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Sample records for absorption spectrophotometric analysis

  1. [Determination of aluminum in sediments by atomic absorption spectrophotometer without FIA spectrophotometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-yi; Han, Guang-xi; Song, Xi-ming; Luo, Zhi-xiong

    2008-06-01

    To search for a new method of determining, we developed a new flow injection analyzer, applied to the atomic absorption spectrophotometer, relying on it without flame in place of visible spectrophotometer, and studied the appropriate condition for the determination of aluminum in sediments, thus built up a kind of new analytical test technique. Three peak and two valley absorption values (A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5) can be continuously obtained simultaneously that all can be used for quantitative analysis, then we discussed its theory and experiment technique. Based on the additivity of absorbance (A = A1+A2+A3+A4+ A5), the sensitivity of FIA is enhanced, and its precision and linear relation are also good, raising the efficiency of AAS. The simple method has been applied to determining Al in sediments, and the results are satisfactory.

  2. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Bhawani, Showkat; Fong, Sim Siong; Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The nature of caffeine reveals that it is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. It is a common ingredient in a variety of drinks (soft and energy drinks) and is also used in combination with various medicines. In order to maintain the optimum level of caffeine, various spectrophotometric methods have been developed. The monitoring of caffeine is very important aspect because of its consumption in higher doses that can lead to various physiological disorders. This paper incorporates various spectrophotometric methods used in the analysis of caffeine in various environmental samples such as pharmaceuticals, soft and energy drinks, tea, and coffee. A range of spectrophotometric methodologies including chemometric techniques and derivatization of spectra have been used to analyse the caffeine. PMID:26604926

  3. The Spectrophotometric Analysis and Modeling of Sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Christina; Keeney, Allen; Wigal, Carl T.; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Cornelius, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Sunscreens and their SPF (Sun Protection Factor) values are the focus of this experiment that includes spectrophotometric measurements and molecular modeling. Students suspend weighed amounts of sunscreen lotions graded SPF 4, 6, 8, 15, 30, and 45 in water and dissolve aliquots of the aqueous suspensions in propanol. The expected relationship of absorbance proportional to log10(SPF) applies at 312 nm where a maximum in absorbance occurs for the sunscreen solutions. Results at 330 nm give similar results and are more accessible using spectrometers routinely available in the introductory laboratory. Sunscreens constitute a suitable class of compounds to use for modeling electronic spectra, and using the computer for the active ingredients ethylhexyl para-methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate, and octocrylene found in commercially available formulations typically predicts the absorption maxima within 10 nm. This experiment lets students explore which compounds have the potential to function as sunscreen agents and thereby see the importance of a knowledge of chemistry to the formulation of household items.

  4. Preparation and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Hexaamminenickel(II) Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment developed at Brooklyn College (New York) in which the preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel(II) chloride is extended to include a spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. Discusses the materials needed and the procedure for the experiment which takes nine hours of laboratory work. (TW)

  5. Development and validation of spectrophotometric, atomic absorption and kinetic methods for determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abdellaziz, Lobna M; Hosny, Mervat M

    2011-01-01

    Three simple spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods are developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (A) is a kinetic method based on the oxidation of moxifloxacin HCl by Fe(3+) ion in the presence of 1,10 o-phenanthroline (o-phen). Method (B) describes spectrophotometric procedures for determination of moxifloxacin HCl based on its ability to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II), which was rapidly converted to the corresponding stable coloured complex after reacting with 2,2' bipyridyl (bipy). The formation of the tris-complex formed in both methods (A) and (B) were carefully studied and their absorbance were measured at 510 and 520 nm respectively. Method (C) is based on the formation of ion- pair associated between the drug and bismuth (III) tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange-red ion-pair associates. This associate can be quantitatively determined by three different procedures. The formed precipitate is either filtered off, dissolved in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically at 462 nm (Procedure 1), or decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric (Procedure 2). Also the residual unreacted metal complex in the filtrate is determined through its metal content using indirect atomic absorption spectrometric technique (procedure 3). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the three proposed methods permit the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in the range of (0.8-6, 0.8-4) for methods A and B, (16-96, 16-96 and 16-72) for procedures 1-3 in method C. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated, the precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical formulations

  6. Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric, Atomic Absorption and Kinetic Methods for Determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Abdellaziz, Lobna M.; Hosny, Mervat M.

    2011-01-01

    Three simple spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods are developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (A) is a kinetic method based on the oxidation of moxifloxacin HCl by Fe3+ ion in the presence of 1,10 o-phenanthroline (o-phen). Method (B) describes spectrophotometric procedures for determination of moxifloxacin HCl based on its ability to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II), which was rapidly converted to the corresponding stable coloured complex after reacting with 2,2′ bipyridyl (bipy). The formation of the tris-complex formed in both methods (A) and (B) were carefully studied and their absorbance were measured at 510 and 520 nm respectively. Method (C) is based on the formation of ion- pair associated between the drug and bismuth (III) tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange—red ion-pair associates. This associate can be quantitatively determined by three different procedures. The formed precipitate is either filtered off, dissolved in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically at 462 nm (Procedure 1), or decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric (Procedure 2). Also the residual unreacted metal complex in the filtrate is determined through its metal content using indirect atomic absorption spectrometric technique (procedure 3). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the three proposed methods permit the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in the range of (0.8–6, 0.8–4) for methods A and B, (16–96, 16–96 and 16–72) for procedures 1–3 in method C. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated, the precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of ketoprofen and its application in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kormosh, Zholt; Hunka, Iryna; Basel, Yaroslav

    2009-01-01

    A new simple rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ketoprofen in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction of ketoprofen with an analytical reagent--Astra Phloxin FF--at pH 8.0-10.8 and followed by the extraction of formed ion associate in toluene with spectrophotometric detection (it has an absorption maximum at 563 nm, epsilon = 7.6 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1)). The calibration plot was linear from 0.8-16.0 microg x mL(-1) of ketoprofen, and the detection limit was 0.037 microg x mL(-1).

  8. Analysis of ultraviolet spectrophotometric data from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectral data from the OAO 3 satellite are being used to study interstellar absorption lines and stellar and circumstellar lines in hot stars. The interstellar data are beneficial in analyzing the depletions of heavy elements from the gas phase and in elucidating how these depletions depend on physical conditions. Abundances in separate velocity components were determined from line profiles. Observations were carried out for interstellar abundances, both atomic and molecular, towards a number of stars. The better quality data are being analyzed for profile information and the lesser data are being used in curve-of-growth analyses. Molecular observations were carried out as well, N2 was sought; interstellar C2 was detected and its rotational excitation utilized to establish limits in interstellar cloud temperatures. An extensive search for H2O resulted in a tentative identification which will produce new information on chemical reaction rates. Interstellar depletions and grain properties in the rho Ophiuchi cloud, stellar wind variability, and circumstellar lines are also under study.

  9. Novel atomic absorption spectrometric and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the quantitation of paracetamol in saliva: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Issa, M M; Nejem, R M; El-Abadla, N S; Al-Kholy, M; Saleh, Akila A

    2008-01-01

    A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III) (method I); oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II). Iron (II) then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III) in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II) at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 mug/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 mug/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 mug/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%.

  10. Novel Atomic Absorption Spectrometric and Rapid Spectrophotometric Methods for the Quantitation of Paracetamol in Saliva: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Issa, M. M.; Nejem, R. M.; El-Abadla, N. S.; Al-Kholy, M.; Saleh, Akila. A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III) (method I); oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II). Iron (II) then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III) in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II) at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 μg/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 μg/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 μg/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%. PMID:20046743

  11. Successive spectrophotometric resolution as a novel technique for the analysis of ternary mixtures of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Tawakkol, Shereen M.; Fahmy, Nesma M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.

    2014-03-01

    A novel spectrophotometric technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This technique was called successive spectrophotometric resolution technique. The technique was based on either the successive ratio subtraction or successive derivative subtraction. The mathematical explanation of the procedure was illustrated. In order to evaluate the applicability of the methods a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data related to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LH), calcium dobesilate (CD) and dexamethasone acetate (DA); in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ), the degradation product of calcium dobesilate were discussed. The proposed drugs were determined at their maxima 202 nm, 305 nm, 239 nm and 225 nm for LH, CD, DA and HQ respectively; by successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication method to obtain the zero order absorption spectra, while by applying successive derivative subtraction they were determined at their first derivative spectra at 210 nm for LH, 320 nm or P292-320 for CD, 256 nm or P225-252 for DA and P220-233 for HQ respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2-20 μg/mL for both LH and DA, 6-50 μg/mL for CD, and 3-40 μg/mL for HQ. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs with no interference from other dosage form additives. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official BP methods for LH, DA, and CD, and with the official USP method for HQ; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  12. From thermometric to spectrophotometric kinetic-catalytic methods of analysis. A review.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Víctor; González, Alba; Danchana, Kaewta

    2017-05-15

    Kinetic-catalytic analytical methods have proved to be very easy and highly sensitive strategies for chemical analysis, that rely on simple instrumentation [1,2]. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry is commonly used as the detection technique. However, other detection systems, like electrochemical or thermometric ones, offer some interesting possibilities since they are not affected by the color or turbidity of the samples. In this review some initial experience with thermometric kinetic-catalytic methods is described, up to our current experience exploiting spectrophotometric flow techniques to automate this kind of reactions, including the use of integrated chips. Procedures for determination of inorganic and organic species in organic and inorganic matrices are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel ratio difference at coabsorptive point spectrophotometric method for determination of components with wide variation in their absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed S; Abo-Talib, Nisreen F; El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R

    2016-01-05

    Different methods have been introduced to enhance selectivity of UV-spectrophotometry thus enabling accurate determination of co-formulated components, however mixtures whose components exhibit wide variation in absorptivities has been an obstacle against application of UV-spectrophotometry. The developed ratio difference at coabsorptive point method (RDC) represents a simple effective solution for the mentioned problem, where the additive property of light absorbance enabled the consideration of the two components as multiples of the lower absorptivity component at certain wavelength (coabsorptive point), at which their total concentration multiples could be determined, whereas the other component was selectively determined by applying the ratio difference method in a single step. Mixture of perindopril arginine (PA) and amlodipine besylate (AM) figures that problem, where the low absorptivity of PA relative to AM hinders selective spectrophotometric determination of PA. The developed method successfully determined both components in the overlapped region of their spectra with accuracy 99.39±1.60 and 100.51±1.21, for PA and AM, respectively. The method was validated as per the USP guidelines and showed no significant difference upon statistical comparison with reported chromatographic method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  15. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  16. Solid-Phase Spectrophotometric Analysis of 1-Naphthol Using Silica Functionalized with m-Diazophenylarsonic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, Nataliya; Alekseev, Sergei; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Raks, Viktoria

    2016-03-01

    The m-aminophenylarsonic acid (m-APAA) was immobilized onto the silica gel surface with covalently grafted quaternary ammonium groups via ion exchange. The diazotization of ion-bonded m-APAA resulted in a new solid-phase spectrophotometric reagent for detection of 1-naphtol in environmental water samples. The procedure of solid-phase spectrophotometric analysis is characterized by 20 μg L-1 limit of detection (LOD) of 1-naphtol, up to 2000 concentration factor, and insensitivity to the presence of natural water components as well as to 30-fold excess of phenol, resorcinol, and catechol.

  17. Direct spectrophotometric method for analysis of food supplements containing synthetic polyhydroquinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevsky, A. M.; Konoplev, G. A.; Stepanova, O. S.; Toropov, D. K.; Zagorsky, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    A novel direct spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of Oxiphore® drug substance (synthetic polyhydroquinone complex) in food supplements is developed. Absorption spectra of Oxiphore® water solutions in the ultraviolet region are presented. Samples preparation procedures and mathematical methods of spectra post-analytical procession are discussed. Basic characteristics of the automatic CCD-based UV spectrophotometer and special software implementing the developed method are described. The results of the trials of the developed method and software are analyzed: the error of determination for Oxiphore® concentration in water solutions of the isolated substance and singlecomponent food supplements did not exceed 15% (average error was 7…10%).

  18. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.

  19. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride.

    PubMed

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Los Weinert, Patrícia; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-10

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax=565nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63×10(-7) to 2.90×10(-5)molL(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07×10(-7) and 3.57×10(-7)molL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Verification of spectrophotometric method for nitrate analysis in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Gusrianti, Reny; Dwisiwi, Bledug Bernanti; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the spectrophotometric method to analyze nitrate in water samples using APHA 2012 Section 4500 NO3-B method. The verification parameters used were: linearity, method detection limit, level of quantitation, level of linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was obtained by using 0 to 50 mg/L nitrate standard solution and the correlation coefficient of standard calibration linear regression equation was 0.9981. The method detection limit (MDL) was defined as 0,1294 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0,4117 mg/L. The result of a level of linearity (LOL) was 50 mg/L and nitrate concentration 10 to 50 mg/L was linear with a level of confidence was 99%. The accuracy was determined through recovery value was 109.1907%. The precision value was observed using % relative standard deviation (%RSD) from repeatability and its result was 1.0886%. The tested performance criteria showed that the methodology was verified under the laboratory conditions.

  1. Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of benzophenone (as an impurity) in phenytoin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Three simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods were developed for detection and trace determination of benzophenone (the main impurity) in phenytoin bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations. The first method, zero-crossing first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the first derivative trough values at 257.6 nm for benzophenone. The second method, zero-crossing third derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the third derivative peak values at 263.2 nm. The third method, ratio first derivative spectrophotometry, depends on measuring the peak amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (the spectra of benzophenone divided by the spectrum of 5.0 μg/mL phenytoin solution) at 272 nm. The calibration graphs were linear over the range of 1-10 μg/mL. The detection limits of the first and the third derivative methods were found to be 0.04 μg/mL and 0.11 μg/mL and the quantitation limits were 0.13 μg/mL and 0.34 μg/mL, respectively, while for the ratio derivative method, the detection limit was 0.06 μg/mL and the quantitation limit was 0.18 μg/mL. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the assay of the studied drug in phenytoin bulk powder and certain pharmaceutical preparations. The results were statistically compared to those obtained using a polarographic method and were found to be in good agreement. PMID:22152156

  2. Validated chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for analysis of some amoebicide drugs in their combined pharmaceutical preparation.

    PubMed

    Abdelaleem, Eglal Adelhamid; Abdelwahab, Nada Sayed

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with development and validation of chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for analysis of mebeverine HCl (MEH), diloxanide furoate (DF) and metronidazole (MET) in Dimetrol® tablets - spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods using UV detection. The developed spectrophotometric methods depend on determination of MEH and DF in the combined dosage form using the successive derivative ratio spectra method which depends on derivatization of the obtained ratio spectra in two steps using methanol as a solvent and measuring MEH at 226.4-232.2 nm (peak to peak) and DF at 260.6-264.8 nm (peak to peak). While MET concentrations were determined using first derivative (1D) at λ = 327 nm using the same solvent. The chromatographic method depends on HPLC separation on ODS column and elution with a mobile phase consisting water: methanol: triethylamine (25: 75: 0.5, by volume, orthophosphoric acid to pH =4). Pumping the mobile phase at 0.7 ml min-1 with UV at 230 nm. Factors affecting the developed methods were studied and optimized, moreover, they have been validated as per ICH guideline and the results demonstrated that the suggested methods are reproducible, reliable and can be applied for routine use with short time of analysis. Statistical analysis of the two developed methods with each other using F and student's-t tests showed no significant difference.

  3. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for analysis of tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellatef, Hisham E.; El-Henawee, Magda M.; El-Sayed, Heba M.; Ayad, Magda M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods are described for the determination of tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin (dosulepin) hydrochlorides. The two methods are based on the condensation of the cited drugs with the mixed anhydrides of malonic and acetic acids at 60 °C for 25-40 min. The coloured condensation products are suitable for the spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric determination at 329-333 and 431-434 nm (excitation at 389 nm), respectively. For the spectrophotometric method, Beer's law was obeyed from 0.5 to 2.5 μg ml -1 for tramadol, dothiepin and 5-25 μg ml -1 for acebutolol. Using the spectrofluorimetric method linearity ranged from 0.25 to 1.25 μg ml -1 for tramadol, dothiepin and 1-5 μg ml -1 for acebutolol. Mean percentage recoveries for the spectrophotometric method were 99.68 ± 1.00, 99.95 ± 1.11 and 99.72 ± 1.01 for tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin, respectively and for the spectrofluorimetric method, recoveries were 99.5 ± 0.844, 100.32 ± 0.969 and 99.82 ± 1.15 for the three drugs, respectively. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction has been studied. The validity of the described procedures was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the selected drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations with good recoveries. The procedures were accurate, simple and suitable for quality control application.

  4. Automated spectrophotometric bicarbonate analysis in duodenal juice compared to the back titration method.

    PubMed

    Erchinger, Friedemann; Engjom, Trond; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd H; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have recently evaluated a short endoscopic secretin test for exocrine pancreatic function. Bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice is an important parameter in this test. Measurement of bicarbonate by back titration as the gold standard method is time consuming, expensive and technically difficult, thus a simplified method is warranted. We aimed to evaluate an automated spectrophotometric method in samples spanning the effective range of bicarbonate concentrations in duodenal juice. We also evaluated if freezing of samples before analyses would affect its results. Patients routinely examined with short endoscopic secretin test suspected to have decreased pancreatic function of various reasons were included. Bicarbonate in duodenal juice was quantified by back titration and automatic spectrophotometry. Both fresh and thawed samples were analysed spectrophotometrically. 177 samples from 71 patients were analysed. Correlation coefficient of all measurements was r = 0.98 (p < 0.001). Correlation coefficient of fresh versus frozen samples conducted with automatic spectrophotometry (n = 25): r = 0.96 (p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of bicarbonate in fresh and thawed samples by automatic spectrophotometrical analysis correlates excellent with the back titration gold standard. This is a major simplification of direct pancreas function testing, and allows a wider distribution of bicarbonate testing in duodenal juice. Extreme values for Bicarbonate concentration achieved by the autoanalyser method have to be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of ultraviolet spectrophotometric data from Copernicus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P. Jr

    1979-04-17

    Ultraviolet spectral data from the OAO 3 satellite are being used to study interstellar absorption lines and stellar and circumstellar lines in hot stars. The interstellar data are beneficial in analyzing the depletions of heavy elements from the gas phase and in elucidating how these depletions depend on physical conditions. Abundances in separate velocity components were determined from line profiles. Observations were carried out for interstellar abundances, both atomic and molecular, towards a number of stars. The better quality data are being analyzed for profile information and the lesser data are being used in curve-of-growth analyses. Molecular observations were carriedmore » out as well; N/sup 2/ was sought, interstellar C/sup 2/ was detected and its rotational excitation utilized to establish limits in interstellar cloud temperatures. An extensive search for H/sup 2/O resulted in a tentative identification which will produce new information on chemical reaction rates. Interstellar depletions and grain properties in the rho Ophiuchi cloud, stellar wind variability, and circumstellar lines are also under study.« less

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Clopidogrel Bisulphate and Aspirin by First Derivative Spectrophotometric Method in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Game, Madhuri D.; Gabhane, K. B.; Sakarkar, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of clopidogrel bisulphate and aspirin by employing first order derivative zero crossing method. The first order derivative absorption at 232.5 nm (zero cross point of aspirin) was used for clopidogrel bisulphate and 211.3 nm (zero cross point of clopidogrel bisulphate) for aspirin.Both the drugs obeyed linearity in the concentration range of 5.0 μg/ml to 25.0 μg/ml (correlation coefficient r2<1). No interference was found between both determined constituents and those of matrix. The method was validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out to confirm the accuracy of the method. PMID:21969765

  7. Analysis of Closely Related Antioxidant Nutraceuticals Using the Green Analytical Methodology of ANN and Smart Spectrophotometric Methods.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Gazy, Azza A; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Kamal, Miranda F

    2017-01-01

    Two new, simple, and specific green analytical methods are proposed: zero-crossing first-derivative and chemometric-based spectrophotometric artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed methods were used for the simultaneous estimation of two closely related antioxidant nutraceuticals, coenzyme Q10 (Q10) and vitamin E, in their mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. The first method is based on the handling of spectrophotometric data with the first-derivative technique, in which both nutraceuticals were determined in ethanol, each at the zero crossing of the other. The amplitudes of the first-derivative spectra for Q10 and vitamin E were recorded at 285 and 235 nm respectively, and correlated with their concentrations. The linearity ranges of Q10 and vitamin E were 10-60 and 5.6-70 μg⋅mL-1, respectively. The second method, ANN, is a multivariate calibration method and it was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of both analytes. A training set of 90 different synthetic mixtures containing Q10 and vitamin E in the ranges of 0-100 and 0-556 μg⋅mL-1, respectively, was prepared in ethanol. The absorption spectra of the training set were recorded in the spectral region of 230-300 nm. By relating the concentration sets (x-block) with their corresponding absorption data (y-block), gradient-descent back-propagation ANN calibration could be computed. To validate the proposed network, a set of 45 synthetic mixtures of the two drugs was used. Both proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of Q10 and vitamin E in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical tablets with excellent recovery. These methods offer advantages over other methods because of low-cost equipment, time-saving measures, and environmentally friendly materials. In addition, no chemical separation prior to analysis was needed. The ANN method was superior to the derivative technique because ANN can determine both drugs under nonlinear experimental

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) in forensic and pharmaceutical samples and results complemented with ICP AES and EDXRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Vani; Kumar, M. Kiran; Giddappa, Nagendrappa

    2017-02-01

    Spectrophotometric method with three systems were developed here for the determination of gold(III) using o-dianisidine, aniline sulphate and catechol. Gold(III),in the system 1 it oxidizes o-dianisidine, in the system 2 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with o-dianisidine, in the system 3 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with aniline sulphate forming dye products with respective λmax 446 nm, 540 nm, and 505 nm. All the three systems were optimized and analytical parameters were calculated. The molar absorptivity values were 9.27 × 104, 1.97 × 104 and 1.62 × 104 respectively for the systems 1, 2 and 3 with the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values (μg cm- 2), 0.0021, 0.0096 and 0.011. The optimized systems were used for the determination of gold present in some forensic jewellery and pharmaceutical samples and the results obtained were compared with the results of all samples determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometric method and a few of them were also complemented by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent spectral analysis.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) in forensic and pharmaceutical samples and results complemented with ICP AES and EDXRF analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Vani; Kumar, M Kiran; Giddappa, Nagendrappa

    2017-02-15

    Spectrophotometric method with three systems were developed here for the determination of gold(III) using o-dianisidine, aniline sulphate and catechol. Gold(III),in the system 1 it oxidizes o-dianisidine, in the system 2 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with o-dianisidine, in the system 3 it oxidizes catechol followed by its coupling with aniline sulphate forming dye products with respective λ max 446nm, 540nm, and 505nm. All the three systems were optimized and analytical parameters were calculated. The molar absorptivity values were 9.27×10 4 , 1.97×10 4 and 1.62×10 4 respectively for the systems 1, 2 and 3 with the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values (μgcm -2 ), 0.0021, 0.0096 and 0.011. The optimized systems were used for the determination of gold present in some forensic jewellery and pharmaceutical samples and the results obtained were compared with the results of all samples determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometric method and a few of them were also complemented by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent spectral analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges and solutions for the analysis of in situ , in crystallo micro-spectrophotometric data

    DOE PAGES

    Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Hough, Michael A.; Pompidor, Guillaume; ...

    2015-01-01

    Combining macromolecular crystallography with in crystallo micro-spectrophotometry yields valuable complementary information on the sample, including the redox states of metal cofactors, the identification of bound ligands and the onset and strength of undesired photochemistry, also known as radiation damage. However, the analysis and processing of the resulting data differs significantly from the approaches used for solution spectrophotometric data. The varying size and shape of the sample, together with the suboptimal sample environment, the lack of proper reference signals and the general influence of the X-ray beam on the sample have to be considered and carefully corrected for. In the presentmore » article, we discuss how to characterize and treat these sample-dependent artefacts in a reproducible manner and we demonstrate the SLS-APE in situ, in crystallo optical spectroscopy data-analysis toolbox.« less

  11. SHARDS: a spectro-photometric analysis of distant red and dead massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-González, P. G.; Cava, A.; The Shards Team

    2013-05-01

    SHARDS, an ESO/GTC Large Program, is an ultra-deep (26.5 mag) spectro-photometric survey carried out with GTC/OSIRIS and designed to select and study massive passively evolving galaxies at z= 1.0--2.5 in the GOODS-N field. The survey uses a set of 24 medium band filters (FWHM ˜15 nm) covering the 500--950 nm spectral range. Our observing strategy has been planned to detect, for z>1 sources, the prominent Mg absorption feature (at rest-frame ˜280 nm), a distinctive, necessary, and sufficient feature of evolved stellar populations (older than 0.5 Gyr). These observations are being used to: (1) construct for the first time an unbiased sample of high-z quiescent galaxies, which extends to fainter magnitudes the samples selected with color techniques and spectroscopic surveys; (2) derive accurate ages and stellar masses based on robust measurements of spectral features such as the Mg(UV) or D(4000) indices; (3) measure their redshift with an accuracy Δ z/(1+z)<0.02; and (4) study emission-line galaxies (starbursts and AGN) up to very high redshifts. The well-sampled optical SEDs provided by SHARDS for all sources in the GOODS-N field are a valuable complement for current and future surveys carried out with other telescopes (e.g., Spitzer, HST, and Herschel).

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Seno, Kunihiko; Matumura, Kazuki; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-04-01

    1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC.HCl) is a very useful agent to form amide bonds (peptide bonds) in an aqueous medium. A simple and fast detection system was developed using the reaction with pyridine and ethylenediamine in acidic aqueous solution and spectrophotometric flow injection analysis. The absorbances were measured at 400 nm and the reaction was accelerated at 40 degrees C. The calibration graph showed good linearity from 0 to 10% of EDC.HCl solutions: the regression equation was y=3.15x10(4)x (y, peak area; x, % concentration of EDC.HCl). The RSD was under 1.0%. Sample throughput was 15 h(-1). This method was applied to monitoring the EDC.HCl concentration that remained after the anhydration of phthalic acid in water, esterification of acetic acid in methanol or dehydration condensation of malonic acid and ethylenediamine in water.

  13. Distributed Fast Self-Organized Maps for Massive Spectrophotometric Data Analysis †.

    PubMed

    Dafonte, Carlos; Garabato, Daniel; Álvarez, Marco A; Manteiga, Minia

    2018-05-03

    Analyzing huge amounts of data becomes essential in the era of Big Data, where databases are populated with hundreds of Gigabytes that must be processed to extract knowledge. Hence, classical algorithms must be adapted towards distributed computing methodologies that leverage the underlying computational power of these platforms. Here, a parallel, scalable, and optimized design for self-organized maps (SOM) is proposed in order to analyze massive data gathered by the spectrophotometric sensor of the European Space Agency (ESA) Gaia spacecraft, although it could be extrapolated to other domains. The performance comparison between the sequential implementation and the distributed ones based on Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark is an important part of the work, as well as the detailed analysis of the proposed optimizations. Finally, a domain-specific visualization tool to explore astronomical SOMs is presented.

  14. A fully battery-powered inexpensive spectrophotometric system for high-sensitivity point-of-care analysis on a microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Maowei; Lopez, Juan; Rios, Misael; Garcia, Oscar; Xiao, Chuan; Eastman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective battery-powered spectrophotometric system (BASS) was developed for quantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis on a microfluidic chip. By using methylene blue as a model analyte, we first compared the performance of the BASS with a commercial spectrophotometric system, and further applied the BASS for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection and subsequent quantitative nucleic acid analysis which exhibited a comparable limit of detection to that of Nanodrop. Compared to the commercial spectrophotometric system, our spectrophotometric system is lower-cost, consumes less reagents, and has a higher detection sensitivity. Most importantly, it does not rely on external power supplies. All these features make our spectrophotometric system highly suitable for a variety of POC analyses, such as field detection. PMID:27143408

  15. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of tin in canned foods, using nitric acid-hydrochloric acid digestion and nitrous oxide-acetylene flame: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Albert, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six collaborators participated in a study to evaluate an atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) method for the determination of tin in canned foods. The 5 foods evaluated were meat, pineapple juice, tomato paste, evaporated milk, and green beans, each spiked at 2 levels. The concentration range of tin in the samples was 10-450 micrograms/g, and each level was sent as a blind duplicate. Statistical treatment of results revealed no laboratory outliers and 6 individual or replicate-total outliers, accounting for 3.3% of the data. Repeatability (within-laboratory) coefficient of variation (CVo) ranged from 2.2 to 48%, depending on the tin level and food evaluated. For samples containing greater than or equal to 80 micrograms/g of tin, repeatability CV averaged 5.6% including outliers and 3.7% after their rejection. Overall among-laboratories coefficient of variation (CVx) varied from 3.3 to 58%; at levels greater than or equal to 80 micrograms/g, it averaged 7.3% with outliers and 5.3% after their rejection. Recovery of tin, based on spiking levels, ranged from 100.0 to 112.8% and averaged 105.4%. Detection limit range is 2-10 micrograms/g, and lower quantitation limit is 40 micrograms/g. This method has been adopted official first action.

  16. Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

    2012-03-01

    A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 μg/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 μg/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

  17. Mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra, a novel spectrophotometric method for analysis of ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Said A.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of ternary mixtures without previous separation, showing significant advantages over conventional methods. The new method is based on mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was evaluated by determination of model ternary mixture and by the determination of Amlodipine (AML), Aliskiren (ALI) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in laboratory prepared mixtures and in a commercial pharmaceutical preparation. For proper presentation of the advantages and applicability of the new method, a comparative study was established between the new mean centering of double divisor ratio spectra (MCDD) and two similar methods used for analysis of ternary mixtures, namely mean centering (MC) and double divisor of ratio spectra-derivative spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS). The method was also compared with a reported one for analysis of the pharmaceutical preparation. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits.

  18. Miniaturized and direct spectrophotometric multi-sample analysis of trace metals in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Albendín, Gemma; López-López, José A; Pinto, Juan J

    2016-03-15

    Trends in the analysis of trace metals in natural waters are mainly based on the development of sample treatment methods to isolate and pre-concentrate the metal from the matrix in a simpler extract for further instrumental analysis. However, direct analysis is often possible using more accessible techniques such as spectrophotometry. In this case a proper ligand is required to form a complex that absorbs radiation in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum. In this sense, the hydrazone derivative, di-2-pyridylketone benzoylhydrazone (dPKBH), forms complexes with copper (Cu) and vanadium (V) that absorb light at 370 and 395 nm, respectively. Although spectrophotometric methods are considered as time- and reagent-consuming, this work focused on its miniaturization by reducing the volume of sample as well as time and cost of analysis. In both methods, a micro-amount of sample is placed into a microplate reader with a capacity for 96 samples, which can be analyzed in times ranging from 5 to 10 min. The proposed methods have been optimized using a Box-Behnken design of experiments. For Cu determination, concentration of phosphate buffer solution at pH 8.33, masking agents (ammonium fluoride and sodium citrate), and dPKBH were optimized. For V analysis, sample (pH 4.5) was obtained using acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer, and masking agents were ammonium fluoride and 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid. Under optimal conditions, both methods were applied to the analysis of certified reference materials TMDA-62 (lake water), LGC-6016 (estuarine water), and LGC-6019 (river water). In all cases, results proved the accuracy of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of yeast assimilable nitrogen content in wine fermentations by sequential injection analysis with spectrophotometric detetection.

    PubMed

    Muik, Barbara; Edelmann, Andrea; Lendl, Bernhard; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2002-09-01

    An automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wine fermentations by sequential injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection was developed. Isoindole-derivatives from the primary amino acid were formed by reaction with o-phthaldialdehyde and N-acetyl- L-cysteine and measured at 334 nm with respect to a baseline point at 700 nm to compensate the observed Schlieren effect. As the reaction kinetic was strongly matrix dependent the analytical readout at the final reaction equilibrium has been evaluated. Therefore four parallel reaction coils were included in the flow system to be capable of processing four samples simultaneously. Using isoleucine as the representative primary amino acid in wine fermentations a linear calibration curve from 2 to 10 mM isoleucine, corresponding to 28 to 140 mg nitrogen/L (N/L) was obtained. The coefficient of variation of the method was 1.5% at a throughput of 12 samples per hour. The developed method was successfully used to monitor two wine fermentations during alcoholic fermentation. The results were in agreement with an external reference method based on high performance liquid chromatography. A mean-t-test showed no significant differences between the two methods at a confidence level of 95%.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Potassium Tris(oxalato)ferrate(III) Trihydrate: A Spectrophotometric Method of Iron Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallinger, Richard F.

    1995-10-01

    A previous Journal article [J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098--1099] described a potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III) trihydrate empirical formula experiment that offered an excellent integrative experience in synthesis and characterization for general chemistry laboratory students. However, we have introduced a fast and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron in the product that takes the place of the photochemical-gravimetric procedure described in the article. Besides the pedagogic interest of bringing three different types of chemical analysis (titrimetric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric) to bear on one compound, the new iron determination allows students to complete the experiment in 2, 3-hr laboratory periods rather than the 5 periods allotted in the original experiment.

  1. Spectrophotometric methods as a novel screening approach for analysis of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity before treatment with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dolegowska, B; Ostapowicz, A; Stanczyk-Dunaj, M; Blogowski, W

    2012-08-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutics in the treatment of malignancies originating from breast, prostate, ovarian, skin and gastrointestinal tissues. Around 80% of administered dose of 5-FU is catabolized by dihydropirymidine dehydrogenase (DPD). Patients, in whom a deficiency or insufficient activity of this enzyme is observed, are at great risk of development of severe, even lethal, 5-FU toxicity. According to recent studies, so far over 30 mutations of DPYD gene, which are associated with DPD deficiency/insufficiency, have already been discovered. Currently, there are several analytical methods used for measurements of DPD activity. However, in this paper we report a novel, simple, economical and more accessible spectrophotometric method for measurements of DPD activity in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that was developed and validated on analysis of 200 generally healthy volunteers aged 22-63. We present two spectrophotometric protocols in this study, and as a reference method we used already described reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) analysis. Basing on our findings, we conclude that spectrophotometric methods may be used as a screening protocol preceding 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, before introduction into clinical reality, our results should be confirmed in further larger studies.

  2. Spectrophotometric analysis of discoloration and internal bleaching after use of different antibiotic pastes.

    PubMed

    Fundaoğlu Küçükekenci, Funda; Çakici, Fatih; Küçükekenci, Ahmet Serkan

    2018-04-14

    To investigate teeth's antibiotic-induced color differences after bleaching using two different techniques. One hundred twenty extracted maxillar human incisors were examined. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups, each receiving one of six antibiotic paste fillings: (1) triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, (2) double antibiotic paste (DAP), (3) TAP with amoxicillin, (4) TAP with cefaclor, (5) TAP with doxycycline, and (6) no filling (control group). Spectrophotometric measurements were obtained at baseline and then during the first, second, and third weeks after paste placement. The specimens discolored by antibiotics pastes were randomly divided into two subgroups: (1) internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) and (2) internal bleaching with H 2 O 2 plus Nd-YAG laser irradiation. The ∆E value was calculated and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The ∆E for all groups showed color differences exceeding the perceptibility threshold (∆E ˃ 3.7) at all time points except in the control and DAP groups. Minocycline-induced TAP showed the most severe coronal discoloration (32.42). When the ∆E was examined, thermo/photo bleaching (22.01 ± 8.23) caused more bleaching than walking bleaching (19.73 ± 5.73) at every time point (P = 0.19). No group returned to the original color after bleaching (P < 0.05). Except for DAP, all antibiotic pastes caused discoloration. Internal bleaching with Nd-YAG laser can be useful for bleaching/removing this discoloration. For clinically successful final appearances, understanding the effects of bleaching procedures on antibiotic paste discoloration is important.

  3. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Attia, Khalid A M; Nassar, Mohammed W I; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-15

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides in Vegetable Matrices Using HPLC-UV Followed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Bom, Laura; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad; Millet, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    A simple method combining ion-pair methylation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with detection at 272 nm and atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in order to determine 10 dithiocarbamate fungicides (Dazomet, Metam-sodium, Ferbam, Ziram, Zineb, Maneb, Mancozeb, Metiram, Nabam and Propineb) and distinguish ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDTCs) Zineb, Maneb and Mancozeb in diverse matrices. This method associates reverse phase analysis by HPLC analysis with detection at 272 nm, with atomic absorption spectrometry in order to distinguish, with the same extraction protocol, Maneb, Mancozeb and Zineb. The limits of detection (0.4, 0.8, 0.5, 1.25 and 1.97) and quantification (1.18, 2.5, 1.52, 4.2 and 6.52) calculated in injected nanogram, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDTCs), EBDTCs and propylenebisdithiocarbamates (PBDTCs) justify the sensitivity of the method used. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.9985, 0.9978, 0.9949, 0.988 and 0.9794, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, DMDTCs, EBDTCs and PBDTCs, and the recovery from fortified apple and leek samples was above 90%. Results obtained with the atomic absorption method in comparison with spectrophotometric analysis focus on the importance of the atomic absorption as a complementary specific method for the distinction between different EBDTCs fungicides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sensitive inexpensive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in tablet formulations using Hantzsch condensation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F. A.; El-Yazbi, A. F.; Wagih, M. M.; Barary, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Two highly sensitive, simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric assays have been investigated for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The suggested methods depend on the condensation of the primary amino-groups in the three drugs with acetylacetone and formaldehyde according to Hantzsch reaction yielding highly fluorescent yellow colored dihydropyridine derivatives. The reaction products of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate were measured spectrophotometrically at 418, 390 and 380 nm or spectrofluorimetrically at λem/ex of 495/425 nm, 490/415 nm and 488/410 nm, respectively. Various experimental conditions have been carefully studied to maximize the reaction yield. At the optimum reaction conditions, the calibration curves were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 8-25, 60-180 and 80-200 μg/mL spectrophotometrically and 0.02-0.2, 0.2-1.2 and 0.2-1.5 μg/mL spectrofluorimetrically for ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate, respectively with good correlation coefficients. The suggested methods were applied successfully for the analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in their commercial tablets with high percentage recoveries and negligible interference from various excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The results were statistically analyzed and showed the absence of any significant difference between both developed and published methods. The procedures were validated and evaluated by the ICH guidelines revealing good reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the two proposed methods may be considered of high interest for practical and reliable analysis of ezogabine, levetiracetam and topiramate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  7. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  8. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  9. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of simeprevir in the presence of its oxidative degradation product: Acomparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; El-Abasawi, Nasr M.; El-Olemy, Ahmed; Serag, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Five simple spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of simeprevir in the presence of its oxidative degradation product namely, ratio difference, mean centering, derivative ratio using the Savitsky-Golay filters, second derivative and continuous wavelet transform. These methods are linear in the range of 2.5-40 μg/mL and validated according to the ICH guidelines. The obtained results of accuracy, repeatability and precision were found to be within the acceptable limits. The specificity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. Furthermore, these methods were statistically comparable to RP-HPLC method and good results were obtained. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of simeprevir in quality-control laboratories.

  10. Methods of automatic nucleotide-sequence analysis. Multicomponent spectrophotometric analysis of mixtures of nucleic acid components by a least-squares procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sheila; McMullen, D.; Brown, G. L.; Stokes, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    1. A theoretical analysis of the errors in multicomponent spectrophotometric analysis of nucleoside mixtures, by a least-squares procedure, has been made to obtain an expression for the error coefficient, relating the error in calculated concentration to the error in extinction measurements. 2. The error coefficients, which depend only on the `library' of spectra used to fit the experimental curves, have been computed for a number of `libraries' containing the following nucleosides found in s-RNA: adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, 5-ribosyluracil, 7-methylguanosine, 6-dimethylaminopurine riboside, 6-methylaminopurine riboside and thymine riboside. 3. The error coefficients have been used to determine the best conditions for maximum accuracy in the determination of the compositions of nucleoside mixtures. 4. Experimental determinations of the compositions of nucleoside mixtures have been made and the errors found to be consistent with those predicted by the theoretical analysis. 5. It has been demonstrated that, with certain precautions, the multicomponent spectrophotometric method described is suitable as a basis for automatic nucleotide-composition analysis of oligonucleotides containing nine nucleotides. Used in conjunction with continuous chromatography and flow chemical techniques, this method can be applied to the study of the sequence of s-RNA. PMID:14346087

  11. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATIONS OF BORON; Estudo Estatistico de Determinacoes Espectrofotometricas de Boro

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, F.W.; Pagano, C.; Schneiderman, B.

    1959-07-01

    Boron can be determined quantitatively by absorption spectrophotometry of solutions of the red compound formed by the reaction of boric acid with curcumin. This reaction is affected by various factors, some of which can be detected easily in the data interpretation. Others, however, provide more difficulty. The application of modern statistical method to the study of the influence of these factors on the quantitative determination of boron is presented. These methods provide objective ways of establishing significant effects of the factors involved. (auth)

  12. Manipulating Ratio Spectra for the Spectrophotometric Analysis of Diclofenac Sodium and Pantoprazole Sodium in Laboratory Mixtures and Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Nejal M.; Chavada, Vijay D.; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Three sensitive, selective, and precise spectrophotometric methods based on manipulation of ratio spectra, have been developed and validated for the determination of diclofenac sodium and pantoprazole sodium. Materials and Methods. The first method is based on ratio spectra peak to peak measurement using the amplitudes at 251 and 318 nm; the second method involves the first derivative of the ratio spectra (Δλ = 4 nm) using the peak amplitudes at 326.0 nm for diclofenac sodium and 337.0 nm for pantoprazole sodium. The third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra using the values at 318.0 nm for both the analytes. Results. All the three methods were linear over the concentration range of 2.0–24.0 μg/mL for diclofenac sodium and 2.0–20.0 μg/mL for pantoprazole sodium. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability, and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit. The results of single factor ANOVA analysis indicated that there is no significant difference among the developed methods. Conclusions. The developed methods provided simple resolution of this binary combination from laboratory mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations and can be conveniently adopted for routine quality control analysis. PMID:24701171

  13. The significance of spectrophotometric image analysis for diagnosis of the melanocytic skin tumours in association with their thickness.

    PubMed

    Sakalauskienė, K; Valiukevičienė, S; Raišutis, R; Linkevičiūtė, G

    2018-05-23

    Cutaneous melanoma is a melanocytic skin tumour, which has very poor prognosis while it is highly resistant to treatment and tends to metastasize. Thickness of melanoma is one of the most important biomarker for stage of disease, prognosis and surgery planning. In this study, we hypothesized that the analysis of spectrophotometric (SIAscope) images can provide the information about skin tumour thickness. The intensity of blood displacement, "erythematous blush", collagen holes, intensity of collagen, dermal and epidermal melanin were estimated in SIAgraphs. Tumour thicknesses were evaluated non-invasively in ultrasound images before excision. The diagnosis and Breslow index of each tumour were evaluated during routine histological examination. The logistic regression analysis of two thicknesses groups of melanocytic tumours (≤1 mm, n = 72 and >1 mm, n = 30), using six SIAscopic features lead to achieve the areas under the ROC curves of 0.9 and 0.96 respectively. Overall the sensitivity and specificity of SIAscopy observed in this study is 81.4% and 86.4% respectively. The features of SIAgraphs individually are not enough specific for melanoma diagnosis with different thickness. Promising results were observed for differentiation of melanocytic skin tumour, using all 6 SIAscopic features, which correspond to the distribution, location and concentration of skin chromophores. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Spectrophotometric determination of prodigiozan in ampule solutions].

    PubMed

    Shchedrina, L E; Brutko, L I; Rastunova, G A; Shcherbakova, E G

    1984-06-01

    Based on a study of the absorption properties of prodigiosan it has been shown that its UV absorption spectrum is characterized by an arm at 250-260 nm with an inflection point at 260 nm. The concentration ranges within which the optical density of prodigiosan solution obeyed the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law were measured. This allowed the development of a quantitative spectrophotometric method for determination of prodigiosan in ampouled solutions.

  15. Determination of atomic oxygen fluence using spectrophotometric analysis of infrared transparent witness coupons for long duration exposure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podojil, Gregg M.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic oxygen degradation is one of several major threats to the durability of spaceborne systems in low Earth orbit. Ground-based simulations are conducted to learn how to minimize the adverse effects of atomic oxygen exposure. Assessing the fluence of atomic oxygen in test chambers such as a plasma asher over long periods of time is necessary for accurate determination of atomic oxygen exposure. Currently, an atomic oxygen susceptible organic material such as Kapton is placed next to samples as a witness coupon and its mass loss is monitored and used to determine the effective atomic oxygen fluence. However, degradation of the Kapton witness coupons occurs so rapidly in plasma ashers that for any long term test many witness coupons must be used sequentially in order to keep track of the fluence. This necessitates opening vacuum to substitute fresh coupons. A passive dosimetry technique was sought to monitor atomic oxygen exposure over longer periods without the need to open the plasma asher to the atmosphere. This paper investigates the use of spectrophotometric analysis of durable IR transparent witness coupons to measure atomic oxygen exposure for longer duration testing. The method considered would be conductive to making in situ measurements of atomic oxygen fluence.

  16. 2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Characteristic constants of 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, a reagent for spectrophotometric analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.

    1960-01-01

    The dye 2,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene-5-sulfonic acid, has shown promise as a reagent for the determination of zirconium. As the literature contains very little information about this dye, basic data pertinent to its use as a reagent were determined. The sulfonic acid group and all three of the hydroxy groups show acidic characteristics. Apparent dissociation constants were determined for the three more labile protons and the approximate order of magnitude for the fourth constant was estimated. Absorption spectra for the different ionization species are given. A curve is also included which shows the fraction of dye in the different ionization forms at acidities from 10.35M hydrochloric acid to pH 11.9. A sixth dye species was found in 1.0 to 8.4M potassium hydroxide solutions, but its nature is unknown.

  18. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  19. Multi-wavelength spectrophotometric analysis for detection of xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid and accuracy for the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Ko, Nerissa; Grenache, David G

    2013-09-23

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was examined for bilirubin, an important indicator for diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A multi-wavelength (340, 415, and 460 nm) spectrophotometric assay was developed for the quantitative measurement of bilirubin in CSF, enabling the mathematical correction for absorbance of hemoglobin and proteins. Bilirubin and hemoglobin results were correlated to HPLC and a standard colorimetric assay, respectively. A subset of samples was sent for an absorbance reading at 450 nm following baseline correction. The multi-wavelength bilirubin assay was validated on 70 patients with confirmed SAH and 70 patients with neurologic symptoms who ruled out for SAH. The multi-wavelength spectrophometric assay demonstrated no interferences due to proteins (albumin) up to 30 g/l or oxyhemoglobin up to 260 mg/l. The assay limit of detection was 0.2 mg/l, linear to 20 mg/l, and CVs ranged from 1 to 6% at bilirubin concentrations of 0.84 and 2.1mg/l. The spectrophotometric assay correlated to HPLC and the colorimetric assay for bilirubin and hemoglobin, respectively. Results also correlated to the absorbance method (with removal of samples with high hemoglobin and proteins). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of SAH was 0.971 and 0.954 for the HPLC and spectrophotometric assay, respectively. At a cutoff of 0.2mg/l, the clinical specificity was 100% for both assays, and the clinical sensitivity was 94.3% and 88.6% for SAH for the HPLC and spectrophotometric asays, respectively. The multi-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is an objective alternative to visual inspection, HPLC, and absorbance for CSF bilirubin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrocatechol violet in pharmaceutical analysis. Part I. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of some beta-lactam antibiotics in pure and in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Amin, A S

    2001-03-01

    A fairly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of some beta-lactam antibiotics, namely ampicillin (Amp), amoxycillin (Amox), 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA), cloxacillin (Clox), dicloxacillin (Diclox) and flucloxacillin sodium (Fluclox) in bulk samples and in pharmaceutical dosage forms is described. The proposed method involves the use of pyrocatechol violet as a chromogenic reagent. These drugs produce a reddish brown coloured ion pair with absorption maximum at 604, 641, 645, 604, 649 and 641 nm for Amp, Amox, 6APA, Clox, Diclox and Flucolx, respectively. The colours produced obey Beer's law and are suitable for the quantitative determination of the named compounds. The optimization of different experimental conditions is described. The molar ratio of the ion pairs was established and a proposal for the reaction pathway is given. The procedure described was applied successfully to determine the examined drugs in dosage forms and the results obtained were comparable to those obtained with the official methods.

  1. Improved spectrophotometric analysis of fullerenes C60 and C70 in high-solubility organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Törpe, Alexander; Belton, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Fullerenes are among a number of recently discovered carbon allotropes that exhibit unique and versatile properties. The analysis of these materials is of great importance and interest. We present previously unreported spectroscopic data for C60 and C70 fullerenes in high-solubility solvents, including error bounds, so as to allow reliable colorimetric analysis of these materials. The Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is found to be valid at all wavelengths. The measured data were highly reproducible, and yielded high-precision molar absorbance coefficients for C60 and C70 in o-xylene and o-dichlorobenzene, which both exhibit a high solubility for these fullerenes, and offer the prospect of improved extraction efficiency. A photometric method for a C60/C70 mixture analysis was validated with standard mixtures, and subsequently improved for real samples by correcting for light scattering, using a power-law fit. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of C60/C70 mixtures extracted from fullerene soot.

  2. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  3. Optimized and validated flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of topiramate, piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy

    2011-12-01

    Application of a sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determination of topiramate, piracetam, and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations has been investigated. The method is based on the reaction with ortho-phtalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol in a basic buffer and measurement of absorbance at 295 nm under flow conditions. Variables affecting the determination such as sample injection volume, pH, ionic strength, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagent and other FIA parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results using a quarter-fraction factorial design, for five factors at two levels. Also, the method has been optimized and fully validated in terms of linearity and range, limit of detection and quantitation, precision, selectivity and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

  4. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  5. Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds from Fruits of Libidibia ferrea Martius

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Magda R. A.; Fernandes, Mônica T. M.; da Silva, Wliana A. V.; Bezerra, Isabelle C. F.; de Souza, Tatiane P.; Pimentel, Maria F.; Soares, Luiz A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz (Fabaceae) is a tree which is native to Brazil, widely known as “Jucá,” where its herbal derivatives are used in folk medicine with several therapeutic properties. The constituents, which have already been described in the fruit, are mainly hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid [GA] and ellagic acid [EA]). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic variability in the fruit of L. ferrea by ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and chromatographic methods (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]/high-performance thin layer chromatography [HPTLC]). Materials and Methods: Several samples were collected from different regions of Brazil and the qualitative (fingerprints by HPTLC and HPLC) and quantitative analysis (UV/VIS and HPLC) of polyphenols were performed. Results: The HPTLC and HPLC profiles allowed separation and identification of both major analytical markers: EA and GA. The chemical profiles were similar in a number of spots or peaks for the samples, but some differences could be observed in the intensity or area of the analytical markers for HPTLC or HPLC, respectively. Regarding the quantitative analysis, the polyphenolic content by UV/VIS ranged from 13.99 to 37.86 g% expressed as GA or from 10.75 to 29.09 g% expressed as EA. The contents of EA and GA by liquid chromatography-reversed phase (LC-RP) method ranged from 0.57 to 2.68 g% and from 0.54 to 3.23 g%, respectively. Conclusion: The chemical profiles obtained by HPTLC or HPLC, as well as the quantitative analysis by spectrophotometry or LC-RP method, were suitable for discrimination of each herbal sample and can be used as tools for the comparative analysis of the fruits from L. ferrea. SUMMARY The polyphenols of fruits of Libidibia ferrea can be quantified by UV/VIS and HPLCThe HPLC method was able to detect the gallic and ellagic acids in several samples of fruits of Libidibia ferreaThe phenolic profiles of fruits from

  6. Ultraviolet and visible light spectrophotometric approach to blood typing: objective analysis by agglutination index.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S; Orton, S; Leparc, G F; Garcia-Rubio, L H; Potter, R L

    1999-10-01

    A new blood typing technology based on ultraviolet (UV) and visible light spectroscopy (UV/visible spectroscopy) has been developed. Blood groups and types are determined by quantifying reproducible changes in the UV and visible light spectra of blood in the presence of agglutinating antibodies. Samples of red cells in the presence and absence of agglutinating antibodies were examined by UV/visible spectroscopy. Blood groups and types were determined by comparing the optical density spectra obtained between 665 and 1000 nm. These comparisons generate numbers (agglutination index) ranging from 0 to 100, with smaller numbers corresponding to lack of agglutination and larger numbers corresponding to agglutination. The optical density of agglutinated blood is dramatically different from that of unagglutinated blood. The agglutination index derived from the relative slopes of the spectra is an objective indicator of agglutination strength. An agglutination index greater than 17 consistently and accurately established blood group- and type-specific agglutination. The method accurately predicted A, B, and O blood groups, and D type in over 275 samples. Scattering theory-based calculations of relative volumes of red cells before and after agglutination show a direct correlation with the agglutination index and provide the theoretical basis of the analysis. This quantitative technique is reproducible and has the potential for automation.

  7. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Coronal Tooth Discoloration Induced by Various Bioceramic Cements and Other Endodontic Materials.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Meetu R; Yamaguchi, Maimi; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2015-11-01

    Coronal tooth discoloration induced by various endodontic materials was evaluated in vitro. Eighty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were accessed, instrumented, and sectioned to standardized root lengths of 10 mm below the cementoenamel junction. Pulp chambers were cleaned chemomechanically to ensure complete tissue removal. Specimens were filled with experimental materials in 8 random groups: RRM, EndoSequence RRM putty (Brasseler, Savannah, GA); RRMF, EndoSequence RRM fast set paste (Brasseler); BD, Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France); WMTA, white MTA (Dentsply, York, PA), GMTA, gray MTA (Dentsply); AH+, AH Plus sealer (Dentsply); TAP, triple antibiotic paste (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline); and NF, no filling (negative control group). After incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C, color changes were evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL) on days 0, 7, 30, 60, and 180 after material placement (T0-T180). Data were transformed into Commission International de I'Eclairage's L*a*b color values, and corresponding ΔE values were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method were performed. Visual discoloration was observed in all specimens in the GMTA, WMTA, and TAP groups at T7, increasing with time. The ΔE value between the initial color at T0 and at T7, T30, T60, and T180 was significantly different for GMTA, WMTA, and TAP (P < .001). ΔE values for the BD, RRM, RRMF, AH+, and NF groups were not statistically significantly different between T0 and T7, T30, T60, and T180, respectively, except for 3 samples below the human perceptible threshold. Values of L* dropped significantly from T0 to T180 in the TAP, GMTA, and WMTA groups. Significant coronal tooth discoloration was caused by TAP, GMTA, and WMTA but not by BD, RRM, and RRMF. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computation of geometric representation of novel spectrophotometric methods used for the analysis of minor components in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Saleh, Sarah S; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Salem, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Novel spectrophotometric methods were applied for the determination of the minor component tetryzoline HCl (TZH) in its ternary mixture with ofloxacin (OFX) and prednisolone acetate (PA) in the ratio of (1:5:7.5), and in its binary mixture with sodium cromoglicate (SCG) in the ratio of (1:80). The novel spectrophotometric methods determined the minor component (TZH) successfully in the two selected mixtures by computing the geometrical relationship of either standard addition or subtraction. The novel spectrophotometric methods are: geometrical amplitude modulation (GAM), geometrical induced amplitude modulation (GIAM), ratio H-point standard addition method (RHPSAM) and compensated area under the curve (CAUC). The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the minor component TZH below its concentration range. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. No difference was observed between the obtained results when compared to the reported HPLC method, which proved that the developed methods could be alternative to HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrophotometric Attachment for the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axelrod, Norman N.

    1961-01-01

    An absorption spectrophotometric attachment to a vacuum ultraviolet monochromator has been built and tested. With an empty sample chamber, the ratio of the radiant flux through the sample chamber to the radiant flux through the reference chamber was measured. By optimizing conditions at the entrance slit, the ratio was constant within experimental error over the region 1000-1600 A. The transmittance of thin celluloid films was measured with the attachment.

  10. A mathematical approach for the simultaneous in vitro spectrophotometric analysis of rifampicin and isoniazid from modified-release anti-TB drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Lisa; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Dissolution testing with subsequent analysis is considered as an imperative tool for quality evaluation of the combination rifampicin-isoniazid (RIF-INH) combination. Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been successfully undertaken to select suitable predictor variables and to identify outliers for the generation of equations for RIF and INH determination in fixed-dose combinations (FDCs). The aim of this investigation was to ascertain the applicability of the described technique in testing a novel oral FDC anti-TB drug delivery system and currently available two-drug FDCs, in comparison to the United States Pharmacopeial method for analysis of RIF and INH Capsules with chromatographic determination of INH and colorimetric RIF determination. Regression equations generated employing the statistical coefficients satisfactorily predicted RIF release at each sampling point (R(2)>or=0.9350). There was an acceptable degree of correlation between the drug release data, as predicted by regressional analysis of UV spectrophotometric data, and chromatographic and colorimetric determination of INH (R(2)=0.9793 and R(2)=0.9739) and RIF (R(2)= 0.9976 and R(2)=0.9996) for the two-drug FDC and the novel oral anti-TB drug delivery system, respectively. Regressional analysis of UV spectrophotometric data for simultaneous RIF and INH prediction thus provides a simplified methodology for use in diverse research settings for the assurance of RIF bioavailability from FDC formulations, specifically modified-release forms.

  11. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for sensitive determination of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhou, Meng; Gu, Jia; Li, Xiangmei

    2014-03-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A based on a diazotization-coupling reaction was developed. In acidic solution, clenbuterol was first diazotized with sodium nitrite, then coupled with bisphenol A to from an azo-compound [I] in NH3-NH4Cl buffer, which shows a maximum absorption at 410 nm. The effects of the amount of sodium nitrite, diazo reaction time, the amount of clenbuterol, coupling reaction time and coupling reaction temperature have been examined. Under the optional conditions, the determination of the linear range of bisphenol A is 0.24-8.4 μg/mL, correlation coefficient is 0.9905 and detection limit of this method is 0.15 μg/mL. The spectrophotometric method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity with better accuracy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique combined with this new spectrophotometric method has been also developed for the measurement of bisphenol A. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and methanol as a mobile phase and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. These reported methods were applied to the determination of bisphenol A in hot water in contact with commercially available table-water bottle samples.

  12. In-situ spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.

    1992-12-15

    A spectrophotometric probe is described for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and co-terminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focusing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid. 5 figs.

  13. In-situ spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    A spectrophotometric probe for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and coterminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focussing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid.

  14. Comparative study of novel versus conventional two-wavelength spectrophotometric methods for analysis of spectrally overlapping binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Hegazy, Maha A; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2015-09-05

    Smart spectrophotometric methods have been applied and validated for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of chloramphenicol (CPL) and prednisolone acetate (PA) without preliminary separation. Two novel methods have been developed; the first method depends upon advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS), while the other method relies on advanced amplitude modulation (AAM); in addition to the well established dual wavelength (DW), ratio difference (RD) and constant center coupled with spectrum subtraction (CC-SS) methods. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of these methods were determined. Moreover, selectivity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the assay of drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common additives and the validity of the methods was tested. The obtained results have been statistically compared to that of official spectrophotometric methods to give a conclusion that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones with respect to accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of some antihyperlipidemic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Nada S.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.; Tohamy, Salwa I.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, precise and economic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin calcium (ATR) and Ezetimibe (EZ) in their bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form. Method (I) is based on dual wavelength analysis while method (II) is the mean centering of ratio spectra spectrophotometric (MCR) method. In method (I), two wavelengths were selected for each drug in such a way that the difference in absorbance was zero for the second drug. At wavelengths 226.6 and 244 nm EZ had equal absorbance values; therefore, these two wavelengths have been used to determine ATR; on a similar basis 228.6 and 262.8 nm were selected to determine EZ in their binary mixtures. In method II, the absorption spectra of both ATR and EZ with different concentrations were recorded over the range 200–350, divided by the spectrum of suitable divisor of both ATR and EZ and then the obtained ratio spectra were mean centered. The concentrations of active components were then determined from the calibration graphs obtained by measuring the amplitudes at 215–260 nm (peak to peak) for both ATR and EZ. Accuracy and precision of the developed methods have been tested; in addition recovery studies have been carried out in order to confirm their accuracy. On the other hand, selectivities of the methods were tested by application for determination of different synthetic mixtures containing different ratios of the studied drugs. The developed methods have been successfully used for determination of ATR and EZ in their combined dosage form and statistical comparison of the developed methods with the reported spectrophotometric one using F and Student's t-tests showed no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision. PMID:29403754

  16. Two spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of some antihyperlipidemic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; El-Zeiny, Badr A; Tohamy, Salwa I

    2012-08-01

    Two simple, accurate, precise and economic spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin calcium (ATR) and Ezetimibe (EZ) in their bulk powder and pharmaceutical dosage form. Method (I) is based on dual wavelength analysis while method (II) is the mean centering of ratio spectra spectrophotometric (MCR) method. In method (I), two wavelengths were selected for each drug in such a way that the difference in absorbance was zero for the second drug. At wavelengths 226.6 and 244 nm EZ had equal absorbance values; therefore, these two wavelengths have been used to determine ATR; on a similar basis 228.6 and 262.8 nm were selected to determine EZ in their binary mixtures. In method II, the absorption spectra of both ATR and EZ with different concentrations were recorded over the range 200-350, divided by the spectrum of suitable divisor of both ATR and EZ and then the obtained ratio spectra were mean centered. The concentrations of active components were then determined from the calibration graphs obtained by measuring the amplitudes at 215-260 nm (peak to peak) for both ATR and EZ. Accuracy and precision of the developed methods have been tested; in addition recovery studies have been carried out in order to confirm their accuracy. On the other hand, selectivities of the methods were tested by application for determination of different synthetic mixtures containing different ratios of the studied drugs. The developed methods have been successfully used for determination of ATR and EZ in their combined dosage form and statistical comparison of the developed methods with the reported spectrophotometric one using F and Student's t -tests showed no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  17. Convenient UV-spectrophotometric determination of citrates in aqueous solutions with applications in the pharmaceutical analysis of oral electrolyte formulations.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Sylwester; Karasiewicz, Mateusz; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we present a convenient method for quantitative spectrophotometric determination of citrate ions in aqueous solutions in the middle-UV range. It involves measuring the absorbance of citric acid at 209 nm under suppressed dissociation at pH < 1.0 in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Validation of the method was performed according to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization. A very good linear dependence of the absorbance on concentration (r 2  = 0.9999) was obtained in a citrate concentration range of 0.5-5.0 mmol/L. This method is characterized by excellent precision and accuracy; the coefficient of variation in each case is below the maximal permissible value (%RSD < 2). The proposed analytical procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of citrates in oral electrolyte formulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. p Ka determinations of xanthene derivates in aqueous solutions by multivariate analysis applied to UV-Vis spectrophotometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistela, Vagner Roberto; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; de Souza, Franciane Dutra; da Costa, Willian Ferreira; de Oliveira Santin, Silvana Maria; de Souza, Vagner Roberto; Caetano, Wilker; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moisés; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino; Hioka, Noboru

    2011-09-01

    Xanthenes form to an important class of dyes which are widely used. Most of them present three acid-base groups: two phenolic sites and one carboxylic site. Therefore, the p Ka determination and the attribution of each group to the corresponding p Ka value is a very important feature. Attempts to obtain reliable p Ka through the potentiometry titration and the electronic absorption spectrophotometry using the first and second orders derivative failed. Due to the close p Ka values allied to strong UV-Vis spectral overlap, multivariate analysis, a powerful chemometric method, is applied in this work. The determination was performed for eosin Y, erythrosin B, and bengal rose B, and also for other synthesized derivatives such as 2-(3,6-dihydroxy-9-acridinyl) benzoic acid, 2,4,5,7-tetranitrofluorescein, eosin methyl ester, and erythrosin methyl ester in water. These last two compounds (esters) permitted to attribute the p Ka of the phenolic group, which is not easily recognizable for some investigated dyes. Besides the p Ka determination, the chemometry allowed for estimating the electronic spectrum of some prevalent protolytic species and the substituents effects evaluation.

  19. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of some oral hypoglycemic drugs.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M; Abdel-Satar, O; Abdel-Aziz, O; Shaaban, M

    2011-02-01

    Four accurate, precise, rapid, reproducible, and simple spectrophotometric methods were validated for determination of repaglinide (RPG), pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGL) and rosiglitazone maleate (RGL). The first two methods were based on the formation of a charge-transfer purple-colored complex of chloranilic acid with RPG and RGL with a molar absorptivity 1.23 × 103 and 8.67 × 102 l•mol-1•cm-1 and a Sandell's sensitivity of 0.367 and 0.412 μg•cm-2, respectively, and an ion-pair yellow-colored complex of bromophenol blue with RPG, PGL and RGL with molar absorptivity 8.86 × 103, 6.95 × 103, and 7.06 × 103 l•mol-1•cm-1, respectively, and a Sandell's sensitivity of 0.051 μg•cm-2 for all ion-pair complexes. The influence of different parameters on color formation was studied to determine optimum conditions for the visible spectrophotometric methods. The other spectrophotometric methods were adopted for demtermination of the studied drugs in the presence of their acid-, alkaline- and oxidative-degradates by computing derivative and pH-induced difference spectrophotometry, as stability-indicating techniques. All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations with good extraction recovery ranges between 98.7-101.4%, 98.2-101.3%, and 99.9-101.4% for RPG, PGL, and RGL, respectively. Results of relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.6%, indicating that the proposed methods having good repeatability and reproducibility. All the obtained results were statistically compared to the official method used for RPG analysis and the manufacturers methods used for PGL and RGL analysis, respectively, where no significant differences were found.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, W.; Christen, J.-L.; Zine, A.-M.; Ichchou, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sound absorption in porous media is a complex phenomenon, which is usually addressed with homogenized models, depending on macroscopic parameters. Since these parameters emerge from the structure at microscopic scale, they may be correlated. This paper deals with sensitivity analysis methods of a sound absorption model with correlated inputs. Specifically, the Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (JCA) is chosen as the objective model with correlation effects generated by a secondary micro-macro semi-empirical model. To deal with this case, a relatively new sensitivity analysis method Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test with Correlation design (FASTC), based on Iman's transform, is taken into application. This method requires a priori information such as variables' marginal distribution functions and their correlation matrix. The results are compared to the Correlation Ratio Method (CRM) for reference and validation. The distribution of the macroscopic variables arising from the microstructure, as well as their correlation matrix are studied. Finally the results of tests shows that the correlation has a very important impact on the results of sensitivity analysis. Assessment of correlation strength among input variables on the sensitivity analysis is also achieved.

  1. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; McCarty, Jerry E.; Haggard, Ricky A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of 4-acetamidophenyl N'-(sulphanilamide) acetate in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna; Patil, Pravin; Shah, Hirva

    2014-01-01

    A simple, accurate and low cost spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of the synthesized paracetamol derivative; 4-acetamidophenyl N'-(sulphanilamide) acetate (APSA) in biological fluids. The spectrophotometric method is based on a condensation reaction between the alcoholic solution of APSA and acidic solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldeyde (DPMK) to generate a yellow colored product. The linear range for the determination of APSA was 1-10 µg mL(-1) with molar absorptivity of 3.6877 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity of 0.001 µg cm-2/0.001 absorbance unit. During the inter-day and intra-day analysis, the relative standard deviation for replicated determination of APSA was found to be less than 2.0% and accuracy was 99.20-101.60% and 99.10-101.30% in blood and urine samples, respectively. There was no interference with commonly used blood and urine sample. The developed spectrophotometric method was successfully applied to assess APSA in biological fluids.

  4. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  5. Spectral Absorption By Particulate Impurities in Snow Determined By Photometric Analysis Of Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Clarke, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    Our work is motivated by the 1983-84 survey by Clarke and Noone (Atmos. Environ., 1985) of soot in Arctic snow. Our objective is to resurvey the original area they covered and to extend the observations around the entire Arctic Basin under the auspices of the IPY program. We use the filtering and integrating sandwich techniques developed by Clarke and Noone to process the snow samples. Among the advantages of this method are that (a) it provides a direct measure of light absorption and the result is closely related to the actual absorption of sunlight in the snow or ice, (b) processing and filtering of the snow samples can be carried out in remote locations and (c) it is not necessary to transport large quantities of snow back to our home laboratory. Here we describe the construction, calibration, and some applications of an integrating sphere spectrophotometer system designed to take advantage of recent advances in instrumentation to improve the accuracy of measurements of absorption by particulate impurities collected on nuclepore filters used in our survey. Filter loading in terms of effective black carbon (BC) amount is determined together with the ratio of non-BC to BC concentrations using a set of reference filters with known loadings of Monarch 71 BC prepared by A. D. Clarke. The new spectrophotometer system has (a) system stability of approximately 0.5%; (b) precision relative to ADC standards of 3-4% for filter loadings greater than about 0.5 microgm Carbon/cm2. (c) We can distinguish BC from non-BC from relative spectral shapes of the energy absorption curves with an accuracy that depends on our knowledge of the spectral absorption curves of the non-BC components; and (d) by-eye estimates are consistent with spectrophotometric results. The major outstanding uncertainty is the appropriate value to use for the mass absorption efficiency for BC.

  6. Waveguide-based electro-absorption modulator performance: comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-06-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function for data communication. Given the vast amount of data handled, understanding the intricate physics and trade-offs of modulators on-chip allows revealing performance regimes not explored yet. Here we show a holistic performance analysis for waveguide-based electro-absorption modulators. Our approach centers around material properties revealing obtainable optical absorption leading to effective modal cross-section, and material broadening effects. Taken together both describe the modulator physical behavior entirely. We consider a plurality of material modulation classes to include two-level absorbers such as quantum dots, free carrier accumulation or depletion such as ITO or Silicon, two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductors such as quantum wells, Pauli blocking in Graphene, and excitons in two-dimensional atomic layered materials such as found in transition metal dichalcogendies. Our results show that reducing the modal area generally improves modulator performance defined by the amount of induced electrical charge, and hence the energy-per-bit function, required switching the signal. We find that broadening increases the amount of switching charge needed. While some material classes allow for reduced broadening such as quantum dots and 2-dimensional materials due to their reduced Coulomb screening leading to increased oscillator strengths, the sharpness of broadening is overshadowed by thermal effects independent of the material class. Further we find that plasmonics allows the switching charge and energy-per-bit function to be reduced by about one order of magnitude compared to bulk photonics. This analysis is aimed as a guide for the community to predict anticipated modulator performance based on both existing and emerging materials.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc and copper in a multi-syringe flow injection analysis system using a liquid waveguide capillary cell: application to natural waters.

    PubMed

    Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Tóth, Ildikó V; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-06-15

    This work exploits a multi-syringe injection analysis (MSFIA) system coupled with a long liquid waveguide capillary cell for the spectrophotometric determination of zinc and copper in waters. A liquid waveguide capillary cell (1.0m pathlength, 550 μm i.d. and 250 μL internal volume) was used to enhance the sensitivity of the detection. The determination for both ions is based on a colorimetric reaction with zincon at different pH values. The developed methodology compares favourably with other previously described procedures, as it allows to reach low detection limits for both cations (LODs of 0.1 and 2 μg L(-1), for copper and zinc, respectively), without the need for any pre-concentration step. The system also provided a linear response up to 100 μg L(-1) with a high throughput (43 h(-1)) and low reagent consumption and effluent production. The developed work was applied to natural waters and three certified reference water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel PDD-PDT system based on spectrophotometric real-time fluorescence monitoring and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takato O.; Kohno, Eiji; Dodeller, Marc; Sakurai, Takashi; Yamamoto, Seiji; Terakawa, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    In the PDT practice for tumor patients, the dose and irradiation time for the treatment are chosen by experience and not by real need. To establish advanced PDD-PDT model system for patients, we developed a method for monitoring the cell-death based on a spectrophotometric real-time change in fluorescence in HeLa-tumors during Photofrin®-PDT and ALA-PDT. Here, we describe the results of application of the new PDD-PDT system to human tumors. The fluorescence spectra obtained from human tumors were analyzed by the differential spectral analysis. The mass-spectral changes of tumor tissues during PDD-PDT were also examined by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The first author's seborrheic keratosis was monitored with this system during the PDD-PDT with a topically applied ALA-ointment. The changes in fluorescence spectrum were successfully detected, and the tumor regressed completely within 5 months. The differential spectral analysis of PDD-PDT-fluorescence monitoring spectra of tumors and isolated mitochondria showed a marked decrease of three peaks in the red region indicative of the PDD (600 - 720 nm), and a transient rise followed by a decline of peaks in the green region indicative of the PDT (450 - 580 nm). The MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of PDD-PDT HeLa-tumors showed a consumption of Photofrin-deuteroporphyrin and ALA-PpIX, and decreases in protein mass in the range of 4,000 - 16,000 Da, m/z 4929, 8564, 10089, 15000, and an increase in m/z 7002 in a Photofrin® PDD-PDT monitoring tumor.

  9. Resolution of overlapped spectra for the determination of ternary mixture using different and modified spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Bahia Abbas; El-Zaher, Asmaa Ahmed; Mahrouse, Marianne Alphonse; Ahmed, Maha Said

    2016-08-01

    Four new spectrophotometric methods were developed, applied to resolve the overlapped spectra of a ternary mixture of [aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS)-amlodipine besylate (AM)-hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)] and to determine the three drugs in pure form and in combined dosage form. Method A depends on simultaneous determination of ALS, AM and HCT using principal component regression and partial least squares chemometric methods. In Method B, a modified isosbestic spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of the total concentration of ALS and HCT by measuring the absorbance at 274.5 nm (isosbestic point, Aiso). On the other hand, the concentration of HCT in ternary mixture with ALS and AM could be calculated without interference using first derivative spectrophotometric method by measuring the amplitude at 279 nm (zero crossing of ALS and zero value of AM). Thus, the content of ALS was calculated by subtraction. Method C, double divisor first derivative ratio spectrophotometry (double divisor 1DD method), was based on that for the determination of one drug, the ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of its different concentrations by the sum of the absorption spectra of the other two drugs as a double divisor. The first derivative of the obtained ratio spectra were then recorded using the appropriate smoothing factor. The amplitudes at 291 nm, 380 nm and 274.5 nm were selected for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT in their ternary mixture, respectively. Method D was based on mean centering of ratio spectra. The mean centered values at 287, 295.5 and 269 nm were recorded and used for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT, respectively. The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and proved to be accurate, precise and selective. Satisfactory results were obtained by applying the proposed methods to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form.

  10. Resolution of overlapped spectra for the determination of ternary mixture using different and modified spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Bahia Abbas; El-Zaher, Asmaa Ahmed; Mahrouse, Marianne Alphonse; Ahmed, Maha Said

    2016-08-05

    Four new spectrophotometric methods were developed, applied to resolve the overlapped spectra of a ternary mixture of [aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS)-amlodipine besylate (AM)-hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)] and to determine the three drugs in pure form and in combined dosage form. Method A depends on simultaneous determination of ALS, AM and HCT using principal component regression and partial least squares chemometric methods. In Method B, a modified isosbestic spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of the total concentration of ALS and HCT by measuring the absorbance at 274.5nm (isosbestic point, Aiso). On the other hand, the concentration of HCT in ternary mixture with ALS and AM could be calculated without interference using first derivative spectrophotometric method by measuring the amplitude at 279nm (zero crossing of ALS and zero value of AM). Thus, the content of ALS was calculated by subtraction. Method C, double divisor first derivative ratio spectrophotometry (double divisor (1)DD method), was based on that for the determination of one drug, the ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of its different concentrations by the sum of the absorption spectra of the other two drugs as a double divisor. The first derivative of the obtained ratio spectra were then recorded using the appropriate smoothing factor. The amplitudes at 291nm, 380nm and 274.5nm were selected for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT in their ternary mixture, respectively. Method D was based on mean centering of ratio spectra. The mean centered values at 287, 295.5 and 269nm were recorded and used for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT, respectively. The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and proved to be accurate, precise and selective. Satisfactory results were obtained by applying the proposed methods to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A sensitive and rapid assay for 4-aminophenol in paracetamol drug and tablet formulation, by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, M S

    2002-12-06

    4-Aminophenol (4AP) is the primary degradation product of paracetamol which is limited at a low level (50 ppm or 0.005% w/w) in the drug substance by the European, United States, British and German Pharmacopoeias, employing a manual colourimetric limit test. The 4AP limit is widened to 1000 ppm or 0.1% w/w for the tablet product monographs, which quote the use of a less sensitive automated HPLC method. The lower drug substance specification limit is applied to our products, (50 ppm, equivalent to 25 mug 4AP in a tablet containing 500-mg paracetamol) and the pharmacopoeial HPLC assay was not suitable at this low level due to matrix interference. For routine analysis a rapid, automated assay was required. This paper presents a highly sensitive, precise and automated method employing the technique of Flow Injection (FI) analysis to quantitatively assay low levels of this degradant. A solution of the drug substance, or an extract of the tablets, containing 4AP and paracetamol is injected into a solvent carrier stream and merged on-line with alkaline sodium nitroprusside reagent, to form a specific blue derivative which is detected spectrophotometrically at 710 nm. Standard HPLC equipment is used throughout. The procedure is fully quantitative and has been optimised for sensitivity and robustness using a multivariate experimental design (multi-level 'Central Composite' response surface) model. The method has been fully validated and is linear down to 0.01 mug ml(-1). The approach should be applicable to a range of paracetamol products.

  12. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  13. Absorption spectra analysis of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    2000-11-01

    Absorption spectra of powdered samples of hydrated uranium(III) complex chlorides of the formulas NH 4UCl 4 · 4H 2O and CsUCl 4 · 3H 2O have been recorded at 4.2 K in the 4000-26 000 cm -1 range. The analysis of the spectra enabled the determination of crystal-field parameters and assignment of 83 and 77 crystal-field levels for the tetrahydrate and trihydrate, respectively. The energies of the levels were computed by applying a simplified angular overlap model as well as a semiempirical Hamiltonian representing the combined atomic and crystal-field interactions. Ab initio calculations have enabled the application of a simplified parameterization and the determination of the starting values of the AOM parameters. The received results have proved that the AOM approach can quite well predict both the structure of the ground multiplet and the positions of the crystal-field levels in the 17 000-25 000 cm -1 range, usually obscured by strong f-d bands.

  14. Spectrophotometric analysis of the effectiveness of a novel in-office laser-assisted tooth bleaching method using Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Koumpia, Effimia; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted in-office tooth bleaching method with a conventional method by spectrophotometric analysis of the tooth color change. Furthermore, the influence of the application time of the bleaching gel on the effectiveness of the methods and the maintenance of the results 7 days and 1 month after the treatments were also evaluated. Twenty-four bovine incisors were stained and randomly distributed into four groups. Group 1 specimens received an in-office bleaching treatment with 35% H 2 O 2 for 2 × 15 min. Group 2 specimens received the same treatment but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). In Group 3, the same in-office bleaching procedure (2 × 15 min) was carried out as that in Group 1, using Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation for 2 × 15 s on each specimen to catalyze the reaction of H 2 O 2 breakdown. Group 4 specimens received the same bleaching treatment as Group 3 but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted tooth bleaching treatment is more effective than the conventional treatment regarding color change of the teeth. Application time of the bleaching agent may influence the effectiveness of the methods. The color change of the tested treatments decreases after 7 days and 1 month. The clinical relevance of this study is that this novel laser-assisted bleaching treatment may be more advantageous in color change and application time compared to the conventional bleaching treatment.

  15. Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of iodine in coal by pyrohydrolysis decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daishe; Deng, Haiwen; Wang, Wuyi; Xiao, Huayun

    2007-10-10

    A method for the determination of iodine in coal using pyrohydrolysis for sample decomposition was proposed. A pyrohydrolysis apparatus system was constructed, and the procedure was designed to burn and hydrolyse coal steadily and completely. The parameters of pyrohydrolysis were optimized through the orthogonal experimental design. Iodine in the absorption solution was evaluated by the catalytic spectrophotometric method, and the absorbance at 420 nm was measured by a double-beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. The limit of detection and quantification of the proposed method were 0.09 microg g(-1) and 0.29 microg g(-1), respectively. After analysing some Chinese soil reference materials (SRMs), a reasonable agreement was found between the measured values and the certified values. The accuracy of this approach was confirmed by the analysis of eight coals spiked with SRMs with an indexed recovery from 94.97 to 109.56%, whose mean value was 102.58%. Six repeated tests were conducted for eight coal samples, including high sulfur coal and high fluorine coal. A good repeatability was obtained with a relative standard deviation value from 2.88 to 9.52%, averaging 5.87%. With such benefits as simplicity, precision, accuracy and economy, this approach can meet the requirements of the limits of detection and quantification for analysing iodine in coal, and hence it is highly suitable for routine analysis.

  17. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ ions in different foodstuffs, soil and water samples using 2-benzylspiro [isoindoline-1,5'-oxazolidine]-2',3,4'-trione using continuous wavelet transformation and partial least squares - calculation of pKf of complexes with rank annihilation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Tarighat, Maryam; Nabavi, Masoume; Mohammadizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-15

    A new multi-component analysis method based on zero-crossing point-continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) was developed for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions based on the complex formation with 2-benzyl espiro[isoindoline-1,5 oxasolidine]-2,3,4 trione (BSIIOT). The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to synthetic ligand concentration, time of complexation and pH. Therefore according the absorbance values, 0.015 mmol L(-1) BSIIOT, 10 min after mixing and pH 8.0 were used as optimum values. The complex formation between BSIIOT ligand and the cations Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by application of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) were investigated. Daubechies-4 (db4), discrete Meyer (dmey), Morlet (morl) and Symlet-8 (sym8) continuous wavelet transforms for signal treatments were found to be suitable among the wavelet families. The applicability of new synthetic ligand and selected mother wavelets were used for the simultaneous determination of strongly overlapped spectra of species without using any pre-chemical treatment. Therefore, CWT signals together with zero crossing technique were directly applied to the overlapping absorption spectra of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). The calibration graphs for estimation of Pb(2+) and Cu (2+)were obtained by measuring the CWT amplitudes at zero crossing points for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) at the wavelet domain, respectively. The proposed method was validated by simultaneous determination of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions in red beans, walnut, rice, tea and soil samples. The obtained results of samples with proposed method have been compared with those predicted by partial least squares (PLS) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Microscale Spectrophotometric Determination of Water Hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, James S.

    2001-08-01

    A spectrophotometric titration was performed to determine water hardness. The titration incorporated the traditional titration method employing EDTA as the titrant and calmagite as the indicator. The microscale experiment was carried out in a spectrometer cuvette and made use of a Texas Instruments (TI-83) calculator interfaced through a TI Calculator-Based Laboratory system to a Vernier colorimeter as the detector. Monitoring at 635 nm, one of the colorimeter's fixed wavelengths, was well suited for this analysis. Agreement was found with results from traditional titrations.

  19. Spectrophotometric Investigations of Macrolide Antibiotics: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Keskar, Mrudul R; Jugade, Ravin M

    2015-01-01

    Macrolides, one of the most commonly used class of antibiotics, are a group of drugs produced by Streptomyces species. They belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Their activity is due to the presence of a large macrolide lactone ring with deoxy sugar moieties. They are protein synthesis inhibitors and broad-spectrum antibiotics, active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different analytical techniques have been reported for the determination of macrolides such as chromatographic methods, flow injection methods, spectrofluorometric methods, spectrophotometric methods, and capillary electrophoresis methods. Among these methods, spectrophotometric methods are sensitive and cost effective for the analysis of various antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations as well as biological samples. This article reviews different spectrophotometric methods for the determination of macrolide antibiotics. PMID:26609215

  20. Time-temperature dependent variations in beta-carotene contents in carrot using different spectrophotometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Rahat; Khan, Saranjam; Shah, Attaullah; Ali, Hina; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    The current study presents time dependent variations in the concentration of beta-carotene in carrot under different storage-temperature conditions using UV–VIS and Raman spectrophotometric techniques. The UV–VIS absorption spectra of beta-carotene extracted from carrot shows three distinct absorption peaks at 442, 467, and 500 nm with maximum absorption at 467 nm. These absorption peaks are very much reproducible and are assigned to β-carotene. Similarly, Raman spectra of carrot samples also confirmed the three main Raman peaks of beta-carotene at shift positions 1003, 1150, and 1515 cm‑1. An overall decrease in beta-carotene content has been observed for time-temperature conditions. These results depict a decrease of about 40% in the content of beta-carotene when carrot samples were stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) for the first 20 d, whereas a decrease of about 25% was observed when carrot samples were stored in a freezer (‑16 °C) for the same period. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible use of Raman spectroscopy and UV–VIS spectroscopy for quick and detailed analysis of changes (degradation) in beta-carotene content associated with time and temperature in storage (frozen foods) in order to promote quality foods for consumers. Future study with a greater focus on the concentration/content of beta-carotene in other fruits/vegetables is also desirable.

  1. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Assay of Ketotifen Using Cerium(IV) and Two Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Madihalli Srinivas; Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Prashanth, Kudige Nagaraj; Vinay, Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2013-01-01

    One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF) in bulk drug and in tablets using cerium(IV) as the oxidimetric agent. In titrimetry (method A), the drug was treated with a measured excess of cerium(IV) in H2SO4 medium and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus oxidant was determined by back titration with iron(II). The spectrophotometric procedures involve addition of a known excess of cerium(IV) to KTF in acid medium followed by the determination of unreacted oxidant by reacting with either p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde and measuring the resulting colour at 460 nm (method B) or o-dianisidine and subsequent measurement of the absorbance of coloured product at 470 nm (method C). Titrimetric assay is based on a 1 : 2 reaction stoichiometry between KTF and cerium(IV) and the method is applicable over 2–18 mg range. In spectrophotometry, regression analysis of Beer's law plots showed a good correlation in 0.4–8.0 and 0.4–10.0 g mL−1 KTF ranges for method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding molar absorptivity coefficients are calculated to be 4.0 × 104 and 3.7 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. PMID:24324496

  2. Highly sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Radhey M.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Prasad, Surendra

    2008-01-01

    A new and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method (CKM) for the determination of ruthenium(III) has been established based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of L-phenylalanine ( L-Pheala) by KMnO 4 in highly alkaline medium. The reaction has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 526 nm. The proposed CKM is based on the fixed time procedure under optimum reaction conditions. It relies on the linear relationship where the change in the absorbance (Δ At) versus added Ru(III) amounts in the range of 0.101-2.526 ng ml -1 is plotted. Under the optimum conditions, the sensitivity of the proposed method, i.e. the limit of detection corresponding to 5 min is 0.08 ng ml -1, and decreases with increased time of analysis. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for ruthenium(III) determination. The ruthenium(III) has also been determined in presence of several interfering and non-interfering cations, anions and polyaminocarboxylates. No foreign ions interfered in the determination ruthenium(III) up to 20-fold higher concentration of foreign ions. In addition to standard solutions analysis, this method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of ruthenium(III) in drinking water samples. The method is highly sensitive, selective and very stable. A review of recently published catalytic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ruthenium(III) has also been presented for comparison.

  3. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  4. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle—A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanabar, Bhaveshkumar Kantilal; Ramani, Bharatkumar Maganbhai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, an energy crisis and the energy consumption have become global problems which restrict the sustainable growth. In these scenarios the scientific energy recovery and the utilization of various kinds of waste heat become very important. The waste heat can be utilized in many ways and one of the best practices is to use it for vapour absorption refrigeration system. To ensure efficient working of absorption cycle and utilization of optimum heat, exergy is the best tool for analysis. This paper provides the comprehensive picture of research and development of absorption refrigeration technology, practical and theoretical analysis with different arrangements of the cycle.

  5. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Meletiadis, J; Leth Mortensen, K; Verweij, P E; Mouton, J W; Arendrup, M C

    2017-02-01

    Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on visual reading. Spectrophotometric reading was not adopted because of concern that non-uniform filamentous growth might lead to unreliable and non-reproducible results. We therefore evaluated spectrophotometric reading for the determination of MICs of antifungal azoles against Aspergillus fumigatus. Eighty-eight clinical isolates of A. fumigatus were tested against four medical azoles (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, isavuconazole) and one agricultural azole (tebuconazole) with EUCAST E.Def 9.3. The visually determined MICs (complete inhibition of growth) were compared with spectrophotometrically determined MICs and essential (±1 twofold dilution) and categorical (susceptible/intermediate/resistant or wild-type/non-wild-type) agreement was calculated. Spectrophotometric data were analysed with regression analysis using the E max model, and the effective concentration corresponding to 5% (EC 5 ) was estimated. Using the 5% cut-off, high essential (92%-97%) and categorical (93%-99%) agreement (<6% errors) was found between spectrophotometric and visual MICs. The EC 5 also correlated with the visually determined MICs with an essential agreement of 83%-96% and a categorical agreement of 90%-100% (<5% errors). Spectrophotometric determination of MICs of antifungal drugs may increase objectivity, and allow automation and high-throughput of EUCAST E.Def 9.3 antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Graphite furnace atomic absorption elemental analysis of ecstasy tablets.

    PubMed

    French, Holly E; Went, Michael J; Gibson, Stuart J

    2013-09-10

    Six metals (copper, magnesium, barium, nickel, chromium and lead) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 parts per million (ppm) and in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly higher 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) content than batch 2, barium was the only element which discriminated between the two ecstasy seizures (batch 1: 0.19-0.66 ppm, batch 2: 3.77-5.47 ppm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric method development and validation for determination of chlorpheniramine maleate in bulk and controlled release tablets.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Maria; Sial, Ali Akber; Bushra, Rabia; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Baig, Mirza Tasawur; Huma, Ambreen; Ahmed, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Spectrophotometric technique is considered to be the simplest and operator friendly among other available analytical methods for pharmaceutical analysis. The objective of the study was to develop a precise, accurate and rapid UV-spectrophotometric method for the estimation of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) in pure and solid pharmaceutical formulation. Drug absorption was measured in various solvent systems including 0.1N HCl (pH 1.2), acetate buffer (pH 4.5), phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and distil water (pH 7.0). Method validation was performed as per official guidelines of ICH, 2005. High drug absorption was observed in 0.1N HCl medium with λ max of 261nm. The drug showed the good linearity from 20 to 60μg/mL solution concentration with the correlation coefficient linear regression equation Y= 0.1853 X + 0.1098 presenting R 2 value of 0.9998. The method accuracy was evaluated by the percent drug recovery, presents more than 99% drug recovery at three different levels assessed. The % RSD value <1 was computed for inter and intraday analysis indicating the high accuracy and precision of the developed technique. The developed method is robust because it shows no any significant variation in with minute changes. The LOD and LOQ values were assessed to be 2.2μg/mL and 6.6μg/mL respectively. The investigated method proved its sensitivity, precision and accuracy hence could be successfully used to estimate the CPM content in bulk and pharmaceutical matrix tablets.

  8. Synergistic extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol: Analysis of alloys, pharmaceuticals and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Ganesh S.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2011-05-01

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of copper(II) with 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] as a chromogenic reagent. The procedure was based on the synergistic extraction of copper(II) with 2',4'-dinitro APTPT in the presence of 0.5 mol L -1 pyridine to give green colored ternary complex of a molar ratio 1:2:2 (M:L:Py) in the pH range 8.7-10.5. It exhibits a maximum absorption of colored complex at 445 nm and 645 nm in chloroform against the reagent blank. Beer's law was followed in the concentration range 10-80 μg mL -1 of copper(II) and optimum range of 20-70 μg mL -1 the metal as evaluated from Ringbom's plot. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of copper(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex in chloroform are 0.87 × 10 3 L mol -1 cm -1 and 0.072 μg cm -2, respectively. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied, and use of suitable masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The proposed method is rapid, reproducible and successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in binary and synthetic mixtures, alloys, pharmaceutical formulations, environmental and fertilizer samples. Comparison of the results with those obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer also tested the validity of the method.

  9. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Pigments: A Critical Assessment of a High-Throughput Method for Analysis of Algal Pigment Mixtures by Spectral Deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Jan-Erik; Kyle, Marcia; Striebel, Maren; Haande, Sigrid; Grung, Merete; Rohrlack, Thomas; Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gauss-peak spectra (GPS) method represents individual pigment spectra as weighted sums of Gaussian functions, and uses these to model absorbance spectra of phytoplankton pigment mixtures. We here present several improvements for this type of methodology, including adaptation to plate reader technology and efficient model fitting by open source software. We use a one-step modeling of both pigment absorption and background attenuation with non-negative least squares, following a one-time instrument-specific calibration. The fitted background is shown to be higher than a solvent blank, with features reflecting contributions from both scatter and non-pigment absorption. We assessed pigment aliasing due to absorption spectra similarity by Monte Carlo simulation, and used this information to select a robust set of identifiable pigments that are also expected to be common in natural samples. To test the method’s performance, we analyzed absorbance spectra of pigment extracts from sediment cores, 75 natural lake samples, and four phytoplankton cultures, and compared the estimated pigment concentrations with concentrations obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The deviance between observed and fitted spectra was generally very low, indicating that measured spectra could successfully be reconstructed as weighted sums of pigment and background components. Concentrations of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids could accurately be estimated for both sediment and lake samples, but individual pigment concentrations (especially carotenoids) proved difficult to resolve due to similarity between their absorbance spectra. In general, our modified-GPS method provides an improvement of the GPS method that is a fast, inexpensive, and high-throughput alternative for screening of pigment composition in samples of phytoplankton material. PMID:26359659

  10. Interaction of diazepam with surfactants. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Guardia, M.; Rodilla, F.

    1986-03-01

    The interaction of diazepam with non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactants has been studied spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically. It has been verified that the absorption spectrum of diazepam is not modified in micellar medium. However, a dramatic five-fold increase in fluorescence sensitivity is observed in the presence of sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS). The experimental conditions, temperature, pH and surfactant concentration have been optimized to improve the fluorometric determination of diazepam and a detection limit of 0,04 ppmhas been obtained.

  11. Application of inorganic oxidants to the spectrophotometric determination of ribavirin in bulk and capsules.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Khedr, Alaa S; Askal, Hassan F; Mohamed, Ramadan M

    2006-01-01

    Eight spectrophotometric methods for determination of ribavirin have been developed and validated. These methods were based on the oxidation of the drug by different inorganic oxidants: ceric ammonium sulfate, potassium permanganate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanidate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate, and potassium periodate. The oxidation reactions were performed in perchloric acid medium for ceric ammonium sulfate and in sulfuric acid medium for the other reagents. With ceric ammonium sulfate and potassium permanganate, the concentration of ribavirin in its samples was determined by measuring the decrease in the absorption intensity of the colored reagents at 315 and 525 nm, respectively. With the other reagents, the concentration of ribavirin was determined by measuring the intensity of the developed colored reaction products at the wavelengths of maximum absorbance: 675, 780, 595, 595, 475, and 475 nm for reactions with ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanidate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate, and potassium periodate, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9984-0.9998) were found between the absorbance readings and the concentrations of ribavirin in the range of 4-1400 microg/mL. The molar absorptivities were correlated with the oxidation potential of the oxidants used. The precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.64%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ribavirin in pure drug material and capsules with good accuracy and precision; the recovery values were 99.2-101.2 +/- 0.48-1.30%. The results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric methods were comparable with those obtained with the official method stated in the United States Pharmacopeia.

  12. New Spectrophotometric Assay of Pyrantel Pamoate in Pharmaceuticals and Spiked Human Urine Using Three Complexing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, N.; Prashanth, K. N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2015-07-01

    Three simple, rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the quantifi cation of pyrantel pamoate (PYP) in pure drug and formulations. The methods are based on the molecular charge-transfer (CT) complexation reaction involving pyrantel base (PYL) as n-donor and iodine as σ-acceptor (I 2 , method A), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, method B) or picric acid (PA, method C) as π-acceptors. Spectrophotometrically, the CT complexes showed absorption maxima at 380, 420, and 430 nm, for methods A, B, and C, respectively. Under optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges 0.12-2.9, 0.12-3.75, and 0.12-2.9 μg/ml for methods A, B, and C, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity of the CT complexes at the respective λmax are calculated to be 2.63 × 10 5 , 6.91 × 10 4 , and 1.73 × 10 5 l/mol· cm respectively and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0009, 0.003, and 0.0012. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are calculated to be (0.02 and 0.07), (0.05 and 0.15), and (0.02 and 0.07) μg/ml with methods A, B, and C, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy expressed as %RE and precision expressed as %RSD are less than 3%. The methods have been applied to the determination of PYP in tablets, suspensions, and spiked human urine. Parallel assay by a reference method and statistical analysis of the results obtained show no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reference method with respect to accuracy and precision, as evident from the Student's t and variation ratio tests. The accuracy of the methods has been further ascertained by recovery tests via the standard addition technique.

  13. Development and Validation of UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Determination of Eperisone and Paracetamol in Solid Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Khanage, Shantaram Gajanan; Mohite, Popat Baban; Jadhav, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Eperisone Hydrochloride (EPE) is a potent new generation antispasmodic drug which is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain in combination with Paracetamol (PAR). Both drugs are available in tablet dosage form in combination with a dose of 50 mg for EPE and 325 mg PAR respectively. The method is based upon Q-absorption ratio method for the simultaneous determination of the EPE and PAR. Absorption ratio method is used for the ratio of the absorption at two selected wavelength one of which is the iso-absorptive point and other being the λmax of one of the two components. EPE and PAR shows their iso-absorptive point at 260 nm in methanol, the second wavelength used is 249 nm which is the λmax of PAR in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 5-25 μg/mL for EPE and 2-10 μg/mL for PAR. The proposed method was effectively applied to tablet dosage form for estimation of both drugs. The accuracy and reproducibility results are close to 100% with 2% RSD. RESULTS of the analysis were validated statistically and found to be satisfactory. The results of proposed method have been validated as per ICH guidelines. A simple, precise and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of EPE and PAR in pharmaceutical formulation.

  14. Structural study of aggregated β-carotene by absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li Ping; Wei, Liang Shu

    2017-10-01

    By UV-visible absorption spectroscope, the aggregated β-carotene in hydrated ethanol was studied in the temperature range of 5 55°C, with different ethanol/water ratio. And the structural evolutions of these aggregates with time were detected. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the aggregate of β-carotene formed in 1:1 ethanol/water solution transfered from H-type to J-type with temperature increase. In 2:1 ethanol/water solution a new type of aggregate with strong coupling was predicated by the appearing absorption peak located at about 550 nm. In the time scales of 48 houses all the aggregated structures were stable, but the absorption intensity decreased with time. It was concluded that the types of aggregated β-carotene which wouldn't change with time depended on the solvent composition and temperature.

  15. An analysis of OH excited state absorption lines in DR 21 and K3-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. N.; Doel, R. C.; Field, D.; Gray, M. D.; Walker, R. N. F.

    1992-10-01

    We present an analysis of the OH absorption line zones observed toward the compact H II regions DR 21 and K3-50. Using as parameters the kinetic and dust temperatures, the H2 number density and the ratio of OH-H2 number densities to the velocity gradient, the model quantitatively reproduces the absorption line data for the six main line transitions in 2 Pi3/2 J = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2. Observed upper limits for the absorption or emission in the satellite lines of 2 Pi3/2 J = 5/2 are crucial in constraining the range of derived parameters. Physical conditions derived for DR 21 show that the kinetic temperature centers around 140 K, the H2 number density around 10 exp 7/cu cm, and that the OH column density in the excited state absorption zone lies between 1 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and 2 x 10 exp 15/sq cm. Including contributions from a J = 3/2 absorption zone, the total OH column density is more than a factor of 2 lower than estimates based upon LTE (Walmsley et al., 1986). The OH absorption zone in K3-50 tends toward higher density and displays a larger column density, while the kinetic temperature is similar. For both sources, the dust temperature is found to be significantly lower than the kinetic temperature.

  16. Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen.

  17. SHARDS: An Optical Spectro-photometric Survey of Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Víctor; Cardiel, Nicolás; Ferreras, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Espinosa, José Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Balcells, Marc; Cenarro, Javier; Cepa, Jordi; Charlot, Stéphane; Cimatti, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J.; Daddi, Emmanuele; Donley, Jennifer; Elbaz, David; Espino, Néstor; Gallego, Jesús; Gobat, R.; González-Martín, Omaira; Guzmán, Rafael; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Renzini, Alvio; Rodríguez-Zaurín, Javier; Tresse, Laurence; Trujillo, Ignacio; Zamorano, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out using the OSIRIS instrument on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field covering 130 arcmin2 at wavelengths between 500 and 950 nm with 24 contiguous medium-band filters (providing a spectral resolution R ~ 50). The data reach an AB magnitude of 26.5 (at least at a 3σ level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS' main goal is to obtain accurate physical properties of intermediate- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features, whose analysis will provide reliable stellar population and active galactic nucleus (AGN) parameters. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS' principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1, whose existence is one of the major challenges facing current hierarchical models of galaxy formation. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures which should be applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. An assessment of the SHARDS data quality is also performed. We present science demonstration results on the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming objects and AGNs) at z = 0-5. We also analyze the SEDs for a sample of 27 quiescent massive galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.0 < z <~ 1.4. We discuss the improvements introduced by the SHARDS data set in the analysis of their star formation history and stellar properties. We discuss the systematics arising from the use of different stellar population libraries, typical in this kind of study. Averaging the results from the different libraries, we find that the UV-to-MIR SEDs of the massive quiescent galaxies at z = 1.0-1.4 are well described by

  18. Sustained prediction ability of net analyte preprocessing methods using reduced calibration sets. Theoretical and experimental study involving the spectrophotometric analysis of multicomponent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    2001-07-01

    A newly developed multivariate method involving net analyte preprocessing (NAP) was tested using central composite calibration designs of progressively decreasing size regarding the multivariate simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of three active components (phenylephrine, diphenhydramine and naphazoline) and one excipient (methylparaben) in nasal solutions. Its performance was evaluated and compared with that of partial least-squares (PLS-1). Minimisation of the calibration predicted error sum of squares (PRESS) as a function of a moving spectral window helped to select appropriate working spectral ranges for both methods. The comparison of NAP and PLS results was carried out using two tests: (1) the elliptical joint confidence region for the slope and intercept of a predicted versus actual concentrations plot for a large validation set of samples and (2) the D-optimality criterion concerning the information content of the calibration data matrix. Extensive simulations and experimental validation showed that, unlike PLS, the NAP method is able to furnish highly satisfactory results when the calibration set is reduced from a full four-component central composite to a fractional central composite, as expected from the modelling requirements of net analyte based methods.

  19. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  20. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  1. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ARSENICALS BY PH-SELECTIVE HYDRIDE GENERATION-ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory


    A method based on pH-selective generation and separation of arsines is commonly used for analysis of inorganic, methylated, and dimethylated trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). We have optimized this method to pe...

  2. Pressure Measurements Using an Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar. Part 1; Analysis of the Systematic Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.

  3. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of aceclofenac following azo dye formation with 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene diazonium ion.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, Segun A; Adegoke, Olajire A; Idowu, Olakunle S; Olaleye, Sefiu O

    2012-01-01

    The study is a description of a sensitive spectrophotometric determination of aceclofenac following azo dye formation with 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenediazonium ion (CDNBD). Spot test and thin layer chromatography revealed the formation of a new compound distinct from CDNBD and aceclofenac. Optimization studies established a reaction time of 5 min at 30 degrees C after vortex mixing the drug/CDNBD for 10 s. An absorption maximum of 430 nm was selected as analytical wavelength. A linear response was observed over 1.2-4.8 μg/mL of aceclofenac with a correlation coefficient of 0.9983 and the drug combined with CDNBD at stoichiometric ratio of 2 : 1. The method has a limit of detection of 0.403 μg/mL, limit of quantitation of 1.22 μg/mL and is reproducible over a three day assessment. The method gave Sandell's sensitivity of 3.279 ng/cm2. Intra- and inter-day accuracies (in terms of errors) were less than 6% while precisions were of the order of 0.03-1.89% (RSD). The developed spectrophotometric method is of equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05) with British Pharmacopoeia, 2010 potentiometric method. It has the advantages of speed, simplicity, sensitivity and more affordable instrumentation and could found application as a rapid and sensitive analytical method of aceclofenac. It is the first described method by azo dye derivatization for the analysis of aceclofenac in bulk samples and dosage forms.

  4. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  5. ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectropscopy using IFEFFIT

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.; UC)

    2010-07-20

    A software package for the analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data is presented. This package is based on the IFEFFIT library of numerical and XAS algorithms and is written in the Perl programming language using the Perl/Tk graphics toolkit. The programs described here are: (i) ATHENA, a program for XAS data processing, (ii) ARTEMIS, a program for EXAFS data analysis using theoretical standards from FEFF and (iii) HEPHAESTUS, a collection of beamline utilities based on tables of atomic absorption data. These programs enable high-quality data analysis that is accessible to novices while still powerful enough to meet the demandsmore » of an expert practitioner. The programs run on all major computer platforms and are freely available under the terms of a free software license.« less

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of isopropamide iodide and trifluoperazine hydrochloride in presence of trifluoperazine oxidative degradate.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samah S; Zaazaa, Hala E; Abdelkawy, M; Abdelrahman, Maha M

    2010-04-01

    Four sensitive, selective and precise stability indicating methods for the determination of isopropamide iodide (ISO) and trifluoperazine hydrochloride (TPZ) in their binary mixture and in presence of trifluoperazine oxidative degradate (OXD). Method A is a derivative spectrophotometric one, where ISO was determined by first derivative (D(1)) at 226.4 nm while TPZ was determined by second derivative (D(2)) at 270.2 nm. Method B is the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD(1)) spectrophotometric method, ISO can be determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 227.4 nm using 5 microg mL(-1) of OXD as a divisor, while TPZ can be determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 249.2 and 261.4 nm using 15 microg mL(-1) of ISO as a divisor. Method C is the isoabsorptive spectrophotometric method. This method allows determination of ISO and TPZ in their binary mixture by measuring total concentration of ISO and TPZ at their isoabsorptive point at lambda(229.8) nm (Aiso1) while TPZ concentration alone can be determined at lambda(max) 311.2 nm, then ISO concentration can be determined by subtraction. On the same basis TPZ can be determined in presence of ISO and OXD, where OXD concentration alone was determined by measuring the peak amplitude at lambda(281.6) and lambda(309.4) nm while total concentration of TPZ and OXD was determined at their isoabsorptive points at (Aiso2 = 270.2 nm), (Aiso3 = 310.6 nm) and (Aiso4 = 331.8 nm) then TPZ concentration was determined by subtraction. Method D is the multivariate calibration techniques [the classical least squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS)], using the information contained in the absorption spectra of ISO, TPZ and OXD mixtures. The selectivity of the proposed methods was checked using laboratory prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of ISO and TPZ in pharmaceutical dosage form without interference from other dosage form

  7. Spectrophotometric characterization of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ivo; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça.; Catarino, Susana O.

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease with more than a billion people worldwide at risk of contraction. The disease is predominantly widespread in regions with precarious healthcare conditions and resources. Despite the several available malaria diagnostic methods, only two are predominantly used in the field in malaria-endemic countries: microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In this work, an alternative diagnostic system is proposed, based on optical absorption spectrophotometry. The main objective of this paper is the spectrophotometric study of hemozoin as a malaria biomarker, since it is a sub-product of the malaria infection. The optical absorbance of hemoglobin and hemozoin solutions in purified water was measured in the visible spectrum range using a spectrophotometric setup. The results showed main absorbance peaks at 540 nm and 574 nm for hemoglobin, and at 672 nm for hemozoin. The tests performed in aqueous solutions have shown that both hemoglobin and synthetic hemozoin, when alone in solution, were detected by absorbance, with sensitivity of 0.05 g/L, and with a high linearity (R2> 0.92 for all wavelength peaks). Furthermore, it was found that the whole blood and the hemoglobin spectra have similar absorption peaks. By combining whole blood and synthetic hemozoin solutions, it was proved that both the hemozoin and the hemoglobin absorbance peaks could still be detected by spectrophotometry. For instance, in polydimethylsiloxane wells, the proposed method was able to detect hemozoin in whole blood samples for optical paths as low as 3 mm in cylindrical wells, thus proving the capability for this method's miniaturization. With this work, it is possible to conclude that hemozoin is a viable candidate as a biomarker for malaria detection by optical absorption spectrophotometry and also, that an autonomous, fully integrated and low cost miniaturized system, based on such a principle, could provide an efficient diagnosis of malaria.

  8. Innovative spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of the novel two-drug combination: Sacubitril/Valsartan through two manipulation approaches and a comparative statistical study.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Maya S; Abou Al Alamein, Amal M

    2018-03-15

    Different innovative spectrophotometric methods were introduced for the first time for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril/valsartan in their binary mixture and in their combined dosage form without prior separation through two manipulation approaches. These approaches were developed and based either on two wavelength selection in zero-order absorption spectra namely; dual wavelength method (DWL) at 226nm and 275nm for valsartan, induced dual wavelength method (IDW) at 226nm and 254nm for sacubitril and advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS) based on their iso-absorptive point at 246nm (λ iso ) and 261nm (sacubitril shows equal absorbance values at the two selected wavelengths) or on ratio spectra using their normalized spectra namely; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) at 225nm and 264nm for both of them in their ratio spectra, first derivative of ratio spectra (DR 1 ) at 232nm for valsartan and 239nm for sacubitril and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) at 260nm for both of them. Both sacubitril and valsartan showed linearity upon application of these methods in the range of 2.5-25.0μg/mL. The developed spectrophotmetric methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined tablet dosage form ENTRESTO™. The adopted spectrophotometric methods were also validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method using Student t-test, F-test and a comparative study was also developed with one-way ANOVA, showing no statistical difference in accordance to precision and accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovative spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of the novel two-drug combination: Sacubitril/Valsartan through two manipulation approaches and a comparative statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Maya S.; Abou Al Alamein, Amal M.

    2018-03-01

    Different innovative spectrophotometric methods were introduced for the first time for simultaneous quantification of sacubitril/valsartan in their binary mixture and in their combined dosage form without prior separation through two manipulation approaches. These approaches were developed and based either on two wavelength selection in zero-order absorption spectra namely; dual wavelength method (DWL) at 226 nm and 275 nm for valsartan, induced dual wavelength method (IDW) at 226 nm and 254 nm for sacubitril and advanced absorbance subtraction (AAS) based on their iso-absorptive point at 246 nm (λiso) and 261 nm (sacubitril shows equal absorbance values at the two selected wavelengths) or on ratio spectra using their normalized spectra namely; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) at 225 nm and 264 nm for both of them in their ratio spectra, first derivative of ratio spectra (DR1) at 232 nm for valsartan and 239 nm for sacubitril and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) at 260 nm for both of them. Both sacubitril and valsartan showed linearity upon application of these methods in the range of 2.5-25.0 μg/mL. The developed spectrophotmetric methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined tablet dosage form ENTRESTO™. The adopted spectrophotometric methods were also validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method using Student t-test, F-test and a comparative study was also developed with one-way ANOVA, showing no statistical difference in accordance to precision and accuracy.

  10. Spectrophotometric study for the reaction between fluvoxamine and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate: Kinetic, mechanism and use for determination of fluvoxamine in its dosage forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Abdine, Heba H.; Amer, Sawsan M.; Al-Rayes, Lama I.

    2009-05-01

    Spectrophotometric study was carried out, for the first time, to investigate the reaction between the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FXM) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 9), an orange-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak ( λmax) at 470 nm was produced. The kinetics of the reaction was investigated and its activation energy was found to be 2.65 kcal mol -1. Because of this low activation energy, the reaction proceeded easily. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was successfully employed in the development of simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance ( A) with FXM concentration ( C) was obeyed in the range of 0.6-8 μg ml -1. The regression equation for the calibration data was A = 0.0086 + 0.1348 C, with good correlation coefficient (0.9996). The molar absorptivity ( ɛ) was 5.9 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.6 μg ml -1, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.47 ± 0.96%. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official method. The proposed method is superior to all the previously reported spectrophotometric methods for determination of FXM in terms of its simplicity and sensitivity. The method is practical and valuable for its routine application in quality control laboratories for analysis of FXM.

  11. A new technique to assess dermal absorption of volatile chemicals in vitro by thermal gravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Rauma, Matias; Isaksson, Tina S; Johanson, Gunnar

    2006-10-01

    Potential health hazards of dermal exposure, variability in reported dermal absorption rates and potential losses from the skin by evaporation indicate a need for a simple, inexpensive and standardized procedure to measure dermal absorption and desorption of chemical substances. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility to measure dermal absorption and desorption of volatile chemicals using a new gravimetric technique, namely thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and trypsinated stratum corneum from pig. Changes in skin weight were readily detected before, during and after exposure to vapours of water, 2-propanol, methanol and toluene. The shape and height of the weight curves differed between the four chemicals, reflecting differences in diffusivity and partial pressure and skin:air partitioning, respectively. As the skin weight is highly sensitive to the partial pressure of volatile chemicals, including water, this technique requires carefully controlled conditions with respect to air flow, temperature, chemical vapour generation and humidity. This new technique may help in the assessment of dermal uptake of volatile chemicals. Only a small piece of skin is needed and skin integrity is not necessary, facilitating the use of human samples. The high resolution weight-time curves obtained may also help to elucidate the characteristics of absorption, desorption and diffusion of chemicals in skin.

  12. Lipid-associated Oral Delivery: Mechanisms and Analysis of Oral Absorption Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of permeation through the intestinal mucosa, and triggering drug precipitation upon lipid emulsion depletion (e.g., by digestion). The effect of lipids on drug absorption is currently not quantitatively predictable, in part due to the multiple complex dynamic processes that can be impacted by lipids. Quantitative mechanistic analysis of the processes significant to lipid system function and overall impact on drug absorption can aid understanding of drug-lipid interactions in the GI tract and exploitation of such interactions to achieve optimal lipid-based drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the impact of co-delivered lipids and lipid digestion on drug dissolution, partitioning, and absorption in the context of the experimental tools and associated kinetic expressions used to study and model these processes. The potential benefit of a systems-based consideration of the concurrent multiple dynamic processes occurring upon co-dosing lipids and drugs to predict the impact of lipids on drug absorption and enable rational design of lipid-based delivery systems is presented. PMID:27520734

  13. Lipid-associated oral delivery: Mechanisms and analysis of oral absorption enhancement.

    PubMed

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca

    2016-10-28

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of permeation through the intestinal mucosa, and triggering drug precipitation upon lipid emulsion depletion (e.g., by digestion). The effect of lipids on drug absorption is currently not quantitatively predictable, in part due to the multiple complex dynamic processes that can be impacted by lipids. Quantitative mechanistic analysis of the processes significant to lipid system function and overall impact on drug absorption can aid in the understanding of drug-lipid interactions in the GI tract and exploitation of such interactions to achieve optimal lipid-based drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the impact of co-delivered lipids and lipid digestion on drug dissolution, partitioning, and absorption in the context of the experimental tools and associated kinetic expressions used to study and model these processes. The potential benefit of a systems-based consideration of the concurrent multiple dynamic processes occurring upon co-dosing lipids and drugs to predict the impact of lipids on drug absorption and enable rational design of lipid-based delivery systems is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Analysis of effects of salt stress on absorption and accumulation of mineral elements in Elymus spp. using atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ya-xiong; Sun, Lei; He, Feng; Wan, Li-qiang; Yuan, Qing-hua; Li, Xiang-lin

    2008-12-01

    Salinization contributes significantly to soil degradation and the growth and survival of plants. A high level of salts imposes both ionic and osmotic stresses on plants, resulting in an excessive accumulation of sodium (Na) in plant tissues. Na toxicity disrupts the uptake of soil nutrients. Plant uptake and absorption of macro-elements under salt stress have been studied in plants, but there is little literature addressing the effect of salt stress on plant accumulation and absorption of micro-elements. Species in Elymus genus are among the most important forage plants on high-salinity soils in China An experiment was conducted to study the effect of salt stress on accumulation and absorption of both macro- and micro-elements by wild plants of Elymus genus. Plant samples taken from two populations with different salt tolerance were tested and the level of 4 macro-elements, namely Na, K, Ca and Mg, and 4 micro-elements, namely Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The relationship between the selection of elements in the process of absorption and accumulation and salt tolerance was also analyzed. The results showed that the level of Na in root and leaf tissues increased with increasing salt stress. The level of Na in leaf tissue of plants with high salt tolerance (HS) was significantly higher than that in plants with low salt tolerance (P<0.05). The level of K and Ca decreased in response to increasing salt stress, while that in HS was higher than in LS. The level of Fe and Zn in the tissues of both roots and leaves increased. No significant difference was detected between HS and LS samples in the level of Cu in root tissues, while that of Cu in leaf tissue of both samples increased. The level of Mn decreased with increasing salt stress, but was higher in HS than in LS. Fe and Zn in roots and leaves of HS were lower than in those of LS.

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron(II) and Cobalt(II) by Direct, Derivative, and Simultaneous Methods Using 2-Hydroxy-1-Naphthaldehyde-p-Hydroxybenzoichydrazone

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. S. Anusuya; Reddy, V. Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Optimized and validated spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of iron and cobalt individually and simultaneously. 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde-p-hydroxybenzoichydrazone (HNAHBH) reacts with iron(II) and cobalt(II) to form reddish-brown and yellow-coloured [Fe(II)-HNAHBH] and [Co(II)-HNAHBH] complexes, respectively. The maximum absorbance of these complexes was found at 405 nm and 425 nm, respectively. For [Fe(II)-HNAHBH], Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.055–1.373 μg mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.095 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity ɛ, 5.6 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. [Co(II)-HNAHBH] complex obeys Beer's law in 0.118–3.534 μg mL−1 range with a detection limit of 0.04 μg mL−1 and molar absorptivity, ɛ of 2.3 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1. Highly sensitive and selective first-, second- and third-order derivative methods are described for the determination of iron and cobalt. A simultaneous second-order derivative spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of these metals. All the proposed methods are successfully employed in the analysis of various biological, water, and alloy samples for the determination of iron and cobalt content. PMID:22505925

  16. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy--digital detection of gas absorption harmonics based on Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a detailed study of the theoretical aspects of the Fourier analysis method, which has been utilized for gas absorption harmonic detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lock-in detection of the harmonic signal is accomplished by studying the phase term of the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier spectrum that corresponds to the harmonic signal. The mathematics and the corresponding simulation results are given for each procedure when applying the Fourier analysis method. The present work provides a detailed view of the WMS technique when applying the Fourier analysis method.

  17. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yeguang; Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zhang, Chengwu; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-07-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated, and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al. was established. According to Boussiba's method, alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll. However, we found that: 1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm. Interestingly, a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content, while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study. Therefore, with 530 nm as working wavelength, the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll, other carotenoids, and the unknown interference could be avoided. The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g. When compared with the measured values at 492 nm, the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%, respectively. The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples. The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  18. Novel spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in their ternary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2015-04-01

    This work represents a comparative study of two smart spectrophotometric techniques namely; successive resolution and progressive resolution for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures of Amlodipine (AML), Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and Valsartan (VAL) without prior separation steps. These techniques consist of several consecutive steps utilizing zero and/or ratio and/or derivative spectra. By applying successive spectrum subtraction coupled with constant multiplication method, the proposed drugs were obtained in their zero order absorption spectra and determined at their maxima 237.6 nm, 270.5 nm and 250 nm for AML, HCT and VAL, respectively; while by applying successive derivative subtraction they were obtained in their first derivative spectra and determined at P230.8-246, P261.4-278.2, P233.7-246.8 for AML, HCT and VAL respectively. While in the progressive resolution, the concentrations of the components were determined progressively from the same zero order absorption spectrum using absorbance subtraction coupled with absorptivity factor methods or from the same ratio spectrum using only one divisor via amplitude modulation method can be used for the determination of ternary mixtures using only one divisor where the concentrations of the components are determined progressively. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs. Moreover comparative study between spectrum addition technique as a novel enrichment technique and a well established one namely spiking technique was adopted for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing low concentration of AML. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be within their acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with the reported one where no significant

  19. Quantitative analysis of the effect of supersaturation on in vivo drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ryusuke; Takata, Noriyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Furumoto, Kentaro; Higo, Shoichi; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Machida, Minoru; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shinji

    2010-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of intestinal drug supersaturation on solubility-limited nonlinear absorption. Oral absorption of a novel farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI-2600) from its crystalline free base and its HCl salt was determined in dogs. To clarify the contribution of supersaturation on improving drug absorption, in vivo intraluminal concentration of FTI-2600 after oral administration was estimated from the pharmacokinetics data using a physiologically based model. Dissolution and precipitation characteristics of FTI-2600 in a biorelevant media were investigated in vitro using a miniscale dissolution test and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. In the in vitro study, the HCl salt immediately dissolved but precipitated rapidly. The metastable amorphous free base precipitant, which did not convert into the stable crystalline free base in the simulated intestinal fluids for several hours, generated a 5-fold increase in dissolved concentration compared to the equilibrium solubility of the crystalline free base. By computer simulation, the intraluminal drug concentration after administration of the free base was estimated to reach the saturated solubility, indicating solubility-limited absorption. On the other hand, administration of the HCl salt resulted in an increased intraluminal concentration and the plasma concentration was 400% greater than that after administration of the free base. This in vivo/in vitro correlation of the increased drug concentrations in the small intestine provide clear evidence that not only the increase in the dissolution rate, but also the supersaturation phenomenon, improved the solubility-limited absorption of FTI-2600. These results indicate that formulation technologies that can induce supersaturation may be of great assistance to the successful development of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  20. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine; ...

    2017-07-18

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  1. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  2. Self-referencing spectrophotometric measurements

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Van Hare, David R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of a chemical substance by spectrophotometry comprising the steps of placing a sample of a photoreactive substance between the light source and a spectrophotometer, obtaining an absorption spectrum of the substance using a fixed amount of light from the light source, obtaining a second absorption spectrum after a short interval, comparing the two to determine the concentration of the chemical substance from the difference in the spectra. If the chemical substance is not photoreactive, a photoreactive mixture can be made with a photoreactive dye that has photoreactive properties unique to the mixture. Alternatively, an optically transparent substrate can absorb the substance or the dye/substance mixture.

  3. Spectrophotometric Standards for Cross-Observatory Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Miller, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    This program will obtain NICMOS spectrophotometry of four main sequence A stars and four K giants, each selected from the Spitzer IRAC photometric calibration target and/or candidate calibration target lists {Reach et al 2005, PASP,117,978}. These observations will supplement existing HST observations of DA white dwarfs and solar analogs, and will provide a broad base of stellar types for spectrophotometric cross calibration of HST, Spitzer, and eventually JWST. The targets are chosen to be faint enough for unsaturated observations with JWST NIRSPEC, yet still bright enough for high signal to noise in relatively short observations with HST+NICMOS and with Spitzer+IRAC.ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST OBS OF 1812095 & KF06T2These data demonstated heavy saturation in the longer exposures. For example, 1812095 {A3V, V=11.8, Ks=11.6} shows a peak rate of 250DN/s in G096, while KF06T2 {K1.5III V=13.8, Ks=11.3} reaches 250DN/s in G206, including the 100DN/s of background. Thus, full saturation of some charge wells occurred after integrating for 100s. Adopting a 2x safety factor, the integration times should be limited to 50s. The brightest stars are Ks=11, or 32% brighter.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

    2009-09-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  5. A comparative study of novel spectrophotometric methods based on isosbestic points; application on a pharmaceutical ternary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Saleh, Sarah S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham

    This work represents the application of the isosbestic points present in different absorption spectra. Three novel spectrophotometric methods were developed, the first method is the absorption subtraction method (AS) utilizing the isosbestic point in zero-order absorption spectra; the second method is the amplitude modulation method (AM) utilizing the isosbestic point in ratio spectra; and third method is the amplitude summation method (A-Sum) utilizing the isosbestic point in derivative spectra. The three methods were applied for the analysis of the ternary mixture of chloramphenicol (CHL), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DXM) and tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZH) in eye drops in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The components at the isosbestic point were determined using the corresponding unified regression equation at this point with no need for a complementary method. The obtained results were statistically compared to each other and to that of the developed PLS model. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed.

  6. Miniaturized differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for the analysis of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. Alberto; Walsh, James E.; Treacy, Jack E.; Garland, Wendy E.

    2003-03-01

    Current trends in optical design engineering are leading to the development of new systems which can analyze atmospheric pollutants in a fast and easy way, allowing remote-sensing and miniaturization at a low cost. A small portable fiber-optic based system is presented for the spectroscopic analysis of a common gas pollutant, NO2. The novel optical set-up described consists of a small telescope that collects ultraviolet-visible light from a xenon lamp located 600 m away. The light is coupled into a portable diode array spectrometer through a fiber-optic cable and the system is controlled by a lap-top computer where the spectra are recorded. Using the spectrum of the lamp as a reference, the absorption spectrum of the open path between the lamp and the telescope is calculated. Known absorption features in the NO2 spectrum are used to calculate the concentration of the pollutant using the principles of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Calibration is carried by using sample gas bags of known concentration of the pollutant. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to detect and determine NO2 concentrations directly from the atmosphere at typical environment levels by using an inexpensive field based fiber-optic spectrometer system.

  7. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  8. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  9. Validation of different spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and metformin in binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    New, simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed and subsequently validated for determination of vildagliptin (VLG) and metformin (MET) in binary mixture. Zero order spectrophotometric method was the first method used for determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL-1 by measuring the absorbance at 237.6 nm. The second method was derivative spectrophotometric technique; utilized for determination of MET at 247.4 nm, in the range of 1-12 μg mL-1. Derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was the third technique; used for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1 at 265.8 nm. Fourth and fifth methods adopted for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1; were ratio subtraction and mean centering spectrophotometric methods, respectively. All the results were statistically compared with the reported methods, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Development of an underwater in-situ spectrophotometric sensor for seawater pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterbury, Robert D.; Byrne, Robert H.; Kelly, John; Leader, Bram; McElligott, Sean; Russell, Randy

    1996-12-01

    A pH sensor based upon spectrophotometric techniques has been developed for in-situ analysis of surface seawater. This sensor utilizes a spectrophotometric pH indicator (Thymol Blue) which has been calibrated for use in seawater as a function of temperature and salinity. Shipboard spectrophotometric pH analyses routinely demonstrate a precision on the order of plus or minus 0.0004 pH units. In- situ analysis of seawater pH has demonstrated a precision on the order of plus or minus 0.001 and an accuracy, using shipboard measurements as a standard, on the order of plus or minus 0.01. The sensor is a self-contained system which pumps seawater, meters in indicator, spectrophotometrically determines indicator absorbance and stores data with a 1 Hz acquisition frequency. The sensor employs two absorbance cells, each with three wavelength channels, to obtain the spectrophotometric absorbance. The sensor system, rated for depths up to 500 m, provides pH, conductivity, temperature and can be operated via computer or in a standalone mode with internal data storage. The sensor utilizes less than 12 watts of power and is packaged in a 29' long by 4.5' diameter aluminum housing.

  11. Mini-DIAL system measurements coupled with multivariate data analysis to identify TIC and TIM simulants: preliminary absorption database analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; Poggi, L. A.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Toxic Industrial Components (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) are one of the most dangerous and diffuse vehicle of contamination in urban and industrial areas. The academic world together with the industrial and military one are working on innovative solutions to monitor the diffusion in atmosphere of such pollutants. In this phase the most common commercial sensors are based on “point detection” technology but it is clear that such instruments cannot satisfy the needs of the smart cities. The new challenge is developing stand-off systems to continuously monitor the atmosphere. Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) research group has a long experience in laser system development and has built two demonstrators based on DIAL (Differential Absorption of Light) technology could be able to identify chemical agents in atmosphere. In this work the authors will present one of those DIAL system, the miniaturized one, together with the preliminary results of an experimental campaign conducted on TICs and TIMs simulants in cell with aim of use the absorption database for the further atmospheric an analysis using the same DIAL system. The experimental results are analysed with standard multivariate data analysis technique as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to develop a classification model aimed at identifying organic chemical compound in atmosphere. The preliminary results of absorption coefficients of some chemical compound are shown together pre PCA analysis.

  12. UV absorption in metal decorated boron nitride flakes: a theoretical analysis of excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Siddheshwar; Plasser, Felix

    2017-10-01

    The excited states of single metal atom (X = Co, Al and Cu) doped boron nitride flake (MBNF) B15N14H14-X and pristine boron nitride (B15N15H14) are studied by time-dependent density functional theory. The immediate effect of metal doping is a red shift of the onset of absorption from about 220 nm for pristine BNF to above 300 nm for all metal-doped variants with the biggest effect for MBNF-Co, which shows appreciable intensity even above 400 nm. These energy shifts are analysed by detailed wavefunction analysis protocols using visualisation methods, such as the natural transition orbital analysis and electron-hole correlation plots, as well as quantitative analysis of the exciton size and electron-hole populations. The analysis shows that the Co and Cu atoms provide strong contributions to the relevant states whereas the aluminium atom is only involved to a lesser extent.

  13. Self-referencing spectrophotometric measurements

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.

    1994-03-29

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of a chemical substance by spectrophotometry comprising the steps of placing a sample of a photoreactive substance between the light source and a spectrophotometer, obtaining an absorption spectrum of the substance using a fixed amount of light from the light source, obtaining a second absorption spectrum after a short interval, comparing the two to determine the concentration of the chemical substance from the difference in the spectra. If the chemical substance is not photoreactive, a photoreactive mixture can be made with a photoreactive dye that has photoreactive properties unique to the mixture. Alternatively, an optically transparent substrate can absorb the substance or the dye/substance mixture. 3 figures.

  14. Validated stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cefixime trihydrate in the presence of its acid and alkali degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Nadia M; Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Weshahy, Soheir A; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Boltia, Shereen A

    2015-01-01

    Five simple, accurate, precise, and economical spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of cefixime trihydrate (CFX) in the presence of its acid and alkali degradation products without prior separation. In the first method, second derivative (2D) and first derivative (1D) spectrophotometry was applied to the absorption spectra of CFX and its acid (2D) or alkali (1D) degradation products by measuring the amplitude at 289 and 308 nm, respectively. The second method was a first derivative (1DD) ratio spectrophotometric method where the peak amplitudes were measured at 311 nm in presence of the acid degradation product, and 273 and 306 nm in presence of its alkali degradation product. The third method was ratio subtraction spectrophotometry where the drug is determined at 286 nm in laboratory-prepared mixtures of CFX and its acid or alkali degradation product. The fourth method was based on dual wavelength analysis; two wavelengths were selected at which the absorbances of one component were the same, so wavelengths 209 and 252 nm were used to determine CFX in presence of its acid degradation product and 310 and 321 nm in presence of its alkali degradation product. The fifth method was bivariate spectrophotometric calibration based on four linear regression equations obtained at the wavelengths 231 and 290 nm, and 231 and 285 nm for the binary mixture of CFX with either its acid or alkali degradation product, respectively. The developed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of CFX in laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations with good recoveries, and their validation was carried out following the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The results obtained were statistically compared with each other and showed no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  15. Multicomponent Breath Analysis With Infrared Absorption Using Room-Temperature Quantum Cascade Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Barry McManus, J.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Milton, Donald K.

    2010-01-01

    Breath analysis is a powerful noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are markers of airway inflammation and can indicate the extent of respiratory diseases. We have developed a compact fast response laser system for analysis of multiple gases by infrared absorption. The instrument uses room temperature quantum cascade lasers to simultaneously measure NO, CO, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in exhaled breath. Four breath flow rates are employed to explore their exchange dynamics in the lungs and airways. We obtain 1-s detection precisions of 0.5-0.8 parts-per-billion (ppb) for NO, CO, and N2O with an instrument response time of less than 1 s. The breath analysis system has been demonstrated in a preliminary study of volunteers. It is currently deployed in a trial clinical study. PMID:20697459

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  17. ESO Large Program on physical studies of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs: Final results of the visible spectrophotometric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Tozzi, G. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Boehnhardt, H.; de Bergh, C.; Delsanti, A.; Davies, J.; Dotto, E.

    2004-07-01

    The Large Program on physical studies of TNOs and Centaurs, started at ESO Cerro Paranal on April 2001, has recently been concluded. This project was devoted to the investigation of the surface properties of these icy bodies through photometric and spectroscopic observations. In this paper we present the latest results on these pristine bodies obtained from the spectrophotometric investigation in the visible range. The newly obtained spectrophotometric data on 3 Centaurs and 5 TNOs, coming from 2 observing runs at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), show a large variety of spectral characteristics, comprising both gray and red objects in the two different populations. A very broad and weak absorption feature, centered around 7000 Å , has been revealed in the spectrum of the gray TNO 2003 AZ84. This absorption is very similar to a feature observed on low albedo main belt asteroids and attributed to the action of the aqueous alteration process on minerals. This process was previously also claimed as the most plausible explanation for some peculiar visible absorption bands observed on 2000 EB173 and 2000 GN171 in the framework of the Large Program (Lazzarin et al. \\cite{Lazzarin03}; de Bergh et al. \\cite{Bergh04}). This detection seems to reinforce the hypothesis that aqueous alteration might have taken place also at such large heliocentric distances. We also report the results of a spectroscopic investigation performed outside the Large Program on the very interesting TNO 2000 GN171 during part of its rotational period. This object, previously observed twice in the framework of the Large Program, had shown during the early observations a very peculiar absorption band tentatively attributed to aqueous alteration processes. As this feature was not confirmed in a successive spectrum, we recently repeated the investigations of 2000 GN171, finding out that it has an heterogeneous composition. Finally an analysis of the visible spectral slopes is reported for all the data

  18. A wavelet analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Penfold, T. J.; Ecole polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire de chimie et biochimie computationnelles, ISIC, FSB-BCH, CH-1015 Lausanne; SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen

    2013-01-07

    We present a Wavelet transform analysis for the X-ray absorption spectra of molecules. In contrast to the traditionally used Fourier transform approach, this analysis yields a 2D correlation plot in both R- and k-space. As a consequence, it is possible to distinguish between different scattering pathways at the same distance from the absorbing atom and between the contributions of single and multiple scattering events, making an unambiguous assignment of the fine structure oscillations for complex systems possible. We apply this to two previously studied transition metal complexes, namely iron hexacyanide in both its ferric and ferrous form, and a rheniummore » diimine complex, [ReX(CO){sub 3}(bpy)], where X = Br, Cl, or ethyl pyridine (Etpy). Our results demonstrate the potential advantages of using this approach and they highlight the importance of multiple scattering, and specifically the focusing phenomenon to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of these complexes. We also shed light on the low sensitivity of the EXAFS spectrum to the Re-X scattering pathway.« less

  19. Sensitive Indirect Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of H2-Receptor Antagonists in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Hussein, Samiha A.; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Hassan, Ahmed I.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for determination of H2-receptor antagonists: cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, and ranitidine hydrochloride. The method was based on the oxidation of these drugs with cerium (IV) in presence of perchloric acid and subsequent measurement of the excess Ce (IV) by its reaction with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to give a red colored product (λmax at 464 nm). The decrease in the absorption intensity (ΔA) of the colored product, due to the presence of the drug was correlated with its concentration in the sample solution. Different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9985-0.9994) were found between ΔA values and the concentrations of the drugs in a concentration range of 1-16 µg ml-1. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.12-0.44 and 0.37-1.33 µg ml-1, respectively. The method was validated, in terms of accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness; the results were satisfactory. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated drugs in their pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms (recovery was 98.8-102.5 ± 0.79-1.72%) without interference from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official methods. PMID:23675034

  20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Rifampicin in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Redox and Complexation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2017-09-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the determination of rifampicin (RIF) in bulk form, formulations, and spiked human urine. The first method is based on the reduction of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent by RIF to form a blue colored chromogen with λmax at 760 nm (the FCR method). In the second method, iron(III) is reduced by RIF in a neutral medium, and the resulting iron(II) is complexed with ferricyanide to form a Prussian blue peaking at 750 nm (the FFC method). Under optimum conditions, Beer's law enabled the determination of the drug in the concentration ranges 1-35 and 2.5-50 μg/mL with apparent molar absorptivities of 2.72 × 104 and 1.63×104 L/(mol × cm) for the FCR and FFC methods, respectively. The Sandell sensitivity, limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) values were also reported for both methods. The precision of the methods, with % RSD of < 2%, was satisfactory, and the accuracy was higher than 2% (RE). The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of drug in capsules without interference from common additives and spiked human urine without interference from endogenous substances. A statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the results obtained by the developed methods and the official method.

  1. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of amlodipine besylate in its pharmaceutical tablets

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Abdel-Wadood, Hanaa M.; Mohamed, Niveen A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for determination of amlodipine besylate (AML). The method was based on the condensation reaction of AML with 7-chloro-4-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole in an alkaline buffer (pH 8.6) producing a highly colored product. The color development was monitored spectrophometrically at the maximum absorption λmax 470 nm. The factors affecting the reaction were studied and the conditions were optimized. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined, and the reaction pathway was postulated. Moreover, both the activation energy and the specific rate constant (at 70 °C) of the reaction were found to be 6.74 kcal mole−1 and 3.58 s−1, respectively. The initial rate and fixed time methods were utilized for constructing the calibration graphs for the determination of AML concentration. Under the optimum reaction conditions, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.35 and 1.05 μg/mL, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the relative standard deviations were 0.85–1.76%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AML in its pure form and tablets with good accuracy; the recovery percentages ranged from 99.55±1.69% to 100.65±1.48%. The results were compared with that of the reported method. PMID:29403763

  2. A newly validated and characterized spectrophotometric method for determination of a three water pollutants metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Marwa E.; Frag, Eman Y. Z.; Mohamed, Mona A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple, fast and accurate spectrophotometric method had been developed to determine lead (II), chromium (III) and barium (II) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples using thoron (THO) as a reagent forming colored complexes. It was found that the formed complexes absorbed maximally at 539, 540 and 538 nm for Pb(II)-THO, Cr(III)-THO and Ba(II)-THO complexes, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions for these complexes had been studied carefully. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1-35, 1-70, and 1-45 μg mL- 1 for Pb (II), Cr(III) and Ba(II) ions with THO reagent, respectively. Different parameters such as linearity, selectivity, recovery, limits of quantification and detection, precision and accuracy were also evaluated in order to validate the proposed method. The results showed that, THO was effective in simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Ba(III) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples. Also, the results of the proposed method were compared with that obtained from atomic absorption spectrometry. The isolated solid complexes had been characterized using elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR, mass spectrometry and TD-DFT calculations. Their biological activities were investigated against different types of bacteria and fungi organisms.

  3. Spectrophotometric Characterisation of the Trojan Asteroids (624) Hektor et (911) Agamemnon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Bott, N.; Perna, D.

    2016-12-01

    We obtained spectrophotometric observations of (624) Hektor and (911) Agamemnon, two large Trojan asteroids in order to (1) better understand the composition of their surface by means of their visible and infrared spectra, and (2) eventually detect a possible weak cometary activity by means of their images in the visible. We had data at different rotational phases to probe surface variegations. We found that the visible and infrared spectra are very similar to each other. That indicates a relatively homogenous surface for the asteroids, but it does not exclude the presence of localized inhomogeneities. Computation of a high spectral slope confirmed their D-type asteroids classification. No aqueous alteration absorption band was found in the visible spectra of both studied Trojan asteroids. This can be interpreted in two differents ways: either no liquid water flowed on their surface, or the surface is covered with a crust that mask the presence of hydrated minerals. We use a radiative transfer model to investigate the surface composition of these icy and primitive outer solar system bodies. We suggest models composed of mixtures of organic compounds, minerals and lower limits for water ice. Lastly, the analysis of the images of both Trojan asteroids did not reveal any cometary activity.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of norepinephrine with sodium iodate and determination of its acidity constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, E. Y.; Youssef, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of norepinephrine (NE) and its bitartrate salts. The method was based on the development of a red color (λmax = 495 nm) with sodium iodate in aqueous alcoholic medium at pH 5. The color was stable for at least 4 hrs. The molar reacting ratio of NE to sodium iodate was 1:4. A linear relationship was obtained between the absorption intensity and NE concentration in the range of 3.384-37.224 μg/ml with detection limit of 0.067 μg/ml and correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The present work facilitated the determination of the three acidity constants, 7.564 ± 0.02, 9.036 ± 0.034, and 10.761 ± 0.023. The reaction mechanism was also described. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of NE in pharmaceutical formulations. Results for analysis of bulk drugs and injections agree with those of official methods.

  5. Experimental and computational analysis of sound absorption behavior in needled nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Parham; Azimian, Mehdi; Wiegmann, Andreas; Zarrebini, Mohammad

    2018-07-01

    In this paper application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) together with fluid simulation techniques to predict sound absorption characteristics of needled nonwovens is discussed. Melt-spun polypropylene fibers of different fineness were made on an industrial scale compact melt spinning line. A conventional batt forming-needling line was used to prepare the needled samples. The normal incidence sound absorption coefficients were measured using impedance tube method. Realistic 3D images of samples at micron-level spatial resolution were obtained using μCT. Morphology of fabrics was characterized in terms of porosity, fiber diameter distribution, fiber curliness and pore size distribution from high-resolution realistic 3D images using GeoDict software. In order to calculate permeability and flow resistivity of media, fluid flow was simulated by numerically solving incompressible laminar Newtonian flow through the 3D pore space of realistic structures. Based on the flow resistivity, the frequency-dependent acoustic absorption coefficient of the needled nonwovens was predicted using the empirical model of Delany and Bazley (1970) and its associated modified models. The results were compared and validated with the corresponding experimental results. Based on morphological analysis, it was concluded that for a given weight per unit area, finer fibers yield to presence of higher number of fibers in the samples. This results in formation of smaller and more tortuous pores, which in turn leads to increase in flow resistivity of media. It was established that, among the empirical models, Mechel modification to Delany and Bazley model had superior predictive ability when compared to that of the original Delany and Bazley model at frequency range of 100-5000 Hz and is well suited to polypropylene needled nonwovens.

  6. Automation of preparation of nonmetallic samples for analysis by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmann, A.; Willay, G.

    1986-01-01

    For a rapid preparation of solutions intended for analysis by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, an automatic device called Plasmasol was developed. This apparatus used the property of nonwettability of glassy C to fuse the sample in an appropriate flux. The sample-flux mixture is placed in a composite crucible, then heated at high temperature, swirled until full dissolution is achieved, and then poured into a water-filled beaker. After acid addition, dissolution of the melt, and filling to the mark, the solution is ready for analysis. The analytical results obtained, either for oxide samples or for prereduced iron ores show that the solutions prepared with this device are undistinguished from those obtained by manual dissolutions done by acid digestion or by high temperature fusion. Preparation reproducibility and analytical tests illustrate the performance of Plasmasol.

  7. Simultaneous determination of some cholesterol-lowering drugs in their binary mixture by novel spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Hegazy, Maha Abdel Monem

    2013-09-01

    Four simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra were developed and validated for simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SM) and ezetimibe (EZ) namely; extended ratio subtraction (EXRSM), simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRSM), ratio difference (RDSM) and absorption factor (AFM). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined, and the methods were validated and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the cited drugs. The four methods were applied for the determination of the cited drugs in tablets and the obtained results were statistically compared with each other and with those of a reported HPLC method. The comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method regarding both accuracy and precision.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Gerald R; Pace, C Nick

    2004-11-01

    The concentration of a purified protein in solution is most conveniently and accurately measured using absorbance spectroscopy. The absorbance, A, is a linear function of the molar concentration, C, according to the Beer-Lambert law: A = epsilon x l x c, where e is the molar absorption coefficient and l is the cell path length. This unit provides protocols for calculation of epsilon for a folded or unfolded protein, making use of the average epsilon values for the three contributing chromophores in proteins (the side chains of Trp, Tyr, and Cys). A basic protocol describes how to measure the concentration of a protein using the calculated epsilon and the Beer-Lambert law. A sensitive method is provided for measuring the concentration of proteins that contain few if any tryptophan or tyrosine residues, and a simple method is provided for estimating total protein concentration in crude extracts.

  9. Analysis of absorption and reflection mechanisms in a three-dimensional plate silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunqi; Huang, Lixi

    2008-06-01

    When a segment of a rigid duct is replaced by a plate backed by a hard-walled cavity, grazing incident sound waves induce plate vibration, hence sound reflection. Based on this mechanism, a broadband plate silencer, which works effectively from low-to-medium frequencies have been developed recently. A typical plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch cavities covered by light but extremely stiff plates. Such a configuration is two-dimensional in nature. In this paper, numerical study is extended to three-dimensional configurations to investigate the potential improvement in sound reflection. Finite element simulation shows that the three-dimensional configurations perform better than the corresponding two-dimensional design, especially in the relatively high frequency region. Further analysis shows that the three-dimensional design gives better plate response at higher axial modes than the simple two-dimensional design. Sound absorption mechanism is also introduced to the plate silencer by adding two dissipative chambers on the two lateral sides of a two-cavity wave reflector, hence a hybrid silencer. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed hybrid silencer is able to achieve a good moderate bandwidth with much reduced total length in comparison with pure absorption design.

  10. Economic analysis of solar assisted absorption chiller for a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyraj, Gnananesan

    Dwindling fossil fuels coupled with changes in global climate intensified the drive to make use of renewable energy resources that have negligible impact on the environment. In this attempt, the industrial community produced various devices and systems to make use of solar energy for heating and cooling of building space as well as generate electric power. The most common components employed for collection of solar energy are the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors that produce hot water that can be employed for heating the building space. In order to cool the building, the absorption chiller is commonly employed that requires hot water at high temperatures for its operation. This thesis deals with economic analysis of solar collector and absorption cooling system to meet the building loads of a commercial building located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Computer simulations are employed to predict the hourly building loads and performance of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using the hourly weather data. The key variables affecting the economic evaluation of such system are identified and the influence of these parameters is presented. The results of this investigation show that the flat plate solar collectors yield lower payback period compared to the evacuated tube collectors and economic incentives offered by the local and federal agencies play a major role in lowering the payback period.

  11. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants include Raman backscattering (LIDAR) and passive radiometry (LOPAIR). Remote sensing techniques using laser spectrometry are presented and in particular a simple long-path laser absorption method (LOLA), which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels is discussed. A number of species were selected for study which are representative of those most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Computer programs were developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations, and comparison with other methods of analysis, are given.

  12. A simple spectrophotometric determination of meptyldinocap by its hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Sunita; Pillai, Ajai Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of meptyldinocap (2,4-dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate). The method is based on the hydrolysis of meptyldinocap by hydroxylamine solution in alkaline medium to give 2,4-dinitro-6-octylphenol (2,4-DNOP), having maximum absorption at 380 nm. The reaction is found to be instantaneous in presence of ethanol. Beer's law is valid over the concentration range of 1.2-13 microg mL(-1) with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 3.22 x 10(6) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.0001 microg cm(-2) respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.0892 and 0.2703 microg mL(-1), respectively. The tolerance limits of interfering ions are discussed. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The validity of the method was checked by its simultaneous determination in fruits and water samples and the results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test.

  13. Synthesis of charge transfer complex of chloranilic acid as acceptor with p-nitroaniline as donor: Crystallographic, UV-visible spectrophotometric and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkarnain; Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq; Miyan, Lal; Ahmad, Musheer; Azizc, Nafe

    2017-08-01

    The charge transfer interaction between p-nitroaniline (PNA) and chloranilic (CAA) acid was studied spectrophotometrically in methanol at different temperatures within the range 298-328 K. This experimental work explores the nature of charge-transfer interactions that play a significant role in chemistry and biology. Structure of synthesized charge transfer (CT) complex was investigated by different technique such as X-ray crystallography, FTIR, 1HNMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and TGA-DTA, which indicates the presence of N+sbnd Hrbd2bd O- bond between donor and acceptor moieties. Spectrophotometric studies of CT complexes were carried out in methanol at different temperatures to estimate thermodynamic parameters such as formation constant (KCT), molar absorptivity (εCT), free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH), resonance energy (RN), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μEN) and interaction energy (ECT) were also calculated. The effect of temperatures on all the parameters was studied in methanol. 1:1 stoichiometric of CT-complex was ascertained by Benesi-Hildebrand plots giving straight line, which are good agreement with other analysis. Synthesized CT complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity such as antibacterial activity against two gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis and two gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antifungal activity against fungi Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus.

  14. Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric stability-indicating methods for determination of some oxicams using 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl).

    PubMed

    Taha, Elham Anwer; Salama, Nahla Nour; Fattah, Laila El-Sayed Abdel

    2006-05-01

    Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric stability-indicating methods have been developed for the determination of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory oxicam derivatives namely lornoxicam (Lx), tenoxicam (Tx) and meloxicam (Mx) after their complete alkaline hydrolysis. The methods are based on derivatization of alkaline hydrolytic products with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). The products showed an absorption maximum at 460 nm for the three studied drugs and fluorescence emission peak at 535 nm in methanol. The color was stable for at least 48 h. The optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated and it was found that the reaction proceeds quantitatively at pH 8, after heating in a boiling water bath for 30 min. The methods were found to be linear in the ranges of 1-10 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.5-4.0 microg ml(-1) for Mx for spectrophotometric method, while 0.05-1.0 microg ml(-1) for Lx and Tx and 0.025-0.4 microg ml(-1) for Mx for the spectrofluorimetric method. The validity of the methods was assessed according to USP guidelines. Statistical analysis of the results revealed high accuracy and good precision. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of the above mentioned drugs in pure and dosage forms as well as in the presence of their degradation products.

  15. Structural and spectrophotometric characterization of 2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-ethylquinolinium iodide as a reagent for sequential injection determination of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazel, Yaroslav; Lešková, Martina; Rečlo, Michal; Šandrejová, Jana; Simon, András; Fizer, Maksym; Sidey, Vasyl

    2018-05-01

    Structure, spectrophotometric and protolytic properties of the styryl dye 2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-ethylquinolinium iodide (R) as well as its complex with tungsten were studied. The selective protonation of dimethylamino group was confirmed by density functional theory investigation through the computation of Fukui function, NPA partial atomic charges, and NICS(0) aromaticity indexes. The TD-DFT study explains the experimental change of color by excluding the dimethylamino group from HOMO orbital upon protonation. The acid dissociation constant, the optimum wavelength and the molar absorptivity of R were found to be: 3.02, 501 nm and 4.0 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1, respectively. The protolytic properties of the reagent were found to change significantly in the presence of tungsten(VI). Analysis of bond critical points between the anions and Quinaldine Red cation gives the selectivity raw HWO4- > MoO4-> H2VO4- > ReO4- > ClO4-, that perfectly match with the experimental data. Based on this observation, a non-extractive sequential-injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of tungsten was developed. The absorbance of the colored extracts obeys Beer's law up to 55.2 mg L-1 of W at 520 nm wavelength. The limit of detection calculated from a blank test (n = 10) based on 3 s was 0.96 mg L-1. The developed method was applied for the determination of tungsten in model samples.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) in explosive mixtures and residues with the Berthelot reaction.

    PubMed

    Uzer, A; Erçağ, E; Apak, R

    2008-03-31

    On-site colorimetric methods are a valuable, cost-effective tool to assess the nature and extent of contamination in remediated sites and to enable on-site screening for police criminology laboratories. The existing colorimetric method for cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) based on a Griess reaction suffers from the non-quantitative reduction to nitrite and from the unstable character of HNO2 in acidic medium. Thus we propose a novel spectrophotometric RDX assay in explosive mixtures and residues, based on (Zn+HCl) reduction of RDX in a microwave oven, followed by neutralization of the reduction products to ammonia and low molecular-weight amines, and Berthelot reaction of these amine-compounds with phenol and hypochlorite in alkaline medium to give an intensely blue indophenol dye absorbing at 631nm. The molar absorptivity and limit of detection (LOD) for RDX were (1.08+/-0.04)x10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.18 mg L(-1), respectively. Application of the method to synthetic mixture solutions of RDX and trinitrotoluene (TNT) at varying proportions showed that there was minimal interference from TNT (which could be compensated for by dicyclohexylamine colorimetry), since the Berthelot reaction was essentially non-responsive to m-substituted anilines derived from TNT upon (Zn+HCl) reduction. The proposed method was successfully applied to military-purpose explosive mixtures of (RDX+inert matter) such as Comp A5, Comp C4, and Hexal P30, and to (RDX+TNT) mixtures such as Comp B. The molar absorptivity of RDX was much higher than that of either ammonium or nitrate; RDX could be effectively separated from ammonium and nitrate in soil mixtures, based on solubility differences. The Berthelot method for RDX was statistically validated using Comp B mixtures against standard HPLC equipped with a Hypersil C-18 column with (40% MeOH-60% H2O) mobile phase, and against gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (GC-TEA) system.

  17. Comparison of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Copper in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sarah Adriana R; Costa, Silvânio Silvério L; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny O; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Dantas, Alailson Falcão

    2018-05-01

    Three spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of copper (Cu) in sugar cane spirit using the chromogenic reagents neocuproine, cuprizone, and bathocuproine. Experimental conditions, such as reagent concentration, reducer concentration, pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, and the stability of the complexes, were optimized. The work range was established from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL, with correlation coefficients of >0.999 for all three optimized methods. The methods were evaluated regarding accuracy by addition and recovery tests at five concentration levels, and the obtained recoveries ranged from 91 to 105% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation), with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.17% (n = 10). The method using the chromogenic reagent cuprizone presented the greatest molar absorptivity, followed by bathocuproine and neocuproine. The methods were applied for the determination of Cu in sugar cane spirit, and the results were compared with a reference method by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Calibration curve solutions for FAAS analysis were prepared in a 40% (v/v) alcohol medium in a range of concentrations from 0.5 up to 5 µg/mL. Measurements for Cu determination were carried out at a wavelength of 324.7 nm. The concentrations obtained for Cu in sugar cane spirit samples from Brazil were between 1.99 and 12.63 µg/mL, and about 75% of the samples presented Cu concentrations above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg/mL or 5.0 mg/L).

  18. Removal of iron interferences by solvent extraction for geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Iron is a common interferent in the determination of many elements in geochemical samples. Two approaches for its removal have been taken. The first involves removal of iron by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from hydrochloric acid medium, leaving the analytes in the aqueous phase. The second consists of reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) by ascorbic acid to minimize its extraction into MIBK, so that the analytes may be isolated by extraction. Elements of interest can then be determined using the aqueous solution or the organic extract, as appropriate. Operating factors such as the concentration of hydrochloric acid, amounts of iron present, number of extractions, the presence or absence of a salting-out agent, and the optimum ratio of ascorbic acid to iron have been determined. These factors have general applications in geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1985.

  19. Analysis of the red and green optical absorption spectrum of gas phase ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Nikolai F.; Coles, Phillip A.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg L.

    2018-04-01

    Room temperature NH3 absorption spectra recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory in 1980 are analyzed. The spectra cover two regions in the visible: 15,200 - 15,700 cm-1 and 17,950 - 18,250 cm-1. These high overtone rotation-vibration spectra are analyzed using both combination differences and variational line lists. Two variational line lists were computed using the TROVE nuclear motion program: one is based on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) while the other used a semi-empirical PES. Ab initio dipole moment surfaces are used in both cases. 95 energy levels with J = 1 - 7 are determined from analysis of the experimental spectrum in the 5νNH (red) region and 46 for 6νNH (green) region. These levels span four vibrational bands in each of the two regions, associated with stretching overtones.

  20. Surface Fractal Analysis for Estimating the Fracture Energy Absorption of Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Brahmananda; Tadepalli, Tezeswi; Mantena, P. Raju

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the fractal dimensions of failure surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites are estimated using two classical methods, Vertical Section Method (VSM) and Slit Island Method (SIM), based on the processing of 3D digital microscopic images. Self-affine fractal geometry has been observed in the experimentally obtained failure surfaces of graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites subjected to quasi-static uniaxial tensile and low velocity punch-shear loading. Fracture energy and fracture toughness are estimated analytically from the surface fractal dimensionality. Sensitivity studies show an exponential dependency of fracture energy and fracture toughness on the fractal dimensionality. Contribution of fracture energy to the total energy absorption of these nanoparticle reinforced composites is demonstrated. For the graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites investigated, surface fractal analysis has depicted the probable ductile or brittle fracture propagation mechanism, depending upon the rate of loading. PMID:28817017

  1. A Simplified Digestion Protocol for the Analysis of Hg in Fish by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristian, Kathleen E.; Friedbauer, Scott; Kabashi, Donika; Ferencz, Kristen M.; Barajas, Jennifer C.; O'Brien, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mercury in fish is an interesting problem with the potential to motivate students in chemistry laboratory courses. The recommended method for mercury analysis in fish is cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS), which requires homogeneous analyte solutions, typically prepared by acid digestion. Previously published digestion…

  2. Application of spectrophotometric, densitometric, and HPLC techniques as stability indicating methods for determination of Zaleplon in pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Fadia H.; Abdelkawy, M.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.

    2007-12-01

    Spectrophotometric, spectrodensitometric and HPLC are stability indicating methods described for determination of Zaleplon in pure and dosage forms. As Zaleplon is easily degradable, the proposed techniques in this manuscript are adopted for its determination in presence of its alkaline degradation product, namely N-[4-(3-cyano-pyrazolo[1,5a]pyridin-7-yl)-phenyl]- N-ethyl-acetamide. These approaches are successfully applied to quantify Zaleplon using the information included in the absorption spectra of appropriate solutions. The second derivative (D 2) spectrophotometric method, allows determination of Zaleplon without interference of its degradate at 235.2 nm using 0.01N HCl as a solvent with obedience to Beer's law over a concentration range of 1-10 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.24 ± 0.86%. The first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD) based on the simultaneous use of ( 1DD) and measurement at 241.8 nm using the same solvent and over the same concentration range as (D 2) spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.9 ± 1.07%. The spectrodensitometric analysis allows the separation and quantitation of Zaleplon from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:acetone:ammonia solution (9:1:0.2 by volume) as a mobile phase. This method depends on quantitave densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of Zaleplon at 338 nm over a concentration range of 0.2-1 μg band -1, with mean percentage recovery 99.73 ± 1.35. Also a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method using 5-C8 (22 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size) column was described and validated for quantitation of Zaleplon using acetonitrile:deionised water (35:65, v/v) as a mobile phase using Paracetamol as internal standard and a flow rate of 1.5 ml min -1 with UV detection of the effluent at 232 nm at ambient temperature over a concentration range of 2-20 μg ml -1 with mean percentage recovery 100.19 ± 1.15%. The insignificance difference of the proposed

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of fluorine in silicate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, L.C.; Smith, V.C.

    1964-01-01

    The rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate, the sinter-cake leached with water and the resulting solution filtered. Fluorine is separated from the acidified filtrate by steam distillation and determined spectrophotometrically by means of a zirconium-SPADNS reagent. If a multiple-unit distillation apparatus is used, 12 determinations can be completed per man-day. ?? 1964.

  4. [Spectrophotometric and HPLC evaluation of ceftazidime stability].

    PubMed

    Palade, B; Cioroiu, B; Lazăr, Doina; Corciovă, Andreia; Lazăr, M I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we followed up the stability of ceftazidime, raw material used in drug industry. Matherials and methods: We used three spectrophotometric methods based on ceftazidime property to form complexes with p-chloranilic acid (ac. p-CA), 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-on hydrazone (MBTH) and N-(1-naphtil) etilendiamine (NEDA) and a chromatographic method (HPLC). Our results revealed that the substances analyzed maintained minimum content allowable.

  5. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of titanium-implanted soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Uo, Motohiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Ishikawa, Makoto; Tamura, Kazuchika; Totsuka, Yasunori; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio

    2007-03-01

    Tissues contacting Ti dental implants were subjected to X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis to examine the chemical state of Ti transferred from the placed implant into the surrounding tissue. Nine tissues that contacted pure Ti cover screws for several months were excised in a second surgery whereby healing abutments were set. Six tissues that surrounded implants retrieved due to their failure were also excised. Ti distributions in the excised specimens were confirmed by X-ray scanning analytical microscopy (XSAM), and the specimens were subjected to fluorescence XAFS analysis to determine the chemical states of the low concentrations of Ti in the tissues surrounding Ti dental implants. Ti mostly existed in the metallic state and was considered to be debris derived from the abrasion of implant pieces during implant surgery. Oxidized forms of Ti, such as anatase and rutile, were also detected in a few specimens-and existed in either a pure state or mixed state with metallic Ti. It was concluded that the existence of Ti in the tissue did not cause implant failure. Moreover, the usefulness of XAFS for analysis of the chemical states of rarely contained elements in biological tissue was demonstrated.

  6. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  7. Modeling systematic errors: polychromatic sources of Beer-Lambert deviations in HPLC/UV and nonchromatographic spectrophotometric assays.

    PubMed

    Galli, C

    2001-07-01

    It is well established that the use of polychromatic radiation in spectrophotometric assays leads to excursions from the Beer-Lambert limit. This Note models the resulting systematic error as a function of assay spectral width, slope of molecular extinction coefficient, and analyte concentration. The theoretical calculations are compared with recent experimental results; a parameter is introduced which can be used to estimate the magnitude of the systematic error in both chromatographic and nonchromatographic spectrophotometric assays. It is important to realize that the polychromatic radiation employed in common laboratory equipment can yield assay errors up to approximately 4%, even at absorption levels generally considered 'safe' (i.e. absorption <1). Thus careful consideration of instrumental spectral width, analyte concentration, and slope of molecular extinction coefficient is required to ensure robust analytical methods.

  8. Varied absorption peaks of dual-band metamaterial absorber analysis by using reflection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Han; Yu, Yan-Tao; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Shi-Yong; Liu, Dan-Ping; Ou, Xiang; Zeng, Hao

    2016-03-01

    Cross-resonator metamaterial absorbers (MMA) have been widely investigated from microwave to optical frequencies. However, only part of the factors influencing the absorption properties were analyzed in previous works at the same time. In order to completely understand how the spacer thickness, dielectric parameter and incidence angle affect the absorption properties of the dual-band MMA, two sets of simulation were performed. It was found that with increasing incident angles, the low-frequency absorption peak showed a blue shift, while the high-frequency absorption peaks showed a red shift. However, with the increase in spacer thickness, both of the absorption peaks showed a red shift. By using the reflection theory expressions, the physical mechanism of the cross-resonator MMA was well explained. This method provides an effective way to analyze multi-band absorber in technology.

  9. [Analysis of UV-visible absorption spectrum on the decolorization of industrial wastewater by disinfection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Long-Yong; Gao, Nai-Yun; Li, Wei-Guo

    2012-10-01

    The UV-Visible absorption spectrum of industrial wastewater was explored to introduce a substituting method determining the color of water, and to compare the decolorization efficacy of different disinfectants. The results show that the visible absorption spectrum(350-600 nm), instead of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, should be applied to characterize the color of wastewater. There is a good correlation between the features of visible absorption spectrum and the true color of wastewater. Both ozone and chlorine dioxide has a better decolorization performance than chlorine. However, the color of chlorine dioxide itself has a negative effect on decolorization. The changes in the features of visible absorption spectrum effectively reflect the variations in the color of wastewater after disinfection.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan based on diazotization reaction: response surface optimization using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Gaba, Sonal; Kaur, Sukhraj; Kumar, Rajeev; Chawla, Jyoti

    2018-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method based on diazotization of aniline with triclosan has been developed for the determination of triclosan in water samples. The diazotization process involves two steps: (1) reaction of aniline with sodium nitrite in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion and (2) reaction of diazonium ion with triclosan to form a yellowish-orange azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellowish-orange product has a maximum absorption at 352 nm which allows the determination of triclosan in aqueous solution in the linear concentration range of 0.1-3.0 μM with R 2 = 0.998. The concentration of hydrochloric acid, sodium nitrite, and aniline was optimized for diazotization reaction to achieve good spectrophotometric determination of triclosan. The optimization of experimental conditions for spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in terms of concentration of sodium nitrite, hydrogen chloride and aniline was also carried out by using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology and results obtained were in agreement with the experimentally optimized values. The proposed method was then successfully applied for analyses of triclosan content in water samples.

  11. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  12. EPIC/DSCOVR's Oxygen Absorption Channels: A Cloud Profiling Information Content Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Merlin, G.; Labonnote, L. C.; Cornet, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Ferlay, N.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Yang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    EPIC/DSCOVR has several spectral channels dedicated to cloud characterization, most notably O2 A- and B-band. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) ratios of in-band and reference channels are less prone to calibration error than the 4 individual signals. Using these ratios, we have replicated for mono-directional (quasi-backscattering) EPIC observations the recent cloud information content analysis by Merlin et al. (AMT-D,8:12709-12758,2015) that was focused on A-band-only but multi-angle observations by POLDER in the past, by AirMSPI in the present, and by 3MI and MAIA in the future. The methodology is based on extensive forward 1D radiative transfer (RT) computations using the ARTDECO model that implements a k-distribution technique for the absorbing (in-band) channels. These synthetic signals are combined into a Bayesian Rodgers-type framework for estimating posterior uncertainty on retrieved quantities. Recall that this formalism calls explicitly for: (1) estimates of instrument error, and (2) prior uncertainty on the retrieved quantities, to which we add (3) reasonable estimates of uncertainty in the non- or otherwise-retrieved properties. Wide ranges of cloud top heights (CTHs) and cloud geometrical thicknesses (CGTs) are examined for a representative selection of cloud optical thicknesses (COTs), solar angles, and surface reflectances. We found that CTH should be reliably retrieved from EPIC data under most circumstances as long as COT can be inferred from non-absorbing channels, and the bias from in-cloud absorption is removed. However, CGT will be hard to determine unless CTH is constrained by independent means. EPIC has several UV channels that could be brought to bear. These findings conflict those of Yang et al. (JQSRT,122:141-149,2013), so we also revisit that more preliminary study that did not account for a realistic level of residual instrument noise in the DOAS ratios. In conclusion, we believe that the present information content

  13. Wavelet based de-noising of breath air absorption spectra profiles for improved classification by principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The comparison results of different mother wavelets used for de-noising of model and experimental data which were presented by profiles of absorption spectra of exhaled air are presented. The impact of wavelets de-noising on classification quality made by principal component analysis are also discussed.

  14. Ferritin glycosylated by chitosan as a novel EGCG nano-carrier: Structure, stability, and absorption analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuqian; Gao, Yunjing; Wang, Yongjin; Blanchard, Chris; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2017-12-01

    Ferritin is a shell-like carrier protein with an 8nm diameter cavity which endows a natural space to encapsulate food and drug components. In this work, phytoferritin was unprecedentedly glycosylated by chitosan to fabricate ferritin-chitosan Maillard reaction products (FCMPs) (grafting degree of 26.17%, 24h, 55°C). Results indicated that the amide I and II bands of ferritin were altered due to the chitosan grafting, whereas the ferritin spherical structure were retained. Simulated digestion analysis showed that the FCMPs were more resistant to pepsin and trypsin digestion as compared with ferritin alone. Furthermore, FCMPs were employed as carrier to encapsulate epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules with an encapsulation ratio of 12.87% (w/w), and the resulting FCMPs-EGCG complexes showed a slow release of EGCG in simulated gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different types of food components displayed different effects in EGCG release behavior from the FCMPs, wherein proanthocyanidin, milk and soy protein inhibited the EGCG release. In addition, the absorption of EGCG encapsulated in FCMPs in Caco-2 monolayer model was significantly improved as compared with free EGCG. This work provides a novel nano-vehicle for fabricating core-shell systems in food and drug delivery domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of temporal decay of diffuse broadband sound fields in enclosures by decomposition in powers of an absorption parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Donald; Franzoni, Linda; Rouse, Jerry; Manning, Ben

    2005-09-01

    An analysis method for time-dependent broadband diffuse sound fields in enclosures is described. Beginning with a formulation utilizing time-dependent broadband intensity boundary sources, the strength of these wall sources is expanded in a series in powers of an absorption parameter, thereby giving a separate boundary integral problem for each power. The temporal behavior is characterized by a Taylor expansion in the delay time for a source to influence an evaluation point. The lowest-order problem has a uniform interior field proportional to the reciprocal of the absorption parameter, as expected, and exhibits relatively slow exponential decay. The next-order problem gives a mean-square pressure distribution that is independent of the absorption parameter and is primarily responsible for the spatial variation of the reverberant field. This problem, which is driven by input sources and the lowest-order reverberant field, depends on source location and the spatial distribution of absorption. Additional problems proceed at integer powers of the absorption parameter, but are essentially higher-order corrections to the spatial variation. Temporal behavior is expressed in terms of an eigenvalue problem, with boundary source strength distributions expressed as eigenmodes. Solutions exhibit rapid short-time spatial redistribution followed by long-time decay of a predominant spatial mode.

  16. New spectrophotometric assay for pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, S; Soliman, R

    1980-07-01

    A quick method for the determination of pilocarpine in eye drops in the presence of decomposition products is described. The method involves complexation of the alkaloid with bromocresol purple at pH 6. After treatment with 0.1N NaOH, the liberated dye is measured at 580 nm. The method has a relative standard deviation of 1.99%, and has been successfully applied to the analysis of 2 batches of pilocarpine eye drops. The recommended method was also used to monitor the stability of a pilocarpine nitrate solution in 0.05N NaOH at 65 degrees C. The BPC method failed to detect any significant decomposition after 2 h incubation, but the recommended method revealed 87.5% decomposition.

  17. Highly Sensitive and Validated Spectrophotometric Technique for the Assay of Some Antidepressant Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepakumari, H. N.; Prashanth, M. K.; Kumar, B. C. Vasantha; Revanasiddappa, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes a simple, rapid, reproducible, and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs: amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMH), clomipramine hydrochloride (CPH) and desipramine hydrochloride (DPH) in pure and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the bromination of the above drugs with known excess of bromine. The unreacted bromine is determined based on its ability to bleach the dye methyl red quantitatively at 520 nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed a good correlation in the concentration range 0.0-2.5, 0-1.4, 0-1.4, and 0-1.0 μg/ml for AMT, IMH, CPH, and DPH, respectively. The molar absorptivity values were found to be 0.65 × 105, 1.41 × 105, 1.93 × 105, and 2.96 × 105l/mol/cm, with the corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values were 0.0048, 0.0022, 0.0018, and 0.0010 μg/cm2 for AMT, IMH, CPH, and DPH, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported for the developed method. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision was established according to the current ICH guidelines. Application of the procedure to the analysis of various pharmaceutical preparations gave reproducible and accurate results. Further, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed by applying the standard addition technique, and the results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  18. Improved spectrophotometric cell for hydrothermal solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susak, N.J.; Crerar, D.A.; Forseman, T.C.; Haas, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive spectrophotometric cell was designed for use with aqueous solutions for which temperature is a maximum of 325??C and pressure, 28 MPa. The cell has an internal volume of 5 ml and a path length of 1.31 cm. Each furnace assembly is 120 mm in diameter ?? 150 mm high and will fit into most commercial spectrophotometers. Temperature is controlled by a standard set-point controller and a balancing circuit that is used to maintain the temperature of the sample and reference cell within 1??C of each other at any temperature.

  19. [Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of tenoxicam using iodine solution as reagent].

    PubMed

    Mândrescu, Mariana; Spac, A F; Dorneanu, V

    2009-01-01

    For the tenoxicam determination (Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug - NSAID) it was developed a spectrophotometric method, after the coupling reaction of tenoxicam with iodine, in methanolic medium, with maximum of absorbance at 289 nm. The practical working conditions were established. In the 0.5 divided by 5.0 microg/mL range of tenoxicam concentration, were used 5 x 10(-3) M iodine solution and 0.5 N hydrocloric acid. The stability of product were evaluated for 30 minutes. The developed method was validated. The method showed a good linearity in the range of 0.5 divided 5.0 microg/mL (the correlation coefficient r = 0.9995). The detection limit (LD) was 0.14 microg/mL and the quantification limit (LQ) was 0.49 microg/mL. There were established the precison (RSD = 1.90%) and the accuracy-recovery in the range 97.27 divided by 102.56% with a mean recovery of 99.49%. The experimental results demonstrated a good sensibility. The specific absorptivity for this method is A1%(1 cm,289 nm) = 1770 much higher than tenoxicam in methanol (A1%(1 cm,360 nm) = 323).

  20. [Spectrophotometric determination of piroxicam using ferric ferricyanide as reagent].

    PubMed

    Mândrescu, Mariana; Spac, A F; Dorneanu, V

    2009-01-01

    For the piroxicam determination (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-NSAID) it was developed a spectrophotometric method, based on the reduction of ferric ferricyanide into ferro-ferricyanide (Prussian Blue), with maximum of absorbance at 760 nm. The practical working conditions were established. In the 0.2 divided by 2.0 microg/mL range of piroxicam concentration, were used the 2 mL of ferric ferricyanide 1 mL of 2N hydrocloric acid. To delay the flocculation of Prussian Blue it was to add a 1 mL solution of sodium lauryl sulfate 1%. After 15 minutes read the absorbance at 760 nm. The developed method was validated. The method showed a good linearity in the range of 0.2 divided by 2.0 microg/mL (the correlation coefficient r = 0.9995). The detection limit (LD) was 0.056 microg/mL and the quantification limit (LQ) was 0.18 microg/mL. There were established the system precision (RSD = 0.25%), the precison (RSD = 1.91%) and the accuracy-recovery in the range 98.21 divided by 104.92% with a mean recovery of 100.91%. The experimental results demonstrated a good sensibility. The specific absorptivity for this method is A(1 cm, 760 nm)(1%) = 4374 much higher than piroxicam in UV (A(1 cm, 330 nm)(1%) = 296)

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of ofloxacin in pharmaceuticals by redox reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. J.; Basavaiah, K.; Rajendraprasad, N.; Devi, O. Zenita; Vinay, K. B.

    2011-07-01

    Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been developed to analyze ofloxacin (OFX) in pharmaceuticals. The methods are based on the oxidation of OFX by a measured excess of cerium(IV) sulfate in H2SO4 medium. This was followed by the determination of the unreacted oxidant by reacting it with either p-toluidine ( p-TD) and measuring the absorbance at 525 nm (method A) or o-dianisidine ( o-DA) and measuring the absorbance at 470 nm (method B). In both methods, the amount of cerium(IV) sulfate reacted corresponds to the amount of OFX. Calibration graphs were linear over the ranges of 0-120 and 0-4 g/ml OFX for methods A and B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity (2.34ṡ103 and 5.99ṡ104), Sandell sensitivity, and limit of quantification for the methods are reported. The intra-day precision (%RSD) and accuracy (%RE) were < 8.0 and ≤ 4.0%, respectively, and the inter-day RSD and RE values were within 5 and 4.0%, respectively. The applicability of the methods was demonstrated by determining OFX in tablets with an accuracy (%RE) of < 3% and precision (%RSD) of ≤2.65%. The accuracy of the methods was further ascertained by recovery experiments via a standard-addition procedure.

  2. Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-size absorption chillers

    SciTech Connect

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.; Kouo, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this research study is the development of radically new fluid systems, specifically tailored to the needs and requirements of solar-absorption cooling for single-family-size residences. Progress is reported.

  3. Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers.

    PubMed

    Tumbleston, John R; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Samulski, Edward T; Lopez, Rene

    2009-04-27

    We analyze optical absorption enhancements and quasiguided mode properties of organic solar cells with highly ordered nanostructured photoactive layers comprised of the bulk heterojunction blend, poly-3-hexylthiophene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and a low index of refraction conducting material (LICM). This photonic crystal geometry is capable of enhancing spectral absorption by approximately 17% in part due to the excitation of quasiguided modes near the band edge of P3HT:PCBM. A nanostructure thickness between 200 nm and 300 nm is determined to be optimal, while the LICM must have an index of refraction approximately 0.3 lower than P3HT:PCBM to produce absorption enhancements. Quasiguided modes that differ in lifetime by an order of magnitude are also identified and yield absorption that is concentrated in the P3HT:PCBM flash layer.

  4. [Derivative spectrophotometric and NMR spectroscopic study in pharmaceutical science].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Keisuke

    2007-10-01

    This review starts with an introduction of derivative spectrophotometry followed by a description on the construction of a personal computer-assisted derivative spectrophotometric (DS) system. An acquisition system for inputting digitalized absorption spectra into personal computers and a BASIC program for calculating derivative spectra were developed. Then, applications of the system to drug analyses that are difficult with traditional absorption methods are described. Following this, studies on the interactions of drugs with biological macromolecules by the DS and NMR methods were discussed. An (1)H NMR study elucidated that the small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) has a single membrane made of a phosphatidylcholine bilayer, and that chlorpromazine interacts with both the outer and inner layers. (13)C NMR revealed a reduction of the dissociation constants of phenothiazine drugs due to their interaction with SUV. The partition coefficients of phenothiazine, benzodiazepine and steroid drugs in an SUV-water system and the effects of cholesterol or amino lipids content on these partition coefficients were examined by the DS method. The binding constants of phenothiazine drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the influence of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-) on these binding constants were determined by DS. It was found that I(-), Br(-), Cl(-) reduce the binding constants in this order, and that Na(+) and K(+) have no effect. A (19)F NMR study revealed that triflupromazine binds to BSA and human serum albumin in two regions including Site II with different populations, and that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, niflumic acid, binds Sites Ia and Ib.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of β-adrenergic antagonists drugs via ion-pair complex formation using MO and EBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Shehata, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the assay of bisoprolol fumarate (BSF), propranolol hydrochloride (PRH), and timolol maleate (TIM) either in bulk or in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) and eriochrome black T in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 428 and 518 nm for MO and EBT, respectively. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.6, 0.8-5.6 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with MO and 0.8-6.4, 0.4-3.2, and 0.8-8.0 μg/mL for BSF, PRH, and TIM, respectively, with EBT. The stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1 : 1 in all cases. The proposed methods were successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed methods can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.

  6. Comparative study on the selectivity of various spectrophotometric techniques for the determination of binary mixture of fenbendazole and rafoxanide.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed S; Attia, Ali K; Alaraki, Manal S; Elzanfaly, Eman S

    2015-11-05

    Five different spectrophotometric methods were applied for simultaneous determination of fenbendazole and rafoxanide in their binary mixture; namely first derivative, derivative ratio, ratio difference, dual wavelength and H-point standard addition spectrophotometric methods. Different factors affecting each of the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied and the selectivity of the applied methods was compared. The applied methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and good accuracy; specificity and precision were proven within the concentration range of 5-50 μg/mL for both drugs. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA proved no significant differences among the proposed methods for the determination of the two drugs. The proposed methods successfully determined both drugs in laboratory prepared and commercially available binary mixtures, and were found applicable for the routine analysis in quality control laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High purity polyimide analysis by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rafael F.; Carvalho, Gabriel S.; Duarte, Fabio A.; Bolzan, Rodrigo C.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni were determined in high purity polyimides (99.5%) by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GFAAS) using Zeeman effect background correction system with variable magnetic field, making possible the simultaneous measurement at high or low sensitivity. The following analytical parameters were evaluated: pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, feasibility of calibration with aqueous solution, linear calibration range, sample mass range and the use of chemical modifier. Calibration with aqueous standard solutions was feasible for all analytes. No under or overestimated results were observed and up to 10 mg sample could be introduced on the platform for the determination of Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni. The relative standard deviation ranged from 3 to 20%. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved using the high sensitivity mode were as low as 7.0, 2.5, 1.7, 17 and 0.12 ng g- 1 for Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni, respectively. No addition of chemical modifier was necessary, except for Mn determination where Pd was required. The accuracy was evaluated by analyte spike and by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion in a single reaction chamber system and also by neutron activation analysis. No difference among the results obtained by SS-GFAAS and those obtained by alternative analytical methods using independent techniques. SS-GFAAS method showed some advantages, such as the determination of metallic contaminants in high purity polyimides with practically no sample preparation, very low LODs, calibration with aqueous standards and determination in a wide range of concentration.

  8. Spectrophotometric and theoretical studies of the protonation of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevziuk, Kateryna; Chebotarev, Alexander; Snigur, Denys; Bazel, Yaroslav; Fizer, Maksym; Sidey, Vasyl

    2017-09-01

    The acid-base properties of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R azo dyes were investigated by spectrophotometric, potentiometric and tristimulus colourimetry methods. Ionization constants of the functional groups were also found in aqueous solutions of the dyes. It was discovered that the wavelength of the maximum light absorption of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R solutions does not change significantly over a wide pH range. As a result, spectrophotometric methods yield little information for assessing the acid-base properties of the dyes. It was shown with a help of the tristimulus colourimetry method that it is possible to determine the ionization constants of the functional groups of the dyes even when there is significant overlap of the absorption bands of the acid-base forms. The basic spectrophotometric characteristics of the main forms of Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R in water and organic solvents were calculated. The molar absorbance coefficients of azo forms were shown to increase as the dielectric permittivity of the solvent increases. It was determined that in aqueous solution the dyes exist in the azo form over a wide range of acidity - pH 2-12 for Allura Red AC (λmax = 505 nm; ελ = 3.1·104 dm3 mol-1 cm-1) and 1-13 for Ponceau 4R (λmax = 510 nm; ελ = 1.7·10-4 dm3 mol-1 cm-1). The most probable protonation/deprotonation schemes were theoretically determined for Allura Red AC and Ponceau 4R using DFT calculations.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Sound Absorption Properties of Finely Perforated Wooden Panels

    PubMed Central

    Song, Boqi; Peng, Limin; Fu, Feng; Liu, Meihong; Zhang, Houjiang

    2016-01-01

    Perforated wooden panels are typically utilized as a resonant sound absorbing material in indoor noise control. In this paper, the absorption properties of wooden panels perforated with tiny holes of 1–3 mm diameter were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The Maa-MPP (micro perforated panels) model and the Maa-Flex model were applied to predict the absorption regularities of finely perforated wooden panels. A relative impedance comparison and full-factorial experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the theoretical models. The results showed that the Maa-Flex model obtained good agreement with measured results. Control experiments and measurements of dynamic mechanical properties were carried out to investigate the influence of the wood characteristics. In this study, absorption properties were enhanced by sound-induced vibration. The relationship between the dynamic mechanical properties and the panel mass-spring vibration absorption was revealed. While the absorption effects of wood porous structure were not found, they were demonstrated theoretically by using acoustic wave propagation in a simplified circular pipe with a suddenly changed cross-section model. This work provides experimental and theoretical guidance for perforation parameter design. PMID:28774063

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Sound Absorption Properties of Finely Perforated Wooden Panels.

    PubMed

    Song, Boqi; Peng, Limin; Fu, Feng; Liu, Meihong; Zhang, Houjiang

    2016-11-22

    Perforated wooden panels are typically utilized as a resonant sound absorbing material in indoor noise control. In this paper, the absorption properties of wooden panels perforated with tiny holes of 1-3 mm diameter were studied both experimentally and theoretically. The Maa-MPP (micro perforated panels) model and the Maa-Flex model were applied to predict the absorption regularities of finely perforated wooden panels. A relative impedance comparison and full-factorial experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the theoretical models. The results showed that the Maa-Flex model obtained good agreement with measured results. Control experiments and measurements of dynamic mechanical properties were carried out to investigate the influence of the wood characteristics. In this study, absorption properties were enhanced by sound-induced vibration. The relationship between the dynamic mechanical properties and the panel mass-spring vibration absorption was revealed. While the absorption effects of wood porous structure were not found, they were demonstrated theoretically by using acoustic wave propagation in a simplified circular pipe with a suddenly changed cross-section model. This work provides experimental and theoretical guidance for perforation parameter design.

  11. Chromium speciation in environmental samples using a solid phase spectrophotometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Alaa S.; Kassem, Mohammed A.

    2012-10-01

    A solid phase extraction technique is proposed for preconcentration and speciation of chromium in natural waters using spectrophotometric analysis. The procedure is based on sorption of chromium(III) as 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol complex on dextran-type anion-exchange gel (Sephadex DEAE A-25). After reduction of Cr(VI) by 0.5 ml of 96% concentrated H2SO4 and ethanol, the system was applied to the total chromium. The concentration of Cr(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and the Cr(III) content. The influences of some analytical parameters such as: pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol (BTABD), and sample volumes were investigated. The absorbance of the gel, at 628 and 750 nm, packed in a 1.0 mm cell, is measured directly. The molar absorptivities were found to be 2.11 × 107 and 3.90 × 107 L mol-1 cm-1 for 500 and 1000 ml, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.05-1.45 μg L-1 with RSD of <1.85% (n = 8.0). Using 35 mg exchanger, the detection and quantification limits were 13 and 44 ng L-1 for 500 ml sample, whereas for 1000 ml sample were 8.0 and 27 ng L-1, respectively. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. No considerable interferences have been observed from other investigated anions and cations on the chromium speciation. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of chromium in natural waters and total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco, coffee, tea, and soil samples. The results were simultaneously compared with those obtained using an ET AAS method, whereby the validity of the method has been tested.

  12. Optimization and validation of spectrophotometric methods for determination of finasteride in dosage and biological forms

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Alaa S.; Kassem, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Background: Three simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of finasteride in pure, dosage and biological forms, and in the presence of its oxidative degradates were developed. Materials and Methods: These methods are indirect, involve the addition of excess oxidant potassium permanganate for method A; cerric sulfate [Ce(SO4)2] for methods B; and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for method C of known concentration in acid medium to finasteride, and the determination of the unreacted oxidant by measurement of the decrease in absorbance of methylene blue for method A, chromotrope 2R for method B, and amaranth for method C at a suitable maximum wavelength, λmax: 663, 528, and 520 nm, for the three methods, respectively. The reaction conditions for each method were optimized. Results: Regression analysis of the Beer plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges of 0.12–3.84 μg mL–1 for method A, and 0.12–3.28 μg mL–1 for method B and 0.14 – 3.56 μg mL–1 for method C. The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were evaluated. The stoichiometric ratio between the finasteride and the oxidant was estimated. The validity of the proposed methods was tested by analyzing dosage forms and biological samples containing finasteride with relative standard deviation ≤ 0.95. Conclusion: The proposed methods could successfully determine the studied drug with varying excess of its oxidative degradation products, with recovery between 99.0 and 101.4, 99.2 and 101.6, and 99.6 and 101.0% for methods A, B, and C, respectively. PMID:23781478

  13. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of two antihyperlipidemic mixtures containing ezetimibe in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Maher, Hadir M; Youssef, Rasha M; Hassan, Ekram M; El-Kimary, Eman I; Barary, Magda A

    2011-02-01

    Two spectrophotometric methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe/simvastatin and ezetimibe/atorvastatin binary mixtures in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms without prior separation. The first is the derivative ratio method where the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra ((1) DD) at 299.5 and 242.5 nm were found to be linear with ezetimibe and simvastatin concentrations in the ranges 0.5-20 µgml(-1) and 1-40 µgml(-1) , respectively, whereas the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra ((1) DD) at 289.5 and 288 nm were selected to determine ezetimibe and atorvastatin in the concentration ranges 5-50 µgml(-1) and 1-40 µgml(-1) , respectively. The second is the H-point standard additions method; absorbances at the two pairs of wavelengths, 228 and 242 nm or 238 and 248 nm, were monitored while adding standard solutions of ezetimibe or simvastatin, respectively. For the analysis of ezetimibe/atorvastatin mixture, absorbance values at 226 and 248 nm or 212 and 272 nm were monitored while adding standard solutions of ezetimibe or atorvastatin, respectively. Moreover, differential spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of ezetimibe in the two mixtures without any interference from the co-existing drug. This was performed by measurement of the difference absorptivities (ΔA) of ezetimibe in 0.07 M 30% methanolic NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0.07 M 30% methanolic HCl at 246 nm. The described methods are simple, rapid, precise and accurate for the determination of these combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chromium speciation in environmental samples using a solid phase spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S; Kassem, Mohammed A

    2012-10-01

    A solid phase extraction technique is proposed for preconcentration and speciation of chromium in natural waters using spectrophotometric analysis. The procedure is based on sorption of chromium(III) as 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol complex on dextran-type anion-exchange gel (Sephadex DEAE A-25). After reduction of Cr(VI) by 0.5 ml of 96% concentrated H(2)SO(4) and ethanol, the system was applied to the total chromium. The concentration of Cr(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and the Cr(III) content. The influences of some analytical parameters such as: pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of 4-(2-benzothiazolylazo)2,2'-biphenyldiol (BTABD), and sample volumes were investigated. The absorbance of the gel, at 628 and 750 nm, packed in a 1.0 mm cell, is measured directly. The molar absorptivities were found to be 2.11×10(7) and 3.90×10(7) L mol(-1)cm(-1) for 500 and 1000 ml, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.05-1.45 μg L(-1) with RSD of <1.85% (n=8.0). Using 35 mg exchanger, the detection and quantification limits were 13 and 44 ng L(-1) for 500 ml sample, whereas for 1000 ml sample were 8.0 and 27 ng L(-1), respectively. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. No considerable interferences have been observed from other investigated anions and cations on the chromium speciation. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of chromium in natural waters and total chromium preconcentration in microwave digested tobacco, coffee, tea, and soil samples. The results were simultaneously compared with those obtained using an ET AAS method, whereby the validity of the method has been tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  16. Relationships between vegetation indices, radiation absorption, and net photosynthesis evaluated by a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stream approximation to the radiative-transfer equation is used to calculate the vegetation indices (simple ratio and normalized difference), the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy, and the daily mean canopy net photosynthesis under clear-sky conditions. The model calculations are tested against field observations over wheat, cotton, corn, and soybean. The relationships between the vegetation indices and radiation absorption or net photosynthesis are generally found to be curvilinear, and changes in the soil reflectance affected these relationships. The curvilinearity of the relationship between normalized differences and PAR absorption decreases as the magnitude of soil reflectance increases. The vegetation indices might provide the fractional radiation absorption with some a priori knowledge about soil reflectance. The relationship between the vegetation indices and net photosynthesis must be distinguished for C3 and C4 crops. Effects of spatial heterogeneity are discussed.

  17. Unified analysis of optical absorption spectra of carotenoids based on a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Chiasa; Saito, Keisuke; Yoshizawa, Masayuki; Molnár, Péter; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-05-03

    The chemical structures of the carotenoid molecules are very simple and one might think that the electronic feature of it is easily predicted. However, it still has so much unknown information except the correlation between the electronic energy state and the length of effective conjugation chain of carotenoids. To investigate the electronic feature of the carotenoids, the most essential method is measuring the optical absorption spectra, but simulating it from the resonance Raman spectra is also the effective way. From this reason, we studied the optical absorption spectra as well as resonance Raman spectra of 15 different kinds of cyclic carotenoid molecules, recorded in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions at room temperature. The whole band shapes of the absorption spectra of all these carotenoid molecules were successfully simulated based on a stochastic model using Brownian oscillators. The parameters obtained from the simulation made it possible to discuss the intermolecular interaction between carotenoids and solvent THF molecules quantitatively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of flucloxacillin in pharmaceutical preparations using some nitrophenols as a complexing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mammli, Magda Y.

    2003-03-01

    Some nitrophenols are proposed as chromogenic reagents for the spectrophotometric determination of flucloxacillin. The reagent forms a greenish yellow 1:1 complex with flucloxacillin at pH 9.0. This complex is stable for at least 3.0 h after its formation. The greenish yellow charge transfer complex species has an absorption maximum at 446, 435, 442, 473 and 439 nm for p-nitrophenol (I), 2,4-dinitrophenol (II), 3,5-dinitrosalycilic acid (III), picramic acid (IV) and picric acid (V), respectively, with a molar absorptivity between 1.43×10 4 and 2.59×10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. Beer's low is valid over the concentration range 2.0-40 μg ml -1 of flucloxacillin. The detection and quantitation limits as well as relative standard deviation were also calculated. The reagents have been successfully used for the spectrophotometric determination of flucloxacillin in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Moran, James J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2016-03-29

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The method also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  20. Methods for analysis of selected metals in water by atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Downs, Sanford C.

    1966-01-01

    This manual describes atomic-absorption-spectroscopy methods for determining calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, strontium and zinc in atmospheric precipitation, fresh waters, and brines. The procedures are intended to be used by water quality laboratories of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Detailed procedures, calculations, and methods for the preparation of reagents are given for each element along with data on accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. Other topics discussed briefly are the principle of atomic absorption, instrumentation used, and special analytical techniques.

  1. Analysis of gaseous ammonia (NH3) absorption in the visible spectrum of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Bowles, Neil; Braude, Ashwin S.; Garland, Ryan; Calcutt, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the visible/near-infrared reflectance spectrum of Jupiter have been made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument in the spectral range 0.48-0.93 μm in support of the NASA/Juno mission. These spectra contain spectral signatures of gaseous ammonia (NH3), whose abundance above the cloud tops can be determined if we have reliable information on its absorption spectrum. While there are a number of sources of NH3 absorption data in this spectral range, they cover small sub-ranges, which do not necessarily overlap and have been determined from a variety of sources. There is thus considerable uncertainty regarding the consistency of these different sources when modelling the reflectance of the entire visible/near-IR range. In this paper we analyse the VLT/MUSE observations of Jupiter to determine which sources of ammonia absorption data are most reliable. We find that the band model coefficients of Bowles et al. (2008) provide, in general, the best combination of reliability and wavelength coverage over the MUSE range. These band data appear consistent with ExoMOL ammonia line data of Yurchenko et al. (2011), at wavelengths where they overlap, but these latter data do not cover the ammonia absorption bands at 0.79 and 0.765 μm, which are prominent in our MUSE observations. However, we find the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) are not reliable at wavelengths less than 0.758 μm. At shorter wavelengths we find the laboratory observations of Lutz and Owen (1980) provide a good indication of the position and shape of the ammonia absorptions near 0.552 μm and 0.648 μm, but their absorption strengths appear inconsistent with the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) at longer wavelengths. Finally, we find that the line data of the 0.648 μm absorption band of Giver et al. (1975) are not suitable for modelling these data as they account for only 17% of the band absorption and cannot be extended reliably to the cold

  2. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The process also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy and global analysis of CF4 rovibrational bands to model its atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, M.; Gruson, O.; Richard, C.; Boudon, V.; Rotger, M.; Thomas, X.; Maul, C.; Sydow, C.; Domanskaya, A.; Georges, R.; Soulard, P.; Pirali, O.; Goubet, M.; Asselin, P.; Huet, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    CF4, or tetrafluoromethane, is a chemically inert and strongly absorbing greenhouse gas, mainly of anthropogenic origin. In order to monitor and reduce its atmospheric emissions and concentration, it is thus necessary to obtain an accurate model of its infrared absorption. Such models allow opacity calculations for radiative transfer atmospheric models. In the present work, we perform a global analysis (divided into two distinct fitting schemes) of 17 rovibrational bands of CF4. This gives a reliable model of many of its lower rovibrational levels and allows the calculation of the infrared absorption in the strongly absorbing ν3 region (1283 cm-1 / 7.8 μm), including the main hot band, namely ν3 +ν2 -ν2 as well as ν3 +ν1 -ν1 ; we could also extrapolate the ν3 +ν4 -ν4 absorption. This represents almost 92% of the absorption at room temperature in this spectral region. A new accurate value of the C-F bond length is evaluated to re = 1.314860(21) Å. The present results have been used to update the HITRAN, GEISA and TFMeCaSDa (VAMDC) databases.

  4. Monte Carlo Analysis of Molecule Absorption Probabilities in Diffusion-Based Nanoscale Communication Systems with Multiple Receivers.

    PubMed

    Arifler, Dogu; Arifler, Dizem

    2017-04-01

    For biomedical applications of nanonetworks, employing molecular communication for information transport is advantageous over nano-electromagnetic communication: molecular communication is potentially biocompatible and inherently energy-efficient. Recently, several studies have modeled receivers in diffusion-based molecular communication systems as "perfectly monitoring" or "perfectly absorbing" spheres based on idealized descriptions of chemoreception. In this paper, we focus on perfectly absorbing receivers and present methods to improve the accuracy of simulation procedures that are used to analyze these receivers. We employ schemes available from the chemical physics and biophysics literature and outline a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm that accounts for the possibility of molecule absorption during discrete time steps, leading to a more accurate analysis of absorption probabilities. Unlike most existing studies that consider a single receiver, this paper analyzes absorption probabilities for multiple receivers deterministically or randomly deployed in a region. For random deployments, the ultimate absorption probabilities as a function of transmitter-receiver distance are shown to fit well to power laws; the exponents derived become more negative as the number of receivers increases up to a limit beyond which no additional receivers can be "packed" in the deployment region. This paper is expected to impact the design of molecular nanonetworks with multiple absorbing receivers.

  5. New spectrophotometric estimation of indomethacin capsules with niacinamide as hydrotropic solubilizing agent.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, R K; Rathore, Amit; Agrawal, Archana; Gupta, Megha A

    2011-07-01

    Hydrotropic solubilization process involves cooperative intermolecular interaction with several balancing molecular forces, rather than either a specific complexation event or a process dominated by a medium effect, such as co-solvency or salting-in. In the present investigation, hydrotropic solution of 2 M niacinamide was employed as the solubilizing agent to solubilize the poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, from the capsule dosage form for spectrophotometric determination in ultraviolet region. Hydrotropic agent used did not interfere in the spectrophotometric analysis. In preliminary solubility studies, it was found that there was more than fivefold enhancement in the aqueous solubility of indomethacin (poorly water-soluble drug) in 2 M niacinamide solution as compared to its aqueous solubility at 28 ± 1°C. The proposed method is new, simple, safe, environmentally friendly, economic, accurate and cost-effective and can be successfully employed in routine analysis.

  6. Theoretical analysis of the sound absorption characteristics of periodically stiffened micro-perforated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-An; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Mei, Yu-Lin

    2014-10-01

    The vibro-acoustic responses and sound absorption characteristics of two kinds of periodically stiffened micro-perforated plates are analyzed theoretically. The connected periodical structures of the stiffened plates can be ribs or block-like structures. Based on fundamental acoustic formulas of the micro-perforated plate of Maa and Takahashi, semi-analytical models of the vibrating stiffened plates are developed in this paper. Approaches like the space harmonicmethod, Fourier transforms and finite elementmethod (FEM) are adopted to investigate both kinds of the stiffened plates. In the present work, the vibro-acoustic responses of micro-perforated stiffened plates in the wavenumber space are expressed as functions of plate displacement amplitudes. After approximate numerical solutions of the amplitudes, the vibration equations and sound absorption coefficients of the two kinds of stiffened plates in the physical space are then derived by employing the Fourier inverse transform. In numerical examples, the effects of some physical parameters, such as the perforation ratio, incident angles and periodical distances etc., on the sound absorption performance are examined. The proposed approaches are also validated by comparing the present results with solutions of Takahashi and previous studies of stiffened plates. Numerical results indicate that the flexural vibration of the plate has a significant effect on the sound absorption coefficient in the water but has little influence in the air.

  7. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  8. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40 min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates.

  9. Analysis of wavelength-dependent photoisomerization quantum yields in bilirubins by fitting two exciton absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Troup, G. J.; Pratesi, R.

    2003-09-01

    The absorption spectra of bilirubins were deconvoluted by two Gaussian curves of equal width representing the exciton bands of the non-degenerate molecular system. The two bands were used to study the wavelength dependence of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) configurational photoisomerization quantum yield of the bichromophoric bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IX), the intrinsically asymmetric bile pigment associated with jaundice and the symmetrically substituted bilirubins (bilirubin-IIIalpha and mesobilirubin-XIIIalpha), when they are irradiated in aqueous solution bound to human serum albumin (HSA). The same study was performed for BR-IX in ammoniacal methanol solution (NH4OH/MeOH). The quantum yields of the configurational photoprocesses were fitted with a combination function of the two Gaussian bands normalized to the total absorption, using the proportionality coefficients and a scaling factor as parameters. The decrease of the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) quantum yield with increasing wavelength, which occurs for wavelengths longer than the most probable Franck-Condon transition of the molecule, did not result in a unique function of the exciton absorptions. In particular we found two ranges corresponding to different exciton interactions with different proportionality coefficients and scaling factors. The wavelength-dependent photoisomerization of bilirubins was described as an abrupt change in quantum yield as soon as the resulting excitation was strongly localized in each chromophore. The change was correlated to a variation of the interaction between the two chromophores when the short-wavelength exciton absorption became vanishingly small. With the help of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of BR-IX in HSA, a small band was resolved in the bilirubin absorption spectrum, delivering part of the energy required for the (4Z, 15Z) rightarrow (4Z, 15E) photoisomerization of the molecule.

  10. An Analysis of AERONET Aerosol Absorption Properties and Classifications Representative of Aerosol Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Smirnov, Alexander; Slutsker, Ilya; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Schafer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of mineral dust, pollution, smoke, and mixtures using remote sensing techniques can help improve accuracy of satellite retrievals and assessments of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Spectral aerosol optical depth (tau) and single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0) ) from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements are used to form absorption [i.e., omega (sub 0) and absorption Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub abs))] and size [i.e., extinction Angstrom exponent (alpha(sub ext)) and fine mode fraction of tau] relationships to infer dominant aerosol types. Using the long-term AERONET data set (1999-2010), 19 sites are grouped by aerosol type based on known source regions to: (1) determine the average omega (sub 0) and alpha(sub abs) at each site (expanding upon previous work); (2) perform a sensitivity study on alpha(sub abs) by varying the spectral omega (sub 0); and (3) test the ability of each absorption and size relationship to distinguish aerosol types. The spectral omega (sub 0) averages indicate slightly more aerosol absorption (i.e., a 0.0 < delta omega (sub 0) <= 0.02 decrease) than in previous work and optical mixtures of pollution and smoke with dust show stronger absorption than dust alone. Frequency distributions of alpha(sub abs) show significant overlap among aerosol type categories and at least 10% of the alpha(sub abs) retrievals in each category are below 1.0. Perturbing the spectral omega (sub 0) by +/- 0.03 induces significant alpha(sub abs) changes from the unperturbed value by at least approx. +/- 0.6 for Dust, approx. +/-0.2 for Mixed, and approx. +/-0.1 for Urban/Industrial and Biomass Burning. The omega (sub 0)440nm and alpha(sub ext) 440-870nm relationship shows the best separation among aerosol type clusters, providing a simple technique for determining aerosol type from surface- and future space-based instrumentation.

  11. Variability of absorption heat pump efficiency for domestic water heating and space heating based on time-weighted bin analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2017-11-02

    Natural gas-driven absorption heat pumps are under renewed scrutiny as a viable technology for space conditioning and water heating for residential and commercial applications because of natural gas production trends, pricing, and the speculation that it might be a “bridge fuel” in the global transition towards energy sustainability. Since any level of natural gas combustion contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide accumulation, the merits of natural gas consuming absorption technology are re-examined in this paper from the point of view of expected efficiency throughout the United States using a time-weighted bin temperature analysis. Such analyses are necessary because equipment standards formore » rated performance is restricted to one set ambient condition, whereas in actual practice, the absorption heat pump (AHP) must perform over a considerably wider range of external conditions, where its efficiency may be vastly different from that at the rated condition. Quantification of variation in efficiency and system performance are imperative to address how to provide the desired utility with the least environmental impact. In this paper, we examine limiting features in absorption heat pumps and relate it to systemic performances in sixteen cities across all eight climate zones in the U.S, each containing fifteen bin temperatures. The results indicate that the true expectation of performance of an AHP is significantly less than what might be optimized for the rated condition. Statistical measures of the variation in water heating COPs show that for most cities, the COP at the rated conditions is outside the 95% Confidence Interval. Moreover, it is concluded that deployment of absorption heat pump water heaters (AHPWH) may be restricted geographically by outdoor temperature constraints.« less

  12. Variability of absorption heat pump efficiency for domestic water heating and space heating based on time-weighted bin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    Natural gas-driven absorption heat pumps are under renewed scrutiny as a viable technology for space conditioning and water heating for residential and commercial applications because of natural gas production trends, pricing, and the speculation that it might be a “bridge fuel” in the global transition towards energy sustainability. Since any level of natural gas combustion contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide accumulation, the merits of natural gas consuming absorption technology are re-examined in this paper from the point of view of expected efficiency throughout the United States using a time-weighted bin temperature analysis. Such analyses are necessary because equipment standards formore » rated performance is restricted to one set ambient condition, whereas in actual practice, the absorption heat pump (AHP) must perform over a considerably wider range of external conditions, where its efficiency may be vastly different from that at the rated condition. Quantification of variation in efficiency and system performance are imperative to address how to provide the desired utility with the least environmental impact. In this paper, we examine limiting features in absorption heat pumps and relate it to systemic performances in sixteen cities across all eight climate zones in the U.S, each containing fifteen bin temperatures. The results indicate that the true expectation of performance of an AHP is significantly less than what might be optimized for the rated condition. Statistical measures of the variation in water heating COPs show that for most cities, the COP at the rated conditions is outside the 95% Confidence Interval. Moreover, it is concluded that deployment of absorption heat pump water heaters (AHPWH) may be restricted geographically by outdoor temperature constraints.« less

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  15. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in Dongjianghu Lake by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanzhong; Song, Yonghui; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Ruixia; Liu, Lusan; Lv, Chunjian

    2017-08-08

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to characterize spectroscopic components, detect latent factors, and investigate spatial variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a large-scale lake. Twelve surface water samples were collected from Dongjianghu Lake in China. DOM contained lignin and quinine moieties, carboxylic acid, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups, which in the northern part of the lake was largely different from the southern part. Fifteen spectroscopic indices were deduced from the absorption spectra to indicate molecular weight or humification degree of DOM. The northern part of the lake presented the smaller molecular weight or the lower humification degree of DOM than the southern part. E 2/4 , E 3/4 , E 2/3 , and S 2 were latent factors of characterizing the molecular weight of DOM, while E 2/5 , E 3/5 , E 2/6 , E 4/5 , E 3/6 , and A 2/1 were latent factors of evaluating the humification degree of DOM. The UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with PCA and HCA may not only characterize DOM fractions of lakes, but may be transferred to other types of waterscape.

  16. Stark effect spectrophone for continuous absorption spectra monitoring. [a technique for gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A Stark effect spectrophone using a pulsed or continuous wave laser having a beam with one or more absorption lines of a constituent of an unknown gas is described. The laser beam is directed through windows of a closed cell while the unknown gas to be modified flows continuously through the cell between electric field plates disposed in the cell on opposite sides of the beam path through the cell. When the beam is pulsed, energy absorbed by the gas increases at each point along the beam path according to the spectral lines of the constituents of the gas for the particular field strengths at those points. The pressure measurement at each point during each pulse of energy yields a plot of absorption as a function of electric field for simultaneous detection of the gas constituents. Provision for signal averaging and modulation is included.

  17. Specific absorption rate analysis of broadband mobile antenna with negative index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a negative index metamaterial-inspired printed mobile wireless antenna that can support most mobile applications such as GSM, UMTS, Bluetooth and WLAN frequency bands. The antenna consists of a semi-circular patch, a 50Ω microstrip feed line and metamaterial ground plane. The antenna occupies a very small space of 37 × 47 × 0.508 mm3, making it suitable for mobile wireless application. The perceptible novelty shown in this proposed antenna is that reduction of specific absorption rate using the negative index metamaterial ground plane. The proposed antenna reduced 72.11 and 75.53 % of specific absorption rate at 1.8 and 2.4 GHz, respectively.

  18. Experimental analysis of energy absorption behaviour of Al-tube filled with pumice lightweight concrete under axial loading condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, D. K.; Deshpande, P. G.; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.

    2017-08-01

    This Paper aimed at experimental investigation of compressive behaviour of square tube filled with pumice lightweight concrete (PLC). Square section of 20×20×30 mm is investigated, which is the backbone structure. The compression deformation result shows the better folding mechanism, displacement value, and energy absorption. PLC concrete filled with aluminium thin-wall tubes has been revealed superior energy absorption capacity (EAC) under low strain rate at room temperature. Superior EAC resulted as a result of mutual deformation benefit between aluminium section and PLC is also analysed. PLC was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) analysis for better understanding of material behaviour. Individual and comparative load bearing graphs is logged for better prospective of analysing. Novel approach aimed at validation of porous lightweight concrete for better lightweight EA filler material.

  19. The active site structure of tetanus neurotoxin resolved by multiple scattering analysis in X-Ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Meneghini, C; Morante, S

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study of the x-ray absorption spectrum of tetanus neurotoxin in the K-edge EXAFS region of the zinc absorber is presented that allows the complete identification of the amino acid residues coordinated to the zinc active site. A very satisfactory interpretation of the experimental data can be given if multiple scattering contributions are included in the analysis. Comparing the absorption spectrum of tetanus neurotoxin to that of two other structurally similar zinc-endopeptidases, thermolysin and astacin, in which the zinc coordination mode is known from crystallographic data, we conclude that in tetanus neurotoxin, besides a water molecule, zinc is coordinated to two histidines and a tyrosine. PMID:9746536

  20. Derivative Analysis of Absorption Features in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data of Carbonate Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-30

    reflectance of carbonate sediments and application to shallow water benthic habitat classification,” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Miami. Chap.3...resolve overlapping features. A primary application has been to analyze pigment and chemical composition of leaves in order to track physiological...final absorption feature was observed at 630 nm, in a region associated with the biliprotein, phycocyanin [16,17]. As biliproteins are water soluble

  1. Analysis of gas absorption to a thin liquid film in the presence of a zero-order chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the process of gas absorption to a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The film is formed by the impingement of a controlled liquid jet at the center of the disk and subsequent radial spreading of liquid along the disk. The chemical reaction between the gas and the liquid film can be expressed as a zero-order homogeneous reaction. The process was modeled by establishing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and species concentration and solving them analytically. A scaling analysis was used to determine dominant transport processes. Appropriate boundary conditions were used to solve these equations to develop expressions for the local concentration of gas across the thickness of the film and distributions of film height, bulk concentration, and Sherwood number along the radius of the disk. The partial differential equation for species concentration was solved using the separation of variables technique along with the Duhamel's theorem and the final analytical solution was expressed using confluent hypergeometric functions. Tables for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are presented for a number of reaction rate constants. A parametric study was performed using Reynolds number, Ekman number, and dimensionless reaction rate as parameters. At all radial locations, Sherwood number increased with Reynolds number (flow rate) as well as Ekman number (rate of rotation). The enhancement of mass transfer due to chemical reaction was found to be small when compared to the case of no reaction (pure absorption), but the enhancement factor was very significant when compared to pure absorption in a stagnant liquid film. The zero-order reaction processes considered in the present investigation included the absorption of oxygen in aqueous alkaline solutions of sodiumdithionite and rhodium complex catalyzed carbonylation of methanol. Present analytical results were compared to previous theoretical

  2. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM WITH GLYOXAL BIS (2-HYDROXY- ANIL)

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, T.M.; Morgan, J.

    1961-03-01

    A selective method is described for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium using glyoxal bis(2hydroxy-anil) as the chromogenic agent. A comprehensive study of interferences and reagent variables was made. (auth)

  3. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Spectrophotometric Dating of Stars and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubeny, Ivan; Heap, Sara; Cornett, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, we have seen an avalanche of new observational results from space observatories and ground-based observatories. These observations have revealed young globular clusters in the cores of merger galaxies, elliptical galaxies at redshifts up to z=1.5, and starburst galaxies at high redshift. Analyses of the detailed spectra or color- magnitude diagrams of these systems promise to give a new understanding of evolutionary processes and to provide a check on cosmological ages. At the same time, these new spectro-photometric data present new challenges to current methods of spectral analysis and modeling.At the Workshop, we will discuss these new opportunities and challenges on spectro-photometric dating of stars and galaxies.

  4. A continuous spectrophotometric assay method for peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ya-Fan; Hsieh, Hui-Chieh; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2005-12-15

    A simple, continuous spectrophotometric assay for peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) is described. Deimination of peptidylarginine results in the formation of peptidylcitrulline and ammonia. The ammonia released during peptidylarginine hydrolysis is coupled to the glutamate-dehydrogenase-catalyzed reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation. The disappearance of absorbance at 340nm due to NADH oxidation is continuously measured. The specific activity obtained by this new protocol for highly purified human PAD is comparable to that obtained by a commonly used colorimetric procedure, which measures the ureido group of peptidylcitrulline by coupling with diacetyl monoxime. The present continuous spectrophotometric method is highly sensitive and accurate and is thus suitable for enzyme kinetic analysis of PAD. The Ca(2+) concentration for half-maximal activity of PAD obtained by this method is comparable to that previously obtained by the colorimetric procedure.

  5. Complexation equilibria and spectrophotometric determination of iron(III) with 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakr, M S; Sedaira, H; Hashem, E Y

    1994-10-01

    The complex equilibria of iron(III) with 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (AMHA) were studied spectrophotometrically in 40% (v/v) ethanol and an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO(4)). The complexation reactions were demonstrated and characterized using graphical logarithmic analysis of the absorbance-pH graphs. A simple, rapid, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Fe(III) is developed based on the formation of Fe(AMHA) complex at pH 2.5 (lambda(max) = 640 nm, epsilon approximately = 2.1 x 10(4) L. mol(-1) . cm(-1)) in the presence of a large number of foreign ions. Interferences caused by palladium(II) was masked by the addition of cyanide ions. The method has been applied to the determination of iron in some synthetic samples and polymetallic iron ores.

  6. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  7. A comparative study of progressive versus successive spectrophotometric resolution techniques applied for pharmaceutical ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Sarah S.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham

    2014-11-01

    This work represents a comparative study of a novel progressive spectrophotometric resolution technique namely, amplitude center method (ACM), versus the well-established successive spectrophotometric resolution techniques namely; successive derivative subtraction (SDS); successive derivative of ratio spectra (SDR) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). All the proposed spectrophotometric techniques consist of several consecutive steps utilizing ratio and/or derivative spectra. The novel amplitude center method (ACM) can be used for the determination of ternary mixtures using single divisor where the concentrations of the components are determined through progressive manipulation performed on the same ratio spectrum. Those methods were applied for the analysis of the ternary mixture of chloramphenicol (CHL), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DXM) and tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZH) in eye drops in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. A comparative study was conducted between those methods regarding simplicity, limitation and sensitivity. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained from the official BP methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  8. Spectrophotometric and HPLC Methods for Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine Besilate, Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Wankhede, S. B.; Raka, K. C.; Wadkar, S. B.; Chitlange, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Two UV-spectrophotometric and one reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form. The first UV spectrophotometric method was a determination using the simultaneous equation method at 236.5, 254 and 271 nm over the concentration range 5-25, 10-50 and 5-25 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. The second UV method was a determination using the area under curve method at 231.5-241.5, 249-259 and 266-276 nm over the concentration range of 5-25, 5-25 and 10-50 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan potassium, respectively. In reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis is carried out using 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.7):acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as the mobile phase and Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm i.d×250 mm) column as stationery phase with detection wavelength of 232 nm linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-14, 20-140 and 5-40 μg/ml for amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography methods were statistically validated and can be used for analysis of combined dose tablet formulation containing amlodipine besilate, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:20582208

  9. A comparative study of progressive versus successive spectrophotometric resolution techniques applied for pharmaceutical ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Sarah S; Lotfy, Hayam M; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Salem, Hesham

    2014-11-11

    This work represents a comparative study of a novel progressive spectrophotometric resolution technique namely, amplitude center method (ACM), versus the well-established successive spectrophotometric resolution techniques namely; successive derivative subtraction (SDS); successive derivative of ratio spectra (SDR) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). All the proposed spectrophotometric techniques consist of several consecutive steps utilizing ratio and/or derivative spectra. The novel amplitude center method (ACM) can be used for the determination of ternary mixtures using single divisor where the concentrations of the components are determined through progressive manipulation performed on the same ratio spectrum. Those methods were applied for the analysis of the ternary mixture of chloramphenicol (CHL), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DXM) and tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZH) in eye drops in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. A comparative study was conducted between those methods regarding simplicity, limitation and sensitivity. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained from the official BP methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Doppler Broadening and its Contribution to Compton Energy-Absorption Cross Sections: An Analysis of the Compton Component in Terms of Mass-Energy Absorption Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Gigante, G. E.

    2002-09-01

    Compton energy absorption cross sections are calculated using the formulas based on a relativistic impulse approximation to assess the contribution of Doppler broadening and to examine the Compton profile literature and explore what, if any, effect our knowledge of this line broadening has on the Compton component in terms of mass-energy absorption coefficient. Compton energy-absorption cross sections are evaluated for all elements, Z=1-100, and for photon energies 1 keV-100 MeV. Using these cross sections, the Compton component of the mass-energy absorption coefficient is derived in the energy region from 1 keV to 1 MeV for all the elements Z=1-100. The electron momentum prior to the scattering event should cause a Doppler broadening of the Compton line. The momentum resolution function is evaluated in terms of incident and scattered photon energy and scattering angle. The overall momentum resolution of each contribution is estimated for x-ray and γ-ray energies of experimental interest in the angular region 1°-180°. Also estimated is the Compton broadening using nonrelativistic formula in the angular region 1°-180°, for 17.44, 22.1, 58.83, and 60 keV photons for a few elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, K, and Ca) of biological importance.

  11. Fully automated analytical procedure for propofol determination by sequential injection technique with spectrophotometric and fluorimetric detections.

    PubMed

    Šrámková, Ivana; Amorim, Célia G; Sklenářová, Hana; Montenegro, Maria C B M; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Araújo, Alberto N; Solich, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an application of an enzymatic reaction for the determination of the highly hydrophobic drug propofol in emulsion dosage form is presented. Emulsions represent a complex and therefore challenging matrix for analysis. Ethanol was used for breakage of a lipid emulsion, which enabled optical detection. A fully automated method based on Sequential Injection Analysis was developed, allowing propofol determination without the requirement of tedious sample pre-treatment. The method was based on spectrophotometric detection after the enzymatic oxidation catalysed by horseradish peroxidase and subsequent coupling with 4-aminoantipyrine leading to a coloured product with an absorbance maximum at 485 nm. This procedure was compared with a simple fluorimetric method, which was based on the direct selective fluorescence emission of propofol in ethanol at 347 nm. Both methods provide comparable validation parameters with linear working ranges of 0.005-0.100 mg mL(-1) and 0.004-0.243 mg mL(-1) for the spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods, respectively. The detection and quantitation limits achieved with the spectrophotometric method were 0.0016 and 0.0053 mg mL(-1), respectively. The fluorimetric method provided the detection limit of 0.0013 mg mL(-1) and limit of quantitation of 0.0043 mg mL(-1). The RSD did not exceed 5% and 2% (n=10), correspondingly. A sample throughput of approx. 14 h(-1) for the spectrophotometric and 68 h(-1) for the fluorimetric detection was achieved. Both methods proved to be suitable for the determination of propofol in pharmaceutical formulation with average recovery values of 98.1 and 98.5%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Distigmine Bromide, Cyclopentolate HCl, Diaveridine HCl and Tetrahydrozoline HCl via Charge Transfer Complex Formation with TCNQ and TCNE Reagents.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad Genidy; Rizk, Mahmoud Sabry; Zaky Frag, Eman Yousry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was directed to propose sensitive, accurate and reproducible methods of analysis that can be applied to determine distigmine bromide (DTB), cyclopentolate hydrochloride (CPHC), diaveridine hydrochloride (DVHC) and tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THHC) drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations via charge-transfer complex formation with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) reagents. Spectrophotometric method involve the addition a known excess of TCNQ or TCNE reagents to DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs in acetonitrile, followed by the measurement of the absorbance of the CT complexes at the selected wavelength. The reaction stoichiometry is found to be 1:1 [drug]: [TCNQ or TCNE]. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with concentration of the drugs under investigation which is corroborated by the correlation coefficients of 0.9954-0.9981. The system obeys Beer's law for 6-400, 20-500, 1-180 and 60-560 µg mL(-1) and 80-600, 10-300, 1-60 and 80-640 µg mL(-1) for DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs using TCNQ and TCNE reagents, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity, sandell sensitivity, the limits of detection and quantification are also reported for the spectrophotometric method. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated as per ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied to the assay of DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs in formulations and the results were compared with those of a reference method by applying Student's t and F-tests. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical excipients.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Distigmine Bromide, Cyclopentolate HCl, Diaveridine HCl and Tetrahydrozoline HCl via Charge Transfer Complex Formation with TCNQ and TCNE Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Gehad Genidy; Rizk, Mahmoud Sabry; Zaky Frag, Eman Yousry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was directed to propose sensitive, accurate and reproducible methods of analysis that can be applied to determine distigmine bromide (DTB), cyclopentolate hydrochloride (CPHC), diaveridine hydrochloride (DVHC) and tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THHC) drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations via charge-transfer complex formation with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) reagents. Spectrophotometric method involve the addition a known excess of TCNQ or TCNE reagents to DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs in acetonitrile, followed by the measurement of the absorbance of the CT complexes at the selected wavelength. The reaction stoichiometry is found to be 1:1 [drug]: [TCNQ or TCNE]. The absorbance is found to increase linearly with concentration of the drugs under investigation which is corroborated by the correlation coefficients of 0.9954-0.9981. The system obeys Beer’s law for 6-400, 20-500, 1-180 and 60-560 µg mL-1 and 80-600, 10-300, 1-60 and 80-640 µg mL-1 for DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs using TCNQ and TCNE reagents, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity, sandell sensitivity, the limits of detection and quantification are also reported for the spectrophotometric method. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated as per ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied to the assay of DTB, CPHC, DVHC and THHC drugs in formulations and the results were compared with those of a reference method by applying Student’s t and F-tests. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:26330858

  14. Electron-cyclotron absorption in high-temperature plasmas: quasi-exact analytical evaluation and comparative numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albajar, F.; Bertelli, N.; Bornatici, M.; Engelmann, F.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the electromagnetic energy balance equation, a quasi-exact analytical evaluation of the electron-cyclotron (EC) absorption coefficient is performed for arbitrary propagation (with respect to the magnetic field) in a (Maxwellian) magneto-plasma for the temperature range of interest for fusion reactors (in which EC radiation losses tend to be important in the plasma power balance). The calculation makes use of Bateman's expansion for the product of two Bessel functions, retaining the lowest-order contribution. The integration over electron momentum can then be carried out analytically, fully accounting for finite Larmor radius effects in this approximation. On the basis of the analytical expressions for the EC absorption coefficients of both the extraordinary and ordinary modes thus obtained, (i) for the case of perpendicular propagation simple formulae are derived for both modes and (ii) a numerical analysis of the angular distribution of EC absorption is carried out. An assessment of the accuracy of asymptotic expressions that have been given earlier is also performed, showing that these approximations can be usefully applied for calculating EC power losses from reactor-grade plasmas. Presented in part at the 14th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating, Santorini, Greece, 9-12 May 2006.

  15. Quantitative analysis by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy of amino groups attached to the surface of carbon-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswati, T. E.; Astuti, A. R.; Rismana, N.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon-based nanoparticles must be modified due to their wide array of applications, especially when they are used as biomaterials. After modifying, quantitative analysis of the functional group is essential to evaluate a number of the available functional groups applied for further functionalization. In this study, we modified the carbon-based nanoparticles by amino group using submerged arc discharge in different liquids. The attached amino groups were then characterised and quantified by UV-Vis spectroscopy. This amino group functionalization was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The FTIR spectra of amine-modified nanoparticles show the definitive absorption peaks of N—H amine, C—H, C=O, C—N and Fe—O at 3418.97; 3000–2850 1700–1600 1400–1100 and 480-550 cm-1, respectively. The amine groups have different performance signals between the amine-modified and unmodified nanoparticles. The FTIR spectra results were correlated with the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy method using acidic methyl orange. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows that the absorbance of methyl orange represented to amino groups number was 1.3 times higher when the pH of the solution was increased. The absorbance intensity was then used to estimate the quantity of amine groups attached.

  16. Absorption spectrum analysis based on singular value decomposition for photoisomerization and photodegradation in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.

  17. Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis of Calcium-Phosphate Glasses Highly Doped with Monovalent Copper.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, José A

    2016-06-03

    CaO-P2 O5 glasses with high concentrations of monovalent copper ions were prepared by a simple melt-quench method through CuO and SnO co-doping. Spectroscopic characterization was carried out by optical absorption with the aim of analyzing the effects of Cu(+) ions on the optical band-gap energies, which were estimated on the basis of indirect-allowed transitions. The copper(I) content is estimated in the CuO/SnO-containing glasses after the assessment of the concentration dependence of Cu(2+) absorption in the visible region for CuO singly doped glasses. An exponential dependence of the change in optical band gaps (relative to the host) with Cu(+) concentration is inferred up to about 10 mol %. However, the entire range is divided into two distinct linear regions that are characterized by different rates of change with respect to concentration: 1) below 5 mol %, where the linear dependence presents a relatively high magnitude of the slope; and 2) from 5-10 mol %, where a lower magnitude of the slope is manifested. With increasing concentration, the mean Cu(+) -Cu(+) interionic distance decreases, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of monovalent copper for light absorption. The decrease in optical band-gap energies is ultimately shown to follow a linear dependence with the interionic distance, suggesting the potential of the approach to gauge the concentration of monovalent copper straightforwardly in amorphous hosts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analysis of sound absorption performance of an electroacoustic absorber using a vented enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Youngeun; Wang, Semyung; Hyun, Jaeyub; Oh, Seungjae; Goo, Seongyeol

    2018-03-01

    The sound absorption performance of an electroacoustic absorber (EA) is primarily influenced by the dynamic characteristics of the loudspeaker that acts as the actuator of the EA system. Therefore, the sound absorption performance of the EA is maximum at the resonance frequency of the loudspeaker and tends to degrade in the low-frequency and high-frequency bands based on this resonance frequency. In this study, to adjust the sound absorption performance of the EA system in the low-frequency band of approximately 20-80 Hz, an EA system using a vented enclosure that has previously been used to enhance the radiating sound pressure of a loudspeaker in the low-frequency band, is proposed. To verify the usefulness of the proposed system, two acoustic environments are considered. In the first acoustic environment, the vent of the vented enclosure is connected to an external sound field that is distinct from the sound field coupled to the EA. In this case, the acoustic effect of the vented enclosure on the performance of the EA is analyzed through an analytical approach using dynamic equations and an impedance-based equivalent circuit. Then, it is verified through numerical and experimental approaches. Next, in the second acoustic environment, the vent is connected to the same external sound field as the EA. In this case, the effect of the vented enclosure on the EA is investigated through an analytical approach and finally verified through a numerical approach. As a result, it is confirmed that the characteristics of the sound absorption performances of the proposed EA system using the vented enclosure in the two acoustic environments considered in this study are different from each other in the low-frequency band of approximately 20-80 Hz. Furthermore, several case studies on the change tendency of the performance of the EA using the vented enclosure according to the critical design factors or vent number for the vented enclosure are also investigated. In the future

  19. Analysis and parameterization of absorption properties of northern Norwegian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Coastal water bodies are generally classified as Case 2 water, in which non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contribute significantly to the optical properties in addition to phytoplankton. These three constituents vary independently in Case 2 water and tend to be highly variable in space and time. We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to CDOM, total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and NAP in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn.

  20. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Xian; Wei, Wen-Sheng; Ruan, Fang-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the model GaP+void|SiO2 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV-4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells.

  1. Line by Line Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Absorption for Predicting Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    The anthropologic cause of global warming rests on the impact of CO2 on the green house effect. Previous derivations of the increase in the CO2 Forcing Function caused by doubling of atmospheric CO2 from 320 ppm to 640 ppm reported a value of 4 W/M2( Ramananathan,V,et al, J.of Geophysical Research Vol 84, C8,p4949, Aug.1979) This value leads to a calculated temperature rise of 1 deg.K (Charney,J. et al,”Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment”, National Academy of Science, Washington D.C., 1979). This increase in global temperature leads to an increase in water vapor if it is assumed that the relative humidity is constant. This ampflication leads to a calculated temperature rise of an additional 2 deg.K. Different arguments as to the effects of the earth’s albido change, clouds, and the oceans also impact the earths global warming with predictions of total temperature rise of as high as 6 deg.K { IPCC,2007 Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Sciences Basis. Contributions of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC [ Solomon,S,D. et al (eds)] Cambridge University Press, NY,USA}. Regardless of the other effects, the only way that man can be held responsible for global warming is by CO2 emissions and the resulting increase in the Forcing Function. This paper challenges the magnitude of the 4 W/M2 Forcing Function. The earth radiates in the 4 to 30 micron wavelength range. CO2 has absorption bands in the 4, 10, and 15 micron wavelengths (Hertzberg G. Molecular Spectra & Molecular Structure,Norstrand Co.,1960). McClatchey has tabulated the line stengths for all CO2 transitions and they are used to calculate the atmospheric absorption (McClatchey,R, et al “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameter Compilation”,AFCRL-TR-0096,1973). Detailed calculations of the CO2 line absorption in the 8 to 12 micron atmospheric window shows an increase of 0.3 W/M2 for CO2 doubling. The increase in absorbed fluence in

  2. Correlation between Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) analysis of hardened concrete for chlorides vs. Atomic Absorption (AA) analysis in accordance with AASHTO T- 260; sampling and testing for chloride ion in concrete and concrete raw mater

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    A correlation between Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence(WDXRF) analysis of Hardened : Concrete for Chlorides and Atomic Absorption (AA) analysis (current method AASHTO T-260, procedure B) has been : found and a new method of analysis has been ...

  3. Reliability and accuracy of Crystaleye spectrophotometric system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Tan, Jian Guo; Zhou, Jian Feng; Yang, Xu; Du, Yang; Wang, Fang Ping

    2010-01-01

    to develop an in vitro shade-measuring model to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the Crystaleye spectrophotometric system, a newly developed spectrophotometer. four shade guides, VITA Classical, VITA 3D-Master, Chromascop and Vintage Halo NCC, were measured with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer in a standardised model, ten times for 107 shade tabs. The shade-matching results and the CIE L*a*b* values of the cervical, body and incisal regions for each measurement were automatically analysed using the supporting software. Reliability and accuracy were calculated for each shade tab both in percentage and in colour difference (ΔE). Difference was analysed by one-way ANOVA in the cervical, body and incisal regions. range of reliability was 88.81% to 98.97% and 0.13 to 0.24 ΔE units, and that of accuracy was 44.05% to 91.25% and 1.03 to 1.89 ΔE units. Significant differences in reliability and accuracy were found between the body region and the cervical and incisal regions. Comparisons made among regions and shade guides revealed that evaluation in ΔE was prone to disclose the differences. measurements with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer had similar, high reliability in different shade guides and regions, indicating predictable repeated measurements. Accuracy in the body region was high and less variable compared with the cervical and incisal regions.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were <7.5% in all cases. The optimum range of PAM in each sample is 10-80 microg. The technique can serve as an effective tool in improving PAM application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  5. Ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of tantalum with pyrogallol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1953-01-01

    In a search for a more rapid method for the determination of tantalum in rocks and minerals, an intensive study was made of the tantalum-pyrogallol reaction recommended by Platanov and Krivoshlikov, and a better modified spectrophotometric procedure is given. The improved method consists in measuring the absorbancy of the tantalum-pyrogallol complex at 325 m?? in 4N hydrochloric acid and a fixed concentration (0.0175M) of ammonium oxalate. Beer's law is followed for the concentration range up to 40 ?? per ml. Sensitivity in terms of molar absorbancy index is 4775. Most interferences are additive in character and readily correctable. Separations or major corrections are required in the presence of significant amounts of molybdenum, tungsten, antimony, and uranium. The method has been successfully applied to three ores previously analyzed by gravimetric techniques. The method affords greater speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility in the determination of tantalum in rocks and minerals. A more reliable technique for preparing standard solutions of tantalum has been developed.

  6. A spectrophotometric study of RW Trianguli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, P. J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; van Paradijs, J.

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of spectrophotometric observations we reconstruct the accretion disk of the eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variable RW Tri in the wavelength region 3600-7000 Å. We find a radial temperature profile that is, on average, consistent with that expected on the basis of the theory of optically thick, steady state accretion disks and infer a mass-accretion rate in RW Tri of ˜10-8 M⊙ yr-1. The line emission is dominated by two areas: one around the hot-spot region and one near the white dwarf. Both emission regions have appreciable vertical extension, and seem to be decoupled from the velocity field in the disk. In our observations RW Tri shows a number of features that are characteristic of the SW Sex sub-class of novalike stars. The appearance of a novalike system as a UX UMa/RW Tri or SW Sex star seems to be mainly governed by the mass-transfer rate from the secondary at the time of observation.

  7. Spectrophotometric evaluation of optical performances of polarizing technologies for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levati, N.; Vitali, L.; Fustinoni, D.; Niro, A.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, window-integrated solar protection systems are used and studied as a promising energy saving technology, both for cold and hot climates. In particular, smart windows, whose optical proprieties in the solar wavelength range can somehow be controlled, show interesting results, especially in reducing the air conditioning power consumption. With the improvement of nanolithography techniques as well as with the possibility of designing polarization intervals, coupled polarizing films show a good potential as a dynamic and wavelength-selective shading technology. In this paper, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometric measurements are carried out on two polarizing technologies, Polaroid crystalline polarizer and Wire Grid broadband polarizer, in single- and double- film layout, to evaluate their optical performances, i.e. spectral transmittance, reflectance and absorptivity. The solar radiation glazing factors, according to the standard UNI EN 410, are calculated. The measured data are also analyzed in detail to emphasize the optical peculiarities of the materials under study that do not stand out from the standard parameters, as well as the specific problems that arise in spectrophotometric evaluations of polarizing films.

  8. Enhancing prediction power of chemometric models through manipulation of the fed spectrophotometric data: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Ahmed S.; Hamdy, Abdallah M.; Salama, Fathy M.; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Effect of data manipulation in preprocessing step proceeding construction of chemometric models was assessed. The same set of UV spectral data was used for construction of PLS and PCR models directly and after mathematically manipulation as per well known first and second derivatives of the absorption spectra, ratio spectra and first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra spectrophotometric methods, meanwhile the optimal working wavelength ranges were carefully selected for each model and the models were constructed. Unexpectedly, number of latent variables used for models' construction varied among the different methods. The prediction power of the different models was compared using a validation set of 8 mixtures prepared as per the multilevel multifactor design and results were statistically compared using two-way ANOVA test. Root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) was used for further comparison of the predictability among different constructed models. Although no significant difference was found between results obtained using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models, however, discrepancies among results was found to be attributed to the variation in the discrimination power of adopted spectrophotometric methods on spectral data.

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer

    PubMed Central

    Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana

    2014-01-01

    First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle. PMID:25136702

  10. Characteristic analysis of surface waves in a sensitive plasma absorption probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wei; Li, Hong; Tan, Mingsheng; Liu, Wandong

    2018-01-01

    With features that are simple to construct and a symmetric configuration, the sensitive plasma absorption probe (SPAP) is a dependable probe for industry plasma diagnosis. The minimum peak in the characteristic curve of the coefficient of reflection stems from the surface wave resonance in plasma. We use numerical simulation methods to analyse the details of the excitation and propagation of these surface waves. With this method, the electromagnetic field structure and the resonance and propagation characteristics of the surface wave were analyzed simultaneously using the simulation method. For this SPAP structure, there are three different propagation paths for the propagating plasma surface wave. The propagation characteristic of the surface wave along each path is presented. Its dispersion relation is also calculated. The objective is to complete the relevant theory of the SPAP as well as the propagation process of the plasma surface wave.

  11. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  12. Analysis of the mechanisms that underlie absorption of botulinum toxin by the inhalation route.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Ancharski, Denise M; Joshi, Suresh G; Elias, M; Singh, Ajay; Nasser, Zidoon; Simpson, Lance L

    2012-12-01

    Botulinum toxin is a highly potent oral and inhalation poison, which means that the toxin must have an efficient mechanism for penetration of epithelial barriers. To date, three models for toxin passage across epithelial barriers have been proposed: (i) the toxin itself undergoes binding and transcytosis; (ii) an auxiliary protein, HA35, transports toxin from the apical to the basal side of epithelial cells; and (iii) an auxiliary protein, HA35, acts on the basal side of epithelial cells to disrupt tight junctions, and this permits paracellular flux of toxin. These models were evaluated by studying toxin absorption following inhalation exposure in mice. Three types of experiments were conducted. In the first, the potency of pure neurotoxin was compared with that of progenitor toxin complex, which contains HA35. The results showed that the rate and extent of toxin absorption, as well as the potency of absorbed toxin, did not depend upon, nor were they enhanced by, the presence of HA35. In the second type of experiment, the potencies of pure neurotoxin and progenitor toxin complex were compared in the absence or presence of antibodies on the apical side of epithelial cells. Antibodies directed against the neurotoxin protected against challenge, but antibodies against HA35 did not. In the final type of experiment, the potency of pure neurotoxin and toxin complex was compared in animals pretreated to deliver antibodies to the basal side of epithelial cells. Once again, antibodies directed against the neurotoxin provided resistance to challenge, but antibodies directed against HA35 did not. Taken collectively, the data indicate that the toxin by itself is capable of crossing epithelial barriers. The data do not support any hypothesis in which HA35 is essential for toxin penetration of epithelial barriers.

  13. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  14. Application of Plackett-Burman and Doehlert designs for optimization of selenium analysis in plasma with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Hellal, Fayçal; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was the optimization of selenium determination in plasma samples with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using experimental design methodology. 11 variables being able to influence selenium analysis in human blood plasma by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were evaluated with Plackett-Burman experimental design. These factors were selected from sample preparation, furnace program and chemical modification steps. Both absorbance and background signals were chosen as responses in the screening approach. Doehlert design was used for method optimization. Results showed that only ashing temperature has a statistically significant effect on the selected responses. Optimization with Doehlert design allowed the development of a reliable method for selenium analysis with ETAAS. Samples were diluted 1/10 with 0.05% (v/v) TritonX-100+2.5% (v/v) HNO3 solution. Optimized ashing and atomization temperatures for nickel modifier were 1070°C and 2270°C, respectively. A detection limit of 2.1μgL(-1) Se was obtained. Accuracy of the method was checked by the analysis of selenium in Seronorm™ Trace element quality control serum level 1. The developed procedure was applied for the analysis of total selenium in fifteen plasma samples with standard addition method. Concentrations ranged between 24.4 and 64.6μgL(-1), with a mean of 42.6±4.9μgL(-1). The use of experimental designs allowed the development of a cheap and accurate method for selenium analysis in plasma that could be applied routinely in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    measurements showed 1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and 30 sec averaging times. For the 2010 ASCENDS campaigns we flew the CO2lidar on the NASA DC-8 and added an 02lidar channel. During July 2010 we made measurements of CO2 and O2 column absorption during longer flights over Railroad Valley NV, the Pacific Ocean and over Lamont OK. CO2 measurements were made with 30 steps/scan, 300 scans/sec and improved line resolution and receiver sensitivity. Analysis of the 2010 CO2 measurements shows the expected linear change of DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes> 6 km the random errors were 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. For the summer 2011 ASCENDS campaigns we made further improvements to the lidar's CO2 line scan and receiver sensitivity. We demonstrated measurements over the California Central Valley, to stratus cloud tops over the Pacific Ocean, over mountain regions with snow, and over several areas with broken clouds. Details of the lidar measurements and their analysis will be described in the presentation.

  16. Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorimetric Studies on Azilsartan Medoxomil and Chlorthalidone to Be Utilized in Their Determination in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ebeid, Walid M; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Patonay, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The recently approved angiotensin II receptor blocker, azilsartan medoxomil (AZL), was determined spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically in its combination with chlorthalidone (CLT) in their combined dosage form. The UV-spectrophotometric technique depends on simultaneous measurement of the first derivative spectra for AZL and CLT at 286 and 257 nm, respectively, in methanol. The spectrofluorimetric technique depends on measurement of the fourth derivative of the synchronous spectra intensities of AZL in presence of CLT at 298 nm in methanol. The effects of different solvents on spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric responses were studied. For, the spectrofluorimetric study, the effect of pH and micelle-assisted fluorescence enhancement were also studied. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be satisfactory over the concentration ranges of 8–50 μg mL−1 and 2–20 μg mL−1 for AZL and CLT, respectively, in the spectrophotometric method as well as 0.01–0.08 μg mL−1 for AZL in the spectrofluorimetric method. The methods were successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in their co-formulated tablets. The developed methods are inexpensive and simple for the quality control and routine analysis of the cited drugs in bulk and in pharmaceuticals. PMID:24855334

  17. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Bae, Jae-Heum

    1991-01-01

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes.

  18. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of phenylephrine HCl and orphenadrine citrate in pure and in dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Shama, S A

    2002-11-07

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric methods have been estimated for the microdetermination of phenylephrine HCl (I) and orphenadrine citrate (II). The proposed methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the examined drugs with alizarine (Aliz), alizarine red S (ARS), alizarine yellow G (AYG) or quinalizarine (Qaliz), which can be measured at the optimum lambda(max). The optimization of the reaction conditions is investigated. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2-36 microgram ml(-1), whereas optimum concentration as adopted from Ringbom plots was 3.5-33 microgram ml(-1). The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, and detection limit are also calculated. The correlation coefficient was >/=0.9988 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation of

  20. Oxygen absorption in free-standing porous silicon: a structural, optical and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Rodolfo; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Wang, Chumin

    2010-01-16

    Porous silicon (PSi) is a nanostructured material possessing a huge surface area per unit volume. In consequence, the adsorption and diffusion of oxygen in PSi are particularly important phenomena and frequently cause significant changes in its properties. In this paper, we study the thermal oxidation of p+-type free-standing PSi fabricated by anodic electrochemical etching. These free-standing samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetry, atomic force microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The results show a structural phase transition from crystalline silicon to a combination of cristobalite and quartz, passing through amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon-oxide structures, when the thermal oxidation temperature increases from 400 to 900 °C. Moreover, we observe some evidence of a sinterization at 400 °C and an optimal oxygen-absorption temperature about 700 °C. Finally, the UV/Visible spectrophotometry reveals a red and a blue shift of the optical transmittance spectra for samples with oxidation temperatures lower and higher than 700 °C, respectively.

  1. Radiation absorption in different kinds of tissue analysis: ex vivo study with supercontinuum laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of more and more new wavelengths, one of the main problems of medical laser users was centered on the study of laser-tissue interactions with the aim of determining the ideal wavelength for their treatments. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine, by means of the utilization of a supercontinuum source, the amount of transmitted energy of different wavelengths in different organ samples obtained by Sprague Dawley rats. Supercontinuum light is generated by exploiting high optical non-linearity in a material and it combines the broadband attributes of a lamp with the spatial coherence and high brightness of laser. Even if the single transmission measurement does not allow us to separate out the respective contribution of scattering and absorption, it gives us an evaluation of the wavelengths not interacting with the tissue. In this way, being possible to determine what of the laser wavelengths are not useful or active in the different kinds of tissue, physicians may choose the proper device for his clinical treatments.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Optical Absorption and Emission in Mixed Noble Metal Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A

    2018-04-26

    In this work, we studied theoretically two hybrid gold-silver clusters, which were reported to have dual-band emission, using density functional theory (DFT) and linear and quadratic response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Hybrid functionals were found to successfully predict absorption and emission, although explanation of the NIR emission from the larger cluster (cluster 1) requires significant vibrational excitation in the final state. For the smaller cluster (cluster 2), the Δ H(0-0) value calculated for the T1 → S0 transition, using the PBE0 functional, is in good agreement with the measured NIR emission, and the calculated T2 → S0 value is in fair agreement with the measured visible emission. The calculated T1 → S0 phosphorescence Δ H(0-0) for cluster 1 is close to the measured visible emission energy. In order for the calculated phosphorescence for cluster 1 to agree with the intense NIR emission reported experimentally, the vibrational energy of the final state (S0) is required to be about 0.7 eV greater than the zero-point vibrational energy.

  3. Multiscale Analysis of Open-Cell Aluminum Foam for Impact Energy Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Jong Kook

    2016-09-01

    The energy-absorbing characteristics of crash members in automotive collision play an important role in controlling the amount of damage to the passenger compartment. Aluminum foams have high strength-to-weight ratio and high deformability, thus good crashworthiness is expected while maintaining or even saving weights when foams are implemented in crash members. In order to investigate the effect of the open-cell aluminum foam fillers on impact performance and weight saving, a multiscale framework for evaluating the crashworthiness of aluminum foam-filled members is used. To circumvent the difficulties of mechanical tests on foams, a micromechanical model of the aluminum foam is constructed using the x-ray micro tomography and virtual tests are conducted for the micromechanical model to characterize the behavior of the foam. In the macroscale, the aluminum foam is represented by the crushable foam constitutive model, which is then incorporated into the impact test simulation of the foam-filled crash member. The multiscale foam-filled crash member model was validated for the high-speed impact test, which confirms that the material model characterized by the micromechanical approach represents the behavior of the open-cell foam under impact loading well. Finally, the crash member design for maximizing the energy absorption is discussed by investigating various designs from the foam-only structure to the hollow tube structure. It was found that the foam structure absorbs more energy than the hollow tube or foam-filled structure with the same weight.

  4. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) Analysis of Vitreous Rare Earth Sodium Phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyeon; Marasinghe, Kanishka; Segre, Carlo; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    The local structure around rare-earth ions (RE3+) in rare-earth ultraphosphate (REUP) glasses has been studied using RE LIII edge (RE = Nd, Er, Dy, and Eu) and K edge (RE = Nd, Pr, Dy, and Eu) extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. (RE2O3)x (Na2O)y(P2O5) 1 - x - y glasses in the compositional range 0 <= x <= 0.14 and x + y = 0.3 and 0.4 were studied. RE-oxygen (RE-O) coordination number decreases from ~ 10 to ~ 7.5 with increasing RE-content for Nd, Pr, Eu, and Dy. For Er, RE-O coordination number increases from ~ 8.7 to ~ 10 with increasing RE-content. For the first oxygen shell, the RE-O distance ranges between 2.41-2.43 Å, 2.44-2.46 Å, 2.24-2.26 Å, 2.28-2.32 Å, and 2.32-2.36 Å for Nd, Pr, Er, Dy, and EU glasses, respectively. Second shell around RE ions consists of phosphorus atoms, with RE-P distance about 3.0-3.5 Å and coordination number ranging from 1 to 3. The third shell primarily contains oxygen and is at a distance about 4.0-4.1 Å from RE ions.

  5. Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrillard-Courtillot, Irene; Gonthiez, Thierry; Clerici, Christine; Romanini, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a first application, of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to breath analysis in a medical environment. Noninvasive monitoring of trace species in exhaled air was performed simultaneous to spirometric measurements on patients at Bichat Hospital (Paris). The high selectivity of the OF-CEAS spectrometer and a time response of 0.3 s (limited by sample flow rate) allowed following the evolution of carbon monoxide and methane concentrations during individual respiratory cycles, and resolving variations among different ventilatory patterns. The minimum detectable absorption on this time scale is about 3×10-10 cm-1. At the working wavelength of the instrument (2.326 μm), this translates to concentration detection limits of ~1 ppbv (45 picomolar, or ~1.25 μg/m3) for CO and 25 ppbv for CH4, well below concentration values found in exhaled air. This same instrument is also able to provide measurement of NH3 concentrations with a detection limit of ~10 ppbv however, at present, memory effects do not allow its measurement on fast time scales.

  6. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  7. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; ...

    2018-04-11

    In this study, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Åmore » and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  8. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  9. Electrical analysis of c-Si/CGSe monolithic tandem solar cells by using a cell-selective light absorption scheme.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ah Reum; Choi, Sung Bin; Kim, Won Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Choi, Jihye; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Jeung-Hyun

    2017-11-16

    A monolithic tandem solar cell consisting of crystalline Si (c-Si)/indium tin oxide (ITO)/CuGaSe 2 (CGSe) was demonstrated by stacking a CGSe solar cell on a c-Si/ITO solar cell to obtain a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of about 10%. Electrical analyses based on cell-selective light absorption were applied to individually characterize the photovoltaic performances of the top and bottom subcells. Illumination at a frequency that could be absorbed only by a targeted top or bottom subcell permitted measurement of the open-circuit voltage of the target subcell and the shunt resistance of the non-target subcell. The cell parameters measured from each subcell were very similar to those of the corresponding single cell, confirming the validity of the suggested method. In addition, separating the light absorption intensities at the top and bottom subcells made us measure the bias-dependent photocurrent for each subcell. The series resistance of a c-Si/ITO/CGSe cell subjected to bottom-cell limiting conditions was slightly large, implying that the tunnel junction was a little resistive or slightly beyond ohmic. This analysis demonstrated that aside from producing a slightly resistive tunnel junction, our fabrication processes were successful in monolithically integrating a CGSe cell onto a c-Si/ITO cell without degrading the performances of both cells.

  10. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng

    In this study, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Åmore » and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  11. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel of 500 μm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra show that the complex in water is Fe(III). The complex is present with octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance ofmore » ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities and it is a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  12. Analysis of crack propagation as an energy absorption mechanism in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D. F.; Murphy, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    The crack initiation and crack propagation capability was extended to the previously developed generalized plane strain, finite element micromechanics analysis. Also, an axisymmetric analysis was developed, which contains all of the general features of the plane analysis, including elastoplastic material behavior, temperature-dependent material properties, and crack propagation. These analyses were used to generate various example problems demonstrating the inelastic response of, and crack initiation and propagation in, a boron/aluminum composite.

  13. An experimental-finite element analysis on the kinetic energy absorption capacity of polyvinyl alcohol sponge.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is in widespread use for biomedical and tissue engineering applications owing to its biocompatibility, availability, relative cheapness, and excellent mechanical properties. This study reports a novel concept of design in energy absorbing materials which consist in the use of PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material to enhance the energy loss of impact loads. An experimental study is carried out to measure the mechanical properties of the PVA sponge under uniaxial loading. The kinetic energy absorption capacity of the PVA sponge is computed by a hexahedral finite element (FE) model of the steel ball and bullet through the LS-DYNA code under impact load at three different thicknesses (5, 10, 15mm). The results show that a higher sponge thickness invokes a higher energy loss of the steel ball and bullet. The highest energy loss of the steel ball and bullet is observed for the thickest sponge with 160 and 35J, respectively. The most common type of traumatic brain injury in which the head subject to impact load causes the brain to move within the skull and consequently brain hemorrhaging. These results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as a great kinetic energy absorber material compared to commonly used expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) to absorb most of the impact energy and reduces the transmitted load. The results might have implications not only for understanding of the mechanical properties of PVA sponge but also for use as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and packaging material design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Atmospheric Composition and Tropospheric Variability With Integrated Open- Path and Ground-Based Solar Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Compton, R. N.; Hager, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ground-based solar infrared absorption spectroscopy coupled with open-path spectroscopy provides a means for analysis of the highly variable contribution of the boundary layer to problems of radiative transfer and atmospheric chemistry. This is of particular importance in geographic regions of significant local anthropogenic influence and large tropospheric fluctuations in general. A Bomem DA8 FT-IR integrated with a sun-tracking and open-path system (~0.5 km) is located at The University of Tennessee, in downtown Knoxville and near The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an area known for problematic air quality. From atmospheric absorption spectra, boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. A record of more than 1000 solar-sourced atmospheric spectra covering a period greater than three years in duration is under analysis to characterize the limit of precision in total column abundance determinations for many gases such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, HF and CO2. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar-sourced spectra may not meet the precision required for the highly accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such global efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, the determined variability of CO2 and other gas concentrations is statistically significant and is indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. This is therefore an important data record in the southeastern United States, a somewhat under- sampled geographic region. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. This provides an urban air quality monitor in addition to improving the description of the total atmospheric composition, as the open-path system is stable and permanent.

  15. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-01

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D0) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing.

  16. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A fast and direct spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben and hydroquinone in cosmetic products using successive projections algorithm.

    PubMed

    Esteki, M; Nouroozi, S; Shahsavari, Z

    2016-02-01

    To develop a simple and efficient spectrophotometric technique combined with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben (MP) and hydroquinone (HQ) in cosmetic products, and specifically, to: (i) evaluate the potential use of successive projections algorithm (SPA) to derivative spectrophotometric data in order to provide sufficient accuracy and model robustness and (ii) determine MP and HQ concentration in cosmetics without tedious pre-treatments such as derivatization or extraction techniques which are time-consuming and require hazardous solvents. The absorption spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 200-350 nm. Prior to performing chemometric models, the original and first-derivative absorption spectra of binary mixtures were used as calibration matrices. Variable selected by successive projections algorithm was used to obtain multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on a small subset of wavelengths. The number of wavelengths and the starting vector were optimized, and the comparison of the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and cross-validation (RMSECV) was applied to select effective wavelengths with the least collinearity and redundancy. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were also developed for comparison. The concentrations of the calibration matrix ranged from 0.1 to 20 μg mL(-1) for MP, and from 0.1 to 25 μg mL(-1) for HQ. The constructed models were tested on an external validation data set and finally cosmetic samples. The results indicated that successive projections algorithm-multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), applied on the first-derivative spectra, achieved the optimal performance for two compounds when compared with the full-spectrum PCR and PLS. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.083, 0.314 for MP and HQ, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, a recovery study on real cosmetic samples was carried out with satisfactory

  18. Coronal gas in the galaxy. II. A statistical analysis of O VI absorptions

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.B.

    Results from the survey of interstellar O VI by Jenkins and by Jenkins and Meloy are analyzed to synthesize a global description of the properties of the coronal gas. Tests for correlations of column densities or velocities with properties of the target stars showed no evidence for a circumstellar origin for the absorption lines. An overall average density n (O VI) =2.8 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -3/ was found in the galactic plane, with a decrease which approximately follows exp (-z/300 pc) away from the plane.Fluctuations in column densities over various lines of sight suggest that existence of six hotmore » gas regions kpc/sup -/1, randomly distributed in space, each with an O VI column density of about 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. These regions account for an average density n (O VI) =2.1 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -3/; the remaining 7 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup -3/ is produced by more sparsely distributed but thicker parcels of hot gas which are seen toward 10% of the stars. The statistics of radial velocity centroids and widths support the interpretation of distinct domains; each region has an internal velocity dispersion consistent with a Doppler broadening of a plasma at T> or approx. =2 x 10/sup 5/ K (near the characteristic temperature for a maximum concentration of O VI in collisional equilibrium), while the regions themselves move about with a dispersion of radial velocities equal to 26 km s/sup -1/. Systematic motions of gas away from the galactic plane could not be seen, however.Excursions from the normal O VI per unit distance have no perceptible anicorrelation with deviations in reddening by cool interstellar coulds: a fact which suggests that the average filling factor of O VI gas is less than 20% if coronal gas really displaces the cooler material and does not have large variations in density and temperature.« less

  19. Portable sample preparation and analysis system for micron and sub-micron particle characterization using light scattering and absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Stark, Peter C [Los Alamos, NM; Zurek, Eduardo [Barranquilla, CO; Wheat, Jeffrey V [Fort Walton Beach, FL; Dunbar, John M [Santa Fe, NM; Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos, NM; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H [Temple Terrace, FL; Ward, Michael D [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method and device for remote sampling, preparation and optical interrogation of a sample using light scattering and light absorption methods. The portable device is a filtration-based device that removes interfering background particle material from the sample matrix by segregating or filtering the chosen analyte from the sample solution or matrix while allowing the interfering background particles to be pumped out of the device. The segregated analyte is then suspended in a diluent for analysis. The device is capable of calculating an initial concentration of the analyte, as well as diluting the analyte such that reliable optical measurements can be made. Suitable analytes include cells, microorganisms, bioparticles, pathogens and diseases. Sample matrixes include biological fluids such as blood and urine, as well as environmental samples including waste water.

  20. Complete chirp analysis of a gain-switched pulse using an interferometric two-photon absorption autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Chin, Sang Hoon; Kim, Young Jae; Song, Ho Seong; Kim, Dug Young

    2006-10-10

    We propose a simple but powerful scheme for the complete analysis of the frequency chirp of a gain-switched optical pulse using a fringe-resolved interferometric two-photon absorption autocorrelator. A frequency chirp imposed on the gain-switched pulse from a laser diode was retrieved from both the intensity autocorrelation trace and the envelope of the second-harmonic interference fringe pattern. To verify the accuracy of the proposed phase retrieval method, we have performed an optical pulse compression experiment by using dispersion-compensating fibers with different lengths. We have obtained close agreement by less than a 1% error between the compressed pulse widths and numerically calculated pulse widths.

  1. Analysis of atmospheric trace constituents from high resolution infrared balloon-borne and ground-based solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Results of ongoing studies of high-resolution solar absorption spectra aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents of importance in the chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere are presented. An analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/cm covering the 700-2200/cm interval is presented. The 0.0025/cm spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of quantifying trace constituents. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species are presented. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra are also discussed.

  2. Analysis of Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Weaver, Clark J.; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    through thin clouds. The Oklahoma and east coast flights were coordinated with a LaRC/ITT CO2 lidar on the LaRC UC-12 aircraft, and in-situ measurements were made using its CO2 sensor and radiosondes. We have conducted an analysis of the ranging and IPDA lidar measurements from these four flights. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We used a cross-correlation approach to process the laser echo records. This was used to estimate the range to the scattering surface, to define the edges of the laser pulses and to determine echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We used a minimum mean square approach to fit an instrument response function and to solve for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape. We then calculated the differential optical depth (DOD) of the fitted CO2 line. We computed its statistics at the various altitude steps, and compare them to the DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column conditions calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The results show the lidar and in-situ measurements have very similar DOD change with altitude and greater than 10 segments per flight where the scatter in the lidar measurements are less than or equal to 1ppm. We also present the results from subsequent CO2 column absorption measurements, which were made with stronger detected signals during three flights on the NASA DC-8 over the southwestern US in during July 2010.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of sildenafil citrate in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation using some chromotropic acid azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Y. M.; El-Hawary, W. F.; Youssef, A. F. A.; Senosy, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    Two simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of the drug sildenafil citrate (SC), Viagra, in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations, through ion-associate formation reactions (method A) with mono-chromotropic acid azo dyes, chromotrope 2B (I) and chromotrope 2R (II) and ion-pair reactions (method B) with bi-chromotropic acid azo dyes, 3-phenylazo-6-o-carboxyphenylazo-chromotropic acid (III), bis-3,6-(o-hydroxyphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (IV), bis-3,6-(p-N,N-dimethylphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (V) and 3-phenylazo-6-o-hydroxyphenylazo-chromotorpic acid (VI). The reaction products, extractable in methylene chloride, were quantitatively measured at 540, 520, 540, 570, 600 and 575 nm using reagents, I-VI, respectively. The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. Beer's plots were linear in the concentration ranges 3.3-87.0, 3.3-96.0, 5.0-115.0, 2.5-125.0, 8.3-166.7 and 0.8-15.0 μg mL -1 with corresponding molar absorptivities 1.02 × 10 4, 8.34 × 10 3, 6.86 × 10 3, 5.42 × 10 3, 3.35 × 10 3 and 2.32 × 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 using reagents I-VI, respectively. The limits of detection and Sandell's sensitivities were calculated. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets (Vigoran) and the recovery study reveals that there is no interference from the common excipients that are present in tablets. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using Student's t- and F-tests at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

  4. Detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in erythrocytes: a spectrophotometric assay and a fluorescent spot test compared with a cytochemical method.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B H; Weening, R S; Schutgens, R B; van Noorden, C J; Vogels, I M; Nagelkerke, N J

    1987-09-30

    The results of a quantitative spectrophotometric enzyme assay, a fluorescent spot test and a cytochemical assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were compared systematically. The high sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay and the fluorescent spot test in the detection of severely deficient individuals was confirmed. For the detection of heterozygote females, however both tests were unreliable; the sensitivities of the fluorescent spot test and the spectrophotometric assay being 32% and 11% respectively. Specificities for both tests were high (99%). Introduction of the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase (G-6-PD/PK ratio) activities increased the sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay to nearly 100%. It is concluded that the fluorescent spot test should be used for the diagnosis of G-6-PD deficiency in developing countries; whereas if spectrophotometric enzyme assays are available, the G-6-PD/PK ratio should always be performed. In cases where the ratio is less than 0.70, cytochemical analysis is indicated.

  5. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  6. Spectrophotometric Titration of a Mixture of Calcium and Magnesium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a spectrophotometric titration experiment which uses a manual titration spectrophotometer and manually operated buret, rather than special instrumentation. Identifies the equipment, materials, and procedures needed for the completion of the experiment. Recommends the use of this experiment in introductory quantitative analysis…

  7. Determination of cyanide by a highly sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Maspoch, S

    1984-01-01

    Complexation of Pd(2+) with cyanide inhibits the extraction of the palladium complex of 5-phenylazo-8-aminoquinoline. This effect is used for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the mug level. Cyanide in industrial waste water and in sea-water is determined after distillation as HCN from the sample and collection in sodium hydroxide solution.

  8. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  9. Bayes-Turchin analysis of x-ray absorption data above the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges

    SciTech Connect

    Rossner, H. H.; Schmitz, D.; Imperia, P.

    2006-10-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data and magnetic EXAFS (MEXAFS) data were measured at two temperatures (180 and 296 K) in the energy region of the overlapping L-edges of bcc Fe grown on a V(110) crystal surface. In combination with a Bayes-Turchin data analysis procedure these measurements enable the exploration of local crystallographic and magnetic structures. The analysis determined the atomic-like background together with the EXAFS parameters which consisted of ten shell radii, the Debye-Waller parameters, separated into structural and vibrational components, and the third cumulant of the first scattering path. The vibrational components for 97 different scattering pathsmore » were determined by a two parameter force-field model using a priori values adjusted to Born-von Karman parameters of inelastic neutron scattering data. The investigations of the system Fe/V(110) demonstrate that the simultaneous fitting of atomic background parameters and EXAFS parameters can be performed reliably. Using the L{sub 2}- and L{sub 3}-components extracted from the EXAFS analysis and the rigid-band model, the MEXAFS oscillations can only be described when the sign of the exchange energy is changed compared to the predictions of the Hedin Lundquist exchange and correlation functional.« less

  10. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  11. Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Constituents from High Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent results and ongoing studies of high resolution solar absorption spectra will be presented. The analysis of these spectra is aimed at the identification and quantification of trace constituents important in atmospheric chemistry of the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Analysis of balloon-borne and ground-based spectra obtained at 0.0025/ cm covering the 700-2200/ cm interval will be presented. Results from ground-based 0.02/ cm solar spectra, from several locations such as Denver, South Pole, M. Loa, and New Zealand will also be shown. The 0.0025/ cm spectra show many new spectroscopic features. The analysis of these spectra, along with corresponding laboratory spectra, improves the spectral line parameters, and thus the accuracy of trace constituents quantification. The combination of the recent balloon flights, with earlier flights data since 1978 at 0.02/ cm resolution, provides trends analysis of several stratospheric trace species. Results for COF2, F22, SF6, and other species will be presented. Analysis of several ground-based solar spectra provides trends for HCl, HF and other species. The retrieval methods used for total column density and altitude distribution for both ground-based and balloon-borne spectra will be presented. These are extended for the analysis of the ground-based spectra to be obtained by the high resolution interferometers of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). Progress or the University of Denver studies for the NDSC will be presented. This will include intercomparison of solar spectra and trace gases retrievals obtained from simultaneous scans by the high resolution (0.0025/ cm) interferometers of BRUKER and BOMEM.

  12. A novel method of carbon dioxide clumped isotope analysis with tunable infra-red laser direct absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, Ivan; Kluge, Tobias; Janssen, Christof

    2016-04-01

    Precise clumped isotopes analysis of carbon dioxide opens up new horizons of atmospheric and biogeochemical research. Recent advances in laser and spectroscopic techniques provides us necessary instrumentation to access extremely low sub-permill variations of multiply-substituted isotopologues. We present an advanced analysis method of carbon dioxide clumped isotopes using direct absorption spectroscopy. Our assessments predict the ultimate precision of the new method on the sub-permill level comparable to state of the art mass spectrometry. Among the most auspicious intrinsic properties of this method we highlight genuine Δ16O13C18O and Δ16O13C18O measurements without isobaric interference, measurement cycle duration of several minutes versus hours for mass spectrometric analysis, reduced sample size of ˜ 10 μmol and high flexibility, allowing us to perform in-situ measurements. The pilot version of the instrument is being developed in an international collaboration framework between Heidelberg University, Germany and Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France. It employs two continuous interband quantum cascade lasers tuned at 4.439 μm and 4.329 μm to measure doubly ( 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O) and singly ( 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 16O12C17O, 16O12C18O) substituted isotopologues, respectively. Two identical Herriot cells are filled with dry pure CO2 sample and reference gas at working pressure of 1 - 10 mbar. Cells provide optical path lengths of ˜ 17 m for the laser tuned at doubly substituted isotopologues lines and use a single pass for the laser tuned at the stronger lines of singly substituted isotopologues. Light outside of the gas cells is coupled into optical fiber to avoid absorption by ambient air CO2. Simulations predict sub-permill precision at working pressure of 1 mbar and room temperature stabilised at the ±10 mK level. Our prime target is to apply the proposed method for continuous in-situ analysis of CO2. We are foreseeing potential

  13. Individual and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of dapsone and metoclopramide HCl in pharmaceutical dosage forms and synthetic binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Omran, Ahmed Ahmed

    2005-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of dapsone (DAP) and metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in both pure and dosage forms. Individual and simultaneous methods are based on the diazo coupling reaction of these drugs with benzoylacetone (BAC) in alkaline medium. The resulting azo dyes exhibit maximum absorption at 437 and 411 nm with a molar absorptivity of 4.14x10(4) and 2.97x10(4) l mol-1 cm-1 for DAP and MCP, respectively. Simultaneous determination of DAP and MCP was developed utilizing first-order digital derivative spectrophotometry. All variables have been optimized. No interferences were observed from drug excipients and the validity of the methods was tested against reference methods.

  14. Estimation of Sprite Streamers Altitude Based on the Spectrophotometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Celestin, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sprites are transient luminous events (TLEs) that result from the electrostatic coupling between thunderstorm charges following a positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+CG) and the lower ionosphere. These fine-structured objects are composed of filamentary streamer discharges propagating in the D-region of the ionosphere and the mesosphere. Optical emissions from sprite streamers are used to estimate peak electric fields and electron energies [e.g., Kuo et al., GRL, 32, L19103, 2005 ; Adachi et al., GRL, 33, L17803, 2006]. It has been shown that significant correction factors need to be used to account for the spatial shift between distributions of optical emissions in streamers and peak electric fields in their heads [Celestin and Pasko, GRL, 37, L07804, 2010]. The latter study involved the excited species N2(C3Πu) and N2+(B2Σ u+), whose populations are considered to be in steady state. The species N2(C3Πu) and N2+(B2Σ u+) are responsible for the second positive (2PN2) and first negative (1NN2+) bands systems of N2 and N2+, respectively. In this work, we show how this technique can be extended to non-steady state optical emissions, such as those produced by N2(a1Π g) and N2(B3Π g) in the form of Lyman-Birge-Hopefield (LBH) and first positive (1PN2) bands systems, respectively. Additionally, we simulate numerically downward propagating sprite streamers and their optical emissions for the following bands systems: 1PN2, 2PN2, LBH, and 1NN2+, and expose the developed spectrophotometric technique to infer physical properties such as the altitude and the velocity of sprite streamers [Ihaddadene and Celestin, submitted for publication to JGR, 2016]. This study particularly aims at improving analysis of observational results in nadir-viewing geometry of the space missions GLIMS (JAXA), ASIM (ESA), and TARANIS (CNES).

  15. Spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods for the determination of indapamide.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadia F

    2003-01-01

    Three sensitive spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods are described for the determination of indapamide. The first and second methods are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of indapamide with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone HCl (MBTH) in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The absorbance of the reaction product is measured at the lambdamax, 601 nm. With the same reaction, indapamide is determined by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions at the emission lambdamax, 350 nm, and the excitation at lambdamax, 300 nm. The reaction conditions were optimized, and Beer's law was obeyed for indapamide at 1.2-9.6 microg/mL with mean recoveries of 99.92 +/- 0.83 and 99.97 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The third method, a stability-indicating densitometric assay, was developed for the determination of indapamide, using toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (69 + 30 + 1, v/v/v) as the developing system and scanning at the lambdamax, 242 nm, in the presence of the degradation product and related substance; for the indapamide concentration range of 0.6-6 microg/spot, the mean recovery was 99.73 +/- 0.71%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of indapamide in bulk powder and commercial tablets, and the results of the analysis agreed statistically with those obtained with the official method. Furthermore, the methods were validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and also assessed by applying the standard additions technique.

  16. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Lineament analysis of the area was initiated on individual images and then expanded areally by the use of mosaics at the 1:1,000,000 scale. Principal trends are NE, NW, NNE-NNW, and ENE. Several previously unrecognized lineaments are mapped which may be the surface manifestations of major fault or fracture zones. Three lineaments are especially noteworthy. Two of these, the Walker Lane and the Midas Trench lineament system, transect the prediominantly NNE-NNW trending mountain ranges for more than 500 km. A third major lineament, formed by the alinement of several topographic escarpments 10-20 km long, is orthogonal to the Midas Trench lineament. This lineament is marked by a distinct positive magnetic anomaly for approximately 200 km. Further visual analysis of ERTS-1 images has resulted in the delineation of 50 circular or elliptical features which are presumed to be volcanic or intrusive centers. A comparison with the 78 Tertiary volcanic centers mapped in the study area in 1970 indicates some good agreement between the proposed and known volcanic centers. The coincidence of some major lineaments and productive ore bodies implies a genetic relationship.

  17. Multivariate Analysis for Quantification of Plutonium(IV) in Nitric Acid Based on Absorption Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, Amanda M.; Adami, Susan R.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    Development of more effective, reliable, and fast methods for monitoring process streams is a growing opportunity for analytical applications. Many fields can benefit from on-line monitoring, including the nuclear fuel cycle where improved methods for monitoring radioactive materials will facilitate maintenance of proper safeguards and ensure safe and efficient processing of materials. On-line process monitoring with a focus on optical spectroscopy can provide a fast, non-destructive method for monitoring chemical species. However, identification and quantification of species can be hindered by the complexity of the solutions if bands overlap or show condition-dependent spectral features. Plutonium (IV) is one example ofmore » a species which displays significant spectral variation with changing nitric acid concentration. Single variate analysis (i.e. Beer’s Law) is difficult to apply to the quantification of Pu(IV) unless the nitric acid concentration is known and separate calibration curves have been made for all possible acid strengths. Multivariate, or chemometric, analysis is an approach that allows for the accurate quantification of Pu(IV) without a priori knowledge of nitric acid concentration.« less

  18. Spectrophotometric analyses of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in water.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cong; Xu, Zhonghou; Smolinski, Benjamin L; Arienti, Per M; O'Connor, Gregory; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for on-site analysis of royal demolition explosive (RDX) in water samples was developed based on the Berthelot reaction. The sensitivity and accuracy of an existing spectrophotometric method was improved by: replacing toxic chemicals with more stable and safer reagents; optimizing the reagent dose and reaction time; improving color stability; and eliminating the interference from inorganic nitrogen compounds in water samples. Cation and anion exchange resin cartridges were developed and used for sample pretreatment to eliminate the effect of ammonia and nitrate on RDX analyses. The detection limit of the method was determined to be 100 μg/L. The method was used successfully for analysis of RDX in untreated industrial wastewater samples. It can be used for on-site monitoring of RDX in wastewater for early detection of chemical spills and failure of wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml-1 and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  20. Ion-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones. [Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator); Wetlaufer, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A technique which combines digital computer processing and color composition was devised for detecting hydrothermally altered areas and for discriminating among many rock types in an area in south-central Nevada. Subtle spectral reflectance differences among the rock types are enhanced by ratioing and contrast-stretching MSS radiance values for form ratio images which subsequently are displayed in color-ratio composites. Landform analysis of Nevada shows that linear features compiled without respect to length results in approximately 25 percent coincidence with mapped faults. About 80 percent of the major lineaments coincides with mapped faults, and substantial extension of locally mapped faults is commonly indicated. Seven major lineament systems appear to be old zones of crustal weakness which have provided preferred conduits for rising magma through periodic reactivation.

  1. Composition analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael G.; Wang, Jian; Banerjee, Rupak; Bazylak, Aimy

    2016-03-01

    The novel application of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to the microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is investigated. A spatially resolved chemical component distribution map is obtained for the MPL of a commercially available SGL 25 BC sample. This is achieved with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis. Prior to analysis the sample is embedded in non-reactive epoxy and ultra-microtomed to a thickness of 100 nm. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carbon particle agglomerates, and supporting epoxy resin distributions are identified and reconstructed for a scanning area of 6 μm × 6 μm. It is observed that the spatial distribution of PTFE is strongly correlated to the carbon particle agglomerations. Additionally, agglomerate structures of PTFE are identified, possibly indicating the presence of a unique mesostructure in the MPL. STXM analysis is presented as a useful technique for the investigation of chemical species distributions in the MPL.

  2. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  3. Application of the ratio difference spectrophotometry to the determination of ibuprofen and famotidine in their combined dosage form: comparison with previously published spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Zaazaa, Hala E; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Soudi, Aya T; Salem, Maissa Y

    2015-05-15

    Ratio difference spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of ibuprofen and famotidine in their mixture form. Ibuprofen and famotidine were determined in the presence of each other by the ratio difference spectrophotometric (RD) method where linearity was obtained from 50 to 600μg/mL and 2.5 to 25μg/mL for ibuprofen and famotidine, respectively. The suggested method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the analysis of ibuprofen and famotidine in their pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from any additives or excipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) as a novel spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric technique for simultaneous determination, application to assay of melatonin and pyridoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Bastami, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    In this work a new modification of the standard addition method called "net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM)" is presented for the simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed method combines the advantages of standard addition method with those of net analyte signal concept. The method can be applied for the determination of analyte in the presence of known interferents. The accuracy of the predictions against H-point standard addition method is not dependent on the shape of the analyte and interferent spectra. The method was successfully applied to simultaneous spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of pyridoxine (PY) and melatonin (MT) in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  5. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the current density and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue is analyzed by the transmission line modeling method, and the current density and SAR as a function of frequency, output voltage, output power, and coil dimension are calculated. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The results of simulation analysis show SARs to be very small at any given transmission conditions, about 2-14 mW/kg, compared to the basic restrictions of the International Commission on nonionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP; 2 W/kg), while the current density divided by the ICNIRP's basic restrictions gets smaller as the frequency rises and the output voltage falls. It is possible to transfer energy below the ICNIRP's basic restrictions when the frequency is over 250 kHz and the output voltage is under 24 V. Also, the parts of the biological tissue that maximized the current density differ by frequencies; in the low frequency is muscle and in the high frequency is skin. The boundary is in the vicinity of the frequency 600-1000 kHz.

  6. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  7. Iron-absorption band analysis for the discrimination of iron-rich zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study has concentrated on the two primary aspects of the project, structural analysis through evaluation of lineaments and circular features and spectral analyses through digital computer-processing techniques. Several previously unrecognized lineaments are mapped which may be the surface manifestations of major fault or fracture zones. Two of these, the Walker Lane and the Midas Trench lineament system, transect the predominantly NNE-NNW-trending moutain ranges for more than 500 km. Correlation of major lineaments with productive mining districts implies a genetic relationship, the 50 circular or elliptical features delineated suggest a related role for Tertiary volcanism. Color-ratio composites have been used to identify limonitic zones and to discriminate mafic and felsic rock by combing diazo color transparencies of three different ratios. EROS Data Center scene identification number for color composite in this report is ER 1 CC 500. Refinement of enhancement procedures for the ratio images is progressing. Fieldwork in coordination with both spectral and structural analyses is underway.

  8. Spectrophotometric calibration procedures to enable calibration-free measurements of seawater calcium carbonate saturation states.

    PubMed

    Cuyler, Erin E; Byrne, Robert H

    2018-08-22

    A simple protocol was developed to measure seawater calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω spec ) spectrophotometrically. Saturation states are typically derived from the separate measurement of two other carbon system parameters, with each requiring unique instrumentation and often complex measurement protocols. Using the new protocol, the only required equipment is a thermostatted laboratory spectrophotometer. For each seawater sample, spectrophotometric measurements of pH (visible absorbance) are made in paired optical cells, one with and one without added nitric acid. Ultraviolet absorbance is measured to determine the amount of added acid based on the direct proportionality between nitrate concentration and UV absorbance. Coupled measurements of pH and the alkalinity change that accompanies the nitric acid addition allow calculation of a seawater sample's original carbonate ion concentration and saturation state. These paired absorbance measurements yield Ω spec (and other carbonate system parameters), with each sample requiring about 12 min processing time. Initially, an instrument-specific nitrate molar absorptivity coefficient must be determined (due to small but significant discrepancies in instrumental wavelength calibrations), but thereafter no further calibration is needed. In this work, the 1σ precision of replicate measurements of aragonite saturation state was found to be 0.020, and the average difference between Ω spec and Ω calculated conventionally from measured total alkalinity and pH (Ω calc ) was -0.11% ± 0.96% (a level of accuracy comparable to that obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of carbonate ion concentration). Over the entire range of experimental conditions, 0.97 < Ω < 3.17 (n = 125), all measurements attained the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network's "weather level" goal for accuracy and 90% attained the more stringent "climate level" goal. When Ω spec was calculated from averages of duplicate

  9. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL -1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL -1 to 17.5μgmL -1 . The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10 4 Lmol -1 cm -1 , 0.01996μgcm -2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  10. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH 4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414 nm which remains stable for > 48 h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5 μg mL- 1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5 μg mL- 1 to 17.5 μg mL- 1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813 × 104 L mol- 1 cm- 1, 0.01996 μg cm- 2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples

  11. Simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of theophylline in urine, saliva and plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Gürbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; Sahin, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. the limit of quantification: 1.1 µg/mL for urine, 1.9 µg/mL for saliva, 3.1 µg/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.22-2.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 µg/mL for plasma, 8.7 µg/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 - 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of pipazethate HCl, dextromethorphan HBr and drotaverine HCl in their pharmaceutical preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Alaa S.; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; Gouda, Ayman Abou El-fetouh

    2007-07-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of pipazethate hydrochloride, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and drotaverine hydrochloride using chromotrope 2B (C2B) and chromotrope 2R (C2R). The method consists of extracting the formed ion-associates into chloroform in the case of pipazethate HCl and dextromethorphan HBr or into methylene chloride in the case of drotaverine HCl. The ion-associates exhibit absorption maxima at 528, 540 and 532 nm with C2B and at 526, 517 and 522 nm with C2R for pipazethate HCl, dextromethorphan HBr and drotaverine HCl, respectively. The calibration curves resulting from the measurements of absorbance-concentration relations (at the optimum reaction conditions) of the extracted ion-pairs are linear over the concentration range 4.36-52.32 μg mL -1 for pipazethate, 3.7-48.15 μg mL -1 for dextromethorphan and 4.34-60.76 μg mL -1 for drotaverine, respectively. The effect of acidity, reagent concentration, time, solvent and stoichiometric ratio of the ion-associates were estimated. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity of the reaction products were calculated. Statistical treatment of the results reflects that the procedure is precise, accurate and easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. Development and Validation of an Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for Miconazole Nitrate Assay in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Eticha, Tadele; Kahsay, Getu; Hailu, Teklebrhan; Gebretsadikan, Tesfamichael; Asefa, Fitsum; Gebretsadik, Hailekiros; Thangabalan, Boovizhikannan

    2018-01-01

    A simple extractive spectrophotometric technique has been developed and validated for the determination of miconazole nitrate in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of a chloroform-soluble ion-pair complex between the drug and bromocresol green (BCG) dye in an acidic medium. The complex showed absorption maxima at 422 nm, and the system obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 1-30  µ g/mL with molar absorptivity of 2.285 × 10 4  L/mol/cm. The composition of the complex was studied by Job's method of continuous variation, and the results revealed that the mole ratio of drug : BCG is 1 : 1. Full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of variable factors, and the method was validated based on the ICH guidelines. The method was applied for the determination of miconazole nitrate in real samples.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A H; Patel, V B; Giridhar, R

    1999-07-01

    Two new rapid, sensitive and economical spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of fluoxetine hydrochloride in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Both methods are based on the formation of a yellow ion-pair complex due to the action of methyl orange (MO) and thymol blue (TM) on fluoxetine in acidic (pH 4.0) and basic (pH 8.0) medium, respectively. Under optimised conditions they show an absorption maxima at 433 nm (MO) and 410 nm (TB), with molar absorptivities of 2.12 x 10(-4) and 4.207 x 10(-3) l mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's Sensitivities of 1.64 x 10(-2) and 0.082 microg cm(-2) per 0.001 absorbance unit for MO and TB, respectively. The colour is stable for 5 min after extraction. In both cases Beer's Law is obeyed at 1-20 microg mol(-1) with MO and 4-24 microg mol(-1) with TB. The proposal method was successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations capsules. The results obtained by both the agreement and E.P. (3rd edition) were in good agreement and statistical comparison by Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test showed no significant difference in the three methods.

  15. Sensitive and Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Gabapentin in Capsules Using Two Nitrophenols as Chromogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrahman, Sameer A. M.; Basavaiah, Kanakapura

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of gabapentin (GBP) in pure form and in capsules. Both methods are based on the proton transfer from the Lewis acid such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid; PA) or 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) to the primary amino group of GBP which works as Lewis base and formation of yellow ion-pair complexes. The ion-pair complexes formed show absorption maximum at 415 and 420 nm for PA and 2,4-DNP, respectively. Under the optimized experimental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1.25–15.0 and 2.0–18.0 μg mL−1 GBP for PA and 2,4-DNP methods, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection and, quantification limits for both methods are also reported. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of GBP in pure form and commercial capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed using Student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level, and there was no significant difference between the reference and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision. Further, the validity of the proposed methods was confirmed by recovery studies via standard addition technique. PMID:21760787

  16. Sensitized spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion for speciation of chromium ion in surfactant media using alpha-benzoin oxime.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asadpour, Enayat; Vafaie, Azam

    2006-01-01

    A simple and accurate micellanized spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Cr(III) ion in tab and top water and a synthetic mixture has been described. The micellar method is based on effect of organized molecular assemblies such as micelles in spectrophotometric measurement due to their effect on the systems of interest. The ability of micellar system in solubilizing of sparingly soluble ligand or complexes has been used for increasing figures of merit of an analytical method. Due to solubility increasing in aqueous media requirement for a primary extraction can be eliminated. Using the alpha-benzoin oxime (alpha-BO) spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion has been performed and results are compared. The spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion using alpha-BO in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 has been performed. The influence of type and amount of surfactant, pH, complexation time and amount of ligand were examined. Finally, the repeatability, accuracy and the effect of interfering ions on the determination of Cr(III) ion was evaluated. The proposed methods successfully with recovery yield of almost 100% have been applied to the rapid and simple determination of Cr(III) ion in the real samples. There is a good agreement between methods and atomic absorption spectrometry. The Beers law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.1-13.7 microg mL(-1) for micellar media. The detection limit is 0.8 ng mL(-1). The molar absorptivity of complex is 5350 L mol(-1) cm(-1).

  17. Sensitized spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion for speciation of chromium ion in surfactant media using α-benzoin oxime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asadpour, Enayat; Vafaie, Azam

    2006-01-01

    A simple and accurate micellanized spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Cr(III) ion in tab and top water and a synthetic mixture has been described. The micellar method is based on effect of organized molecular assemblies such as micelles in spectrophotometric measurement due to their effect on the systems of interest. The ability of micellar system in solubilizing of sparingly soluble ligand or complexes has been used for increasing figures of merit of an analytical method. Due to solubility increasing in aqueous media requirement for a primary extraction can be eliminated. Using the α-benzoin oxime (α-BO) spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion has been performed and results are compared. The spectrophotometric determination of Cr(III) ion using α-BO in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 has been performed. The influence of type and amount of surfactant, pH, complexation time and amount of ligand were examined. Finally, the repeatability, accuracy and the effect of interfering ions on the determination of Cr(III) ion was evaluated. The proposed methods successfully with recovery yield of almost 100% have been applied to the rapid and simple determination of Cr(III) ion in the real samples. There is a good agreement between methods and atomic absorption spectrometry. The Beers law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.1-13.7 μg mL-1 for micellar media. The detection limit is 0.8 ng mL-1. The molar absorptivity of complex is 5350 L mol-1 cm-1.

  18. Determination of Fe Content of Some Food Items by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS): A Guided-Inquiry Learning Experience in Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakayode, Sayo O.; King, Angela G.; Yakubu, Mamudu; Mohammed, Abdul K.; Pollard, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a guided-inquiry (GI) hands-on determination of Fe in food samples including plantains, spinach, lima beans, oatmeal, Frosted Flakes cereal (generic), tilapia fish, and chicken using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The utility of the GI experiment, which is part of an instrumental analysis laboratory course,…

  19. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between coagulated and uncoagulated samples run by atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  20. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  1. Sample preparation for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by generation of substituted arsines with atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charles S; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Svoboda, Milan; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiři

    2017-12-01

    A slurry sampling procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by arsane generation, cryogenic trapping and detection with atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Several procedures were tested for slurry preparation, including different reagents (HNO 3 , HCl and tetramethylammonium hydroxide - TMAH) and their concentrations, water bath heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The best results for inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were reached when using 3molL -1 HCl under heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The developed method was applied for the analysis of five porridge powder and six baby meal samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of total arsenic (tAs), iAs and DMA in rice (ERM-BC211). Arsenic recoveries (mass balance) for all samples and CRM were performed by the determination of the tAs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion and its comparison against the sum of the results from the speciation analysis. The relative limits of detection were 0.44, 0.24 and 0.16µgkg -1 for iAs, methylarsonate and DMA, respectively. The concentrations of the most toxic arsenic species (iAs) in the analyzed baby food samples ranged between 4.2 and 99µgkg -1 which were below the limits of 300, 200 and 100µgkg -1 set by the Brazilian, Chinese and European legislation, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A combined application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and isothermal micro-calorimetry for calorespirometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Brueckner, David; Solokhina, Anna; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Calorespirometry is the simultaneous analysis of the rate of heat emission (R q ), O 2 consumption (R O2 ) and CO 2 production (R CO2 ) by living systems such as tissues or organism cultures. The analysis provides useful knowledge about thermodynamic parameters relevant for e.g. biotechnology where parameter based yield maximization (fermentation) is relevant. The determination of metabolism related heat emission is easy and normally done by a calorimeter. However, measuring the amount of consumed O 2 and produced CO 2 can be more challenging, as additional preparation or instrumentation might be needed. Therefore, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was investigated as an alternative approach for respirometric analysis in order to facilitate the data collection procedure. The method determines by a spectroscopic laser non-invasively CO 2 and O 2 gas concentration changes in the respective vial headspaces. The gathered growth data from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured in two different scarce media was used to compute respiratory quotient (RQ) and calorespirometric ratios (CR CO2 [R q /R CO2 ], CR O2 [R q /R O2 ]). A comparison of the computed (experimental) values (for RQ, CR CO2 and CR O2 ) with values reported in the literature confirmed the appropriateness of TDLAS in calorespirometric studies. Thus, it could be demonstrated that TDLAS is a well-performing and convenient way to evaluate non-invasively respiratory rates during calorespirometric studies. Therefore, the technique is definitively worth to be investigated further for its potential use in research and in diverse productive environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Supernova Ia Spectra and Spectrophotometric Time Series: Recognizing Twins and the Consequences for Cosmological Distance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, Hannah Kathleen

    In Part I we introduce the method and results of the Twin Supernova analysis. This novel approach to Type Ia supernova standardization is currently only possible with spectrophotometric timeseries observations from the Nearby Supernova Factory. As Chapters 1 through 4 will explore, we select an ideal subset of supernovae, find pairs whose features match well in flux at all wavelengths and times, and test their dispersion in brightness. The analysis is completed in a blinded fashion, ensuring that we are not tuning our results. What we find is that twin supernovae do indeed have a small brightness dispersion. Part II shows two additional analyses related to the standardization of Type Ia supernovae. In Chapter 5 we present a check on the results of Bailey et al. [2009]. Literature supernovae with spectra near maximum light were tested to see how well their magnitudes could be standardized using the flux ratio method of Bailey et al [2009]. Chapter 6 shows a study with data from the Nearby Supernova Factory. Using only the spectrophotometric observations near maximum light, we calculate monochromatic Hubble Diagram residuals for each supernova. Those residuals are then corrected using a flux ratio, similar to Bailey et al. [2009] to test the standardization possibilities using only near-maximum observations.

  4. Quantitative determination of zopiclone and its impurity by four different spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Maha M; Naguib, Ibrahim A; El Ghobashy, Mohamed R; Ali, Nesma A

    2015-02-25

    Four simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods are presented for determination of Zopiclone (ZPC) and its impurity, one of its degradation products, namely; 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP). Method A is a dual wavelength spectrophotometry; where two wavelengths (252 and 301 nm for ZPC, and 238 and 261 nm for ACP) were selected for each component in such a way that difference in absorbance is zero for the second one. Method B is isoabsorptive ratio method by combining the isoabsorptive point (259.8 nm) in the ratio spectrum using ACP as a divisor and the ratio difference for a single step determination of both components. Method C is third derivative (D(3)) spectrophotometric method which allows determination of both ZPC at 283.6 nm and ACP at 251.6 nm without interference of each other. Method D is based on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD(1)) at 263.2 nm for ZPC and 252 nm for ACP. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and can be applied for routine analysis in quality control laboratories. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from the proposed methods and those obtained from the reported method has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoom, B. N.; Abdelsamad, A. M. E.; Adib, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. ( n = 3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically.

  6. Novel Spectrophotometric Method for the Assay of Captopril in Dosage Forms using 2,6-Dichloroquinone-4-Chlorimide

    PubMed Central

    El-Enany, Nahed; Belal, Fathalla; Rizk, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of captopril (CPL) in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on coupling captopril with 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chlorimide (DCQ) in dimethylsulphoxide. The yellow reaction product was measured at 443 nm. The absorbance–concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 10-50 μg/mL with minimum detection limit (LOD) of 0.66 μg/mL and a quantification limit (LOQ) of 2.0 μg/mL. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the color were carefully studied and optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using official and reference spectrophotometric methods. Hydrochlorothiazide which is frequently co-formulated with CPL did not interfere with the assay. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented. PMID:23675082

  7. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Electronically excited states of vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin: theoretical analysis of absorption, CD, and MCD data.

    PubMed

    Solheim, Harald; Kornobis, Karina; Ruud, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2011-02-03

    Linear and quadratic response time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate absorption (Abs), circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic CD (MCD) spectra of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Although electronically excited states of both cobalamins have been probed by applying different experimental techniques, their exact nature remains poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Recent theoretical studies have revealed a lot of relevant information about their properties but also left some unresolved issues related to the nature of individual transitions. In this contribution, not only Abs but also CD and MCD spectra of both cobalamins were computed for direct comparison with experiment. The results were evaluated with respect to the choice of exchange-correlation functional, basis set, and the environment (gas phase or solvent) used in the calculation. Taking into account the complexity of the CNCbl and MeCbl systems, reliable agreement between theory and experiment was achieved based on calculations employing the BP86 functional, particularly for the low-energy α/β bands. This spectral range has been traditionally interpreted as a vibrational progression associated with a single electronic excitation, but according to the present analysis for both cobalamins, these bands are best interpreted as consisting of multiple electronic transitions.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  10. Analysis of sulfidic linkages formed in natural rubber latex medical gloves by using X-ray absorption near edge structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankrachang, M.; Limphirat, W.; Yongyingsakthavorn, P.; Nontakaew, U.; Tohsan, A.

    2017-09-01

    A study of sulfidic linkages formed in natural rubber (NR) latex medical gloves by using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) is presented in this paper. The NR latex compound was prepared by using prevulcanization method, that is, it was prevulcanized at room temperature for 24 hrs before utilization. After the 24 hrs of prevulcanization, the latex film samples were obtained by dipping process. The dipped films were subjected to vulcanize at 110°C for 5 to 25 min. It was observed that after the compound was prevulcanized for 24 hrs, polysulfidic linkages were mainly formed in the sample. It was however found that after curing at 110°C for 5-25 min, the polysulfidic linkages are tended to change into disulfide linkages. Especially, in the case of 25 minutes cured sample, disulfide linkages are found to be the main linkages. In term of tensile strength, it was observed that when cure time increased from 5 - 10 min, tensile strengths were also increased. But when the cure time of the film is 25 minutes, tensile strength was slightly dropped. The dropped of tensile strength when cure time is longer than 10 minutes can be ascribed to a degradation of polysulfidic and disulfidic linkages during curing. Therefore, by using XANES analysis, it was found to be very useful to understand the cure characteristic, thus it can be very helpful to optimize cure time and tensile properties of the product.

  11. [Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rainwater and sources analysis in summer and winter season].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Jiang, Tao; WeiI, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-Long; Wang, Qi-Lei; Gao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the variability of the optical properties including UV-Vis and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from rainwater in summer and winter seasons. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, together with Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and fire events map, were conducted to characterize DOM and investigate its sources and contributions. The results showed that as compared with aquatic and soil DOM, rainwater DOM showed similar spectral characteristics, suggesting DOM in precipitation was also an important contributor to DOM pool in terrestrial and aquatic systems. The concentrations of DOC in rainwater were 0.88-12.80 mg x L(-1), and the CDOM concentrations were 3.17-21.11 mg x L(-1). Differences of DOM samples between summer and winter were significant (P < 0.05). In comparison to summer, DOM samples in winter had lower molecular weight and aromaticity, and also lower humification. Input of DOM in winter was predominantly derived from local and short-distance distances, while non-special scattering sources were identified as the main contributors in summer. Although absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to identify DOM composition and sources, there were obvious differences in spectra and sources analysis between rainwater DOM and the others from other sources. Thus, the classic differentiation method by "allochthonous (terrigenous) and autochthonous (authigenic)" is possibly too simple and arbitrary for characterization of DOM in rainwater.

  12. Investigation of absorptance and emissivity of thermal control coatings on Mg–Li alloys and OES analysis during PEO process

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhongping; Xia, Qixing; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Jiankang; Su, Peibo; Li, Dongqi; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Thermal control ceramic coatings on Mg–Li alloys have been successfully prepared in silicate electrolyte system by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coatings are mainly composed of crystallized Mg2SiO4 and MgO, which have typical porous structure with some bulges on the surface; OES analysis shows that the plasma temperature, which is influenced by the technique parameters, determines the formation of the coatings with different crystalline phases and morphologies, combined with “quick cooling effect” by the electrolyte; and the electron concentration is constant, which is related to the electric spark breakdown, determined by the nature of the coating and the interface of coating/electrolyte. Technique parameters influence the coating thickness, roughness and surface morphology, but do not change the coating composition in the specific PEO regime, and therefore the absorptance (αS) and emissivity (ε) of the coatings can be adjusted by the technique parameters through changing thickness and roughness in a certain degree. The coating prepared at 10 A/dm2, 50 Hz, 30 min and 14 g/L Na2SiO3 has the minimum value of αS (0.35) and the maximum value of ε (0.82), with the balance temperature of 320 K. PMID:27383569

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D.C.; Benkstein, K.D.; Hurst, W.S.; Chu, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, −5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals. PMID:28090126

  14. A Combination of Chemometrics and Quantum Mechanics Methods Applied to Analysis of Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectrum of Ortho-Nitroaniline

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Kemei; Li, Menglong; Chu, Genbai; Pu, Xuemei; Xu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the advanced chemometrics method with quantum mechanics calculation was for the first time applied to explore a facile yet efficient analysis strategy to thoroughly resolve femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of ortho-nitroaniline (ONA), served as a model compound of important nitroaromatics and explosives. The result revealed that the ONA molecule is primarily excited to S3 excited state from the ground state and then ultrafast relaxes to S2 state. The internal conversion from S2 to S1 occurs within 0.9 ps. One intermediate state S* was identified in the intersystem crossing (ISC) process, which is different from the specific upper triplet receiver state proposed in some other nitroaromatics systems. The S1 state decays to the S* one within 6.4 ps and then intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state within 19.6 ps. T1 was estimated to have a lifetime up to 2 ns. The relatively long S* state and very long-lived T1 one should play a vital role as precursors to various nitroaromatic and explosive photoproducts. PMID:26781083

  15. Simultaneous determination of the brand new two-drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C: Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir using smart spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Maya S.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λmax = 333.0 nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0 μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05 ± 0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228 nm and 270 nm, first derivative (DD1) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265 nm and 277 nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λmax = 261.0 nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270 nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0 μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57 ± 0.810, 99.92 ± 0.759, 99.51 ± 0.475 and 100.75 ± 0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method.

  16. Simultaneous determination of the brand new two-drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C: Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir using smart spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Maya S

    2017-08-05

    In this work, various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods were first introduced for the simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in their binary mixture without preliminary separation. Ledipasvir was determined simply by zero-order spectrophotometric method at its λ max =333.0nm in a linear range of 2.5-30.0μg/ml without any interference of sofosbuvir even in low or high concentrations and with mean percentage recovery of 100.05±0.632. Sofosbuvir can be quantitatively estimated by one of the following smart spectrophotometric methods based on ratio spectra developed for the resolution of the overlapped spectra of their binary mixture; ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD) by computing the difference between the amplitudes of sofosbuvir ratio spectra at 228nm and 270nm, first derivative (DD 1 ) of ratio spectra by measuring the sum of amplitude of trough and peak at 265nm and 277nm, respectively, ratio subtraction (RS) spectrophotometric method in which sofosbuvir can be successfully determined at its λ max =261.0nm and mean centering (MC) of ratio spectra by measuring the mean centering values at 270nm. All of the above mentioned spectrophotometric methods can estimate sofosbuvir in a linear range of 7.5-90.0μg/ml with mean percentage recoveries of 100.57±0.810, 99.92±0.759, 99.51±0.475 and 100.75±0.672, respectively. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of their combined dosage form and bulk powder. The adopted methods were also validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically compared to an in-house HPLC method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural determination of individual chemical species in a mixed system by iterative transformation factor analysis-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with UV-visible absorption and quantum chemical calculation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Hennig, Christoph; Rossberg, André; Tsushima, Satoru; Scheinost, Andreas C; Bernhard, Gert

    2008-02-15

    A multitechnique approach using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy based on iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been performed in order to investigate the speciation of uranium(VI) nitrate species in acetonitrile and to identify the complex structure of individual species in the system. UV-visible spectral titration suggests that there are four different species in the system, that is, pure solvated species, mono-, di-, and trinitrate species. The pure EXAFS spectra of these individual species are extracted by ITFA from the measured spectral mixtures on the basis of the speciation distribution profile calculated from the UV-visible data. Data analysis of the extracted EXAFS spectra, with the help of DFT calculations, reveals the most probable complex structures of the individual species. The pure solvated species corresponds to a uranyl hydrate complex with an equatorial coordination number (CNeq) of 5, [UO2(H2O)5]2+. Nitrate ions tend to coordinate to the uranyl(VI) ion in a bidentate fashion rather than a unidentate one in acetonitrile for all the nitrate species. The mononitrate species forms the complex of [UO2(H2O)3NO3]+ with a CNeq value of 5, while the di- and trinitrate species have a CNeq value of 6, corresponding to [UO2(H2O)2(NO3)2]0 (D2h) and [UO2(NO3)3]- (D3h), respectively.

  18. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-06-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACES OF BORON IN THORIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, H.; Ishiwatari, N.; Nagai, H.

    1960-12-01

    A procedure is described for the spectrophotometric determination of a few tenths of a pant per million of boron ia thorium oxide or thorium. The sample is dissolved in strong phosphoric acid. After diluting the solution with water, boron is separated by distillation as methyl borate and finally determined by the curcumin method. The error is not likely to exceed plus or minus O.l ppm for 0.2 to 1 ppm of boron. (auth)

  20. A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Shan; Hu, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Xing-Chang; Zhang, Jian-Fen; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    A spectrophotometric screening method for avermectin oxidizing microbes by determination of 4″-oxo-avermectin was established based on the reaction between 4″-oxo-avermectin and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Combined with a gradient HPLC assay, microorganisms capable of regioselectively oxidizing avermectin to 4″-oxo-avermectin were successfully obtained by this method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectrophotometric and HPLC determinations of anti-diabetic drugs, rosiglitazone maleate and metformin hydrochloride, in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Onal, Armağan

    2009-12-01

    In this study, three spectrophotometric methods and one HPLC method were developed for analysis of anti-diabetic drugs in tablets. The two spectrophotometric methods were based on the reaction of rosiglitazone (RSG) with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and bromocresol green (BCG). Linear relationship between the absorbance at lambda(max) and the drug concentration was found to be in the ranges 6.0-50.0 and 1.5-12 microg ml(-1) for DDQ and BCG methods, respectively. The third spectrophotometric method consists of a zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous analysis of RSG and metformin (MTF) in tablets. The calibration curves were linear within the concentration ranges of 5.0-50 microg ml(-1) for RSG and 1.0-10.0 microg ml(-1) for MTF. The fourth method is a rapid stability-indicating HPLC method developed for the determination of RSG. A linear response was observed within the concentration range of 0.25-2.5 microg ml(-1). The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the tablet analysis.

  2. Novel two wavelength spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures with severely overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Saleh, Sarah S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the application of different spectrophotometric techniques based on two wavelengths for the determination of severely overlapped spectral components in a binary mixture without prior separation. Four novel spectrophotometric methods were developed namely: induced dual wavelength method (IDW), dual wavelength resolution technique (DWRT), advanced amplitude modulation method (AAM) and induced amplitude modulation method (IAM). The results of the novel methods were compared to that of three well-established methods which were: dual wavelength method (DW), Vierordt's method (VD) and bivariate method (BV). The developed methods were applied for the analysis of the binary mixture of hydrocortisone acetate (HCA) and fusidic acid (FSA) formulated as topical cream accompanied by the determination of methyl paraben and propyl paraben present as preservatives. The specificity of the novel methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. No difference was observed between the obtained results when compared to the reported HPLC method, which proved that the developed methods could be alternative to HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories.

  3. Validation of HPLC and UV spectrophotometric methods for the determination of meropenem in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Andreas S L; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2003-12-04

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method and a UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of meropenem, a highly active carbapenem antibiotic, in powder for injection were developed in present work. The parameters linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Chromatography was carried out by reversed-phase technique on an RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of 30 mM monobasic phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (90:10; v/v), adjusted to pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid. The UV spectrophotometric method was performed at 298 nm. The samples were prepared in water and the stability of meropenem in aqueous solution at 4 and 25 degrees C was studied. The results were satisfactory with good stability after 24 h at 4 degrees C. Statistical analysis by Student's t-test showed no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise and accurate and can be used for the reliable quantitation of meropenem in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  4. Development of normalized spectra manipulating spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Dimenhydrinate and Cinnarizine binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Lamie, Nesrine T; Yehia, Ali M

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of Dimenhydrinate (DIM) and Cinnarizine (CIN) binary mixture with simple procedures were applied. Three ratio manipulating spectrophotometric methods were proposed. Normalized spectrum was utilized as a divisor for simultaneous determination of both drugs with minimum manipulation steps. The proposed methods were simultaneous constant center (SCC), simultaneous derivative ratio spectrophotometry (S(1)DD) and ratio H-point standard addition method (RHPSAM). Peak amplitudes at isoabsorptive point in ratio spectra were measured for determination of total concentrations of DIM and CIN. For subsequent determination of DIM concentration, difference between peak amplitudes at 250 nm and 267 nm were used in SCC. While the peak amplitude at 275 nm of the first derivative ratio spectra were used in S(1)DD; then subtraction of DIM concentration from the total one provided the CIN concentration. The last RHPSAM was a dual wavelength method in which two calibrations were plotted at 220 nm and 230 nm. The coordinates of intersection point between the two calibration lines were corresponding to DIM and CIN concentrations. The proposed methods were successfully applied for combined dosage form analysis, Moreover statistical comparison between the proposed and reported spectrophotometric methods was applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimized and Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Enalapril Maleate in Commercial Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nafisur; Haque, Sk Manirul

    2008-01-01

    Four simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of enalapril maleate in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on the reaction of carboxylic acid group of enalapril maleate with a mixture of potassium iodate (KIO3) and iodide (KI) to form yellow colored product in aqueous medium at 25 ± 1°C. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at 352 nm. The second, third and fourth methods are based on the charge transfer complexation reaction of the drug with p-chloranilic acid (pCA) in 1, 4-dioxan-methanol medium, 2, 3-dichloro 5, 6-dicyano 1, 4-benzoquinone (DDQ) in acetonitrile-1,4 dioxane medium and iodine in acetonitrile-dichloromethane medium. Under optimized experimental conditions, Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges of 2.5–50, 20–560, 5–75 and 10–200 μg mL−1, respectively. All the methods have been applied to the determination of enalapril maleate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Results of analysis are validated statistically. PMID:19609388

  6. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  7. X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure And Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis of Standards And Biological Samples Containing Mixed Oxidation States of Chromium(III) And Chromium(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.G.; Dokken, K.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.

    For the first time a method has been developed for the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data analyses of biological samples containing multiple oxidation states of chromium. In this study, the first shell coordination and interatomic distances based on the data analysis of known standards of potassium chromate (Cr(VI)) and chromium nitrate hexahydrate (Cr(III)) were investigated. The standards examined were mixtures of the following molar ratios of Cr(VI):Cr(III), 0:1, 0.25:0.75, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25, and 1:0. It was determined from the calibration data that the fitting error associated with linear combination X-ray absorption near edge structure (LC-XANES) fittings was approximately {+-}10%more » of the total fitting. The peak height of the Cr(VI) pre-edge feature after normalization of the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra was used to prepare a calibration curve. The EXAFS fittings of the standards were also investigated and fittings to lechuguilla biomass samples laden with different ratios of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were performed as well. An excellent agreement between the XANES data and the data presented in the EXAFS spectra was observed. The EXFAS data also presented mean coordination numbers directly related to the ratios of the different chromium oxidation states in the sample. The chromium oxygen interactions had two different bond lengths at approximately 1.68 and 1.98 {angstrom} for the Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in the sample, respectively.« less

  8. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  9. Structural analysis of strontium in human teeth treated with surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler eluate by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2017-03-31

    The bioactive effects of strontium released from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers may aid in caries prevention. In this study, the local structure of strontium taken up by teeth was estimated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Immersing teeth into S-PRG filler eluate increased the strontium content in enamel and dentin by more than 100 times. The local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin stored in distilled water was the same as that in synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHAP). Moreover, the local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin after immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate was also similar to that of SrHAP. After immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate, strontium was suggested to be incorporated into the hydroxyapatite (HAP) of enamel and dentin at the calcium site in HAP.

  10. Chemometric analysis of correlations between electronic absorption characteristics and structural and/or physicochemical parameters for ampholytic substances of biological and pharmaceutical relevance.

    PubMed

    Judycka-Proma, U; Bober, L; Gajewicz, A; Puzyn, T; Błażejowski, J

    2015-03-05

    Forty ampholytic compounds of biological and pharmaceutical relevance were subjected to chemometric analysis based on unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms. This enabled relations to be found between empirical spectral characteristics derived from electronic absorption data and structural and physicochemical parameters predicted by quantum chemistry methods or phenomenological relationships based on additivity rules. It was found that the energies of long wavelength absorption bands are correlated through multiparametric linear relationships with parameters reflecting the bulkiness features of the absorbing molecules as well as their nucleophilicity and electrophilicity. These dependences enable the quantitative analysis of spectral features of the compounds, as well as a comparison of their similarities and certain pharmaceutical and biological features. Three QSPR models to predict the energies of long-wavelength absorption in buffers with pH=2.5 and pH=7.0, as well as in methanol, were developed and validated in this study. These models can be further used to predict the long-wavelength absorption energies of untested substances (if they are structurally similar to the training compounds). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular imaging analysis of intestinal insulin absorption boosted by cell-penetrating peptides by using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Morishita, Mariko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Hayashinaka, Emi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-08-17

    Molecular imaging technique by use of positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive tool that allows one to quantitatively analyze the function of endogenous molecules and the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic agents in vivo. This technique is expected to be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of diverse drug delivery systems. We demonstrated previously that intestinal insulin absorption is increased significantly by coadministration of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which are taken up effectively by several cells. However, the distribution behavior of insulin whose absorption is increased by CPPs is not clear. We used PET imaging and quantitatively analyzed the intestinal absorption and subsequent distribution of insulin and the effect of CPPs on its absorption and distribution. An unlabeled insulin solution containing tracer insulin, (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin, was administered with or without CPPs into a rat ileal closed loop. PET imaging showed that the CPPs, particularly D-R8 and L-penetratin, significantly increased the (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin level in the liver, kidney, and circulation. After absorption from the intestine, the (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin passed rapidly through the liver and accumulated in the kidney. The increase in the hepatic and renal distribution of (68)Ga-DOTA-insulin by each CPP coadministration was similar manner as that in intestinal absorption, suggesting that the increased accumulation of insulin in the liver and kidney induced by coadministration of CPPs was associated with the increased intestinal absorption of insulin. This is the first study to show that PET imaging enables one to quantitatively analyze the distribution behavior of intestinally absorbed insulin in several organs. This imaging methodology is likely to be useful for developing effective drug delivery systems targeted to specific organs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the analgesic drug, nalbuphine in pharmaceutical and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    El-Didamony, Akram M; Ali, Ismail I

    2013-01-01

    We describe the first studies of a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of nalbuphine (NLB) in dosage form and biological fluids. The spectrofluorimetric method was based on the oxidation of NLB with Ce(IV) to produce Ce(III) and its fluorescence was monitored at 352 nm after excitation at 250 nm. The spectrophotometric method involves addition of a known excess of Ce(IV) to NLB in acid medium, followed by determination of residual Ce(IV) by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange and measuring absorbance at 510 nm. In both methods, the amount of Ce(IV) reacted corresponds to the amount of NLB and measured fluorescence or absorbance were found to increase linearly with the concentration of NLB, which are corroborated by correlation coefficients of 0.9997 and 0.9999 for spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions such as concentrations of Ce(IV), type and concentration of acid medium, reaction time, temperature, and diluting solvents were carefully studied and optimized. The accuracy and precision of the methods were evaluated on intra-day and inter-day basis. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of NLB in pharmaceutical formulation and biological samples with good recoveries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of the electron power absorption in electropositive capacitive RF plasmas based on moments of the Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, J.; Donkó, Z.; Lafleur, T.; Wilczek, S.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2018-05-01

    Power absorption by electrons from the space- and time-dependent electric field represents the basic sustaining mechanism of all radio-frequency driven plasmas. This complex phenomenon has attracted significant attention. However, most theories and models are, so far, only able to account for part of the relevant mechanisms. The aim of this work is to present an in-depth analysis of the power absorption by electrons, via the use of a moment analysis of the Boltzmann equation without any ad-hoc assumptions. This analysis, for which the input quantities are taken from kinetic, particle based simulations, allows the identification of all physical mechanisms involved and an accurate quantification of their contributions. The perfect agreement between the sum of these contributions and the simulation results verifies the completeness of the model. We study the relative importance of these mechanisms as a function of pressure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, in an electropositive argon discharge. In contrast to some widely accepted previous models we find that high space- and time-dependent ambipolar electric fields outside the sheaths play a key role for electron power absorption. This ambipolar field is time-dependent within the RF period and temporally asymmetric, i.e., the sheath expansion is not a ‘mirror image’ of the sheath collapse. We demonstrate that this time-dependence is mainly caused by a time modulation of the electron temperature resulting from the energy transfer to electrons by the ambipolar field itself during sheath expansion. We provide a theoretical proof that this ambipolar electron power absorption would vanish completely, if the electron temperature was constant in time. This mechanism of electron power absorption is based on a time modulated electron temperature, markedly different from the Hard Wall Model, of key importance for energy transfer to electrons on time average and, thus, essential for the generation of capacitively

  14. Development of a Low-Cost Spectrophotometric Sensor for ClO2 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Jessica; Scott, Dane; Apblett, Allen; Materer, Nicholas

    2006-04-01

    ClO2 is of interest because of it's capability to kill biological hazards such as E. coli and mold. However, ClO2 is a toxic, reactive gas that must be generated at the point-of-use. Gas storage is not possible due to the possibility of an explosion. The need to detect the amount of ClO2 at the point-of-use necessitates a low cost sensor. A low-cost spectrophotometric sensor based on a broad-band light source, a photodiode detector and a band-pass filter is proposed. To verify the design, precise determinations of the gas-phase cross-section and characterization of the optical components are necessary. Known concentrations of ClO2(g) are prepared using the equilibrium relationship between an aqueous solution and the gas phase. The aqueous solutions are obtained by generating the gas via a chemical reaction and passing it through water. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions are then determined by chemical titration and UV-visible absorption measurements. For the solutions, a maximum absorption is observed at 359 nm, and the cross section at this wavelength is determined to be 4.79x10-18cm^2, in agreement with previous observations. Using a broad-band source, the absorption of ClO2 gas is successfully analyzed and concentrations are determined as low as 100 ppm. A more recent prototype based on an UV LED can measure down to concentrations as low as one ppm.

  15. A Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (13C/12C) Analysis in Very Small Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2012-02-06

    A capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) suitable for IR laser isotope analysis of small CO{sub 2} samples is presented. The system employs a continuous-wave (cw) quantum cascade laser to study nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO{sub 2} near 2307 cm{sup -1} (4.34 {mu}m). This initial CAS system can achieve relative isotopic precision of about 10 ppm {sup 13}C, or {approx}1{per_thousand} (per mil in delta notation relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) with 20-100 picomoles of entrained sample within the hollow waveguide for CO{sub 2} concentrations {approx}400 to 750 ppm. Isotopic analyses of such gas fills in a 1-mmmore » ID hollow waveguide of 0.8 m overall physical path length can be carried out down to {approx}2 Torr. Overall {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios can be calibrated to {approx}2{per_thousand} accuracy with diluted CO{sub 2} standards. A novel, low-cost method to reduce cw-fringing noise resulting from multipath distortions in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level (peak-to-rms) after 1,000 scans are co-added in {approx}10 sec. The CAS is meant to work directly with converted CO{sub 2} samples from a Laser Ablation-Catalytic-Combustion (LA CC) micro-sampler to provide {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of small biological isolates with spatial resolutions {approx}50 {mu}m.« less

  16. Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Odelle L; Corrigan, Craig E; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2008-11-15

    This study presents a method for analyzing the black carbon (BC) mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration on the basis of derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAEs) of BC and char. The fractions of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO2) at temperatures higher than 480 degrees C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected in northern California. The uncertainty in the measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12% to 100%, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 microg of BC, and the uncertainty approached 20% for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 microg of BC.

  17. Numerical and theoretical analysis on the absorption properties of metasurface-based terahertz absorbers with different thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaimin; Huang, Yongjun; Wanghuang, Tenglong; Chen, Weijian; Wen, Guangjun

    2015-01-10

    In this paper, we numerically and theoretically discuss the novel absorption properties of a conventional metasurface-based terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) absorber with different dielectric thicknesses. Two absorption modes are presented in the considered frequency band due to the increased dielectric thickness, and both modes can achieve near-unity absorptions when the dielectric layers reach additional nλ(d)/2 (n=1, 2) thicknesses, where λ(d) is the operating wavelength at the peak absorption in the dielectric slabs. The surface currents between the metasurface resonators and ground plane are not associated any longer, different from the conventional thin absorbers. Moreover, the EM wave energies are completely absorbed by the metasurface resonators and dielectric layer, and the main function of ground plane is to reflect the incident EM waves back to the resonators. The discussed novel absorption properties are analyzed and explained by classical EM theory and interference theory after numerical demonstrations. These findings can broaden the potential applications of the metasurface-based absorbers in the THz frequency range for different requirements.

  18. Development and validation of sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of moxifloxacin antibiotic in pure and commercial tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2015-04-01

    New, accurate, sensitive and reliable kinetic spectrophotometric method for the assay of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOXF) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of MOXF with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored product with lambda max at 623 and 660 nm. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 623 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time methods were adopted for constructing the calibration curves. The linearity range was found to be 1.89-40.0 μg mL-1 for initial rate and fixed time methods. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods is 0.644 and 0.043 μg mL-1, respectively. Molar absorptivity for the method was found to be 0.89 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablet dosage form with no interference from the excipients. The results are compared with the official method.

  19. Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2004-06-16

    Present analytical methods to quantify lignin in herbaceous plants are not totally satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in a range of plant materials. In this work, lignin extracted with acidic dioxane was used to develop standard curves and to calculate the derived linear regression equation (slope equals absorptivity value or extinction coefficient) for determining the lignin concentration of respective cell wall samples. This procedure yielded lignin values that were different from those obtained with Klason lignin, acid detergent acid insoluble lignin, or permanganate lignin procedures. Correlations with in vitro dry matter or cell wall digestibility of samples were highest with data from the spectrophotometric technique. The ABSL method employing as standard lignin extracted with acidic dioxane has the potential to be employed as an analytical method to determine lignin concentration in a range of forage materials. It may be useful in developing a quick and easy method to predict in vitro digestibility on the basis of the total lignin content of a sample.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of [2-(2,6-dichloro-phenylamino)-phenyl]-acetic acid in pure form and in pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazel, Yaroslav; Hunka, Iryna; Kormosh, Zholt; Andruch, Vasil

    2009-12-01

    A new sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of [2-(2,6-dichloro-phenylamino)-phenyl]-acetic acid in pharmaceuticals in the presence of nicotinic acid. The method is based on the reaction of [2-(2,6-dichloro-phenylamino)-phenyl]-acetic acid with 1,3,3-trimethyl-5-phenyl-2-[3-(1,3,3-trimethyl-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-ylidene)-propenyl]-3 H-indolium chloride (PIC) followed by the extraction of the formed ion associate into toluene and spectrophotometric detection at 581 nm. Appropriate experimental conditions were found to be pH 7.8-9.8 and 3.6 × 10 -4 mol L -1 of PIC. The molar absorptivity is 5.0 × 10 -4 L mol -1 cm -1. The absorbance obeys Beer's law in the range 0.61-12.60 μg mL -1 of [2-(2,6-dichloro-phenylamino)-phenyl]-acetic acid, and the detection limit calculated from a blank test was 0.20 μg mL -1.

  1. Development of a kinetic model of hydrogen absorption and desorption in magnesium and analysis of the rate-determining step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yuta; Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Mg is promising as a new light-weight and low-cost hydrogen-storage material. We construct a numerical model to represent the hydrogen dynamics on Mg, comprising dissociative adsorption, desorption, bulk diffusion, and chemical reaction. Our calculation shows a good agreement with experimental data for hydrogen absorption and desorption on Mg. Our model clarifies the evolution of the rate-determining processes as absorption and desorption proceed. Furthermore, we investigate the optimal condition and materials design for efficient hydrogen storage in Mg. By properly understanding the rate-determining processes using our model, one can determine the design principle for high-performance hydrogen-storage systems.

  2. Evanescent wave sensing and absorption analysis of herbal tea floral extracts in the presence of silver metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyamvada, V. C.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2017-06-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave sensors are used for studying the absorption properties of biochemical samples. The studies give precise information regarding the actual ingredients of the samples. Recent studies report the corrosion of silver in the presence glucose dissolved in water and heated to a temperature of 70°C. Based on this report evanescent absorption studies are carried out in hibiscus herbal tea floral extracts in the presence of silver metal complexes. These studies can also lead to the evaluation of the purity of the herbal tea extract.

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Ofloxacin and Flavoxate Hydrochloride by Absorption Ratio and Second Derivative UV Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Attimarad, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop simple, precise, accurate and sensitive UV spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ofloxacin (OFX) and flavoxate HCl (FLX) in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on absorption ratio method, by formation of Q absorbance equation at 289 nm (λmax of OFX) and 322.4 nm (isoabsorptive point). The linearity range was found to be 1 to 30 μg/ml for FLX and OFX. In the method-II second derivative absorption at 311.4 nm for OFX (zero crossing for FLX) and at 246.2 nm for FLX (zero crossing for OFX) was used for the determination of the drugs and the linearity range was found to be 2 to 30 μg/ml for OFX and 2-75 μg /ml for FLX. The accuracy and precision of the methods were determined and validated statistically. Both the methods showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 1.5%. Both the methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of OFX and FLX in combined dosage form PMID:24826003

  4. Realistic absorption coefficient of each individual film in a multilayer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2015-02-01

    A spectrophotometric strategy, termed multilayer-method (ML-method), is presented and discussed to realistically calculate the absorption coefficient of each individual layer embedded in multilayer architectures without reverse engineering, numerical refinements and assumptions about the layer homogeneity and thickness. The strategy extends in a non-straightforward way a consolidated route, already published by the authors and here termed basic-method, able to accurately characterize an absorbing film covering transparent substrates. The ML-method inherently accounts for non-measurable contribution of the interfaces (including multiple reflections), describes the specific film structure as determined by the multilayer architecture and used deposition approach and parameters, exploits simple mathematics, and has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions, thick-to-ultrathin films). Reliability tests are performed on films and multilayers based on a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing the film structural quality through doping, thickness-tuning and underlying supporting-film. Results are found consistent with information obtained by standard (optical and structural) analysis, the basic-method and band gap values reported in the literature. The discussed example-applications demonstrate the ability of the ML-method to overcome the drawbacks commonly limiting an accurate description of multilayer architectures.

  5. A convenient spectrophotometric assay for the determination of l-ergothioneine in blood

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Jan; Kierstan, Marek P. J.; Brocklehurst, Keith

    1974-01-01

    1. A convenient spectrophotometric assay for the determination of l-ergothioneine in solution including deproteinized blood haemolysate was developed. 2. The method consists of deproteinization by heat precipitation and Cu2+-catalysed oxidation of thiols such as glutathione and of l-ascorbic acid, both in alkaline media, and titration of l-ergothioneine (which is not oxidized under these conditions) by its virtually instantaneous reaction with 2,2′-dipyridyl disulphide at pH1. 3. This method and the results obtained with it for the analysis of human, horse, sheep and pig blood are compared with existing methods of l-ergothioneine analysis and the results obtained thereby. PMID:4463946

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination of Poorly Water Soluble Drug Rosiglitazone Using Hydrotropic Solubilization technique.

    PubMed

    Sherje, A P; Desai, K J

    2011-09-01

    In the present investigation, hydrotropic solution of urea was employed as a solubilizing agent for spectrophotometric determination of poorly water-soluble drug rosiglitazone maleate. In solubility determination study, it was found that there was more than 14-folds enhancement in solubility of rosiglitazone maleate in a 6M solution of urea. Rosiglitazone maleate obeys Beer's law in concentration range of 5-300 μg/ml. Linearity of rosiglitazone maleate was found in the range of 80-120% of the label claim. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of the cited drug in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described is new, simple, eco-friendly, economic, and accurate and can be utilized in routine analysis of rosiglitazone maleate in bulk drug and tablet dosage form.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Poorly Water Soluble Drug Rosiglitazone Using Hydrotropic Solubilization technique

    PubMed Central

    Sherje, A. P.; Desai, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, hydrotropic solution of urea was employed as a solubilizing agent for spectrophotometric determination of poorly water-soluble drug rosiglitazone maleate. In solubility determination study, it was found that there was more than 14-folds enhancement in solubility of rosiglitazone maleate in a 6M solution of urea. Rosiglitazone maleate obeys Beer's law in concentration range of 5-300 μg/ml. Linearity of rosiglitazone maleate was found in the range of 80-120% of the label claim. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of the cited drug in pharmaceutical formulations with good accuracy and precision. The method herein described is new, simple, eco-friendly, economic, and accurate and can be utilized in routine analysis of rosiglitazone maleate in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. PMID:22923874

  8. Advanced spectrophotometric chemometric methods for resolving the binary mixture of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Katsarov, Plamen; Gergov, Georgi; Alin, Aylin; Pilicheva, Bissera; Al-Degs, Yahya; Simeonov, Vasil; Kassarova, Margarita

    2018-03-01

    The prediction power of partial least squares (PLS) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methods have been studied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of the binary drug combination - doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride. Analysis of first-order UV overlapped spectra was performed using different PLS models - classical PLS1 and PLS2 as well as partial robust M-regression (PRM). These linear models were compared to MCR-ALS with equality and correlation constraints (MCR-ALS-CC). All techniques operated within the full spectral region and extracted maximum information for the drugs analysed. The developed chemometric methods were validated on external sample sets and were applied to the analyses of pharmaceutical formulations. The obtained statistical parameters were satisfactory for calibration and validation sets. All developed methods can be successfully applied for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of doxylamine and pyridoxine both in laboratory-prepared mixtures and commercial dosage forms.

  9. Simultaneous determination of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in tablet preparations by multivariate spectrophotometric calibration.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    1999-08-01

    The use of multivariate spectrophotometric calibration is presented for the simultaneous determination of the active components of tablets used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. The resolution of ternary mixtures of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide has been accomplished by using partial least squares (PLS-1) regression analysis. Although the components show an important degree of spectral overlap, they have been simultaneously determined with high accuracy and precision, rapidly and with no need of nonaqueous solvents for dissolving the samples. No interference has been observed from the tablet excipients. A comparison is presented with the related multivariate method of classical least squares (CLS) analysis, which is shown to yield less reliable results due to the severe spectral overlap among the studied compounds. This is highlighted in the case of isoniazid, due to the small absorbances measured for this component.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  11. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rhayanne T M; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; Ferreira, Magda R A; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. ("Pitanga") is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora . The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25-1.5 g); solvent (40%-80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl 3 concentration (2.5%-7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl 3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity ( R 2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair < 5% and recovery >90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to quantify TFC in raw material and derivatives from leaves of

  12. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of traces of gold in copper in silver, lead, blister copper, copper concentrate and anode slime with 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)-thiobenzophenone.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, I

    1977-10-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of gold in copper, silver, lead, blister copper, copper concentrate and anode slime. Optimal conditions have been established for the extraction and determination of gold. Gold is extracted as its bromo complex with tri-n-octylamine and determined photometrically with 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)thiobenzophenone; the absorbance of the organic phase is measured at 540 nm and the apparent molar absorptivity is about 1.2 x 10(5) 1.mole(-1). cm(-1). As little as 0.1 or 0.2 ppm of gold in these materials can be determined.

  13. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  14. Geomorphological and Spectrophotometric Study of Philae Landing Site A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Giacomini, L.; Oklay, N.; Massironi, M.; Bertini, I.; Simioni, E.; Marzari, F.; Barbieri, C.; Naletto, G.; Groussin, O.; Lazzarin, M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Fornasier, S.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    5 finalists, this site has the unique value to provide detailed analysis of the multiple fractures present on its cliff and on the neighboring Hathor. Figure 1: Site A as imaged by the OSIRIS NAC camera on 6 August 2014 at 02:20:12 UT. The distance from the comet center is 117.24 km, the scale is 2.17 m/px. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-526, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress We here present the geomorphological map coupled with the size-frequency distributions of boulders # 2 m located on the different types of terrains here identified, such as outcropping layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses and fine particle deposits. Gravitational slopes, derived through the 67P shape model by assuming uniform density, have been used to characterize and better interpret the various terrains. Moreover, we show the spectrophotometric properties of the area, studied through images taken by OSIRIS NAC with a scale of 50 cm/px. Albedo maps, as well as surface reflectance spectra have been obtained by taking advantage of the shape model and DTM in order to correct for the illumination and observing conditions of the terrain. This multidisciplinary analysis highlights that different types of deposits show different photometric properties.

  15. Overcoming Matrix Effects in a Complex Sample: Analysis of Multiple Elements in Multivitamins by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Randy J.; Arndt, Brett; Blaser, Emilia; Blosser, Chris; Caulton, Dana; Chung, Won Sog; Fiorenza, Garrett; Heath, Wyatt; Jacobs, Alex; Kahng, Eunice; Koh, Eun; Le, Thao; Mandla, Kyle; McCory, Chelsey; Newman, Laura; Pithadia, Amit; Reckelhoff, Anna; Rheinhardt, Joseph; Skljarevski, Sonja; Stuart, Jordyn; Taylor, Cassie; Thomas, Scott; Tse, Kyle; Wall, Rachel; Warkentien, Chad

    2011-01-01

    A multivitamin tablet and liquid are analyzed for the elements calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese using atomic absorption spectrometry. Linear calibration and standard addition are used for all elements except calcium, allowing for an estimate of the matrix effects encountered for this complex sample. Sample preparation using…

  16. Determination of Copper by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: A Student Exercise in Instrumental Methods of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a student exercise which requires the optimizing of the charring and atomization temperatures by producing a plot of absorbance versus temperature for each temperature parameter. Notes that although the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy technique has widespread industrial use, there are no published, structured experiments…

  17. Analysis of Intra- and Intersubject Variability in Oral Drug Absorption in Human Bioequivalence Studies of 113 Generic Products.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Masahisa; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji

    2015-12-07

    In this study, the data of 113 human bioequivalence (BE) studies of immediate release (IR) formulations of 74 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) conducted at Sawai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., was analyzed to understand the factors affecting intra- and intersubject variabilities in oral drug absorption. The ANOVA CV (%) calculated from area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) in each BE study was used as an index of intrasubject variability (Vintra), and the relative standard deviation (%) in AUC was used as that of intersubject variability (Vinter). Although no significant correlation was observed between Vintra and Vinter of all drugs, Vintra of class 3 drugs was found to increase in association with a decrease in drug permeability (P(eff)). Since the absorption of class 3 drugs was rate-limited by the permeability, it was suggested that, for such drugs, the low P(eff) might be a risk factor to cause a large intrasubject variability. To consider the impact of poor water solubility on the variability in BE study, a parameter of P(eff)/Do (Do; dose number) was defined to discriminate the solubility-limited and dissolution-rate-limited absorption of class 2 drugs. It was found that the class 2 drugs with a solubility-limited absorption (P(eff)/Do < 0.149 × 10(-4) cm/s) showed high intrasubject variability. Furthermore, as a reason for high intra- or intersubject variability in AUC for class 1 drugs, effects of drug metabolizing enzymes were investigated. It was demonstrated that intrasubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 while intersubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. For CYP3A4 substrate drugs, the Km value showed the significant relation with Vintra, indicating that the affinity to the enzyme can be a parameter to predict the risk of high intrasubject variability. In conclusion, by analyzing the in house data of human BE study, low permeability, solubility-limited absorption, and high affinity to CYP3A4 are

  18. Alternative difference analysis scheme combining R -space EXAFS fit with global optimization XANES fit for X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Fei; Tao, Ye; Zhao, Haifeng

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS), based on the laser-pump/X-ray-probe method, is powerful in capturing the change of the geometrical and electronic structure of the absorbing atom upon excitation. TR-XAS data analysis is generally performed on the laser-on minus laser-off difference spectrum. Here, a new analysis scheme is presented for the TR-XAS difference fitting in both the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) and the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) regions.R-space EXAFS difference fitting could quickly provide the main quantitative structure change of the first shell. The XANES fitting part introduces a global non-derivative optimization algorithm and optimizes the local structure changemore » in a flexible way where both the core XAS calculation package and the search method in the fitting shell are changeable. The scheme was applied to the TR-XAS difference analysis of Fe(phen) 3spin crossover complex and yielded reliable distance change and excitation population.« less

  19. Alternative difference analysis scheme combining R-space EXAFS fit with global optimization XANES fit for X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Fei; Tao, Ye; Zhao, Haifeng

    2017-07-01

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS), based on the laser-pump/X-ray-probe method, is powerful in capturing the change of the geometrical and electronic structure of the absorbing atom upon excitation. TR-XAS data analysis is generally performed on the laser-on minus laser-off difference spectrum. Here, a new analysis scheme is presented for the TR-XAS difference fitting in both the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) and the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) regions. R-space EXAFS difference fitting could quickly provide the main quantitative structure change of the first shell. The XANES fitting part introduces a global non-derivative optimization algorithm and optimizes the local structure change in a flexible way where both the core XAS calculation package and the search method in the fitting shell are changeable. The scheme was applied to the TR-XAS difference analysis of Fe(phen) 3 spin crossover complex and yielded reliable distance change and excitation population.

  20. [Multiple analysis of the difference in intestinal absorption between the main components and the extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Xin, Ran; Wang, Jin-Yan; Zhou, Lei; Yuan, Ling; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the rat intestinal absorption behavior of two main active components, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin and the extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The rat intestinal perfusion model was employed. Concentrations of the compounds of the interest in the intestinal perfusate, bile and plasma samples were determined by HPLC and UPLC. At the same time, the intestinal enzymes incubation test and the partition coefficient determination, the absorption of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin alone and the extract were multiple analyzed. The results showed that the P(eff) (effective permeability) of liquiritin or glycyrrhizin alone or the extract was less than 0.3, which suggested their poor absorption in the intestine. The P(eff) of the two main active components or the extract was not significantly different in duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum segment. The P(eff) of the glycyrrhizin in the extract had no significant difference in the four intestinal segments compared with the glycyrrhizin alone. The absorption of the liquiritin displayed significant difference (P < 0.05) at ileum segment compared with the liquiritin alone, while it had no markedly change in the other three segments. This phenomenon indicated that some ingredients in the extract might improve the absorption of liquiritin. Moreover, no parent compounds and their metabolites were found in the intestinal perfusate, bile and the plasma samples. The results demonstrated that the influence of the other ingredients in the extract on the two components might not increase the amount of liquiritin and glycyrrhizin in the bile and plasma within the duration of the test.

  1. Sensitive flotation-spectrophotometric determination of gold, based on the gold(I)-iodide-methylene blue system.

    PubMed

    Marczenko, Z; Jankowski, K

    1985-04-01

    The gold(I)-iodide-Methylene Blue (MB) system is suitable for flotation separation and spectrophotometric determination of gold. Under the optimum conditions [(MB(+))(AuI(2)(-))].3[(MB(+))(I(3)(-))] is formed, and floated with cyclohexane. The product is dissolved in methanol and its absorbance measured. The molar absorptivity is 3.4 x 10(5)1.mole(-1).cm(-1) at 655 nm. The proposed method is more than three times as sensitive as the Rhodamine B method. Pt, Pd, Ag and Hg interfere seriously, and Ir, Rh, Bi and Cd to a smaller extent. Preliminary separation of gold by precipitation with tellurium as a collector is recommended. The method has been applied to determination of gold traces (about 1 x 10(-4)%) in a copper sample.

  2. Spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of sitagliptin in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2011-03-01

    Simple, accurate and precise spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) and metformin HCL (MET). Zero order, first derivative, ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods and flourometric methods have been developed. The zero order spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL(-1). The first derivative spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL(-1) and STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL(-1) by measuring the peak amplitude at 246.5 nm and 275 nm, respectively. The first derivative of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method used the peak amplitudes at 232 nm and 239 nm for the determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL(-1). The flourometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 0.25-110 μg mL(-1). The proposed methods used to determine each drug in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product that is obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of sitagliptin. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The methods developed were satisfactorily applied to the analysis of the pharmaceutical formulations and proved to be specific and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  3. Spectroflourometric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Sitagliptin in Binary Mixture with Metformin and Ternary Mixture with Metformin and Sitagliptin Alkaline Degradation Product

    PubMed Central

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Simple, accurate and precise spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) and metformin HCL (MET). Zero order, first derivative, ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods and flourometric methods have been developed. The zero order spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL-1. The first derivative spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of MET in the range of 2–12 μg mL-1 and STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL-1 by measuring the peak amplitude at 246.5 nm and 275 nm, respectively. The first derivative of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method used the peak amplitudes at 232 nm and 239 nm for the determination of MET in the range of 2–12 μg mL-1. The flourometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 0.25-110 μg mL-1. The proposed methods used to determine each drug in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product that is obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of sitagliptin. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The methods developed were satisfactorily applied to the analysis of the pharmaceutical formulations and proved to be specific and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:23675222

  4. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  5. Spectrophotometric and visual evaluation of peri-implant soft tissue color.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Scherrer, Daniela; Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Thoma, Daniel S; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2017-02-01

    To spectrophotometrically and visually test whether the peri-implant mucosal color differs from the color of the natural gingiva. Forty single implants in the incisor and premolar region of 40 patients were assessed 3-7 years after implant placement. The differences of the color components lightness, chroma along red-green axis, chroma along yellow-blue axis, and the total color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was visually evaluated by clinicians and rated as "clinically visible" or "clinically invisible" from speaking distance. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa and gingiva at the mid-buccal aspect were evaluated by using cone-beam CT. Spearman analysis was performed to detect correlations between different variables. Two-sided t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to detect differences between the groups. The spectrophotometrically assessed color difference ΔE between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva amounted to 7.0 ± 3.9. The peri-implant mucosa presented a significant dark, greenish and bluish discoloration in comparison with gingiva at control teeth. Clinical investigation revealed that in 60% of sites the color difference between peri-implant mucosa and natural gingiva was clinically visible from speaking distance. The threshold value ΔE for the extraoral clinical distinction of mucosal color differences measured 7.5. When comparing the groups with visible and invisible color differences with respect to the three color components, a significant difference was found only for chroma along yellow-blue axis. In the group with visible color difference, mucosa presented a bluish discoloration. Correlation analysis indicated that with an increase in mucosal thickness, a trend for smaller ΔE was found. The spectrophotometrically assessed color of the peri-implant mucosa revealed more

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in rocks with thiocyanate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillie, E.G.; Greenland, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the determination of microgram amounts of molybdenum in rocks is described. After acid decomposition, molybdenum is extracted from a hydrochloric acid solution into xylene with tributyl phosphate. After back-extraction with water, molybdenum is extracted as the ??-benzoinoximate into chloroform, stripped into hydrochloric acid extracted as the thiocyanate into amyl alcohol, and determined spectrophotometrically. The molybdenum thiocyanate color produced is stable, sensitive, and reproducible. Results of analyses of several of the U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks are given. ?? 1974.

  7. Thoron-tartaric acid systems for spectrophotometric determination of thorium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Fletcher, M.H.

    1956-01-01

    Thoron is commonly used for the spectrophotometric determination of thorium. An undesirable feature of its use is its high sensitivity to zirconium. This study describes the use of tartaric acid as a masking reagent for zirconium. Three tartaric acid-thoron systems, developed for the determination of thorium, differ with respect to the concentrations of thoron and tartaric acid. Mesotartaric acid, used in one of the systems, is most effective in masking zirconium. The behavior of rarer elements, usually associated with thorium ores, is determined in two systems, and a dilution method is described for the direct determination of thorium in monazite concentrates.

  8. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride in its tablets via derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the development of a novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride (CIN) in its tablet dosage forms. Studies were carried out to investigate the reaction between CIN and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 8.5), an orange red-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 490 nm was produced. The stoichiometry and kinetic of the reaction were investigated and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was employed in the development of a simple and rapid visible-spectrophotometric method for determination of CIN in its tablets. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance with CIN concentration was obeyed in the range of 3 - 100 μg/ml with good correlation coefficient (0.9993). The molar absorptivity (ε) was 4.2 × 105 l/mol/cm. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.9 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations (RSD) did not exceed 2%. No interference was observed from the excipients that are present in the tablets. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of CIN in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.80 - 102.23 ± 1.27 - 1.62%. The results were compared favorably with those of a reference pre-validated method. The method is practical and valuable in terms of its routine application in quality control laboratories. PMID:22305461

  9. Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for estimating amisulpride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Neog, Madhurjya; Prajapati, Vipul; Patel, Hiren; Dabhi, Dipti

    2010-01-01

    Five simple, sensitive, accurate and rapid visible spectrophotometric methods (A, B, C, D and E) have been developed for estimating Amisulpride in pharmaceutical preparations. These are based on the diazotization of Amisulpride with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, followed by coupling with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (Method A), diphenylamine (Method B), beta-naphthol in an alkaline medium (Method C), resorcinol in an alkaline medium (Method D) and chromotropic acid in an alkaline medium (Method E) to form a colored chromogen. The absorption maxima, lambda(max), are at 523 nm for Method A, 382 and 490 nm for Method B, 527 nm for Method C, 521 nm for Method D and 486 nm for Method E. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5 microg mL(-1) in Method A, 5-25 and 10-50 microg mL(-1) in Method B, 4-20 microg mL(-1) in Method C, 2.5-12.5 microg mL(-1) in Method D and 5-15 microg mL(-1) in Method E. The results obtained for the proposed methods are in good agreement with labeled amounts, when marketed pharmaceutical preparations were analyzed.

  10. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of propranolol hydrochloride and piroxicam in pure and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Babu G; Seetharamappa, Jaldappa; Melwanki, Mahaveer B

    2002-06-01

    Two simple and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric methods for the assay of propranolol hydrochloride (PPH) and piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations have been proposed. The methods are based on the oxidation of PPH by a known excess of standard N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and PX by ceric ammonium sulfate (CAS) in an acidic medium followed by the reaction of excess oxidant with promethazine hydrochloride (PMH) and methdilazine hydrochloride (MDH) to yield red-colored products. The absorbance values decreased linearly with increasing concentration of the drugs. The systems obeyed Beer's law over the concentration ranges of 0.5 - 12.5 and 0.3 - 16.0 microg/ml for PPH, and 0.4 - 7.5 and 0.2 - 10 microg/ml for PX with PMH and MDH, respectively. Molar absorptivity values, as calculated from Beer's law data, were found to be 1.36 x 10(4) and 2.55 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for PPH, and 2.08 x 10(4) and 2.05 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) for PX with PMH and MDH, respectively. The common excipients and additives did not interfere with their determinations. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the determinations of PPH and PX in various dosage forms. The results obtained by the proposed methods compare favorably with those of official methods.

  11. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B.

    PubMed

    Amin, A S; Saleh, H M

    2017-08-17

    A simple spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pure and in pharmaceuticalformulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (S II ), sudan (IV) (S IV ) and sudan black B (S BB ). The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for S II , S IV and S BB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 - 31.0 μg ml -1 of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml -1 of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using S II , S IV , and S BB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Mycophenolate Mofetil as Its Charge-Transfer Complexes with Two π-Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, K. B.; Revanasiddappa, H. D.; Raghu, M. S.; Abdulrahman, Sameer. A. M.; Rajendraprasad, N.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, selective, and rapid spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) in pure form and in tablets. Both methods are based on charge-transfer complexation reaction of MPM with p-chloranilic acid (p-CA) or 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) in dioxane-acetonitrile medium resulting in coloured product measurable at 520 nm (p-CA) or 580 nm (DDQ). Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 40–400 and 12–120 μg mL−1 MPM for p-CA and DDQ, respectively, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9995 and 0.9947. The apparent molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 1.06 × 103 and 3.87 × 103 L mol−1 cm−1, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell's sensitivities are 0.4106 and 0.1119 μg cm−1. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported for both methods. The described methods were successfully applied to the determination of MPM in tablets. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method showed excellent agreement. No interference was observed from the common excipients present in tablets. Both methods were validated statistically for accuracy and precision. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition procedure. PMID:22567572

  13. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  14. Process monitored spectrophotometric titration coupled with chemometrics for simultaneous determination of mixtures of weak acids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lifu; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao

    2007-05-15

    A new spectrophotometric titration method coupled with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of mixtures of weak acids has been developed. In this method, the titrant is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and an acid-base indicator, and the indicator is used to monitor the titration process. In a process of titration, both the added volume of titrant and the solution acidity at each titration point can be obtained simultaneously from an absorption spectrum by least square algorithm, and then the concentration of each component in the mixture can be obtained from the titration curves by principal component regression. The method only needs the information of absorbance spectra to obtain the analytical results, and is free of volumetric measurements. The analyses are independent of titration end point and do not need the accurate values of dissociation constants of the indicator and the acids. The method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of benzoic acid and salicylic acid, and the mixtures of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol with satisfactory results.

  15. Application of potassium permanganate to spectrophotometric assay of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, O. Zenita; Basavaiah, K.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, sensitive, and cost-effective spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The methods are based on a redox reaction between MCP and KMnO4 in alkaline and acid media. Direct spectrophotometry (method A) involves treating MCP with permanganate in an NaOH medium and measuring a bluish green product at 610 nm. In indirect spectrophotometry (method B), MCP is treated with a fixed concentration of KMnO4 in an H2SO4 medium, and after a specified time, the unreacted KMnO4 is measured at 545 nm. Under optimum assay conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the ranges of 0.75-12.0 and 2.5-30.0 g/ml for methods A and B, respectively. Molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.33•104 and 2.66•104 l/mol cm for methods A and B, respectively, and corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values are 0.015 and 0.013 g/cm2. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported. The applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by the determination of MCP in tablet and injection forms. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of uric acid and some redeterminations of its solubility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Plunkett, M.A.; Richards, F.A.

    1954-01-01

    The present study was initiated in order to develop a rapid and accurate method for the determination of uric acid in fresh, brackish, and sea water. It was found that the spectrophotometric determination of uric acid based upon its reaction with arsenophosphotungstic acid reagent in the presence of cyanide ion meets this objective. The absorbancy of the blue complex was measured at 890 m??. Slight variations from Beer's law were generally found. The results show the effects of pH, reaction time, concentration of reagents, and temperature upon color development and precipitate formation. Disodium dihydrogen ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Versene) was used as a buffering and complexirig agent. The results are significant in that they give the absorption spectrum of the blue complex and the effects of variables upon its absorbancy. Studies were made with the method to determine the stability of reagents and standard solutions and to determine the rate of bacterial decomposition of uric acid. Measurements of the solubility of uric acid are reported.

  17. Development and Validation of New Spectrophotometric Methods to Determine Enrofloxacin in Pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2015-07-01

    Four spectrophotometric methods, based on oxidation with cerium(IV), are investigated and developed to determine EFX in pure form and in dosage forms. The frst and second methods (Method A and method B) are direct, in which after the oxidation of EFX with cerium(IV) in acid medium, the absorbance of reduced and unreacted oxidant is measured at 275 and 320 nm, respectively. In the third (C) and fourth (D) methods after the reaction between EFX and oxidant is ensured to be completed the surplus oxidant is treated with either N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPA) or Alizarin Red S (ARS) dye and the absorbance of the oxidized NPA or ARS is measured at 440 or 420 nm. The methods showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 0.5-5.0, 1.25-12.5, 10.0-100.0, and 6.0-60.0 μg/ml, for method A, B, C and D, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 4.42 × 10 4 , 8.7 × 10 3 , 9.31 × 10 2 , and 2.28 × 10 3 l/(mol· cm). The limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), and Sandell's sensitivity values and other validation results have also been reported. The proposed methods are successfully applied to determine EFX in pure form and in dosage forms.

  18. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R.; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Hancock, Gus

    2011-01-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations. PMID:21512147

  19. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations.

  20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoprolol Tartrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms on Complex Formation with Cu(II)

    PubMed Central

    Cesme, Mustafa; Tarinc, Derya; Golcu, Aysegul

    2011-01-01

    A new, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of metoprolol tartrate (MPT), which is based on the complexation of drug with copper(II) [Cu(II)] at pH 6.0, using Britton-Robinson buffer solution, to produce a blue adduct. The latter has a maximum absorbance at 675 nm and obeys Beer's law within the concentration range 8.5-70 μg/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.998) with a limit of detection of 5.56 μg/mL. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of this drug in its tablets. In addition, the spectral data and stability constant for the binuclear copper(II) complex of MPT (Cu2MPT2Cl2) have been reported.

  1. Validated stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Silodosin in the presence of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Boltia, Shereen A; Abdelkawy, Mohammed; Mohammed, Taghreed A; Mostafa, Nahla N

    2018-09-05

    Five simple, rapid, accurate, and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of Silodosin (SLD) in the presence of its acid induced and oxidative induced degradation products. Method A is based on dual wavelength (DW) method; two wavelengths are selected at which the absorbance of the oxidative induced degradation product is the same, so wavelengths 352 and 377 nm are used to determine SLD in the presence of its oxidative induced degradation product. Method B depends on induced dual wavelength theory (IDW), which is based on selecting two wavelengths on the zero-order spectrum of SLD where the difference in absorbance between them for the spectrum of acid induced degradation products is not equal to zero so through multiplying by the equality factor, the absorption difference is made to be zero for the acid induced degradation product while it is still significant for SLD. Method C is first derivative ( 1 D) spectrophotometry of SLD and its degradation products. Peak amplitudes are measured at 317 and 357 nm. Method D is ratio difference spectrophotometry (RD) where the drug is determined by the difference in amplitude between two selected wavelengths, at 350 and 277 nm for the ratio spectrum of SLD and its acid induced degradation products while for the ratio spectrum of SLD and its oxidative induced degradation products the difference in amplitude is measured at 345 and 292 nm. Method E depends on measuring peak amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio ( 1 DD) where peak amplitudes are measured at 330 nm in the presence of the acid induced degradation product and measured by peak to peak technique at 326 and 369 nm in the presence of the oxidative induced degradation product. The proposed methods are validated according to ICH recommendations. The calibration curves for all the proposed methods are linear over a concentration range of 5-70 μg/mL. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using different

  2. Excited state absorption spectra of dissolved and aggregated distyrylbenzene: A TD-DFT state and vibronic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliezer Fernando; Shi, Junqing; Lavarda, Francisco Carlos; Lüer, Larry; Milián-Medina, Begoña; Gierschner, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    A time-dependent density functional theory study is performed to reveal the excited state absorption (ESA) features of distyrylbenzene (DSB), a prototype π-conjugated organic oligomer. Starting with a didactic insight to ESA based on simple molecular orbital and configuration considerations, the performance of various density functional theory functionals is tested to reveal the full vibronic ESA features of DSB at short and long probe delay times.

  3. Spectral Analysis and Metastable Absorption Measurements of High Pressure Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency Argon-Helium Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    density of the s5 and s3 metastable states for different discharge parameters. The absorption data was fit to an approximated Voigt profile from which...pressures are required in order to have enough spin-orbit relaxation to maintain CW lasing without significant bottlenecking. There are many methods to...for just that [(5),(12)]. This method allows for a wide study of energy levels since the limiting factor is the sensitivity of the detector and modern

  4. Forced-flow chromatographic determination of calcium and magnesium with continuous spectrophotometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, M.D.

    1977-12-01

    Modifications to the forced-flow chromatograph include a flow-through pH monitor to continuously monitor the pH of the final effluent and an active low-pass filter to eliminate noise in the spectrophotometric detector. All separations are performed using partially sulfonated XAD-2 as the ion exchanger. Elution of calcium and magnesium is accomplished using ammonium chloride and ethylenediammonium chloride solutions. Calcium and magnesium are detected by means of Arsenazo I and PAR-ZnEDTA color-forming reagents. Other metal ions are detected by means of PAR and Chromazurol S color-forming reagents. Calcium and magnesium distribution coefficients on partially sulfonated XAD-2 as functions of ammonium chloride andmore » ethylenediammonium chloride concentration are given together with distribution coefficients of other metal ions. Methods for the selective elution of interfering metal ions prior to the elution of calcium and magnesium are described. Beryllium and aluminum are selectively eluted with sulfosalicylic acid. Those elements forming anionic chloride complexes are selectively eluted with HCl-acetone. Nickel is selectively eluted with HCl-acetone-dimethylglyoxime. Synthetic samples containing calcium and magnesium, both alone and in combination with alkali metals, strontium, barium, beryllium, aluminum, transition metals, and rare earths, are analyzed. Hard water samples are analyzed for calcium and magnesium and the results compared to those obtained by EDTA titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and plasma emission spectroscopy. Several clinical serum samples are analyzed for calcium and magnesium and the results compared to those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.« less

  5. Synergistic liquid-liquid extractive spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Ganesh S; Kolekar, Sanjay S; Han, Sung H; Anuse, Mansing A

    2010-05-15

    Synergistic liquid-liquid extractive spectrophotometric determination of gold(III) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydro pyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] has been described. Equal volumes (5cm(3)) of the 2',4'-dinitro APTPT (0.02molL(-1)) in the presence of pyridine (0.5molL(-1)) form an orange-red coloured ternary complex with gold(III) of molar ratio 1:1:1 at pH 1.8-2.4 with 5min of shaking. The absorbance of coloured organic layer in 1,2-dichloroethane is measured spectrophotometrically at 445nm against reagent blank. A pronounced synergism has been observed by the binary mixture of 2',4'-dinitro APTPT and pyridine, which shows that the enhancement in the absorbance is observed in the presence of pyridine by the adduct formation in the organic phase. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 2.5-20.0microgmL(-1), with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of 8.7x10(3)dm(3)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.023microgcm(-2) respectively. A repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) (n=10) which was 0.17%. The composition of the gold(III)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine adduct was established by slope analysis, molar ratio and Job's method. The ternary complex was stable for more than 48h. The influence of various factors such as pH, 2',4'-dinitro APTPT concentration, solvent and pyridine on the degree of complexation has been established. A number of foreign ions tested for their interferences and use of suitable masking agents wherever necessary are tabulated, which show that selectivity of the method has been enhanced. The method is successfully employed for the determination of gold(III) in binary, synthetic mixtures and ayurvedic samples. The reliability of the method is assured by inter-comparison of experimental values, using an atomic absorption spectrometer.

  6. Analysis of Mars surface hydration through the MEx/OMEGA observation of the 3 μm absorption band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouglet, D.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    The near infrared Mars surface global mapping done by OMEGA gives the first opportunity to study the global and detailed characteristics of the 3µm hydration absorption band on Mars surface. This feature is indistinctly due to bending and stretching vibrations of water bound in minerals or adsorbed at their surface, and of hydroxyl groups (for a review, see e.g. [1] or [2]). Its study may give new elements to determine the geologic and climatic past of Mars, and may put new constrain about the current water cycle of Mars. OMEGA data are processed in a pipeline that converts raw data to radiance, removes atmospheric effects and gets I/F. Specific data reduction scheme has been developed to assess temperature of OMEGA spectra at 5 µm and to remove their thermal part so as to get the albedo from 1.µm to 5.1µm ([2]). Two methods, the Integrated Band Depth and the water content based on comparison with laboratory measures of Yen et al. ([3]), have been used to assess the 3µm band depth. These two methods where applied to OMEGA spectra acquired at a nominal calibration level and not exhibiting water ice features. This corresponds to approximately 35 million spectra ([2]). The data processed show the presence of this absorption feature overall the Martian surface, which could be explained by the presence of adsorbed water up to 1% water mass percentage ([4]) and by rinds or coating resulting from weathering (see e.g. [5] or [6]). A possible increase of hydration with albedo is discussed so as to discriminate between the albedo-dependence of the method and hydration variations. Terrains enriched in phyllosilicates ([7]), sulfates ([8]) or hydroxides exhibit an increased hydration at 3 µm. This terrains show that the 3 µm band can bring additional information about composition, for example by observing a variation in the shape of the band. A decrease of hydration with elevation is observed on the processed data independently of the value of albedo. This correlation

  7. HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Estimation of Febuxostat and Diclofenac Potassium in Their Combined Tablets.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Fawzi A; Amin, Omayma A; El-Kimary, Eman I; Khamis, Essam F; Younis, Sameh E

    2016-08-01

    An accurate, precise, rapid, specific and economic high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of febuxostat (FEB) and diclofenac potassium (DIC). The chromatographic separation was performed on precoated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform-methanol 7:3 (v/v) as the mobile phase. The developed plates were scanned and quantified at 289 nm. Experimental conditions including band size, mobile phase composition and chamber-saturation time were critically studied, and the optimum conditions were selected. A satisfactory resolution (Rs = 2.67) with RF 0.48 and 0.69 and high sensitivity with limits of detection of 4 and 7 ng/band for FEB and DIC, respectively, were obtained. In addition, derivative ratio and ratio difference spectrophotometric methods were established for the analysis of such a mixture. All methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines. In the HPTLC method, the calibration plots were linear between 0.01-0.55 and 0.02-0.60 µg/band, for FEB and DIC, respectively. For the spectrophotometric methods, the calibration graphs were linear between 2-14 and 4-18 µg/mL for FEB and DIC, respectively. The simplicity and specificity of the proposed methods suggest their application in quality control analysis of FEB and DIC in their raw materials and tablets. A comparison of the proposed methods with the existing methods is presented. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today's rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator's molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg(-1) and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  9. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  10. Precision Spectrophotometric Calibration System for Dark Energy Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, Michael S.

    2015-06-30

    For this research we build a precision calibration system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric calibration system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric calibration at the sub-pixel level. The calibration system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that amore » complete spectrophotometric calibration standard for spectroscopic survey instruments such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.« less

  11. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process. PMID:26120588

  12. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-05-20

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  13. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  14. Absorption, psychological boundaries and attitude towards dreams as correlates of dream recall: two decades of research seen through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Zadra, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Many studies have reported positive correlations between dream recall frequency (DRF) and measures of absorption, psychological boundaries and attitude towards dreams. A majority of these studies, however, have relied exclusively on retrospective measures of DRF even though daily dream logs are generally considered to be more direct and valid measures of DRF. The first goal of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect sizes of three variables (absorption, psychological boundaries and attitude towards dreams) as correlates of DRF. The second goal was to evaluate if these effect sizes varied as a function of how DRF was operationalized (i.e. retrospective measure versus dream log). Data from 24 studies were included in the analyses. For each of the three variables investigated, correlations with retrospective measures of DRF were of greater magnitude than those obtained with daily logs. These results indicate that scores on measures of absorption and psychological boundaries are not related to DRF per se, but rather to people's tendency to retrospectively underestimate or overestimate their DRF, while attitude towards dreams is related both to DRF per se and to people's retrospective estimation bias. Implications of these findings for dream research are discussed.

  15. Color Stability of New Esthetic Restorative Materials: A Spectrophotometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vialba, Lodovico; Federico, Ricaldone; Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the color stability of different esthetic restorative materials (one microfilled composite, one nanofilled composite, one nanoceramic composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one nanohybrid Ormocer based composite and one supra-nano spherical hybrid composite) after exposure to different staining solutions (physiological saline, red wine, coffee). All materials were prepared and polymerized into silicon rings (2 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm) to obtain specimens identical in size. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each material were prepared. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions (physiological saline, coffee and red wine) over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. The Shapiro–Wilk test and ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. A paired t-test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. All restorative materials showed significant color differences after immersion in coffee. Coffee caused a significant color change in all types of tested composite resins. Only Filtek Supreme XTE demonstrated a staining susceptibility to red wine; no other significant differences among the materials were demonstrated. Long-term exposure to some food dyes (coffee in particular) can significantly affect the color stability of modern esthetic restorative materials regardless of materials’ different compositions. PMID:28684672

  16. Color stability of esthetic restorative materials: a spectrophotometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Mirando, Maria; Wassim, Jaffal; Colombo, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of different restorative materials (one microfilled composite, one nanofilled composite, one nanohybrid composite and one Ormocer-based composite) after exposure to different staining solutions (coffee, coca-cola and red wine). Material and methods: All materials were polymerized into silicon rings (2 mm ×6 mm ×8 mm) to obtain specimens identical in size. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each material were prepared. They were immersed in staining solutions over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. The paired t -test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. Results: All restorative materials showed clinically perceptible color differences after immersion in coffee. L* and b* values showed the highest variability. Coca cola and red wine did not influence the color stability for all restorative materials except for Filtek Supreme XTE. Conclusions: Coffee caused a significant color change in all types of tested composite resins. Filtek Supreme XTE demonstrated alone a staining susceptibility to red wine; no other significant differences among the materials were demonstrated. Long-term exposure to some food dyes (coffee in particular) can significantly affect the color stability of modern esthetic restorative materials regardless of materials' different composition.

  17. Color Stability of New Esthetic Restorative Materials: A Spectrophotometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Vialba, Lodovico; Berardengo, Anna; Federico, Ricaldone; Colombo, Marco; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-07-06

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the color stability of different esthetic restorative materials (one microfilled composite, one nanofilled composite, one nanoceramic composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one microfilled hybrid composite, one nanohybrid Ormocer based composite and one supra-nano spherical hybrid composite) after exposure to different staining solutions (physiological saline, red wine, coffee). All materials were prepared and polymerized into silicon rings (2 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm) to obtain specimens identical in size. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each material were prepared. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions (physiological saline, coffee and red wine) over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. The Shapiro-Wilk test and ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. A paired t -test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. All restorative materials showed significant color differences after immersion in coffee. Coffee caused a significant color change in all types of tested composite resins. Only Filtek Supreme XTE demonstrated a staining susceptibility to red wine; no other significant differences among the materials were demonstrated. Long-term exposure to some food dyes (coffee in particular) can significantly affect the color stability of modern esthetic restorative materials regardless of materials' different compositions.

  18. Comparison between layers stacks of 67P/CG comet and spectrophotometric variability obtained from OSIRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Penasa, L.; La Forgia, F.; Massironi, M.; Naletto, G.; Lazzarin, M.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Lucchetti, A.; Pajola, M.; Frattin, E.; Bertini, I.; Ferri, F.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Rosetta/OSIRIS cameras unveiled the layered nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, suggesting that the comet bilobate shape results from the low-velocity merging of two independent onion-like objects. Several physiographical regions of the southern-hemisphere big lobe show stacks of layers forming high scarps, terraces and mesas. A spectrophotometric analysis of OSIRIS images based on multispectral data classifications was conducted in order to identify possible morphological, textural and/or compositional characters that allow to distinguish regional stacks of layers.

  19. Analysis of absorption and spreading of moisturizer on the microscopic region of the skin surface with near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, H; Yanai, M; Egawa, M

    2016-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light with high water absorption enables us to visualize the water content distribution appeared in the superficial skin layer. The light penetration depth with the wavelength of 1920 nm is almost 100 μm from the skin surface. Thus, the water distribution in the stratum corneum can be effectively imaged by detecting the wavelength band around 1920 nm. The aim of this article was to measure the time-lapse behavior of the tiny droplet of the moisturizer spreading on the skin surface by imaging in 1920 nm wavelength band for investigating the correlation with the traditional index of the skin condition such as the water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Experiment is performed with three moisturizer products and seven volunteer subjects. The NIR image is acquired by an originally designed imaging scope equipped with the white light of the strong brightness [super continuum (SC) light], the bandpass filter with the center wavelength of 1920 nm, and the NIR image sensor. A tiny droplet of the moisturizer is put on the surface of the skin and the time-lapse images are saved. Each acquired image is analyzed from a view point of the droplet area and elapsed time for absorption into the skin. The water content and TEWL of all subjects are measured by the conventional electrical method for investigating the relationship with the measured droplet dynamics parameters. Elapsed time for moisturizer droplet to be absorbed into the skin, the droplet area just before absorption for three moisturizer products, skin water contents, and TEWL for seven subjects were measured and correlation coefficients for each parameters were calculated. It was found that the skin with higher water contents or lower TEWL absorbed the moisturizer faster and spreads moisturizer wider. Also absorption and spreading speed depend on moisturizer property (moisturizing or fresh) which is originated from the moisturizer constituents. The correlation values between the

  20. Four Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R in Drinks and Comparison with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Turak, Fatma; Dinç, Mithat; Dülger, Öznur; Özgür, Mahmure Ustun

    2014-01-01

    Four simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two food colorants, Carmoisine (E122) and Ponceau 4R (E124), in their binary mixtures and soft drinks. The first method is based on recording the first derivative curves and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The second method uses the first derivative of ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of the binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, derivative differential procedure, is based on the measurement of difference absorptivities derivatized in first order of solution of drink samples in 0,1 N NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0,1 N HCl at wavelengths of 366 and 451 nm for Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R, respectively. The last method, based on the compensation method is presented for derivative spectrophotometric determination of E122 and E124 mixtures with overlapping spectra. By using ratios of the derivative maxima, the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. These proposed methods have been successfully applied to the binary mixtures and soft drinks and the results were statistically compared with the reference HPLC method (NMKL 130). PMID:24672549

  1. Determination of trace and minor elements in alloys by atomic-absorption spectroscopy using an induction-heated graphite-well furnace as atom source-II.

    PubMed

    Ashy, M A; Headridge, J B; Sowerbutts, A

    1974-06-01

    Results are presented for the atomic-absorption spectrophotometric determination of zinc in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloys, and aluminium, antimony and tin in steels, by means of solid samples dropped into an induction-heated graphite-well furnace to produce the atomic vapour.

  2. Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (Δl), chroma (Δc), hue (Δh) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, Δl and Δh values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and Δc values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P < 0.05). At the end of the procedure both spectrophotometric and digital imaging analysis showed ZWB was the most effective product among the others while Yotuel and Happy Smile were the least (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Home-bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

  3. Statistical modelling coupled with LC-MS analysis to predict human upper intestinal absorption of phytochemical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Selby-Pham, Sophie N B; Howell, Kate S; Dunshea, Frank R; Ludbey, Joel; Lutz, Adrian; Bennett, Louise

    2018-04-15

    A diet rich in phytochemicals confers benefits for health by reducing the risk of chronic diseases via regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal protective bio-efficacy, the time required for phytochemicals and their metabolites to reach maximal plasma concentrations (T max ) should be synchronised with the time of increased OSI. A statistical model has been reported to predict T max of individual phytochemicals based on molecular mass and lipophilicity. We report the application of the model for predicting the absorption profile of an uncharacterised phytochemical mixture, herein referred to as the 'functional fingerprint'. First, chemical profiles of phytochemical extracts were acquired using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), then the molecular features for respective components were used to predict their plasma absorption maximum, based on molecular mass and lipophilicity. This method of 'functional fingerprinting' of plant extracts represents a novel tool for understanding and optimising the health efficacy of plant extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic studies of charge transfer complexes of p-toluidine as an electron donor with picric acid as an electron acceptor in different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neeti; Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq

    2010-04-01

    The charge transfer complexes of the donor p-toluidine with π-acceptor picric acid have been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane acetone, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature using absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate that formation of CTC in non-polar solvent is high. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 ratio by straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant ( KCT), molar extinction coefficient ( ɛCT), standard free energy (Δ Go), oscillator strength ( f), transition dipole moment ( μEN), resonance energy ( RN) and ionization potential ( ID). The results indicate that the formation constant ( KCT) for the complex was shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents that were used.

  5. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200–300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene. PMID:27929387

  6. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-12-05

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  7. Spectra resolution for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lamivudine and zidovudine components in pharmaceutical formulation of human immunodeficiency virus drug based on using continuous wavelet transform and derivative transform techniques.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Tayefeh Zarkesh, Mahshid

    2014-05-01

    In the present paper, two spectrophotometric methods based on signal processing are proposed for the simultaneous determination of two components of an anti-HIV drug called lamivudine (LMV) and zidovudine (ZDV). The proposed methods are applied to synthetic binary mixtures and commercial pharmaceutical tablets without the need for any chemical separation procedures. The developed methods are based on the application of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Derivative Spectrophotometry (DS) combined with the zero cross point technique. The Daubechies (db5) wavelet family (242 nm) and Dmey wavelet family (236 nm) were found to give the best results under optimum conditions for simultaneous analysis of lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively. In addition, the first derivative absorption spectra were selected for the determination of lamivudine and zidovudine at 266 nm and 248 nm, respectively. Assaying various synthetic mixtures of the components validated the presented methods. Mean recovery values were found to be between 100.31% and 100.2% for CWT and 99.42% and 97.37% for DS, respectively for determination of LMV and ZDV. The results obtained from analyzing the real samples by the proposed methods were compared to the HPLC reference method. One-way ANOVA test at 95% confidence level was applied to the results. The statistical data from comparing the proposed methods with the reference method showed no significant differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonenzymic spectrophotometric determination of potential poison ivy cross-reactors.

    PubMed

    Quattrone, A J

    1977-03-01

    I describe an inexpensive, nonenzymic analytical system for prescreening substances that might cross-react as Rhus toxing (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak, and sumac allergens) on human skin. By spectrophotometric assay after incubation with an oxidizing mixture of Cu(II)ammine complex and ammonium persulfate, I could accurately and reproducibly determine o-quinoidal products of several potential synthetic cross-reactors and native poison ivy allergen, and could distinguish these from catecholamines, resorcinol, p-hydroquinone, and a closely related phenol. A good correlation was obtained between this nonenzymic technique and an enzymic assay. This Cu(II)ammine/persulfate oxidative assay, however, is inexpensive and obviates any spectral interference from enzymic proteins.

  9. Sequential injection spectrophotometric determination of oxybenzone in lipsticks.

    PubMed

    Salvador, A; Chisvert, A; Camarasa, A; Pascual-Martí, M C; March, J G

    2001-08-01

    A sequential injection (SI) procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of oxybenzone in lipsticks is reported. The colorimetric reaction between nickel and oxybenzone was used. SI parameters such as sample solution volume, reagent solution volume, propulsion flow rate and reaction coil length were studied. The limit of detection was 3 microg ml(-1). The sensitivity was 0.0108+/-0.0002 ml microg(-1). The relative standard deviations of the results were between 6 and 12%. The real concentrations of samples and the values obtained by HPLC were comparable. Microwave sample pre-treatment allowed the extraction of oxybenzone with ethanol, thus avoiding the use of toxic organic solvents. Ethanol was also used as carrier in the SI system. Seventy-two injections per hour can be performed, which means a sample frequency of 24 h(-1) if three replicates are measured for each sample.

  10. Spectrophotometric estimation of bromide ion in excess chloride media.

    PubMed

    Adimurthy, S; Susarla, V R K S; Reddy, M P; Ramachandraiah, G

    2005-10-31

    The redox reaction between bromate and chloride ions in the presence and the absence of two or less equivalents of bromide ion ascertaining the formation of bromine chloride species of type BrCl and BrCl(2)(-) in subsequent reactions in 4% H(2)SO(4), has been studied by spectrophotometry. Calibration graphs for the bromide ion estimation in 0.1% KBrO(3)-4% H(2)SO(4) medium are determined separately in the presence of known amounts of NaCl. The effect of Cl(-) ion percentage on the determination of Br(-) ion is studied and reported herewith a suitable equation for a precise, reliable and quick spectrophotometric estimation.

  11. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Nitazoxanide and Ofloxacin in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Game, Madhuri D.; Sakarkar, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of nitazoxanide and ofloxacin in tablets. Method I is Q-absorbance ratio method which involves Q-absorbance at isobestic point (306.25 nm) and max (347.5 nm) of nitazoxanide, while method II is two wavelength method, where 244.6 nm and 273.0 nm were selected as 1 and 2 for determination of nitazoxanide and 294.3 nm and 388.1 nm were selected as 3 and 4 for determination of ofloxacin. Both drugs obeyed the Beer's law in the concentration range 2-30 μg/ml,correlation coefficient (r2<1). Both methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out to confirm the accuracy. Commercial tablet formulation was successfully analyzed using the developed methods. PMID:22131624

  12. Validation of a spectrophotometric method for quantification of carboxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Paulo D; Leyton, Jaime F; Strombech, Maria de Lourdes C; Ponce, Julio C; Jesus, Maria das Graças S; Leyton, Vilma

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in blood is a valuable procedure to confirm exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) either for forensic or occupational matters. A previously described method using spectrophotometric readings at 420 and 432 nm after reduction of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and methemoglobin with sodium hydrosulfite solution leads to an exponential curve. This curve, used with pre-established factors, serves well for lower concentrations (1-7%) or for high concentrations (> 20%) but very rarely for both. The authors have observed that small variations on the previously described factors F1, F2, and F3, obtained from readings for 100% COHb and 100% O(2)Hb, turn into significant changes in COHb% results and propose that these factors should be determined every time COHb is measured by reading CO and O(2) saturated samples. This practice leads to an increase in accuracy and precision.

  13. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  14. Spectrophotometric observations of symbiotic stars and related objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W. P.; Feibelman, W. A.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Stencel, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Calibrated optical spectrophotometric observations of 16 symbiotic and symbiotic-like objects are presented. The objects observed include Z And, T CrB, CH Cyg, CI Cyg, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, AG Dra, YY Her, RS Oph, XX Oph, AG Peg, AX Per, CL Sco, HM Sge, AS 289, and M1-2. Integrated emission-line intensities are tabulated for comparison with ultraviolet and infrared data, as well as with previous optical studies. The reddening to each of the objects is derived by assuming that Balmer lines are emitted in their case B recombination ratios. However, the values so derived are often systematically higher than reddening estimates from the ultraviolet 2200 A feature. Comparisons with the available data from other wavelength ranges are noted.

  15. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of traces of bromide in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, M. J.; Skougstad, M.W.

    1963-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of bromide in natural waters is based on the catalytic effect of bromide on the oxidation of iodine to iodate by potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid solution. The method is applicable to concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ??g. of bromide per liter, but may be modified to extend the concentration range. Most ions commonly occurring in water do not interfere. The standard deviation is 2.9 at bromide concentrations of 100 ??g. per liter and less at lower concentrations. The determination of bromide in samples containing known added amounts gave values ranging from 99 to 105% of the concentration calculated to be present.

  16. An efficient absorbing system for spectrophotometric determination of nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveeshwar, Rachana; Amlathe, Sulbha; Gupta, V. K.

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide using o-nitroaniline as an efficient absorbing, as well as diazotizing, reagent is described. o-Nitroaniline present in the absorbing medium is diazotized by the absorbed nitrite ion to form diazonium compound. This is later coupled with 1-amino-2-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in acidic medium to give red-violet-coloured dye,having λmax = 545 nm. The isoamyl extract of the red azo dye has λmax = 530 nm. The proposed reagents has ≈ 100% collection efficiency and the stoichiometric ratio of NO 2:NO 2- is 0.74. The other important analytical parameters have been investigated. By employing solvent extraction the sensitivity of the reaction was increased and up to 0.03 mg m -3 nitrogen dioxide could be estimated.

  17. DLLME-spectrophotometric determination of glyphosate residue in legumes.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Emine; Şahan, Serkan; Ülgen, Ahmet; Şahin, Uğur

    2017-09-01

    A new separation and pre-concentration method for spectrophotometric determination of glyphosate herbicide was developed. Glyphosate was converted into dithiocarbamic acid with CS 2 , followed by copper in the presence of ammonia to promote complex formation. This complex was collected in a CH 2 Cl 2 organic drop and absorbance measured at 435nm. The analytical parameters, such as the amount of NH 3 , Cu(II) and CS 2 , type of extraction solutions, and the ratio of dispersive and organic liquids were optimized. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.5-10mgl -1 . The limits of detection and quantification were calculated from 3s to 10s criterions as 0.21mgl -1 and 0.70mgl -1 , respectively. The developed method was applied to legume samples with the satisfactory recovery values of 98±4-102±3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic analysis of reactive oxygen nitrogen species in plasma-activated culture medium by UV absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Timothy R.; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Oh, Jun-Seok; Kondo, Hiroki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Knecht, Sean D.; Bilén, Sven G.; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    The liquid-phase chemical kinetics of a cell culture basal medium during treatment by an argon-fed, non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma source were investigated using real-time ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and colorimetric assays. Depth- and time-resolved NO2- and NO3- concentrations were strongly inhomogeneous and primarily driven by convection during and after plasma-liquid interactions. H2O2 concentrations determined from deconvolved optical depth spectra were found to compensate for the optical depth spectra of excluded reactive species and changes in dissolved gas content. Plasma-activated media remained weakly basic due to NaHCO3 buffering, preventing the H+-catalyzed decomposition of NO2- seen in acidic plasma-activated water. An initial increase in pH may indicate CO2 sparging. Furthermore, the pH-dependency of UV optical depth spectra illustrated the need for pH compensation in the fitting of optical depth data.

  19. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  20. Conformational analysis and global warming potentials of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol from absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Paul J.; Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Absorption cross-sections of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) were derived from Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from 530 to 3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 300-362 K. These results were compared to previously published experimental measurements made at room temperature and to a theoretical spectrum from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Good agreement is found between the experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. The only temperature dependence observed was in the amplitude of some of the absorption peaks due to the changing ratio of the stable conformations of HFIP. This temperature dependence does not result in a significant trend in integrated band strength as a function of temperature. The average value for integrated band strength is found to be (2.649 ± 0.065)x10-16 cm molecule-1 for HFIP over the spectral range of 595 to 3010 cm-1. Radiative efficiency (RE) and the global warming potential (GWP) for HFIP were also derived. A RE of 0.293 ± 0.059 Wm-2ppbv-1 is derived, which leads to a GWP100 of 188 in the range of 530 to 3000 cm-1. The DFT calculation is linearly adjusted to match the experimental spectrum. Using this adjusted DFT spectrum to expand the range below 530 to 0 cm-1 , increases the RE to 0.317 ± 0.063 Wm-2ppbv-1 and the GWP100 to 203.

  1. Development and Validation of Chemometric Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin and Nicotinic Acid in Binary Combinations.

    PubMed

    Alahmad, Shoeb; Elfatatry, Hamed M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Hammad, Sherin F; Mansour, Fotouh R

    2018-01-01

    The development and introduction of combined therapy represent a challenge for analysis due to severe overlapping of their UV spectra in case of spectroscopy or the requirement of a long tedious and high cost separation technique in case of chromatography. Quality control laboratories have to develop and validate suitable analytical procedures in order to assay such multi component preparations. New spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin (SIM) and nicotinic acid (NIA) in binary combinations were developed. These methods are based on chemometric treatment of data, the applied chemometric techniques are multivariate methods including classical least squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). In these techniques, the concentration data matrix were prepared by using the synthetic mixtures containing SIM and NIA dissolved in ethanol. The absorbance data matrix corresponding to the concentration data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbance at 12 wavelengths in the range 216 - 240 nm at 2 nm intervals in the zero-order. The spectrophotometric procedures do not require any separation step. The accuracy, precision and the linearity ranges of the methods have been determined and validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the studied drugs. Chemometric spectrophotometric methods have been developed in the present study for the simultaneous determination of simvastatin and nicotinic acid in their synthetic binary mixtures and in their mixtures with possible excipients present in tablet dosage form. The validation was performed successfully. The developed methods have been shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and so simple. The developed methods can be used routinely for the determination dosage form. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, M. A.; Feller, C.; Besse, S.; Leyrat, C.; Lara, L.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.; Scholten, F.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Michalik, H.; Moreno, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Pajola, M.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Shi, X.; Snodgrass, C.; Thomas, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. Aims: We present results for the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of 67P derived from the OSIRIS imaging system, which consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The observations presented here were performed during July and the beginning of August 2014, during the approach phase, when OSIRIS was mapping the surface of the comet with several filters at different phase angles (1.3°-54°). The resolution reached up to 2.1 m/px. Methods: The OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline, then converted into I/F radiance factors and corrected for the illumination conditions at each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. Color cubes of the surface were produced by stacking registered and illumination-corrected images. Furthermore, photometric analysis was performed both on disk-averaged photometry in several filters and on disk-resolved images acquired with the NAC orange filter, centered at 649 nm, using Hapke modeling. Results: The disk-averaged phase function of the nucleus of 67P shows a strong opposition surge with a G parameter value of -0.13 ± 0.01 in the HG system formalism and an absolute magnitude Hv(1,1,0) = 15.74 ± 0.02 mag. The integrated spectrophotometry in 20 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range shows a red spectral behavior, without clear absorption bands except for a potential absorption centered at ~290 nm that is possibly due to SO2 ice. The nucleus shows strong phase reddening, with disk-averaged spectral slopes increasing from 11%/(100 nm) to 16%/(100 nm) in the 1.3°-54° phase angle range. The geometric albedo of the comet is 6.5 ± 0.2% at 649 nm, with

  3. Cluster size resolving analysis of CH3F-(ortho-H2)n in solid para-hydrogen using FTIR absorption spectroscopy at 3 μm region.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Momose, Takamasa; Kanamori, Hideto

    2012-11-21

    Infrared absorption spectra of methyl fluoride with ortho-hydrogen (ortho-H(2)) clusters in a solid para-hydrogen (para-H(2)) crystal at 3.6 K were studied in the C-H stretching fundamental region (~3000 cm(-1)) using an FTIR spectrometer. As shown previously, the ν(3) C-F stretching fundamental band of CH(3)F-(ortho-H(2))(n) (n = 0, 1, 2, ...) clusters at 1040 cm(-1) shows a series of n discrete absorption lines, which correspond to different-sized clusters. We observed three unresolved broad peaks in the C-H stretching region and applied this cluster model to them assuming the same intensity distribution function as the ν(3) band. A fitting analysis successfully gave us the linewidth and lineshift of the components in each vibrational band. It was found that the separately determined linewidth, matrix shift of the band origin, and cluster shift are dependent on the vibrational mode. From the transition intensities of the monomer component derived from the fitting analysis, we discuss the mixing ratio of the vibrational modes due to Fermi resonance.

  4. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic determination of insensitive energetic materials: HNS and NTO, in the presence of sensitive nitro-explosives.

    PubMed

    Can, Ziya; Uzer, Ayşem; Tekdemir, Yasemin; Erçağ, Erol; Türker, Lemi; Apak, Reşat

    2012-02-15

    As there are no molecular spectroscopic determination methods for the most widely used insensitive energetic materials, 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (NTO), in the presence of sensitive nitro-explosives, two novel spectrophotometric methods were developed. For HNS and TNT mixtures, both analytes react with dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) forming different colored charge-transfer complexes, which can be resolved by derivative spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric method for NTO measures the 416-nm absorbance of its yellow-colored Na(+)NTO(-) salt formed with NaOH. TNT, if present, is pre-extracted into IBMK as its Meisenheimer anion forming an ion-pair with the cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium (CP(+)) in alkaline medium, whereas the unextracted NTO is determined in the aqueous phase. The molar absorptivity (ε, L mol(-1)cm(-1)) and limit of quantification (LOQ, mg L(-1)) are as follows: for HNS, ε=2.75 × 10(4) and LOQ=0.48 (in admixture with TNT); for NTO, ε=6.83 × 10(3) and LOQ=0.73. These methods were not affected from nitramines and nitrate esters in synthetic mixtures or composite explosives. The developed methods were statistically validated against HPLC, and the existing chromatographic method was modified so as to enable NTO determination in the presence of TNT. These simple, low-cost, and versatile methods can be used in criminology, remediation/monitoring of contaminated sites, and kinetic stability modeling of munitions containing desensitized energetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. INVESTIGATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TITRIMETRIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE USING IN SITU BROMINE.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, Kudige Nagaraj; Swamy, Nagaraju; Basavaiah, Kanakapura

    2016-01-01

    Three indirect methods for the assay of flunarizine dihydrochloride (FNH) in bulk drug and commercial formulation based on titrimetric and spectrophotometric techniques using bromate-bromide mixture are described. In titrimetry, a measured excess of bromate-bromide mixture is added to an acidified solution of FNH and the unreacted bromine is determined iodometrically (method A). Spectrophotometry involves the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to FNH in acid medium followed by estimation of unreacted bromine by its reaction with excess iodide and the liberated iodine (I₃⁻) is either measured at 370 nm (method B) or liberated iodine reacted with starch followed by the measurement of the blue colored starch-iodide complex at 575 run (method C). Titrimetric method is applicable over the range 4.5-30.0 mg FNH (method A), and the reaction stoichiometry is found to be 1:2 (FNH:KBrO₃). The spectrophotometric methods are applicable over the concentration ranges 0.8-16.0 µg/mL and 0.4-8.0 µg/mL FNH for method B and method C, respectively. The molar absorptivities are calculated to be 2.83 x 10⁴ and 4.96 x 10⁴ L mol⁻¹cm⁻¹ for method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0168 and 0.0096 µg cm⁻². The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the determination of FNH in pure form and in its dosage form and the results were compared with those of a literature method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test.

  6. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of some macrolide antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2012-12-01

    New, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of two macrolide drugs, azithromycin (AZT) and erythromycin (ERY) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was based on the reaction of AZT and ERY with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline medium at 25 °C to form an orange-colored product of maximum absorption peak at 452 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions and the reaction mechanism was postulated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5-33.0 and 0.92-8.0 μg mL-1 with limit of detection values of 0.026 and 0.063 μg mL-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 4.3 × 104 and 12.3 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZT and ERY in formulations and the results tallied well with the label claim. The results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the concomitant substances normally added to preparations.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrogen Oxides in the Air with 2-N-Ethyl-5-Naphthol-7-Sulfonic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Shi, W.; Zhang, C.; Wen, H.

    2017-09-01

    For the determination of nitrogen oxides in the air, the structure of diazo and coupling compounds was studied and tested by experiments. The conditions and methods of diazo and coupling reactions were investigated. Furthermore, a spectrophotometric method using sulfanilamide as a diazo compound and 2-N-ethyl-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid (N-ethyl J acid) as a coupling compound was proposed. The maximum absorption wavelength of sulfanilamide-Nethyl J acid azo compound was at 478 nm. The molar absorptivity was 4.31 × 104 L/(mol × cm) with a recovery of 98.7-100.9% and RSD of 1.85%. For nitrogen oxides, the determinate limit of this measurement was 0.015 mg/m3 and the determinate range 0.024-2.0 mg/m3. Moreover, a high degree of correlation was observed between the results obtained by the proposed method and the standard methods. The proposed method can be easily applied to determine nitrogen oxides in the air.

  8. Simultaneous determination of mebeverine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in their binary mixture using novel univariate spectrophotometric methods via different manipulation pathways.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Fayez, Yasmin M; Michael, Adel M; Nessim, Christine K

    2016-02-15

    Smart, sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of a binary mixture of mebeverine hydrochloride (MVH) and chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) without prior separation steps via different manipulating pathways. These pathways were applied either on zero order absorption spectra namely, absorbance subtraction (AS) or based on the recovered zero order absorption spectra via a decoding technique namely, derivative transformation (DT) or via ratio spectra namely, ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), spectrum subtraction (SS), constant multiplication (CM) and constant value (CV) methods. The manipulation steps applied on the ratio spectra are namely, ratio difference (RD) and amplitude modulation (AM) methods or applying a derivative to these ratio spectra namely, derivative ratio (DD(1)) or second derivative (D(2)). Finally, the pathway based on the ratio spectra of derivative spectra is namely, derivative subtraction (DS). The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing the laboratory mixtures and was successfully applied for their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. These methods exhibited linearity in the range of 2-28μg/mL for mebeverine hydrochloride and 1-12μg/mL for chlordiazepoxide. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official methods using Student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of mebeverine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in their binary mixture using novel univariate spectrophotometric methods via different manipulation pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Fayez, Yasmin M.; Michael, Adel M.; Nessim, Christine K.

    2016-02-01

    Smart, sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of a binary mixture of mebeverine hydrochloride (MVH) and chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) without prior separation steps via different manipulating pathways. These pathways were applied either on zero order absorption spectra namely, absorbance subtraction (AS) or based on the recovered zero order absorption spectra via a decoding technique namely, derivative transformation (DT) or via ratio spectra namely, ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), spectrum subtraction (SS), constant multiplication (CM) and constant value (CV) methods. The manipulation steps applied on the ratio spectra are namely, ratio difference (RD) and amplitude modulation (AM) methods or applying a derivative to these ratio spectra namely, derivative ratio (DD1) or second derivative (D2). Finally, the pathway based on the ratio spectra of derivative spectra is namely, derivative subtraction (DS). The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing the laboratory mixtures and was successfully applied for their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. These methods exhibited linearity in the range of 2-28 μg/mL for mebeverine hydrochloride and 1-12 μg/mL for chlordiazepoxide. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official methods using Student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  10. Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-life analytical assignment is presented to students, who had to examine an air conditioning coolant solution for metal contamination using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). This hands-on access to a real problem exposed the undergraduate students to the mechanism of AAS, and promoted participation in a simulated industrial activity.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant potential for classification of Mentha products.

    PubMed

    Roblová, Vendula; Bittová, Miroslava; Kubáň, Petr; Kubáň, Vlastimil

    2016-07-01

    In this work aqueous infusions from ten Mentha herbal samples (four different Mentha species and six hybrids of Mentha x piperita) and 20 different peppermint teas were screened by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. The fingerprint separation was accomplished in a 25 mM borate background electrolyte with 10% methanol at pH 9.3. The total polyphenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically at 765 nm by a Folin-Ciocalteu phenol assay. Total antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical at 515 nm. The peak areas of 12 dominant peaks from CE analysis, present in all samples, and the value of total polyphenolic content and total antioxidant activity obtained by spectrophotometry was combined into a single data matrix and principal component analysis was applied. The obtained principal component analysis model resulted in distinct clusters of Mentha and peppermint tea samples distinguishing the samples according to their potential protective antioxidant effect. Principal component analysis, using a non-targeted approach with no need for compound identification, was found as a new promising tool for the screening of herbal tea products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Application of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to local-order analysis in Fe-Cr maghemite-like materials

    SciTech Connect

    Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Fuentes-Cobas, L. E.; Macías-Ríos, E.

    2015-07-23

    The maghemite-like oxide system γ-Fe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.75, 1 and 1.25) was studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (XRD). Measurements were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource at room temperature, at beamlines 2-1, 2-3 and 4-3. High-resolution XRD patterns were processed by means of the Rietveld method. In cases of atoms being neighbors in the Periodic Table, the order/disorder degree of the considered solutions is indiscernible by “normal” (absence of “anomalous scattering”) diffraction experiments. Thus, maghemite-like materials were investigated by XAFS in both Fe and Cr K-edges to clarify, via short-rangemore » structure characterization, the local ordering of the investigated system. Athena and Artemis graphic user interfaces for IFEFFIT and FEFF8.4 codes were employed for XAFS spectra interpretation. Pre-edge decomposition and theoretical modeling of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) transitions were performed. By analysis of the Cr K-edge XANES, it has been confirmed that Cr is located in an octahedral environment. Fitting of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra was performed under the consideration that the central atom of Fe is allowed to occupy octa- and tetrahedral positions, while Cr occupies only octahedral ones. Coordination number of neighboring atoms, interatomic distances and their quadratic deviation average were determined for x=1, by fitting simultaneously the EXAFS spectra of both Fe and Cr K-edges. The results of fitting the experimental spectra with theoretical standards showed that the cation vacancies tend to follow a regular pattern within the structure of the iron-chromium maghemite (FeCrO{sub 3})« less

  13. Novel spectrophotometric determination of flumethasone pivalate and clioquinol in their binary mixture and pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, Eglal A; Hegazy, Maha A; Sayed, Nour W; Abdelkawy, M; Abdelfatah, Rehab M

    2015-02-05

    This work is concerned with development and validation of three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods for determination of flumethasone pivalate (FP) and clioquinol (CL) in their binary mixture and ear drops. Method A is a ratio subtraction spectrophotometric one (RSM). Method B is a ratio difference spectrophotometric one (RDSM), while method C is a mean center spectrophotometric one (MCR). The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 3-45 μg/mL for FP, and 2-25 μg/mL for CL. The specificity of the developed methods was assessed by analyzing different laboratory prepared mixtures of the FP and CL. The three methods were validated as per ICH guidelines; accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate-Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    2004-01-01

    The spectrophotometric method assists in the study of potassium permanganate-oxalate reaction. Basic analytical techniques and rules are implemented in the experiment, which can also include the examination of other compounds oxidized by permanganate.

  15. Micellar modified spectrophotometric determination of nitrobenzenes based upon reduction with tin(II), diazotisation and coupling with the Bratton-Marshall reagent.

    PubMed

    Escrig-Tena, I; Alvarez Rodríguez, L; Esteve-Romero, J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    1998-09-01

    Nitrobenzenes, such as the antibiotic chloramphenicol, the vasodilator nicardipine, and the herbicides dinitramin, dinobuton, fenitrothion, methylparathion, oxyfluorfen, parathion, pendimethalin, quintozene, and trifluralin, were determined by using a spectrophotometric method in the visible region (540 nm). The method was based on the reduction of the nitrobenzenes to arylamines with tin(II) chloride, diazotisation of the arylamines and coupling of the diazonium ions with the Bratton-Marshall reagent. The two latter reactions were performed in a micellar medium of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The linear calibration range was 2x10(-6) to 7x10(-5) M (r>0.999), with limits of detection in the 10(-7) M level, which is 2-6 fold lower with respect to the corresponding spectrophotometric procedure in non-micellar medium. The procedure was applied to the analysis of the compounds in commercial preparations (pharmaceuticals and herbicide formulations) and in water samples, with good recoveries.

  16. Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead Using the Flotation-spectrophotometric method

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Sabah; Delpisheh, Ali; Haeri, Ali; Poornajaf, Abdolhossein; Golzadeh, Babak; Shiri, Sina

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes a simple and highly selective method for separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of lead. It is based on flotation of a complex of Pb2+ ions and Alizarin yellow between aqueous and n-hexane interface at pH = 6. The proposed procedure is also applied for determination of lead in both tap water and prepared sea water samples. Beer’s Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.86 × 10–8 To 8.20 × 10–7 molL−1 (8–170 ngmL−1) with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.33 × 106 molL−1 cm−1 for a 100 mL aliquot of the water sample. The detection limit (n = 10) was 8.7 × 10–9 molL−1 (1.0 ngmL−1) and the Relative standard deviation (R.S.D), (n = 10) for 7.2 × 10–7 molL−1 (150 ngmL−1) of Pb (II) was 4.36%. A notable advantage of the method is that the determination of Pb (II) is free from the interference of almost all cations and ions found in the environment and waste water samples. The determination of Pb (II) in tap and synthetic seawater samples was also carried out by the present method. The results were satisfactorily comparable so that the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed to the real samples.

  17. Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead Using the Flotation-spectrophotometric method

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Sabah; Delpisheh, Ali; Haeri, Ali; Poornajaf, Abdolhossein; Golzadeh, Babak; Shiri, Sina

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes a simple and highly selective method for separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of lead. It is based on flotation of a complex of Pb2+ ions and Alizarin yellow between aqueous and n-hexane interface at pH = 6. The proposed procedure is also applied for determination of lead in both tap water and prepared sea water samples. Beer’s Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.86 × 10−8 To 8.20 × 10−7 molL−1 (8–170 ngmL−1) with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.33 × 106 molL−1 cm−1 for a 100 mL aliquot of the water sample. The detection limit (n = 10) was 8.7 × 10−9 molL−1 (1.0 ngmL−1) and the Relative standard deviation (R.S.D), (n = 10) for 7.2 × 10−7 molL−1 (150 ngmL−1) of Pb (II) was 4.36%. A notable advantage of the method is that the determination of Pb (II) is free from the interference of almost all cations and ions found in the environment and waste water samples. The determination of Pb (II) in tap and synthetic seawater samples was also carried out by the present method. The results were satisfactorily comparable so that the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed to the real samples. PMID:21234287

  18. A spectrophotometric assay for monoamine oxidase activity with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as a derivatized reagent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guili; Zhu, Fei; Chen, Yuhang; Chen, Shiqiang; Liu, Zhonghong; Li, Xin; Gan, Linlin; Zhang, Li; Yu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable spectrophotometry was developed to determine monoamine oxidase (MAO). In this study, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), a classic derivatizing reagent, was used to detect MAO-dependent aldehyde production; and traditional DNPH spectrophotometry was simplified. Benzylamine and serotonin oxidation were catalyzed by MAO-B and MAO-A, respectively, to aldehydes. These were derivatized with DNPH, and the corresponding quinones were further formed by adding NaOH. These DNPH derivatives with large conjugated structures were directly measured spectrophotometrically at 465 nm and 425 nm, without the need for precipitating, washing and suspending procedures. The addition of NaOH caused a red shift of the maximum absorption wavelength of these derivatives, which reduced the interference of free DNPH. MAO-B protein was as low as 47.5 μg in rat liver with correlation coefficients ranging within 0.995-0.999. This method is 2-3 times more sensitive than direct spectrophotometry. The detection of MAO inhibition through this method showed that IC50 values of rasagiline are 8.00 × 10(-9) M for MAO-B and 2.59 × 10(-7) M for MAO-A. These results are similar to the values obtained by direct spectrophotometry. Our study suggests that DNPH spectrophotometry is suitable to detect MAO activity, and has the potential for MAO inhibitor screening in the treatment of MAO-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spectrophotometric and fluorimetric determination of diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam in pharmaceutical and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. A.; Barsoum, B. N.; Izake, E. L.

    2004-03-01

    New spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods have been developed to determine diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam (1,4-benzodiazepines) in pure forms, pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluid. The new methods are based on measuring absorption or emission spectra in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution. Fluorimetric methods have proved selective with low detection limits, whereas photometric methods showed relatively high detection limits. Successive applications of developed methods for drugs determination in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples were performed. Photometric methods gave linear calibration graphs in the ranges of 2.85-28.5, 0.316-3.16, and 0.316-3.16 μg ml -1 with detection limits of 1.27, 0.08 and 0.13 μg ml -1 for diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam, respectively. Corresponding average errors of 2.60, 5.26 and 3.93 and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of 2.79, 2.12 and 2.83, respectively, were obtained. Fluorimetric methods gave linear calibration graphs in the ranges of 0.03-0.34, 0.03-0.32 and 0.03-0.38 μg ml -1 with detection limits of 7.13, 5.67 and 16.47 ng ml -1 for diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam, respectively. Corresponding average errors of 0.29, 4.33 and 5.42 and R.S.D.s of 1.27, 1.96 and 1.14 were obtained, respectively. Statistical Students t-test and F-test have been used and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Statistical analysis of whole-body absorption depending on anatomical human characteristics at a frequency of 2.1 GHz.

    PubMed

    Habachi, A El; Conil, E; Hadjem, A; Vazquez, E; Wong, M F; Gati, A; Fleury, G; Wiart, J

    2010-04-07

    In this paper, we propose identification of the morphological factors that may impact the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). This study is conducted for the case of exposure to a front plane wave at a 2100 MHz frequency carrier. This study is based on the development of different regression models for estimating the WBSAR as a function of morphological factors. For this purpose, a database of 12 anatomical human models (phantoms) has been considered. Also, 18 supplementary phantoms obtained using the morphing technique were generated to build the required relation. This paper presents three models based on external morphological factors such as the body surface area, the body mass index or the body mass. These models show good results in estimating the WBSAR (<10%) for families obtained by the morphing technique, but these are still less accurate (30%) when applied to different original phantoms. This study stresses the importance of the internal morphological factors such as muscle and fat proportions in characterization of the WBSAR. The regression models are then improved using internal morphological factors with an estimation error of approximately 10% on the WBSAR. Finally, this study is suitable for establishing the statistical distribution of the WBSAR for a given population characterized by its morphology.

  1. Diode laser absorption measurement and analysis of HCN in atmospheric-pressure, fuel-rich premixed methane/air flames

    SciTech Connect

    Gersen, S.; Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.

    Measurements of HCN in flat, fuel-rich premixed methane/air flames at atmospheric pressure are reported. Quartz-microprobe sampling followed by wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with second harmonic detection was used to obtain an overall measurement uncertainty of better than 20% for mole fractions HCN on the order of 10 ppm. The equivalence ratio, {phi}, was varied between 1.3 and 1.5, while the flame temperature was varied independently by changing the mass flux through the burner surface at constant equivalence ratio. Under the conditions of the experiments, the peak mole fractions vary little, in the range of 10-15 ppm. Increasing the flame temperaturemore » by increasing the mass flux had little influence on the peak mole fraction, but accelerated HCN burnout substantially. At high equivalence ratio and low flame temperature, HCN burnout is very slow: at {phi}=1.5, {proportional_to}10ppm HCN is still present 7 mm above the burner surface. Substantial quantitative disagreement is observed between the experimental profiles and those obtained from calculations using GRI-Mech 3.0, with the calculations generally overpredicting the results significantly. Changing the rates of key formation and consumption reactions for HCN can improve the agreement, but only by making unreasonable changes in these rates. Inclusion of reactions describing NCN formation and consumption in the calculations improves the agreement with the measurements considerably. (author)« less

  2. Analysis of the scattering and absorption properties of ellipsoidal nanoparticle arrays for the design of full-color transparent screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Alessio; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of nanoparticles-based screens [C. W. Hsu, Nat. Commun. 5, 3152 (2014)] has paved the way to the realization of low-cost transparent displays with a wide viewing angle and scalability to large size. Despite the huge potentialities of this approach, the design of a nanoparticles array exhibiting a sharp scattering response in the optical spectrum is still a challenging task. In this manuscript, we investigate the suitability of ellipsoidal plasmonic nanoparticles for this purpose. First, we show that some trade-offs between the sharpness of the scattering response of the array and its absorption level apply. Starting from these considerations, we prove that prolate nanoparticles may be a plausible candidate for achieving the peculiar features required in transparent screen applications. An example of a full-color and almost-isotropic transparent screen is finally proposed and its robustness towards the geometrical inaccuracies that may arise during the fabrication process is assessed. All the analytical considerations, carried out through an analytical model taking into account the surface dispersion effect affecting the nanoparticles, are supported by a proper set of full-wave simulations.

  3. Compression-recovery model of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator guided by X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameswara Rao, P. V.; Rawal, Amit; Kumar, Vijay; Rajput, Krishn Gopal

    2017-10-01

    Absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators play a key role in enhancing the cycle life of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries by maintaining the elastic characteristics under a defined level of compression force with the plates of the electrodes. Inevitably, there are inherent challenges to maintain the required level of compression characteristics of AGM separators during the charge and discharge of the battery. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators by formulating a direct relationship with the constituent fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators has successfully included the fiber slippage criterion and internal friction losses. The presented work uses, for the first time, 3D data of fiber orientation from X-ray micro-computed tomography, for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental results of compression-recovery behavior of AGM samples with defined fiber orientation characteristics. In general, the theory agreed reasonably well with the experimental results of AGM samples in both dry and wet states. Through theoretical modeling, fiber volume fraction was established as one of the key structural parameters that modulates the compression hysteresis of an AGM separator.

  4. Statistical analysis of whole-body absorption depending on anatomical human characteristics at a frequency of 2.1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Habachi, A.; Conil, E.; Hadjem, A.; Vazquez, E.; Wong, M. F.; Gati, A.; Fleury, G.; Wiart, J.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we propose identification of the morphological factors that may impact the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). This study is conducted for the case of exposure to a front plane wave at a 2100 MHz frequency carrier. This study is based on the development of different regression models for estimating the WBSAR as a function of morphological factors. For this purpose, a database of 12 anatomical human models (phantoms) has been considered. Also, 18 supplementary phantoms obtained using the morphing technique were generated to build the required relation. This paper presents three models based on external morphological factors such as the body surface area, the body mass index or the body mass. These models show good results in estimating the WBSAR (<10%) for families obtained by the morphing technique, but these are still less accurate (30%) when applied to different original phantoms. This study stresses the importance of the internal morphological factors such as muscle and fat proportions in characterization of the WBSAR. The regression models are then improved using internal morphological factors with an estimation error of approximately 10% on the WBSAR. Finally, this study is suitable for establishing the statistical distribution of the WBSAR for a given population characterized by its morphology.

  5. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  6. Spectrophotometric and electrical properties of imperatorin: an organic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Feroz A.

    2015-09-01

    Imperatorin (molecular formula = C16H14O4, molecular mass = 270) an organic molecule was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the root parts of the plant Prangos pabularia. The optical study was carried out by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and this compound showed an indirect allowed transition. The optical band gap ( E g ) was found around 3.75 eV. Photoluminescence shows various good emission bands. The frequency-dependent real part of the complex ac conductivity was found to follow the universal dielectric response: σ ac ( ω) α ω s [where σ ac ( ω) is the frequency-dependent total conductivity, ω is the frequency, and s is the frequency exponent]. From ac conductivity data analysis, correlated barrier hopping charge-transport mechanism is the dominant electrical transport process shown by this compound. The good emission, less absorption, wide band gap and good electrical properties shown by this compound project them as a bright choice for organic electronic devices.

  7. X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy of CrIII (Hydr)Oxides: Analysis of the K-Pre-Edge Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommer, Jakob; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Czekaj, Izabela; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2009-10-01

    Pre-edge spectral features below the main X-ray absorption K-edge of transition metals show a pronounced chemical sensitivity and are promising sources of structural information. Nevertheless, the use of pre-edge analysis in applied research is limited because of the lack of definite theoretical peak-assignments. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the chromium K-pre-edge features in trivalent chromium-bearing oxides and oxyhydroxides. The selected phases varied in the degree of octahedral polymerization and the degree of iron-for-chromium substitution in the crystal structure. We investigated the pre-edge fine structure by means of high-energy-resolution fluorescence detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy and by 1s2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. Multiplet theory and full multiple-scattering calculations were used to analyze the experimental data. We show that the chromium K-pre-edge contains localized and nonlocalized transitions. Contributions arising from nonlocalized metal-metal transitions are sensitive to the nearest metal type and to the linkage mode between neighboring metal octahedra. Analyzing these transitions opens up new opportunities for investigating the local coordination environment of chromium in poorly ordered solids of environmental relevance.

  8. Analysis of Auroral Data from Nasa's 1968 and 1969 Airborne Auroral Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a methodical compilation, reduction, and correlated analysis of spectrophotometric data obtained by various scientific groups during NASA's 1968 and 1969 Airborne Auroral Expedition are presented.

  9. Application of different spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of elbasvir and grazoprevir in pharmaceutical preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; El-Abasawi, Nasr M.; El-Olemy, Ahmed; Abdelazim, Ahmed H.

    2018-01-01

    The first three UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed of simultaneous determination of two new FDA approved drugs namely; elbasvir and grazoprevir in their combined pharmaceutical dosage form. These methods include simultaneous equation, partial least squares with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm). For simultaneous equation method, the absorbance values at 369 (λmax of elbasvir) and 253 nm (λmax of grazoprevir) have been selected for the formation of two simultaneous equations required for the mathematical processing and quantitative analysis of the studied drugs. Alternatively, the partial least squares with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm) have been applied in the spectra analysis because the synchronous inclusion of many unreal wavelengths rather than by using a single or dual wavelength which greatly increases the precision and predictive ability of the methods. Successfully assay of the drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation has been done by the proposed methods. Statistically comparative analysis for the obtained results with the manufacturing methods has been performed. It is noteworthy to mention that there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the manufacturing one with respect to the validation parameters.

  10. Background CO2 levels and error analysis from ground-based solar absorption IR measurements in central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylon, Jorge L.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Grutter, Michel; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation we analyze two common optical configurations to retrieve CO2 total column amounts from solar absorption infrared spectra. The noise errors using either a KBr or a CaF2 beam splitter, a main component of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), are quantified in order to assess the relative precisions of the measurements. The configuration using a CaF2 beam splitter, as deployed by the instruments which contribute to the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), shows a slightly better precision. However, we show that the precisions in XCO2 ( = 0.2095 ṡ Total Column CO2Total Column O2) retrieved from > 96 % of the spectra measured with a KBr beam splitter fall well below 0.2 %. A bias in XCO2 (KBr - CaF2) of +0.56 ± 0.25 ppm was found when using an independent data set as reference. This value, which corresponds to +0.14 ± 0.064 %, is slightly larger than the mean precisions obtained. A 3-year XCO2 time series from FTIR measurements at the high-altitude site of Altzomoni in central Mexico presents clear annual and diurnal cycles, and a trend of +2.2 ppm yr-1 could be determined.

  11. Analysis of molecular hydrogen absorption toward QSO B0642–5038 for a varying proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.; Murphy, M. T.

    2014-02-10

    Rovibronic molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) transitions at redshift z {sub abs} ≅ 2.659 toward the background quasar B0642–5038 are examined for a possible cosmological variation in the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. We utilize an archival spectrum from the Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼35 per 2.5 km s{sup –1} pixel at the observed H{sub 2} wavelengths (335-410 nm). Some 111 H{sub 2} transitions in the Lyman and Werner bands have been identified in the damped Lyα system for which a kinetic gas temperature of ∼84 K and a molecular fraction log fmore » = –2.18 ± 0.08 are determined. The H{sub 2} absorption lines are included in a comprehensive fitting method, which allows us to extract a constraint on a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio Δμ/μ from all transitions at once. We obtain Δμ/μ = (17.1 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 3.7{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}. However, we find evidence that this measurement has been affected by wavelength miscalibration errors recently identified in UVES. A correction based on observations of objects with solar-like spectra gives a smaller Δμ/μ value and contributes to a larger systematic uncertainty: Δμ/μ = (12.7 ± 4.5{sub stat} ± 4.2{sub sys}) × 10{sup –6}.« less

  12. Extraction and Analysis of Regional Emission and Absorption Events of Greenhouse Gases with GOSAT and OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, K.; Shiomi, K.; Konno, A.; Tadono, T.; Hori, M.

    2016-12-01

    Global observation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) with high spatio-temporal resolution and accurate estimation of sources and sinks are important to understand greenhouse gases dynamics. Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has observed column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) and CH4 (XCH4) over 7 years since January 2009 with wide swath but sparse pointing. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) has observed XCO2 jointly on orbit since July 2014 with narrow swath but high resolution. We use two retrieved datasets as GOSAT observation data. One is ACOS GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Level 2 Full Product by NASA/JPL, and the other is NIES TANSO-FTS L2 column amount (SWIR). By using these GOSAT datasets and OCO-2 L2 Full Product, the biases among datasets, local sources and sinks, and temporal variability of greenhouse gases are clarified. In addition, CarbonTracker, which is a global model of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 developed by NOAA/ESRL, are also analyzed for comparing between satellite observation data and atmospheric model data. Before analyzing these datasets, outliers are screened by using quality flag, outcome flag, and warn level in land or sea parts. Time series data of XCO2 and XCH4 are obtained globally from satellite observation and atmospheric model datasets, and functions which express typical inter-annual and seasonal variation are fitted to each spatial grid. Consequently, anomalous events of XCO2 and XCH4 are extracted by the difference between each time series dataset and the fitted function. Regional emission and absorption events are analyzed by time series variation of satellite observation data and by comparing with atmospheric model data.

  13. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Xia; Rui-Feng, Kan; Jian-Guo, Liu; Zhen-Yu, Xu; Ya-Bai, He

    2016-06-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205151), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant

  14. Tellurium speciation analysis using hydride generation in situ trapping electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and ruthenium or palladium modified graphite tubes.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Emrah; Akay, Pınar; Arslan, Yasin; Bakirdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2012-12-15

    Speciation of tellurium can be achieved by making use of different kinetic behaviors of Te(IV) and Te(VI) upon their reaction with sodium borohydride using hydride generation. While Te(IV) can form H(2)Te, Te(VI) will not form any volatile species during the course of hydride formation and measurement by atomic absorption spectrometry. Quantitative reduction of Te(VI) was achieved through application of a microwave assisted prereduction of Te(VI) in 6.0 mol/L HCl solution. Enhanced sensitivity was achieved by in situ trapping of the generated H(2)Te species in a previously heated graphite furnace whose surface was modified using Pd or Ru. Overall efficiency for in situ trapping in pyrolytically coated graphite tube surface was found to be 15% when volatile analyte species are trapped for 60s at 300°C. LOD and LOQ values were calculated as 0.086 ng/mL and 0.29 ng/mL, respectively. Efficiency was increased to 46% and 36% when Pd and Ru surface modifiers were used, respectively. With Ru modified graphite tube 173-fold enhancement was obtained over 180 s trapping period with respect to ETAAS; the tubes could be used for 250 cycles. LOD values were 0.0064 and 0.0022 ng/mL for Pd and Ru treated ETAAS systems, respectively, for 180 s collection of 9.6 mL sample solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and validation of liquid chromatographic and UV derivative spectrophotometric methods for the determination of famciclovir in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Srinubabu, Gedela; Sudharani, Batchu; Sridhar, Lade; Rao, Jvln Seshagiri

    2006-06-01

    A