer major insights into fundamental biological, material and photonic properties. In absorption spectroscopy, sensitivity limits applications at the nanoscale. Here, we present a new single-particle double-modulation photothermal absorption spectroscopy method that employs on-chip optical whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators as ultrasensitive thermometers. Optical excitation of a nanoscale object on the microresonator produces increased local temperatures that are proportional to the absorption cross-section of the object. We resolve photothermal shifts in the resonance frequency of the microresonator that are smaller than 100 Hz, orders of magnitude smaller than previous WGM sensing schemes. The application of our new technique to single gold nanorods reveals a dense array of sharp Fano resonances arising from the coupling between the localized surface plasmon of the gold nanorod and the WGMs of the resonator, allowing for the exploration of plasmonic-photonic hybridization. In terms of the wider applicability, our approach adds label-free spectroscopic identification to microresonator-based detection schemes.

  17. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  18. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  19. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometer for highly transparent dielectrics with parts-per-million sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waasem, Niklas; Fieberg, Stephan; Hauser, Janosch; Gomes, Gregory; Haertle, Daniel; Kühnemann, Frank; Buse, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    A sensitive photoacoustic absorption spectrometer for highly transparent solids has been built and tested. As the light source an optical parametrical oscillator pumped by a nanosecond pulse laser with 10 Hz repetition rate is employed, covering the complete wavelength range from 407 to 2600 nm. A second-harmonic-generation unit extends the range of accessible wavelengths down to 212 nm. A lead-zirconate-titanate piezo transducer, directly coupled to the sample, detects the photoacoustically generated sound waves. Absorption spectra of lithium triborate, lithium niobate, and alpha barium borate crystals with absorption coefficients down to 10-5 cm-1 are presented.

  20. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometer for highly transparent dielectrics with parts-per-million sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Waasem, Niklas; Fieberg, Stephan; Hauser, Janosch; Gomes, Gregory; Haertle, Daniel; Kühnemann, Frank; Buse, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    A sensitive photoacoustic absorption spectrometer for highly transparent solids has been built and tested. As the light source an optical parametrical oscillator pumped by a nanosecond pulse laser with 10 Hz repetition rate is employed, covering the complete wavelength range from 407 to 2600 nm. A second-harmonic-generation unit extends the range of accessible wavelengths down to 212 nm. A lead-zirconate-titanate piezo transducer, directly coupled to the sample, detects the photoacoustically generated sound waves. Absorption spectra of lithium triborate, lithium niobate, and alpha barium borate crystals with absorption coefficients down to 10(-5) cm(-1) are presented.

  1. Search for molecular absorptions with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knacke, Roger F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research was a search for water molecules in the gas phase in molecular clouds. Water should be among the most abundant gases in the clouds and is of fundamental importance in gas chemistry, cloud cooling, shock wave chemistry, and gas-grain interactions of interstellar dust. Detection of water in Comet Halley in the 2.7 micron v(3) band in 1986 had shown that airborne H2O observations are feasible (ground-based observations of H2O are impossible because of the massive water content of the atmosphere). We planned to observe the v(3) band in interstellar clouds where a number of lines of this band should be in absorption. The search for H2O commenced in 1988 with a two flight program on the KAO. this resulted in a detection of interstellar H2O with S/N of 2-4 in the v(3) 1(01)-2(02) line at 3801.42/cm. A subsequent flight series of two flights in 1989 resulted in confirmation to the 3801.42/cm line detection and the detection of altogether four strong lines in the 000-001 v(3) vibration-rotation band of H2O.

  2. Note: A flexible light emitting diode-based broadband transient-absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Sean M.; Corley, Scott C.; Madsen, Dorte; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2012-05-01

    This Note presents a simple and flexible ns-to-ms transient absorption spectrometer based on pulsed light emitting diode (LED) technology that can be incorporated into existing ultrafast transient absorption spectrometers or operate as a stand-alone instrument with fixed-wavelength laser sources. The LED probe pulses from this instrument exhibit excellent stability (˜0.5%) and are capable of producing high signal-to-noise long-time (>100 ns) transient absorption signals either in a broadband multiplexed (spanning 250 nm) or in tunable narrowband (20 ns) operation. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring the photoinduced ns-to-ms photodynamics of the red/green absorbing fourth GMP phosphodiesterase/adenylyl cyclase/FhlA domain of the NpR6012 locus of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

  3. Characterization of a new modular decay total absorption gamma-ray spectrometer (DTAS) for FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Montaner Piza, A.; Tain, J. L.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Marin, E.; Rice, S.; Rubio, B.

    2013-06-10

    Beta-decay studies are one of the main goals of the DEcay SPECtroscopy experiment (DESPEC) to be installed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). DESPEC aims at the study of nuclear structure of exotic nuclei. A new modular Decay Total Absorption gamma-ray Spectrometer (DTAS) is being built at IFIC and is specially adapted to studies at fragmentation facilities such as the Super Fragment Separator (Super-FRS) at FAIR. The designed spectrometer is composed of 16 identical NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals. This work focuses on the characterization of these independent modules, as an initial step for the characterization of the full spectrometer. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to understand the detector response.

  4. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Moran, James J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2016-03-29

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The method also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  5. Convenient determination of luminescence quantum yield using a combined electronic absorption and emission spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, John; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-15

    It is possible to measure luminescence quantum yield in a facile way, by designing an optical spectrometer capable of obtaining electronic absorption as well as luminescence spectra, with a setup that uses the same light source and detector for both the spectral measurements. Employment of a single light source and single detector enables use of the same correction factor profile for spectral corrections. A suitable instrumental scaling factor is used for adjusting spectral losses.

  6. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  7. A split imaging spectrometer for temporally and spatially resolved titanium absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J. D. Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Bruns, H. C.; Schneider, M.; Saculla, M.; McCarville, T.

    2014-11-15

    We present a temporally and a spatially resolved spectrometer for titanium x-ray absorption spectroscopy along 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight. Each line-of-sight of the instrument uses an elliptical crystal to acquire both the 2p and 3p Ti absorption lines on a single, time gated channel of the instrument. The 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight allow the 2p and 3p absorption features to be measured through the same point in space using both channels of the instrument. The spatially dependent material temperature can be inferred by observing the 2p and the 3p Ti absorption features. The data are recorded on a two strip framing camera with each strip collecting data from a single line-of-sight. The design is compatible for use at both the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility. The spectrometer is intended to measure the material temperature behind a Marshak wave in a radiatively driven SiO{sub 2} foam with a Ti foam tracer. In this configuration, a broad band CsI backlighter will be used for a source and the Ti absorption spectrum measured.

  8. Five-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Combustion Product Monitoring Aboard Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Borgentun, Carl E.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous combustion product monitoring aboard manned spacecraft can prevent chronic exposure to hazardous compounds and also provides early detection of combustion events. As future missions extend beyond low-Earth orbit, analysis of returned environmental samples becomes impractical and safety monitoring should be performed in situ. Here, we describe initial designs of a five-channel tunable laser absorption spectrometer to continuously monitor combustion products with the goal of minimal maintenance and calibration over long-duration missions. The instrument incorporates dedicated laser channels to simultaneously target strong mid-infrared absorption lines of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2. The availability of low-power-consumption semiconductor lasers operating in the 2 to 5 micron wavelength range affords the flexibility to select absorption lines for each gas with maximum interaction strength and minimal interference from other gases, which enables the design of a compact and mechanically robust spectrometer with low-level sensitivity. In this paper, we focus primarily on absorption line selection based on the availability of low-power single-mode semiconductor laser sources designed specifically for the target wavelength range.

  9. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  10. Supercontinuum based absorption spectrometer for cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements in a rapid compression machine.

    PubMed

    Werblinski, Thomas; Kleindienst, Stefan; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-06-10

    A broadband supercontinuum (SC) based absorption spectrometer capable of cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements at internal combustion (IC) engine conditions is presented. Three parameters, temperature, pressure and water mole fraction, were extracted from broadband near-infrared H2O absorption spectra, spanning the wavelength-range from 1340 to 1405.5 nm, which exhibits a large number of specific H2O transitions. The spectrometer is based on spatial domain detection and features a near-infrared line scan camera as a detector. Measurements were performed during a compression cycle of a rapid compression machine comprising a pressure and temperature range from 2.5 to 65 bar and 300 to 900 K, respectively. With the new spectrometer, we are for the first time, based on the authors' knowledge, able to perform measurements based on SC radiation over a complete compression and expansion stroke at measurement rates up to 50 kHz. A detailed overview is provided about the best match algorithm between theory and experiments, including parameters from two different spectral databases, namely the Barber-Tennyson database (BT2) and HITRAN2012. The results indicate that spectral broadening effects are not properly described by theory, especially at pressure levels exceeding 20 bar, which culminates in a clear underestimation of the derived pressure data by SC absorption spectroscopy. Nevertheless, temperature can be determined accurately by performing a three-parameter fit based on water mole fraction, temperature, and pressure. In contrast, making use of pressure transducer data as look-up values and varying only temperature and H2O mole fraction to find the best match leads to a clear overestimation of temperature at elevated pressures.

  11. The use of selected neutron absorption resonance filters to suppress spurious events on hot neutron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lançon, D.; Ewings, R. A.; Stewart, J. R.; Jiménez-Ruiz, M.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2015-04-01

    Resonant absorption can be used as a filter for high energy neutron spectroscopy. Here we report the transmission of eight thin foil filters: erbium, indium, iridium, dysprosium, hafnium, gadolinium, cadmium and samarium, measured using neutron time-of-flight techniques over a range of energies (1 meV to 10 eV). Measured transmission is converted into energy-dependent absorption cross-section which compares closely to tabulated values. Each resonance is characterized from 91 meV (samarium) to 2815 meV (gadolinium) by Lorentzian fits. Possibilities for the use of neutron filters depending on the type of spurious background are discussed and the performance is simulated for a specific example of a hot neutron triple axis spectrometer experiment.

  12. A broadband absorption spectrometer using light emitting diodes for ultrasensitive, in situ trace gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Ball, Stephen M.; Shillings, Alexander J. L.; Jones, Roderic L.

    2008-12-01

    A broadband absorption spectrometer has been developed for highly sensitive and target-selective in situ trace gas measurements. The instrument employs two distinct modes of operation: (i) broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) is used to quantify the concentration of gases in sample mixtures from their characteristic absorption features, and (ii) periodic measurements of the cavity mirrors' reflectivity are made using step-scan phase shift cavity ringdown spectroscopy (PSCRDS). The latter PSCRDS method provides a stand-alone alternative to the more usual method of determining mirror reflectivities by measuring BBCEAS absorption spectra for calibration samples of known composition. Moreover, the instrument's two modes of operation use light from the same light emitting diode transmitted through the cavity in the same optical alignment, hence minimizing the potential for systematic errors between mirror reflectivity determinations and concentration measurements. The ability of the instrument to quantify absorber concentrations is tested in instrument intercomparison exercises for NO2 (versus a laser broadband cavity ringdown spectrometer) and for H2O (versus a commercial hygrometer). A method is also proposed for calculating effective absorption cross sections for fitting the differential structure in BBCEAS spectra due to strong, narrow absorption lines that are under-resolved and hence exhibit non-Beer-Lambert law behavior at the resolution of the BBCEAS measurements. This approach is tested on BBCEAS spectra of water vapor's 4v+δ absorption bands around 650 nm. The most immediate analytical application of the present instrument is in quantifying the concentration of reactive trace gases in the ambient atmosphere. The instrument's detection limits for NO3 as a function of integration time are considered in detail using an Allan variance analysis. Experiments under laboratory conditions produce a 1σ detection limit of 0.25 pptv for a 10 s

  13. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  14. Aerosol absorption measurement at SWIR with water vapor interference using a differential photoacoustic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyue; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Yi

    2015-09-07

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, which changes local weather and global climate. Accurate measurement is highly requested to estimate the radiative effects and climate effects of atmospheric aerosol. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique, which observes the aerosols on their natural suspended state and is insensitive to light scattering, is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosols. In the present work, a method of measuring aerosol OAC at the wavelength where could also be absorbed by water vapor was proposed and corresponding measurements of the absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol at the short wave infrared (SWIR, 1342 nm) wavelength were carried out. The spectrometer was made up of two high performance homemade photoacoustic cells. To improve the sensitivity, several methods were presented to control the noise derived from gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Calibration of the OAC and properties of the system were also studied in detail. Using the established PAS instrument, measurement of the optical absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol were carried out in laboratory and field environment.

  15. Cavity ring-down spectrometer for high-fidelity molecular absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Reed, Z. D.; Sironneau, V. T.; Hodges, J. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present a cavity ring-down spectrometer which was developed for near-infrared measurements of laser absorption by atmospheric greenhouse gases. This system has several important attributes that make it possible to conduct broad spectral surveys and to determine line-by-line parameters with wide dynamic range, and high spectral resolution, sensitivity and accuracy. We demonstrate a noise-equivalent absorption coefficient of 4×10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.5×106:1 in an absorption spectrum of carbon monoxide. We also present high-resolution measurements of trace methane in air spanning more than 1.2 THz and having a frequency axing with an uncertainty less than 100 kHz. Finally, we discuss how this system enables stringent tests of advanced line shape models. To illustrate, we measured an air-broadened carbon dioxide transition over a wide pressure range and analyzed these data with a multi-spectrum fit of the partially correlated, quadratic speed-dependent Nelkin-Ghatak profile. We obtained a quality-of-fit parameter in the multispectrum fit equal to 36,000, thus quantifying small-but-measurable limitations of the model profile. This analysis showed that the line shape depends upon collisional narrowing, speed dependent effects and partial correlations between velocity- and phase-changing collisions.

  16. Optimisation of external cavity parameters of a weak absorption laser spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Korolenko, P V; Lagunov, V V; Nikolaev, I V; Ochkin, V N; Tskhai, S N; Yatskevich, A N

    2016-03-31

    We consider some peculiar features of the optimisation procedure of external optical cavity parameters of a laser spectrometer, caused by the use of a three-beam measurement scheme and the presence of losses in the mirrors. It is found that the maximum sensitivity to the absorption of an intracavity medium can be achieved only at a certain choice of the value and the ratio of the reflection coefficients of the mirrors. For example, registration of the spectra of the methane impurity in the atmosphere shows that in accordance with the calculation model, for the same resonator Q-factor the use of an input mirror with a smaller reflection coefficient allows the measurement sensitivity to be increased by approximately two times. (laser spectroscopy)

  17. A Near-Infrared Spectrometer to Measure Zodiacal Light Absorption Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Kimble, R.; Moseley, S. H.; Rapchun, D.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a high throughput infrared spectrometer for zodiacal light fraunhofer lines measurements. The instrument is based on a cryogenic dual silicon Fabry-Perot etalon which is designed to achieve high signal to noise Fraunhofer line profile measurements. Very large aperture silicon Fabry-Perot etalons and fast camera optics make these measurements possible. The results of the absorption line profile measurements will provide a model free measure of the zodiacal Light intensity in the near infrared. The knowledge of the zodiacal light brightness is crucial for accurate subtraction of zodiacal light foreground for accurate measure of the extragalactic background light after the subtraction of zodiacal light foreground. We present the final design of the instrument and the first results of its performance.

  18. Cavity-Enhanced Near-Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for the Measurement of Acetonitrile in Breath.

    PubMed

    Gianella, Michele; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2015-07-07

    Elevated concentrations of acetonitrile have been found in the exhaled breath of patients with cystic fibrosis1 and may indicate the severity of their condition or the presence of an accompanying bacterial infection of the airways. There is therefore interest in detecting acetonitrile in exhaled breath. For this purpose, a cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectrometer (λ = 1.65 μm) with a preconcentration stage was built and is described here. The spectrometer has a limit of detection of 72 ppbv and 114 ppbv of acetonitrile in nitrogen and breath, respectively, with a measurement duration of just under 5 min. The preconcentration stage, which employs a carbon molecular sieve and an adsorption/thermal desorption cycle, can increase the acetonitrile concentration by up to a factor 93, thus, lowering the overall limit of detection to approximately 1 ppbv. The suitability of the system for acetonitrile measurements in breath is demonstrated with breath samples taken from the authors, which yielded acetonitrile concentrations of 23 ± 3 ppbv and 29 ± 3 ppbv, respectively.

  19. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Rasco, B. C.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; ...

    2015-04-08

    New detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS),was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab(ORNL).Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products.MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over1000 kg.The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to -radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 tool kit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl).A detailedmore » description oftheGEANT4modifications madeisdiscussed.SimulatedenergyresolutionofMTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single transitions of 662keV (137Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM),835keV (54Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115keV (65Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%.Simulations of single and multiple -rays from 60Co are also discussed.« less

  20. The airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer - A new instrument of remote measurement of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Laser Absorption Spectrometer is a portable instrument developed by JPL for remote measurement of trace gases from an aircraft platform. It contains two carbon dioxide lasers, two optical heterodyne receivers, appropriate optics to aim the lasers at the ground and detect the backscattered energy, and signal processing and recording electronics. Operating in the differential-absorption mode, it is possible to monitor one atmospheric gas at a time and record the data in real time. The system can presently measure ozone, ethylene, water vapor, and chlorofluoromethanes with high sensitivity. Airborne measurements were made in early 1977 from the NASA/JPL twin-engine Beechcraft and in May 1977 from the NASA Convair 990 during the ASSESS-II Shuttle Simulation Study. These flights resulted in measurements of ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere which were compared with ground-based values provided by the Air Pollution Control District. This paper describes the details of the instrument and results of the airborne measurements.

  1. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Rasco, B. C.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K. C.

    2015-04-08

    New detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS),was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab(ORNL).Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products.MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over1000 kg.The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to -radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 tool kit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl).A detailed description oftheGEANT4modifications madeisdiscussed.SimulatedenergyresolutionofMTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single transitions of 662keV (137Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM),835keV (54Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115keV (65Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%.Simulations of single and multiple -rays from 60Co are also discussed.

  2. Simulations of an airborne laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Refaat, T.; Kooi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric column amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas of the atmosphere, has significantly increased from a preindustrial value of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to more than 390 ppm at present. Our knowledge about the spatiotemporal change and variability of the greenhouse gas, however, is limited. Thus, a near-term space mission of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) is crucial to increase our understanding of global sources and sinks of CO2. Currently, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT Exelis are jointly developing and testing an airborne laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a prototype instrument for the mission. To assess the space capability of accurate atmospheric CO2 measurements, accurate modeling of the instrument and practical evaluation of space applications are the keys for the success of the ASCENDS mission. This study discusses the simulations of the performance of the airborne instrument and its CO2 measurements. The LAS is a multi-wavelength spectrometer operating on a 1.57 um CO2 absorption line. The Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) approach is implemented in the instrument. To reach accurate CO2 measurements, transmitted signals are monitored internally as reference channels. A model of this kind of instrument includes all major components of the spectrometer, such as modulation generator, fiber amplifier, telescope, detector, transimpedance amplifier, matched filter, and other signal processors. The characteristics of these components are based on actual laboratory tests, product specifications, and general understanding of the functionality of the components. For simulations of atmospheric CO2 measurements, environmental conditions related to surface reflection, atmospheric CO2 and H2O profiles, thin clouds, and aerosol layers, are introduced into the model. Furthermore, all major noise sources such as those from detectors, background radiation, speckle, and

  3. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  4. An off Axis Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer and a Rapid Scan Spectrometer with a Room-Temperature External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunchen; Kang, Cheolhwa; Xu, Yunjie

    2009-06-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a new type of mid-infrared tunable diode lasers with superior output power and mode quality. Recent developments, such as room temperature operation, wide frequency tunability, and narrow line width, make QCLs an ideal light source for high resolution spectroscopy. Two slit jet infrared spectrometers, namely an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption (CEA) spectrometer and a rapid scan spectrometer with an astigmatic multi-pass cell assembly, have been coupled with a newly purchased room temperature tunable mod-hop-free QCL with a frequency coverage from 1592 cm^{-1} to 1698 cm^{-1} and a scan rate of 0.1 cm^{-1}/ms. Our aim is to utilize these two sensitive spectrometers, that are equipped with a molecular jet expansion, to investigate the chiral molecules-(water)_n clusters. To demonstrate the resolution and sensitivity achieved, the rovibrational transitions of the static N_2O gas and the bending rovibrational transitions of the Ar-water complex, a test system, at 1634 cm^{-1} have been measured. D. Hofstetter and J. Faist in High performance quantum cascade lasers and their applications, Vol.89 Springer-Verlag Berlin & Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 61-98. Y. Xu, X. Liu, Z. Su, R. M. Kulkarni, W. S. Tam, C. Kang, I. Leonov and L. D'Agostino, Proc. Spie, 2009, 722208 (1-11). M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 3078-3089.

  5. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, Adam D. Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.

    2014-10-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  6. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  7. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  8. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  9. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  10. Total ozone column distribution over peninsular Malaysia from scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing of atmospheric ozone concentrations have received great attention around the whole because of its characteristic, in order to degrade air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. Ozone, one of the most pollutants source and brings a variety of adverse effects on plant life and human being. Continuous monitoring on ozone concentrations at atmosphere provide information and precautions for the high ozone level, which we need to be established. Satellite observation of ozone has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the ozone distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-2 of total ozone column WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° x 1.25°. Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) ozone was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY nearinfrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of ozone at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of ozone at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of ozone at tropical region.

  11. Development of a cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Gallagher, M. W.; Lowry, D.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution CH4 and CO2 measurements were made onboard the FAAM BAe 146 UK atmospheric research aircraft during a number of field campaigns. The system was based on an infrared spectrometer using the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. Correction functions to convert the mole fractions retrieved from the spectroscopy to dry air mole fractions were derived using laboratory experiments and over a 3 month period showed good stability. Long-term performance of the system was monitored using WMO traceable calibration gases. During the first year of operation (29 flights) analysis of the system's in-flight calibrations suggest that its measurements are accurate to -0.07 ppbv (1 σ precision at 1 Hz = 2.48 ppbv) for CH4 and -0.06 ppmv (1 σ precision at 1 Hz = 0.66 ppmv) for CO2. The system was found to be very robust, no major motion or altitude dependency could be detected in the measurements. An inter-comparison between whole air samples that were analysed post-flight for CH4 and CO2 by cavity ring down spectroscopy showed a mean difference between the two techniques of -2.4 ppbv (1 σ = 2.3 ppbv) for CH4 and -0.22 ppmv (1 σ = 0.45 ppmv) for CO2. In September 2012, the system was used to sample biomass burning plumes in Brazil as part of the SAMBBA project (South American biomass burning analysis). From these and simultaneous CO measurements, emission factors for savannah fires were calculated. These were found to be 2.2 ± 0.2 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4 and 1710 ± 171 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2, which are in excellent agreement with previous estimates in the literature.

  12. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  13. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix M.; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur containing trace gas present in the troposphere at concentrations of around 500 ppt. Recent interest in COS by the ecosystem-physiological community has been sparked by the fact that COS co-diffuses into plant leaves pretty much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2) does, but in contrast to CO2, COS is not known to be emitted by plants. Thus uptake of COS by vegetation has the potential to be used as a tracer for canopy gross photosynthesis, which cannot be measured directly, however represents a key term in the global carbon cycle. Since a few years, quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS) are commercially available with the precision, sensitivity and time response suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. While there exist a handful of published reports on EC flux measurements in the recent literature, no rigorous investigation of the applicability of QCLAS for EC COS flux measurements has been carried out so far, nor have been EC processing and QA/QC steps developed for carbon dioxide and water vapor flux measurements within FLUXNET been assessed for COS. The aim of this study is to close this knowledge gap, to discuss critical steps in the post-processing chain of COS EC flux measurements and to devise best-practice guidelines for COS EC flux data processing. To this end we collected EC COS (and CO2, H2O and CO) flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland in Austria over the vegetation period 2015 with a commercially available QCLAS. We discuss various aspects of EC data post-processing, in particular issues with the time-lag estimation between sonic anemometer and QCLAS signals and QCLAS time series detrending, as well as QA/QC, in particular flux detection limits, random flux uncertainty, the interaction of various processing steps with common EC QA/QC filters (e.g. detrending and stationarity tests), u*-filtering, etc.

  14. Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for 13C Isotopic Composition of Pico to Subpico Molar Sample Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Kelly, J.; Sams, R.; Newburn, M.; Kreuzer, H.; Alexander, M.

    2011-12-01

    Quick incorporation of IR spectroscopy based isotope measurements into cutting edge research in biogeochemical cycling attests to the advantages of a spectroscopy versus mass spectrometry method for making some 13C measurements. The simple principles of optical spectroscopy allow field portability and provide a more robust general platform for isotope measurements. We present results with a new capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) with the capability of reducing the sample size required for high precision isotopic measurements to the picomolar level and potentially the sub-picomolar level. This work was motivated by the minute sample size requirements for laser ablation isotopic studies of carbon cycling in microbial communities but has potential to be a valuable tool in other areas of biological and geological research. The CAS instrument utilizes a capillary waveguide as a sample chamber for interrogating CO2 via near IR laser absorption spectroscopy. The capillary's small volume (~ 0.5 mL) combined with propagation and interaction of the laser mode with the entire sample reduces sample size requirements to a fraction of that accessible with commercially available IR absorption including those with multi-pass or ring-down cavity systems. Using a continuous quantum cascade laser system to probe nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO2 near 2307 cm-1 permits sample measurement at low analyte pressures (as low as 2 Torr) for further sensitivity improvement. A novel method to reduce cw-fringing noise in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level after averaging 1,000 scans in 10 seconds. Detection limits down to the 20 picomoles have been observed, a concentration of approximately 400 ppm at 2 Torr in the waveguide with precision and accuracy at or better than 1 %. Improvements in detection and signal averaging electronics and laser power and mode quality are

  15. Laser Absorption spectrometer instrument for tomographic 2D-measurement of climate gas emission from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Anne; Wagner, Steven; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    One of the most intricate effects in climate modelling is the role of permafrost thawing during the global warming process. Soil that has formerly never totally lost its ice cover now emits climate gases due to melting processes[1]. For a better prediction of climate development and possible feedback mechanisms, insights into physical procedures (like e.g. gas emission from underground reservoirs) are required[2]. Therefore, a long-term quantification of greenhouse gas concentrations (and further on fluxes) is necessary and the related structures that are responsible for emission need to be identified. In particular the spatial heterogeneity of soils caused by soil internal structures (e.g. soil composition changes or surface cracks) or by surface modifications (e.g. by plant growth) generate considerable complexities and difficulties for local measurements, for example with soil chambers. For such situations, which often cannot be avoided, a spatially resolved 2D-measurement to identify and quantify the gas emission from the structured soil would be needed, to better understand the influence of the soil sub-structures on the emission behavior. Thus we designed a spatially scanning laser absorption spectrometer setup to determine a 2D-gas concentration map in the soil-air boundary layer. The setup is designed to cover the surfaces in the range of square meters in a horizontal plane above the soil to be investigated. Existing field instruments for gas concentration or flux measurements are based on point-wise measurements, so structure identification is very tedious or even impossible. For this reason, we have developed a tomographic in-situ instrument based on TDLAS ('tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy') that delivers absolute gas concentration distributions of areas with 0.8m × 0.8m size, without any need for reference measurements with a calibration gas. It is a simple and robust device based on a combination of scanning mirrors and reflecting foils, so

  16. Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the global ozone monitoring experiment and the scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Burrows, John P.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) are diode based spectrometers that will make atmospheric constituent and aerosol measurements from European satellite platforms beginning in the mid 1990's. GOME measures the atmosphere in the UV and visible in nadir scanning, while SCIAMACHY performs a combination of nadir, limb, and occultation measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared. A summary is presented of the sensitivity studies that were performed for SCIAMACHY measurements. As the GOME measurement capability is a subset of the SCIAMACHY measurement capability, the nadir, UV, and visible portion of the studies is shown to apply to GOME as well.

  17. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  18. Instrumentation and key elements of the dispersive x-ray absorption spectrometer for accurate measurements (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, A.; Baudelet, F.; Dartyge, E.; Dubuisson, J. M.; Giorgetti, C.; Pizzini, Stefania; Andrault, D.; Farges, F.; Fiquet, G.; Itié, J. P.; Polian, A.; Miguel, A. San; Tolentino, H.

    1995-02-01

    Measurement of very small differences of the total cross section is the current demand for the spectrometers dedicated to time-dependent experiments carried out under various time-ramped parameters. The dispersive optics and more precisely the full x-ray-absorption spectrometer is mechanically movement-free during data collection which can last over 12 h at LURE-DCI to be sensitive to relative change of the absorption of the order of 10-5. In this range, artefacts due to the drift of silicon lattice spacing under temperature change of the crystal, and drifts of the detector position because of liquid-nitrogen evaporation contained in the cryostat, are sources of errors which have been identified and cured or ... by-passed. The accuracy in difference measurements is now of the order of 10-5 for a total cross section measured equal to 1. In term of optics stability a difference signal of 10-4 out of 1 can be generated by an absorption edge shift caused by a 0.05 K drift of the temperature of the silicon crystal at 7 keV. These performances are essential for the measurement of XMCD in the hard-x-ray range. Water cooling of the dynamically bent crystal reduces dramatically the change of the Si temperature. Adequate geometry makes the spatial drift of the position of the photodiode array much less concerning. The focusing efficiency is also a key parameter to push high-pressure x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (55 GPa), and high-temperature XAS (2000 K), and the combination (15 GPa, 800 K). Simple devices, taking advantage of the focusing geometry, have been successfully tested these last two years.

  19. A broadband ultrafast transient absorption spectrometer covering the range from near-infrared (NIR) down to green.

    PubMed

    Schmidhammer, Uli; Jeunesse, Pierre; Stresing, Gerhard; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    We present a new development for pump-probe absorption spectroscopy that allows the simultaneous measurement from the green part of the visible spectrum (510 nm) over the whole near-infrared range to >1600 nm, corresponding to 0.77-2.40 eV. The system is based on a sub-picosecond supercontinuum generated in bulk material used as a broadband probe that is dispersed with a custom-made prism spectrometer and detected by an InGaAs array with extended sensitivity to the visible. Two versions, with and without probe referencing, are implemented for operation at laser repetition rates of a few hertz and kilohertz, respectively. After presentation of the optical configuration of the spectrometer, its performance is characterized and further illustrated on two time scales, with the ultrafast radiolysis of isopropanol induced by a picosecond electron pulse and with the instantaneous response of a BK7 plate to a femtosecond light pulse. The photophysics of the dye IR-140 is resolved from the femto- to picosecond regime. Stable and easy day-to-day routine use of the spectrometer also can be achieved in non-optical laboratory surroundings. For operation in a hazardous environment, the optical probe beams can be transported to the detector unit by optical fibers.

  20. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  1. An atomic-absorption spectrometer with an electrothermal atomizer in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Eristavi, V.D; Ivanov, V.K.; Sadagov, Y.M.; Sharashidze, P.A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes a system for correcting unselective interference. The system enables one to amplify the preparation of specimens of complicated composition, and it increases the accuracy at the expense of only a very slight sensitivity loss. The Zeeman AA spectrometer with electrothermal atomizer is shown and is based on the optical system of an S-302 AA spectrometer. The resonant-radiation sources were VSB-2 electrodeless high-frequency lamps or 1SP-1 hollow-cathode ones supplied with dc. The system for correcting for unselective interference enables one to simplify the preparation of specimens of complicated composition and it increases the accuracy at the expense of only a very slight sensitivity loss.

  2. CH4 and N2O Measurement Performance with Novel Mid-Infrared Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. O.; Kita, D.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing activities in the greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring community have called for greater precision and accuracy in greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements, including CO2, CH4, and N2O. In past years this need has been served by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) that accesses near-infrared (NIR) single absorption transitions. We present the results of novel and commercial ready TDLAS spectrometers (the IRIS Series) utilizing mid-infrared (MIR) measurement of CH4 and N2O. Order-of-magnitude higher absorption transition strengths in the MIR compared to the NIR, combined with unique capabilities and selectivity of TDLAS, result in sub-ppb measurement noise for CH4 and N2O. The MIR laser output is generated by a small and rugged difference frequency generation (DFG) platform that uses semiconductor NIR lasers delivered fiber optically into a PPLN crystal. The spectrometer utilizes a multiple pass Herriott cell through which gas is drawn (< 0.5 LPM) by a small internal pump, with a resultant speed of response due to volumetric turnover of < 30 sec. Multiple inlet ports provide ability to sample from multiple points and/or run automated calibration routines. Optical surfaces in contact with the gas are passive and thus tolerant to aging/weathering. Data is presented for cylinder-sourced CH4 and N2O for assessing instrumental precision/variation in real time, and to independently assess the impact of ambient temperature variation on performance stability. Real ambient monitoring scenarios and results are also presented.

  3. High resolution spectrometer for extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the 6 keV to 15 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, U.

    2016-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission-crystal spectrometer has been developed with high crystal resolving power in the 6 keV-15 keV energy range and sufficient sensitivity to record single-shot spectra from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Titan laser and other comparable or more energetic lasers. The spectrometer capabilities were tested by recording the W L transitions from a laboratory source and the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum through a Cu foil.

  4. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  5. Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of mineral dust components measured by a multi wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2014-09-01

    Mass specific optical absorption coefficients of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. These values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. These results are expected to have considerable importance in global radiative forcing calculations. They can also serve as reference for validating calculated wavelength dependent imaginary parts (κ) of complex refractive indices which up to now have been typically deduced from bulk phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk phase measurements.

  6. Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gary D; Menzies, Robert T; Jacob, Joseph; Christensen, Lance E; Phillips, Mark W; Choi, Yonghoon; Browell, Edward V

    2011-05-10

    We report airborne measurements of CO(2) column abundance conducted during two 2009 campaigns using a 2.05 μm laser absorption spectrometer. The two flight campaigns took place in the California Mojave desert and in Oklahoma. The integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) method is used for the CO(2) column mixing ratio retrievals. This instrument and the data analysis methodology provide insight into the capabilities of the IPDA method for both airborne measurements and future global-scale CO(2) measurements from low Earth orbit pertinent to the NASA Active Sensing of CO(2) Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission. The use of a favorable absorption line in the CO(2) 2 μm band allows the on-line frequency to be displaced two (surface pressure) half-widths from line center, providing high sensitivity to the lower tropospheric CO(2). The measurement repeatability and measurement precision are in good agreement with predicted estimates. We also report comparisons with airborne in situ measurements conducted during the Oklahoma campaign.

  7. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  8. Measurement of acetaldehyde in exhaled breath using a laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Pratyuma C.; Roller, Chad B.; Namjou, Khosrow; Jeffers, James D.; Faramarzalian, Ali; Salas, Rodolfo; McCann, Patrick J.

    2007-07-01

    A high-resolution liquid-nitrogen-free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system was used to perform real-time measurement of acetaldehyde concentrations in human exhaled breath following ingestion of an alcoholic beverage. Acetaldehyde absorption features were measured near 5.79 μm (1727 cm-1) using a IV-VI semiconductor laser, a 100 m long path optical gas cell, and second- harmonic detection coupled with wavelength modulation. Acetaldehyde levels were measured with a minimum detection limit of 80 ppb for 5 s integration time. The variations in exhaled acetaldehyde levels over time were analyzed prior to and following ingestion of two different amounts of white wine. A method to calibrate acetaldehyde measurements internally using water vapor absorption lines was investigated to eliminate the need for system calibration with gas standards. The potential of a TDLAS system to be used as a noninvasive clinical tool for measurements of large volatile compounds with possible applications in cancer detection is demonstrated.

  9. A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2015-09-01

    A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.

  10. Light absorption coefficient measurement of SOA using a UV-Visible spectrometer connected with an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Jang, Myoseon

    2011-08-01

    A method for measuring an aerosol light absorption coefficient ( B a) has been developed using a conventional UV-visible spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere covering a wide range of wavelengths (280-800 nm). The feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated in both the transmittance mode (TUV-IS) and the reflective mode (RUV-IS) using the reference aerosol known for the cross-sectional area. The aerosol was collected on a conventional filter and measured for B a values. The resulting RUV-IS method was applied to measure light absorption of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). SOA was produced through photooxidation of different precursor hydrocarbons such as toluene, d-limonene and α-pinene in the presence of NO x (60-70 ppb) and inorganic seed aerosol using a 2-m 3 indoor Teflon film chamber. Of the three precursor hydrocarbons, the B a value of toluene SOA (0.574 m 2 g -1 at 350 nm) was the highest compared with B a values for α-pinene SOA (0.029 m 2 g -1) and d-limonene SOA (0.038 m 2 g -1). When d-limonene SOA or toluene SOA was internally mixed with neutral [(NH 4) 2SO 4] or acidic inorganic seed (NH 4HSO 4:H 2SO 4 = 1:1 by mole), the SOA showed 2-3 times greater B a values at 350 nm than the SOA with no seed. Aerosol aging with a light source for this study reduced B a values of SOA (e.g., on average 10% for toluene SOA and 30% for d-limonene SOA within 4 h). Overall, weak absorption appeared for chamber-generated SOA over wavelengths ranging from 280 to 550 nm, which fall into the sunlight spectrum.

  11. Airborne Measurements of Formaldehyde Employing a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer During TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, Alan; Drummond, James

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress achieved over the entire 3-year proposal period including two extensions spanning 1 year. These activities include: 1) Preparation for and participation in the NASA 2001 TRACE-P campaign using our airborne tunable diode laser system to acquire measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O); 2) Comprehensive data analysis and data submittal to the NASA archive; 3) Follow up data interpretation working with NASA modelers to place our ambient CH2O measurements into a broader photochemical context; 4) Publication of numerous JGR papers using this data; 5) Extensive follow up laboratory tests on the selectivity and efficiency of our CH20 scrubbing system; and 6) An extensive follow up effort to assess and study the mechanical stability of our entire optical system, particularly the multipass absorption cell, with aircraft changes in cabin pressure.

  12. A Novel Experimental Setup for Determination of Atmospheric Ammonia Fluxes Using a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haarlem, R.; Pattey, E.; Ellis, R.; Murphy, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Characterizing area-source volatilization of ammonia has presented many challenges using fast-response techniques such as eddy covariance due to the adhesive and reactive nature of NH3 within the measuring system. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the optimal setup using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS). The series of experiments were performed concomitantly between the TDLAS and a quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer and results are presented in a companion paper. These experiments consisted of a range of standard additions (10-1000ppbv) using both perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) and polyethylene (PE) inlet tubing ranging in lengths between 3.9 and 8.9m. To address the issue of NH3 adsorption, a test using a heated (40oC) 5-m PE sample line was used in one test series. The standard NH3 additions were mixed with either pre-purified N2 or ambient room air to mimic ambient field conditions. A novel sample inlet, provided by University of Toronto and based on the design of Aerodyne Inc., was employed for the test duration. This inlet was designed to relinquish the use of a filter on the inlet, which may pose attenuation and sample flow issues. The responses to concentration changes using these various configurations demonstrated that the response to the [NH3] changes exhibited a double exponential decay. On average, the primary decay curve represented 88% of the total change in concentration and the average decay coefficient was 0.24s. However, the secondary decay coefficient was much larger (35.2s). The optimal response of the TDLAS was obtained using the shortest length of PFA tubing (3.9m) where the primary decay responses were all greater than 90% of the total change in 0.17s on average and the remaining decay occurred over a period of 0.12s. Surprisingly, the test using the heated PE tubing did not produce any discernible improvements to the instrument response. The optimal

  13. Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

    2005-08-01

    Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

  14. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometer at 1.57 Micrometer for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the earth's carbon cycle is essential for diagnosing current and predicting future climates, which requires precise global measurements of atmospheric CO2 through space missions. The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission will provide accurate global atmospheric CO2 measurements to meet carbon science requirements. The joint team of NASA Langley Research Center and ITT Exelis, Inc. proposes to use the intensity-modulated, continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach for the ASCENDS mission. Prototype LAS instruments have been developed and used to demonstrate the power, signal-to-noise ratio, precision and accuracy, spectral purity, and stability of the measurement and the instrument needed for atmospheric CO2 observations from space. The ranging capability from laser platform to ground surfaces or intermediate backscatter layers is achieved by transmitted range-encoded IM laser signals. Based on the prototype instruments and current lidar technologies, space LAS systems and their CO2 column measurements are analyzed. These studies exhibit a great potential of using IM-CW LAS system for the active space CO2 mission ASCENDS.

  15. A capillary absorption spectrometer for stable carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) analysis in very small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J. F.; Sams, R. L.; Blake, T. A.; Newburn, M.; Moran, J.; Alexander, M. L.; Kreuzer, H.

    2012-02-01

    A capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) suitable for IR laser isotope analysis of small CO2 samples is presented. The system employs a continuous-wave (cw) quantum cascade laser to study nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO2 near 2307 cm-1 (4.34 μm). This initial CAS system can achieve relative isotopic precision of about 10 ppm 13C, or ˜1‰ (per mil in delta notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) with 20-100 picomoles of entrained sample within the hollow waveguide for CO2 concentrations ˜400-750 ppm. Isotopic analyses of such gas fills in a 1-mm ID hollow waveguide of 0.8 m overall physical path length can be carried out down to ˜2 Torr. Overall 13C/12C ratios can be calibrated to ˜2‰ accuracy with diluted CO2 standards. A novel, low-cost method to reduce cw-fringing noise resulting from multipath distortions in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level (peak-to-rms) after 1000 scans are co-added in ˜10 s. The CAS is meant to work directly with converted CO2 samples from a laser ablation-catalytic combustion micro-sampler to provide 13C/12C ratios of small biological isolates currently operating with spatial resolutions ˜50 μm.

  16. Development of a cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Gallagher, M. W.; Lowry, D.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution CH4 and CO2 measurements were made on board the FAAM BAe-146 UK (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, British Aerospace-146) atmospheric research aircraft during a number of field campaigns. The system was based on an infrared spectrometer using the cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. Correction functions to convert the mole fractions retrieved from the spectroscopy to dry-air mole fractions were derived using laboratory experiments and over a 3 month period showed good stability. Long-term performance of the system was monitored using WMO (World Meteorological Office) traceable calibration gases. During the first year of operation (29 flights) analysis of the system's in-flight calibrations suggest that its measurements are accurate to 1.28 ppb (1σ repeatability at 1 Hz = 2.48 ppb) for CH4 and 0.17 ppm (1σ repeatability at 1 Hz = 0.66 ppm) for CO2. The system was found to be robust, no major motion or altitude dependency could be detected in the measurements. An inter-comparison between whole-air samples that were analysed post-flight for CH4 and CO2 by cavity ring-down spectroscopy showed a mean difference between the two techniques of -2.4 ppb (1σ = 2.3 ppb) for CH4 and -0.22 ppm (1σ = 0.45 ppm) for CO2. In September 2012, the system was used to sample biomass-burning plumes in Brazil as part of the SAMBBA project (South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis). From these and simultaneous CO measurements, emission factors for savannah fires were calculated. These were found to be 2.2 ± 0.2 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CH4 and 1710 ± 171 g (kg dry matter)-1 for CO2, which are in excellent agreement with previous estimates in the literature.

  17. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass Aerosol Extinction Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (AE-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, R. T.; Greenslade, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  18. Initial investigation of the wavelength dependence of optical properties measured with a new multi-pass aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer (AE-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, R. T.; Greenslade, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols directly affect climate by scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of the impact is dependent upon the wavelength of light, but is often estimated near 550 nm. When light scattering and absorption by aerosols is approximated, the wavelength dependence of the refractive index for specific components is lost. As a result, climate models would have inherent uncertainties for aerosol contributions to radiative forcing when considering the entire solar spectrum. An aerosol extinction differential optical absorption spectrometer has been developed to directly measure aerosol extinction at mid-ultraviolet to near infrared wavelengths. The instrument consists of a spectrometer coupled to a closed White-type multi-pass gas cell with an adjustable path length of up to approximately 20 m. Laboratory measurements of various gases are compared with known absorption cross sections. Additionally, the extinction of monodisperse samples of polystyrene latex spheres are measured and compared to Mie theory generated with refractive index values from the literature to validate the new instrument. The polystyrene experiments also emphasize the ability of the new instrument to retrieve the wavelength dependent refractive index, especially in the ultraviolet wavelength regions where variability is expected. The spectrometer will be a significant advancement for determining wavelength dependent complex refractive indices in future laboratory studies as well as provide the ability to monitor ambient aerosol light extinction.

  19. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  20. Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range.

    PubMed

    Tretyakov, M Yu; Krupnov, A F; Koshelev, M A; Makarov, D S; Serov, E A; Parshin, V V

    2009-09-01

    The instrument and methods for measuring spectral parameters of discrete atmospheric lines and water-related continuum absorption in the millimeter wave range are described. The instrument is based on measurements of the Fabry-Pérot resonance response width using fast phase continuous scanning of the frequency-synthesized radiation. The instrument allows measurement of gas absorptions at the cavity eigenfrequencies ranging from 45 to 370 GHz with the highest to date absorption variation sensitivity of 4x10(-9) cm(-1). The use of a module of two rigidly bounded maximum identical resonators differing in length by exactly a factor of two allows accurate separation of the studied gas absorption and spectrometer baseline, in particular, the absorption by water adsorbed on the resonator elements. The module is placed in a chamber with temperature controlled between -30 and +60 degrees C, which permits investigation of temperature dependence of absorption. It is shown that systematic measurement error of discrete atmospheric line parameters does not exceed the statistical one and the achieved accuracy satisfies modern demands for the atmospheric remote sensing data retrieval. Potential systematic error arising from the neglect of the effect of water adsorption on mirror surfaces is discussed. Examples of studies of water and oxygen spectral line parameters as well as continuum absorption in wet nitrogen are given.

  1. Measurement of Urban Air Quality by an Open-Path Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer in Beijing During Summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, A. P.; Liu, P. Q.; Yeung, J. K.; Zhang, Y.; Baeck, M. L.; Pan, X.; Dong, H.; Wang, Z.; Smith, J. A.; Gmachl, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 Olympic Games focused attention on the air quality of Beijing, China and served as an important test-bed for developing, deploying, and testing new technologies for analysis of air quality and regional climate in urban environments. Poor air quality in urban locations has a significant detrimental effect on the health of residents while also impacting both regional and global climate change. As a result, there exists a great need for highly sensitive trace gas sensors for studying the atmosphere of the urban environment. Open-path remote sensors are of particular interest as they can obtain data on spatial scales similar to those used in regional climate models. Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) can be designed for operation in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) with a central wavelength anywhere between 3 to 24 μm and made tunable over a wavelength interval of over 0.1 μm. The Quantum Cascade Laser Open-Path System (QCLOPS) is a mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometer that uses a tunable, thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed Daylight Solutions Inc. QCL for measurement of trace gases. The system is aimed at applications with path lengths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1.0 km. The system is designed to continuously monitor multiple trace gases [water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2)] in the lower atmosphere. A field campaign from July to September 2008 in Beijing used QCLOPS to study trace gas concentrations before, during, and after the Olympic Games in an effort to capture changes induced by emissions reduction methods. QCLOPS was deployed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics - Chinese Academy of Sciences on the roof of a two-story building, at an approximate distance of 2 miles from the Olympic National Stadium ("The Bird's Nest.") QCLOPS operated with an open-path round trip distance of approximately 75 m. The system ran with minimal human interference, twenty-four hours per day for the full campaign period. In order to

  2. A Compact Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer to Monitor CO2 at 2.7 μm Wavelength in Hypersonic Flows

    PubMed Central

    Vallon, Raphäel; Soutadé, Jacques; Vérant, Jean-Luc; Meyers, Jason; Paris, Sébastien; Mohamed, Ajmal

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship’s Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB) diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow. PMID:22219703

  3. Time-resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on photo-induced phase transitions using a tabletop soft-x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Moré, R.; Norpoth, J.; Techert, S.; Jooss, C.; Mann, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    We present a table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer for the wavelength range λ = 1-5 nm based on a stable laser-driven x-ray source, making use of a gas-puff target. With this setup, optical light-pump/soft-x-ray probe near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments with a temporal resolution of about 230 ps are feasible. Pump-probe NEXAFS measurements were carried out in the "water-window" region (2.28 nm-4.36 nm) on the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, investigating diminutive changes of the oxygen K edge that derive from an optically induced phase transition. The results show the practicability of the table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer on demanding investigations so far exclusively conducted at synchrotron radiation sources.

  4. Two-channel opto-acoustic diode laser spectrometer and fine structure of methane absorption spectra in 6070-6180 cm-1 region.

    PubMed

    Kapitanov, V A; Ponomarev, Yu N; Tyryshkin, I S; Rostov, A P

    2007-04-01

    We describe the hardware and software of the high-sensitive two-channel opto-acoustic spectrometer with a near infrared diode laser. A semiconductor TEC-100 laser with outer resonator generates a continuous single-frequency radiation in the range of 6040-6300 cm-1 with spectral resolution better that 10 MHz. The newly designed model of photo-acoustic cells in the form of a ring type resonator was used in the spectrometer, and the system allows the measurement of a weak absorption coefficient equal to 1.4x10(-7) cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a laser radiation power of 0.003 W. The methane absorption spectra within a range of 6080-6180 cm-1 were measured with a spectral resolution of 10 MHz and the signal to noise ratio more than 10(3). Six hundred absorption lines were recorded, which is twice as many as in HITRAN-2004. The accurate measurements of the half-width and shift of methane unresolved triplet R3 of 2nu3 band permit us to determine values of the broadening and shift coefficients for CH4-air, CH4-N2, and CH4-SF6 mixtures.

  5. Correlation between the Gas Temperature and the Atomization Behavior of Analyte Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Estimated with a Continuum-light-source Spectrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2016-11-01

    In flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), the gas temperature for two types of the gas compositions, which was estimated based on a two-line method by using a simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrometer, on which a line pair of ruthenium, Ru I 372.692 nm and Ru I 372.803 nm having different excitation energies, was measured at the same time. Also using the spectrometer system, the absorption signals of both iron and ruthenium, whose oxides had different thermodynamic properties: the latter oxide was decomposed much more easily than the former one, were investigated with a nitrous oxide - acetylene flame, in comparison with an air - acetylene flame. The fuel/oxidant ratio of both the flames as well as the height of the optical path was varied as an experimental parameter. The atomization behavior of iron and ruthenium, which could be deduced from a variation in their absorption signals, was considered to be dependent not only on the gas temperature but on reducing atmosphere of the flame gas, which might be attributed to reducing radicals in a fuel-excess flame consisting of nitrous oxide. In the nitrous oxide - acetylene flame, a broader optical path having a constant and higher temperature was obtained, thus contributing to formation of analyte atoms with a stable atomization efficiency and eventually to better precision in the analytical result in FAAS.

  6. A new approach for the determination of sulphur in food samples by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, N; Baysal, A

    2015-02-01

    The new approach for the determination of sulphur in foods was developed, and the sulphur concentrations of various fresh and dried food samples determined using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer with an air/acetylene flame. The proposed method was optimised and the validated using standard reference materials, and certified values were found to be within the 95% confidence interval. The sulphur content of foods ranged from less than the LOD to 1.5mgg(-1). The method is accurate, fast, simple and sensitive.

  7. Atmospheric solar absorption measurements in the 9-11 micron region using a diode laser heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable diode laser heterodyne radiometer was developed for ground based measurements of atmospheric solar absorption spectra in the 9 to 12 micron spectral range. The performance and operating characteristics of this tunable infrared heterodyne radiometer (TIHR) is discussed along with recently measured heterodyne solar absorption spectra in the 10 to 11 micron spectral region.

  8. Signal to Noise Ratio in Digital Lock-in Detection for Multiple Intensity-Modulated Signals in CO2 Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, S.; Lin, B.; Harrison, F. W.; Nehrir, A. R.; Campbell, J. F.; Refaat, T.; Abedin, N. M.; Obland, M. D.; Ismail, S.; Meadows, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Intensity-Modulated, Continuous-Wave Laser Absorption Spectrometers (LASs) for the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) column mixing ratio from both air- and space-borne platforms. The LAS system uses high-power fiber lasers/amplifiers in the 1.57-um CO2 absorption band and the 1.26-um O2 absorption band in the transmitters and simultaneous digital lock-in detection for the multiple intensity-modulated signals with different modulation waveforms , such as simple sinusoidal waves at different frequencies, associated with different wavelengths in the receivers. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in the system is of interest for the system designs and the performance prediction of airborne and space-borne implementations in the future. This paper will discuss the properties of the signals and various noises in the LAS system, especially for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection with a single detector for the multiple intensity-modulated signals at different frequencies. The numerical simulation of the SNR for the simultaneous digital lock-in detection in terms of relative intensity of the multiple modulated signals and the integration time, and an initial experimental verification will be presented.

  9. Laser Magneto-Optic Rotation Spectrometer (LMORS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    traditional method of measuring atomic concentrations uses atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), herein referred to as an AAS 15 spectrometer...MOR spectrometer of the present invention. Fig. 2 illustrates a calibration curve for a conventional 10 atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS

  10. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  11. Simple system for measuring tritium Ad/absorption using a 2. pi. counter and thermal desorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K. ); Cowgill, D.F. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a simple system using tritium tracer and thermal desorption techniques to measure the tritium adsorption and/or absorption on/in a material having typical surface conditions: namely, not cleaned surface. The tritium counting devices used were a 2{pi} counter and conventional proportional counter. With this system, the amounts of ad/absorption could be measured without exposing the samples to air after exposing them to tritium gas. The overall efficiency (F) of the 2{pi} counter was described at F = exp({minus}2.64h), where h is the distance from the sample to the detector. Ad/absorption measurements were carried out for several materials used for fabricating conventional vacuum systems. The results were, in the order of decreasing amounts of ad/absorption, as (fiber reinforced plastics(FRP)) {gt} (nickel(Ni), molybdenum disulfide(MoS{sub 2})) {gt} (stainless steel (SS304), iron(Fe), aluminum alloy(A2219)) {gt} (boron nitride(h-BN), silicon carbide (SiC), SS304 passivated by anodic oxidation layers(ASS) and that by boron nitride segregation layers (BSS)). The relative amounts were abut 100 for Ni and 0.1 for ASS and BSS, being normalized to Fe = 1.

  12. In situ ozone data for evaluation of the laser absorption spectrometer ozone remote sensor: 1979 southeastern Virginia urban plume study summer field program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Ozone data from the 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Study (SEV-UPS) field program are presented. The SEV-UPS was conducted for evaluation of an ozone remote sensor, the Laser Absorption Spectrometer. During the measurement program, remote-sensor evaluation was in two areas; (1) determination of the remote sensor's accuracy, repeatability, and operational characteristics, and (2) demonstration of the application of remotely sensed ozone data in air-quality studies. Data from six experiments designed to provide in situ ozone data for evaluation of the sensor in area 1, above, are presented. Experiments consisted of overflights of a test area with the remote sensor aircraft while in situ measurements with a second aircraft and selected surface stations provided correlative ozone data within the viewing area of the remote sensor.

  13. Direct determination of cadmium and copper in seawater using a transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman-effect background corrector.

    PubMed

    Chan, M S; Huang, S D

    2000-02-07

    Methods for the direct determination of copper and cadmium in seawater were described using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and a longitudinal Zeeman effect background corrector. Ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine copper. The mixture of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine cadmium. The matrix interference was removed completely so that a simple calibration curve method could be applied. This work is the first one with the capability of determining cadmium in unpolluted seawater directly with GFAAS using calibration curve based on simple aqueous standards. The accuracy of the methods was confirmed by analysis of three kinds of certified reference saline waters. The detection limits (LODs), with injection of a 20-mul aliquot of seawater sample, were 0.06 mug l(-1) for copper and 0.005 mug l(-1) for cadmium.

  14. Evaluation of the absorption of methotrexate on cells and its cytotoxicity assay by using an integrated microfluidic device coupled to a mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Li, Haifang; Wang, Niejun; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-11-06

    An integrated microfluidic device was developed for high-throughput drug screening with an online electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF MS). The multiple gradient generator followed by an array of microscale cell culture chambers and on-chip solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns for sample pretreatment prior to mass analysis was integrated in the device which was fabricated in one single step. By using the combination system, the process for characterization of drug absorption and evaluation of cytotoxicity could be simultaneously realized. To validate the feasibility, the absorption of methotrexate and its effects on HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were investigated. With the increasing concentration of drugs, the percentage of apoptotic cells appeared in a dose-dependent fashion. By comparison with the results obtained from ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis and cytotoxicity assay, we found that higher intracellular drug concentration resulted in increased cell cytotoxicity. The technique presented herein provides an easy protocol to screen drugs rapidly with low drug consumption, high throughput, and high sensitivity.

  15. Inter-comparison of 2 microm Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar, Laser Diode Spectrometer, LICOR NDIR analyzer and flasks measurements of near-ground atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Fabien; Joly, Lilian; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène; Schmidt, Martina; Royer, Adrien; Flamant, Pierre H; Ramonet, Michel; Parvitte, Bertrand; Durry, Georges; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing and in situ instruments are presented and compared in the same location for accurate CO(2) mixing ratio measurements in the atmosphere: (1) a 2.064 microm Heterodyne DIfferential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL), (2) a field deployable infrared Laser Diode Spectrometer (LDS) using new commercial diode laser technology at 2.68 microm, (3) LICOR NDIR analyzer and (4) flasks. LDS, LICOR and flasks measurements were made in the same location, LICOR and flasks being taken as reference. Horizontal HDIAL measurements of CO(2) absorption using aerosol backscatter signal are reported. Using new spectroscopic data in the 2 microm band and meteorological sensor measurements, a mean CO(2) mixing ratio is inferred by the HDIAL in a 1 km long path above the 15m height location of the CO(2) in situ sensors. We compare HDIAL and LDS measurements with the LICOR data for 30 min of time averaging. The mean standard deviation of the HDIAL and the LDS CO(2) mixing ratio results are 3.3 ppm and 0.89 ppm, respectively. The bias of the HDIAL and the LDS measurements are -0.54 ppm and -0.99 ppm, respectively.

  16. Fast time response measurements of gaseous nitrous acid using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer: HONO emission source from vehicle exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongquan Q.; Schwab, James J.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2008-02-01

    We present the measurement of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer. This method utilizes one strong absorption feature at 1713.511cm-1, which is free of interference and suitable for ambient HONO measurements. The detection limit for a 1-second integration time is determined to be better than 200 pptv. The measurement method has been demonstrated by sampling room air over an 11-day period. HONO mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (<=200 pptv) to 4.8 ppbv, with a mean value of 0.73 ppbv. A number of elevated HONO events lasting from several seconds up to hours were observed and have been associated with roadway traffic adjacent to the building where the measurements were performed. The variation in the ratio of HONO/NOx and its anti-correlation with ambient NOx measurements indicate that the source of HONO in this measurement study is mainly from the direct emission of traffic exhausts and local heterogeneous reactions. The demonstrated application of TDLAS fast response measurement technology is capable of providing new information on the sources and sinks of HONO in the environment.

  17. Variation of the 3-μm absorption feature on Mars: observations over eastern Valles Marineris by the mariner 6 infrared spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach for calibration of the shortest wavelength channel (1.8 to 6.0 μm) of the Mariner 6 infrared spectrometer was derived. This calibration provides a new description of the instrument response function from 1.8 to 3.7 μm and accounts for the thermal contribution to the signal at longer wavelengths. This allows the two segments from 1.8 to 6 μm to be merged into a single spectrum. The broad water of hydration absorption spans these two segments and is examined in these merged spectra using a method of band integration. Unlike previous analyses which rely on ratios at two wavelengths, the integration method can assess the band strength independently from the albedo in the near infrared. Spectra taken over the eastern end of the Valles Marineris are examined for variations of the band-integrated value, and three distinct clusters are found. Within the estimated uncertainty, two clusters (both low and high albedo) have approximately the same integrated band depth. The third cluster (medium albedo) has an integrated band depth about 10% higher. This difference cannot be systematically attributed to either surface or atmospheric parameters and suggests variation in the amount of water either chemically or physically bound in surface materials. Approximately one-half of the high integrated band depth cluster is associated with chaotic terrain at the source of outflow channels, the other half occurs over lower inertia plains adjacent to chasmata. This suggests both surface physical properties and mineralogy as well as water in exchange with the atmosphere contribute to the 3-μm bound water absorption.

  18. Sampling procedure and a radio-indicator study of mercury determination in whole blood by using an AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Spevácková, Vera; Korunová, Vlasta; Cejchanová, Mája; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2004-09-01

    A sampling procedure appropriate for the determination of mercury in whole blood was tested by using both inactive controls and a 197Hg mercury radio-indicator. To exclude the influence of the instrumental device (an AMA 254 single-purpose mercury atomic absorption spectrometer) on the determination of mercury in whole blood, the function of the instrument was checked by using rat blood with metabolised 197Hg. The measurement procedure was found to be free of errors. However, the study showed that the material used for the sampling vessels is a crucial parameter for obtaining accurate analytical results. The stability of solutions and samples was tested towards polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) vessels. PE displayed a time-dependent increase in the mercury content both in the samples and in the blood control material. The probable cause of this increase was direct contamination from the material of the vessel and/or diffusion of mercury from the environment through the vessel walls related to a strong complexing affinity of the sample matrix. This assumption was confirmed by supplying the vessels with the complexing agent Na2EDTA (0.05 mol L(-1)). Commercial PP vessels for blood sampling (Sarstedt S-Monovette Metall Analytik) did not give rise to statistically significant variations in mercury content in the samples and blood control material over a 30-day period.

  19. The development and evaluation of airborne in situ N2O and CH4 sampling using a Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl; Gallagher, Martin; Bauguitte, Stephane; O'Shea, Sebastian; Muller, Jennifer; Zahniser, Mark; Pyle, John; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric N2O and CH4 mole fractions were made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) large Atmospheric Research Aircraft. We evaluate the performance of the mid-IR continuous wave Aerodyne Research Inc. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS) employed over 17 flights conducted during summer 2014. Two different methods of correcting for the influence of water vapour on the spectroscopic retrievals are compared and evaluated. Test flight data demonstrating the sensitivity of the instrument to changes in cabin pressure is presented, and a new in-flight calibration procedure to account for this issue is described and assessed. Total 1σ uncertainties of 1.81 ppb for CH4 and 0.35 ppb for N2O are derived. We report a mean difference in 1 Hz CH4 mole fraction of 2.05 ppb (1σ = 5.85 ppb) between in-flight measurements made using the QCLAS and simultaneous measurements using a previously characterised Los Gatos Research Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA).

  20. The development and evaluation of airborne in situ N2O and CH4 sampling using a Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, J. R.; Le Breton, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; O'Shea, S. J.; Muller, J. B. A.; Zahniser, M. S.; Pyle, J.; Palmer, P. I.

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric N2O and CH4 mole fractions were made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) large Atmospheric Research Aircraft. We present details of the mid-IR Aerodyne Research Inc. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS) employed, including its configuration for airborne sampling, and evaluate its performance over 17 flights conducted during summer 2014. Two different methods of correcting for the influence of water vapour on the spectroscopic retrievals are compared and evaluated. A new in-flight calibration procedure to account for the observed sensitivity of the instrument to ambient pressure changes is described, and its impact on instrument performance is assessed. Test flight data linking this sensitivity to changes in cabin pressure is presented. Total 1σ uncertainties of 1.81 ppb for CH4 and 0.35 ppb for N2O are derived. We report a mean difference in 1 Hz CH4 mole fraction of 2.05 ppb (1σ = 5.85 ppb) between in-flight measurements made using the QCLAS and simultaneous measurements using a previously characterised Los Gatos Research Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA). Finally, a potential case study for the estimation of a regional N2O flux using a mass balance technique is identified, and the method for calculating such an estimate is outlined.

  1. The development and evaluation of airborne in situ N2O and CH4 sampling using a Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, J. R.; Le Breton, M. R.; Allen, G.; Percival, C.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Zahniser, M. S.; Pyle, J. A.; Palmer, P. I.

    2015-12-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric N2O and CH4 mole fractions were made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) large Atmospheric Research Aircraft. We evaluate the performance of the mid-IR continuous wave Aerodyne Research Inc. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometer (QCLAS) employed over 17 flights conducted during summer 2014. Two different methods of correcting for the influence of water vapour on the spectroscopic retrievals are compared and evaluated. Test flight data demonstrating the sensitivity of the instrument to changes in cabin pressure is presented, and a new in-flight calibration procedure to account for this issue is described and assessed. Total 1σ uncertainties of 1.81 ppb for CH4 and 0.35 ppb for N2O are derived. We report a mean difference in 1 Hz CH4 mole fraction of 2.05 ppb (1σ = 5.85 ppb) between in-flight measurements made using the QCLAS and simultaneous measurements using a previously characterised Los Gatos Research Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA).

  2. The development and evaluation of airborne in situ N2O and CH4 sampling using a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, J. R.; Le Breton, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; O'Shea, S. J.; Muller, J. B. A.; Zahniser, M. S.; Pyle, J.; Palmer, P. I.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric N2O and CH4 mole fractions were made on board the FAAM (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) large atmospheric research aircraft. We present details of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS, Aerodyne Research Inc., USA) employed, including its configuration for airborne sampling, and evaluate its performance over 17 flights conducted during summer 2014. Two different methods of correcting for the influence of water vapour on the spectroscopic retrievals are compared and evaluated. A new in-flight calibration procedure to account for the observed sensitivity of the instrument to ambient pressure changes is described, and its impact on instrument performance is assessed. Test flight data linking this sensitivity to changes in cabin pressure are presented. Total 1σ uncertainties of 2.47 ppb for CH4 and 0.54 ppb for N2O are derived. We report a mean difference in 1 Hz CH4 mole fraction of 2.05 ppb (1σ = 5.85 ppb) between in-flight measurements made using the QCLAS and simultaneous measurements using a previously characterised Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Finally, a potential case study for the estimation of a regional N2O flux using a mass balance technique is identified, and the method for calculating such an estimate is outlined.

  3. Vegetation species composition and canopy architecture information expressed in leaf water absorption measured in the 1000 nm and 2200 spectral region by an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.

    1995-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring, and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local to regional and even synoptic scales. Classical approaches rely on vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate biophysical parameters such as leaf area index or intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR). Another approach is to apply a variety of classification schemes to map vegetation and thus extrapolate fine-scale information about specific sites to larger areas of similar composition. Imaging spectrometry provides additional information that is not obtainable through broad-band sensors and that may provide improved inputs both to direct biophysical estimates as well as classification schemes. Some of this capability has been demonstrated through improved discrimination of vegetation, estimates of canopy biochemistry, and liquid water estimates from vegetation. We investigate further the potential of leaf water absorption estimated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as a means for discriminating vegetation types and deriving canopy architectural information. We expand our analysis to incorporate liquid water estimates from two spectral regions, the 1000-nm region and the 2200-nm region. The study was conducted in the vicinity of Jasper Ridge, California, which is located on the San Francisco peninsula to the west of the Stanford University campus. AVIRIS data were acquired over Jasper Ridge, CA, on June 2, 1992, at 19:31 UTC. Spectra from three sites in this image were analyzed. These data are from an area of healthy grass, oak woodland, and redwood forest, respectively. For these analyses, the AVIRIS-measured upwelling radiance spectra for the entire Jasper

  4. An injection method for measuring the carbon isotope content of soil carbon dioxide and soil respiration with a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Schauer, Andrew J; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Bowling, David R

    2010-04-15

    We present a novel technique in which the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of soil CO(2) is measured from small gas samples (<5 mL) injected into a stream of CO(2)-free air flowing into a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL). This new method extends the dynamic range of the TDL to measure CO(2) mole fractions ranging from ambient to pure CO(2), reduces the volume of sample required to a few mL, and does not require field deployment of the instrument. The measurement precision of samples stored for up to 60 days was 0.23 per thousand. The new TDL method was applied with a simple gas well sampling technique to obtain and measure gas samples from shallow soil depth increments for CO(2) mole fraction and delta(13)C analysis, and subsequent determination of the delta(13)C of soil-respired CO(2). The method was tested using an artificial soil system containing a controlled CO(2) source and compared with an independent method using the TDL and an open soil chamber. The profile and chamber estimates of delta(13)C of an artificially produced CO(2) flux were consistent and converged to the delta(13)C of the CO(2) source at steady state, indicating the accuracy of both methods under controlled conditions. The new TDL method, in which a small pulse of sample is measured on a carrier gas stream, is analogous for the TDL technique to the development of continuous-flow configurations for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. While the applications presented here are focused on soil CO(2), this new TDL method could be applied in a number of situations requiring measurement of delta(13)C of CO(2) in small gas samples with ambient to high CO(2) mole fractions.

  5. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectrometers based upon all-diode laser difference frequency generation and a room temperature quantum cascade laser for the detection of CO, N2O and NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasyutich, V. L.; Holdsworth, R. J.; Martin, P. A.

    2008-08-01

    We describe the performance of two mid-infrared laser spectrometers for carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide detection. The first spectrometer for CO and N2O detection around 2203 cm-1 is based upon all-diode laser difference frequency generation (DFG) in a quasi-phase matched periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal using two continuous-wave room-temperature distributed feedback diode lasers at 859 and 1059 nm. We also report on the performance of a mid-infrared spectrometer for NO detection at ˜ 1900 cm-1 based upon a thermoelectrically-cooled continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL). Both spectrometers had a single-pass optical cell and a thermoelectrically cooled HgCdZnTe photovoltaic detector. Typical minimum detection limits of 2.8 ppmv for CO, 0.6 ppmv for N2O and 2.7 ppmv for NO have been demonstrated for a 100 averaged spectra acquired within 1.25 s and a cell base length of 21 cm at ˜ 100 Torr. Noise-equivalent absorptions of 10-5 and 10-4 Hz-1/2 are typically demonstrated for the QCL and the DFG based spectrometers, respectively.

  6. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  7. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  8. Measurements of ambient ammonia using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer: Characteristics of ambient ammonia emissions in an urban area of New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongquan; Schwab, James J.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2006-05-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) was deployed during the PMTACS-NY Supersite winter 2004 intensive field campaign at Queens College in New York City to measure the ambient gaseous ammonia. For the characterization of ammonia emissions from the mobile sources, a LI-7000 CO2/H2O analyzer was also collocated with the TDLAS to measure ambient CO2 and H2O vapor. The field measurements and laboratory calibration with certified ammonia standard have been used to evaluate the performance of the TDLAS system. High time resolved TDLAS ambient ammonia measurements performed at Queens College from 10 January to 6 February showed high variability, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) to maxima of 197.4 ppb and a mean value of 0.8 ppb over the entire campaign. Many high-frequency NH3 spikes spanning over a less than 1-min duration were observed during the high traffic periods. The occurrence of the NH3 spikes was closely correlated with observed CO2 spikes, a good marker of traffic exhaust. This correlation yielded an NH3 emission ratio of 0.12 ppbv/ppmv, which can be used to estimate an NH3 emission factor of 35.5 mg/km. The [NH3]/[CO2] ratios over the entire field study was also obtained and added into the best NH3 emission estimates. On a snowy day, no obvious drop of NH3 and CO2 concentrations was measured as the ambient H2O vapor increased. The observed dramatic decrease in the ambient NH3 and CO2 concentrations on a rainy day resulted from a quick air mass switch. Two similar bimodal diurnal patterns associated with the rush hour traffic were observed during school holidays and school days of Queens College, New York. More NH3 emissions from cold start vehicles might contribute to a higher peak in the late afternoon hours. Such observations suggest that the NH3 emissions from the traffic exhaust could be a major source of the ambient NH3 in urban areas.

  9. Multidimensional spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  10. Development and Characterization of a High Speed Mid-IR Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer for CO and CO2 Detection in Detonation Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    expected results with approximately 10% error bounds. With this system’s proof of concept, it will be possible to analyze real combustors as well as...the intensity is normalized ac - cording to an intensity where no absorption occurs according to Beer’s Law. Furthermore, the plots now focus on the...Data for CO (top) and CO2 (bottom) in which the intensity is normalized ac - cording to an intensity where no absorption occurs according to Beer’s

  11. A All-Vacuum High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Absorption Pathlengths up to 352 M: Acetylene Spectrum at 1.4-1.7 Microns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, Karen Ann

    1995-01-01

    The spectra of acetylene (C_2H _2) and of water vapor have been recorded at room temperature with Doppler- or pressure -broadening-limited resolution at pathlengths up to 352m. The spectra were obtained with the combination of a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometer, evacuated transfer optics, and a multipass cell of 4m base length. The measurements were performed at the Justus-Liebig-Universitat in Giessen, Germany, using the FTIR spectrometer at that university, the multipass cell assembled at The Ohio State University, and the vacuum transfer optics designed by the author. The regions in which the spectra were recorded are 5900-7150 cm^{-1} and 1850-6600 cm^{-1}. Calibration difficulties pertaining to the determination of the absolute accuracy of the data have been resolved, and molecular parameters have been extracted for the HCCH data. These calibration problems were not documented in earlier studies using high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers. For this reason, the dissertation addresses this matter in somewhat greater detail. This work contains a description of the technology used to obtain the data, and a description of the calibration of the spectra to make them suitable for future use as secondary wavenumber calibration standards. The bands detected for the first time in this study have been reported, and updated energy level diagrams for HCCH and H^{13}CCH have been included. The molecular parameters obtained from the HCCH spectra have been presented. The appendices include, among others, the basic observational data, a spectral map and associated wavenumber lists of HCCH, and a description of the weighting scheme developed by the author for Fourier Transform spectra.

  12. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  13. Water isotope ratio (δ2H and δ18O) measurements in atmospheric moisture using an optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption laser spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, Rosario Q.; Romanini, Daniele; Cattani, Olivier; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Kerstel, Erik R. Th.

    2010-05-01

    Water vapor isotopes represent an innovative and excellent tool for understanding complex mechanisms in the atmospheric water cycle over different time scales, and they can be used for a variety of applications in the fields of paleoclimatology, hydrology, oceanography, and ecology. We use an ultrasensitive near-infrared spectrometer, originally designed for use on airborne platforms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, to measure the water deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope ratios in situ, in ground-level tropospheric moisture, with a high temporal resolution (from 300 s down to less than 1 s). We present some examples of continuous monitoring of near-surface atmospheric moisture, demonstrating that our infrared laser spectrometer could be used successfully to record high-concentration atmospheric water vapor mixing ratios in continuous time series, with a data coverage of ˜90%, interrupted only for daily calibration to two isotope ratio mass spectrometry-calibrated local water standards. The atmospheric data show that the water vapor isotopic composition exhibits a high variability that can be related to weather conditions, especially to changes in relative humidity. Besides, the results suggest that observed spatial and temporal variations of the stable isotope content of atmospheric water vapor are strongly related to water vapor transport in the atmosphere.

  14. The Use of a Microprocessor-Controlled, Video Output Atomic Absorption Spectrometer as an Educational Tool in a Two-Year Technical Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerfoot, Henry B.

    Based on instructional experiences at Charles County Community College, Maryland, this report examines the pedagogical advantage of teaching atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy with an AA spectrophotometer that is equipped with a microprocessor and video output mechanism. The report first discusses the growing importance of AA spectroscopy in…

  15. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  16. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  17. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  18. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  19. A new direct absorption tunable diode laser spectrometer for high precision measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Witinski, M.; Allen, N. T.; Demusz, J. N.; Rivero, M.; Tuozzolo, C.; Anderson, J. G.

    2013-07-01

    We present a new instrument for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS), the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell. The direct absorption technique provides a direct link between the depth of the observed absorption line and the measured water vapor concentration, which is calculated based on spectroscopic parameters in the HITRAN database. While several other tunable diode laser (TDL) instruments have been used to measure water vapor in the UT/LS, HHH is set apart by its use of an optical cell an order of magnitude smaller than those of other direct absorption TDLs in operation, allowing for a more compact, lightweight instrument. HHH is also unique in its integration into a common duct with the Harvard Lyman-α hygrometer, an independent photo-fragment fluorescence instrument which has been thoroughly validated over 19 years of flight measurements. The instrument was flown for the first time in the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) on NASA's WB-57 aircraft in spring, 2011, during which it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1 s) with 1-sigma uncertainty of 5% ± 0.7 ppmv. Since the campaign, changes to the instrument have lead to improved accuracy of 5% ± 0.2 ppmv as demonstrated in the laboratory. During MACPEX, HHH successfully measured water vapor at concentrations from 3.5 to 600 ppmv in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HHH and Lyman-α, measuring independently but under the same sampling conditions, agreed on average to within 1% at water vapor mixing ratios above 20 ppmv and to within 0.3 ppmv at lower mixing ratios. HHH also agreed with a number of other in situ water vapor instruments on the WB-57 to within their stated uncertainties, and to within 0.7 ppmv at low water. This agreement constitutes a significant improvement over past in situ comparisons, in

  20. A new direct absorption tunable diode laser spectrometer for high precision measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Sargent, M R; Sayres, D S; Smith, J B; Witinski, M; Allen, N T; Demusz, J N; Rivero, M; Tuozzolo, C; Anderson, J G

    2013-07-01

    We present a new instrument for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT∕LS), the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell. The direct absorption technique provides a direct link between the depth of the observed absorption line and the measured water vapor concentration, which is calculated based on spectroscopic parameters in the HITRAN database. While several other tunable diode laser (TDL) instruments have been used to measure water vapor in the UT∕LS, HHH is set apart by its use of an optical cell an order of magnitude smaller than those of other direct absorption TDLs in operation, allowing for a more compact, lightweight instrument. HHH is also unique in its integration into a common duct with the Harvard Lyman-α hygrometer, an independent photo-fragment fluorescence instrument which has been thoroughly validated over 19 years of flight measurements. The instrument was flown for the first time in the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) on NASA's WB-57 aircraft in spring, 2011, during which it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1 s) with 1-sigma uncertainty of 5% ± 0.7 ppmv. Since the campaign, changes to the instrument have lead to improved accuracy of 5% ± 0.2 ppmv as demonstrated in the laboratory. During MACPEX, HHH successfully measured water vapor at concentrations from 3.5 to 600 ppmv in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HHH and Lyman-α, measuring independently but under the same sampling conditions, agreed on average to within 1% at water vapor mixing ratios above 20 ppmv and to within 0.3 ppmv at lower mixing ratios. HHH also agreed with a number of other in situ water vapor instruments on the WB-57 to within their stated uncertainties, and to within 0.7 ppmv at low water. This agreement constitutes a significant improvement over past in situ comparisons

  1. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  2. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  3. Lidar reflectance from snow at 2.05  μm wavelength as measured by the JPL Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gary D; Menzies, Robert T; Jacob, Joseph C

    2016-03-10

    We report airborne measurements of lidar directional reflectance (backscatter) from land surfaces at a wavelength in the 2.05 μm CO₂ absorption band, with emphasis on snow-covered surfaces in various natural environments. Lidar backscatter measurements using this instrument provide insight into the capabilities of lidar for both airborne and future global-scale CO₂ measurements from low Earth orbit pertinent to the NASA Active Sensing of CO₂ Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission. Lidar measurement capability is particularly useful when the use of solar scattering spectroscopy is not feasible for high-accuracy atmospheric CO₂ measurements. Consequently, performance in high-latitude and winter season environments is an emphasis. Snow-covered surfaces are known to be dark in the CO₂ band spectral regions. The quantitative backscatter data from these field measurements help to elucidate the range of backscatter values that can be expected in natural environments.

  4. The Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2012-03-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating ), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old technology. In this paper I would like to discuss its ancestors.

  5. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  6. Infrared absorption of methanethiol clusters (CH3SH)n, n = 2-5, recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using IR depletion and VUV ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lung; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-12-01

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and SH-stretching regions of size-selected methanethiol clusters, (CH3SH)n with n = 2-5, in a pulsed supersonic jet using infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization. VUV emission at 132.50 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters were dissociated with light from a tunable IR laser before ionization. The variations in intensity of methanethiol cluster ions (CH3SH)n+ were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2470-3100 cm-1. In the SH-stretching region, the spectrum of (CH3SH)2 shows a weak band near 2601 cm-1, red-shifted only 7 cm-1 from that of the monomer. In contrast, all spectra of (CH3SH)n, n = 3-5, show a broad band near 2567 cm-1 with much greater intensity. In the CH-stretching region, absorption bands of (CH3SH)2 are located near 2865, 2890, 2944, and 3010 cm-1, red-shifted by 3-5 cm-1 from those of CH3SH. These red shifts increase slightly for larger clusters and bands near 2856, 2884, 2938, and 3005 cm-1 were observed for (CH3SH)5. These spectral results indicate that the S-H...S hydrogen bond plays an important role in clusters with n = 3-5, but not in (CH3SH)2, in agreement with theoretical predictions. The absence of a band near 2608 cm-1 that corresponds to absorption of the non-hydrogen-bonded SH moiety and the large width of observed feature near 2567 cm-1 indicate that the dominant stable structures of (CH3SH)n, n = 3-5, have a cyclic hydrogen-bonded framework.

  7. Infrared absorption of methanethiol clusters (CH3SH)n, n = 2-5, recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using IR depletion and VUV ionization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lung; Han, Hui-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-12-21

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and SH-stretching regions of size-selected methanethiol clusters, (CH(3)SH)(n) with n = 2-5, in a pulsed supersonic jet using infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization. VUV emission at 132.50 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Clusters were dissociated with light from a tunable IR laser before ionization. The variations in intensity of methanethiol cluster ions (CH(3)SH)(n)(+) were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2470-3100 cm(-1). In the SH-stretching region, the spectrum of (CH(3)SH)(2) shows a weak band near 2601 cm(-1), red-shifted only 7 cm(-1) from that of the monomer. In contrast, all spectra of (CH(3)SH)(n), n = 3-5, show a broad band near 2567 cm(-1) with much greater intensity. In the CH-stretching region, absorption bands of (CH(3)SH)(2) are located near 2865, 2890, 2944, and 3010 cm(-1), red-shifted by 3-5 cm(-1) from those of CH(3)SH. These red shifts increase slightly for larger clusters and bands near 2856, 2884, 2938, and 3005 cm(-1) were observed for (CH(3)SH)(5). These spectral results indicate that the S-H[middle dot][middle dot][middle dot]S hydrogen bond plays an important role in clusters with n = 3-5, but not in (CH(3)SH)(2), in agreement with theoretical predictions. The absence of a band near 2608 cm(-1) that corresponds to absorption of the non-hydrogen-bonded SH moiety and the large width of observed feature near 2567 cm(-1) indicate that the dominant stable structures of (CH(3)SH)(n), n = 3-5, have a cyclic hydrogen-bonded framework.

  8. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  9. Measurements of stable isotope ratios ({sup 13}CH{sub 4}/{sup 12}CH{sub 4}; {sup 12}CH{sub 3}/{sup 12}CH{sub 3}) in landfill methane using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmaschi, P.; Harris, G.W.

    1995-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure variations in the isotopic composition of methane (CH{sub 4}) produced by a municipal solid waste landfill in Germany. A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was used to determine isotopic ratios of {sup 13}CH{sub 4}/{sup 12}CH{sub 4} and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D/{sup 12}CH{sub 4} in biogas samples taken directly from various branches of the gas collection system. The {delta}{sup 13} values for CH{sub 4} showed very small variations; however, the {delta}{sup 13} values for carbon dioxide C0{sub 2} were substantially larger. The {delta}D values of CH{sub 4} exhibited variations corresponding to samples taken from sections filled at different time periods. Oxygen consumption was correlated with the {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D of CH{sub 4} and the {delta}{sup 13}C of CO{sub 2} consistent with partial bacterial oxidation of methane. A negative correlation between {delta}D and {delta}{sup 13}C(CH{sub 4}) and between {delta}{sup 13}C(CO{sub 2}) and {delta}{sup 13}C(CH{sub 4}) in samples showing no oxidation was attributed to slightly varying contributions of CO{sub 2} reduction and acetate fermentation. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Sandel, B. R.; Hunten, D. M.; Broadfoot, A. L.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment uses data obtained by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) mounted on the pointed orbiter scan platform and from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) mounted on the spinning part of the orbiter with the field of view perpendicular to the spin axis. The UVS is a Ebert-Fastie design that covers the range 113-432 nm with a wavelength resolution of 0.7 nm below 190 and 1.3 nm at longer wavelengths. The UVS spatial resolution is 0.4 deg x 0.1 deg for illuminated disk observations and 1 deg x 0.1 deg for limb geometries. The EUVS is a Voyager design objective grating spectrometer, modified to cover the wavelength range from 54 to 128 nm with wavelength resolution 3.5 nm for extended sources and 1.5 nm for point sources and spatial resolution of 0.87 deg x 0.17 deg. The EUVS instrument will follow up on the many Voyager UVS discoveries, particularly the sulfur and oxygen ion emissions in the Io torus and molecular and atomic hydrogen auroral and airglow emissions from Jupiter. The UVS will obtain spectra of emission, absorption, and scattering features in the unexplored, by spacecraft, 170-432 nm wavelength region. The UVS and EUVS instruments will provide a powerful instrument complement to investigate volatile escape and surface composition of the Galilean satellites, the Io plasma torus, micro- and macro-properties of the Jupiter clouds, and the composition structure and evolution of the Jupiter upper atmosphere.

  11. Study of the CH2I + O2 Reaction with a Step-Scan Fourier-Transform Infrared Absorption Spectrometer: Spectra of the Criegee Intermediate CH2OO and DIOXIRANE(?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2014-06-01

    The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides that play key roles in ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds. This mechanism was first proposed by Criegee in 1949, but the first direct observation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO in the gaseous phase has been reported only recently using photoionization mass spectrometry. Our group has reported the low-resolution IR spectra of CH2OO, produced from the reaction of CH2I + O2, with a second-generation step-scan Fourier-transfom IR absorption spectrometer. The spectral assignments were based on comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and rotational contours with theoretical predictions. Here, we report the IR absorption spectra of CH2OO at a resolution of 0.32 wn, showing partially rotationally-resolved structures. The origins of the νb{3}, νb{4}, νb{6}, and νb{8} vibrational modes of CH2OO are determined to be 1434.1, 1285.7, 909.2, and 847.3 wn, respectively. With the analysis of the vibration-rotational spectra, we provide a definitive assignment of these bands to CH2OO. The observed vibrational wavenumbers indicate a zwitterionic contribution to this singlet biradical showing a strengthened C-O bond and a weakened O-O bond. This zwitterionic character results to an extremely rapid self reaction via a cyclic dimer to form 2H2CO + O2 (1Δg). Another group of weak transient IR bands centered at 1231.5, 1213.3, and 899.8 wn are also observed. These bands might be contributed from dioxirane, which was postulated to be another important intermediate that might be isomerized from the Criegee intermediate in the reaction of O3 with 1-alkenes. O. Welz, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, S. S.Vasu, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross, and C. A. Taatjes, Science 335, 204 (2012). Y.-T. Su, Y.-H. Huang, H. A.Witek, and Y.-P. Lee, Science 340, 174 (2013).

  12. Tracing of recently assimilated carbon in respiration at high temporal resolution in the field with a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer after in situ 13CO2 pulse labelling of 20-year-old beech trees.

    PubMed

    Plain, Caroline; Gerant, Dominique; Maillard, Pascale; Dannoura, Masako; Dong, Yanwen; Zeller, Bernd; Priault, Pierrick; Parent, Florian; Epron, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    The study of the fate of assimilated carbon in respiratory fluxes in the field is needed to resolve the residence and transfer times of carbon in the atmosphere-plant-soil system in forest ecosystems, but it requires high frequency measurements of the isotopic composition of evolved CO2. We developed a closed transparent chamber to label the whole crown of a tree and a labelling system capable of delivering a 3-h pulse of 99% 13CO2 in the field. The isotopic compositions of trunk and soil CO2 effluxes were recorded continuously on two labelled and one control trees by a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer during a 2-month chase period following the late summer labelling. The lag times for trunk CO2 effluxes are consistent with a phloem sap velocity of about 1 m h(-1). The isotopic composition (delta13C) of CO2 efflux from the trunk was maximal 2-3 days after labelling and declined thereafter following two exponential decays with a half-life of 2-8 days for the first and a half-life of 15-16 days for the second. The isotopic composition of the soil CO2 efflux was maximal 3-4 days after labelling and the decline was also well fitted with a sum of two exponential functions with a half-life of 3-5 days for the first exponential and a half-life of 16-18 days for the second. The amount of label recovered in CO2 efflux was around 10-15% of the assimilated 13CO2 for soil and 5-13% for trunks. As labelling occurred late in the growing season, substantial allocation to storage is expected.

  13. Bolometers as particle spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. H.; Artzner, G.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Hansen, P. G.

    1986-02-01

    A spectrometer based on low-temperature calorimetry has been under development since 1983. The present detector, capable of recording individual alpha and beta particles and X-ray photons, is based on a composite diamond-germanium bolometer. The advantage of a composite bolometer is that it separates the absorption and detection functions. Diamond, as an absorber, is of particular advantage because of its low heat capacity and high thermal diffusivity. The goal is a theoretical energy resolution of a few eV at 0.1 K. Initial experiments at 1.3 K and 0.9 K, which give resolutions in the keV range, are still noise-limited. High-resolution applications, such as in X-ray astronomy and nuclear physics (in particular, neutron mass measurements) are foreseen.

  14. Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Cable, Morgan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Haag, Justin; Lamborn, Andrew; McKinley, Ian; Rodriguez, Jose; van Gorp, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a modular visible to short wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer architecture which could be adapted to a variety of mission concepts requiring low mass and low power. Imaging spectroscopy is an established technique to address complex questions of geologic evolution by mapping diagnostic absorption features due to minerals, organics, and volatiles throughout our solar system. At the core of UCIS is an Offner imaging spectrometer using M3 heritage and a miniature pulse tube cryo-cooler developed under the NASA Maturation of Instruments for Solar System Exploration (MatISSE) program to cool the focal plane array. The TRL 6 integrated spectrometer and cryo-cooler provide a basic imaging spectrometer capability that is used with a variety of fore optics to address lunar, mars, and small body science goals. Potential configurations include: remote sensing from small orbiters and flyby spacecraft; in situ panoramic imaging spectroscopy; and in situ micro-spectroscopy. A micro-spectroscopy front end is being developed using MatISSE funding with integration and testing planned this summer.

  15. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  17. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  18. ARO Research Instrumentation Program - IR Spectrometer Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    via simultaneous electrochemical and spectroscopic studies. These studies are enabling us to understanding the microscopic (molecular and ionic...program. The instrument is being utilized to characterize ionic liquid-based (IL-based) electrolyte systems via simultaneous electrochemical and...spectrometer has been synchronized with a potentiostat to perform surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy during electrochemical

  19. Modular multichannel surface plasmon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuert, G.; Kufer, S.; Benoit, M.; Gaub, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a modular multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrometer on the basis of a commercially available hybrid sensor chip. Due to its modularity this inexpensive and easy to use setup can readily be adapted to different experimental environments. High temperature stability is achieved through efficient thermal coupling of individual SPR units. With standard systems the performance of the multichannel instrument was evaluated. The absorption kinetics of a cysteamine monolayer, as well as the concentration dependence of the specific receptor-ligand interaction between biotin and streptavidin was measured.

  20. External-cavity diode laser spectrometer for measuring the concentration ratio 13CO2/12CO2 by absorption in the range of 1.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, A. A.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Ochkin, V. N.; Tskhai, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    The method for determining the carbon isotopic ratio from CO2 absorption spectra in the optical cavity containing atmospheric air with the natural contents of carbon dioxide ~0.03% is described. The measurements are performed at atmospheric pressure in the conditions of overlapping absorption lines. The measurement accuracy is 0.3‰.

  1. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  2. External-cavity diode laser spectrometer for measuring the concentration ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} by absorption in the range of 1.6 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, A A; Nikolaev, I V; Ochkin, V N; Tskhai, S N

    2015-07-31

    The method for determining the carbon isotopic ratio from CO{sub 2} absorption spectra in the optical cavity containing atmospheric air with the natural contents of carbon dioxide ∼0.03% is described. The measurements are performed at atmospheric pressure in the conditions of overlapping absorption lines. The measurement accuracy is 0.3‰. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  4. A photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, E. M.; Bezerra, E.; Scalabrin, A.

    2005-06-01

    A high-resolution external laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been developed for trace gas detection with absorption transitions in coincidence with CO2 laser emission lines (9,2-10,9 μm: 920-1086 cm-1). The CO2 laser operates in 90 CW lines with power of up to 15 W. A PC-controlled step motor can tune the laser lines. The resonance frequency of first longitudinal mode of the photoacoustic cell is at 1600 Hz. The cell Q-factor and cell constant are measured close to 50 and 28 mVcmW-1, respectively. The spectrometer has been tested in preliminary studies to analyze the absorption transitions of ozone (O_3). The ethylene (C_2H_4) from papaya fruit is also investigated using N2 as carrier gas at a constant flow rate.

  5. The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

  6. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  7. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  8. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  9. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  10. Computer-controlled Cauchois-type x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, J. M.; Kefi, M.; Avila, A.; Couillaux, P.; Bonnelle, C.

    1987-03-01

    A laboratory x-ray spectrometer designed for routine analysis in the 15-60-keV spectral range is described. It consists of a 40-cm bent-crystal transmission spectrometer in the Cauchois geometry, controlled by a microcomputer. The choice of the crystal analyzer and of the detection system is discussed. The instrument is well suited for large spectral range x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy (XAS, XES) and x-ray source diagnostics.

  11. Spectrometer technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    A typical heterodyne remote sensing system contains three major elements: the antenna, the radiometer, and the spectrometer. The radiometer consists of the local oscillator, the mixer, and the intermediate frequency amplifiers. This subsystem performs the function of down converting the high frequency incident thermal emission signal to a lower intermediate frequency. The spectrometer measures the power spectrum of the down-converted signal simultaneously in many contiguous frequency channels. Typical spectrum analysis requirements involve measurement of signal bandwidths of 100 to 1000 MHz with a channel resolution of 0.5 to 10 MHz. Three general approaches are used for spectrometers: (1) filter banks, (2) Acousto-Optic Spectrometers (AOS's), and (3) digital autocorrelators. In contrast to the two frequency domain techniques, an autocorrelator works in the time domain. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the incoming signal is computed and averaged over the integration time. The averaged ACF is then Fourier transformed to obtain the signal power spectrum. Significant progress was made in the development of sub mm antennas and radiometers. It is now time to begin research in the development of low power spaceborne spectrometers and to reduce their size and weight. The near-term research goal will be to develop a prototype digital autocorrelation spectrometer, using VLSI gate array technology, which will have a small size, low power requirements, and can be used in spacecraft mm and sub mm radiometer systems. The long-range objective of this technology development is to make extremely low power, less than 10 mW/channel, small and stable wideband spectrometers which can be used in future mm and sub mm wavelength space missions such as the Large Deployable Reflector.

  12. Spectrometer technology recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.

    1988-08-01

    A typical heterodyne remote sensing system contains three major elements: the antenna, the radiometer, and the spectrometer. The radiometer consists of the local oscillator, the mixer, and the intermediate frequency amplifiers. This subsystem performs the function of down converting the high frequency incident thermal emission signal to a lower intermediate frequency. The spectrometer measures the power spectrum of the down-converted signal simultaneously in many contiguous frequency channels. Typical spectrum analysis requirements involve measurement of signal bandwidths of 100 to 1000 MHz with a channel resolution of 0.5 to 10 MHz. Three general approaches are used for spectrometers: (1) filter banks, (2) Acousto-Optic Spectrometers (AOS's), and (3) digital autocorrelators. In contrast to the two frequency domain techniques, an autocorrelator works in the time domain. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the incoming signal is computed and averaged over the integration time. The averaged ACF is then Fourier transformed to obtain the signal power spectrum. Significant progress was made in the development of sub mm antennas and radiometers. It is now time to begin research in the development of low power spaceborne spectrometers and to reduce their size and weight. The near-term research goal will be to develop a prototype digital autocorrelation spectrometer, using VLSI gate array technology, which will have a small size, low power requirements, and can be used in spacecraft mm and sub mm radiometer systems. The long-range objective of this technology development is to make extremely low power, less than 10 mW/channel, small and stable wideband spectrometers which can be used in future mm and sub mm wavelength space missions such as the Large Deployable Reflector.

  13. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  14. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  15. The GRIFFIN spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) is an advanced new high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer being developed for use in decay spectroscopy experiments with low-energy radioactive ion beams provided by TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC-I) radioactive ion beam facility. GRIFFIN will be comprised of sixteen large-volume clover-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray detectors coupled to custom digital signal processing electronics and used in conjunction with a suite of auxiliary detection systems. This article provides an overview of the GRIFFIN spectrometer and its expected performance characteristics.

  16. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  17. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  18. Portable reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Graham, R. A.; Ozawa, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A portable reflectance spectrometer is disclosed. The spectrometer essentially includes an optical unit and an electronic recording unit. The optical unit includes a pair of thermoelectrically-cooled detectors, for detecting total radiance and selected radiance projected through a circular variable filter wheel, and is capable of operating to provide spectral data in the range 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers without requiring coventional substitution of filter elements. The electronic recording unit includes power supplies, amplifiers, and digital recording electronics designed to permit recordation of data on tape casettes. Both the optical unit and electronic recording unit are packaged to be manually portable.

  19. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  20. Infrared absorption of methanol clusters (CH3OH)n with n = 2-6 recorded with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using infrared depletion and vacuum-ultraviolet ionization.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ling; Camacho, Cristopher; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2011-04-14

    We investigated IR spectra in the CH- and OH-stretching regions of size-selected methanol clusters, (CH(3)OH)(n) with n = 2-6, in a pulsed supersonic jet by using the IR-VUV (vacuum-ultraviolet) ionization technique. VUV emission at 118 nm served as the source of ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The tunable IR laser emission served as a source of predissociation or excitation before ionization. The variations of intensity of protonated methanol cluster ions (CH(3)OH)(n)H(+) and CH(3)OH(+) and (CH(3)OH)(2)(+) were monitored as the IR laser light was tuned across the range 2650-3750 cm(-1). Careful processing of these action spectra based on photoionization efficiencies and the production and loss of each cluster due to photodissociation yielded IR spectra of the size-selected clusters. Spectra of methanol clusters in the OH region have been extensively investigated; our results are consistent with previous reports, except that the band near 3675 cm(-1) is identified as being associated with the proton acceptor of (CH(3)OH)(2). Spectra in the CH region are new. In the region 2800-3050 cm(-1), bands near 2845, 2956, and 3007 cm(-1) for CH(3)OH split into 2823, 2849, 2934, 2955, 2984, and 3006 cm(-1) for (CH(3)OH)(2) that correspond to proton donor and proton acceptor, indicating that the methanol dimer has a preferred open-chain structure. In contrast, for (CH(3)OH)(3), the splitting diminishes and the bands near 2837, 2954, and 2987 cm(-1) become narrower, indicating a preferred cyclic structure. Anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers predicted for the methanol open-chain dimer and the cyclic trimer with the B3LYP∕VPT2∕ANO1 level of theory are consistent with experimental results. For the tetramer and pentamer, the spectral pattern similar to that of the trimer but with greater widths was observed, indicating that the most stable structures are also cyclic.

  1. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  3. Studies of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for weak absorption gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liucheng; Duo, Liping; Gong, Deyu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yuanhu; Zhou, Dongjian; Jin, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the concentrations of trace amount metastable species in chemical lasers, an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for the detection of weak absorption gases has been built with a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.6x10-8 cm-1. The absorption spectrum of trace amount gaseous ammonia and water vapor was obtained with a spectral resolution of about 78 MHz. A multiple-line absorption spectroscopic method to determine the temperature of gaseous ammonia has been developed by use of multiple lines of ammonia molecule absorption spectrum.

  4. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  5. Smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Peng; Tran, Nhung Thi; Zhang, Jinling; Chia, Wei Sheng; Boujday, Souhir; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-05-23

    We report on a smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing applications. The spectrometer relies on a sample cell with an integrated grating substrate, and the smartphone's built-in light-emitting diode flash and camera. The feasibility of the smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated for detection of glucose and human cardiac troponin I, the latter in conjunction with peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

  6. Studies of dry acid deposition in the South Coast Air Basin: tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer measurements of HNO/sub 3/, HCHO and NO/sub 2/ and luminol NO/sub 2/ measurements in Claremont, California, September 1985. Final report, August 1985-July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, G.I.; Schiff, H.I.; Mayne, L.K.; Harris, G.W.

    1986-07-01

    Two Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer (TDLAS) systems were used to measure HNO/sub 3/. One system also measured formaldehyde (HCHO) atmosphere. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) was measured by the second TDLAS and by the LUMINOX, LMA-3 which is a new, small, simple and extremely sensitive instrument for NO/sub 2/ measurements. The importance of these measurements is the role that NO/sub 2/ plays as the direct precursor to gas phase HNO/sub 3/. Agreement between the HNO/sub 3/ measurements obtained by the 2 TDLAS systems were within the combined experimental errors. The diurnal behavior of the HNO/sub 3/ concentrations were quite regular with a maximum occuring between 15:00 and 18:00 each day. Maximum concentrations of 18 ppbv were observed on September 14th. HCHO exhibited similar behavior with the largest measured values of 14 ppbv occurring at 15:00 on the 13th. NO/sub 2/ showed somewhat more variable behaviour generally with two maxima, one in the afternoon and one about midnight. The TDLAS and LUMINOX were in good agreement with a few interesting exceptions.

  7. Frequency calibration of terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Naftaly, M.; Dudley, R. A.; Bernard, F.; Thomson, C.; Tian, Z.; Fletcher, J. R.

    2009-07-15

    We present three techniques of calibrating frequency and spectral profile measurements of terahertz time-domain spectrometers. The first utilizes the etalon effect generated by multiple reflections in thin nonabsorbing samples. The second employs a CO gas cell to provide multiple narrow absorption lines at known frequencies. The third aims to use a grating monochromator to produce an independently measured comparable spectrum.

  8. Multiple-Diode-Laser Gas-Detection Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Beer, Reinhard; Sander, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    Small concentrations of selected gases measured automatically. Proposed multiple-laser-diode spectrometer part of system for measuring automatically concentrations of selected gases at part-per-billion level. Array of laser/photodetector pairs measure infrared absorption spectrum of atmosphere along probing laser beams. Adaptable to terrestrial uses as monitoring pollution or control of industrial processes.

  9. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  10. The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertel, G. M.; Capell, M.

    1998-12-01

    The ALPHA Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will be the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. It is scheduled to be installed on the future International Space Station ALPHA (ISSA) in the year 2002 to perform measurements of the charged particle composition to answer fundamental questions in particle physics and astrophysics. Before installation on ISSA, AMS will fly on the shuttle DISCOVERY for a period of 10 days starting in May 1998. This will enable AMS to perform a test of the apparatus and first measurements. The AMS detector has five major components: A permanent NdFeB magnet, six planes of Silicon double-sided microstrip detectors, a plastic scintillator time of flight hodoscope, a plastic scintillator anticoincidence counter and an Aerogel Cherenkov threshold counter. In addition, there are electronics, support infrastructure and interfaces.

  11. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  12. Demonstration AOTF Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1993-01-01

    Spectral images of high quality obtained. Acousto-optical-tunable-filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer is optical system in which AOTF serves as spectrally dispersive element causing image on final focal plane to be shifted on plane by distance depending on wavelength of light emanating from scene. Useful in several applications involving identification, via characteristic spectras, of substances in observed scenes: examples include prospecting for minerals and detecting chemical pollutants.

  13. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, M; Springston, S; Koontz, A; Aiken, A

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  14. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  15. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  16. Frequency Scale Correction of Fourier Spectrometers in the Visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyukov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that when visible molecular absorption spectra are recorded with the IFS-125M Fourier spectrometer, a shift in the frequency scale is observed which increases nonlinearly toward higher frequencies. It is proposed that the frequency scale be corrected using absorption lines of iodine vapor and water, beginning with calibration of the wavelength scale where the correction function is linear to a good approximation, followed by conversion of the calibration to a wave number scale. The error in determining the wave numbers of the absorption lines does not exceed ±0.003 cm-1.

  17. The GRANIT spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Baessler, Stefan; Beau, M; Kreuz, Michael; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Kurlov, V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K.; Vezzu, Francis; Voronin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It has been constructed in framework of an ANR grant; and will become operational in 2011.

  18. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blanc, M.; Burch, J. L.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Grande, M.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Kelha, V.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Svenes, K. R.; Szegö, K.; Tanskanen, P.; Ahola, K.; Anderson, D.; Bakshi, S.; Baragiola, R. A.; Barraclough, B. L.; Black, R. K.; Bolton, S.; Booker, T.; Bowman, R.; Casey, P.; Crary, F. J.; Delapp, D.; Dirks, G.; Eaker, N.; Funsten, H.; Furman, J. D.; Gosling, J. T.; Hannula, H.; Holmlund, C.; Huomo, H.; Illiano, J. M.; Jensen, P.; Johnson, M. A.; Linder, D. R.; Luntama, T.; Maurice, S.; McCabe, K. P.; Mursula, K.; Narheim, B. T.; Nordholt, J. E.; Preece, A.; Rudzki, J.; Ruitberg, A.; Smith, K.; Szalai, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Viherkanto, K.; Vilppola, J.; Vollmer, T.; Wahl, T. E.; Wüest, M.; Ylikorpi, T.; Zinsmeyer, C.

    2004-09-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will make comprehensive three-dimensional mass-resolved measurements of the full variety of plasma phenomena found in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Our fundamental scientific goals are to understand the nature of saturnian plasmas primarily their sources of ionization, and the means by which they are accelerated, transported, and lost. In so doing the CAPS investigation will contribute to understanding Saturn’s magnetosphere and its complex interactions with Titan, the icy satellites and rings, Saturn’s ionosphere and aurora, and the solar wind. Our design approach meets these goals by emphasizing two complementary types of measurements: high-time resolution velocity distributions of electrons and all major ion species; and lower-time resolution, high-mass resolution spectra of all ion species. The CAPS instrument is made up of three sensors: the Electron Spectrometer (ELS), the Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS), and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). The ELS measures the velocity distribution of electrons from 0.6 eV to 28,250 keV, a range that permits coverage of thermal electrons found at Titan and near the ring plane as well as more energetic trapped electrons and auroral particles. The IBS measures ion velocity distributions with very high angular and energy resolution from 1 eV to 49,800 keV. It is specially designed to measure sharply defined ion beams expected in the solar wind at 9.5 AU, highly directional rammed ion fluxes encountered in Titan’s ionosphere, and anticipated field-aligned auroral fluxes. The IMS is designed to measure the composition of hot, diffuse magnetospheric plasmas and low-concentration ion species 1 eV to 50,280 eV with an atomic resolution M/ΔM ˜70 and, for certain molecules, (such asN 2 + and CO+), effective resolution as high as ˜2500. The three sensors are mounted on a motor-driven actuator that rotates the entire instrument over approximately one-half of the sky every 3 min.

  19. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  20. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10-11 cm-1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10-23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  1. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-06-06

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm(2), which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10(-11) cm(-1) absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10(-23) cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  2. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10−11 cm−1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10−23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed. PMID:27263858

  3. Glucose determination with fiber optic spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Eva; Kemper, Ulf; Barschdorff, Dieter

    1999-05-01

    Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring is the aim of research activities concerning the detection of small glucose concentrations dissolved in water and blood plasma. One approach for these measurements is the exploitation of absorption bands in the near infrared. However, the strong absorption of water represents a major difficulty. Transmission measurements of glucose dissolved in water and in blood plasma in the spectral region around 1600 nm with one- beam spectrometers and a FT-IR spectrometer are discussed. The evaluation of the data is carried out using a two-layer Lambert-Beer model and neural networks. In order to reduce the dimensions of a potential measuring device, an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with an Erbium doped fiber amplifier as a radiation source is used. The fiber optic components are examined concerning their suitability. The smallest concentrations of glucose dissolved in water that can be separated are approximately 50 mg/dl. In the range of 50 mg/dl to 1000 mg/dl a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between real and estimated glucose concentrations is achieved using neural networks. In blood plasma so far glucose concentrations of about 100 mg/dl can be distinguished with good accuracy.

  4. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  5. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  6. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  7. IR spectrometers for Venus and Mars measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Rachel; Neefs, Eddy; Vandaele, Ann C.

    2012-07-01

    The SOIR spectrometer [1] is an infra-red spectrometer that has performed over 500 solar occultation measurements of the Venus atmosphere, profiling major and minor constituents and studying aerosol absorption, temperature and pressure effects. NOMAD is a 3-channel spectrometer for Mars occultation, limb and nadir measurements. 2 channels are infra-red, the other UV-visible. We will present the technology that enables SOIR and NOMAD to get to parts per billion mixing ratio sensitivities for trace atmospheric components and highlight the improvements made to the SOIR design to enable nadir viewing with NOMAD. Key components include the Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter with radio frequency driver that allows these spectrometers to select the wavelength domain under observation with no need for mechanical moving parts. It also allows background measurements because it is opaque when no RF is applied. The grating with 4 grooves/mm is a very hard to manufacture optical component, and suppliers were very difficult to find. The detector-cooler combination (working at 90K) is from Sofradir/Ricor and the model on board Venus Express is still working after 6 years in space (more on/off cycles that ON hour lifetime problem). The detector MCT mix is slightly altered for nadir observation, in order to reduce thermal background noise and the nadir channel spectrometer is cooled down to 173K by a large V-groove radiator. All the optical components have been enlarged to maximise signal throughput and the slit (that determines spatial and spectral resolution) has also been increased. The spacecraft attitude control system switches from yaw steering for nadir to inertial pointing for solar occultations. 1. Nevejans, D., E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.P. Dubois, and E. Villard, Compact high-resolution space-borne echelle grating spectrometer with AOTF based on

  8. Highly sensitive detection using Herriott cell for laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chongyi; Song, Guangming; Du, Yang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Wenju; Zhong, Liujun; Hu, Mai

    2016-11-01

    The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the long absorption path technique is a significant method to detect harmful gas. The long optical path could come true by Herriott cell reducing the size of the spectrometers. A 15 cm long Herriott cell with 28.8 m optical absorption path after 96 times reflection was designed that enhanced detection sensitivity of absorption spectroscopy. According to the theory data of calculation, Herriott cell is analyzed and simulated by softwares Matlab and Lighttools.

  9. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Alan; Zheng, Sheng-Hai; Brown, Stephen; Bell, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow pre-selected bands compared to traditional solutions. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500, a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer, and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the mission life. For these reasons, SHS offers considerable advantages for the core spectrometer instrument in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission.

  10. Measurements of stratospheric composition using a star pointing spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, Deb J.; Jones, Rod L.; Freshwater, Ray A.; Roscoe, Howard K.; Oldham, Derek J.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of stratospheric composition have been made with a novel star-pointing spectrometer. The instrument consists of a telescope that focuses light from stars, planets, or the moon onto a spectrometer and two dimensional CCD array detector. Atmospheric absorptions can be measured, from which atmospheric columns of several gases can be determined. The instrument was deployed in Abisko, 69 deg N, during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE). The instrument has the potential for measuring O3, OClO, NO2, and NO3. In this paper, a method for the retrieval of vertical columns is described, and some examples of ozone measurements given.

  11. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs

  12. Thermoluminescence emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J R; Fox, P J; Akber, R A; Jensen, H E

    1988-08-15

    A sensitive thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectrometer based on Fourier transform spectroscopy is described. It employs a modified scanning Twyman-Green interferometer with photomultiplier detection in a photon-counting mode. The etendue is 180pi mm(2), and it covers the 350-600-nm wavelength range. The output can be displayed either as a 3-D isometric plot of intensity vs temperature and wavelength, as a contour diagram, or as a conventional TL glow curve of intensity vs temperature. It is sufficiently sensitive to record thermoluminescence spectra of dosimeter phosphors and minerals for thermoluminescence dating at levels corresponding to those found during actual use as radiation monitors or in dating. Examples of actual spectra are given.

  13. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  14. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  15. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  16. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  17. Column atmospheric water vapor retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1989-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14- and 0.94-micron water-vapor band absorption regions with a nonlinear least-squares technique. The precision of the retrieved column water vapor is approximately 5 percent. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectance. Curve fitting of spectra near 1 micron from areas covered with vegetation indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved simultaneously. It should be possible to measure column water vapor over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high-resolution imaging spectrometer or even the moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer.

  18. Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer constraints on TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Gasnault, O. M.; Maurice, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Binder, A. B.

    2002-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements of the epithermal and thermal neutron leakage fluxes are used to provide constraints on TiO2 abundances in lunar surface materials. We use FeO abundance estimates based on both Clementine spectral reflectance techniques and preliminary Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer determinations to first establish a model thermal neutron absorption due to all major elements except titanium. Then we remove the additional absorbing effects due to the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium by using Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer thorium abundances as a rare earth element proxy. The result can be compared to the ratio of epithermal to thermal neutron fluxes, which point to the presence of the additional thermal neutron absorber, titanium. We can derive abundance estimates of TiO2 and compare to other estimates derived spectroscopically. Our results show a significantly lower abundance of TiO2 than has been derived using Clementine data.

  19. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  20. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  1. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  3. New features of an FT spectrometer using LED sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyukov, V. I.; Sinitsa, L. N.

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of LED emitters in high resolution Fourier spectroscopy with a small multipass cell has been shown. Such aspects of Fourier spectroscopy as intensity of the light sources, their stability, and spectral range were considered. Using a 2.5 W LED emitter as a light source for the spectrometer with a 60-cm multipass cell during a 24-h measurement time and by optimizing a number of passes in the cell, we have achieved a signal-to-noise ratio of 1×105 which corresponds to a minimal detectable absorption coefficient of 6×10-9 cm-1. This made it possible to determine the parameters of water vapor lines with the intensity of 2×10-28 cm/molecule. The absorption spectra of H2O and CO2 isotopologues in the range of 10,000 to 23,000 cm-1 were recorded using high sensitivity Fourier spectrometer.

  4. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2015-08-24

    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  5. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  6. Microdroplet Sample Application in Electrothermal Atomization for Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    ad ideftify by Week amber) atomic absorption spectroscopy microsampl ing graphite- furnace AAS automation C> 20. AOSTRACT (Coninuhe an reveresi de It...furnace and spectrometer system as well as for partial support of this project. REFERENCES 1. J. D. Winefordner, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , G. F

  7. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  8. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  9. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  10. Development of near infrared spectrometer for gem materials study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindata, W.; Meesiri, W.; Wongkokua, W.

    2015-07-01

    Most of gem materials can be characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Normally, mid infrared absorption technique has been applied for investigating fundamental vibrational modes. However, for some gem materials, such as tourmaline, NIR is a better choice due to differentiation. Most commercial NIR spectrometers employ complicated dispersive grating or Fourier transform techniques. In this work, we developed a filter type NIR spectrometer with the availability of high efficiency and low-cost narrow bandpass NIR interference filters to be taught in a physics laboratory. The instrument was designed for transmission-mode configuration. A 50W halogen lamp was used as NIR source. There were fourteen NIR filters mounted on a rotatory wheel for wavelength selection ranging from 1000-1650 nm with steps of 50 nm. A 1.0 mm diameter of InGaAs photodiode was used as the detector for the spectrometer. Hence, transparent gem materials can be used as samples for experiment. Student can learn vibrational absorption spectroscopy as well as Beer-Lambert law from the development of this instrument.

  11. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  12. Fast-neutron spectrometer developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

  13. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  14. PERITONEAL ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.

    1944-01-01

    The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404

  15. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  16. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  17. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous

  18. Evaluating Field Spectrometer Performance with Transmission Standards: Examples from the USGS Spectral Library and Research Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Swayze, G. A.; Livo, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Collection of spectroscopic data has expanded with the development of field-portable spectrometers. The most commonly available spectrometers span one or several wavelength ranges: the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region from approximately 400 to 1000 nm, and the shortwave infrared (SWIR) region from approximately 1000-2500 nm. Basic characteristics of spectrometer performance are the wavelength position and bandpass of each channel. Bandpass can vary across the wavelength coverage of an instrument, due to spectrometer design and detector materials. Spectrometer specifications can differ from one instrument to the next for a given model and between manufacturers. The USGS Spectroscopy Lab in Denver has developed a simple method to evaluate field spectrometer wavelength accuracy and bandpass values using transmission measurements of materials with intense, narrow absorption features, including Mylar* plastic, praseodymium-doped glass, and National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2035. The evaluation procedure has been applied in laboratory and field settings for 19 years and used to detect deviations from cited manufacturer specifications. Tracking of USGS spectrometers with transmission standards has revealed several instances of wavelength shifts due to wear in spectrometer components. Since shifts in channel wavelengths and differences in bandpass between instruments can impact the use of field spectrometer data to calibrate and analyze imaging spectrometer data, field protocols to measure wavelength standards can limit data loss due to spectrometer degradation. In this paper, the evaluation procedure will be described and examples of observed wavelength shifts during a spectrometer field season will be presented. The impact of changing wavelength and bandpass characteristics on spectral measurements will be demonstrated and implications for spectral libraries will be discussed. *Any use of trade, firm, or product names

  19. COMPAS: Compositional mineralogy with a photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. Hayden

    1992-01-01

    There is an important need for an in situ method of mineral and rock identification and quantification that provides true absorption spectra for a wide spectral range for lunar lander/rover missions. Many common minerals such as feldspars, magnetite, ilmenite, and amorphous fine solids or glasses, can exhibit flat spectral reflectances in the 400-2500 nm spectral region that render inaccurate or difficult their spectral detection and quantitative analysis. Ideal rock and mineral spectra are, of course, pure absorption spectra that are independent of the spectral effects of scattering, particle size, and distribution that can result in a suppression or distortion of their spectral features. This ideal seldom pertains to real samples. Since sample preparation is difficult and may fundamentally alter the observed diffuse spectral reflectance, an in situ spectral measurement method for rocks and minerals on the Moon, insensitive to the sample morphology, would be invaluable. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established technique appropriate for this task that has been widely applied in condensed-phase spectral studies of complex, highly light scattering, unprepared samples of everything from coal to whole blood, including rock and mineral characterization. A Compositional Mineralogy Photoacoustic Spectrometer, or COMPAS, can enable in situ spectral measurement of rocks and minerals, bypassing the major limitations of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. COMPAS spectral capabilities for rock and mineral samples will be incorporated into an instrument prototype specifically for lunar measurements, compatible with rover capabilities.

  20. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  1. On-chip random spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, B.; Liew, S. F.; Sarma, R.; Cao, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectrometers are widely used tools in chemical and biological sensing, material analysis, and light source characterization. The development of a high-resolution on-chip spectrometer could enable compact, low-cost spectroscopy for portable sensing as well as increasing lab-on-a-chip functionality. However, the spectral resolution of traditional grating-based spectrometers scales with the optical pathlength, which translates to the linear dimension or footprint of the system, which is limited on-chip. In this work, we utilize multiple scattering in a random photonic structure fabricated on a silicon chip to fold the optical path, making the effective pathlength much longer than the linear dimension of the system and enabling high spectral resolution with a small footprint. Of course, the random spectrometer also requires a different operating paradigm, since different wavelengths are not spatially separated by the random structure, as they would be by a grating. Instead, light transmitted through the random structure produces a wavelengthdependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input spectra after calibration. In practice, these wavelength-dependent speckle patterns are experimentally measured and stored in a transmission matrix, which describes the spectral-to-spatial mapping of the spectrometer. After calibrating the transmission matrix, an arbitrary input spectrum can be reconstructed from its speckle pattern. We achieved sub-nm resolution with 25 nm bandwidth at a wavelength of 1500 nm using a scattering medium with largest dimension of merely 50 μm.

  2. Airborne tunable diode laser spectrometer for trace-gas measurement in the lower stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Podolske, J; Loewenstein, M

    1993-09-20

    This paper describes the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer, a tunable diode laser instrument designed for in situ trace-gas measurement in the lower stratosphere from an ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft. Laser-wavelength modulation and second-harmonic detection are employed to achieve the required constituent detection sensitivity. The airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer was used in two polar ozone campaigns, the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, and measured nitrous oxide with a response time of Is and an accuracy ≤ 10%.

  3. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  5. Mobile spectrometer measures radar backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S.; Moore, R. K.; Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Bushnell, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a helicopter-borne spectrometer (Heloscat), which has been developed to permit high-quality scattering measurements from a mobile platform at remote sites. The term 'spectrometer' referes to a class of scatterometers. The term 'scatterometer' is employed to denote a specialized radar for measuring scattering coefficients as a function of angle. A spectrometer, on the other hand, is a scatterometer which can measure backscatter at several frequencies. The Heloscat system is discussed, taking into account two antennas, RF hardware, and an externally mounted pendulum for angle encoding. A dual-antenna configuration is used for cross-polarized measurements, while a single-antenna system is used for like-polarized measurements. Attention is also given to oscillator characteristics, efficient data handling, and aspects of calibration.

  6. The GRAVITY spectrometers: mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Wiest, Michael; Straubmeier, Christian; Yazici, Senol; Araujo-Hauck, Constanza; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Perraut, Karine; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Operating on 6 interferometric baselines, i.e. using all 4 UTs, the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. Within the international GRAVITY consortium, the Cologne institute is responsible for the development and construction of the two spectrometers: one for the science object, and one for the fringe tracking object. Optically two individual components, both spectrometers are two separate units with their own housing and interfaces inside the vacuum vessel of GRAVITY. The general design of the spectrometers, however, is similar. The optical layout is separated into beam collimator (with integrated optics and metrology laser injection) and camera system (with detector, dispersive element, & Wollaston filter wheel). Mechanically, this transfers to two regions which are separated by a solid baffle wall incorporating the blocking filter for the metrology Laser wavelength. The optical subunits are mounted in individual rigid tubes which pay respect to the individual shape, size and thermal expansion of the lenses. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the GRAVITY vacuum dewar. The integrated optics beam combiner and the metrology laser injection, which are operated at 200/240K, are mounted thermally isolated to the cold housing of the spectrometers. The optical design has shown that the alignment of the detector is crucial to the performance of the spectrometers. Therefore, in addition to four wheel mechanisms, six cryogenic positioning mechanisms are included in the mechanical design of the detector mount.

  7. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  8. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  9. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  10. A high-throughput neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampfl, Anton; Noakes, Terry; Bartsch, Friedl; Bertinshaw, Joel; Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica; Nateghi, Ebrahim; Raeside, Tyler; Yethiraj, Mohana; Danilkin, Sergey; Kearley, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    A cross-disciplinary high-throughput neutron spectrometer is currently under construction at OPAL, ANSTO's open pool light-water research reactor. The spectrometer is based on the design of a Be-filter spectrometer (FANS) that is operating at the National Institute of Standards research reactor in the USA. The ANSTO filter-spectrometer will be switched in and out with another neutron spectrometer, the triple-axis spectrometer, Taipan. Thus two distinct types of neutron spectrometers will be accessible: one specialised to perform phonon dispersion analysis and the other, the filter-spectrometer, designed specifically to measure vibrational density of states. A summary of the design will be given along with a detailed ray-tracing analysis. Some preliminary results will be presented from the spectrometer.

  11. CMOS-compatible silicon nitride spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip spectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryckeboer, Eva; Nie, Xiaomin; Subramanian, Ananth Z.; Martens, Daan; Bienstman, Peter; Clemmen, Stephane; Severi, Simone; Jansen, Roelof; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel

    2016-05-01

    We report on miniaturized optical spectrometers integrated on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform based on silicon nitride waveguides and fabricated in a CMOS-compatible approach. As compared to a silicon- on-insulator PIC-platform, the usage of silicon nitride allows for operation in the visible and near infrared. Furthermore, the moderately high refractive index contrast in silicon-nitride photonic wire waveguides provides a valuable compromise between compactness, optical loss and sensitivity to phase error. Three generic types of on-chip spectrometers are discussed: the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer, the echelle grating or planar concave grating (PCG) spectrometer and the stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) spectrometer. Both the design as well as experimental results are presented and discussed. For the FTS spectrometer a specific design is described in detail leading to an ultra-small (0.1 mm2) footprint device with a resolution of 1 nm and a spectral range of 100nm. Examples are given of the usage of these spectrometers in refractive index biosensing, absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  13. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  14. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  15. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  16. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  17. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  18. Airborne spectrometer senses several gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Dowall, J.; Moffat, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Spectrometer's variable shutter permits observation of a wide range of plume widths. Adjustable grating, counter, and access window enable operator to reset grating's position during flight by resetting the counter to a predetermined number. Quartz correlation mask and spectral-aperture instrument-function filter are mounted in a replaceable precision frame.

  19. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  20. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (∼1μm) and detector pixels (∼5μm) with high line density gratings (∼3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  1. Undersampling Correction for Array Detector-Based Satellite Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Sioris, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    Array detector-based instruments are now fundamental to measurements of ozone and other atmospheric trace gases from space in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared. The present generation of such instruments suffers, to a greater or lesser degree, from undersampling of the spectra, leading to difficulties in the analysis of atmospheric radiances. We provide extended analysis of the undersampling suffered by modem satellite spectrometers, which include Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). The analysis includes basic undersampling, the effects of binning into separate detector pixels, and the application of high-resolution Fraunhofer spectral data to correct for undersampling in many useful cases.

  2. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  3. Airborne interferometer for atmospheric emission and solar absorption.

    PubMed

    Keith, D W; Dykema, J A; Hu, H; Lapson, L; Anderson, J G

    2001-10-20

    The interferometer for emission and solar absorption (INTESA) is an infrared spectrometer designed to study radiative transfer in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) operates from 0.7 to 50 mum with a resolution of 0.7 cm(-1). The FTS observes atmospheric thermal emission from multiple angles above and below the aircraft. A heliostat permits measurement of solar absorption spectra. INTESA's calibration system includes three blackbodies to permit in-flight assessment of radiometric error. Results suggest that the in-flight radiometric accuracy is ~0.5 K in the mid-infrared.

  4. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  5. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  6. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  7. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  8. Spectral Calibration Requirement for Earth-Looking Imaging Spectrometers in the Solar Reflected Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.

    1996-01-01

    Earth-looking imaging spectrometers operating in the solar reflected spectrum, measure spectra of the total upwelling radiance for each spatial element in an image. These measurements are used to derive physical parameters of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on the energy, molecular absorption, and constituent scattering characteristics expressed in the spectra over the region of the image.

  9. Terahertz spectroscopy with a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer plus array detector using coherent synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolay I. Agladz, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Albert J. Sievers

    2010-06-01

    By use of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation, we experimentally tested a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to an array detector to determine its viability as a spectral device. Somewhat surprisingly, the overall performance strongly depends on the absorptivity of the birefringent lithium tantalate pixels in the array detector.

  10. A star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer for remote-sensing of the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Freshwater, Ray A.; Jones, Rod L.; Fish, Debbie J.; Harries, John E.; Wolfenden, Roger; Stone, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a novel instrument for ground-based remote sensing, by mounting a UV-visible spectrometer on a telescope and observing the absorption by atmospheric constituents of light from stars. Potentially, the instrument can observe stratospheric O3, NO3, NO2, and OClO.

  11. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  12. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOEpatents

    Friedrich, Stephan; , Niedermayr, Thomas R.; Labov, Simon E.

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  13. A simple scanning spectrometer based on a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating

    SciTech Connect

    Ghisleri, C.; Milani, P.; Potenza, M. A. C.; Bellacicca, A.; Ravagnan, L.

    2014-02-10

    We report a scanning optical spectrometer based on the use of a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating. The grating is obtained by supersonic cluster beam implantation of silver nanoparticles on polydimethylsiloxane previously grooved by molding to create a replica of a commercial digital versatile disk grating. The use of a stretchable grating allows the spectrometer spanning the whole optical wavelength range by solely extending the diffraction element by more than 100% of its original dimensions. The stretchable reflective optical grating shows excellent performances and stability upon thousands of stretching cycles. The use of this elastomeric element makes the optical layout and the mechanics of the spectrometer extremely simple and advantageous for those applications where spectral resolution is not a major requirement. As a proof of principle, we present the absorption spectrum of Rhodamine B in solution obtained by our spectrometer and compared to commercial instruments.

  14. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  15. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  16. Real Time Diagnostics of Jet Engine Exhaust Plumes Using a Chirped QC Laser Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, K. G.; Duxbury, G.; Langford, N.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative measurements of real-time variations of the chemical composition of a jet engine exhaust plume is demonstrated using a 4.86 μmn intra-pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometer. The measurements of the gas turbine exhaust were carried out in collaboration with John Black and Mark Johnson at Rolls Royce. The recording of five sets of averaged spectra a second has allowed us to follow the build up of the combustion products within the exhaust, and to demonstrate the large variation of the integrated absorption of these absorption lines with temperature. The absorption cross sections of the lines of both carbon monoxide and water increase with temperature, whereas those of the three main absorption lines of carbon dioxide decrease. At the steady state limit the absorption lines of carbon dioxide are barely visible, and the spectrum is dominated by absorption lines of carbon monoxide and water.

  17. [Anomalous absorption and a qualified far infrared spectrum].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-qin; Chen, Yu-jing; Li, Hui-hua; Wang, Hai-shui

    2012-02-01

    The ideal 100% line could not be obtained when the content of water vapor in the spectrometer is constant but high during the whole procedure of a far-infrared spectrum collection. This result indicates that anomalous absorption phenomenon takes place in high relative humidity atmosphere. In the present paper, the influences of the relative humidity of ambient air and spectral resolution on anomalous absorption were studied. It was found that both decreasing the water vapor content in the spectrometer and adopting low spectral resolution are effective methods to avoid anomalous absorption. Furthermore, the water vapor bands can be eliminated by "dry air and wet air titration" in the fluctuant humidity. This provides us a quick and economic method to obtain a qualified far infrared spectrum conveniently. It should be noticed that the working condition for "dry air and wet air titration" is low relative humidity to prevent water vapor abnormal absorption.

  18. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  19. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  20. Identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages using airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, field and laboratory spectra and samples for X-ray diffraction analysis were collected in argillically altered Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada. From laboratory and field spectral measurements in the 2.0 to 2.4 micron range and using a spectroradiometer with a 4 nm sampling interval, the absorption band centers for kaolinite were loacted at 2.172 and 2.215 microns, for montmorillonite at 2.214 micron and for illite at 2.205. Based on these values and the criteria for resolution and separtion of spectral features, a spectral sampling interval of less than 4 nm is necessary to separate the clays. With an AIS spectral sampling interval of 9.3 nm, a spectral matching algorithm is more effective for separating kaolinite, montmorillonite, ad illite in Hot Creek Range than using the location of absorption minima alone.

  1. Constraints on Mercury's surface composition from MESSENGER neutron spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riner, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Taylor, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    The composition of Mercury's surface is poorly known, but the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) mission has provided a wealth of new data from three flybys. In particular, MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) observations reveal a surface enriched in neutron absorbing elements, consistent with interpretations of color and albedo observations suggesting a surface composition enriched in Fe-Mg-Ti oxides. In this study, we have computed the neutron absorption cross sections for all of the available proposed surface compositions of Mercury and evaluated the plausibility of each surface composition based on the neutron absorption cross section observed by MESSENGER. For identified plausible compositions, the implications for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury are discussed. The measured macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of Mercury is inconsistent with a crust formed from partial melting of plausible bulk mantle compositions, flotation in a magma ocean or adiabatic melting of upwelling cumulates during magma ocean overturn. However, the observed neutron absorption is consistent with model compositions of late-stage magma-ocean cumulates and some proposed compositions from spectral modeling and equilibrium modeling. This suggests that the enrichment of neutron absorbing elements may be indicative of the processes that acted to form Mercury's crust. The enrichment in neutron absorbing elements, in combination with spectral observations that constrain FeO in silicates (< 2 wt.%), offers strong evidence of a magma ocean on Mercury since global scale melting appears to be required to concentrate the major neutron absorbing elements while minimizing Fe in silicate minerals. We also find that iron plays a secondary role in the neutron absorption of plausible surface compositions and its variations within different Fe-Mg-Ti oxide solid solution series does not cause any overlap among the various oxide series in neutron

  2. A quantitative mode-resolved frequency comb spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Scholten, Sarah K; White, Richard T; Genest, Jérôme; Luiten, Andre N; Anstie, James D

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a frequency-comb spectrometer that records 35-nm (4 THz) spectra with 2-pm (250 MHz) spectral sampling and an absolute frequency accuracy of 2 kHz. We achieve a signal-to-noise ratio of ~400 in a measurement time of 8.2 s. The spectrometer is based on a commercial frequency comb decimated by a variable-length, low-finesse Fabry Pérot filter cavity to fully resolve the comb modes as imaged by a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA), diffraction grating and near-IR camera. By tuning the cavity length, spectra derived from all unique decimated combs are acquired and then interleaved to achieve frequency sampling at the comb repetition rate of 250 MHz. We have validated the performance of the spectrometer by comparison with a previous high-precision absorption measurement of H13C14N near 1543 nm. We find excellent agreement, with deviations from the expected line centers and widths of, at most, 1 pm (125 MHz) and 3 pm (360 MHz), respectively.

  3. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G.T.; Webb, Z.W.; Bradley, J.A.; Nagle, K.P.; Heald, S.M.; Gordon, R.A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2008-01-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed ???1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K?? x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L??2 partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary. ?? 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  4. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G. T.; Webb, Z. W.; Bradley, J. A.; Nagle, K. P.; Heald, S. M.; Gordon, R. A.; Chou, I. M.; Univ. of Washington; Simon Fraser Univ.; U. S. Geological Survey

    2008-12-01

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed {approx}1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K{beta} x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L{sub {alpha}{sub 2}} partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary.

  5. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  6. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  7. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  8. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Erkkila, B.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  9. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Erkkila, Bruce H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  10. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  11. Triple axis and spins spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, the work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  12. Redshifted 21cm Line Absorption by Intervening Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, F. H.

    The present generation of radio telescopes, combined with powerful new spectrometers, is opening a new age of redshifted radio absorption-line studies. Out-fitting of arrays of antennas, such as the European VLBI Network and the upgraded VLA, with flexibly tuned receivers, will measure sizes and kinematics of intervening galaxies as a function of cosmic time.

  13. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  14. Hydrazine Detection with a Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Anderson, M. S.; Margolis, J. S.; Jackson, Julie R.; Brown, Pamela R.

    1999-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed to measure low concentrations of hydrazine but none completely meet the sensitivity requirements while satisfying additional criteria such as quick response, stable calibration, interference free operation, online operation, reasonable cost, etc. A brief review is presented of the current technology including the electrochemical cell, the ion mobility spectrometer, the mass spectrometer, and the gas chromatograph. A review of the advantages and disadvantages of these instruments are presented here. The review also includes commercially unavailable technology such as the electronic nose and the Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) IR Spectrometer. It was found that the TDL could meet the majority of these criteria including fast response, minimum maintenance, portability, and reasonable cost. An experiment was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of such a system using an existing (non-portable) instrument. A lead-salt tunable diode laser, cooled to 85 degrees Kelvin was used to record direct absorption and second-derivative spectra of Hydrazine at several pressures to study the sensitivity to low levels of Hydrazine. Spectra of NH3 and CO2 were used for wavelength identification of the scanned region. With a pathlength of 80 m, detection sensitivities of about 1 ppb were achieved for hydrazine in dry nitrogen at a cell pressure of 100 mbar. For spectroscopic detection of Hydrazine, spectral regions including strong Ammonia or Carbon Dioxide lines must be avoided. Strong Hydrazine absorption features were identified at 940/cm showing minimal contribution from Ammonia interferences as suitable candidates for Hydrazine gas detection. For the studies reported here, the particular laser diode could only cover the narrow regions near 962/cm and 965/cm where strong Ammonia interferences were expected. However, the high resolution (0.001/cm) of the TDL spectrometer allowed individual lines of Hydrazine to be identified away from

  15. Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Kunde, V. G.; Brown, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of a stratospheric ozone concentration profile are made by detecting infrared absorption lines with a heterodyne spectrometer. The infrared spectrometer is based on a line-by-line tunable CO2 lasers, a liquid-nitrogen cooled HgCdTe photomixer, and a 64-channel spectral line receiver. The infrared radiation from the source is mixed with local-oscillator radiation. The difference frequency signal in a bandwidth above and below the local-oscillator frequency is detected. The intensity in each sideband is found by subtracting sideband contributions. It is found that absolute total column density is 0.32 plus or minus 0.02 cm-atm with a peak mixing ratio at about 24 km. The (7,1,6)-(7,1,7) O3 line center frequency is identified as 1043.1772/cm. Future work will involve a number of ozone absorption lines and measurements of diurnal variation. Completely resolved stratospheric lines may be inverted to yield concentration profiles of trace constituents and stratospheric gases.

  16. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

  17. New results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Webb, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Over the past three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of intense radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the less than 1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In addition, a new spectrometer has been constructed that is a samarium-cobalt magnet with a calculated energy range of 50 keV to 4 MeV. The spectrometers have been fielded at both continuous and pulsed power facilities. Recent experimental results will be presented.

  18. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  19. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  20. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  1. A new on-axis multimode spectrometer for the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Meents, Alke; Boehler, Pirmin; Thominet, Vincent; Schulze-Briese, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    X-ray crystallography at third-generation synchrotron sources permits tremendous insight into the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules. Additional information is, however, often required to aid the transition from structure to function. In situ spectroscopic methods such as UV–Vis absorption and (resonance) Raman can provide this, and can also provide a means of detecting X-ray-induced changes. Here, preliminary results are introduced from an on-axis UV–Vis absorption and Raman multimode spectrometer currently being integrated into the beamline environment at X10SA of the Swiss Light Source. The continuing development of the spectrometer is also outlined. PMID:19240329

  2. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Taín, J.L.; Jordan, M.D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Bui, V.M.; and others

    2014-06-15

    An overview is given of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of {sup 87,88}Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. The measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Total Absorption Study of Beta Decays Relevant for Nuclear Applications and Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, A.; Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Jordan, M. D.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Estevez, E.; Molina, F.; Montaner, A.; Guadilla, V.; Fallot, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Gelletly, W.; Bowry, M.; Mason, P.; Farrelly, G. F.; Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Moore, I.; Penttila, H.; Aysto, J.; Eloma, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kolkinen, V.; Reponen, M.; Sonnenschein, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Garcia, A. R.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Kondev, F. G.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present an overview of our activities related to the study of the beta decay of neutron rich nuclei relevant for nuclear applications. Recent results of the study of the beta decay of Br using a new segmented total absorption spectrometer are presented. Our measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility using trap-assisted total absorption spectroscopy.

  4. The portable atmospheric research interferometric spectrometer for the infrared, PARIS-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dejian; Walker, Kaley A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Boone, Chris D.; Soucy, Marc-Andre; Bernath, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    A new compact, portable Fourier transform spectrometer, called the Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared (PARIS-IR), has been built for atmospheric remote sensing. The first comprehensive description of the configuration and performance of this instrument for ground-based and balloon-borne operation is provided. Sample atmospheric absorption spectra and representative results observed at the Waterloo Atmospheric Observatory (WAO) are given. The good agreement between PARIS IR, Brewer spectrophotometer, and ozonesonde measurements of the column density of ozone at mid-latitudes demonstrate the performance and the reliability of the instrument.

  5. Four-laser airborne infrared spectrometer for atmospheric trace gas measurements.

    PubMed

    Roths, J; Zenker, T; Parchatka, U; Wienhold, F G; Harris, G W

    1996-12-20

    We describe the four-laser airborne infrared (FLAIR) instrument, a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer designed for simultaneous high-sensitivity in situ measurements of four atmospheric trace gases in the troposphere. The FLAIR spectrometer was employed during the large-scale airborne research campaign on tropospheric ozone (TROPOZ II) in 1991 and was used to measure CO, H(2) O(2), HCHO, and NO(2) in the free troposphere where detection limits below 100 parts in 10(12) by volume were achieved.

  6. A High Precision Scanning Control System For A VUV Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.; Polack, F.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Rodier, J. C.; Vervloeet, M.

    2007-01-19

    A VUV Fourier transform spectrometer based on a wavefront division interferometer has been built. Our ultimate goal is to provide a high resolution absorption spectrometer in the 140 - 40 nm range using the new third generation French synchrotron source Soleil as the background continuum. Here, we present the design and latest performance of the instrument scanning control system. It is based on multiple reflections of a monomode, frequency-stabilized HeNe laser between two plane mirrors allowing the required sensitivity on the displacement of the interferometer mobile arm. The experimental results on the sampling precision show an rms error below 5 nm for a travel length of 7.5 mm.

  7. METHIS Mercury THermal and Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, A.; de Sanctis, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Suetta, E.; Giunti, C.; Romoli, A.; Barilli, M.

    The BepiColombo mission to Mercury is devoted to the thorough exploration of Mercury and its environment, with the aim to understand the processes of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the protoplanetary nebula. Our group has been involved in several ways in the study of the evolution of the protoplanetary Nebula and has already actively contributed to the Solar System explorations by means of innovative experiments. Particularly relevant will be the mineralogical analysis of Mercury surface that can be obtained through imaging spectroscopy. As stated in the ESA-Sci (2000),1 "the near and thermal infrared range (0.8 to 15 μm) contains the absorption bands of most major rock forming minerals". The instrument that we will describe, named METHIS is an imaging spectrometer that combines two data channels in one instrument. One data channel is committed to thermal spectral mapping: METHIS-TE. The second channel is devoted to spectroscopy i the NIR (0.4-2.4): METHIS-NIR. A common Main Electronics isn foreseen for the whole instrument, which manages the operation of the 2 channels, gathers data and housekeeping information from them, performs data compression and interfaces the instrument with the S/C. The reason to select these spectral ranges is related to new ground based measurements that seem to indicate that the average Spectrum of Mercury, at different longitudes, shows compositional differences among different locations; the emission peak near 8 μ indicate the presence of rocks of intermediate or mafic composition.; Puzzling feature at 12-13 μ were identified. NIR spectral range observations at high spectral resolution can be extremely useful confirm mineralogical identification of different species .made in the TIR spectral range

  8. The Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Meier, A.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer and the other for the inner coma, with each obtaining complementary information in the region for which it is not optimized. The outer coma is characterized by the interaction between solar wind and comentary plasmas, the inner coma by the outflow of cometary neutrals and their ionization products. Both sensors feature mass imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by multidetector arrays. Resultant mass-per-charge resolution is greater than or = 20. Energy per charge, and the elevation and aximuth of incident ions are measured. Calibration and in-flight solar-wind data show that the IMS will meet its scientific goals for the Halley encounter.

  9. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Kenneth; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung (James)

    2012-09-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (~2.7km×2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  10. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  11. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  12. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  13. Asteroid 951 Gaspra Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer Radiance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Five radiance spectra of asteroid 951 Gaspra have been archived in the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System [Granahan, 2014]. The radiance spectra were created from uncalibrated Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer files archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System. The NASA Galileo spacecraft observed asteroid 951 Gaspra on October 29, 1991 with the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) at wavelengths ranging from 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers [Carlson et al., 1992]. The five radiance spectra consist of two 17, two 100, and one 329 spectral channel data sets. They record data that was acquired by NIMS at ranges between 27232.6 to 14723.8 kilometers from asteroid 951 Gaspra. The uncalibrated NIMS data were converted into radiance spectra using calibration coefficients obtained during the Galileo mission's first Earth encounter on December 8, 1990. The archived radiance spectral data is located at the URL (Universal Record Locator): http://sbn.psi.edu/pds/resource/gaspraspec.html and contains radiance, solar, incidence over flux, and data documentation. This archived data set contains a variety of spectral signatures. These signatures include absorptions near 1.0, 2.0, 2.8, 3.4, and 4.5 micrometers. The 1.0 and 2.0 micrometer features are indicators of olivine and pyroxene on the asteroid surface. The 2.8 micrometer feature has a shape similar to the combined spectra of multiple iron bearing phyllosilicates. The 3.4 micrometer feature is in the same location as absorptions created by a carbon-hydrogen bond. The 4.5 micrometer feature, present only in the 329 channel data set, corresponds in position to absorptions detected in sulfate minerals. Carlson, R. W., et al. (1992) Bull. of the A.A.S., 24, 932. Granahan, J. C. (2014), GO-A-NIMS-3-GASPRASPEC-V1.0, NASA Planetary Data System.

  14. Mid-infrared FEL absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, John A.; Feng, Bibo; Gabella, William E.

    2002-04-01

    The Vanderbilt Mark III FEL is a tunable source of high- intensity coherent mid-infrared radiation occurring as a train of picosecond pulses spaced 350ps apart. The laser beam is transported to each laboratory under vacuum, but is typically transmitted through some distance of atmosphere before reaching the target. Losses due to absorption by water vapor and CO2 can be large, and since the bandwidth of the FEL is several percent of the wavelength, the spectrum can be altered by atmospheric absorptions. In order to provide an accurate representation of the laser spectrum delivered to the target, and to investigate any non-linear effects associated with transport of the FEL beam, we have recorded the spectrum of the FEL output using a vacuum spectrometer positioned after measured lengths of atmosphere. The spectrometer is equipped with a linear pyroelectric array which provides the laser spectrum for each pulse. Absorption coefficients are being measured for laboratory air, averaged over the bandwidth of the FEL. The high peak powers of this Fel have induced damage in common infrared-transparent materials; we are also measuring damage thresholds for several materials at various wavelengths.

  15. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  16. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  17. The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.

    1992-12-01

    The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.

  18. Spin Spectrometer at the ALS and APS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; University of Missouri-Rolla; Boyd Technologies; Morton, Simon A; Morton, Simon A; Tobin, James G; Yu, Sung Woo; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George D; Boyd, Peter

    2007-04-20

    A spin-resolving photoelectron spectrometer, the"Spin Spectrometer," has been designed and built. It has been utilized at both the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, and the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne, IL. Technical details and an example of experimental results are presented here.

  19. Detection of fatty product falsifications using a portable near infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    Spreading sales of counterfeited fatty-oil foods leads to a development of portable and operational analyzer of typical fatty acids (FA) which may be a near infrared (NIR) spectrometer. In this work the calibration models for prediction of named FA were built with the spectra of FT-NIR spectrometer for different absorption bands of the FA. The best parameters were obtained for the wavelength sub-band 1.0-1.8 μ, which includes the 2nd and 3rd overtones of C-H stretching vibrations (near 1.7 and 1.2 μ) and the combination band (1.42 μ). Applicability of the portable spectrometer based on linear NIR array photosensor for the quality analysis of spread, butter and fish oil by the typical FA has been tested.

  20. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  1. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter

  2. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  3. 60 Kelvin Absorption Cell for Planetary Spectroscopic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; McGee, James; Gore, Warren I. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We will describe a 30 cm long absorption cell which has been in operation for about two years. The cell is designed for use with sensitive-wide-spectral-coverage Fourier transform spectrometers. A helium compressor refrigerator allows temperatures to be achieved down to about 57 K. Heaters allow above-ambient temperatures as well. A unique vibration isolation system effectively quenches the transfer of vibration of the compressor unit to the spectrometer. An acid-resistant stainless steel liner in the copper body of the call permits the use of corrosive gases.

  4. Advances in OLED/OPD-based spectrometer on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving an integrated all-organic spectrometer on a chip. To this end, 2-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity (μc) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths were fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between the two metal electrodes. The latter, one of which is semitransparent, form the cavity. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources of varying wavelength for monitoring light absorption or emission. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by the sample under study and the transmitted light (or the light emitted by an electronically excited sample) is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) is fabricated and integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using μcOLEDs based on different emitting layers. The OPD used to realize the first all-organic integrated spectrometer described here is based on P3HT:PCBM, though more sensitive OPDs we utilized in sensing applications are expected to improve the spectrometers' performance. The utility of this all-organic μcOLED/OPD spectrometer is shown for monitoring the absorption spectra of P3HT and Alexa Fluor 405 films. The results show excellent agreement with the absorption spectra obtained with a commercial Ocean Optics spectrometer.

  5. Low temperature y-ray spectrometers based on bulk superconducting and dielectric absorber crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Netel, Harrie

    1999-11-19

    Many areas of research rely on the detection of radiation, in the form of single photons or particles. By measuring the photons or particles coming from an object a lot can be learned about the object under study. In some cases there is a simple need to know the number of photons coming from the source. In cases like this a simple counter, like a Geiger-Mueller survey meter, will suffice. In other cases one want to know the spectral distribution of the photons coming from the source. In cases like that a spectrometer is needed that can distinguish between photons with different energies, like a diffraction or transmission grating. The work presented in this thesis focused on the development of a new generation broad band spectrometer that has a high energy resolving power, combined with a high absorption efficiency for photon energies above 10 keV and up to 500 keV. The spectrometers we are developing are based on low-temperature sensors, like superconducting tunnel junctions or transition edge sensors, that are coupled to bulk absorber crystals. We use the low-temperature sensors because they can offer a significant improvement in energy resolving power, compared to conventional spectrometers. We couple the low-temperature sensors to bulk absorber crystals to increase the absorption efficiency. In this chapter I introduce different types of radiation detectors and spectrometers and areas where they are being used. I also discuss the history and motivation of low-temperature spectrometers and show some of the impressive results that have been achieved in this field over the last few years. Finally I discuss the outline of this thesis.

  6. The hot plasma spectrometers on Freja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Eliasson, L.

    1991-11-01

    The hot plasma instrumentation F3H on the Swedish-German Freja satellite due for launch in 1992 will consist of electron and ion spectrometers. The spectrometer Magnetic imaging Two dimensional Electron (MATE) will measure the two dimensional electron distribution in the spin plane in the energy range 0.1 to 120 keV. The ion mass spectrometer Three dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer (TICS) measures a full three dimensional distribution in the energy range 0.5 to 15000 eV/q with high mass resolution. The instruments use a particle 'imaging' detector technique based on a large diameter microchannel plate with position sensitive anode. The topics to be studied with the Freja hot plasma spectrometers include auroral particle acceleration, heating and acceleration of ionospheric ions, and the dynamics of auroral arc systems. Of special importance to the scientific objectives is the high data rate from the Freja instrumentation, the MATE and TICS spectrometers will be sampled every 10 ms, corresponding to a spatial resolution better than 70 m at ionospheric heights. The design, simulation, and calibration of the spectrometers are discussed.

  7. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  8. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  9. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  10. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  11. Sighting of el chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Krueger, A J

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichón volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3 x 10(6) tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  12. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on March 28 and April 3 and 4, 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nm). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 m/sec. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on April 3 and 4 is 3.3 million tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  13. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.J.

    1983-06-24

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on 28 March and 3 and 4 April 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nanometers). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 meters per second. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on 3 and 4 April is 3.3x10/sup 6/ tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  14. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, B.J.

    1997-06-03

    A novel system and method is developed for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. 1 fig.

  15. Sonic spectrometer and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Slomka, Bogdan J.

    1997-06-03

    A novel system and method for treating an object with sonic waveforms. A traveling broad-band sonic waveform containing a broad-band of sonic frequencies is radiated at the object. A traveling reflected sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies reflected by the object is received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. A traveling transmitted sonic waveform containing sonic frequencies transmitted through the object is also received in response to the traveling broad-band sonic waveform. In a resonance mode, the frequency spectra of the broad-band and reflected sonic waveforms is analyzed so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate. An electrical resonance treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that cause the object to resonate is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object. In an absorption mode, the frequency spectra of the electrical broad-band, reflected, and transmitted sonic waveforms is compared so as to select one or more sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object. An electrical absorption treatment sonic waveform containing the sonic frequencies that are absorbed by the object is then radiated at the object so as to treat the object.

  16. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  17. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  18. Acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Reyes, George; Rider, David; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A remote sensing multispectral imaging instrument is being developed that uses a high resolution, fast programmable acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) as the spectral bandpass filter. A compact and fully computer controllable AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that operates in the visible wavelength range (0.5-0.8 microns) has been built and tested with success. A second imaging spectrometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.2-2.4 microns) is also under experimental investigation. The design criteria meeting various system issues, such as imaging quality, spectral response, and field of view (FOV), are discussed. An experiment using this AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard is described.

  19. A survey of ultraviolet interstellar absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Spitzer, L., Jr.; York, D. G.; Hill, J. K.; Savage, B. D.; Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A telescope-spectrometer on the Copernicus spacecraft made possible the measurement of many ultraviolet absorption lines produced by the interstellar gas. The present survey provides data on ultraviolet absorption lines in the spectra of 88 early-type stars. The stars observed are divided into four classes, including reddened stars, unreddened bright stars, moderately reddened bright stars, and unreddened and moderately reddened faint stars. Data are presented for equivalent width, W, radial velocity V, and rms line width, D, taking into account some 10 to 20 lines of N I, O I, Si II, P II, S II, Cl I, Cl II, Mn II, Fe II, Ni II, Cu II, and H2. The data are based on multiple scans for each line. Attention is given to details of observations, the data reduction procedure, and the computation of equivalent width, mean velocity, and velocity dispersion.

  20. Superconducting High Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D T

    2002-02-22

    We have demonstrated that a bulk absorber coupled to a TES can serve as a good gamma-ray spectrometer. Our measured energy resolution of 70 eV at 60 keV is among the best measurements in this field. We have also shown excellent agreement between the noise predictions and measured noise. Despite this good result, we noted that our detector design has shortcomings with a low count rate and vulnerabilities with the linearity of energy response. We addressed these issues by implementation of an active negative feedback bias. We demonstrated the effects of active bias such as additional pulse shortening, reduction of TES change in temperature during a pulse, and linearization of energy response at low energy. Linearization at higher energy is possible with optimized heat capacities and thermal conductivities of the microcalorimeter. However, the current fabrication process has low control and repeatability over the thermal properties. Thus, optimization of the detector performance is difficult until the fabrication process is improved. Currently, several efforts are underway to better control the fabrication of our gamma-ray spectrometers. We are developing a full-wafer process to produce TES films. We are investigating the thermal conductivity and surface roughness of thicker SiN membranes. We are exploring alternative methods to couple the absorber to the TES film for reproducibility. We are also optimizing the thermal conductivities within the detector to minimize two-element phonon noise. We are experimenting with different absorber materials to optimize absorption efficiency and heat capacity. We are also working on minimizing Johnson noise from the E S shunt and SQUID amplifier noise. We have shown that our performance, noise, and active bias models agree very well with measured data from several microcalorimeters. Once the fabrication improvements have been implemented, we have no doubt that our gamma-ray spectrometer will achieve even more spectacular results.

  1. Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Kunde, V. G.; Brown, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    A stratospheric ozone absorption line in the 10 microns band was measured and resolved completely, using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer with spectral resolution of 5 MHz (0.000167 cm to -1 power). The vertical concentration profile of stratospheric ozone was obtained through an analytical inversion of the measured spectral line profile. The absolute total column density was 0.34 cm atm with a peak mixing ratio occurring at approximately 24 km. The (7,1,6) to (7,1,7) O3 line center frequency was found to be 1043.1775 + or - 0.00033 cm to toe -1 power, or 430 + or - 10 MHz higher than the P(24) CO2 laser line frequency.

  2. Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Kunde, V. G.; Brown, L. W.; Spears, D.

    1978-01-01

    A stratospheric ozone absorption line in the 10 micron band was measured and resolved completely, using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 5 MHz. The vertical concentration profile of stratospheric ozone was obtained through an analytical inversion of the measured spectra line profile. The absolute total column density was 0.32 plus or minus 0.02 cm-atm with a peak mixing ratio occurring at approximately 24 km. The (7,1,6) - (7,1,7) O3 line center frequency was found to be 1043.1772 plus or minus 0.00033 cm/1 or 420 plus or minus 10 MHz higher than the P(24) CO2 laser line frequency.

  3. Difference frequency generation spectrometer for simultaneous multispecies detection.

    PubMed

    Weibring, Petter; Richter, Dirk; Walega, J G; Rippe, Lars; Fried, Alan

    2010-12-20

    A difference-frequency generation based spectrometer system for simultaneous ultra-sensitive measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O) and Methane (CH4) is presented. A new multiplexing approach using collinear quasi-phase-matching in a single grating period of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is discussed and demonstrated for two pairs of pump and signal lasers to generate mid-infrared frequencies at 2831.64 cm(-1) and 2916.32 cm(-1), respectively. The corresponding absorption signals are discriminated by modulating the DFB diode lasers at modulation frequencies of 40 kHz and 50 kHz, respectively, and using a computer based modulation and de-modulation scheme. In addition, simultaneous measurements of CH2O, CH4 and H2O are demonstrated utilizing both collinear and non-collinear quasi-phase-matching.

  4. Progress report of a static Fourier transform spectrometer breadboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosak, A.; Tintó, F.

    2004-06-01

    MOLI instrument - for MOtionLess Interferometer - takes advantage of the new concept of static Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a high-resolution spectrometer working over a narrow bandwidth, which is adapted to a wide range of atmospheric sounding missions and compatible with micro-satellite platform. The core of this instrument is an echelette cube. Mirrors on the classical design are replaced by stepped mirrors - integrated into that interference cube - thus suppressing any moving part. The steps' directions being set over a perpendicular axis, the overlap of both stepped mirrors creates a cluster of so-called "echelettes", each one corresponding to a different optical path difference (OPD). Hence the Fourier transform of the incoming radiance is directly imaged on a CCD array in a single acquisition. The frequency domain of the measurements is selected by an interferential filter disposed on the incoming optical path. A rotating wheel equipped with several filters allows the successive measurement of spectra around some bands of interest, i.e. O2, CO2 and CO absorption bands.

  5. ASCA solid state imaging spectrometer observations of O stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Waldron, W. L.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Chen, W.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Torrii, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Muira, N.; Egoshi, M.; Ohno, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We report ASCA Solid State Imaging Spectrometer (SIS) x-ray observations of the O stars delta Ori and lambda Ori. The energy resolution of the SIS allows us to resolve features in the O star x-ray spectra which are not apparent in spectra obtained by x-ray spectrometers with lower energy resolution. SIS spectra from both stars show evidence of line emission, suggesting the thermal nature of the x-ray source. However, the observed line strengths are different for the two stars. The observed stellar x-ray spectra are not well described by isothermal models although absorbed thermal emission models with two or more temperatures can provide an adequate fit to the data. For both stars we present evidence of absorbing columns significantly larger than the known ISM columns, indicative of absorption by a circumstellar medium, presumably the stellar winds. In addition, the lambda Ori spectrum shows the presence of emission at energies greater than 3 keV which is not seen in the delta Ori spectrum.

  6. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, James; Rowan, Lawrence; Podwysocki, Melvin; Meyer, David

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex were examined to evaluate the AVIRIS instrument performance and to explore alternative methods of data calibration. Although signal-to-noise estimates derived from the data indicated that the A, B, and C spectrometers generally met the original instrument design objectives, the S/N performance of the D spectrometer was below expectations. Signal-to-noise values of 20 to 1 or lower were typical of the D spectrometer and several detectors in the D spectrometer array were shown to have poor electronic stability. The AVIRIS data also exhibited periodic noise, and were occasionally subject to abrupt dark current offsets. Despite these limitations, a number of mineral absorption bands, including CO3, Al-OH, and unusual rare earth element bands, were observed for mine areas near the main carbonatite body. To discern these bands, two different calibration procedures were applied to remove atmospheric and solar components from the remote sensing data. The two procedures, referred to as the single spectrum and the flat field calibration methods gave distinctly different results. In principle, the single spectrum method should be more accurate; however, additional fieldwork is needed to rigorously determine the degree of calibration success.

  7. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  8. Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

    2007-01-01

    A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

  9. A novel digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengmin; Zhao, Cong; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2006-01-01

    Spectrometer is the essential part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. It controls the transmitting and receiving of signals. Many commercial spectrometers are now available. However, they are usually costly and complex. In this paper, a new digital spectrometer based on PCI extensions for instrumentation (PXI) architecture is presented. Radio frequency (RF) pulse is generated with the method of digital synthesis and its frequency and phase are continuously tunable. MR signal acquired by receiver coils is processed by digital quadrature detection and filtered to get the k-space data, which avoid the spectral distortion due to amplitude and phase errors between two channels of traditional detection. Compared to the conventional design, the presented spectrometer is built with general PXI platform and boards. This design works in a digital manner with features of low cost, high performance and accuracy. The experiments demonstrate its efficiency.

  10. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

  11. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

  12. AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

  13. Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Forouhar, S.; Christensen, L. E.; Briggs, R.; Keymeulen, D.; Blacksberg, J.; Alerstam, E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tunable laser spectrometers enjoy a wide range of applications in scientific research, medicine, industry, Earth and planetary space missions. We will describe instruments for planetary probes, aircraft, balloon, landers and CubeSats.

  14. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  15. Calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.; Wright, C. Wayne; Piazza, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the calibration of a photomultiplier array spectrometer is presented. Through this approach, incident light radiance derivation is made by recognizing and tracing gain characteristics for each photomultiplier tube.

  16. LCLS Injector Straight-Ahead Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey , C.

    2010-12-10

    The spectrometer design was modified to allow the measurement of uncorrelated energy spread for the nominal lattice. One bunch from every 120 each second would be sent to the straight ahead spectrometer while the transverse cavity is on. The implementation of this 'stealing mode' will not be available for the LCLS commissioning and the early stage of operation. However, the spectrometer was redesigned to retain that option. The energy feedback relies independently on the beam position of the beam in the dispersive section of dogleg 1 (DL1). The main modification of the spectrometer design is the Pole face rotation of 7.5 degrees on both entrance and exit faces. The location and range of operation of the 3 quadrupoles remains unchanged relative to those of the earlier design.

  17. Long-Wave Infrared Dyson Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis Z.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for an ultra compact long-wave infrared slit spectrometer based on the dyson concentric design. The dyson spectrometer has been integrated in a dewar environment with a quantum well infrared photodetecor (QWIP), concave electron beam fabricated diffraction grating and ultra precision slit. The entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to maximize signal to noise ratio performance, hence eliminating thermal signal from transmissive elements and internal stray light. All of this is done while maintaining QWIP thermal control. A general description is given of the spectrometer, alignment technique and predicated performance. The spectrometer has been designed for optimal performance with respect to smile and keystone distortion. A spectral calibration is performed with NIST traceable targets. A 2-point non-uniformity correction is performed with a precision blackbody source to provide radiometric accuracy. Preliminary laboratory results show excellent agreement with modeled noise equivalent delta temperature and detector linearity over a broad temperature range.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Hastings, J.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Hastings, J.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.

    1992-10-01

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample.

  20. Atmospheric absorption cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The measurement capability of the Avionics Laboratory IR Facility was used to evaluate an absorption cell that will be used to simulate atmospheric absorption over horizontal paths of 1 - 10 km in length. Band models were used to characterize the transmittance of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the cell. The measured transmittance was compared to the calculated values. Nitrous oxide is important in the 4 - 4.5 micron range in shaping the weak line absorption of carbon dioxide. The absorption cell is adequate for simulating atmospheric absorption over these paths.

  1. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-12-01

    The {sup 3}He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Mathematical methods of spectrometer resolution improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Efimkin, N.G.; Rodionov, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The highly desired property of the nuclear spectrometer is the monochromativity. This property is very often restricted by the line width achievable for the detector and by the competing effects such as radiation rescattering. These restrictions make the data interpretation difficult. The idea of spectrum reconstruction from instrumentally obtained data by means of mathematical procedures is not new. In this report, we demonstrate the application of the method for the energy resolution improvement of a germanium-lithium gamma spectrometer.

  3. Tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer within Zemax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    Techniques are described for tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer system within Zemax, including: how to set up and verify the tolerancing model, performance metrics and tolerance operands used, as well as post- Zemax analysis methods. Use of the tolerancing model for various analyses will be discussed, such as: alignment sensitivity, radial velocity sensitivity, and sensitivity of the optical system to temperature changes. Tolerance results from the Keck Planet Finder project (a precision radial velocity spectrometer of asymmetric white pupil design) will be shown.

  4. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  5. Exit slit mirrors for the ebert spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fastie, W G

    1972-09-01

    The use of a very long straight entrance slit in an Ebert grating spectrometer with two plane mirrors at the shorter exit slit to increase the energy density is described. This system has been employed in a far uv rocket spectrometer to provide higher sensitivity than has been achieved previously. The imaging properties and required slit and mirror adjustments are presented. Experimental results are included.

  6. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  7. SUB 1-Millimeter Size Fresnel Micro Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Koch, Laura; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Sangloon; King, Glen; Choi, Sang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-small micro spectrometer with less than 1mm diameter was constructed using Fresnel diffraction. The fabricated spectrometer has a diameter of 750 nmicrometers and a focal length of 2.4 mm at 533nm wavelength. The micro spectrometer was built with a simple negative zone plate that has an opaque center with an ecliptic shadow to remove the zero-order direct beam to the aperture slit. Unlike conventional approaches, the detailed optical calculation indicates that the ideal spectral resolution and resolving power do not depend on the miniaturized size but only on the total number of rings. We calculated 2D and 3D photon distribution around the aperture slit and confirmed that improved micro-spectrometers below 1mm size can be built with Fresnel diffraction. The comparison between mathematical simulation and measured data demonstrates the theoretical resolution, measured performance, misalignment effect, and improvement for the sub-1mm Fresnel micro-spectrometer. We suggest the utilization of an array of micro spectrometers for tunable multi-spectral imaging in the ultra violet range.

  8. NIST Calibration of a Neutron Spectrometer ROSPEC.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was acquired for use in the measurement of National Institute of Standards and Technology neutron fields. The spectrometer included options for the measurement of low and high energy neutrons, for a total measurement range from 0.01 eV up to 17 MeV. The spectrometer was evaluated in calibration fields and was used to determine the neutron spectrum of an Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The calibration fields used included bare and moderated (252)Cf, monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and a thermal-neutron beam. Using the calibration values determined in this exercise, the spectrometer gives a good approximation of the neutron spectrum, and excellent values for neutron fluence, for all NIST calibration fields. The spectrometer also measured an Americium-Beryllium neutron field in a NIST exposure facility and determined the field quite well. The spectrometer measured scattering effects in neutron spectra which previously could be determined only by calculation or integral measurements.

  9. NIST Calibration of a Neutron Spectrometer ROSPEC

    PubMed Central

    Heimbach, Craig

    2006-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was acquired for use in the measurement of National Institute of Standards and Technology neutron fields. The spectrometer included options for the measurement of low and high energy neutrons, for a total measurement range from 0.01 eV up to 17 MeV. The spectrometer was evaluated in calibration fields and was used to determine the neutron spectrum of an Americium-Beryllium neutron source. The calibration fields used included bare and moderated 252Cf, monoenergetic neutron fields of 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, and a thermal-neutron beam. Using the calibration values determined in this exercise, the spectrometer gives a good approximation of the neutron spectrum, and excellent values for neutron fluence, for all NIST calibration fields. The spectrometer also measured an Americium-Beryllium neutron field in a NIST exposure facility and determined the field quite well. The spectrometer measured scattering effects in neutron spectra which previously could be determined only by calculation or integral measurements. PMID:27274944

  10. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  11. [Spectral calibration of hyperspectral imager based on spectral absorption target].

    PubMed

    Gou, Zhi-Yang; Yan, Lei; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2013-02-01

    Retrieval of center wavelength and bandwidth is a key step for quantitative analysis of hyperspectral data. The present paper proposes a spectral calibration method of hyperspectral imager, whose spectrum covers visible and near-infrared band, using spectral absorption target. Ground calibration experiment was designed for a hyperspectral imager with a bandwidth of 6 nm. Hyperspectral imager and ASD spectrometer measured the same spectral absorption target synchronously. Reflectance spectrum was derived from the different data set. Center wavelength and bandwidth were retrieved by matching the reflectance data from hyperspectral imager and ASD spectrometer. The experiment result shows that this method can be applied in spectral calibration of hyperspectral imagers to improve the quantitative studies on hyperspectral imagery.

  12. An echelle diffraction grating for imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minyue; Wang, Han; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate an echelle diffraction grating (EDG) of 17 input waveguides and 33 output waveguides. For each input waveguide, only 17 of 33 output waveguides are used, receiving light ranging from 1520 nm to 1600 nm wavelength. The channel spacing of the EDG is 5 nm, with loss of -6dB and crosstalk of -17dB for center input waveguide and -15dB for edge input waveguides. Based on the 3 μm SOI platform the device is polarization insensitive. As a simple version of EDG spectrometer it is designed to be a part of the on-chip spectroscopic system of the push-broom scanning imaging spectrometer. The whole on-chip spectrometer consists of an optical on-off switch array, a multi-input EDG and detector array. With the help of on-off switch array the multiple input waveguides of the EDG spectrometer could work in a time division multiplexed fashion. Since the switch can scan very fast (less than 10 microseconds), the imaging spectrometer can be operated in push-broom mode. Due to the CMOS compatibility, the 17_channel EDG scales 2.5×3 mm2. The full version of EDG spectrometer is designed to have 129 input waveguides and 257 output waveguides (129 output channel for each input waveguide), working in wavelength ranging from 1250 nm to 1750 nm, and had similar blazed facet size with the 17_channel one, which means similar fabrication tolerance in grating facets. The waveguide EDG based imaging spectrometer can provide a low-cost solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles, with advantages of small size, light weight, vibration-proof, and high scalability.

  13. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  14. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  15. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of HN1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    infrared spectrometer GC gas chromatography HD sulfur mustard HeNe helium–neon (laser) HgCdTe mercury–cadmium–telluride detector HN1, HN2, HN3...coefficient of the compound. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor phase Saturator cell Infrared (IR) HN1 Vapor pressure Nitrogen mustard Vesicant...9 1 VAPOR-PHASE INFRARED ABSORPTIVITY COEFFICIENT OF HN1 1. INTRODUCTION The nitrogen mustards (HN1, HN2, and HN3) are similar to

  16. Light extinction by Secondary Organic Aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, R. M.; Ball, S. M.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Heitmann, U.; Jones, R. L.; Platt, U.; Pöhler, D.; Ruth, A. A.; Shillings, A. J. L.; Thieser, J.; Wahner, A.; Venables, D. S.

    2013-07-01

    Broadband optical cavity spectrometers are maturing as a technology for trace gas detection, but only recently have they been used to retrieve the extinction coefficient of aerosols. Sensitive broadband extinction measurements allow explicit separation of gas and particle phase spectral contributions, as well as continuous spectral measurements of aerosol extinction in favourable cases. In this work, we report an intercomparison study of the aerosol extinction coefficients measured by three such instruments: a broadband cavity ring-down spectrometer (BBCRDS), a cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectrometer (CE-DOAS), and an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS). Experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber as part of the NO3Comp campaign to compare the measurement capabilities of NO3 and N2O5 instrumentation. Aerosol extinction coefficients between 655 and 690 nm are reported for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed by the NO3 oxidation of β-pinene under dry and humid conditions. Despite different measurement approaches and spectral analysis procedures, the three instruments retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients that were in close agreement. The refractive index of SOA formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction was 1.61, and was not measurably affected by the chamber humidity or by aging of the aerosol over several hours. This refractive index is significantly larger than SOA refractive indices observed in other studies of OH and ozone-initiated terpene oxidations, and may be caused by the large proportion of organic nitrates in the particle phase. In an experiment involving ammonium sulphate particles the aerosol extinction coefficients as measured by IBBCEAS were found to be in reasonable agreement with those calculated using Mie theory. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of broadband cavity spectrometers for determining the optical properties of aerosols.

  17. Light extinction by secondary organic aerosol: an intercomparison of three broadband cavity spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, R. M.; Ball, S. M.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Heitmann, U.; Jones, R. L.; Platt, U.; Pöhler, D.; Ruth, A. A.; Shillings, A. J. L.; Thieser, J.; Wahner, A.; Venables, D. S.

    2013-11-01

    Broadband optical cavity spectrometers are maturing as a technology for trace-gas detection, but only recently have they been used to retrieve the extinction coefficient of aerosols. Sensitive broadband extinction measurements allow explicit separation of gas and particle phase spectral contributions, as well as continuous spectral measurements of aerosol extinction in favourable cases. In this work, we report an intercomparison study of the aerosol extinction coefficients measured by three such instruments: a broadband cavity ring-down spectrometer (BBCRDS), a cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectrometer (CE-DOAS), and an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS). Experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber as part of the NO3Comp campaign to compare the measurement capabilities of NO3 and N2O5 instrumentation. Aerosol extinction coefficients between 655 and 690 nm are reported for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed by the NO3 oxidation of β-pinene under dry and humid conditions. Despite different measurement approaches and spectral analysis procedures, the three instruments retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients that were in close agreement. The refractive index of SOA formed from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction was 1.61, and was not measurably affected by the chamber humidity or by aging of the aerosol over several hours. This refractive index is significantly larger than SOA refractive indices observed in other studies of OH and ozone-initiated terpene oxidations, and may be caused by the large proportion of organic nitrates in the particle phase. In an experiment involving ammonium sulfate particles, the aerosol extinction coefficients as measured by IBBCEAS were found to be in reasonable agreement with those calculated using the Mie theory. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of broadband cavity spectrometers for determining the optical properties of aerosols.

  18. Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer for JASON Altimeter Satellite Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.; Becker-Ross, H.; Florek, S.; Okruss, M.

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial factor in achieving highest accuracies for space geodetic measurements. Water vapor causes a delay of the propagation time of the altimeter satellite signal, which propagates into errors for the determination of surface heights. Knowledge of the precipitable water vapor (PW) enables a tropospheric correction of the satellite signal. Therefore, different remote sensing techniques have been pursued to measure the PW continuously. The prototype Geodetic Mobil Solar Spectrometer (GEMOSS) was developed at the Geodesy and Geodynamics Laboratory (GGL, ETH Zurich) in cooperation with the Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ISAS) (Berlin, Germany). A new optical approach allows the simultaneous measurement of numerous single absorption lines of water vapor in the wide range between 728 nm and 915 nm. The large number of available absorption lines increases the accuracy of the absolute PW retrievals considerably. GEMOSS has been deployed during two campaigns in Greece in the framework of the EU-project GAVDOS, which deals with the calibration of the altimeter satellite JASON. During the overfly of JASON, the ground-based determination of PW enables the correction of the satellite measurements due to tropospheric water vapor. Comparisons with radiometer and radiosondes data allow to assess the accuracy and reliability of GEMOSS. The instrumental advancement of GEMOSS is presented together with the results of the campaigns carried out.

  19. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  20. Recent results from Compton spectrometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    During the previous three years, a Compton spectrometer has successfully measured the x-ray spectra of both continuous and flash radiographic sources. In this method, a collimated beam of x-rays incident on a convertor foil ejects Compton electrons. A collimator in the entrance to the spectrometer selects the forward-scattered electrons, which enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The position of the electrons at the magnet's focal plane is proportional to the square root of their momentum, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. The spectrometer is a neodymium-iron magnet which measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. The energy resolution of the spectrometer was experimentally tested with the 44 MeV Short-Pulse Electron LINAC at the Idaho Accelerator Center. The measured values are mostly consistent with the design specification and historical values of the greater of 1% or 0.1 MeV. Experimental results from this study are presented in these proceedings.

  1. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  2. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  3. Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

  4. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  5. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

    2002-10-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

  6. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  7. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  8. Portable instant display and analysis reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A portable analysis spectrometer (10) for field mineral identification is coupled to a microprocessor (11) and memory (12) through a bus (13) and A/D converter (14) to display (16) a spectrum of reflected radiation in a band selected by an adjustable band spectrometer (20) and filter (23). A detector array (21) provides output signals at spaced frequencies within the selected spectrometer band which are simultaneously converted to digital form for display. The spectrum displayed is compared with a collection of spectra for known minerals. That collection is stored in memory and selectively displayed with the measured spectrum, or stored in a separate portfolio. In either case, visual comparison is made. Alternatively, the microprocessor may use an algorithm to make the comparisons in search for the best match of the measured spectrum with one of the stored spectra to identify the mineral in the target area.

  9. Automated calibration of a flight particle spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    An automatic calibration system was designed for use in the vacuum facility at the Space Science Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center. That system was developed and used in the intervening winter to calibrate the ion spectrometer that eventually flew in May 1986 aboard the NASA project, CRIT 1. During this summer, it is planned to implement the calibration of both an ion and electron spectrometer of a new design whose basic elements were conceived during the winter of 1985 to 1986. This spectrometer was completed in the summer and successfully mounted in the vacuum tank for calibration. However, the source gate valve malfunctioned, and, at the end of the summer, it still needed a replacement. During the inevitable delays in the experimental research, the numerical model of the Critical Velocity effect was completed and these results were presented.

  10. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  11. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l∕mm VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  12. 140-GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-01-01

    A pulsed microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 140 GHz for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules is described. The spectrometer incorporates a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity and a subharmonically pumped superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. A 70-GHz source supplying a high-efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at 30 MHz produces sidebands of sufficient power at 140 GHz to excite the molecules. The cavity is tuned to one of the modulation sidebands. The operation of the spectrometer is illustrated by the detection of emission signals from the 6(2, 4)-6(1, 5) transition of SO2 gas. The generation of the electric dipole analog of nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) ``spin-echo'' signals by a π/2-π pulse sequence is also described.

  13. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    PubMed

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  14. Degradation Free Spectrometers for Solar EUV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.; McMullin, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Solar EUV observations will be made using two new degradation-free EUV spectrometers on a sounding rocket flight scheduled for summer 2012. The two instruments, a rare gas photoionization-based Optics-Free Spectrometer (OFS) and a Dual Grating Spectrometer (DGS), are filter-free and optics-free. OFS can measure the solar EUV spectrum with a spectral resolution comparable to that of grating-based EUV spectrometers. The DGS selectable spectral bandwidth is designed to provide solar irradiance in a 10 nm band centered on the Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm line and a 4 nm band centered on the He-II 30.4 nm line to overlap EUV observations from the SDO/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor (SEM). A clone of the SOHO/SEM flight instrument and a Rare Gas Ionization Cell (RGIC) absolute EUV detector will also be flown to provide additional measurements for inter-comparison. Program delays related to the sounding rocket flight termination system, which was no longer approved by the White Sands Missile Range prevented the previously scheduled summer 2011 launch of these instruments. During this delay several enhancements have been made to the sounding rocket versions of the DFS instruments, including a lighter, simplified vacuum housing and gas system for the OFS and an improved mounting for the DGS, which allows more accurate co-alignment of the optical axes of the DGS, OFS, and the SOHO/SEM clone. Details of these enhancements and results from additional lab testing of the instruments are reported here. The spectrometers are being developed and demonstrated as part of the Degradation Free Spectrometers (DFS) project under NASA's Low Cost Access to Space (LCAS) program and are supported by NASA Grant NNX08BA12G.

  15. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  16. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  17. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  18. Time-of-flight Fourier UCN spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulin, G. V.; Frank, A. I.; Goryunov, S. V.; Kustov, D. V.; Geltenbort, P.; Jentschel, M.; Lauss, B.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new time-of-flight Fourier spectrometer for investigation of UCN diffraction by a moving grating. The device operates in the regime of a discrete set of modulation frequencies. The results of the first experiments show that the spectrometer may be used for obtaining UCN energy spectra in the energy range of 60 - 200 neV with a resolution of about 5 neV. The accuracy of determination of the line position was estimated to be several units of 10-10 eV.

  19. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  20. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernat, Jacek; P¯ANDA Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P¯ANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD¯ decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed.

  1. The Constellation-X Reflection Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jean C.

    2006-01-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission will provide high sensitivity, high-resolution spectra in the soft x-ray band. The RGS performance requirements are specified as a resolving power of greater than 300 and an effective area of greater than 1000 sq cm across most of the 0.25 to 2.0 keV band. These requirements are driven by the science goals of the mission. We will describe the performance requirements and goals, the reference design of the spectrometer, and examples of science cases where we expect data from the RGS to significantly advance our current understanding of the universe.

  2. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  3. Automated calibration of a flight particle spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    A system for calibrating both electron and ion imaging particle spectrometers was devised to calibrate flight instruments in a large vacuum facility in the Space Science Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An IBM-compatible computer was used to control, via an IEEE 488 buss protocol, a two-axis gimbled table, constructed to fit inside the tank. Test settings of various diagnostic voltages were also acquired via the buss. These spectrometers constructed by the author at UCSD were calibrated in an automatic procedure programmed on the small computer. Data was up-loaded to the SSL VAX where a program was developed to plot the results.

  4. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  5. SAMURAI spectrometer for RI beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Chiga, N.; Isobe, T.; Kondo, Y.; Kubo, T.; Kusaka, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Okuno, H.; Otsu, H.; Sako, T.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, R.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    A large-acceptance multiparticle spectrometer SAMURAI has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for RI beam experiments. It was designed primarily for kinematically complete experiments such as the invariant-mass spectroscopy of particle-unbound states in exotic nuclei, by detecting heavy fragments and projectile-rapidity nucleons in coincidence. The system consists of a superconducting dipole magnet, beam line detectors, heavy fragment detectors, neutron detectors, and proton detectors. The SAMURAI spectrometer was commissioned in March 2012, and a rigidity resolution of about 1/1500 was obtained for RI beams up to 2.4 GeV/c.

  6. NEAR Gamma Ray Spectrometer Characterization and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Joel Lee; Vajda, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the work completed in the third year of the contract. The principle activities during this period were (1) the characterization of the NEAR 2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer using a neutron generator to generate complex gamma ray spectra and a large Ge Detecter to identify all the major peaks in the spectra; (2) the evaluation and repair of the Engineering Model Unit of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer for the NEAR mission; (3) the investigation of polycapillary x-ray optics for x-ray detection; and (4) technology transfer from NASA to forensic science.

  7. Combined hyperspatial and hyperspectral imaging spectrometer concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Ian; Zwick, Harold

    1995-01-01

    There is a user need for increasing spatial and spectral resolution in Earth Observation (EO) optical instrumentation. Higher spectral resolution will be achieved by the introduction of spaceborne imaging spectrometers. Higher spatial resolutions of 1 - 3m will be achieved also, but at the expense of sensor redesign, higher communications bandwidth, high data processing volumes, and therefore, at the risk of time delays due to large volume data-handling bottlenecks. This paper discusses a design concept whereby the hyperspectral properties of a spaceborne imaging spectrometer can be used to increase the image spatial resolution, without such adverse cost impact.

  8. Improved real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

  9. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  10. Ground-based high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and its application in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dongdong

    2013-10-01

    The B3M-FTS instrument, inherited from ACE-FTS and PARIS, is built by Canadian ABB and Beijing Vision Sky Aerospace Co., Ltd. The B3M is a complete stand-alone spectrometer designed to operate from the ground in moderate environment. It can acquire atmospheric spectra with the Sun as back illumination. This instrument is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout, and it is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the 750 to 4100cm-1 spectral range. In this paper, the instrument concept of a compact, portable, high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer is introduced. Some test results of the instrument such as ILS and SNR are presented, and the spectral resolution of 0.028cm-1 @ 750cm-1 and SNR over 100:1 are achieved. Sample atmospheric absorption spectra and corresponding retrieval results measured by the FTS are given. The B3M-FTS, with its high performance, provides the capability to monitor the atmospheric composition changes by measuring the atmospheric absorption spectra of solar radiance. Lots of measurements have been acquired at the Olympics atmospheric observation super-station. Up to now, the VMRs of near 10 trace gases have been retrieved. The success of atmospheric composition profile retrieval using the FTS measurements makes the further application of FTS type payload possible in China.

  11. PIR-fiber spectroscopy with FTIR and TDL spectrometers in the middle infared range of spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artjushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Bruch, Reinhard F.; Daniellian, G.; Stepanov, Eugene V.

    2000-07-01

    Development of Polycrystalline Infrared (PIR-) fibers extruded from solid solutions of AgCl/AgBr has opened a new horizon of molecular spectroscopy applications in 4 - 18 micron range of spectra. PIR-fiber cables and probes could be coupled with a variety of Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer and Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL), including pig tailing of Mercury Cadmium Tellurium (MCT) detectors. Using these techniques no sample preparation is necessary for PIR- fiber probes to measure reflection and absorption spectra, in situ, in vivo, in real time and even multiplexed. Such PIR-fiber probes have been used for evanescent absorption spectroscopy of malignant tissue and skin surface diagnostics in-vivo, glucose detection in blood as well as crude oil composition analysis, for organic pollution and nuclear waste monitoring. A review of various PIR-fiber applications in medicine, industry and environment control is presented. The synergy of PIR-fibers flexibility with a super high resolution of TDL spectrometers with (Delta) v equals 10-4 cm-1, provides the unique tool for gas analysis, specifically when PIR-fibers are coupled as pigtails with MCT-detectors, and Pb-salt lasers. Design of multichannel PIR-fiber tailed TDL spectrometer could be used as a portable device for multispectral gas analysis at 1 ppb level of detectivity for various applications in medicine and biotechnology.

  12. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-12-01

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged Substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with root-mean-square (RMS) error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apo-transferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g., 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1 M at m/z = 2700).

  13. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-10-12

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8,158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with RMS error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apotransferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g. 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1M at m/z =2,700).

  14. Electronic absorptions of the benzylium cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryza, Viktoras; Chalyavi, Nahid; Sanelli, Julian A.; Bieske, Evan J.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic transitions of the benzylium cation (Bz+) are investigated over the 250-550 nm range by monitoring the photodissociation of mass-selected C7H7+-Arn (n = 1, 2) complexes in a tandem mass spectrometer. The Bz+-Ar spectrum displays two distinct band systems, the S1←S0 band system extending from 370 to 530 nm with an origin at 19 067 ± 15 cm-1, and a much stronger S3←S0 band system extending from 270 to 320 nm with an origin at 32 035 ± 15 cm-1. Whereas the S1←S0 absorption exhibits well resolved vibrational progressions, the S3←S0 absorption is broad and relatively structureless. Vibronic structure of the S1←S0 system, which is interpreted with the aid of time-dependent density functional theory and Franck-Condon simulations, reflects the activity of four totally symmetric ring deformation modes (ν5, ν6, ν9, ν13). We find no evidence for the ultraviolet absorption of the tropylium cation, which according to the neon matrix spectrum should occur over the 260 - 275 nm range [A. Nagy, J. Fulara, I. Garkusha, and J. Maier, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 3022 (2011)], 10.1002/anie.201008036.

  15. Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Chen, Huilin; Hatakka, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    Ground based remote sensing measurements of column CO2 and CH4 using Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) within the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) are known for high precision and accuracy. These measurements are performed at various locations globally and they have been widely used in carbon cycle studies and validation of space born measurements. The relevant satellite missions include the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) by the European Space Agency (ESA); the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the upcoming Sentinel-5 Precursor mission, which is an ESA mission and scheduled for launch in 2016. Results of the column CO2 and CH4 measurements at Sodankylä in northern Finland (at 67.4° N, 26.6° E) are reported in this study. The measurements have been performed on regular basis since the beginning of the program in early 2009. We also present evaluation of the data quality of the ground based measurements and comparisons with the available satellite based retrievals. In case of comparisons between the GOSAT and ground based retrievals of CO2 and CH4 no significant biases were found. Sodankylä is one of the northernmost stations in the TCCON network. However, the data coverage has been relatively good thanks to the progress towards automation of the FTS measurement system. At Sodankylä the retrievals have been also compared with the balloon borne AirCore measurements at the site. AirCore sampling system is directly related to the World Meteorological Organization in situ trace gas measurement scales. The balloon platform allows sampling in both stratosphere and troposphere, which is a benefit, compared to the aircraft in situ measurements.

  16. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  17. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  18. Reflecting Schmidt/Littrow Prism Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution achieved with wide field of view. Imaging Spectrometer features off-axis reflecting optics, including reflecting "slit" that also serves as field flattener. Only refracting element is prism. By scanning slit across object or scene and timing out signal, both spectral and spatial information in scene are obtained.

  19. Digital Signal Processing in the GRETINA Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromaz, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Developments in the segmentation of large-volume HPGe crystals has enabled the development of high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometers which have the ability to track the path of gamma-rays scattering through the detector volume. This technology has been successfully implemented in the GRETINA spectrometer whose high efficiency and ability to perform precise event-by-event Doppler correction has made it an important tool in nuclear spectroscopy. Tracking has required the spectrometer to employ a fully digital signal processing chain. Each of the systems 1120 channels are digitized by 100 Mhz, 14-bit flash ADCs. Filters that provide timing and high-resolution energies are implemented on local FPGAs acting on the ADC data streams while interaction point locations and tracks, derived from the trace on each detector segment, are calculated in real time on a computing cluster. In this presentation we will give a description of GRETINA's digital signal processing system, the impact of design decisions on system performance, and a discussion of possible future directions as we look towards soon developing larger spectrometers such as GRETA with full 4 π solid angle coverage. This work was supported by the Office of Science in the Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W

    2010-12-16

    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  1. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  2. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  3. Recent advances in miniaturization of infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.; Bodkin, W. Andrew; Stevenson, William A.; White, David A.

    2000-03-01

    In the past ten years, a number of miniature spectrometers covering the visible and near infrared wavelengths out to 2.5 microns wavelength have been developed and are now commercially available. These small but high performance instruments have taken advantage of continuing advances in high sensitivity detectors--both CCD's and diode arrays, improvements in holographic gratings, and the availability of low-loss optical materials both in bulk and fiber form that transmit at these wavelengths and that can readily be formed into monolithic shapes for complex optical structures. More recently, a number of researchers have addressed the more intractable problems of extending these miniaturization innovations to spectrometers capable of operation in the mid-infrared wavelengths from 3 microns to 12 microns and beyond. Key enabling technologies for this effort include the recent development of high D*, uncooled thermopile and micro-bolometer detector arrays, new low- mass, high-efficiency pulsed infrared sources, and the design and fabrication of novel monolithic optical structures and waveguides using high index infrared optical materials. This paper reviews the development of these innovative infrared spectrometers and, in particular, the development of the `wedge' spectrometer by Foster-Miller, Inc. and the MicroSpecTM, a MEMS-based solid state spectrograph, by Ion Optics, Inc.

  4. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  5. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  6. Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, E.O.

    1984-05-01

    A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

  7. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  8. Apollo 17 ultraviolet spectrometer experiment (S-169)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the ultraviolet spectrometer experiment are discussed, along with design and operational details, instrument preparation and performance, and scientific results. Information gained from the experiment is given concerning the lunar atmosphere and albedo, zodiacal light, astronomical observations, spacecraft environment, and the distribution of atomic hydrogen in the solar system and in the earth's atmosphere.

  9. Matching the Spectrometers on board ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgdorf, M.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Salama, A.; García-Lario, P.; Müller, T.; Lord, S.

    We report on the findings of the Spectral Matching Working Group, the main aim of which was to investigate discontinuities between SWS and LWS in complete ISO spectra from 2 - 200 μm. In order to check in a quantitative way the agreement between the two spectrometers, a software tool was developed which automatically selected observations made with SWS and LWS on the same coordinates and which calculated the ratio of the fluxes in the overlap region from the browser products. In this way all observations suitable for this cross-calibration exercise could be selected, provided that they were performed with standard Astronomical Observing Templates and covered the wavelength range that SWS and LWS have in common. 95% of those targets which were neither extended nor variable showed an agreement better than 20% between the two spectrometers. Several problems with the data from the instruments, like saturation effects, detector transients and discontinuities between the sub-spectra from different detectors, affect both spectrometers in a similar way and require special processing steps. We show, for some solar system objects, to which extent the spectra taken with ISO from the mid- to the far-infrared agree with theoretical models. Furthermore, we discuss for the example of Neptune how the combined information from both spectrometers can be used to put new constraints on models of objects that are possible calibration standards for future missions.

  10. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  11. Instrumentation for the Atmospheric Explorer photoelectron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peletier, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The photoelectron spectrometer (PES) is part of the complements of scientific instruments aboard three NASA Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites. The PES measures the energy spectrum, angular distribution, and intensity of electrons in the earth's thermosphere. Measurements of energies between 2 and 500 eV are made at altitudes as low as 130 km. The design, characteristics, and performance of the instrument are described.

  12. Optical alignment of a pupil imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horchem, Stephen D.; Kohrman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Sounder is a 19-channel discrete filter spectrometer with an additional channel for star sensing. This paper presents the GOES Sounder's instrument optics and compensations, alignment rationale, and alignment mechanism and sensitivities. The results of a line of sight tolerance analysis of the instrument are described, and the prealignment and instrument coregistration are addressed.

  13. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Product File Readers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brendan M.

    2010-01-01

    TES Product File Reader software extracts data from publicly available Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) product data files using publicly available format specifications for scientific analysis in IDL (interactive data language). In this innovation, the software returns data fields as simple arrays for a given file. A file name is provided, and the contents are returned as simple IDL variables.

  14. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  15. Near infrared frequency comb vernier spectrometer for broadband trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Bounds, James; Bicer, Aysenur; Strohaber, James; Kolomenskii, Alexandre A; Gohle, Christoph; Amani, Mahmood; Schuessler, Hans A

    2014-09-22

    We present a femtosecond frequency comb vernier spectrometer in the near infrared with a femtosecond Er doped fiber laser, a scanning high-finesse cavity and an InGaAs camera. By utilizing the properties of a frequency comb and a scanning high-finesse cavity such a spectrometer provides broad spectral bandwidth, high spectral resolution, and high detection sensitivity on a short time scale. We achieved an absorption sensitivity of ~8 × 10(-8) cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), corresponding to a detection limit of ~70 ppbv for acetylene, with a resolution of ~1.1 GHz in single images taken in 0.5 seconds and covering a frequency range of ~5 THz. Such measurements have broad applications for sensing greenhouse gases in this fingerprint near infrared region with a simple apparatus.

  16. Characteristics and Current Status of Near Infrared Spectrometer for Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, M.; Takagi, Y.; Abe, S.; Kitazato, K.; Hiroi, T.; Ueda, Y.; Vilas, F.; Clark, B. E.; Fujiwara, A.

    2004-01-01

    NIRS is a near infrared spectrometer on-boarded the spacecraft HAYABUSA (MUSESC), which aims to return samples from a near-earth asteroid, (25143) Itokawa (1998 SF36). HAYABUSA was successfully launched by Japanese M-V-5 rocket on May 19, 2003. After the earth swing-by in Jun 2004, the spacecraft will arrive at the asteroid in summer 2005. During the rendezvous phase with the asteroid, we will observe the asteroid surface using NIRS and obtain reflectance spectra of the surface materials across the wavelength range of 850nm to 2100nm. Based on ground-based observations [1],[2],[3], (25143) Itokawa appears to be an S(IV) type asteroid. NIRS can detect absorption bands due to olivine and pyroxene and investigate the mineralogical composition of the surface materials. Combining with the data from asteroid multiband imaging camera (AMICA) and X-ray spectrometer (XRS), we can reveal a relationship between asteroids and meteorites.

  17. Development of a space-borne spectrometer to monitor atmospheric ozone.

    PubMed

    Dobrolenskiy, Yury S; Ionov, Dmitry V; Korablev, Oleg I; Fedorova, Anna A; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A; Shatalov, Andrey E; Mantsevich, Sergey N; Belyaev, Denis A; Vyazovetskiy, Nikita A; Moiseev, Pavel P; Tchikov, Konstantin N; Krasavtsev, Valery M; Savushkin, Alexander V; Rumyantsev, Dmitry M; Kananykhin, Igor V; Viktorov, Alexey I; Kozyura, Alexey V; Moryakin, Sergey A; Poberovskii, Anatoly V

    2015-04-10

    A new compact satellite spectrometer dedicated to monitoring terrestrial atmospheric ozone (ozonometer) is in preparation for the Russian Geophysics Program. Four instruments at four satellites (Ionosphere) are intended to monitor the total ozone content by measuring spectra of scattered solar radiation in nadir. The spectrometer is based on the Rowland scheme with a concave holographic diffraction grating. It covers the near UV and visible range of the spectrum, 300-500 nm, with a spectral resolution of ∼0.3  nm. At present, a qualification model has been manufactured and tested. We introduce the description of the instrument and the results of laboratory and ground-based atmospheric calibrations. The ozone amount retrieved from atmospheric measurements using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is in good agreement with that measured by the collocated Brewer spectrophotometer and ozone monitoring instrument on board the Aura satellite.

  18. A methodology for calibrating wavelength dependent spectral resolution for crystal spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Loisel, G; Bailey, J E; Rochau, G A; Dunham, G S; Nielsen-Weber, L B; Ball, C R

    2012-10-01

    High quality absorption spectroscopy measurements were recently achieved at the Sandia National Laboratories Z facility in the soft x-ray range. Detailed spectral resolution knowledge is a key requirement for their interpretation. We present a methodology for measuring the wavelength dependent crystal spectral resolution, with a particular focus on the 7-17 Å range. We apply this procedure to the case of 1st order resolution of a potassium acid phthalate (KAP) convex crystal spectrometer. One calibration issue is that inferring the crystal resolution requires that the x-ray source emission feature widths and spectral profiles are known. To this aim, we resolve Manson x-ray source Si, Al, and Mg Kα line profiles using a KAP crystal spectrometer in 2nd order to achieve relatively high resolution. This information is exploited to measure 1st order KAP resolving powers λ∕Δλ∼1100-1300 in the 7-10 Å wavelength range.

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  20. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  1. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  2. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  3. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  4. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  5. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  6. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  7. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  8. Intranasal absorption of oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J

    1997-08-01

    The nasal bioavailability of oxymorphone HCI was determined. Rats were surgically prepared to isolate the nasal cavity, into which a solution of oxymorphone was administered. A reference group of rats was administered oxymorphone HCl intravenously. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Nasal absorption was rapid, nasal bioavailability was 43%, and the iv and nasal elimination profiles were similar. Oxymorphone HCI appears to have the solubility, potency, and absorption properties required for efficient nasal delivery, which is an alternative to injections.

  9. A static Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding: concept and experimental implementation.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Antoine; Bréon, François-Marie; Rosak, Alain; Brachet, Frank; Roucayrol, Lionel; Etcheto, Pierre; Casteras, Christophe; Salaün, Yves

    2010-04-12

    Spaceborne remote sensing can be used to retrieve the atmospheric composition and complement the surface or airborne measurement networks. In recent years, a lot of attention has been placed on the monitoring of carbon dioxide for an estimate of surface fluxes from the observed spatial and temporal gradients of its concentration. Although other techniques may be used to estimate atmospheric CO(2) concentration, the most promising for the near future is the absorption spectroscopy, focusing on the CO(2) absorption lines at 1.6 and/or 2.0 microns. For this objective, the French space agency (CNES) has developed a new spectrometer concept that is sufficiently compact to be placed onboard a microsatellite platform. The principle is that of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), although the classical moving mirror is replaced by two sets of mirrors organized in steps. The interferogram is then imaged on a CCD matrix. The concept allows a very high resolving power, although limited to narrow spectral bands, which is well suited for the observation of a few CO(2) absorption lines. The laboratory model shows that a resolving power of about 65000 is achieved with a signal to noise on the spectra around 300. A modulating plate on the light path allows an easy of the path difference. Although this component adds some complexity to the instrument, it greatly improves the information content of the measurements.

  10. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  11. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the

  12. Absorption coefficients of CFC-11 and CFC-12 needed for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, Prasad

    1992-01-01

    Spectral absorption coefficients k(v) in the atmospheric window are reported for CFC-11 and CFC-12. Data obtained with a grating spectrometer are compared with NCAR cross sections and measurements of k(v) made with a tunable diode laser spectrometer at various temperature-pressure combinations representing tangent heights or layers in the atmosphere are presented. The results are suitable for atmospheric remote sensing and global warming studies.

  13. Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherall, James; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Ball, Christopher D.; Smith, Barry; Cox, Rick; Steinke, Robert; McDaniel, Patricia; Wasserzug, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Raman spectral data collected with high-resolution laboratory spectrometers are processed into a for- mat suitable for importing as a user library on a 1064nm DeltaNu rst generation, eld-deployable spectrometer prototype. The two laboratory systems used are a 1064nm Bruker spectrometer and a 785nm Kaiser spectrometer. The steps taken to compensate for device-dependent spectral resolution, wavenumber shifts between instruments, and wavenumber sensitivity variation are described.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  15. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-12

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  17. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  18. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-01

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  20. Remote laser evaporative molecular absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Cohen, Alexander; Madajian, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.

  1. In situ multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for monitoring nanoparticle generation in a high-pressure fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shaoyu; Saitow, Ken-ichi

    2012-07-15

    We developed a multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles generated by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in a high-pressure fluid. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure optical cell and three spectrometers for in situ measurements. The optical cell was designed for experiments at temperatures up to 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa with fluctuations within {+-}0.1% h{sup -1}. The three spectrometers were used for the following in situ measurements at high pressures: (i) transient absorption spectrum measurements from 350 to 850 nm to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle generation from nanoseconds to milliseconds after laser irradiation, (ii) absorption spectrum measurements from 220 to 900 nm to observe the time evolution of nanoparticles from seconds to hours after laser ablation, and (iii) dynamic light scattering measurements to track nanoparticles with sizes from 10 nm to 10 {mu}m in the time range from seconds to hours after laser ablation. By combining these three spectrometers, we demonstrate in situ measurements of gold nanoparticles generated by PLA in supercritical fluids. This is the first report of in situ time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of nanoparticles generated in a supercritical fluid.

  2. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  3. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  4. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  5. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. The cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy are described. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. The 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  6. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result, it is not possible for instructors to take full advantage of this equipment. Therefore, to facilitate accessibility to this tool, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator. Using this software, students are able to practice their ability to identify the components of the original gas, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  7. A 4 π dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bałanda, A.; van Klinken, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

    1993-11-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd 2Fe 14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 π magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient ( απ) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a Jπ = 1 + state to the ground state in 12C. Our experimental value of απ = (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  8. A wideband spectrometer for the SRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comoretto, G.; Natale, V.

    A radiotelescope operating at millimeter wavelengths must be able to analyze an instantaneous bandwidth of at least a few GHz in spectroscopic mode, with a number of spectral points of the order of thousands. Two solutions are examined. In the first, it is assumed that a multi-channel digital spectrometer, with a bandwidth of the order of 100 MHz for each channel, will be available. In this case, a digital filterbank derived from the experience with the ALMA correlator could be used to synthesize a total bandwidth of 1-2 GHz. For wider bandwidths, an acousto-optical spectrometer is proposed. The experience at IRA, Sez. di Firenze with these instruments is presented, and possible solutions are outlined.

  9. Data analysis for Skylab proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The data from a proton spectrometer flown aboard Skylab is examined. The instrument is sensitive to protons in the energy range 18 to 400 MeV. A partial failure of the spectrometer restricted spectral analysis to two energy bands, 18 to 27 MeV and 27 to 400 MeV. The directional data showed that a Gaussian angular distribution parameter of at least 70 degrees is required for the low energy band and at least 40 degrees for the high energy band. The data, integrated over angle, indicate that the AP3 model extrapolated down to 18-27 MeV is high by factors of 2 to 5 over most of the B-L space mapped. In the 27 to 400 MeV range, the AP3 model is 20 to 100 percent low at low and high values of L, and is high at medium L values in the B-L space mapped.

  10. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  11. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  12. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  13. Compact chopper spectrometers for pulsed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, J.; Violini, N.; Schweika, W.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the opportunities for direct geometry chopper spectrometers (DGCS) by polychromatic illumination of the sample. At pulsed sources the use of multiple initial neutron energies appears naturally, if the repetition rate of chopper in front of the sample is larger than the repetition rate of the source. As a consequence, a large part of the spectrum is measured redundantly with variable energy and momentum transfer resolution. This can be used to optimize a chopper instrument for deep inelastic scattering, relaxing the requirements on the pulse length, by which the sample is illuminated, and on the secondary flight path, while the width of the spectral distribution must be narrowed down. This can open the path to new types of compact direct geometry chopper spectrometers, which need comparably small areas of detector coverage and allow very high repetition rates to provide a high intensity even if sample size and divergence distributions are limited.

  14. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  15. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  16. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  17. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  18. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  19. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  20. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  1. Performance Of A Laser Based CO2 Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer To Study Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Hans-Juerg; Wapelhorst, Eric; Schlueter, Hans-Juergen; Kracht, Oliver; Radke, Jens; Hilkert, Andreas; Gangi, Laura; Bol, Roland; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Meijer, Harro

    2014-05-01

    We are presenting results from a mid-infrared laser-based Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometers (IRIS) that is capable of simultaneously determining both δ18O and δ13C isotope ratios of carbon dioxide utilizing a simple, direct absorption approach with a robust multi pass cell and a cryogen free setup. A simulation of ambient measurement conditions with a 75 ppm per hour change in CO2 concentration from 350-650 ppm showed a precision of

  2. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Dobler, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    This presentation provides and overview of the development off the GreenLITE system for spatial mapping of atmospheric CO2. The original system was developed for supporting MRV activities for ground carbon storage facilities and has since been expanded to cover larger areas and other applications.

  3. MOBILE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER OPERATED BY PACE ENVIRONMENTAL FOR METALS-CONTAMINATED SOIL CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report describes ...

  4. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. S.; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Botos, Chris; Pernini, Timothy G.

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two years a new system capable of measuring the 2-D spatial distribution of atmospheric CO2 over areas on the order of 1 km2 and time scales of a few minutes, has been developed and demonstrated. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) - developed under a cooperative agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - attempts to improve monitoring capabilities of Ground Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. GreenLITE sensors are based on an intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) approach developed at ITT (now part of Harris Corp.) in 2004. The GreenLITE system recently completed a remote deployment of nearly 4,000 hours at a GCS site in Illinois. It provided continuous, real-time spatial distribution maps of CO2 via an open web-based interface from February to August 2015. In early 2015 we began work on a new implementation of GreenLITE capable of providing similar measurements over a 25 km2 area and are planning to test the system over a 5 km range late summer 2015. If successful the system will be deployed in an urban environment late 2015, demonstrating the utility of real-time 2-D spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations at this scale. This paper will review the concept for this new measurement capability, including results from the 1 km system. Ultimately, the measurement concept can be adapted to other greenhouse gases such as CH4 and NO2.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  6. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  7. Spectrometer of high energy gamma quantums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhintsev, I. D.; Melioranskiy, A. S.; Kalinkin, L. F.; Nagornykh, Y. I.; Pryakhin, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the apparatus GG-2M is given. The spectrometer contains a Cerenkov and scintillation (including anticoincidence) counter. The energies of the gamma quantums are measured by a shower calorimeter, in which scintillation counters are used in the capacity of detectors. Results are given for tuning the device on mu-mesons of cosmic rays. The data of physical tuning allow more reliable interpretation of the results of measurements which are received on the satellites.

  8. Midrapidity measurements with the BRAHMS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, D.

    1995-07-15

    The forward- and midrapidity-arms of the BRAHMS experiment are designed to measure charged particle production over a wide range of transverse momentum for rapidities, 0{le}y{le}4. Details of the midrapidity spectrometer, which provides coverage for 0{le}{eta}{le}1.3, are presented here. The capabilities for inclusive {pi}{sup +-}, K{sup +-}, and p{sup +-} measurements and boson pair correlations are discussed.

  9. Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means

    DOEpatents

    Tarver, III, Edward E.; Siems, William F.

    2004-09-07

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  10. Pulsed millimeter wave Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1986-09-01

    An improved pulsed microwave spectrometer for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules in the frequency range of 130-150 GHz is described. It incorporates a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity and a low noise superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. The molecules are excited by pi/2 pulses provided by a high efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at an IF frequency of 1.4 GHz.

  11. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  12. Calibration and monitoring of spectrometers and spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Frings, C S; Broussard, L A

    1979-06-01

    We have delineated some of the factors affecting the performance of spectrometers and spectrophotometers in the clinical laboratory and have presented some of the methods for verifying that these instruments are functioning properly. At a minimum, every laboratory should perform periodic inspections of spectrometric functions to check wavelength calibration, linearity of detector response, and stray radiation. Only through such an inspection program can a laboratory ensure that these instruments are not contributing to inaccurate analytical results.

  13. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  14. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  15. Interpretation of absorption bands in airborne hyperspectral radiance data.

    PubMed

    Szekielda, Karl H; Bowles, Jeffrey H; Gillis, David B; Miller, W David

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments.

  16. Interpretation of Absorption Bands in Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance Data

    PubMed Central

    Szekielda, Karl H.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Gillis, David B.; Miller, W. David

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hyperspectral imagery can be used, without atmospheric correction, to determine the presence of accessory phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters using derivative techniques. However, care must be taken not to confuse other absorptions for those caused by the presence of pigments. Atmospheric correction, usually the first step to making products from hyperspectral data, may not completely remove Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands and these absorptions may interfere with identification of phytoplankton accessory pigments. Furthermore, the ability to resolve absorption bands depends on the spectral resolution of the spectrometer, which for a fixed spectral range also determines the number of observed bands. Based on this information, a study was undertaken to determine under what circumstances a hyperspectral sensor may determine the presence of pigments. As part of the study a hyperspectral imager was used to take high spectral resolution data over two different water masses. In order to avoid the problems associated with atmospheric correction this data was analyzed as radiance data without atmospheric correction. Here, the purpose was to identify spectral regions that might be diagnostic for photosynthetic pigments. Two well proven techniques were used to aid in absorption band recognition, the continuum removal of the spectra and the fourth derivative. The findings in this study suggest that interpretation of absorption bands in remote sensing data, whether atmospherically corrected or not, have to be carefully reviewed when they are interpreted in terms of photosynthetic pigments. PMID:22574053

  17. New xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for sorting of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, Sergey E.; Novikov, Alexander S.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Vlasik, Konstantin F.; Uteshev, Ziyaetdin M.; Shustov, Alexander E.; Petrenko, Denis V.

    2016-09-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer for radioactive waste sorting is presented. The equipment is based on a new "thin-walled" xenon gamma-ray detector with sensitive volume of 4 liters and a digital electronics unit. Use of the thin wall (0.5 mm of stainless steel covered with fiberglass) provides lower absorption of gamma-rays by the detector's walls and expansion of the energy range of radiation being registered. The digital electronics unit makes it possible to use the equipment in unfavorable field conditions such as high levels of acoustic influence.

  18. A simple F-center laser spectrometer for continuous single frequency scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Lykke, Keith R.; Nesbitt, David J.

    1988-12-01

    We report a simple and novel scheme for continuous, single frequency scanning of a commercial F-center laser without any computer interfacing. The scheme utilizes galvo tuning of the cavity length with intracavity CaF 2 Brewster plates with servo loop control of the intracavity etalon. This permits continuous tuning of the F-center frequency over 0.8 cm -1 under complete manual control, as well as arbitrarily long, concatenated scans, and trivial interfacing to a data acquisition system. This scanning spectrometer operation is demonstrated on direct absorption of atomic bromine.

  19. A terahertz time-domain spectrometer for simultaneous transmission and reflection measurements at normal incidence.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Fabian D J; Schneider, Arno; Günter, Peter

    2009-11-09

    We present a versatile terahertz time-domain spectrometer which allows reflection measurements at normal incidence and double pass transmission measurements in a single experimental setup. Two different modes for transmission measurements are demonstrated for precise measurements of transparent high or low refractive index materials, respectively. The refractive indices and absorption coefficients of cesium iodide, potassium bromide, sodium chloride, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), and silicon have been measured in the frequency range between 1.4 and 4.7 THz. The parameters of the Lorentz oscillator functions describing the phonon polariton dispersions of CsI and KBr have been determined.

  20. Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

  1. Laboratory detection of HC9N using a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Minoru; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Endo, Yasuki

    1991-04-01

    The laboratory microwave spectrum of a linear carbon chain molecule, HC9N (cyano-octatetra-yne), has been observed for the first time by discharging a mixture of vinyl-cyanide and acetylene diluted in argon. The absorption spectrum was observed in a supersonic beam, using a pulsed-nozzle Fabry-Perot-type Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Frequencies of 11 rotational transitions have been combined with the previously reported astronomical data, yielding accurate ground state parameters, B0 = 290.518322(57) MHz and D0 = 0.874(78) Hz.

  2. Modular reconfigurable matched spectral filter spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schundler, Elizabeth; Engel, James R.; Gruber, Thomas; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Mansur, David J.; Dixon, John; Potter, Kevin; Newbry, Scott

    2015-06-01

    OPTRA is currently developing a modular, reconfigurable matched spectral filter (RMSF) spectrometer for the monitoring of greenhouse gases. The heart of this spectrometer will be the RMSF core, which is a dispersive spectrometer that images the sample spectrum from 2000 - 3333 cm-1 onto a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) such that different columns correspond to different wavebands. By applying masks to this DMD, a matched spectral filter can be applied in hardware. The core can then be paired with different fore-optics or detector modules to achieve active in situ or passive remote detection of the chemicals of interest. This results in a highly flexible system that can address a wide variety of chemicals by updating the DMD masks and a wide variety of applications by swapping out fore-optic and detector modules. In either configuration, the signal on the detector is effectively a dot-product between the applied mask and the sample spectrum that can be used to make detection and quantification determinations. Using this approach significantly reduces the required data bandwidth of the sensor without reducing the information content, therefore making it ideal for remote, unattended systems. This paper will focus on the design of the RMSF core.

  3. The compact neutron spectrometer at ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schuhmacher, H.; Tardini, G.; Neu, R.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-12-15

    The first neutron spectrometer of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) was installed in November 2008. It is a compact neutron spectrometer (CNS) based on a BC501A liquid scintillating detector, which can simultaneously measure 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted from deuterium (D) plasmas and {gamma} radiation. The scintillating detector is coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination data acquisition (DPSD) system capable of count rates up to 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. The DPSD system can operate in acquisition and processing mode. With the latter n-{gamma} discrimination is performed off-line based on the two-gate method. The paper describes the tests of the CNS and its installation at AUG. The neutron emission from the D plasma measured during a discharge with high auxiliary heating power was used to validate the CNS performance. The study of the optimal settings for the DPSD data processing to maximize the n-{gamma} discrimination capability of the CNS is reported. The CNS measured both 2.45-MeV and 14-MeV neutrons emitted in AUG D plasmas with a maximum count rate of 5.4 x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (>10 times higher than similar spectrometers previously achieved) with an efficiency of 9.3 x 10{sup -10} events per AUG neutron.

  4. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  5. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  6. Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, Jonas O.; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L.; Lefmann, Kim; Markó, Márton; Niedermayer, Christof; Freeman, Paul G.; Christensen, Niels B.; Månsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2014-11-15

    Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab.

  7. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  8. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  9. The wide-angle neutron spin echo spectrometer project WASP

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design and optimization for the wide angle spin-echo spectrometer (WASP) presently being planned at the ILL. The spectrometer will be a replacement for the high intensity spectrometer IN11 and will enhance its signal by more than one order of magnitude while maintaining the resolution of the present spectrometer. The paper outlines the magnetic field calculations and the considerations about possible limitations. The projected performance has been verified carefully by Monte Carlo raytracing and Biot-Savart magnetic field calculations. The maximum momentum transfer of the new spectrometer is to be extended to 4 angstroms {sup -1}.

  10. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K ( -85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  11. Detecting methane plumes with the APEX imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer primarily designed for environmental remote sensing of the land surface but also allows observing atmospheric trace gases. To test if APEX can be used to detect strong methane plumes, the instrument was flown over a coal mining area near Ibbenbürren (Germany). According to the European Point source emission inventory (E-PRTR), emissions from the ventilation shafts of these coal mines are the largest single source of methane in Germany. We present the first measurements of methane ever taken by APEX making use of the absorption features of methane in the short-wave infrared spectral range. Our detection algorithm uses a matched filter to identify the presence of methane. The filter is tested in two spectral windows (1600-1700 nm and 2100-2500 nm) and for different spatial binning of pixels to improve the signal-to-noise. Using this approach, we could clearly identify two meandering methane plumes originating from the ventilation shafts of two coal mines (Bockradener Schacht and Theodor Schacht). The filter performed best for the spectral window from 1600-1700 nm with a binning of 10×10 pixels corresponding to a spatial resolution of about 35×25 m2 In conclusions, we could demonstrate that APEX is able to detect strong methane plumes. The results provide a basis for developing more sophisticated and quantitative methane retrievals.

  12. Applications of the VUV Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Synchrotron Soleil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Ito, Kenji; Gans, Berenger; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) are usually based upon amplitude division interferometers through beamsplitters (BS) as in the Michelson interferometer geometry. However, the manufacture of broadband BS is difficult and even impossible in the far VUV (below λ = 140 nm). We therefore conceived an instrument based upon an original design involving only reflective plane surfaces, giving access to the whole VUV range without the restrictions associated with BS. The VUV- FTS is a permanent endstation connected to one of the three experimental branches of the DESIRS beamline and devoted to high resolution photoabsorption in the UV-VUV spectral range, typically between λ = 300 and 40 nm Since 2008, a large international community of users interested in laboratory measurements with applications in astrophysics, molecular physics or planetary atmospheres has been attracted by the VUV - FTS capabilities including its efficiency in terms of signal to noise ratio, even when high spectral resolution was not an issue. A large number of dedicated gas phase sample environments have been developed including a windowless cell that can be cooled down, a heated windowless cell, a free molecular jet set-up and various windowed cells. Besides, a new discharge gas cell for production and study of transient species gave recently its first results. As an illustration, the VUV absorption spectrum of the CH_3 radical down to 140 nm will be shown in this presentation. Nahon et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat., 19, 508(2012) De Oliveira et al., Nat. Photonics, 5, 149(2011)

  13. Measuring the expressed abundance of the three phases of water with an imaging spectrometer over melting snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert O.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Dozier, Jeff

    2006-10-01

    From imaging spectrometer data, we simultaneously estimate the abundance of the three phases of water in an environment that includes melting snow, basing the analysis on the spectral shift in the absorption coefficient between water vapor, liquid water, and ice at 940, 980, and 1030 nm respectively. We apply a spectral fitting algorithm that measures the expressed abundance of the three phases of water to a data set acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over Mount Rainier, Washington, on 14 June 1996. Precipitable water vapor varies from 1 mm over the summit of Mount Rainier to 10 mm over the lower valleys to the northwest. Equivalent path absorption of liquid water varies from 0 to 13 mm, with the zero values over rocky areas and high-elevation snow and the high values associated with liquid water held in vegetation canopies and in melting snow. Ice abundance varies from 0 to 30 mm equivalent path absorption in the snow- and glacier-covered portions of Mount Rainier. The water and ice abundances are related to the amount of liquid water and the sizes of the ice grains in the near-surface layer. Precision of the estimates, calculated over locally homogeneous areas, indicates an uncertainty of better than 1.5% for all three phases, except for liquid water in vegetation, where an optimally homogeneous site was not found. The analysis supports new strategies for hydrological research and applications as imaging spectrometers become more available.

  14. Preliminary analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for mineralogic mapping at sites in Nevada and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Taranik, Dan L.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data for sites in Nevada and Colorado were evaluated to determine their utility for mineralogical mapping in support of geologic investigations. Equal energy normalization is commonly used with imaging spectrometer data to reduce albedo effects. Spectra, profiles, and stacked, color-coded spectra were extracted from the AVIRIS data using an interactive analysis program (QLook) and these derivative data were compared to Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) results, field and laboratory spectra, and geologic maps. A feature extraction algorithm was used to extract and characterize absorption features from AVIRIS and laboratory spectra, allowing direct comparison of the position and shape of absorption features. Both muscovite and carbonate spectra were identified in the Nevada AVIRIS data by comparison with laboratory and AIS spectra, and an image was made that showed the distribution of these minerals for the entire site. Additional, distinctive spectra were located for an unknown mineral. For the two Colorado sites, the signal-to-noise problem was significantly worse and attempts to extract meaningful spectra were unsuccessful. Problems with the Colorado AVIRIS data were accentuated by the IAR reflectance technique because of moderate vegetation cover. Improved signal-to-noise and alternative calibration procedures will be required to produce satisfactory reflectance spectra from these data. Although the AVIRIS data were useful for mapping strong mineral absorption features and producing mineral maps at the Nevada site, it is clear that significant improvements to the instrument performance are required before AVIRIS will be an operational instrument.

  15. Active feedback regulation of a Michelson interferometer to achieve zero-background absorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Patrik; Guan, Zuguang; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-01-20

    An active phase-controlling scheme based on a proportional-integral-derivative-controlled piezoelectric transducer is presented with the purpose of stabilizing a quasi-zero-background absorption spectrometer. A fiber-based balanced Michelson interferometer is used, and absorption due to a gas sample in one of its arms results in an increased light signal to a detector, which otherwise, thanks to destructive interference, experiences a very low light level. With the presented approach, the sensitivity of already potent absorption measurement techniques, e.g., based on modulation, could be improved even further.

  16. Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.

  17. Ultra-compact holographic spectrometers for diffuse source spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chaoray

    Compact and sensitive spectrometers are of high utility in biological and environmental sensing applications. Over the past half century, enormous research resources are dedicated in making the spectrometers more compact and sensitive. However, since all works are based on the same structure of the conventional spectrometers, the improvement on the performance is limited. Therefore, this ancient research filed still deserves further investigation, and a revolutionary idea is required to take the spectrometers to a whole new level. The research work presented in this thesis focuses on developing a new class of spectrometers that work based on diffractive properties of volume holograms. The hologram in these spectrometers acts as a spectral diversity filter, which maps different input wavelengths into different locations in the output plane. The experimental results show that properly designed volume holograms have excellent capability for separating different wavelength channels of a collimated incident beam. By adding a Fourier transforming lens behind the hologram, a slitless Fourier-transform volume holographic spectrometer is demonstrated, and it works well under diffuse light without using any spatial filter (i.e., slit) in the input. By further design of the hologram, a very compact slitless and lensless spectrometer is implemented for diffuse source spectroscopy by using only a volume hologram and a CCD camera. More sophisticated output patterns are also demonstrated using specially designed holograms to improve the performance of the holographic spectrometers. Finally, the performance of the holographic spectrometers is evaluated and the building of the holographic spectrometer prototype is also discussed.

  18. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  19. New generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueming; Wei, Liqin; Yuan, Liyin; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Xie, Feng; Han, Guicheng; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-10-01

    Imaging spectrometer plays an important role in the remote sensing application. Imaging spectrometer can collects and provides a unique spectral signature of many materials. The spectral signature may be absorbing, reflecting, and emitting. Generally, optical spectral bands for earth observing consist of VNIR, SWIR, TIR/LWIR. VNIR band imaging spectrometer is well-known in vegetation remote sensing and ocean detection. SWIR band imaging spectrometer is widely applied in mineralogy investigation. For its uniquely capability of spectral radiance measurement, TIR/LWIR imaging spectrometer attracts much attention these years. This paper will present a new generation VNIR/SWIR/TIR imaging spectrometer. The preliminary result of its first flight will also be shared. The spectral sampling intervals of VNIR/SWIR/TIR are 2.4nm/3nm/30nm, respectively. The spatial pixel numbers are 2800/1400/700,respectively. It's a push-broom imaging spectrometer.

  20. Picosecond transient absorption study of photodissociated carboxy hemoglobin and myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, S.M.; Dalickas, G.A.; Eaton, W.A.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    The optical transient absorption spectra at 30 ps and 6.5 ns after photolysis are compared for both carboxy hemoglobin (HbCO) and carboxy myoglobin (MbCO). Both 355- and 532-nm excitation pulses were used. In all cases the shapes of the optical difference spectra thus generated are stationary over the complete time-scale studied. The photolysis spectra for MbCO are not significantly different from the equilibrium difference spectra generated on the same picosecond spectrometer when measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.5 nm. In addition, spectral parameters for delegated HbCO generated on the same spectrometer but detected by two different techniques, either by a Vidicon detector or point by point with photomultiplier tubes, are reported; the results are different from some of the previously reported picosecond experiments.