Science.gov

Sample records for absorption spectrophotometry gfaas

  1. Determination of Pb in Biological Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An Exercise in Common Interferences and Fundamental Practices in Trace Element Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spudich, Thomas M.; Herrmann, Jennifer K.; Fietkau, Ronald; Edwards, Grant A.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to ascertain trace-level Pb in samples of bovine liver or muscle by applying graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The primary objective is to display the effects of physical and spectral intrusions in determining trace elements, and project the usual methods employed to minimize accuracy errors…

  2. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  3. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  4. Determination of Lead in Blood by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramér, Kim

    1968-01-01

    Lead in blood was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a wet ashing procedure and a procedure in which the proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. In both methods the lead was extracted into isobutylmethylketone before measurement, using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as chelator. The simpler precipitation procedure was shown to give results identical with those obtained with the ashing technique. In addition, blood specimens were examined by the precipitation method and by spectral analysis, which method includes wet ashing of the samples, with good agreement. All analyses were done on blood samples from `normal' persons or from lead-exposed workers, and no additions of inorganic lead were made. The relatively simple protein precipitation technique gave accurate results and is suitable for the large-scale control of lead-exposed workers. PMID:5663425

  5. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  6. Comparative evaluation of GFAAS and ICP-MS for analyses of cadmium in blood.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yoshinari; Ohashi, Fumiko; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Moriguchi, Jiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium in blood (Cd-B) is an important indicator, next to Cd in urine, in biological monitoring of exposure to Cd. The present study was initiated to examine compatibility in results of analysis for Cd-B between graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) and inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). For this purpose, 1,159 blood samples were collected from adult women (with no occupational exposure to Cd) in eight prefectures nation-widely in Japan. The samples were analyzed by the two methods; geometric mean (the maximum) concentrations were 1.22 (6.90) μg/l by ICP-MS, and 1.47 (7.40) μg/l by GFAAS. Statistical analyses showed that there was a close correlation between the results by the two methods. The regression line (with ICP-MS and GFAAS results as an independent variable and a dependent variable, respectively) had a slope close to one and an intercept next to zero to suggest that ICP-MS gave values compatible with that of GFAAS. Further analysis with the ratio of Cd-B by GFAAS over that by ICP-MS revealed that the two results were close to each other, and that the agreement was even closer when Cd-B was >2 μg/l. Thus, the two methods can be employed inter-convertibly when Cd-B is relatively high, e.g. >2 μg/l. Care may need to be practiced, however, for possible 'between methods' difference when Cd-B is low, e.g., ≤2 μg/l.

  7. Determination of urinary manganese by the direct chelation-extraction method and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, T; Tokunaga, R; Iwahana, T; Tati, M; Ikeda, M

    1978-01-01

    The direct chelation-extraction method, originally developed by Hessel (1968) for blood lead analysis, has been successfully applied to urinalysis for manganese. The analyses of 35 urine samples containing up to 100 microgram/1 of manganese from manganese-exposed workers showed that the data obtained by this method agree well with those by wet digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and also by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:629893

  8. Teaching Beer's Law and Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Smart Phone: A Substantially Simplified Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Jacobson, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    A very simple protocol for teaching Beer's Law and absorption spectrophotometry using a smart phone is described. Materials commonly found in high school chemistry laboratories or even around the house may be used. Data collection and analysis is quick and easy. Despite the simple nature of the experiment, excellent results can be achieved.

  9. Uranium isotopes quantitatively determined by modified method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G. H.

    1967-01-01

    Hollow-cathode discharge tubes determine the quantities of uranium isotopes in a sample by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dissociation of the uranium atoms allows a large number of ground state atoms to be produced, absorbing the incident radiation that is different for the two major isotopes.

  10. Using high spectral resolution spectrophotometry to study broad mineral absorption features on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally telescopic measurements of mineralogic absorption features have been made using relatively low to moderate (R=30-300) spectral resolution. Mineralogic absorption features tend to be broad so high resolution spectroscopy (R greater than 10,000) does not provide significant additional compositional information. Low to moderate resolution spectroscopy allows an observer to obtain data over a wide wavelength range (hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers) compared to the several wavenumber intervals that are collected using high resolution spectrometers. However, spectrophotometry at high resolution has major advantages over lower resolution spectroscopy in situations that are applicable to studies of the Martian surface, i.e., at wavelengths where relatively weak surface absorption features and atmospheric gas absorption features both occur.

  11. Determination of aluminum in biological fluids by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K E; Treble, R G

    1992-01-01

    Detailed procedures were developed for the furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) determination of aluminum (Al) in serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and proportionated dialysate. Of particular note were the use of Mg (NO3)2.6H2O as a matrix modifier and the employment of the standard additions routine in analysis. The accuracy of the method(s) used is supported by work with assayed controls and by recovery studies. The use of a "clean room" was shown to be unnecessary. Normal serum, urine, and CSF Al ranges observed were 4.8-8.9, 5.1-9.1, and 1.0-5.8 micrograms L-1 respectively.

  12. Estimation of calcium and magnesium in serum and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Thin, Christian G.; Thomson, Patricia A.

    1967-01-01

    A method has been described for the estimation of calcium and magnesium in serum and urine using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The precision and accuracy of the techniques have been determined and were found to be acceptable. The range of values for calcium and magnesium in the sera of normal adults was found to be: serum calcium (corrected to a specific gravity of 1·026) 8·38-10·08 mg. per 100 ml.; serum magnesium 1·83-2·43 mg. per 100 ml. PMID:5602562

  13. Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Fishman, M. J.; Ball, J.W.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

  14. Micro determination of plasma and erythrocyte copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Blomfield, Jeanette; Macmahon, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    The free and total plasma copper and total erythrocyte copper levels have been determined by simple, yet sensitive and highly specific methods, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For total copper determination, the copper was split from its protein combination in plasma or red cells by the action of hydrochloric acid at room temperature. The liberated copper was chelated by ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extracted into n-butyl acetate by shaking and the organic extract was aspirated into the atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame. The entire procedure was carried out in polypropylene centrifuge tubes, capped during shaking. For the free plasma copper measurement the hydrochloric acid step was omitted. Removal of the plasma or erythrocyte proteins was found to be unnecessary, and, in addition, the presence of trichloracetic acid caused an appreciable lowering of absorption. Using a double-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer and scale expansion × 10, micro methods have been derived for determining the total copper of plasma or erythrocytes with 0·1 ml of sample, and the free copper of plasma with 0·5 ml. The macro plasma copper method requires 2 ml of plasma and is suitable for use with single-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometers. With blood from 50 blood donors, normal ranges of plasma and erythrocyte copper have been determined. PMID:5776543

  15. Removal of iron interferences by solvent extraction for geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Iron is a common interferent in the determination of many elements in geochemical samples. Two approaches for its removal have been taken. The first involves removal of iron by extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from hydrochloric acid medium, leaving the analytes in the aqueous phase. The second consists of reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) by ascorbic acid to minimize its extraction into MIBK, so that the analytes may be isolated by extraction. Elements of interest can then be determined using the aqueous solution or the organic extract, as appropriate. Operating factors such as the concentration of hydrochloric acid, amounts of iron present, number of extractions, the presence or absence of a salting-out agent, and the optimum ratio of ascorbic acid to iron have been determined. These factors have general applications in geochemical analysis by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1985.

  16. Determination of silver in soils, sediments, and rocks by organic-chelate extraction and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Ball, J.W.; Nakagawa, H.M.

    1971-01-01

    A useful method for the determination of silver in soil, sediment, and rock samples in geochemical exploration has been developed. The sample is digested with concentrated nitric acid, and the silver extracted with triisooctyl thiophosphate (TOTP) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) after dilution of the acid digest to approximately 6 M. The extraction of silver into the organic extractant is quantitative and not affected by the nitric acid concentration from 4 M to 8 M, or by different volumes of TOTP-MIBK. The extracted silver is stable and remains in the organic phase up to several days. The silver concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. ?? 1971.

  17. Determination of cadmium in urine by extraction and flameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry Comparison of urine from smokers and non-smokers of different sex and age.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, M; Lind, B; Elinder, C G

    1983-07-01

    A method is presented for determining cadmium in urine by nameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after extraction. The sample is dried, ashed in the presence of nitric acid, and then the residue is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Cadmium is extracted as its tetrahexylammonium iodide complex into methyl isobutyl ketone. The organic phase is analysed for cadmium by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization. The median urinary excretion of cadmium for smokers aged 50-64 has been found to be 0.7 and 0.75 mug l . for males and females respectively, the values for non-smokers being 0.25 and 0.4mug l .

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Ofloxacin and Flavoxate Hydrochloride by Absorption Ratio and Second Derivative UV Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Attimarad, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop simple, precise, accurate and sensitive UV spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of ofloxacin (OFX) and flavoxate HCl (FLX) in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on absorption ratio method, by formation of Q absorbance equation at 289 nm (λmax of OFX) and 322.4 nm (isoabsorptive point). The linearity range was found to be 1 to 30 μg/ml for FLX and OFX. In the method-II second derivative absorption at 311.4 nm for OFX (zero crossing for FLX) and at 246.2 nm for FLX (zero crossing for OFX) was used for the determination of the drugs and the linearity range was found to be 2 to 30 μg/ml for OFX and 2-75 μg /ml for FLX. The accuracy and precision of the methods were determined and validated statistically. Both the methods showed good reproducibility and recovery with % RSD less than 1.5%. Both the methods were found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of OFX and FLX in combined dosage form PMID:24826003

  19. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin

    2017-11-27

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.

  20. GFAAS determination of selenium in infant formulas using a microwave digestion method.

    PubMed

    Alegria, A; Barbera, R; Farré, R; Moreno, A

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining the selenium content of infant formulas is proposed. It includes wet digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in medium pressure teflon bombs in a microwave oven and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The absence of interferences is checked. Values obtained for the limit of detection (19.4 ng/g), precision (RSD = 2.2%) and accuracy by analysis of a reference material show that the method is reliable.

  1. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  2. On-line preconcentration and speciation of arsenic by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Narcise, Cristine Ingrid S; Coo, Lilibeth Dlc; Del Mundo, Florian R

    2005-12-15

    A flow injection-column preconcentration-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometric (FI-column-HGAAS) method was developed for determining mug/l levels of As(III) and As(V) in water samples, with simultaneous preconcentration and speciation. The speciation scheme involved determining As(V) at neutral pH and As(III+V) at pH 12, with As(III) obtained by difference. The enrichment factor (EF) increased with increase in sample loading volume from 2.5 to 10ml, and for preconcentration using the chloride-form anion exchange column, EFs ranged from 5 to 48 for As(V) and 4 to 24 for As(III+V), with corresponding detection limits of 0.03-0.3 and 0.07-0.3mug/l. Linear concentration range (LCR) also varied with sample loading volume, and for a 5-ml sample was 0.3-5 and 0.2-8mug/l for As(V) and As(III+V), respectively. Sample throughput, which decreased with increase in sample volume, was 8-17 samples/h. For the hydroxide-form column, the EFS for 2.5-10ml samples were 3-23 for As(V) and 2-15 for As(III+V), with corresponding detection limits of 0.07-0.4 and 0.1-0.5mug/l. The LCR for a 5-ml sample was 0.3-10mug/l for As(V) and 0.2-20mug/l for As(III+V). Sample throughput was 10-20 samples/h. The developed method has been effectively applied to tap water and mineral water samples, with recoveries ranging from 90 to 102% for 5-ml samples passed through the two columns.

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chromium in water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry is a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of chromium in natural water samples. The detection limit for this analytical method is 0.4 microg/L with a working linear limit of 25.0 microg/L. The precision at the detection limit ranges from 20 to 57 percent relative standard deviation (RSD) with an improvement to 4.6 percent RSD for concentrations more than 3 microg/L. Accuracy of this method was determined for a variety of reference standards that was representative of the analytical range. The results were within the established standard deviations. Samples were spiked with known concentrations of chromium with recoveries ranging from 84 to 122 percent. In addition, a comparison of data between graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and direct-current plasma atomic emission spectrometry resulted in suitable agreement between the two methods, with an average deviation of +/- 2.0 microg/L throughout the analytical range.

  4. Determination of Copper by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: A Student Exercise in Instrumental Methods of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a student exercise which requires the optimizing of the charring and atomization temperatures by producing a plot of absorbance versus temperature for each temperature parameter. Notes that although the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy technique has widespread industrial use, there are no published, structured experiments…

  5. Matrix effects on the determination of manganese in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry under different flame conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    Suppression caused by five of the seven matrix elements studied (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) was observed in the atomic-absorption determination of manganese in geological materials, when synthetic solutions and the recommended oxidizing air-acetylene flame were used. The magnitude of the suppression effects depends on (1) the kind and concentration of the interfering elements, (2) the type of acid medium, and (3) the concentration of manganese to be determined. All interferences noted are removed or alleviated by using a reducing nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The atomic-absorption method using this flame can be applied to the determination of total and extractable manganese in a wide range of geological materials without interferences. Analyses of six U.S. Geological Survey rock standards for manganese gave results in agreement with the reported values. ?? 1978.

  6. [Determination of lead in edible salt with solid-phase extraction and GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Dajin

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a method for determination of lead in salt with solid-phase extraction and GFAAS. Salt sample was diluted to a certain volume directly with ammonium acetate, then the sample solution was filtered through the solid phase extraction column which has been pre-activated. Lead ions were retained, and the sodium chloride matrix was removed. After elution, the collected lead ions was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in 257.4 nm. This method can be used effectively to wipe off the sodium chloride in matrix. The limit of detection was 0.7 microg/kg and the limit of quantification was 2 microg/kg. Solid phase extraction technique can be used effectively to reduce the interference in matrix and improves the accuracy and reproducibility of detection.

  7. Estimation of perimortal percent carboxy-heme in nonstandard postmortem specimens using analysis of carbon monoxide by GC/MS and iron by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Middleberg, R A; Easterling, D E; Zelonis, S F; Rieders, F; Rieders, M F

    1993-01-01

    In decomposed, formalin-fixed, embalmed, exhumed, and some fire-dried cases in which normal blood is unavailable, the usual methods for determination of carboxyhemoglobin saturation frequently fail. To address these specimens, a method utilizing both gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) determination of carbon monoxide (CO) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) determination of iron (Fe), in the same specimen, was developed. The method is reported here, along with its application to seven pertinent forsensic death investigations. The CO analytical methodology involves acid liberation of the gas from the specimen aliquot in a headspace vial. After heating and equilibrating, a sample of the headspace vapor is injected into the GC/MS system with a gastight syringe. Quantitation is achieved by standard addition comparison utilizing the ideal gas law equation. Iron is quantified by FAAS analysis of the same aliquot used for the CO determination, following nitric acid digestion. The concentration is determined by comparison to a standard curve. A formula for determining the minimum percent carboxy-heme saturation was derived by using the ratio of the amount of CO to the amount of Fe in the aliquot analyzed. Tissue types analyzed include spleen, liver, muscle, dried blood, and unspecified decomposed tissue.

  8. Comparison of Adsorbed Mercury Screening Method With Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for Determination of Mercury in Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Donald F.; Hovanitz, Edward S.; Street, Kenneth W.

    2000-01-01

    A field screening method for the determination of elemental mercury in environmental soil samples involves the thermal desorption of the mercury from the sample onto gold and then the thermal desorption from the gold to a gold-film mercury vapor analyzer. This field screening method contains a large number of conditions that could be optimized for the various types of soils encountered. In this study, the conditions were optimized for the determination of mercury in silty clay materials, and the results were comparable to the cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric method of determination. This paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of employing the field screening method and provides the sequence of conditions that must be optimized to employ this method of determination on other soil types.

  9. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  10. Determination of silver, antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry after methyl isobutyl ketone extraction as iodides.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M; Wang, M

    1986-03-01

    Methods for determining ~ 0.2 mug g or more of silver and cadmium, ~ 0.5 mug g or more of copper and ~ 5 mug g or more of antimony, bismuth and indium in ores, concentrates and related materials are described. After sample decomposition and recovery of antimony and bismuth retained by lead and calcium sulphates, by co-precipitation with hydrous ferric oxide at pH 6.20 +/- 0.05, iron(III) is reduced to iron(II) with ascorbic acid, and antimony, bismuth, copper, cadmium and indium are separated from the remaining matrix elements by a single methyl isobutyl ketone extraction of their iodides from ~2M sulphuric acid-0.1M potassium iodide. The extract is washed with a sulphuric acid-potassium iodide solution of the same composition to remove residual iron and co-extracted zinc, and the extracted elements are stripped from the extract with 20% v v nitric acid-20% v v hydrogen peroxide. Alternatively, after the removal of lead sulphate by filtration, silver, copper, cadmium and indium can be extracted under the same conditions and stripped with 40% v v nitric acid-25% v v hydrochloric acid. The strip solutions are treated with sulphuric and perchloric acids and ultimately evaporated to dry ness. The individual elements are determined in a 24% v v hydrochloric acid medium containing 1000 mug of potassium per ml by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with an air-acetylene flame. Tin, arsenic and molybdenum are not co-extracted under the conditions above. Results obtained for silver, antimony, bismuth and indium in some Canadian certified reference materials by these methods are compared with those obtained earlier by previously published methods.

  11. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of low-level silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damrau, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Increased awareness of the quality of water in the United States has led to the development of a method for determining low levels (0.2-5.0 microg/L) of silver in water samples. Use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry provides a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining low-level silver in samples of low ionic-strength water, precipitation water, and natural water. The minimum detection limit determined for low-level silver is 0.2 microg/L. Precision data were collected on natural-water samples and SRWS (Standard Reference Water Samples). The overall percent relative standard deviation for natural-water samples with silver concentrations more than 0.2 microg/L was less than 40 percent throughout the analytical range. For the SRWS with concentrations more than 0.2 microg/L, the overall percent relative standard deviation was less than 25 percent throughout the analytical range. The accuracy of the results was determined by spiking 6 natural-water samples with different known concentrations of the silver standard. The recoveries ranged from 61 to 119 percent at the 0.5-microg/L spike level. At the 1.25-microg/L spike level, the recoveries ranged from 92 to 106 percent. For the high spike level at 3.0 microg/L, the recoveries ranged from 65 to 113 percent. The measured concentrations of silver obtained from known samples were within the Branch of Quality Assurance accepted limits of 1 1/2 standard deviations on the basis of the SRWS program for Inter-Laboratory studies.

  12. [Determination of lead in microemulsified rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-qing; He, Xiao-min; Du, Ping; Wang, Min; Chen, Hao; Wu, Mou-cheng

    2008-10-01

    Bio-diesel oil has attracted much attention as a substitutable energy sources for its renewable and eco-friendly property. However, problems of lead contamination in fuel are also emphasized increasingly at present. So it was of quite significance to determine the contents of lead in bio-diesel oil and its raw material rapeseed oil. An effective method was developed for the rapid determination of lead in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after their stabilization as microemulsions. In this research work, polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether and n-butanol were used for emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifying agent, respectively. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using NH4H2PO4 as matrix modifier. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization and the influence of the microemulsion composition on the GFAAS response were observed by mixing different organic solvents. The ashing and atomization temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ph. Take this into account, the optimum conditions of the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb in rapeseed oil and bio-diesel oil samples were investigated. The results showed that the microemulsion was quite stable when the value of V(20% polyethyleneglycol octyl phenyl ether), V(n-butanol), V(oil) and V(water) was 0.1: 8.9: 0.5: 0.5, without matrix interference effect. The determination limit of the proposed method was 126.2 microg x L(-1) for Pb, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples. The recoveries were from 81.8% to 109.0%, which performed using the addition of different concentrations of lead to bio-diesel oil, rapeseed oil and petrochemical diesel samples. The relative standard deviation of determination was 5.84%. This work showed the great efficiency of the microemulsion

  13. [Development of ICP-OES, ICP-MS and GF-AAS Methods for Simultaneous Quantification of Lead, Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Soft Drinks].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.

  14. Selective determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone by means of flameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Kamada, T

    The extraction behaviour of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of nameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of arsenic(III) and differential determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) have been developed. With ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and methyl isobutyl ketone or nitrobenzene, when the aqueous phase/solvent volume ratio is 5 and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 mul, the sensitivities for 1% absorption are 0.4 and 0.5 part per milliard of arsenic, respectively. The relative standard deviations are ca. 3%. Interference by many metal ions can be prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods are applied satisfactorily for determination of As(III) and As(V) in various types of water.

  15. Liquid-phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A review.

    PubMed

    de la Calle, Inmaculada; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2016-09-14

    An overview of the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is reported herein. The high sensitivity of GFAAS is significantly enhanced by its association with a variety of miniaturized solvent extraction approaches. LPME-GFAAS thus represents a powerful combination for determination of metals, metalloids and organometallic compounds at (ultra)trace level. Different LPME modes used with GFAAS are briefly described, and the experimental parameters that show an impact in those microextraction processes are discussed. Special attention is paid to those parameters affecting GFAAS analysis. Main issues found when coupling LPME and GFAAS, as well as those strategies reported in the literature to solve them, are summarized. Relevant applications published on the topic so far are included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Tetracycline in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Molecular and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography via Complex Formation with Au(III) and Hg(II) Ions in Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Abdulghani, Ahlam Jameel; Jasim, Hadi Hassan; Hassan, Abbas Shebeeb

    2013-01-01

    UV-visible and atomic spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques were applied for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in pharmaceutical preparations via complexation of the drug with Au(III) and Hg(II) ions in solutions. The mole ratio of TC to metal ions was 1 : 1. Maximum peak absorption at λ 425 and 320 nm for the two ions, respectively, was optimized at heating temperature 75°C for 15 minutes at pH = 4 followed by the extraction with ethyl acetate. The percentage of extraction and stability constants for the two complexes was 95.247, 95.335% and 2.518 × 104, 1.162 × 105 M−1, respectively. HPLC method was applied without extraction process. The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves of UV-visible absorption, FAAS, and HPLC for Au(III) complexes were recovery (100.78, 104.85, and 101.777%, resp.); detection limits (0.7403, 0.0997, and 2.647 μg/ml, resp.); linearity (5–70, 5–30, and 10–150 μg/ml, resp.), and correlation coefficient (0.9991, 0.9967, and 0.9986, resp.). The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves for Hg(II) complexes by UV-visible spectrophotometry and HPLC were recovery (100.95 and 102.000%, resp.); detection limits (0.5867 and 2.532 μg/ml, resp.); linearity (5–70 and 10–150 μg/ml, resp.); and correlation coefficients (0.9989 and 0.9997, resp.). PMID:23853607

  17. [Determination of total mercury in water samples, sediments and solids in suspension in aquatic systems by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J L; Passarelli, M M

    1996-06-01

    The use of metallic mercury in the extraction and concentration of gold causes the discarding of tons of this metal in the environment, leading to a considerable increase in the natural levels of the same and the contamination of the surrounding areas. Thus it is extremely important to monitor the presence of this metal in various sectors of the environment with a view aiming to preventing human exposure to excessive concentrations which can result in serious episodes of mercury poisoning. It is also important to estimate the possibility of river sediments becoming potential sources of contamination of human beings. The determination of total mercury was undertaken by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. River waters, as well as sediments and suspended solids were used as samples for the standardization of the analytical procedure. Later on, this method was tested on samples originating in gold mining areas for the purpose of assessing its validity.

  18. Thiomersal photo-degradation with visible light mediated by graphene quantum dots: Indirect quantification using optical multipath mercury cold-vapor absorption spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda-Andrades, Jarol R.; Khan, Sarzamin; Toloza, Carlos A. T.; Romani, Eric C.; Freire Júnior, Fernando L.; Aucelio, Ricardo Q.

    2017-12-01

    Thiomersal is employed as preservative in vaccines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products due to its capacity to inhibit bacterial growth. Thiomersal contains 49.55% of mercury in its composition and its highly toxic ethylmercury degradation product has been linked to neurological disorders. The photo-degradation of thiomersal has been achieved by visible light using graphene quantum dots as catalysts. The generated mercury cold vapor (using adjusted experimental conditions) was detected by multipath atomic absorption spectrometry allowing the quantification of thiomersal at values as low as 20 ng L- 1 even in complex samples as aqueous effluents of pharmaceutical industry and urine. A kinetic study (pseudo-first order with k = 0.11 min- 1) and insights on the photo-degradation process are presented.

  19. Determination of sub-microgram amounts of selenium in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomisation after solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method with electrothermal atomisation has been developed for the determination of selenium in geological materials. The sample is decomposed with a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and heated with hydrochloric acid to reduce selenium to selenium (IV). Selenium is then extracted into toluene from a hydrochloric acid - hydrobromic acid medium containing iron. A few microlitres of the toluene extract are injected into a carbon rod atomiser, using a nickel solution as a matrix modifier. The limits of determination are 0.2-200 p.p.m. of selenium in a geological sample. For concentrations between 0.05 and 0.2 p.p.m., back-extraction of the selenium into dilute hydrochloric acid is employed before atomisation. Selenium values for reference samples obtained by replicate analysis are in general agreement with those reported by other workers, with relative standard deviations ranging from 4.1 to 8.8%. Recoveries of selenium spiked at two levels were 98-108%. Major and trace elements commonly encountered in geological materials do not interfere. Arsenic has a suppressing effect on the selenium signals, but only when its concentration is greater than 1000 p.p.m. Nitric acid interferes seriously with the extraction of selenium and must be removed by evaporation in the sample-digestion step.

  20. Determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in vehicles escape fumes by GF-AAS and ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Antonio; Domínguez, José R; Alvarado, José

    2008-04-15

    Automotive exhaust gases from vehicles using catalytic converters were filtered through cellulose filter papers to collect suspended particles expulsed along with the engine's escape fumes. A specially designed sample collector was used for supporting the filter papers during collection. The collector was manufactured from a new car's exhaust pipe. A cellulose circular paper filter, 11 cm diameter, was attached to one end of the pipe and kept centered by pressing it against the borders of the pipe by means of a perforated aluminum cap, slightly wider than the pipe, used to cover this end of the collector. Filter papers loaded with the solid particles were acid-digested using a modified domestic microwave oven to bring the solid material into solution. The resulting solutions were analyzed for Pt by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and for Pd and Rh by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Results indicate that concentration of these analytes in the particulate is higher for new vehicles, having new catalytic converters, than for old ones. Maximum Pd, Pt and Rh in the samples analyzed were found to be 5.36, 12.60 and 1.03 microg g(-1), respectively.

  1. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  2. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, David

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionises the nebula producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  3. Spectrophotometry: Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    2009-01-01

    I describe the rise of optical region spectrophotometry in the 1960's and 1970's when it achieved a status as a major tool in stellar research through its decline and near demise at present. With absolutely calibrated fluxes and Balmer profiles usually of H-gamma, astronomers used model atmospheres predictions to find both the effective temperatures and surface gravities of many stars. Spectrophotometry as I knew it was photometrically calibrated low dispersion spectroscopy with a typical resolution of order 25 A. A typical data set consists of 10 to 15 values covering most of the optical spectral region. The strengths and shortcomings of the rotating grating scanners are discussed. The accomplishments achieved using spectrophotometric data, which were obtained with instruments using photomultipliers, are reviewed. Extensions to other spectral regions are noted and attempts to use observations from space to calibrate the optical region will be discussed. There are two steps to fully calibrate flux data. The first requires the calibration of the fluxes of one or more standard stars against sources calibrated absolutely in a laboratory. The use of Vega as the primary standard has been both a blessing as it is so bright and a curse especially as modeling it correctly requires treating it as a fast rotating star seen nearly pole-on. At best its calibration has errors of about 1%. The other step is to apply extinction corrections for the Earth's atmosphere and then calibrate the fluxes using the fluxes of standard stars. Now the ASTRA Spectrophotometer promises a revitalization of the use and availability of optical flux data. Its design specifications included solutions to the problems of past optical spectrophotometric instruments.

  4. Pigment identification in artwork using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goltz, D M; Coombs, J; Marion, C; Cloutis, E; Gibson, J; Attas, M; Choo-Smith, L-P; Collins, C

    2004-06-17

    The use of a sampling technique is described for the identification of metals from inorganic pigments in paint. The sampling technique involves gently contacting a cotton swab with the painted surface to physically remove a minute quantity ( approximately 1-2mug) of pigment. The amount of material removed from the painted surface is invisible to the unaided eye and does not cause any visible effect to the painted surface. The cotton swab was then placed in a 1.5ml polystyrene beaker containing HNO(3) to extract pigment metals prior to analysis using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). GFAAS is well suited for identifying pigment metals since it requires small samples and many pigments consist of main group elements (e.g. Al) as well as transition metals (e.g. Zn, Fe and Cd). Using Cd (cadmium red) as the test element, the reproducibility of sampling a paint surface with the cotton swab was approximately 13% in either a water or oil medium. To test the feasibility of cotton sampling for pigment identification, samples were obtained from paintings (watercolour and oil) of a local collection. Raman spectra provided complementary information to the GFAAS, which together are essential for positive identification of some pigments. For example, GFAAS indicated the presence of Cu, but the Raman spectra positively identified the modern copper pigment phthalocyanine green (Cu(C(32)Cl(16)N(8)). Both Raman spectroscopy and GFAAS were useful for identifying ZnO as a white pigment.

  5. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  6. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from <0.0001 to 752.7 μg L(-1). The aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  7. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  8. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bechlin, Marcos A; Fortunato, Felipe M; Ferreira, Edilene C; Gomes Neto, José A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Donati, George L; Jones, Bradley T

    2014-06-11

    Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A(Pb)/A(Bi)versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52-118% (without IS) to 97-109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74-231% (without IS) to 96-109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36-125% (without IS) to 96-110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n=12) were reduced from 0.6-9.2% (without IS) to 0.3-4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7-7.7% (without IS) to 0.1-4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1-13% (without IS) to 0.4-5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  10. Spectrophotometry (by Barbara Sawrey and Gabriele Wienhausen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, David L.

    1998-08-01

    Science Media: San Diego, 1997. 1-10 copies, 99 each; 11-20 copies, 69 each; 21+ copies, $49 each. (Note: CD operates with both Mac and PC.) Spectrophotometry is an interactive CD-ROM which introduces the basics of UV-visible spectrophotometry with some mention of infrared and other forms of spectrophotometry. A Macintosh System 7.5 or higher, CPU 68040 or Power PC processor, 6 megabytes of free RAM, 2.6 megabytes of free disk space, and 4X CD-ROM or faster are required.

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  12. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  13. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  14. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  15. Analysis of gunshot residues as trace in nasal mucus by GFAAS.

    PubMed

    Aliste, Marina; Chávez, Luis Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    When a gun is fired, the majority of gunshot residues are deposited on the shooter's hands. But these residues disappear through contact with surfaces or washing. Therefore, the maximum time frame to find GSR on a suspect's hands is 8h. The mucus, inside of a nostril, forms a surface layer where they are trapped foreign particles. In this way, mucus inside of a gunshot suspect's nostrils could act like an adhesive medium to stick on it gaseous particles from a gunshot. In this study, the presence of GSR in nasal mucus and its residence time is examined. A new procedure for the sampling of possible gunshot residue accumulated in the nasal mucus is designed. Samples are taken with cotton swabs moistened with a solution of EDTA and, after an acid digestion, are analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, samples of hands are taken for comparison purposes. GSR recovery has been successful. The concentration of GSR in nasal mucus is found to be lower than on the hands, but with a longer residence time. Thus, it is possible to expand the sampling time of a suspect also, as nasal mucus cannot be contaminated by handling weapons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Daniel R.; Todt, Michael A.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to make absorption spectrophotometry available to high school chemistry and physics classes, we have designed an inexpensive visible light absorption spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer was constructed using LEGO blocks, a light emitting diode, optical elements (including a lens), a slide-mounted diffraction grating, and a…

  17. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  18. The nature of C-class asteroids from 3-micron spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feierberg, M. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Narrowband spectrophotometry between 2.3 and 3.5 micrometers is presented for 14 main-belt C asteroids greater than 100 km in diameter. Absorption features at 3 micrometers due to water of hydration are present in the spectra of nine of the asteroids, with intensities ranging from 6 to 23 percent. The other five asteroids have no such absorption greater than 2 percent in intensity. The present C-asteroid population may be fragments of larger parent bodies with anhydrous C3-like cores and hydrated C1I- or C2M-like mantles.

  19. Surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith

    1988-01-01

    The controversies surrounding the existing spectra of Mercury are discussed together with the various implications for interpretations of Mercury's surface composition. Special attention is given to the basic procedure used for reducing reflectance spectrophotometry data, the factors that must be accounted for in the reduction of these data, and the methodology for defining the portion of the surface contributing the greatest amount of light to an individual spectrum. The application of these methodologies to Mercury's spectra is presented.

  20. Combined spectrophotometry and tensile measurements of human connective tissues: potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ernstberger, Markus; Sichting, Freddy; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter; Aust, Gabriela; Hammer, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Strain-dependent transmission data of nine iliotibial tract specimens are determined using a custom-built optical setup with a halogen light source and an industrial norm material testing machine. Polarized light microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining indicated that lateral contraction of collagen structures is responsible for total intensity variations during a 20-cycle preconditioning and a 5-cycle tensile test. Tensile force progress is opposite to total transmission progress. Due to dehydration, wavelength-specific radiation intensity shifting is determined during the test, primarily noticeable in a water absorption band between 1400 and 1500 nm. The results show the capability of integrating spectrophotometry technology into biomechanics for determining structural alterations of human collagen due to applied strain. Being more sensitive to drying, spectrophotometry may likely serve as a quality control in stress-strain testing of biological structures.

  1. Determination of ruthenium in pharmaceutical compounds by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiujuan; Wang, Tiebang; Bu, Xiaodong; Tu, Qiang; Spencer, Sandra

    2006-04-11

    A graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) spectrometric method for the determination of ruthenium (Rh) in solid and liquid pharmaceutical compounds has been developed. Samples are dissolved or diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) without any other treatment before they were analyzed by GFAA with a carefully designed heating program to avoid pre-atomization signal loss and to achieve suitable sensitivity. Various inorganic and organic solvents were tested and compared and DMSO was found to be the most suitable. In addition, ruthenium was found to be stable in DMSO for at least 5 days. Spike recoveries ranged from 81 to 100% and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined to be 0.5 microg g(-1) for solid samples or 0.005 microg ml(-1) for liquid samples based a 100-fold dilution. The same set of samples was also analyzed by ICP-MS with a different sample preparation method, and excellent agreement was achieved.

  2. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  3. [Wavelength Selection in Hemolytic Evaluation Systems with Spectrophotometry Detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Su, Baochang; Ye, Xunda; Luo, Man

    2016-04-01

    Spectrophotometry is a simple hemolytic evaluation method commonly used in new drugs,biomedical materials and blood products.It is for the quantitative analysis of the characteristic absorption peaks of hemoglobin.Therefore,it is essential to select the correct detection wavelength when the evaluation system has influences on the conformation of hemoglobin.Based on the study of changes in the characteristic peaks over time of the hemolysis supernatant in four systems,namely,cell culture medium,phosphate buffered saline(PBS),physiological saline and banked blood preservation solution,using continuous wavelength scanning,the selections of detection wavelength were proposed as follows.In the cell culture medium system,the wavelength of 415 nm should be selected within 4h;,near 408 nm should be selected within 4~72h.In PBS system,within 4h,541 nm,577nm or 415 nm should be selected;4~72h,541 nm,577nm or near 406 nm should be selected.In physiological saline system,within 4h,414 nm should be selected;4~72h,near 405 nm should be selected;within 12 h,541nm or 577 nm could also be selected.In banked blood preservation solution system,within 72 h,415nm,540 nm or 576 nm should be selected.

  4. CVF spectrophotometry of Pluto - Correlation of composition with albedo. [circularly variable filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcialis, Robert L.; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    The present time-resolved, 0.96-2.65-micron spectrophotometry for the Pluto-Charon system indicates night-to-night variations in the depths of the methane absorptions such that the bands' equivalent width is near minimum light. The interpretation of these data in terms of a depletion of methane in dark regions of the planet, relative to bright ones, is consistent with the Buie and Fink (1987) observations. The near-IR spectrum of Pluto seems to be dominated by surface frost. It is suggested that the dark equatorial regions of Pluto are redder than those of moderate albedo.

  5. Optical imagery and spectrophotometry of CTB 80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, J. Jeff; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1989-01-01

    Narrow-band imagery and spectrophotometry of the central region of CTB 80 are presented. The images show weak forbidden O III and ubiquitous filamentary forbidden S II and H-alpha emission from the extended radio lobes in which the core is embedded. The data indicate that the extended component is shock heated. Balmer line-dominated emission is observed around the perimeter of the core. Assuming that the volume of the radio shell is similar to the volume of the thermal shell, it is found that a magnetic field of about 600 microG and a cosmic-ray proton-to-electron ratio of about 200 are required to explain the pressure and synchrotron volume emissivity in the radio shell. It is suggested that the optical emission form the core of CTB 80 arises behind shocks which are being driven into a magnetized thermal plasma by the confined relativistic wind from PSR 1951+32.

  6. Spectrophotometry of the shell around AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, P. Mila; Dufour, Reginald J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatially-resolved long-slit spectrophotometry are presented for two regions of the shell nebula around the P-Cygni variable star AG Carinae. The spectra cover the 3700-6800 A wavelength range. Emission-line diagnostics are used to derive extinction, electron temperatures, and densities for various positions in the nebula. The chemical abundances and ionization structure are calculated and compared with other types of planetary nebulae and shells around other luminous stars. It is found that the N/O and N/S ratios of Ag Car are high compared to solar neighborhood ISM values. The O/H depletion found for the AG Car shell approaches that found in the condensations of the Eta Car system.

  7. Determination of arsenic in ambient water at sub-part-per-trillion levels by hydride generation Pd coated platform collection and GFAAS detection.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Lazoff, S; Chan, C; Horvat, M; Woods, J S

    1998-11-01

    A method for trace determination of total arsenic in ambient waters is described. Arsenic is separated on-line from a large volume water sample by hydride generation and purging, pre-collected on a Pd coated pyrolytic platform cuvette using a simple and inexpensive system, and finally detected by GFAAS. Instrument parameters, hydride generation, transportation, and collection were optimized. The analytical behavior for major species including As(3+), As(5+), monomethyl As (MMA), and dimethyl As (DMA) were investigated individually. Problems arising from use of the system were discussed and eliminated. The necessity of sample digestion and an efficient digestion method were studied. Sample digestion for water with low organic content such as tap water and clean ground water and some clean surface water can be omitted. The method detection limit (MDL) is 0.3 ng l(-1) for a 25 ml water sample. Recoveries close to 100% with R.S.D.<5% can be easily achieved. Typical aqueous samples including tap, ground, lake, river, rain, sewage effluent, and saline water from different origins in the US, China, and Canada were collected and analyzed using ultra clean sampling and analysis techniques. The background levels of As in most water analyzed were established for the first time, and found to be far above the EPA's health effect criteria, 18 ng l(-1).

  8. The brilliant blue FCF ion-molecular forms in solutions according to the spectrophotometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebotarev, A. N.; Bevziuk, K. V.; Snigur, D. V.; Bazel, Ya. R.

    2017-10-01

    The brilliant blue FCF acid-base properties in aqueous solutions have been studied and its ionization constants have been defined by tristimulus colorimetry and spectrophotometry methods. The scheme of the acid-base dye equilibrium has been proposed and a diagram of the distribution of its ionic-molecular forms has been built. It has been established that the dominant form of the dye was the electroneutral form, which molar absorptivity (ɛ625 = 0.97 × 105) increases with the increase of the dielectric permittivity of the solvent. It has been shown that the replacement of polar solvents by less polar ones is causing a bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption band of the dye, the value of which is correlated with the value of the Hansen parameter. Tautomerization constants have been defined in a number of solvents and associated with the value of the Dimroth-Reichardt parameter.

  9. Optical Region Spectrophotometry: Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    In the 1960s and 1970s optical region spectrophotometry achieved the status of a major tool in stellar research. New instrumentation, rotating grating scanners using photomultiplier tubes as detectors, and improved absolute calibrations of Vega made this possible. After this period the use of this technique declined to its near demise at present. The use of Vega as the primary standard has been both a blessing as it is so bright and a curse especially as modeling it correctly requires treating it as a fast rotating star seen nearly pole-on. It may be better to use several stars to define any future absolute calibration. With absolutely calibrated fluxes and Balmer profiles, often Hγ, investigators used the predictions of model atmospheres to find both the effective temperatures and the surface gravities of stars. The fluxes were photometrically calibrated low dispersion spectra with a typical resolution of order 25 Å. A typical data set consisted of 10-15 values covering most of the optical spectral region. At present two instrumental projects ACCESS and the ASTRA Spectrophotometer promise, respectively, a new substantially improved absolute calibration of the optical fluxes of several targets and the availability of a considerable amount of well-calibrated optical flux data for use in studies concerned with stellar properties. They jointly promise to revive optical region spectrophotometric studies.

  10. The way to universal and correct medical presentation of diagnostic informations for complex spectrophotometry noninvasive medical diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tchernyi, Vladimir V.

    2003-07-01

    The optical noninvasive diagnostic systems are now widely applied and investigated in different areas of medicine. One of the such techniques is the noninvasive spectrophotometry, the complex diagnostic technique consisting on elastic scattering spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, fluorescent diagnostics, photoplethismography, etc. Today a lot of real optical diagnostic systems indicate the technical parameters and physical data only as a result of the diagnostic procedure. But, it is clear that for the medical staff the more convenient medical information is needed. This presentation lights the general way for development a diagnostic system"s software, which can produce the full processing of the diagnostic data from a physical to a medical level. It is shown, that this process is a multilevel (3-level) procedure and the main diagnostic result for noninvasive spectrophotometry methods, the biochemical and morphological composition of the tested tissues, arises in it on a second level of calculations.

  11. Determination of gold and cobalt dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide by slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Eskina, Vasilina V.; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B.; Vladimirova, Svetlana A.; Gaskov, Alexander M.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Karpov, Yuri A.

    2018-02-01

    A novel approach is developed for the determination of Co and Au dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS) with direct slurry sampling. Sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is an effective stabilizer for diluted suspensions. Use Na-CMC allows to transfer the analytes into graphite furnace completely and reproducibly. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not higher than 4%. Accuracy was proven by means inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in solutions after decomposition as a comparative technique. To determine Au and Co in the volume of SnO2, the acid decomposition conditions (HCl, HF) of the samples were suggested by means of an autoclave in a microwave oven.

  12. The Assessment of Liver Reserve Function by Spectrophotometry based on Determination of Phenacetin and Paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Ren, Rui; Ma, Yongmei; Ma, Wanshan; Lu, Sumei

    2015-01-01

    To establish a technical system for assessing liver reserve function based on spectrophotometry by detection of phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples. Taking detected contents of phenacetin and paracetamol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as standard, which was proved to be able to detect drug concentrations with high resolution and accuracy, we established a technical system based on the spectrophotometric technique to assay phenacetin and paracetamol, including the color system, the maximum absorption wavelength, the influence factors of color system, and the optimal conditions for hydrolysis. Then we verified our established system compared with that under HPLC by recovery test. This study established a technical system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples using spectrophotometry. Mainly, 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added to samples for hydrolysis for 30 minutes, then, adding 0.02% 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), 1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTA) and 2% sodium hydroxide (or 3% sodium carbonate) (ratio of 1:6:1:2 or 3), and the absorbance was measured at 500 nm and 570 nm to calculate their concentrations. Using an established spectrophotometric system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples could assess liver reserve function, which was proved comparable with HPLC in resolution and repeatability.

  13. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  14. [Studies on the interaction between RNA with neutral red and determination of RNA by spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Si, Wen-Hui

    2007-06-01

    An analytical method for the determination of ribonucleic acid by spectrophotometry was established. At the maximum absorption wavelength for neutral red in B-R buffer solution, and under the best conditions, the decrease in the absorbance was linear with the amount of ribonucleic acid. The linearity range was 0.0-9.0 microg x mL(-1), the detection limit was 0.52 microg x mL(-1), and the correlation coeffient was 0.999 8. This method was simple, rapid, and selective. So its application to the determination of ribonucleic acid was satisfactory. The reaction mechanism was that the electrostatic interaction leads to molecular association of RNA with neutral red, resulting in anti-ion permutation and bonding reaction.

  15. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  16. A Computer-aided Learning Exercise in Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamula, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer simulation program in teaching the concepts of spectrophotometry. Introduces several parts of the program and program usage. Presents an assessment activity to evaluate students' mastery of material. Concludes with the advantages of this approach to the student and to the assessor. (ASK)

  17. The determination of copper in biological materials by flame spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Newman, G. E.; Ryan, M.

    1962-01-01

    A method for the determination of the copper content of biological materials by flame spectrophotometry is described. The effects of interference by ions such as sodium and phosphate were eliminated by isolating copper as the dithizonate in CCl4. Results obtained for the urinary excretion of copper by a patient with Wilson's disease before and after treatment with penicillamine are reported. PMID:14479334

  18. Evolution of Instrumentation for UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altemose, Ines R.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the development of instruments used in spectrophotometry. Discusses how spectrophotometric measurements are made. Describes the color comparator, the filter photometer, and the spectrophotometer. Outlines the evolution of optical systems, including light sources, the monochromator, the photodetector, double-beam optics, and split-beam…

  19. Graphite furnace atomic absorption elemental analysis of ecstasy tablets.

    PubMed

    French, Holly E; Went, Michael J; Gibson, Stuart J

    2013-09-10

    Six metals (copper, magnesium, barium, nickel, chromium and lead) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 parts per million (ppm) and in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly higher 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) content than batch 2, barium was the only element which discriminated between the two ecstasy seizures (batch 1: 0.19-0.66 ppm, batch 2: 3.77-5.47 ppm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast arsenic speciation in water by on-site solid phase extraction and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Bencs, László; Koncz, Kornél; Tatár, Enikő; Weiszburg, Tamás; Záray, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    A method of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS), combined with on-site separation/solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the speciation of inorganic As (iAs) in geothermal and drinking water samples. The HR-CS-GFAAS calibration curves were linear up to 200 μg/L As, but using second order polynomial fitting, accurate calibration could be performed up to 500 μg/L. It has been demonstrated that sample pH should not be higher than 8 for an accurate speciation of As(V) with a recovery of ≈ 95%. Geothermal water had fairly high salt content (≈ 2200 mg/L) due to the presence of chlorides and sulfates at mg/L levels. Therefore, a two-fold dilution of these types of samples before SPE is recommended, especially, for total As determinations, when the As concentration is as high as 400 μg/L. For drinking water, sampled from public wells with records of As concentrations higher than the 10 μg/L in the past, the reduction of As contamination below the WHO's health limit value could be observed. However, the electrical conductivity was close to 2500 μS/cm, i.e., the guideline limit for drinking water, which was due to their higher chloride content. The proposed fit-for-purpose SPE-HR-CS-GFAAS method could be a candidate for screening drinking water quality.

  1. Ionic liquid-based extraction followed by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of trace heavy metals in high-purity iron metal.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Kato, Tatsuya; Hiraide, Masataka

    2014-02-01

    The analysis of high-purity materials for trace impurities is an important and challenging task. The present paper describes a facile and sensitive method for the determination of trace heavy metals in high-purity iron metal. Trace heavy metals in an iron sample solution were rapidly and selectively preconcentrated by the extraction into a tiny volume of an ionic liquid [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide] for the determination by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A nitrogen-donating neutral ligand, 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ), was found to be effective in the ionic liquid-based selective extraction, allowing the nearly complete (~99.8%) elimination of the iron matrix. The combination with the optimized GFAAS was successful. The detectability reached sub-μg g(-1) levels in iron metal. The novel use of TPTZ in ionic liquid-based extraction followed by GFAAS was successfully applied to the determination of traces of Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb in certified reference materials for high-purity iron metal. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High purity polyimide analysis by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rafael F.; Carvalho, Gabriel S.; Duarte, Fabio A.; Bolzan, Rodrigo C.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni were determined in high purity polyimides (99.5%) by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GFAAS) using Zeeman effect background correction system with variable magnetic field, making possible the simultaneous measurement at high or low sensitivity. The following analytical parameters were evaluated: pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, feasibility of calibration with aqueous solution, linear calibration range, sample mass range and the use of chemical modifier. Calibration with aqueous standard solutions was feasible for all analytes. No under or overestimated results were observed and up to 10 mg sample could be introduced on the platform for the determination of Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni. The relative standard deviation ranged from 3 to 20%. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved using the high sensitivity mode were as low as 7.0, 2.5, 1.7, 17 and 0.12 ng g- 1 for Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni, respectively. No addition of chemical modifier was necessary, except for Mn determination where Pd was required. The accuracy was evaluated by analyte spike and by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion in a single reaction chamber system and also by neutron activation analysis. No difference among the results obtained by SS-GFAAS and those obtained by alternative analytical methods using independent techniques. SS-GFAAS method showed some advantages, such as the determination of metallic contaminants in high purity polyimides with practically no sample preparation, very low LODs, calibration with aqueous standards and determination in a wide range of concentration.

  3. Spectrophotometry of cerebrospinal fluid in subacute and chronic subdural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Kjellin, K. G.; Steiner, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spectrophotometric examinations were performed on cerebrospinal and subdural fluids in subacute (five patients) and chronic (20 patients) subdural haematomas, with special reference to the diagnostic aid of CSF spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric xanthochromia of haemorrhagic origin was found in all CSFs examined, while definite visible xanthochromia was observed in only 28% and the CSF was judged as colourless in 52% of those cases. Characteristic bleeding patterns were found spectrophotometrically in all the 20 CSFs examined within 24 hours after lumbar puncture, haematoma patterns being detected in 90-95% of the cases. In many cases the electrophoretically separated protein fractions of CSF and subdural fluids were spectrophotometrically examined. In conclusion, CSF spectrophotometry is a simple, fast, and extremely sensitive method, which in our opinion should be used routinely in the diagnosis of suspected subdural haematomas, if lumbar puncture is not contraindicated. PMID:4140892

  4. Spectrophotometry-based detection of carbapenemase producers among Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Carbapenem-hydrolyzing ß-lactamases are the most powerful ß-lactamases being able to hydrolyse almost all ß-lactams. They are mostly of the KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48 type. A spectrophotometry technique based on analysis of the imipenem hydrolysis has been developed that differentiated carbapenemase- from noncarbapenemase producers. This inexpensive technique adapted to screening of carbapenemase producers may be implemented in any reference laboratory worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation and preconcentration of platinum-group metals from spent autocatalysts solutions using a hetero-polymeric S, N-containing sorbent and determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eskina, Vasilina V; Dalnova, Olga A; Filatova, Daria G; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B; Karpov, Yuri A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of Pt, Pd and Rh after separation and concentration by original in-house developed heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent. The methods of sample preparation of spent ceramic-based autocatalysts were considered, two of which were used: autoclave decomposition in mixture of acids HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and high-temperature melting with K2S2O7. Both methods anyway limit the direct determination of analytes by HR CS GFAAS. Using the first method it is an incomplete digestion of spent autocatalysts samples, since the precipitate is Si, and the rhodium metal dissolves with difficulty and partially passes into solution. In contrast to the first method, the second method allow to completely transfer analytes into solution, however, the background signal produced by the chemical composition of the flux, overlaps the analytical zone. It was found, that Pt, Pd and Rh contained in the spent ceramic automotive catalysts could be effectively separated and concentrated by heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent, which has high sorption capacity, selectivity and resistant to dilute acids. The chosen HR CS GFAAS analysis conditions enable us to determine Pt, Pd and Rh with good metrological characteristics. The concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh in two samples of automobile exhaust catalysts were found in range of 0.00015-0.00050; 0.170-0.189; 0.0180-0.0210wt%, respectively. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not more than 5%. Limits of detection by HR CS GFAAS achieved were 6.2·10(-6)wt% for Pt, 1.8·10(-6)wt% for Pd, and 3.4·10(-6)wt% for Rh. Limits of determination achieved by HR CS GFAAS were 1.1·10(-5)wt% for Pt, 6.9·10(-5)wt% for Pd, and 8.3·10(-5)wt% for Rh. To control the accuracy of PGM in sorption concentrates by HR CS GFAAS method, it was appropriate to conduct an inter-method comparative experiment. The

  6. Visual inspection versus spectrophotometry in detecting bilirubin in cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Linn, F; Voorbij, H; Rinkel, G; Algra, A; van Gijn, J

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Clinicians and students assessed CSF specimens with seven degrees of extinction between 0.00 and 0.09 at 450–460 nm as "yellow," "doubtful," or "colourless" after random presentation under standard conditions. The assessments were compared with spectrophotometry, with 0.05 being taken as the cut off level for the presence of bilirubin. Results were compared between the two groups and explored by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: All 51 clinicians and 50 of 51 students scored the tubes with extinction of 0.06 or higher as "yellow" or "doubtful." Tubes without any bilirubin were scored as "yellow" by three of the students only. The ROC curves confirmed that the diagnostic properties of the visual inspection versus spectrophotometry were slightly better for the clinicians than for the students. Conclusions: If CSF is considered colourless, the extinction of bilirubin is too low to be compatible with a diagnosis of recent subarachnoid haemorrhage. If CSF is not considered colourless, spectrophotometry should be carried out to determine the level of extinction of bilirubin. PMID:16170095

  7. Non-grey dimming events of KIC 8462852 from GTC spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans J.; Alonso, Roi; Nespral, David; Boyajian, Tabetha S.

    2018-02-01

    We report ground-based spectrophotometry of KIC 8462852 obtained during its first dimming events since the end of the Kepler mission. The dimmings show a clear colour signature and are deeper in visual blue than in red wavelengths. The wavelength dependency of the flux loss can be described with an absorption Ångström coefficient of 2.19 ± 0.45, which is compatible with absorption by optically thin dust with particle sizes of the order of 0.0015 to 0.15 μm. These particles would be smaller than is required to be resistant against blow-out by radiation pressure when close to the star. During occultation events, these particles must be replenished from a comoving body on time-scales of days. If dust is indeed the source of the dimming events of KIC 8462852, deeper dimming events should show more neutral colours, as is expected from optically thick absorbers. The individual reduced spectra of the target and reference stars are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/L12

  8. Determination of niobium in rocks, ores and alloys by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Husler, J

    1972-07-01

    Niobium, in concentrations as low as 0.02% Nb(2)O(5), is determined in a variety of materials without separation or enrichment. Chemical and ionization interferences are controlled, and sensitivity is increased, by maintaining the iron, aluminium, hydrofluoric acid and potassium content within certain broad concentration limits. There is close agreement with the results of analyses by emission spectrographic, electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence methods.

  9. Low resolution ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slovak, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra combined with optical spectrophotometry provide absolute flux distributions for seven symbiotic variables from 1200 to 6450 A. For five stars (EG And, BF Cyg, CI Cyg, AG Peg, and Z And) the data are representative of the quiescent/out-of-eclipse energy distributions; for CH Cyg and AX Per, the observations were obtained following their atest outburst in 1977 and 1978, respectively. The de-reddened distributions reveal a remarkable diversity of both line spectra and continua. While the optical and near infrared regions lambda = 5500 A) are well represented by single component stellar models, multicomponent flux distributions are required to reproduce the ultraviolet continua.

  10. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    DOEpatents

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  11. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry from Gemini 11 of stars in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Spear, G. G.; Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry in the wavelength region 2600-3600 A is reported for the bright early-type stars beta, eta, gamma, delta, iota, epsilon, sigma, zeta, and kappa Ori. The results are in good agreement with other observations, and, with the possible exception of the supergiants, are in good agreement with recent line-blanketed model atmospheres. There is evidence that the supergiants possess a small ultraviolet deficiency shortward of 3000 A relative to main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The most extreme example of this phenomenon is the star kappa Ori.

  12. Spectrophotometry of 2 complete samples of flat radio spectrum quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wampler, E. J.; Gaskell, C. M.; Burke, W. L.; Baldwin, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of two complete samples of flat-spectrum radio quasars show that for these objects there is a strong correlation between the equivalent width of the CIV wavelength 1550 emission line and the luminosity of the underlying continuum. Assuming Friedmann cosmologies, the scatter in this correlation is a minimum for q (sub o) is approximately 1. Alternatively, luminosity evolution can be invoked to give compact distributions for q (sub o) is approximately 0 models. A sample of Seyfert galaxies observed with IUE shows that despite some dispersion the average equivalent width of CIV wavelength 1550 in Seyfert galaxies is independent of the underlying continuum luminosity. New redshifts for 4 quasars are given.

  13. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-15

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM>FT>PFF>PCF>IFP>CFVP>FNT⩾DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R(2)=0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical and infrared spectrophotometry of the symbiotic system V1016 Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Cohen, Ross D.; Puetter, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Spectrophotometry from 0.46 to 1.3 micron of the peculiar emission-line object V1016 Cyg is presented. The optical region displays a weak continuum underlying the rich emission-line spectrum detailed in past studies. The infrared spectrum consists of prominent emission lines of H I, He I, He II, forbidden Ni, O I, and forbidden S III overlying a strong stellar continuum. The latter displays bands at 0.94 micron and 1.13 micron characteristic of a late-type, oxygen-rich giant as well as an absorption at 1.05 micron which is due to VO. The presence of these molecular features indicates a spectral class of M6 or later for the cool secondary. The reddening of the secondary does not appear to be much different from that of the emission lines. Among the infrared emission features is the rarely seen permitted transition of neutral oxygen at 1.1287 micron. Its presence at a strength comparable to O I 8446 A, together with the absence of O I 13164 A, confirms the result of Strafella that the strong O I lines arise primarily from fluorescent excitation by Ly-beta.

  15. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM > FT > PFF > PCF > IFP > CFVP > FNT ⩾ DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R2 = 0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  16. Determination of boron in uranium aluminum silicon alloy by spectrophotometry and estimation of expanded uncertainty in measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P. S.; Sayi, Y. S.; Ramakumar, K. L.

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of boron in diverse materials of relevance in nuclear technology is essential in view of its high thermal neutron absorption cross section. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of boron in uranium-aluminum-silicon alloy, based on leaching of boron with 6 M HCl and H 2O 2, its selective separation by solvent extraction with 2-ethyl hexane 1,3-diol and quantification by spectrophotometry using curcumin. The method has been evaluated by standard addition method and validated by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Relative standard deviation and absolute detection limit of the method are 3.0% (at 1 σ level) and 12 ng, respectively. All possible sources of uncertainties in the methodology have been individually assessed, following the International Organization for Standardization guidelines. The combined uncertainty is calculated employing uncertainty propagation formulae. The expanded uncertainty in the measurement at 95% confidence level (coverage factor 2) is 8.840%.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Bass, D A; TenKate, L B

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) is used for determination of ultra-trace metals in environmentally important samples. In the generation of GFAAS calibration curves for many environmental applications, low concentration calibration standards must be prepared dally, as required by the Statement of Work (SOW) for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program (CLP). This results in significant time and work for the analyst and significant cost to the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) for chemicals and waste management. While EPA SW 846 is less prescriptive than the CLP SOW, ACL has been following the CLP guidelines because in-house criteriamore » regarding the stability of GFAAS standards have not been established. A study was conducted to determine the stability of GFAAS standards for analytes commonly used in the ACL (single and mixed) as a function of time. Data were collected over nine months. The results show that GFAAS standards for Sb, Pb, Se, Ag, and TI are stable for a longer period of time than currently assumed by the CLP SOW. Reducing the frequency of preparing these standards will increase efficiency, decrease the handling of hazardous the quantity of hazardous waste generated, and decrease the quantity of hazardous substances to be ordered and stocked by the laboratory. These benefits will improve GFAAS analysis quality, reduce costs, enhance safety, and lower environmental concerns.« less

  18. Systematic approach for describing the geometry of spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Early, Edward A.

    2003-07-01

    In the field of spectrophotometry, the value of the quantities depends upon the geometry under which they are measured. Therefore, it is imperative to completely describe the measurement geometry. Many documentary standards specify the geometry for a particular application. However, to accurately specify the geometry, a general, basic understanding of the relevant parameters for describing the geometry is required. A systematic approach for describing the measurement geometry is presented, which will hopefully have a positive impact on documentary standards. The key to describing the geometry is to consider the illuminator and receiver of the instrument as optical systems with pupils and windows. It is these optical systems, together with the reference plane, that determine the sampling aperture of the instrument. The geometry is then completely described by the relations between the sampling aperture and the optical systems of the illuminator and receiver. These concepts are illustrated by considering three configurations of pupils and windows relative to the focal point of an optical system.

  19. Spectrophotometry of comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; O'Dell, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Optical window spectrophotometry was performed on comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley over the interval 300-1000 nm. Band and band-sequence fluxes were obtained for the brightest features of OH, CN, NH, and C2, special care having been given to determinations of extinction, instrumental sensitivities, and corrections for Fraunhofer lines. C2 Swan band-sequence flux ratios were determined with unprecedented accuracy and compared with the predictions of the detailed equilibrium models of Krishna Swamy et al. (1977, 1979, 1981, and 1987). It is found that these band sequences do not agree with the predictions, which calls into question the assumptions made in deriving the model, namely resonance fluorescence statistical equilibrium. Suggestions are made as to how to resolve this discrepancy.

  20. Airborne spectrophotometry of Comet Halley from 5 to 9 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, H.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Wooden, D. H.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry from 5 to 9 microns (resolution = 0.02) of comet Halley was obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on 1985 Dec. 12.1 and 1986 April 8.6 and 10.5 UT. Two spectral features are apparent in all the observations, one from 5.24 to 5.6 microns, and the silicate emission feature which has an onset between 7 and 8 microns. There is no evidence for the 7.5 microns feature observed by the Vega 1 spacecraft; the large difference between the areal coverage viewed from the spacecraft and the airplane may explain the discrepancy. Color temperatures significantly higher than a blackbody indicate that small particles are abundant in the coma. Significant spatial and temporal variations in the spectrum show trends similar to those observed from the ground.

  1. Quantitation of heparosan with heparin lyase III and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haichan; Zhao, Yingying; Lv, Shencong; Zhong, Weihong; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-02-15

    Heparosan is Escherichia coli K5 capsule polysaccharide, which is the key precursor for preparing bioengineered heparin. A rapid and effective quantitative method for detecting heparosan is important in the large-scale production of heparosan. Heparin lyase III (Hep III) effectively catalyzes the heparosan depolymerization, forming unsaturated disaccharides that are measurable using a spectrophotometer at 232 nm. We report a new method for the quantitative detection of heparosan with heparin lyase III and spectrophotometry that is safer and more specific than the traditional carbazole assay. In an optimized detection system, heparosan at a minimum concentration of 0.60 g/L in fermentation broth can be detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On-line photolithography modeling using spectrophotometry and Prolith/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Herbert L.; Beacham, Jeanne E.

    1994-05-01

    Spectrophotometry has been applied to optimizing photolithography processes in semiconductor manufacturing. For many years thin film measurement systems have been used in manufacturing for controlling film deposition processes. The combination of film thickness mapping with photolithography modeling has expanded the applications of this technology. Experimental measurements of dose-to-clear, the minimum light exposure dose required to fully develop a photoresist, are described. It is shown how dose-to-clear and photoresist contrast may be determined rapidly and conveniently from measurements of a dose exposure matrix on a monitor wafer. Such experimental measurements may underestimate the dose-to- clear because of thickness variations of the photoresist and underlying layers on the product wafer. Online modeling of the photolithographic process together with film thickness maps of the entire wafer can overcome this problem. Such modeling also provides maps of dose-to- clear and resist linewidth that can be used to estimate and optimize yield.

  3. Analysis of rainwater dissolved organic carbon compounds using fluorescence spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Catherine L.; Baker, Andy; Hutchinson, Robert; Fairchild, Ian J.; Kidd, Chris

    Global rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux was recently estimated as 430 × 10 12 g C yr -1, yet little is known about the wide range of chemical compounds present, their sources, temporal patterns of variation, and the subsequent impact on climate and the environment. Precipitation events were sampled in Birmingham, UK between April 2005 and May 2007. Rainwater DOC compounds were analysed using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Three fluorophores were identified: HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS), TYrosine-LIke Substances (TYLIS) and TRYptophan-LIke Substances (TRYLIS). Peak fluorescence intensities and locations for each substance were examined, and their variations with various meteorological parameters were investigated. The mean HULIS fluorescence intensity from all events was 209 a.u. (with sample fluorescence ranging from 37 a.u. to 995 a.u); mean fluorescence intensity was 469 a.u. (214-988 a.u) and 265 a.u. (50-876 a.u.) for TYLIS and TRYLIS, respectively. Results indicate that highest HULIS fluorescence intensities are experienced during convective events and events of continental origin, suggesting terrestrial/anthropogenic sources. Under well-mixed conditions, HULIS fluorescence intensity decreases, whereas during low wind speed, stagnation of the atmosphere results in higher fluorescence intensities, attributed to a build up of localised sources, particularly anthropogenic. TYLIS and TRYLIS did not show any significant trends for the meteorological variables. Fluorescence spectrophotometry is a fast, non-invasive technique which is demonstrated to be a powerful means of fingerprinting rainfall DOC compounds in real time for small sample volumes.

  4. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  5. Determination of piroxicam in pharmaceutical preparations by ultraviolet direct spectrophotometry, ultraviolet difference spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hackmann, E.R.M.; Santos Gianotto, E.A. dos; Miritello Santoro, M.I.R.

    1993-02-01

    Piroxicam in pharmaceutical preparations (capsules (C), tablets (T), oral drops (OD), suppositories (S) and simulated sample (SS)) was determined by UV direct spectrophotometry (UVS) at 333 nm, by UV difference spectrophotometry (UVDS) at 327 nm, and in C and T, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For UVS, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 3.0-8.5 [mu]g/mL. The coefficient of correlation (CC), absolute precision (AP) and relative precision (RP) were 0.9999, 0.02 and 0.33%, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) for C, T, OD, S and SS were 0.48%, 0.35%, 0.48% and 0.19%, respectively. The recovery average (RA) was 100.22%.more » For UVDS, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 5.0-15.0 [mu]g/mL. The CC, AP and RP were respectively 0.9999, 0.05 and 0.47%. The CV for C, T, OD, S and SS were 0.64%, 0.84%, 0.62%, 0.54% and 0.15%, respectively. The RA was 99.02%. In HPLC determination, a LiChrospher[reg sign] 100 RP-18 (5 [mu]m) in LiChroCART[reg sign] 125-4 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: (buffer solution citric acid-dibasic sodium phosphate pH 3.0) (55:45) and UV detection at 254 nm enabled the determination of piroxicam in C and T. The response peak area versus concentration presented linearity in the range 10.0-100.0 [mu]g/mL. The CC, AP and RP were 0.9997, 0.45 and 0.90%, respectively. The CV was 0.51%-0.82% and the RA, 97.13%. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.« less

  6. Magnetic resonance cell-tracking studies: spectrophotometry-based method for the quantification of cellular iron content after loading with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a user-friendly tool for quantifying the iron content of superparamagnetic labeled cells before cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Iron quantification was evaluated by using Prussian blue staining and spectrophotometry. White blood cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. Labeling was confirmed by light microscopy. Subsequently, the cells were embedded in a phantom and scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) whole-body system. Mean peak wavelengths λ(peak) was determined at A(720 nm) (range 719-722 nm). Linearity was proven for the measuring range 0.5 to 10 μg Fe/mL (r  =  .9958; p  =  2.2 × 10(-12)). The limit of detection was 0.01 μg Fe/mL (0.1785 mM), and the limit of quantification was 0.04 μg Fe/mL (0.714 mM). Accuracy was demonstrated by comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. Precision and robustness were also proven. On T(2)-weighted images, signal intensity varied according to the iron concentration of SPIO-labeled cells. Absorption spectrophotometry is both a highly sensitive and user-friendly technique that is feasible for quantifying the iron content of magnetically labeled cells. The presented data suggest that spectrophotometry is a promising tool for promoting the implementation of magnetic resonance-based cell tracking in routine clinical applications (from bench to bedside).

  7. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  8. Determination of chlorine in atmosphere by kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jian-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Ruan, Ge-Lan; Li, Guo-Qiang; Deng, Zhao-Xia

    2005-03-01

    A kinetic method for determination of chlorine in air was described in the present work. The method based on fading of methyl orange (MO) containing solution in air absorption process. A determination limit of 2.64 microg L(-1) was found. With the present method, chlorine concentration could be determined in several minutes with convenient manipulation. As concentration variation of methyl orange in the absorption solution did not affect the experimental results, fabrication and preservation of the stock absorption is also convenient. The present method is promising in monitoring chlorine concentration in atmosphere.

  9. Determination of chlorine in atmosphere by kinetic spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jian-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Ruan, Ge-Lan; Li, Guo-Qiang; Deng, Zhao-Xia

    2005-03-01

    A kinetic method for determination of chlorine in air was described in the present work. The method based on fading of methyl orange (MO) containing solution in air absorption process. A determination limit of 2.64 μg L -1 was found. With the present method, chlorine concentration could be determined in several minutes with convenient manipulation. As concentration variation of methyl orange in the absorption solution did not affect the experimental results, fabrication and preservation of the stock absorption is also convenient. The present method is promising in monitoring chlorine concentration in atmosphere.

  10. View from My Classroom: A Spectrophotometry Unit for Advanced Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl-Jones, Susan M.

    1983-01-01

    Rationale, objectives, and instructional strategies for a directed study course on spectrophotometry are provided. Descriptions of three experiments and four student research projects are also provided. Objectives, laboratory procedures, advantages, and disadvantages for the experiments and projects are included. (JN)

  11. Direct DOC and nitrate determination in water using dual pathlength and second derivative UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Causse, Jean; Thomas, Olivier; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2017-01-01

    UV spectrophotometry is largely used for water and wastewater quality monitoring. The measurement/estimation of specific and aggregate parameters such as nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is possible with UV spectra exploitation, from 2 to multi wavelengths calibration. However, if nitrate determination from UV absorbance is known, major optical interferences linked to the presence of suspended solids, colloids or dissolved organic matter limit the relevance of UV measurement for DOC assessment. A new method based on UV spectrophotometric measurement of raw samples (without filtration) coupling a dual pathlength for spectra acquisition and the second derivative exploitation of the signal is proposed in this work. The determination of nitrate concentration is carried out from the second derivative of the absorbance at 226 nm corresponding at the inflexion point of nitrate signal decrease. A short optical pathlength can be used considering the strong absorption of nitrate ion around 210 nm. For DOC concentration determination the second derivative absorbance at 295 nm is proposed after nitrate correction. Organic matter absorbing slightly in the 270-330 nm window, a long optical pathlength must be selected in order to increase the sensitivity. The method was tested on several hundred of samples from small rivers of two agricultural watersheds located in Brittany, France, taken during dry and wet periods. The comparison between the proposed method and the standardised procedures for nitrate and DOC measurement gave a good adjustment for both parameters for ranges of 2-100 mg/L NO3 and 1-30 mg/L DOC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of spectrophotometry in the diagnosis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spectrophotometry (SPT) could represent a promising technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) at earlier stages of the disease. Starting from our experience, we further assessed the role of SPT in CM early detection. Methods During a health campaign for malignant melanoma at National Cancer Institute of Naples, we identified a subset of 54 lesions to be addressed to surgical excision and histological examination. Before surgery, all patients were investigated by clinical and epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) screenings; selected lesions underwent spectrophotometer analysis. For SPT, we used a video spectrophotometer imaging system (Spectroshade® MHT S.p.A., Verona, Italy). Results Among the 54 patients harbouring cutaneous pigmented lesions, we performed comparison between results from the SPT screening and the histological diagnoses as well as evaluation of both sensitivity and specificity in detecting CM using either SPT or conventional approaches. For all pigmented lesions, agreement between histology and SPT classification was 57.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of SPT in detecting melanoma were 66.6% and 76.2%, respectively. Conclusions Although SPT is still considered as a valuable diagnostic tool for CM, its low accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity represent the main hamper for the introduction of such a methodology in clinical practice. Dermoscopy remains the best diagnostic tool for the preoperative diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. PMID:20707921

  13. [Infrared spectrophotometry for crystalline composition of staghorn calculi].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Huang, Xiao-bo; Xu, Qing-quan; Li, Jian-xing; Xiong, Liu-lin; Yang, Bo; Ye, Xiong-jun; Chen, Liang; Wang, Xiao-feng; Na, Yan-qun

    2010-11-30

    To provide theoretic rationales for treatment and prevention of staghorn calculi by analyzing stone composition and studying the relationship between stone and urinary tract infections. The clinical data of 51 staghorn calculi patients were analyzed retrospectively. The stone compositions were studied by infrared spectrophotometry. Six types of stone compositions were obtained. There were calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dehydrate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, uric acid and L-cystine. The majority of stones were of mixed compositions, pure stones were found in 15 cases (29.4%). Among all stones, calcium oxalate stones were found in 41 cases (80.4%) and uric stones in 10 cases (19.6%). Infectious stones were found in 26 cases (51.0%). Urinary tract infections were found in 40 (78.4%) patients and positive urine/stone culture was detected in 33 (64.7%) patients. With multiple crystalline compositions and etiological factors, the staghorn calculi are closely correlated with urinary tract infections.

  14. The role of spectrophotometry in the diagnosis of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Palla, Marco; Ayala, Fabrizio; De Michele, Ileana; Caracò, Corrado; Daponte, Antonio; Simeone, Ester; Mori, Stefano; Del Giudice, Maurizio; Satriano, Rocco A; Vozza, Antonio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2010-08-13

    Spectrophotometry (SPT) could represent a promising technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) at earlier stages of the disease. Starting from our experience, we further assessed the role of SPT in CM early detection. During a health campaign for malignant melanoma at National Cancer Institute of Naples, we identified a subset of 54 lesions to be addressed to surgical excision and histological examination. Before surgery, all patients were investigated by clinical and epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) screenings; selected lesions underwent spectrophotometer analysis. For SPT, we used a video spectrophotometer imaging system (Spectroshade MHT S.p.A., Verona, Italy). Among the 54 patients harbouring cutaneous pigmented lesions, we performed comparison between results from the SPT screening and the histological diagnoses as well as evaluation of both sensitivity and specificity in detecting CM using either SPT or conventional approaches. For all pigmented lesions, agreement between histology and SPT classification was 57.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of SPT in detecting melanoma were 66.6% and 76.2%, respectively. Although SPT is still considered as a valuable diagnostic tool for CM, its low accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity represent the main hamper for the introduction of such a methodology in clinical practice. Dermoscopy remains the best diagnostic tool for the preoperative diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions.

  15. Band gap states in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M B; Kristiansen, P T; Duda, L; Niklasson, G A; Österlund, L

    2016-11-30

    Nanocrystalline tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering have been studied using soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveal band gap states in sub-stoichiometric γ-WO3-x with x  =  0.001-0.005. The energy positions of these states are in good agreement with recently reported density functional calculations. The results were compared with optical absorption measurements in the near infrared spectral region. An optical absorption peak at 0.74 eV is assigned to intervalence transfer of polarons between W sites. A less prominent peak at energies between 0.96 and 1.16 eV is assigned to electron excitation of oxygen vacancies. The latter results are supported by RIXS measurements, where an energy loss in this energy range was observed, and this suggests that electron transfer processes involving transitions from oxygen vacancy states can be observed in RIXS. Our results have implications for the interpretation of optical properties of WO3, and the optical transitions close to the band gap, which are important in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

  16. Validation of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of selenium in bacterial biomass by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Mörschbächer, Ana Paula; Dullius, Anja; Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Bandt, Cassiano Ricardo; Kuhn, Daniel; Brietzke, Débora Tairini; Malmann Kuffel, Fernando José; Etgeton, Henrique Pretto; Altmayer, Taciélen; Gonçalves, Tamara Engelmann; Oreste, Eliézer Quadro; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; de Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken; Hoehne, Lucélia

    2018-07-30

    The present paper describes the validation of a spectrophotometry method involving molecular absorption in the visible ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region for selenium (Se) determination in the bacterial biomass produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The method was found to be suitable for the target application and presented a linearity range from 0.025 to 0.250 mg/L Se. The angular and linear coefficients of the linear equation were 1.0678 and 0.0197 mg/L Se, respectively, and the linear correlation coefficient (R 2 ) was 0.9991. Analyte recovery exceeded 96% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 3%. The Se contents in LAB ranged from 0.01 to 20 mg/g. The Se contents in the bacterial biomass determined by UV-Vis were not significantly different (p > 0.05) those determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Thus, Se can be quantified in LAB biomass using this relatively simpler technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  18. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  19. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  20. Matrix elimination method for the determination of precious metals in ores using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salih, Bekir; Celikbiçak, Omür; Döker, Serhat; Doğan, Mehmet

    2007-03-28

    Poly(N-(hydroxymethyl)methacrylamide)-1-allyl-2-thiourea) hydrogels, poly(NHMMA-ATU), were synthesized by gamma radiation using (60)Co gamma source in the ternary mixture of NHMMA-ATU-H(2)O. These hydrogels were used for the specific gold, silver, platinum and palladium recovery, pre-concentration and matrix elimination from the solutions containing trace amounts of precious metal ions. Elimination of inorganic matrices such as different transition and heavy metal ions, and anions was performed by adjusting the solution pH to 0.5 that was the selective adsorption pH of the precious metal ions. Desorption of the precious metal ions was performed by using 0.8 M thiourea in 3M HCl as the most efficient desorbing agent with recovery values more than 95%. In the desorption medium, thiourea effect on the atomic signal was eliminated by selecting proper pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for all precious metal ions. Precision and the accuracy of the results were improved in the graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) measurements by applying the developed matrix elimination method performing the adsorption at pH 0.5. Pre-concentration factors of the studied precious metal ions were found to be at least 1000-fold. Detection limits of the precious metal ions were found to be less than 10 ng L(-1) of the all studied precious metal ions by using the proposed pre-concentration method. Determination of trace levels of the precious metals in the sea-water, anode slime, geological samples and photographic fixer solutions were performed using GFAAS clearly after applying the adsorption-desorption cycle onto the poly(NHMMA-UTU) hydrogels.

  1. Vaporization and atomization of uranium in a graphite tube electrothermal vaporizer: a mechanistic study using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, D. M.; Grégoire, D. C.; Byrne, J. P.; Chakrabarti, C. L.

    1995-07-01

    The mechanism of vaporization and atomization of U in a graphite tube electrothermal vaporizer was studied using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). Graphite furnace AAS studies indicate U atoms are formed at temperatures above 2400°C. Using ETV-ICP-MS, an appearance temperature of 1100°C was obtained indicating that some U vaporizes as U oxide. Although U carbides form at temperatures above 2000°C, ETV-ICP-MS studies show that they do not vaporize until 2600°C. In the temperature range between 2200°C and 2600°C, U atoms in GFAAS are likely formed by thermal dissociation of U oxide, whereas at higher temperatures, U atoms are formed via thermal dissociation of U carbide. The origin of U signal suppression in ETV-ICP-MS by NaCl was also investigated. At temperatures above 2000°C, signal suppression may be caused by the accelerated rate of formation of carbide species while at temperatures below 2000°C, the presence of NaCl may cause intercalation of the U in the graphite layers resulting in partial retention of U during the vaporization step. The use of 0.3% freon-23 (CHF 3) mixed with the argon carrier gas was effective in preventing the intercalation of U in graphite and U carbide formation at 2700°C.

  2. Absorption Coefficient of a Semiconductor Thin Film from Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, G.; Spindler, C.; Babbe, F.; Rachad, W.; Siebentritt, S.; Nuys, M.; Carius, R.; Li, S.; Platzer-Björkman, C.

    2018-06-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of semiconductors can be used to determine their absorption coefficient (α ) using Planck's generalized law. The standard method, suitable only for self-supported thick samples, like wafers, is extended to multilayer thin films by means of the transfer-matrix method to include the effect of the substrate and optional front layers. α values measured on various thin-film solar-cell absorbers by both PL and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) show good agreement. PL measurements are extremely sensitive to the semiconductor absorption and allow us to advantageously circumvent parasitic absorption from the substrate; thus, α can be accurately determined down to very low values, allowing us to investigate deep band tails with a higher dynamic range than in any other method, including spectrophotometry and PDS.

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of arsenic and selenium in water and sediment by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sandra R.; Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is a sensitive, precise, and accurate technique that can be used to determine arsenic and selenium in samples of water and sediment. The GF-AAS method has been developed to replace the hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) methods because the method detection limits are similar, bias and variability are comparable, and interferences are minimal. Advantages of the GF-AAS method include shorter sample preparation time, increased sample throughput from simultaneous multielement analysis, reduced amount of chemical waste, reduced sample volume requirements, increased linear concentration range, and the use of a more accurate digestion procedure. The linear concentration range for arsenic and selenium is 1 to 50 micrograms per liter in solution; the current method detection limit for arsenic in solution is 0.9 microgram per liter; the method detection limit for selenium in solution is 1 microgram per liter. This report describes results that were obtained using stop-flow and low-flow conditions during atomization. The bias and variability of the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium by GF-AAS under both conditions are supported with results from standard reference materials--water and sediment, real water samples, and spike recovery measurements. Arsenic and selenium results for all Standard Reference Water Samples analyzed were within one standard deviation of the most probable values. Long-term spike recoveries at 6.25, 25.0, 37.5 micrograms per liter in reagent-, ground-, and surface-water samples for arsenic averaged 103 plus or minus 2 percent using low-flow conditions and 104 plus or minus 4 percent using stop-flow conditions. Corresponding recoveries for selenium were 98 plus or minus 13 percent using low-flow conditions and 87 plus or minus 24 percent using stop-flow conditions. Spike recoveries at 25 micrograms per liter in 120 water samples ranged from 97 to 99 percent

  4. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  5. Simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl in tablets by first-derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Tantishaiyakul, V; Poeaknapo, C; Sribun, P; Sirisuppanon, K

    1998-06-01

    A rapid, simple and direct assay procedure based on first-derivative spectrophotometry, using a zero-crossing and peak-to-base measurement at 234 and 324 nm, respectively, has been developed for the specific determination of dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl in tablets. Calibration graphs were linear with the correlation coefficients of 0.9999 for both analytes. The limit of detections were 0.033 and 0.103 microgram ml-1 for dextromethorphan HBr and bromhexine HCl, respectively. A HPLC method has been developed as the reference method. The results obtained by the first-derivative spectrophotometry were in good agreement with those found by the HPLC method.

  6. Estimation of nitrate and nitrogen forms of vegetables by UV-spectrophotometry after photo-oxydation.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Depres, S; Couteau, G; Pauss, A

    2003-01-01

    An alternative method for the estimation of nitrate and nitrogen forms in vegetables is proposed. Nitrate can be directly estimated by UV-spectrophotometry after an extraction step with water. The other nitrogen compounds are photo-oxidized into nitrate, and then estimated by UV-spectrophotometry. An oxidative solution of sodium persulfate and a Hg-UV lamp is used. Preliminary assays were realized with vegetables like salade, spinachs, artichokes, small peas, broccolis, carrots, watercress; acceptable correlations between expected and experimental values of nitrate amounts were obtained, while the detection limit needs to be lowered. The optimization of the method is underway.

  7. Determination of thallium at ultra-trace levels in water and biological samples using solid phase spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Alaa S.; El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M.; Kassem, Mohammed A.

    2013-06-01

    A new simple, very sensitive, selective and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of thallium(III) by solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. The procedure is based on fixation of Tl(III) as quinalizarin ion associate on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The absorbance of resin sorbed Tl(III) ion associate is measured directly at 636 and 830 nm. Thallium(I) was determined by difference measurements after oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) with bromine. Calibration is linear over the range 0.5-12.0 μg L-1 of Tl(III) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.40% (n = 10). The detection and quantification limits are 150 and 495 ng L-1 using 0.6 g of the exchanger. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity are also calculated and found to be 1.31 × 107 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00156 ng cm-2, respectively. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to determine thallium in water, urine and serum samples.

  8. Determination of thallium at ultra-trace levels in water and biological samples using solid phase spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S; El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Kassem, Mohammed A

    2013-06-01

    A new simple, very sensitive, selective and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of thallium(III) by solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. The procedure is based on fixation of Tl(III) as quinalizarin ion associate on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The absorbance of resin sorbed Tl(III) ion associate is measured directly at 636 and 830 nm. Thallium(I) was determined by difference measurements after oxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) with bromine. Calibration is linear over the range 0.5-12.0 μg L(-1) of Tl(III) with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.40% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits are 150 and 495 ng L(-1) using 0.6 g of the exchanger. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity are also calculated and found to be 1.31×10(7) L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.00156 ng cm(-2), respectively. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to determine thallium in water, urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrophotometry at 10 microns of T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    New 8-13 micron spectra of 32 T Tau, or related young, stars are presented. Silicate emission features are commonly seen. Absorptions occur less frequently but also match the properties of silicate materials. The shape of the emission feature suggests that a more crystalline grain is responsible in the T Tau stars than those of the Trapezium region. The evolution of the silicate component of the circumstellar shell around T Tau stars, and its dependence upon stellar wind activity, visual linear polarization, and extinction are investigated. Several correlations suggest that the shells are likely to be flattened, disklike structures rather than spherical.

  10. Spectrophotometry of peculiar B and A stars. XVIII - The helium rich variable stars HR 1890, Sigma Orionis E, and HD 37776

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Optical region spectrophotometry at 3300-7850 A has been obtained for three helium rich stars, HR 1890, Sigma Ori E, and HD 37776, of the Orion OB1 Association. New uvby-beta photometry of HR 1890 and HD 37776 as well as published data are also used to investigate the variability of these stars. A new period of 1.53862 days was determined for HD 37776. For all three stars H-beta varies in antiphase with strong He I lines. The spectrophotometric bandpass containing the strong He I line at 4471 A varies in phase with the R index of Pedersen and Thomsen (1977). Evidence is found for weak absorption features which appear to be an extension of the 5200 A feature seen in cooler CP stars.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, A. S.; Brown, R. H.; Trilling, D. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Plassmann, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the leading and trailing hemispheres of Phobos from 1.65 to 3.5 microns and Deimos from 1.65 to 3.12 microns near opposition. We find the trailing hemisphere of Phobos to be brighter than its leading hemisphere by 0.24 +/- 0.06 magnitude at 1.65 microns and brighter than Deimos by 0.98 +/- 0.07 magnitude at 1.65 microns. We see no difference larger than observational uncertainties in spectral slope between the leading and trailing hemispheres when the spectra are normalized to 1.65 microns. We find no 3-microns absorption feature due to hydrated minerals on either hemisphere to a level of approx. 5 - 10% on Phobos and approx. 20% on Deimos. When the infrared data are joined to visible and near-IR data obtained by previous workers, our data suggest the leading (Stickney-dominated) side of Phobos is best matched by T-class asteroids. The spectral slope of the trailing side of Phobos and leading side of Deimos are bracketed by the D-class asteroids. The best laboratory spectral matches to these parts of Phobos are mature lunar soils and heated carbonaceous chondrites. The lack of 3-microns absorption features on either side of Phobos argues against the presence of a large interior reservoir of water ice according to current models of Phobos' interior.

  12. Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, A. S.; Brown, R. H.; Trilling, D. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Plassmann, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the leading and trailing hemispheres of Phobos from 1.65 to 3.5 micrometers and Deimos from 1.65 to 3.12 micrometers near opposition. We find the trailing hemisphere of Phobos to be brighter than its leading hemisphere by 0.24 plus or minus 0.06 magnitude at 1.65 micrometers and brighter than Deimos by 0.98 plus or minus 0.07 magnitude at 1.65 micrometers. We see no difference larger than observational uncertainties in spectral slope between the leading and trailing hemispheres when the spectra are normalized to 1.65 micrometers. We find no 3-micrometer absorption feature due to hydrated minerals on either hemisphere to a level of approximately 5-10% on Phobos and approximately 20% on Deimos. When the infrared data are joined to visible and nearby data obtained by previous workers, our data suggest the leading (Stickney-dominated) side of Phobos is best matched by T-class asteroids. The spectral slope of the trailing side of Phobos and leading side of Deimos are bracketed by the D-class asteroids. The best laboratory spectral matches to these parts of Phobos are mature lunar soils and heated carbonaceous chondrites. The lack of 3-micrometer absorption features on either side of Phobos argues against the presence of a large interior reservoir of water ice according to current models of Phobos' interior.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry of Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, A. S.; Brown, R. H.; Trilling, D. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Plassmann, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the leading and trailing hemispheres of Phobos from 1.65 to 3.5 microns and Deimos from 1.65 to 3.12 microns near opposition. We find the trailing hemisphere of Phobos to be brighter than its leading hemisphere by 0.24 +/- 0.06 magnitude at 1.65 microns and brighter than Deimos by 0.98 +/- 0.07 magnitude at 1.65 microns. We see no difference larger than observational uncertainties in spectral slope between the leading and trailing hemispheres when the spectra are normalized to 1.65 microns. We find no 3-micron absorption feature due to hydrated minerals on either hemisphere to a level of approx. 5-10% on Phobos and approx. 20% on Deimos. When the infrared data are joined to visible and near-IR data obtained by previous workers, our data suggest the leading (Stickney-dominated) side of Phobos is best matched by T-class asteroids. The spectral slope of the trailing side of Phobos and leading side of Deimos are bracketed by the D-class asteroids. The best laboratory spectral matches to these parts of Phobos are mature lunar soils and heated carbonaceous chondrites. The lack of 3-micron absorption features on either side of Phobos argues against the presence of a large interior reservoir of water ice according to current models of Phobos' interior.

  14. Identification of Organic Colorants in Art Objects by Solution Spectrophotometry: Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes solution spectrophotometry as a simple, rapid identification technique for organic paint pigments. Reports research which includes analytical schemes for the extraction and separation of organic pigments based on their solubilities, and the preparation of an extensive reference collection of spectral curves allowing their identification.…

  15. Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Juan; Juan, Liu Xiao; Wu, Ying Hua; Hua, Wu Ying; Zhao, Li Chao; Chao, Zhao Li; Xiao, Su Yao; Yao, Xiao Su; Zhou, Ai Mei; Mei, Zhou Ai; Liu, Xin; Xin, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A highly selective, convenient, and precise method, first-order derivative spectrophotometry, was applied for the determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. Ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1, v/v) were found to be the best extraction solvent tested due to their high efficiency and low toxicity compared with nine other organic solvents. Astaxanthin coexisting with chlorophyll and beta-carotene was analyzed by first-order derivative spectrophotometry in order to optimize the conditions for the determination of astaxanthin. The results show that when detected at 432 nm, the interfering substances could be eliminated. The dynamic linear range was 2.0-8.0 microg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916. The detection threshold was 0.41 microg/mL. The RSD for the determination of astaxanthin was in the range of 0.01-0.06%; the results of recovery test were 98.1-108.0%. The statistical analysis between first-order derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC by T-testing did not exceed their critical values, revealing no significant differences between these two methods. It was proved that first-order derivative spectrophotometry is a rapid and convenient method for the determination of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis that can eliminate the negative effect resulting from the coexistence of astaxanthin with chlorophyll and beta-carotene.

  16. Spectrophotometry of emission-line stars in the magellanic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The strong emission lines in the most luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds indicate that these stars have such strong stellar winds that their photospheres are so masked that optical absorption lines do not provide an accurate measure of photospheric conditions. In the research funded by this grant, temperatures and gravities of emission-line stars both in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) have been measured by fitting of continuum ultraviolet-optical fluxes observed with IUE with theoretical model atmospheres. Preliminary results from this work formed a major part of an invited review 'The Distribution of Types of Luminous Blue Variables'. Interpretation of the IUE observations obtained in this grant and archive data were also included in a talk at the First Boulder-Munich Hot Stars Workshop. Final results of these studies are now being completed for publication in refereed journals.

  17. Solubility of Lead Sulfate in Water and in Sodium Sulfate Solutions: An Experiment in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a set of undergraduate laboratory experiments which provide experience in deuteration and derivatization procedures applied to infrared spectroscopy. Basic skills in vacuum-line technique are also taught while measuring infrared spectra of deuterated solid samples and demonstrating the value of derivatization as an aid to interpreting…

  18. Spectrophotometry or visual inspection to most reliably detect xanthochromia in subarachnoid hemorrhage: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin; Hann, Angus; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We assess the sensitivity and specificity of xanthochromia as adjudicated by visual inspection and spectrophotometry at predicting the presence of cerebral aneurysm in patients with suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage who have a normal computed tomography (CT) head scan result. A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Relevant studies with clinical data on the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection or spectrophotometry were considered. Patients who had a normal CT head scan result followed by a lumbar puncture were included in this review. Sensitivities, specificities, and heterogeneity (I(2)) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore reasons for the heterogeneity. There were major methodological limitations in the studies found. Twenty-two relevant articles were heterogeneous in regard to time to lumbar puncture, spectrophotometry methods, and follow-up of patients not undergoing cerebral angiography. Twelve of the 22 studies selected patients on the basis of a cerebral aneurysm or subarachnoid hemorrhage on imaging, or a positive lumbar puncture result. These studies were excluded from our initial analysis, which included only patients with clinically suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this initial analysis, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity for spectrophotometry were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71% to 96%; I(2)=26%) and 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%; I(2)=96%), respectively. For visual inspection, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59% to 96%; I(2)=52%) and 96% (95% CI 93% to 97%; I(2)=76%), respectively. Sensitivity estimates are difficult to interpret without knowing time to lumbar puncture. The heterogeneity in the underlying studies, combined with significant overlap in pooled confidence limits, makes it impossible to provide a definite conclusion about the diagnostic accuracy of spectrophotometry versus visual inspection. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency

  19. Solid sampling determination of magnesium in lithium niobate crystals by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Laczai, Nikoletta; Hajdara, Ivett; Bencs, László

    2016-12-01

    The vaporization/atomization processes of Mg in high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS) were investigated by evaporating solid (powder) samples of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) optical single crystals doped with various amounts of Mg in a transversally heated graphite atomizer (THGA). Optimal analytical conditions were attained by using the Mg I 215.4353 nm secondary spectral line. An optimal pyrolysis temperature of 1500 °C was found for Mg, while the compromise atomization temperature in THGAs (2400 °C) was applied for analyte vaporization. The calibration was performed against solid (powered) lithium niobate crystal standards. The standards were prepared with exactly known Mg content via solid state fusion of the oxide components of the matrix and analyte. The correlation coefficient (R value) of the linear calibration was not worse than 0.9992. The calibration curves were linear in the dopant concentration range of interest (0.74-7.25 mg/g Mg), when dosing 3-10 mg of the powder samples into the graphite sample insertion boats. The Mg content of the studied 19 samples was in the range of 1.69-4.13 mg/g. The precision of the method was better than 6.3%. The accuracy of the results was verified by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry with solution sample introduction after digestion of several crystal samples.

  20. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  1. Poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized magnetic ion imprinted polymer for fast and selective extraction of trace gold in geological, environmental and biological samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xu, Hongrun; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized gold ion imprinted polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP) were prepared and characterized. The adsorption behaviors of the prepared MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP toward gold ions (Au(III)) were studied, it was found that MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP has good selectivity, high adsorption capacity (185.4 mg g-1) and fast adsorption kinetic for Au(III). Based on it, a new method of ion imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction (II-MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the analysis of trace Au(III) in real samples with complicated matrix. Factors affecting MSPE including sample pH, desorption reagent, elution concentration and volume, elution time, sample volume and adsorption time were optimized. With high enrichment factor of 100-fold, the detection limit of the proposed method is 7.9 ng L-1 for Au(III) with the relative standard deviation of 7.4% (c = 50 ng L-1, n = 7). In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the Certified Reference Material of GBW07293 geological sample (platinpalladium ore) was analyzed, and the determined value was in good agreement with the certified value. The proposed II-MSPE-GFAAS method is simple, fast, selective, sensitive and has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Au in ore, sediment, environmental water and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Halloysite nanotubes as a solid sorbent in ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the determination of bismuth in water samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk-Coda, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this research, a simple, accurate, and inexpensive preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of bismuth in water samples, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS). During the preconcentration step, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were used as a solid sorbent in ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (USA DMSPE). The influence of the pH of the sample solution, amount of HNTs, and extraction time, as well as of the main parameters of HR CS GFAAS, on absorbance was investigated. The limit of detection was 0.005 μg L- 1. The preconcentration factor achieved for bismuth was 32. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4%. The accuracy of this method was validated by analyses of NIST SRM 1643e (Trace elements in water) and TMDA-54.5 (A high level fortified sample for trace elements) certified reference materials. The measured bismuth contents in these certified reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of bismuth in five different real water samples (seawater, lake water, river water, stream water and rain water).

  3. Airborne 20-65 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaccum, William; Moseley, S. H.; Campins, Humberto C.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Comet Halley with a grating spectrometer on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on four nights in Dec. 1985 to Apr. 1986 are reported. Low resolution 20 to 65 micrometer spectra of the nucleus with a 40 arcsec FWHM beam was obtained on 17 Dec. 1985, and on 15 and 17 Apr. 1986. On 20 Dec. 1985, only a 20 to 35 micrometer spectrum was obtained. Most of the data have been discussed in a paper where the continuum was dealt with. In that paper, models were fit to the continuum that showed that more micron sized particles of grain similar to amorphous carbon were needed to fit the spectrum than were allowed by the Vega SP-2 mass distribution, or that a fraction of the grains had to be made out of a material whose absorption efficiency fell steeper than lambda sup -1 for lambda greater than 20 micrometers. Spectra was also presented taken at several points on the coma on 15 Apr. which showed that the overall shape to the spectrum is the same in the coma. Tabulated values of the data and calibration curves are available. The spectral features are discussed.

  4. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Continuum energy distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Patrick W.; Brownsberger, Kenneth R.; Conti, Peter S.; Massey, Philip; Vacca, William D.

    1993-01-01

    All available low-resolution IUE spectra are assembled for Galactic, LMC, and SMC W-R stars and are merged with ground-based optical and NIR spectra in order to collate in a systematic fashion the shapes of these energy distributions over the wavelength range 0.1-1 micron. They can be consistently fitted by a power law of the form F(lambda) is approximately equal to lambda exp -alpha over the range 1500-9000 A to derive color excesses E(B-V) and spectral indices by removing the 2175-A interstellar absorption feature. The WN star color excesses derived are found to be in good agreement with those of Schmutz and Vacca (1991) and Koesterke et al. (1991). Significant heterogeneity in spectral index values was generally seen with any given subtype, but the groups consisting of the combined set of Galactic and LMC W-R stars, the separate WN and WC sequences, and the Galactic and LMC W-R stars all showed a striking and consistent Gaussian-like frequency distribution of values.

  5. Coordinated Time Resolved Spectrophotometry of Asteroid 163249 (2002 GT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, C.; Gordon, M.; Wagner, M. R.; Chesley, S.; Hicks, M.; Pittichova, J.; Pravec, P.

    2013-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 163249 (2002 GT), classified as a potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA), has been identified a potential rendezvous target for the NASA Deep Impact spacecraft on 4 Jan 2020. As part of a coordinated international effort to study this asteroid during its 2013 apparition (J. Pittichová et al. DPS 2013), we obtained simultaneous Sloan r-band photometry at the Steward Observatory Bok 2.3-m telescope (+90Prime) and optical spectroscopic observations covering a wavelength interval from ~5400 to ~8500 Angstrom at the MMT 6.5-m (+RedChannel spectrograph) on 2013 June 16 and 17 UT near close Earth approach (heliocentric distance ~1.07 AU; geocentric distance ~0.13 AU) at 180 sec intervals over the ~3.76 hr rotational period. Our objective was to obtain a temporal sequence of spectra to assess surface mineralogy (seeking to potentially detect the 0.7 micron absorption bands attributed to phylosilicate materials) and to determine whether variations in the spectral slope and/or surface mineralogy are evident as a function of rotational period. Here we present initial analysis of these datasets, describing the light-curve and the reflectance spectra as a function of rotational phase. These datasets will be incorporated into a larger compendium describing the characteristics of asteroid 163249. Acknowledgement: This research supported in part by NASA 12-PAST-12-0010 grant NNX13AJ11G , and an appointment (E.L.R.) to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. P.P. was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, Grant P209/12/0229.

  6. The Uranian satellites and Hyperion - New spectrophotometry and compositional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1983-12-01

    New reflectance spectra at 3.5 percent resolution have been obtained for Ariel, Titania, Oberon, and Hyperion in the 0.8 to 1.6-micron spectrum region. The new spectra show no absorptions other than the 1.5 micron water-ice feature (within the precision of the data), and demonstrate extension into the 0.8- to 1.6 micron region of the 1.5- to 2.5 micron spectral similarity ofo Ariel to Hyperion (Brown and Cruikshank, 1983). The new data confirm the presence of a dark, spectrally bland component on/in the water-ice surfaces of the Uranian satellites, which, with some reservations, has spectral similarities to the dark substance on the leading side of lapetus and the dark material on/in the surface of Hyperion, as well as other dark, spectrally neutral substances such as charcoal. Attempts were made to match the spectra of Ariel, Titania, and Oberon with additive reflectance mixes (aeral coverage) of fine-grained water frost and various dark components such as charcoal, lampblack, and charcoal-water-ice mixtures. The results were broad limits on the amounts of possible areal coverage of a charcoal-like spectral component on the surfaces of the Uranian satellites, but the data are not of sufficient precision to conclusively determine whether the dominant mode of contaminant dispersal is areal or voluminal. The effect of highly variegated albedos on the diameters derived by Brown, Cruikshank, and Morrison (1982) is found to be small.

  7. The Uranian satellites and Hyperion - New spectrophotometry and compositional implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    New reflectance spectra at 3.5 percent resolution have been obtained for Ariel, Titania, Oberon, and Hyperion in the 0.8 to 1.6-micron spectrum region. The new spectra show no absorptions other than the 1.5 micron water-ice feature (within the precision of the data), and demonstrate extension into the 0.8- to 1.6 micron region of the 1.5- to 2.5 micron spectral similarity ofo Ariel to Hyperion (Brown and Cruikshank, 1983). The new data confirm the presence of a dark, spectrally bland component on/in the water-ice surfaces of the Uranian satellites, which, with some reservations, has spectral similarities to the dark substance on the leading side of lapetus and the dark material on/in the surface of Hyperion, as well as other dark, spectrally neutral substances such as charcoal. Attempts were made to match the spectra of Ariel, Titania, and Oberon with additive reflectance mixes (aeral coverage) of fine-grained water frost and various dark components such as charcoal, lampblack, and charcoal-water-ice mixtures. The results were broad limits on the amounts of possible areal coverage of a charcoal-like spectral component on the surfaces of the Uranian satellites, but the data are not of sufficient precision to conclusively determine whether the dominant mode of contaminant dispersal is areal or voluminal. The effect of highly variegated albedos on the diameters derived by Brown, Cruikshank, and Morrison (1982) is found to be small.

  8. Accuracy of indocyanine green pulse spectrophotometry clearance test for liver function prediction in transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chen, Chung-Jueng; Chen, Teng-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Tzu-Ming; Liu, Yao-Chi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the non-invasive real-time Indocynine green (ICG) clearance is a sensitive index of liver viability in patients before, during, and after liver transplantation. METHODS: Thirteen patients were studied, two before, three during, and eight following liver transplantation, with two patients suffering acute rejection. The conventional invasive ICG clearance test and ICG pulse spectrophotometry non-invasive real-time ICG clearance test were performed simultaneously. Using linear regression analysis we tested the correlation between these two methods. The transplantation condition of these patients and serum total bilirubin (T. Bil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and platelet count were also evaluated. RESULTS: The correlation between these two methods was excellent (r2 = 0.977). CONCLUSION: ICG pulse spectrophotometry clearance is a quick, non-invasive, and reliable liver function test in transplantation patients. PMID:15285026

  9. [Noninvasive total hemoglobin monitoring based on multiwave spectrophotometry in obstetrics and gynecology].

    PubMed

    Pyregov, A V; Ovechkin, A Iu; Petrov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Results of prospective randomized comparative research of 2 total hemoglobin estimation methods are presented. There were laboratory tests and continuous noninvasive technique with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET. Research was carried out in two stages. At the 1st stage (gynecology)--67 patients were included and in second stage (obstetrics)--44 patients during and after Cesarean section. The standard deviation of noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation from absolute values (invasive) was 7.2 and 4.1%, an standard deviation in a sample--5.2 and 2.7 % in gynecologic operations and surgical delivery respectively, that confirms lack of reliable indicators differences. The method of continuous noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET technology can be recommended for use in obstetrics and gynecology.

  10. Monitoring of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, ethanol and glycerol during wort fermentation by biosensors, HPLC and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Monošík, Rastislav; Magdolen, Peter; Stredanský, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze sugar levels (namely maltose, maltotriose, glucose and fructose) and alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) during the fermentation process in wort samples by amperometric enzymatic biosensors developed by our research group for industrial application, HPLC and spectrophotometry, and to compare the suitability of the presented methods for determination of individual analytes. We can conclude that for the specific monitoring of maltose or maltotriose only the HPLC method was suitable. On the other hand, biosensors and spectrophotometry reflected a decrease in total sugar concentration better and were able to detect both glucose and fructose in the later stages of fermentation, while HPLC was not. This can be attributed to the low detection limits and good sensitivity of the proposed methods. For the ethanol and glycerol analysis all methods proved to be suitable. However, concerning the cost expenses and time analysis, biosensors represented the best option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Self-scanned Silicon Photodiode Arrays for Astronomical Spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a Reticon self scanned silicon photodiode array for precision spectrophotometry is discussed. It is shown that internal errors are + or - 0.003 mag. Observations obtained with a photodiode array are compared with observations obtained with other types of detectors with agreement, from 3500 A to 10500 A, of 1%. The photometric properties of self scanned photodiode arrays are discussed. Potential pitfalls are given.

  12. A comparison of hair colour measurement by digital image analysis with reflective spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michelle R; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Baindur-Hudson, Swati

    2009-01-10

    While reflective spectrophotometry is an established method for measuring macroscopic hair colour, it can be cumbersome to use on a large number of individuals and not all reflective spectrophotometry instruments are easily portable. This study investigates the use of digital photographs to measure hair colour and compares its use to reflective spectrophotometry. An understanding of the accuracy of colour determination by these methods is of relevance when undertaking specific investigations, such as those on the genetics of hair colour. Measurements of hair colour may also be of assistance in cases where a photograph is the only evidence of hair colour available (e.g. surveillance). Using the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) colour space, the hair colour of 134 individuals of European ancestry was measured by both reflective spectrophotometry and by digital image analysis (in V++). A moderate correlation was found along all three colour axes, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.625, 0.593 and 0.513 for L(*), a(*) and b(*) respectively (p-values=0.000), with means being significantly overestimated by digital image analysis for all three colour components (by an average of 33.42, 3.38 and 8.00 for L(*), a(*) and b(*) respectively). When using digital image data to group individuals into clusters previously determined by reflective spectrophotometric analysis using a discriminant analysis, individuals were classified into the correct clusters 85.8% of the time when there were two clusters. The percentage of cases correctly classified decreases as the number of clusters increases. It is concluded that, although more convenient, hair colour measurement from digital images has limited use in situations requiring accurate and consistent measurements.

  13. Measurement of stain on extracted teeth using spectrophotometry and digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lath, D L; Smith, R N; Guan, Y H; Karmo, M; Brook, A H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validate a customized image analysis system, designed for use within clinical trials of general dental hygiene and whitening products, for the measurement of stain levels on extracted teeth and to compare it with reflectance spectrophotometry. Twenty non-carious extracted teeth were soaked in an artificial saliva, brushed for 1 min using an electric toothbrush and a standard toothpaste, bleached using a 5.3% hydrogen peroxide solution and cycled for 6 h daily through a tea solution. CIE L* values were obtained after each treatment step using the customized image analysis system and a reflectance spectrophotometer. A statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS. Fleiss' coefficient of reliability for intra-operator repeatability of the image analysis system and spectrophotometry was 0.996 and 0.946 respectively. CIE L* values were consistently higher using the image analysis compared with spectrophotometry, and t-tests for each treatment step showed significant differences (P < 0.05) for the two methods. Limits of agreement between the methods were -27.95 to +2.07, with a 95% confidence of the difference calculated as -14.26 to -11.84. The combined results for all treatment steps showed a significant difference between the methods for the CIE L* values (P < 0.05). The image analysis system has proven to be a reliable method for assessment of changes in stain level on extracted teeth. The method has been validated against reflectance spectrophotometry. This method may be used for pilot in vitro studies/trials of oral hygiene and whitening products, before expensive in vivo tests are carried out.

  14. Comparison of gas chromotography, spectrophotometry and near infrared spectroscopy to quantify prussic acid potential in forages.

    PubMed

    Goff, Ben M; Moore, Kenneth J; Fales, Steven L; Pedersen, Jeffery F

    2011-06-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been shown to contain the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin, which is responsible for the disorder known as prussic acid poisoning in livestock. The current standard method for estimating hydrogen cyanide (HCN) uses spectrophotometry to measure the aglycone, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HB), after hydrolysis. Errors may occur due to the inability of this method to solely estimate the absorbance of p-HB at a given wavelength. The objective of this study was to compare the use of gas chromatography (GC) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods, along with a spectrophotometry method to estimate the potential for prussic acid (HCNp) of sorghum and sudangrasses over three stages maturities. It was shown that the GC produced higher HCNp estimates than the spectrophotometer for the grain sorghums, but lower concentrations for the sudangrass. Based on what is known about the analytical process of each method, the GC data is likely closer to the true HCNp concentrations of the forages. Both the GC and spectrophotometry methods yielded robust equations with the NIRS method; however, using GC as the calibration method resulted in more accurate and repeatable estimates. The HCNp values obtained from using the GC quantification method are believed to be closer to the actual values of the forage, and that use of this method will provide a more accurate and easily automated means of quantifying prussic acid. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Combination of rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) ionic metal and it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmah, D. N.; Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the effect and determine the mass comparation which most effective combination between rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent to adsorb Pb (II) ion using SPS method. This research used experimental method. Technique to collecting this datas of this research is carried out by several stages, which are: (1) carbonization of rice husk and coconut shell adsorbent using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for an hour; (2) activation of the rice husk and coconut shell adsorbent using NaOH 1N and ZnCl2 15% activator; (3) contacting the adsorbent of rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation comparison of rice husk and coconut shell, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2; (4) analysis of Pb(II) using Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry (SPS); (5) characterization of combination rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent using FTIR. The result of this research show that the combined effect of combination rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II) ion then the optimum adsorbent mass ratio required for absorbing 20 mL of Pb(II) ion with a concentration of 49.99 µg/L is a ratio of 2:1 with the absorption level of 97,06%Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry (SPS) is an effective method in the level of µg/L, be marked with the Limit of Detection (LOD) of 0.03 µg/L.

  17. Simultaneous determination of Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ by using second-derivative spectrophotometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yanyan; Li, Yan; Si, Wei; Wei, Dong; Yao, Zhenxing; Zheng, Xianpeng; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2011-09-01

    A new method of simultaneous determination of Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ is proposed here by using the second-derivative spectrophotometry method. In pH = 10.35 Borax-NaOH buffer, using meso-tetra (3-methoxyl-4-hydroxylphenyl) porphyrin ([T-(3-MO-4-HP)P]) as chromomeric reagent, micelle solution was formed after Tween-80 surfactant was added into the solution containing Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ ions. The original absorption spectrum of the above complexes was obtained after heating in the boiling water for 25 min. The second-derivative absorption peaks of five metal-porphyrin complexes can be separated from the original absorption spectrum by using chemometric tool. In this way, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ ions can be determined simultaneously. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curve were 0-0.60, 0-0.60, 0-0.40, 0-0.80 and 0-0.48 μg mL -1 for Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+, respectively. The molar absorptivity of these color systems were 1.38 × 10 5, 1.01 × 10 5, 3.24 × 10 5, 1.07 × 10 5 and 1.29 × 10 5 L mol -1 cm -1. The method developed in this paper has advantages in selectivity, sensitivity, operation and can effectively resolve spectra overlapping problem. This method has been applied to determine the real samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-mei; Yang, Ting; Wang, Yan-hong; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin

    2013-11-15

    A new approach of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) has been developed for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using zincon-immobilized silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Zincon-Si-MNPs) as the MSPE absorbent. Cr(III) was quantitatively reserved on the absorbent at pH 9.1 while total Cr was reserved at pH 6.5. The absorbed Cr species were eluted by using 2 mol/L HCl and detected by GFAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) could be calculated by subtracting Cr(III) from total Cr. All the parameters affecting the separation and extraction efficiency of Cr species such as pH, extraction time, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume and influence of co-existing ions were systematically examined and the optimized conditions were established accordingly. The detection limit (LOD) of the method was 0.016 and 0.011 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, with the enrichment factor of 100 and 150. The precisions of this method (Relative standard deviation, RSD, n=7) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) at 0.1 ng mL(-1) were 6.0% and 6.2%, respectively. In order to validate the proposed method, a certified reference material of environmental water was analyzed, and the result of Cr speciation was in good agreement with the certified value. This MSPE-GFAAS method has been successfully applied for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in lake and tap waters with the recoveries of 88-109% for the spiked samples. Moreover, the MSPE separation mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) based on their adsorption-desorption on Zincon-Si-MNPs has been explained through various spectroscopic characterization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions of praseodymium and neodymium with nucleosides and nucleotides: absorption difference and comparative absorption spectral study.

    PubMed

    Misra, S N; Anjaiah, K; Joseph, G; Abdi, S H

    1992-02-01

    The interactions of praseodymium(III) and neodymium(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different stoichiometry in water and water-DMF mixtures by employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The 4f-4f bands were analysed by linear curve analysis followed by gaussian curve analysis, and various spectral parameters were computed, using partial and multiple regression method. The magnitude of changes in both energy interaction and intensity were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere coordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Crystalline complexes of the type [Ln(nucleotide)2(H2O)2]- (where nucleotide--GMP or IMP) were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR data. These studies indicated that the binding of the nucleotide is through phosphate oxygen in a bidentate manner and the complexes undergo substantial ionisation in aqueous medium, thereby supporting the observed weak 4f-4f bands and lower values for nephelauxetic effect (1-beta), bonding (b) and covalency (delta) parameters derived from coulombic and spin orbit interaction parameters.

  20. [Determination of trace gallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in urine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, L Z; Fu, S; Gao, S Q; He, G W

    2016-06-20

    To establish a method for determination trace gallium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was matrix modifier. The temperature effect about pyrolysis (Tpyr) and atomization temperature were optimized for determination of trace gallium. The method of technical standard about within-run, between-run and recoveries of standard were optimized. The method showed a linear relationship within the range of 0.20~80.00 μg/L (r=0.998). The within-run and between-run relative standard deviations (RSD) of repetitive measurement at 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 μg/L concentration levels were 2.1%~5.5% and 2.3%~3.0%. The detection limit was 0.06 μg/L. The recoveries of gallium were 98.2%~101.1%. This method is simple, low detection limit, accurate, reliable and reproducible. It has been applied for determination of trace gallium in urine samples those who need occupation health examination or poisoning diagnosis.

  1. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and optical absorption spectroscopy for a quantitative size characterization of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2016-11-04

    Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPR MAX ), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm. The computed sizes were compared with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and resulted in agreement with the nominal values in a range between 13% (for 20nm NPs) and 1% (for 100nm NPs), The second method is based on the masterly combination of the Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF - now sold as Centrifugal FFF-CFFF) and the Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OAS) techniques to accomplish sizes and quantitative particle size distributions for monodispersed, non-aggregated AgNPs suspensions. The SdFFF separation abilities, well exploited to size NPs, greatly benefits from the application of Mie's theory to the UV-vis signal elaboration, producing quantitative mass-based particle size distributions, from which trusted number-sized particle size distributions can be derived. The silver mass distributions were verified and supported by detecting off-line the Ag concentration with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous determination of V, Ni and Fe in fuel fly ash using solid sampling high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas Valdivia, A; Vereda Alonso, E; López Guerrero, M M; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J; Cano Pavón, J M; García de Torres, A

    2018-03-01

    A green and simple method has been proposed in this work for the simultaneous determination of V, Ni and Fe in fuel ash samples by solid sampling high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS HR CS GFAAS). The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows eliminating pretreatment steps, involving minimal manipulation of sample. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9931. The concentrations found in the fuel ash samples analysed ranged from 0.66% to 4.2% for V, 0.23-0.7% for Ni and 0.10-0.60% for Fe. Precision (%RSD) were 5.2%, 10.0% and 9.8% for V, Ni and Fe, respectively, obtained as the average of the %RSD of six replicates of each fuel ash sample. The optimum conditions established were applied to the determination of the target analytes in fuel ash samples. In order to test the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method in the analysis of samples, five ash samples from the combustion of fuel in power stations, were analysed. The method accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results obtained using the proposed method with the results obtained by ICP OES previous acid digestion. The results showed good agreement between them. The goal of this work has been to develop a fast and simple methodology that permits the use of aqueous standards for straightforward calibration and the simultaneous determination of V, Ni and Fe in fuel ash samples by direct SS HR CS GFAAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The quantification of spermatozoa by real-time quantitative PCR, spectrophotometry, and spermatophore cap size.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jacqueline M; McCormick, Cory R; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many animals, such as crustaceans, insects, and salamanders, package their sperm into spermatophores, and the number of spermatozoa contained in a spermatophore is relevant to studies of sexual selection and sperm competition. We used two molecular methods, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and spectrophotometry, to estimate sperm numbers from spermatophores. First, we designed gene-specific primers that produced a single amplicon in four species of ambystomatid salamanders. A standard curve generated from cloned amplicons revealed a strong positive relationship between template DNA quantity and cycle threshold, suggesting that RT-qPCR could be used to quantify sperm in a given sample. We then extracted DNA from multiple Ambystoma maculatum spermatophores, performed RT-qPCR on each sample, and estimated template copy numbers (i.e. sperm number) using the standard curve. Second, we used spectrophotometry to determine the number of sperm per spermatophore by measuring DNA concentration relative to the genome size. We documented a significant positive relationship between the estimates of sperm number based on RT-qPCR and those based on spectrophotometry. When these molecular estimates were compared to spermatophore cap size, which in principle could predict the number of sperm contained in the spermatophore, we also found a significant positive relationship between sperm number and spermatophore cap size. This linear model allows estimates of sperm number strictly from cap size, an approach which could greatly simplify the estimation of sperm number in future studies. These methods may help explain variation in fertilization success where sperm competition is mediated by sperm quantity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Acid-Base Properties of Azo Dyes in Solution Studied Using Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigur, D. V.; Chebotarev, A. N.; Bevziuk, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    Colorimetry and spectrophotometry with chemometric data processing were used to study the acid-base properties of azo dyes in aqueous solution. The capabilities of both methods were compared. Ionization constants of all the functional groups of the azo compounds studied could be determined relative to the change in the specific color difference depending on the acidity of the medium. The colorimetric functions of ion-molecular forms of azo compounds used as an analytical signal allow us to obtain complete information on the acid-base equilibrium in a wide acidity range.

  5. Absolute spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars from 1200 to 7000 A - A cautionary tale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmany, C. D.; Conti, P. S.; Massey, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that absolute spectrophotometry of the continua of Wolf-Rayet stars may be obtained over the wavelength range 1200-7000 A using IUE and optical measurements. It is shown that the application of a 'standard' reddening law to the observed data gives spurious results in many cases. Additional UV extinction is apparently necessary and may well be circumstellar in origin. In such hot stars, the long-wavelength 'tail' of the emergent stellar continuum are measured. The inadequacy of previous attempts to determine intrinsic continua and effective temperatures of Wolf-Rayet stars is pointed out.

  6. Rocket instrument for far-UV spectrophotometry of faint astronomical objects.

    PubMed

    Hartig, G F; Fastie, W G; Davidsen, A F

    1980-03-01

    A sensitive sounding rocket instrument for moderate (~10-A) resolution far-UV (lambda1160-lambda1750-A) spectrophotometry of faint astronomical objects has been developed. The instrument employs a photon-counting microchannel plate imaging detector and a concave grating spectrograph behind a 40-cm Dall-Kirkham telescope. A unique remote-control pointing system, incorporating an SIT vidicon aspect camera, two star trackers, and a tone-encoded command telemetry link, permits the telescope to be oriented to within 5 arc sec of any target for which suitable guide stars can be found. The design, construction, calibration, and flight performance of the instrument are discussed.

  7. 2.7- to 4.1-micron spectrophotometry of icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrophotometry is presented in the 2.7-4.1 micrometer spectral region for icy satellites of Saturn (Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus and Hyperion) and Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto). The 3.6-micrometer reflectance peak characteristic of fine-grained water ice is observed prominently on the satellites of Saturn, faintly on the leading side of Europa, and not at all on Ganymede, Callisto or the dark side of Iapetus. The spectral reflectances of these icy satellites may be affected by their equilibrium surface temperatures and magnetospheric effects.

  8. The spectrophotometry and chemical composition of the oxygen-poor bipolar nebula NGC 6164-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.; Parker, Robert A. R.; Henize, Karl G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents new ground-based and IUE spectrophotometry of several positions in NGC 6164-5 surrounding the Population I Of star HD 148937. Electron temperatures, densities, and abundances are derived for the various positions in the nebula using spectral line information. For all of the regions observed, Ne/H is depleted by an amount comparable to O/H, while S/H and Ar/H have normal values. The results suggest that the nebula consists partly of material ejected from inner shell-burning regions of the Of star. In effect, HD 148937 is older and more advanced than what was previously thought.

  9. Near-infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the young planetary nebula Hubble 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Erwin, Peter; Puetter, R. C.; Feibelman, Walter A.

    1993-01-01

    The young planetary nebula Hubble 12 is observed using near-IR and UV spectrophotometry. The brightness of the O I lines, which is greater than in any other planetary nebula yet measured, indicates that fluorescent excitation by stellar continuum is the principal mechanism generating these lines. Extinction, electron density, and electron temperature are determined using infrared measurements combined with UV data and published optical observations. The range in extinction, density, and temperature implies that, within the ionized region, pockets of emission with distinctly different conditions exist. Logarithmic abundances for helium, oxygen, and sulfur are presented.

  10. 8- to 13-micron spectrophotometry of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feierberg, M. A.; Witteborn, F. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Campins, H.

    1984-01-01

    Spectrophotometry between 8.0 and 13.0 microns at 2 percent spectral resolution is presented for areas in and near the nuclear condensation of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983d) on May 11 and 12, 1983. All the spectra can be fit very well by blackbody curves, and no 10-micron silicate emissions are seen. The temperature structure of the coma suggests the presence of small (radii less than 5 microns) dust particles within 150 km of the nucleus and larger ones further out. The change in the spatial distribution of the infrared flux between the two nights suggests that an outburst may have occurred sometime on May 11.

  11. In-vitro Equilibrium Phosphate Binding Study of Sevelamer Carbonate by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Prasaja, Budi; Syabani, M Maulana; Sari, Endah; Chilmi, Uci; Cahyaningsih, Prawitasari; Kosasih, Theresia Weliana

    2018-06-12

    Sevelamer carbonate is a cross-linked polymeric amine; it is the active ingredient in Renvela ® tablets. US FDA provides recommendation for demonstrating bioequivalence for the development of a generic product of sevelamer carbonte using in-vitro equilibrium binding study. A simple UV-vis spectrophotometry method was developed and validated for quantification of free phosphate to determine the binding parameter constant of sevelamer. The method validation demonstrated the specificity, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision of measurements. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze samples in in-vitro equilibrium binding study for demonstrating bioequivalence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sunderman, F W; Hopfer, S M; Sweeney, K R; Marcus, A H; Most, B M; Creason, J

    1989-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution, and elimination was performed in healthy human volunteers who ingested NiSO4 drinking water (Experiment 1) or added to food (Experiment 2). Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and feces collected during 2 days before and 4 days after a specified NiSO4 dose (12 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 4; 18 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 4; or 50 micrograms of nickel/kg, n = 1). In Experiment 1, each of the subjects fasted 12 hr before and 3 hr after drinking one of the specified NiSO4 doses dissolved in water; in Experiment 2, the respective subjects fasted 12 hr before consuming a standard American breakfast that contained the identical dose of NiSO4 added to scrambled eggs. Kinetic analyses, using a compartmental model, provided excellent goodness-of-fit for paired data sets from all subjects. Absorbed nickel averaged 27 +/- 17% (mean +/- SD) of the dose ingested in water vs 0.7 +/- 0.4% of the same dose ingested in food (a 40-fold difference); rate constants for nickel absorption, transfer, and elimination were not significantly influenced by the oral vehicle. The elimination half-time for absorbed nickel averaged 28 +/- 9 hr. Renal clearance of nickel averaged 8.3 +/- 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 in Experiment 1 and 5.8 +/- 4.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 in Experiment 2. This study confirms that dietary constituents profoundly reduce the bioavailability of Ni2+ for alimentary absorption; approximately one-quarter of nickel ingested in drinking water after an over-night fast is absorbed from the human intestine and excreted in urine, compared with only 1% of nickel ingested in food. The compartmental model and kinetic parameters provided by this study will reduce the uncertainty of toxicologic risk assessments of human exposures to nickel in drinking water and food.

  13. Contrastive Study on the Structure and the Ultraviolet Absorption Property of Multiple-Doped and Element-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunyun; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhenrong; Tian, Yanfeng; Zhou, Shandan

    Sb2O3- and CeO2-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Sb2O3 and CeO2 on the structure and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Results show that multiple doping of films had a prominent effect on the development of crystal grains and the UV absorption property. Ce and Sb exist in many forms in the ZnO film. The multiple-doped films also show enhanced UVA absorption, and the UV absorption peak widens and the absorption intensity increases. Sb plays a dominant role on the structure and UV absorption of ZnO thin films, which are enhanced by Ce.

  14. Combination of solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for separation/preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of uranium prior to its fiber optic-linear array spectrophotometry determination.

    PubMed

    Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Shakerian, Farid; Shiralian Esfahani, Golnaz

    2013-12-15

    A simple and sensitive method for the separation and preconcentration of the ultra trace amounts of uranium and its determination by spectrophotometry was developed. The method is based on the combination of solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Thus, by passing the sample through the basic alumina column, the uranyl ion and some cations are separated from the sample matrix. The retained uranyl ion along with the cations are eluted with 5 mL of nitric acid (2 mol L(-1)) and after neutralization of the eluent, the extracted uranyl ion is converted to its anionic benzoate complex and is separated from other cations by extraction of its ion pair with malachite green into small volume of chloroform using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The amount of uranium is then determined by the absorption measurement of the extracted ion pair at 621 nm using flow injection spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, with 500 mL of the sample, a preconcentration factor of 1980, a detection limit of 40 ng L(-1), and a relative standard deviation of 4.1% (n=6) at 400 ng L(-1) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in mineral water, river water, well water, spring water and sea water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  16. Levels of cadmium, lead and zinc protoporphyrin absorption in different risk groups.

    PubMed

    Aurelio, L M; Pilar, D L; Fulgencio, G G; Adoración, P B; Enrique, G C; Alicia, H M; Aurelio, L M

    1993-12-01

    We studied groups of workers, of pregnant women and of neonates exposed and unexposed to cadmium and lead at their place of work or in the environment. A total of 118 exposed and 28 unexposed workers were studied, together with 90 exposed and 100 unexposed pregnant women and neonates. Concentrations of cadmium and lead in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were significant differences in cadmium concentrations between workers and neonates, and significant differences in lead concentrations between workers and pregnant women. We believe these differences are due mainly to high levels of pollution in the area studied.

  17. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  18. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners--spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Maccarrone, Roberta; Bianchi, Anna; Scalia, Santo; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare absorbance and transmittance values of three types of clear orthodontic aligners before and after two cycles of in vitro aging. Nine samples of orthodontic aligners from three different manufacturers (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA; All-In, Micerium, Avegno, GE, Italy; F22 Aligner, Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, PD, Italy) were selected, and each sample was subjected to spectrophotometry analysis of both its transmittance and absorbance a total of 27 times. Samples were subsequently aged in vitro at a constant temperature in artificial saliva supplemented with food colouring for two cycles of 14 days each. The spectrophotometry protocol was then repeated, and the resulting data were analysed and compared by means of ANOVA (p < 0.05). All types of aligners tested yielded lower transmittance and higher absorbance values after aging, but the difference was not significant in any case. That being said, the F22 aligners were found to be most transparent, both before and after aging, followed by Invisalign and All-In, and these differences were statistically significant. Commercial aligners possess significantly different optical, and therefore aesthetic, properties, both as delivered and following aging.

  19. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2011-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  1. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry to predict the response of port wine stains to pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, Shlomit; Azaria, Ron; Inbar, Roy; Ad-El, Dean; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy can be used to quantitate subtle differences in color. We applied a portable reflectance spectrometer to determine its utility in the evaluation of pulsed dye laser treatment of port wine stains (PWS) and in prediction of clinical outcome, in a prospective study. Forty-eight patients with PWS underwent one to nine pulsed dye laser treatments. Patient age and skin color as well as PWS surface area, anatomic location, and color were recorded. Pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements were performed. The subjective clinical results of treatment and the quantitative spectrophotometry results were evaluated by two independent teams, and the findings were correlated. The impact of the clinical characteristics on the response to treatment was assessed as well. Patients with excellent to good clinical results of laser treatments had pretreatment spectrophotometric measurements which differed by more than 10%, whereas patients with fair to poor results had spectrophotometric measurements with a difference of of less than 10%. The correlation between the spectrophotometric results and the clinical outcome was 73% (p < 0.01). The impact of the other clinical variables on outcome agreed with the findings in the literature. Spectrophotometry has a higher correlation with clinical outcome and a better predictive value than other nonmeasurable, nonquantitative, dependent variables.

  2. Preparation of Ion Exchange Films for Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry and Solid-Phase Fluorometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Carol M.; Street, Kenneth W.; Tanner, Stephen P.; Philipp, Warren H.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy has dominated the field of trace inorganic analysis because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. The advantages gained by the atomic spectroscopies come with the disadvantage of expensive and often complicated instrumentation. Solid-phase spectroscopy, in which the analyte is preconcentrated on a solid medium followed by conventional spectrophotometry or fluorometry, requires less expensive instrumentation and has considerable sensitivity and selectivity. The sensitivity gains come from preconcentration and the use of chromophore (or fluorophore) developers and the selectivity is achieved by use of ion exchange conditions that favor the analyte in combination with speciative chromophores. Little work has been done to optimize the ion exchange medium (IEM) associated with these techniques. In this report we present a method for making ion exchange polymer films, which considerably simplify the solid-phase spectroscopic techniques. The polymer consists of formaldehyde-crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol with polyacrylic acid entrapped therein. The films are a carboxylate weak cation exchanger in the calcium form. They are mechanically sturdy and optically transparent in the ultraviolet and visible portion of the spectrum, which makes them suitable for spectrophotometry and fluorometry.

  3. Feasibility of Using Fluorescence Spectrophotometry to Develop a Sensitive Dye Immersion Method for Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xujin; Lloyd, David K; Klohr, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for a sensitive and robust dye immersion method for the measurement of container closure integrity of unopened prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry as the detection method. A Varian Cary Eclipse spectrofluorometer was used with a custom-made sample holder to position the intact syringe in the sample compartment for fluorescence measurements. Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore in a syringe with excitation at 607 nm and emission at 682 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.05 μg/mL. Further studies were conducted using rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 480 nm excitation and 525 nm emission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 10 measurements of a sample of 0.005 μg/mL (with repositioning of the syringe after each measurement) was less than 1.1%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, and emission slit widths. The specificity of the testing was challenged by using marketed drug products and a protein sample, which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that using rhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in-situ (in-syringe) fluorescence measurements significantly enhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene blue method with visual or UV-visible absorption detection. Ensuring container closure integrity of injectable pharmaceutical products is necessary to maintain quality throughout the shelf life of a sterile drug product. Container closure integrity testing has routinely been used to evaluate closure integrity during product development and production line qualification of prefilled syringes, vials, and devices. However, container closure integrity testing

  4. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  5. Speciation of selenium in environmental samples by solid-phase spectrophotometry using 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase spectrophotometry was applied to determination of trace amounts of selenium (Se) in water, soil, plant materials, human hair, and a cosmetic preparation (lipstick). Se(IV) was sorbed in a dextran type lipophilic gel as a complex with 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCDHNAQ), whereas Se(VI) was determined after boiling in HCI for 10 min to convert Se(VI) to Se(IV). Resin phase absorbances at 588 and 800 nm were measured directly, which allowed the determination of Se in the range of 0.2-3.3 microg/L with an RSD of 1.22%. The influences of analytical parameters including pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of DCDHNAQ, and sample volume were investigated. The molar absorptivities were found to be 1.09 x 10(6), 4.60 x 10(6), and 1.23 x 10(7) L/mol cm for 100, 500, and 1000 mL, respectively. The LOD and LOQ of the 500 mL sample method were 110 and 360 ng/L, respectively, when using 50 mg dextran type lipophilic gel. For a 1000 mL sample, the LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 ng/L, respectively, using 50 mg of the exchanger. Increasing the sample volume enhanced the sensitivity. No considerable interferences were observed from other investigated anions and cations on the Se determination.

  6. Simple and fast method for iron determination in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Juliana V; Soares, Bruno M; Mandlate, Jaime S; Picoloto, Rochele S; Bizzi, Cezar A; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A

    2014-08-20

    This work reports the development of a method for Fe extraction in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. For optimization of the DLLME method, the following parameters were evaluated: type and volume of dispersive (1300 μL of acetonitrile) and extraction (80 μL of C(2)Cl(4)) solvents, pH (3.0), concentration of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC, 500 μL of 1% m/v APDC solution), NaCl concentration (not added), and extraction time. The calibration curve was performed using the analyte addition method, and the limit of detection and relative standard deviation were 0.2 mg L(-1) and below 7%, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained after Fe determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with agreement ranging from 94 to 105%. The proposed method was applied for Fe determination in white and red wines with concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 4.7 mg L(-1).

  7. Comparative study between univariate spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools for quantitation of Benazepril alone and in combination with Amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M; Elaziz, Omar Abd; Tawakkol, Shereen M; Hemdan, A; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2014-04-05

    Four simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective methods have been developed and subsequently validated for the determination of Benazepril (BENZ) alone and in combination with Amlodipine (AML) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is pH induced difference spectrophotometry, where BENZ can be measured in presence of AML as it showed maximum absorption at 237nm and 241nm in 0.1N HCl and 0.1N NaOH, respectively, while AML has no wavelength shift in both solvents. The second method is the new Extended Ratio Subtraction Method (EXRSM) coupled to Ratio Subtraction Method (RSM) for determination of both drugs in commercial dosage form. The third and fourth methods are multivariate calibration which include Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). A detailed validation of the methods was performed following the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 2-30μg/mL for BENZ in difference and extended ratio subtraction spectrophotometric method, and 5-30 for AML in EXRSM method, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UV-Vis spectrophotometry of quinone flow battery electrolyte for in situ monitoring and improved electrochemical modeling of potential and quinhydrone formation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liuchuan; Chen, Qing; Wong, Andrew A; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J

    2017-12-06

    Quinone-based aqueous flow batteries provide a potential opportunity for large-scale, low-cost energy storage due to their composition from earth abundant elements, high aqueous solubility, reversible redox kinetics and their chemical tunability such as reduction potential. In an operating flow battery utilizing 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid, the aggregation of an oxidized quinone and a reduced hydroquinone to form a quinhydrone dimer causes significant variations from ideal solution behavior and of optical absorption from the Beer-Lambert law. We utilize in situ UV-Vis spectrophotometry to establish (a), quinone, hydroquinone and quinhydrone molar attenuation profiles and (b), an equilibrium constant for formation of the quinhydrone dimer (K QHQ ) ∼ 80 M -1 . We use the molar optical attenuation profiles to identify the total molecular concentration and state of charge at arbitrary mixtures of quinone and hydroquinone. We report density functional theory calculations to support the quinhydrone UV-Vis measurements and to provide insight into the dimerization conformations. We instrument a quinone-bromine flow battery with a Pd-H reference electrode in order to demonstrate how complexation in both the negative (quinone) and positive (bromine) electrolytes directly impacts measured half-cell and full-cell voltages. This work shows how accounting for electrolyte complexation improves the accuracy of electrochemical modeling of flow battery electrolytes.

  9. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  13. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  14. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  15. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  16. Determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations using derivative spectrophotometry and chromatographic-densitometric method.

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Maślanka, Anna; Apola, Anna; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Two methods, spectrophotometric and chromatographic-densitometric ones, were developed for determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric method involved derivative spectrophotometry and zero order spectrophotometry. The measurements were carried out at lambda = 224.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 261.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and lambda = 270.0 nm for losartan when the derivative spectrophotometry was applied and lambda = 317.0 nm when zero order spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In chromatographic-densitometric studies high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates were used as stationary phase and a mixture of solvents n-butanol : acetic acid : water (15 : 5 : 1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Under the established conditions good resolution of examined constituents was obtained. Retardation factor for quinapril hydrochloride was R(f) - 0.70, for losartan potassium R(f) - 0.85 and for hydrochlorothiazide R(f) - 0.78. The developed methods are characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. For quantitative analysis, densitometric measurements were carried out at lambda = 218.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 275.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and = 232.0 nm for losartan.

  17. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  18. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  19. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars - Intrinsic colors and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometry of about 10-A resolution in the range 3400-7300 A have been obtained for southern Wolf-Rayet stars, and line-free magnitudes and colors have been constructed. The emission-line contamination in the narrow-band ubvr systems of Westerlund (1966) and Smith (1968) is shown to be small for most WN stars, but to be quite significant for WC stars. It is suggested that the more severe differences in intrinsic color from star to star of the same spectral subtype noted at shorter wavelengths are due to differences in atmospheric extent. True continuum absolute visual magnitudes and intrinsic colors are obtained for the LMC WR stars. The most visually luminous WN6-WN7 stars are found to be located in the core of the 30 Doradus region.

  20. Do GSM 900MHz signals affect cerebral blood circulation? A near-infrared spectrophotometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Haensse, Daniel; Morren, Geert; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-06-01

    Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

  1. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of comet Giacobini-Zinner during the ICE encounter. [International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, Michael F.; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Feldman, Paul D.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Rahe, Juergen; Festou, Michael; Brandt, John C.; Maran, Stephen P.; Niedner, Malcom B.; Smith, Andrew M.

    1986-01-01

    The IUE spectrophotometry of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner was acquired in support of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) mission. The abundances (or upper limits) of UV-active species were calculated. During the ICE encounter the H2O production rate was 3 times 10 to the 28th power/sec, + or - 50%, consistent with values derived from the ICE experiments. Comparison of the abundance of CO2(+) ions with the total electron density measured by the plasma electron experiment on ICE indicates a deficiency of ions relative to electrons indicating a population of ions not detected by remote sensing. The absence of detectable Mg(+) rules out this species as a possible ion of M/Q = 24 detected by the Ion Composition Instrument, part of the ICE complement of instruments.

  2. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations.

  3. Airborne and groundbased spectrophotometry of comet P/Halley from 5-13 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Campins, H.; Wooden, D. H.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of comet Halley from 5-13 microns was obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and from the Lick Observatory Nickel Telescope, revealing a strong broad emission band at 10 microns and a weak feature at 6.8 microns. The 10-micron band is identified with silicate materials, and the primary component of the silicate emission is suggested to be due to olivine. The 6.8 micron feature may be due either to carbonates or the C-H deformation mode in organic molecules. The data indicate that small particles are abundant in the coma and that the dust contains at least two physically separate components. Significant spatial and temporal variations are also noted in the spectrum.

  4. Heterodyne spectrophotometry of ozone in the 9.6-micron band using a tunable diode laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Fogal, P. F.; Murcray, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (0.0003/cm) solar spectra in the 9.6-micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 120:1 (about 30 percent of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 s can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0013 wave numbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that measured at the nearby NOAA ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado. Line positions for several ozone lines in the spectral region 996-997/cm are reported. Recent improvements have produced a signal-to-noise ratio of 95:1 (about 40 percent of theoretical) at 0.0003/cm and extended the range of wavelengths which can be observed.

  5. Can the Assessment of Spontaneous Oscillations by Near Infrared Spectrophotometry Predict Neurological Outcome of Preterm Infants?

    PubMed

    Stammwitz, André; von Siebenthal, Kurt; Bucher, Hans U; Wolf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the correlation between cerebral autoregulation and outcome. Included were 31 preterm infants, gestational age 26 1/7 to 32 2/7 and <24 h life. Coherence between cerebral total haemoglobin (tHb) or oxygenation index (OI) measured by near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) and systemic heart rate (HR) or arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated as a measure of autoregulation. In contrast to previous studies, low coherences in the first 24 h were significantly associated with intraventricular haemorrhage, death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months or later. We suggest that our results can be explained by the concept of a multi-oscillatory-functions-order.

  6. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  7. Developments of Si-PIN detectors for Continuous Spectro-photometry of Black Holes (CSPOB)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoumik, Debashis; Mondal, Shyamal; Chakrabarti, S. K.

    2008-10-08

    The goal of the proposed small-satellite mission named Continuous Spectro-Photometry of Black holes (CSPOB) is to observe a given galactic black hole candidate for several months continuously or almost continuously. In the former case, two identical satellites are required, while one satellite is sufficient if we employ one satellite. Such an observation from 0.5keV to 30keV should answer several questions regarding the spectral and timing properties of accretion processes. In particular, on the origin of the sub-Keplerian component of the accretion flow which is observed in many black hole candidates. We present preliminary results on the development of X-ray detectorsmore » based on Hamamatsu made Si-PIN Photodiodes at our laboratory.« less

  8. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  9. Determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Wu, Qianghua

    2010-04-15

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) had been developed in this paper. The CPE method was based on the complex of Al(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and Triton X-114 was used as non-ionic surfactant. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration and kind of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 34.8 was obtained for the preconcentration of Al(III) with 10 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Al(III) was 0.06 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (n=7) of sample was 3.6%, values of recovery of aluminum were changed from 92.3% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can be applied to the determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Nazir; Assadi, Yaghoub; Sadeghi, Marzieh; Sharafi, Kiomars

    2014-12-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) method, using diethyldithiphosphate (DDTP) as a proper chelating agent, has been developed as an ultra preconcentration technique for the determination of inorganic arsenic in water samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Variables affecting the performance of both steps were thoroughly investigated. Under optimized conditions, 100mL of As(ΙΙΙ) solution was first concentrated using a solid phase sorbent. The extract was collected in 2.0 mL of acetone and 60.0 µL of 1-undecanol was added into the collecting solvent. The mixture was then injected rapidly into 5.0 mL of pure water for further DLLME-SFO. Total inorganic As(III, V) was extracted similarly after reduction of As(V) to As(III) with potassium iodide and sodium thiosulfate and As(V) concentration was calculated by difference. A mixture of Pd(NO3)2 and Mg(NO3)2 was used as a chemical modifier in GFAAS. The analytical characteristics of the method were determined. The calibration graph was linear in the rage of 10-100 ng L(-1) with detection limit of 2.5 ng L(-1). Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) of method based on seven replicate measurements of 80 ng L(-1) of As(ΙΙΙ) were 6.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to speciation of As(III), As(V) and determination of the total amount of As in water samples and in a certified reference material (NIST RSM 1643e). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of diphenylarsinic acid, phenylarsonic acid and inorganic arsenic in drinking water by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after simultaneous separation and preconcentration with solid-phase extraction disks.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kenta; Inui, Tetsuo; Koike, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A simple method of graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), and inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water. This method involves the simultaneous collection of DPAA, PAA, and iAs using three stacked SPE disks, i.e., an Empore SDB-XD disk (the upper layer), an activated carbon disk (the middle layer), and a Cation-SR disk loaded with Zr and Ca (ZrCa-CED; the lower layer). A 200-mL aqueous sample was adjusted to pH 3 with nitric acid and passed through the SPE disks at a flow rate of 15 mL min(-1), to concentrate DPAA on the SDB-XD disk, PAA on the activated carbon disk, and iAs on the ZrCa-CED. The As compounds were eluted from the disks with 10 mL of ethanol containing 0.5 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for DPAA, 20 mL of 1 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for PAA, and 20 mL of 6 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for iAs. The eluates of DPAA, PAA, and iAs were diluted to 20, 25, and 25 mL, respectively, with deionized water, and then analyzed by GFAAS. The detection limits of As (three-times the standard deviation (n = 3) of the blank values) were 0.13 and 0.16 μg L(-1) at enrichment factors of 10 and 8, respectively, using a 200-mL water sample. Spike tests with 2 μg (10 μg L(-1)) of DPAA, PAA, and iAs in 200 mL of tap water and bottled drinking water showed good recoveries (96.1-103.8%).

  12. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption spectra of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, S. S.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of InP/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots have been studied in a broad temperature range of T = 6.5-296 K. Using the second-order derivative spectrophotometry technique, the energies of optical transitions at room temperature were found to be E 1 = 2.60 ± 0.02 eV (for the first peak of excitonic absorption in the InP core) and E 2 = 4.70 ± 0.02 eV (for processes in the ZnS shell). The experimental curve of E 1( T) has been approximated for the first time in the framework of a linear model and in terms of the Fan's formula. It is established that the temperature dependence of E 1 is determined by the interaction of excitons and longitudinal acoustic phonons with hω = 15 meV.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  14. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  15. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  16. The reaction of fully reduced cytochrome c oxidase with oxygen studied by flow-flash spectrophotometry at room temperature. Evidence for new pathways of electron transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, B C; Greenwood, C

    1984-01-01

    Absorption changes during the O2 reaction of reduced bovine cytochrome c oxidase were investigated by the rapid-reaction technique of flow-flash spectrophotometry in the Soret, visible and near-i.r. spectral regions. New features in the time courses of absorption change were observed relative to the earlier findings reported by Greenwood & Gibson [(1967) J. Biol. Chem. 242, 1782-1787]. These new features arise in the Soret and near-i.r. regions and allow the reaction to be described at all wavelengths as a composite of three exponential processes. There is a rapid O2-sensitive phase detectable in the Soret and visible region. The second phase has a rate that is somewhat less dependent on O2 concentration than is the fastest phase rate and is detectable in all three spectral regions. The rate of the third phase is almost independent of the O2 concentration and is also detectable in all spectral regions. Analysis of the three phases gives their rates and absorption amplitudes. The fast phase reaches a rate of 2.5 X 10(4) s-1 at the highest O2 concentration available at 20 degrees C, whereas the phase of intermediate rate is limited at a value of 7 X 10(3) s-1 and the slow phase rate is limited at 700 s-1. The ratios of the kinetic difference spectra for the fast phase and the slow phase do not correspond to the spectra of the individual haem centres. A branched mechanism is advanced that is able to reconcile the kinetic and static difference spectra. This mechanism suggests that some of the cytochrome a is oxidized along with cytochrome a3 in the initial O2-sensitive phase. In addition, the model requires that CuA is oxidized heterogeneously. This fits with the complex time course of oxidation observed at 830 nm while retaining CuA as virtually the sole contributor to absorbance at this wavelength. PMID:6326750

  17. Novel ratio difference at coabsorptive point spectrophotometric method for determination of components with wide variation in their absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ahmed S; Abo-Talib, Nisreen F; El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R

    2016-01-05

    Different methods have been introduced to enhance selectivity of UV-spectrophotometry thus enabling accurate determination of co-formulated components, however mixtures whose components exhibit wide variation in absorptivities has been an obstacle against application of UV-spectrophotometry. The developed ratio difference at coabsorptive point method (RDC) represents a simple effective solution for the mentioned problem, where the additive property of light absorbance enabled the consideration of the two components as multiples of the lower absorptivity component at certain wavelength (coabsorptive point), at which their total concentration multiples could be determined, whereas the other component was selectively determined by applying the ratio difference method in a single step. Mixture of perindopril arginine (PA) and amlodipine besylate (AM) figures that problem, where the low absorptivity of PA relative to AM hinders selective spectrophotometric determination of PA. The developed method successfully determined both components in the overlapped region of their spectra with accuracy 99.39±1.60 and 100.51±1.21, for PA and AM, respectively. The method was validated as per the USP guidelines and showed no significant difference upon statistical comparison with reported chromatographic method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of silver nanoparticles in seawater at ppb levels using UV-visible spectrophotometry with long path cells.

    PubMed

    Lodeiro, Pablo; Achterberg, Eric P; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are emerging contaminants that are difficult to detect in natural waters. UV-visible spectrophotometry is a simple technique that allows detection of AgNPs through analysis of their characteristic surface plasmon resonance band. The detection limit for nanoparticles using up to 10cm path length cuvettes with UV-visible spectrophotometry is in the 0.1-10ppm range. This detection limit is insufficiently low to observe AgNPs in natural environments. Here we show how the use of capillary cells with an optical path length up to 200cm, forms an excellent technique for rapid detection and quantification of non-aggregated AgNPs at ppb concentrations in complex natural matrices such as seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  20. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  1. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  2. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  3. Deep echelle spectrophotometry of S 311, a Galactic HII region located outside the solar circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Esteban, C.; Peimbert, A.; Peimbert, M.; Rodríguez, M.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2005-09-01

    We present echelle spectrophotometry of the Galactic HII region S 311. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3100-10400 Årange. We have measured the intensities of 263 emission lines; 178 are permitted lines of H0, D0 (deuterium), He0, C0, C+, N0, N+, O0, O+, S+, Si0, Si+, Ar0 and Fe0; some of them are produced by recombination and others mainly by fluorescence. Physical conditions have been derived using different continuum- and line-intensity ratios. We have derived He+, C++ and O++ ionic abundances from pure recombination lines as well as abundances from collisionally excited lines for a large number of ions of different elements. We have obtained consistent estimations of t2 applying different methods. We have found that the temperature fluctuations paradigm is consistent with the Te(HeI) versus Te(HI) relation for HII regions, in contrast with what has been found for planetary nebulae. We report the detection of deuterium Balmer lines up to Dδ in the blue wings of the hydrogen lines, whose excitation mechanism seems to be continuum fluorescence.

  4. Determination of myoglobin based on its enzymatic activity by stopped-flow spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qi; Liu, Zhihong; Cai, Ruxiu

    2005-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of myoglobin (Mb) based on its enzymatic activity for the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) with hydrogen peroxide. Stopped-flow spectrophotometry was used to study the kinetic behavior of the oxidation reaction. The catalytic activity of Mb was compared to other three kinds of catalyst. The time dependent absorbance of the reaction product, 2,3-diamimophenazine (DAPN), at a wavelength of 426 nm was recorded. The initial reaction rate obtained at 40 °C was found to be proportional to the concentration of Mb in the range of 1.0 × 10 -6 to 4.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1. The detection limit of Mb was found to be 9.93 × 10 -10 mol L -1. The relative standard deviations were within 5% for the determination of different concentrations of Mb. Excess of bovine serum albumin (BSA), Ca(II), Mg(II), Cu(II), glucose, caffeine, lactose and uric acid did not interfere.

  5. Feasibility of spectro-photometry in X-rays (SPHINX) from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Doing space Astronomy on lunar surface has several advantages. We present here feasibility of an All Sky Monitoring Payload for Spectro-photometry in X-rays (SPHINX) which can be placed on a lander on the moon or in a space craft orbiting around the moon. The Si-PIN photo-diodes and CdTe crystals are used to detect solar flares, bright gamma bursts, soft gamma-ray repeaters from space and also X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from lunar surface. We present the complete Geant4 simulation to study the feasibility of such an instrument in presence of Cosmic Diffused X-Ray Background (CDXRB). We find that the signal to noise ratio is sufficient for moderate to bright GRBs (above 5 keV), for the quiet sun (up to 100 keV), solar flares, soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) of lunar surface etc. This is a low-cost system which is capable of performing multiple tasks while stationed at the natural satellite of our planet.

  6. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  7. Infrared Photometry and Spectrophotometry of Supernova 1987A - Part Two - 1987NOV to 1991MAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, P.; Danziger, I. J.

    1993-06-01

    We present the infrared (1-20 micron) observations of SN 1987A obtained at ESO La Silla between 29 October 1987 and 27 March 1991 (day 1493); photometry and narrow band CVF spectrophotometry (λ/{DELTA}λ ~ 60) were acquired during that period. The infrared light curves and the spectra are shown and discussed. The spectral energy distribution is dominated by an increasing IR excess after day 530 (beyond 3.5 microns) due to the presence of dust in the envelope which was first discovered by its spectroscopic signature. We show that dust is still present at least until day ~1400, and that the two zone model for the expanding envelope, suggested from the visible spectra obtained at ESO, can account for the observed changes in the near-infrared colours in the period days 530-560. Hydrogen lines, observed in the spectrum from the very beginning, are present until day 1109 (although Brγ is hardly noticeable on the 9 March 1990 spectrum) and we describe the variations of their intensities throughout our monitoring period. Attention is drawn to the presence of CO emission observed until November 1988, and to the evolution of cobalt through the observation of the fine structure line of [Co II] at 10.52 microns. The temporal behaviour of the emission lines due to [Ni I] 3.12 microns and [Si I] + [Fe II] 1.644 microns are also shown.

  8. Quality control of test iodine in urine by spectrophotometry UV-Vis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Thorikul; Nafisah, Durotun; Kumorowulan, Suryati; Lestari, Sri

    2017-12-01

    A quality control of iodine test in with UV-Vis spectrophotometry has been done. The purpose of this research is to find out whether the test results of samples conducted by Clinical Office of Research and Development Of GAKI (BP2GAKI) laboratory are still controlled, feasible and reliable, and still consistent over time, as indicated by the control chart. Quality control parameters are linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. Based on the quality control that has been done, obtained linearity (r)= -0.9974, the detection limit and the limit of quantitation are respectively 2.26 µg/L and 7.54 µg/L, while the accuracy is calculated by %recovery and precision with value % RSD are 97.4161% and 1.7136% respectively. The quality control of iodine test in urine using the control chart shows excellent or stable results for 30 days and no variation of the results is very different for each day.

  9. Cryptic gentes revealed in pallid cuckoos Cuculus pallidus using reflectance spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    Starling, M; Heinsohn, R; Cockburn, A; Langmore, N.E

    2006-01-01

    Many cuckoo species lay eggs that match those of their hosts, which can significantly reduce rejection of their eggs by the host species. However, egg mimicry is problematic for generalist cuckoos that parasitize several host species with different egg types. Some generalist cuckoos have overcome this problem by evolving several host-specific races (gentes), each with its own, host-specific egg type. It is unknown how generalist cuckoos lacking gentes are able to avoid egg rejection by hosts. Here we use reflectance spectrophotometry (300–700 nm) on museum egg collections to test for host-specific egg types in an Australian generalist cuckoo reported to have a single egg type. We show that the colour of pallid cuckoo (Cuculus pallidus) eggs differed between four host species, and that their eggs closely mimicked the eggs of the host they parasitized. These results reveal that pallid cuckoos have host-specific egg types that have not been detected by human observation, and indicate that gentes could be more common than previously realized. PMID:16822754

  10. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  11. Egg colour matching in an African cuckoo, as revealed by ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, M I; Bennett, A T

    2001-01-01

    Despite major differences between human and avian colour vision, previous studies of cuckoo egg mimicry have used human colour vision (or standards based thereon) to assess colour matching. Using ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry (300-700 nm), we measured museum collections of eggs of the red-chested cuckoo and its hosts. The first three principal components explained more than 99% of the variance in spectra, and measures of cuckoo host egg similarity derived from these transformations were compared with measures of cuckoo host egg similarity estimated by human observers unaware of the hypotheses we were testing. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate laying of cuckoo eggs at random in nests. Results showed that host and cuckoo eggs were very highly matched for an ultraviolet versus greenness component, which was not detected by humans. Furthermore, whereas cuckoo and host were dissimilar in achromatic brightness, humans did not detect this difference. Our study thus reveals aspects of cuckoo-host egg colour matching which have hitherto not been described. These results suggest subtleties and complexities in the evolution of host-cuckoo egg mimicry that were not previously suspected. Our results also have the potential to explain the longstanding paradox that some host species accept cuckoo eggs that are non-mimetic to the human eye. PMID:11297172

  12. Antioxidant study of quercetin and their metal complex and determination of stability constant by spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Rajendran, M; Devapiriam, D

    2014-03-01

    Quercetin found chelate cadmium ions, scavenge free radicals produced by cadmium. Hence new complex, quercetin with cadmium was synthesised, and the synthesised complex structures were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis techniques (UV-vis, IR, TGA and DTA). The equilibrium stability constants of quercetin-cadmium complex were determined by Job's method. The determined stability constant value of quercetin-cadminum complex at pH 4.4 is 2.27×10(6) and at pH 7.4 is 7.80×10(6). It was found that the quercetin and cadmium ion form 1:1 complex in both pH 4.4 and pH 7.4. The structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of obtained results. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the free quercetin and quercetin-cadmium complexes were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of response surface methodology for determination of methyl red in water samples by spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2014-12-10

    In this study a rapid and effective method (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME)) was developed for extraction of methyl red (MR) prior to its determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Influence variables on DLLME such as volume of chloroform (as extractant solvent) and methanol (as dispersive solvent), pH and ionic strength and extraction time were investigated. Then significant variables were optimized by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function (DF). The optimized conditions (100μL of chloroform, 1.3mL of ethanol, pH 4 and 4% (w/v) NaCl) resulted in a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.015-10.0mgmL(-1) of MR in initial solution with R(2)=0.995 (n=5). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.015mgmL(-1), respectively. Finally, the DLLME method was applied for determination of MR in different water samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5% (n=5). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Oxytetracycline from Salmon Muscle and Skin by Derivative Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Toral, M Inés; Sabay, Tamara; Orellana, Sandra L; Richter, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for the identification and quantification of oxytetracycline residues present in salmon muscle and skin using UV-Vis derivative spectrophotometry. With this method, it was possible to reduce the number of steps in the procedure typically required for instrumental analysis of a sample. The spectral variables, order of the derivative, scale factor, smoothing factor, and analytical wavelength were optimized using standard solutions of oxytetracycline dissolved in 900 mg/L oxalic acid in methanol. The matrix effect was significant; therefore, quantification for oxytetracycline residues was carried out using drug-free salmon muscle and skin samples fortified with oxytetracycline. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 271 and 903 μg/kg, respectively. The precision and accuracy of the method were validated using drug-free salmon muscle and skin tissues fortified at three different concentrations (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) on 3 different days. The recoveries at all fortified concentrations were between 90 and 105%, and RSDs in all cases were less than 6.5%. This method can be used to screen out compliant samples and thereby reduce the number of suspect positive samples that will require further confirmatory analysis.

  15. A NEW CONCEPT FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF EXOPLANETS WITH SPACE-BORNE TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Taro; Itoh, Satoshi; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new concept for the spectral characterization of transiting exoplanets with future space-based telescopes. This concept, called densified pupil spectroscopy, allows us to perform high, stable spectrophotometry against telescope pointing jitter and deformation of the primary mirror. This densified pupil spectrometer comprises the following three roles: division of a pupil into a number of sub-pupils, densification of each sub-pupil, and acquisition of the spectrum of each sub-pupil with a conventional spectrometer. Focusing on the fact that the divided and densified sub-pupil can be treated as a point source, we discovered that a simplified spectrometer allows us to acquiremore » the spectra of the densified sub-pupils on the detector plane−an optical conjugate with the primary mirror−by putting the divided and densified sub-pupils on the entrance slit of the spectrometer. The acquired multiple spectra are not principally moved on the detector against low-order aberrations such as the telescope pointing jitter and any deformation of the primary mirror. The reliability of the observation result is also increased by statistically treating them. Our numerical calculations show that because this method suppresses the instrumental systematic errors down to 10 ppm under telescopes with modest pointing accuracy, next generation space telescopes with more than 2.5 m diameter potentially provide opportunities to characterize temperate super-Earths around nearby late-type stars through the transmission spectroscopy and secondary eclipse.« less

  16. Comments on a Method to Measure Sucralose Using UV Photodegradation Followed by UV Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Te; Andrews, Susan A; Hofmann, Ron

    2017-05-01

    A simple and quick method to measure sucralose in aqueous solution at concentrations in the order of 0.1-1.2 g·L-1 proposed by Idris et al. uses UV irradiation prior to UV spectrophotometry. The photolysis of sucralose forms a photoactive compound characterized by maximum absorbance at approximately 270 nm. The conditions required for sucralose photolysis, however, had not been completely reported. In this work, the procedure described by Idris et al. was replicated using a low-pressure UV lamp to irradiate sucralose samples with a wider range of initial concentrations (0.04-10 g·L-1) with known fluences. It was determined that care must be taken to ensure that the same fluence is applied for both calibration and measurement steps because the absorbance of the sucralose photolysis product is a function of the applied fluence. The way the samples are irradiated also has an impact on the results in that the method exhibits a greater linear range if an apparatus is used that maximizes the fluence rate (e.g., by placing samples closer to the UV source or using a higher-intensity lamp).

  17. A System for Photon-Counting Spectrophotometry of Prompt Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Albright, K.; Casperson, D.; Fenimore, E.; Ho, C.; Priedhorsky, W.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2003-04-01

    With the launch of HETE-2 and the coming launch of the Swift satellite, there will be many new opportunities to study the physics of the prompt optical emission with robotic ground-based telescopes. Time-resolved spectrophotometry of the rapidly varying optical emission is likely to be a rich area for discovery. We describe a program to apply state-of-the-art photon-counting imaging technology to the study of prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts. The Remote Ultra-Low Light Imaging (RULLI) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an imaging sensor which employs stacked microchannel plates and a crossed delay line readout with 200 picosecond photon timing to measure the time of arrival and positions for individual optical photons. RULLI detectors, when coupled with a transmission grating having 300 grooves/mm, can make photon-counting spectroscopic observations with spectral resolution that is an order of magnitude greater and temporal resolution three orders of magnitude greater than the most capable photon-counting imaging detectors that have been used for optical astronomy.

  18. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  19. Ultrasensitive determination of cadmium in seawater by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-fu; He, Bin; Hu, Xia-lin; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2007-05-01

    A new procedure, based on hollow fiber supported liquid membrane preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection, was developed for the determination of trace Cd in seawater samples. With 1-octanol that contained a mixture of dithizone (carrier) and oleic acid immobilized in the pores of the polypropylene hollow fiber as a liquid membrane, Cd was selectively extracted from water samples into 0.05 M HNO 3 that filled the lumen of the hollow fiber as a stripping solution. The main extraction related parameters were optimized, and the effects of salinity and some coexisting interferants were also evaluated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, an enrichment factor of 387 was obtained for a 100-mL sample solution. In combination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, a very low detection limit (0.8 ng L - 1 ) and a relative standard deviation (2.5% at 50 ng L - 1 level) were achieved. Five seawater samples were analyzed by the proposed method without dilution, with detected Cd concentration in the range of 56.4-264.8 ng L - 1 and the relative spiked recoveries over 89%. For comparison, these samples were also analyzed by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after a 10-fold dilution for matrix effect elimination. Statistical analysis with a one-way ANOVA shows no significant differences (at 0.05 level) between the results obtained by the proposed and ICP-MS methods. Additionally, analysis of certified reference materials (GBW (E) 080040) shows good agreement with the certified value. These results indicate that this present method is very sensitive and reliable, and can effectively eliminate complex matrix interferences in seawater samples.

  20. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  1. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  2. Estimation of nitrite in source-separated nitrified urine with UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Mašić, Alma; Santos, Ana T L; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Villez, Kris

    2015-11-15

    Monitoring of nitrite is essential for an immediate response and prevention of irreversible failure of decentralized biological urine nitrification reactors. Although a few sensors are available for nitrite measurement, none of them are suitable for applications in which both nitrite and nitrate are present in very high concentrations. Such is the case in collected source-separated urine, stabilized by nitrification for long-term storage. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry in combination with chemometrics is a promising option for monitoring of nitrite. In this study, an immersible in situ UV sensor is investigated for the first time so to establish a relationship between UV absorbance spectra and nitrite concentrations in nitrified urine. The study focuses on the effects of suspended particles and saturation on the absorbance spectra and the chemometric model performance. Detailed analysis indicates that suspended particles in nitrified urine have a negligible effect on nitrite estimation, concluding that sample filtration is not necessary as pretreatment. In contrast, saturation due to very high concentrations affects the model performance severely, suggesting dilution as an essential sample preparation step. However, this can also be mitigated by simple removal of the saturated, lower end of the UV absorbance spectra, and extraction of information from the secondary, weaker nitrite absorbance peak. This approach allows for estimation of nitrite with a simple chemometric model and without sample dilution. These results are promising for a practical application of the UV sensor as an in situ nitrite measurement in a urine nitrification reactor given the exceptional quality of the nitrite estimates in comparison to previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lead Quantification in Urine Samples of Athletes by Coupling DLLME with UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Hakim; Helalizadeh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    Urine lead level is one of the most employed measures of lead exposure and risk. The urine samples used in this study were obtained from ten healthy male cyclists. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry was utilized for preconcentration, extraction, and determination of lead in urine samples. Optimization of the independent variables was carried out based on chemometric methods in three steps. According to the screening and optimization study, 133 μL of CCl 4 (extracting solvent), 1.34 mL ethanol (dispersing solvent), pH 2.0, 0.00 % of salt, and 0.1 % O,O-diethyl dithiophosphoric (chelating agent) were used as the optimum independent variables for microextraction and determination of lead. Under the optimized conditions, R 2 was 0.9991, and linearity range was 0.01-100 μg L -1 . Precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations being <9.1 and <15.3 %, respectively. The accuracy was estimated using urine samples of cyclists as real samples and it was confirmed. The relative error of ≤5 % was considered significant in the method specificity study. The lead concentration mean for the cyclists was 3.79 μg L -1 in urine samples. As a result, the proposed method is a robust technique to quantify lead concentrations higher than 11.6 ng L -1 in urine samples.

  4. Noninvasive Measurement of Hemoglobin Using Spectrophotometry: Is it Useful for the Critically Ill Child?

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Basak

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of noninvasively measuring hemoglobin using spectrophotometry (SpHb) with a pulse CO-oximeter and laboratory hemoglobin (Hb) measurements. A total of 345 critically ill children were included prospectively. Age, sex, and factors influencing the reliabilityof SpHb such as SpO2, heart rate, perfusion index (PI), and vasoactive inotropic score were recorded. SpHb measurements were recorded during the blood draw and compared with the Hb measurement. Thirteen patients (low PI in 9 patients and no available Hb in 4 patients) were excluded and 332 children were eligible for final analysis. The mean Hb was 8.71±1.49 g/dL (range, 5.9 to 12 g/dL) and the mean SpHb level was 9.55±1.53 g/dL (range, 6 to 14.2 g/dL). The SpHb bias was 0.84±0.86,with the limits of agreement ranging from -2.5 to 0.9 g/dL. The difference between Hb and SpHb was >1.5 g/dL for only 47 patients. Of these, 24 patients had laboratory Hb levels <7 g/dL. There was a weak positive correlation between differences and PI (r=0.349; P= 0.032). The pulse CO-oximeter is a promising tool for measuring SpHb and monitoring critically ill children. However, PI may affect these results. Additional studies investigating the reliability of the trend of continuous SpHb values compared with simultaneously measured laboratory Hb values in the same patient are warranted.

  5. Evaluating optimal superficial limb perfusion at different angles using non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Darmanin, Geraldine; Jaggard, Matthew; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Nanchahal, Jagdeep; Jain, Abhilash

    2013-06-01

    It is common practice to elevate the limbs postoperatively to reduce oedema and hence optimise perfusion and facilitate rehabilitation. However, elevation may be counterproductive as it reduces the mean perfusion pressure. There are no clear data on the optimal position of the limbs even in normal subjects. The optimal position of limbs was investigated in 25 healthy subjects using a non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry system "O2C", which indirectly measures skin and superficial tissue perfusion through blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin concentration. We found a reduction in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 17% (p=0.0001) on arm elevation (180° shoulder flexion) as compared to heart level and an increase in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 25% (p=0.02) on forearm elevation of 45°. Lower limb skin and superficial tissue blood flow decreased by 15% (p=0.004) on elevation to 47 cm and by 70% on dependency (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. However, on elevation of the lower limb there was also a 28% reduction in superficial venous pooling (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. In the normal limb, the position for optimal superficial perfusion of the upper limb is with the arm placed at heart level and forearm at 45°. In the lower limb the optimal position for superficial perfusion would be at heart level. However, some degree of elevation may be useful if there is an element of venous congestion. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing near-infrared spectrophotometry using a liquid neonatal head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Baenziger, Oskar; Keel, Matthias; Dietz, Vera; von Siebenthal, Kurt; Bucher, Hans U.

    1998-12-01

    We constructed a liquid phantom, which mimics the neonatal head for testing near infrared spectrophotometry instruments. It consists of a spherical, 3.5 mm thick layer of silicone rubber simulating skin and bone and acts as container for a liquid solution with IntralipidTM, 60 micrometers ol/l haemoglobin and yeast. The IntralipidTM concentration was varied to test the influence of scattering on haemoglobin concentrations and tissue oxygenation determined by the Critikon 2020. The solution was oxygenated using pure oxygen and then deoxygenated by the yeast. For the instruments algorithm, we found with increasing scattering (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% IntralipidTM concentration) an increasing offset added to the oxy- (56.7, 90.8, 112.5, 145.2 micrometers ol/l respectively) and deoxyhaemoglobin (25.4, 44.3, 58.5, 65.9 micrometers ol/l) concentration causing a decreasing range (41.3, 31.3, 25.0, 22.2%) of the tissue oxygen saturation reading. However, concentration changes were quantified correctly independently of the scattering level. For an other algorithm based on the analytical solution the offsets were smaller: oxyhaemoglobin 12.2, 34.0, 53.2, 88.8 micrometers ol/l and deoxyhaemoglobin 1.6, 11.2, 22.2, 28.1 micrometers ol/l. The range of the tissue oxygen saturation reading was higher: 71.3, 55.5, 45.7, 39.4%. However, concentration changes were not quantified correctly and depended on scattering. This study demonstrates the need to develop algorithms, which take into consideration the anatomical structures.

  7. Determination of copper in tap water using solid-phase spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Carol M.; Street, Kenneth W.; Philipp, Warren H.; Tanner, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    A new application of ion exchange films is presented. The films are used in a simple analytical method of directly determining low concentrations of Cu(2+) in aqueous solutions, in particular, drinking water. The basis for this new test method is the color and absorption intensity of the ion when adsorbed onto the film. The film takes on the characteristic color of the adsorbed cation, which is concentrated on the film by many orders of magnitude. The linear relationship between absorbance (corrected for variations in film thickness) and solution concentration makes the determinations possible. These determinations agree well with flame atomic absorption determinations.

  8. Spectrophotometry of Pluto-Charon mutual events - Individual spectra of Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, S. R.; Barker, E. S.; Cochran, A. L.; Cochran, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Time-resolved spectra of the March 3 and April 4, 1987 mutual events of Pluto and Charon, obtained with spectral coverage from 5500 to 10,000 A with 25-A spectral resolution, are discussed. Charon has a featureless reflectance spectrum, with no evidence of methane absorption. Charon's reflectance appears neutral in color and corresponds to a geometric albedo of about 0.37 at 6000 A. The Pluto reflectance spectrum displays methane absorption bands at 7300, 7900, 8400, 8600, and 8900 A and is red in color, with a geometric albedo of about 0.56 at 6000 A.

  9. High Ultraviolet Absorption in Colloidal Gallium Nanoparticles Prepared from Thermal Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Iria; Catalan-Gomez, Sergio; Vázquez, Luis; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Pau, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    New methods for the production of colloidal Ga nanoparticles (GaNPs) are introduced based on the evaporation of gallium on expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layer. The nanoparticles can be prepared in aqueous or organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran in order to be used in different sensing applications. The particles had a quasi mono-modal distribution with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm, and their aggregation status depended on the solvent nature. Compared to common chemical synthesis, our method assures higher yield with the possibility of tailoring particles size by adjusting the deposition time. The GaNPs have been studied by spectrophotometry to obtain the absorption spectra. The colloidal solutions exhibit strong plasmonic absorption in the ultra violet (UV) region around 280 nm, whose width and intensity mainly depend on the nanoparticles dimensions and their aggregation state. With regard to the colloidal GaNPs flocculate behavior, the water solvent case has been investigated for different pH values, showing UV-visible absorption because of the formation of NPs clusters. Using discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method simulations, a close connection between the UV absorption and NPs with a diameter smaller than ~40 nm was observed. PMID:28684687

  10. Tables showing analyses of semiquantitative spectrometry and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry of rock samples collected in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and western part of the Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; O'Leary, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The accompanying tables list chemical analyses of 337 rock samples that were collected in 1979, 1980, and 1981 in conjunction with geologic mapping in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and part of Karluk quadrangles. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). This report is to accompany Wilson and O'Leary (1986) which inadvertently is missing most of the data tables listed here. Together the two reports contain the complete data from all samples collected for the Ugashik AMRAP.

  11. Simultaneous determination of mercury and organic carbon in sediment and soils using a direct mercury analyzer based on thermal decomposition-atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Chakravarty, Pragya; Davidson, Gregg R; Wren, Daniel G; Locke, Martin A; Zhou, Ying; Brown, Garry; Cizdziel, James V

    2015-04-29

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of using a direct mercury analyzer (DMA) to simultaneously determine mercury (Hg) and organic matter content in sediment and soils. Organic carbon was estimated by re-weighing the sample boats post analysis to obtain loss-on-ignition (LOI) data. The DMA-LOI results were statistically similar (p<0.05) to the conventional muffle furnace approach. A regression equation was developed to convert DMA-LOI data to total organic carbon (TOC), which varied between 0.2% and 13.0%. Thus, mercury analyzers based on combustion can provide accurate estimates of organic carbon content in non-calcareous sediment and soils; however, weight gain from moisture (post-analysis), measurement uncertainty, and sample representativeness should all be taken into account. Sediment cores from seasonal wetland and open water areas from six oxbow lakes in the Mississippi River alluvial flood plain were analyzed. Wetland sediments generally had higher levels of Hg than open water areas owing to a greater fraction of fine particles and higher levels of organic matter. Annual loading of Hg in open water areas was estimated at 4.3, 13.4, 19.2, 20.7, 129, and 135 ng cm(-2) yr(-1) for Beasley, Roundaway, Hampton, Washington, Wolf and Sky Lakes, respectively. Generally, the interval with the highest Hg flux was dated to the 1960s and 1970s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maps and tables showing data and analyses of semiquantitative emmission spectrometry and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry of rock samples, Ugashik, Bristol Bay, and part of Karluk quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; O'Leary, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The accompanying maps and tables show analytical data and data analyses from rock samples collected in conjunction with geologic mapping in the Ugashik, Bristol Bay and western Karluck quadrangles from 1979 through 1981. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). A total of 337 samples were collected for analysis, primarily in areas of surficial alteration. The sample locations are shown on sheet 1: they are concentrated along the Pacific Ocean side of the area because the Bristol Bay lowlands part of the map is predominantly unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Sample collection was by the following people, with their respective two letter identifying code shown in parentheses: W.H. Allaway (AY), J.E. Case (CE), D.P. Cox (CX), R.L. Detterman, (DT), T.G. Theodore (MK), F.H. Wilson (WS), and M.E. Yount (YB).

  13. In-situ pre-concentration through repeated sampling and pyrolysis for ultrasensitive determination of thallium in drinking water by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Zheng, Huaili; Xu, Bincheng; Xiao, Lang; Chigan, Yong; Zhangluo, Yilan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a procedure for in-situ pre-concentration in graphite furnace by repeated sampling and pyrolysis is proposed for the determination of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Without any other laborious enrichment processes that routinely result in analyte loss and contamination, thallium was directly concentrated in the graphite furnace automatically and subsequently subject to analysis. The effects of several key factors, such as the temperature for pyrolysis and atomization, the chemical modifier, and the repeated sampling times were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a limit of detection of 0.01µgL -1 was obtained, which fulfilled thallium determination in drinking water by GB 5749-2006 regulated by China. Successful analysis of thallium in certified water samples and drinking water samples was demonstrated, with analytical results in good agreement with the certified values and those by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Routine spike-recovery tests with randomly selected drinking water samples showed satisfactory results of 80-96%. The proposed method is simple and sensitive for screening of ultra-trace thallium in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction for the determination of vanadium in water and food samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction (MS-IL-DLLME) was developed to quantify the trace level of vanadium in real water and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In this extraction method magnetic stirrer was applied to obtained a dispersive medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6] in aqueous solution of (real water samples and digested food samples) to increase phase transfer ratio, which significantly enhance the recovery of vanadium - 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) chelate. Variables having vital role on desired microextraction methods were optimised to obtain the maximum recovery of study analyte. Under the optimised experimental variables, enhancement factor (EF) and limit of detection (LOD) were achieved to be 125 and 18 ng L(-1), respectively. Validity and accuracy of the desired method was checked by analysis of certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate determinations at 0.5 μg L(-1) of vanadium level was found to be <5.0%. This method was successfully applied to real water and acid digested food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection of vanadium in water and food samples after solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Tuzen, Mustafa; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-11-15

    Vanadium(V) ions as 8-hydroxyquinoline chelates were loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in a mini chromatographic column. Vanadium was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Various analytical parameters including pH of the working solutions, amounts of 8-hydroxyquinoline, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates were investigated. The effects of matrix ions and some transition metals were also studied. The column can be reused 250 times without any loss in its sorption properties. The preconcentration factor was found as 100. Detection limit (3 s) and limit of quantification (10 s) for the vanadium in the optimal conditions were observed to be 0.012 µg L(-1) and 0.040 μg L(-1), respectively. The capacity of adsorption was 9.6 mg g(-1). Relative standard deviation (RSD) was found to be 5%. The validation of the method was confirmed by using NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, NIST SRM 1570a Spinach leaves and GBW 07605 Tea certified reference materials. The procedure was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water and bottled drinking water samples. The procedure was also successfully applied to microwave digested food samples including black tea, coffee, tomato, cabbage, zucchini, apple and chicken samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L- 1 for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L- 1, n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009-88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3-116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix.

  17. Determination of macro and trace elements in multivitamin dietary supplements by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    In this research, three different commercially available multivitamin dietary supplements were analyzed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) with slurry sampling. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se were determined and compared to the amounts stated by producers. The safety of multivitamin dietary supplements depends on various factors including the manufacturing process and the purity and origins of the raw ingredients. For this reason, this research determined concentrations of several toxic elements (As, Cd, and Pb). Microwave-assisted high pressure Teflon bomb digestion was used to determine total amounts of elements in samples. Samples were prepared as slurries at a concentration of 0.1% (m/v) for macro elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se) and at a concentration of % (m/v) for trace elements (As, Cd, and Pb) in acidic media (3M HNO3). The influence of acid concentration, Triton X-100 addition, sonication time, and sonication power on absorbance was investigated. The accuracy of this method was validated by analyses of NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC DORM-1 (Dogfish Muscle), NRCC DOLT-2 (Dogfish Liver), NBS SRM 1570 (Spinach Leaves) and NBS SRM 1573 (Tomato Leaves) certified reference materials. The measured elements contents in these reference materials (except NRCC DOLT-2) were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a simple method for the determination of lead in lipstick using alkaline solubilization and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Aline Rodrigues; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina

    2013-02-15

    A simple method was developed for determining the total lead content in lipstick samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Multivariate optimization was used to establish the optimal conditions of sample preparation. The graphite furnace heating program was optimized through pyrolysis and atomization curves. An aliquot containing approximately 50mg of the sample was mixed with TMAH and heated in a water bath at 60°C for 60 min. Using Nb as the permanent modifier and Pd as the chemical modifier, the optimal temperatures were 900°C and 1800°C for pyrolysis and atomization, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the working range was from 1.73 to 50.0 μg L(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.20 and 0.34 μg g(-1), respectively. The precision was evaluated under conditions of repeatability and intermediate precision and showed standard deviations of 2.37%-4.61% and 4.93%-9.75%, respectively. The % recovery ranged from 96.2% to 109%, and no significant differences were found between the results obtained using the proposed method and the microwave decomposition method for real samples. Lead was detected in 21 tested lipstick samples; the lead content in these samples ranged from 0.27 to 4.54 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  20. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  1. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  2. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  3. Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.

  4. HPLC determination of flavonoid glycosides in Mongolian Dianthus versicolor Fisch. (Caryophyllaceae) compared with quantification by UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Zehl, Martin; Kletter, Christa; Reznicek, Gottfried; Narantuya, Samdan; Glasl, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus versicolor is used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Fractions enriched in flavone-di- and triglycosides were shown to enhance bile secretion. Therefore, reliable and accurate analytical methods are needed for the determination of these flavonoids in the crude drug and extracts thereof. To provide a validated HPLC-DAD (diode array detector) method especially developed for the separation of polar flavonoids and to compare the data obtained with those evaluated by UV spectrophotometry. Separations were carried out on an Aquasil® C₁₈-column (4.6 mm × 250.0 mm, 5 µm) with a linear gradient of acetonitrile and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with trifluoroacetic acid) as mobile phase. Rutoside was employed as internal standard with linear behavior in a concentration range of 0.007-3.5 mg/mL. Accuracy was determined by spiking the crude drug with saponarin resulting in recoveries between 92% and 102%. The method allows the quantification of highly polar flavonoid glycosides and the determination of their total content. For saponarin a linear response was evaluated within the range 0.007-3.5 mg/mL (R²  > 0.9999). It was proven that threefold sonication represents a time-saving, effective and cheap method for the extraction of the polar flavonoid glycosides. The contents determined by HPLC were shown to be in agreement with those obtained employing UV spectrophotometry. The study has indicated that the newly developed HPLC method represents a powerful technique for the quality control of D. versicolor. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry may be used alternatively provided that the less polar flavonoids are removed by purification. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  6. Determination of vitamin B6 by means of differential spectrophotometry in pharmaceutical preparations in the presence of magnesium compounds.

    PubMed

    Muszalska, Izabela; Puchalska, Marta; Sobczak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The content of pyridoxine hydrochloride in two-component pharmaceutical preparations containing various magnesium compounds was examined. The UV differentiation spectrophotometry was devised and compared with the reference method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis of the absorbance spectra (A) and its first (D1) and second (D2) derivatives made it possible to establish the appropriate analytical wavelengths (A: 290 nm; D1: 302 nm; D2: 308 nm). It was proved that spectrum differentiation significantly corrects errors resulting from overlapping background especially when the magnesium hydroaspartate, lactate or magnesium lactogluconate is present together with vitamin B6.

  7. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  8. Optical Absorption in Liquid Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Florian Gene

    An infrared absorption cell has been developed which is suitable for high temperature liquids which have absorptions in the range .1-10('3) cm('-1). The cell is constructed by clamping a gasket between two flat optical windows. This unique design allows the use of any optical windows chemically compatible with the liquid. The long -wavelength limit of the measurements is therefore limited only by the choice of the optical windows. The thickness of the cell can easily be set during assembly, and can be varied from 50 (mu)m to .5 cm. Measurements of the optical absorption edge were performed on the liquid alloy Se(,1-x)Tl(,x) for x = 0, .001, .002, .003, .005, .007, and .009, from the melting point up to 475(DEGREES)C. The absorption was found to be exponential in the photon energy over the experimental range from 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. The absorption increased linearly with concentration according to the empirical relation (alpha)(,T)(h(nu)) = (alpha)(,1) + (alpha)(,2)x, and the absorption (alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption in the absence of T1. (alpha)(,1) also agreed with the measured absorption in 100% Se at corresponding temperatures and energies. The excess absorption defined by (DELTA)(alpha) = (alpha)(,T)(h(nu))-(alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption associated with Tl and was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy E(,t) = 0.5 eV. The exponential edge is explained as absorption on atoms immersed in strong electric fields surrounding ions. The strong fields give rise to an absorption tail similar to the Franz-Keldysh effect. A simple calculation is performed which is based on the Dow-Redfield theory of absorption in an electric field with excitonic effects included. The excess absorption at low photon energies is proportional to the square of the concentration of ions, which are proposed to exist in the liquid according to the relation C(,i) (PROPORTIONAL) x(' 1/2)(.)e('-E)t('/kT), which is the origin of the thermal activation

  9. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016

  10. An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

  11. The practical application of reflectance spectrophotometry for the demonstration of haemoglobin and its degradation in bruises

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, V K; Ellis, P S; Burt, T; Langlois, N E I

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To develop a non-invasive method to demonstrate the presence of haemoglobin and its degradation products in bruises in live human subjects for the purposes of objectively assisting in the determination of the age of a bruise. Methods: The cuvette holder unit of a Cary 100 Bio UV-Visible Spectrophotometer was replaced with the manufacture’s fibre optic cable and optical reflectance probe. The probe was placed on the skin surface. The absorption spectrum from 780 to 380 nm was collected and transformed into the first derivative. Calculation of the first derivative permits absorption attributed to haemoglobin degradation (primarily to bilirubin, but also haemosiderin) to be separated from absorption by haemoglobin. First derivative and colorimetry values, expressed as CIEL*a*b data, were derived from scans of 50 bruises. Results: The fibre optic cable and probe allowed the spectrophotometer to collect reproducible absorption spectra of bruises in the skin of living subjects. A bruise at three days has greater negative first derivative values at 480 and 490 nm than does a fresh bruise, indicating the local degradation of haemoglobin. Correlation between the first derivative and the CIEL*a*b “b” values in a series of bruises indicates that the yellow colour in a bruise is proportional to the amount of local haemoglobin breakdown. Conclusion: The ability to demonstrate the presence of haemoglobin and measure its degradation in bruises in living human subjects by a non-invasive method has not been described previously, and may be of use in the objective ageing of bruises for forensic purposes. PMID:15047735

  12. Two-phase ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the pulsating white dwarf ZZ Piscium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Kemper, E.; Grauer, A. D.; Holm, A. V.; Panek, R. J.; Schiffer, F. H., III

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the pulsating white dwarf ZZ Psc (= G29-38) were obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. By using a multiple-exposure technique in conjunction with simultaneous ground-based exposure-metering photometry, it was possible to obtain mean on-pulse and off-pulse spectra in the 1950-1310 A wavelength range. The ratio of the time-averaged on-pulse to off-pulse spectra is best fitted by a temperature variation that is in phase with the optical light variation. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed variation is due to a high-order nonradial pulsation. Conventional ultraviolet spectra of ZZ Psc showed broad absorption features at 1390 and 1600 A. These features are also found in the spectra of the cool DA-type white dwarfs G226-29 and G67-23, and appear to increase in strength with decreasing temperature. A possible explanation for the 1600 A feature is absorption by the satellite band of resonance-broadened hydrogen Ly-alpha. Such absorption would also help explain a discrepancy between the observed pulsation amplitude shortward of 1650 A and the predicted amplitudes based on model atmospheres.

  13. Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.

  14. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  15. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  16. Calculation of optical band gaps of a-Si:H thin films by ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yijiao; Li, Wei; Wu, Maoyang; Fu, Junwei; Jiang, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films doped with Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen (N) were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). The optical band gaps of the thin films obtained through either changing the gas pressure (P-doped only) or adulterating nitrogen concentration (with fixed P content) were investigated by means of Ellipsometric and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, respectively. Tauc formula was used in calculating the optical band gaps of the thin films in both methods. The results show that Ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry can be applied in the research of the optical properties of a-Si:H thin films experimentally. Both methods reflect the variation law of the optical band gaps caused by CVD process parameters, i.e., the optical band gap of the a-Si:H thin films is increased with the rise of the gas pressure or the nitrogen concentration respectively. The difference in optical band gaps of the doped a-Si:H thin films calculated by Ellipsometry or UV-Vis spectrophotometry are not so great that they both can be used to measure the optical band gaps of the thin films in practical applications.

  17. Likelihood of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with normal unenhanced CT, CSF xanthochromia on spectrophotometry and negative CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Rana, A K; Turner, H E; Deans, K A

    2013-01-01

    Patients with suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage, a normal noncontrast computed tomography (CT) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of haemoglobin breakdown products often undergo CT angiography (CTA). If this is normal, then invasive catheter angiography may be offered. In current clinical practice, haemoglobin breakdown products are detected by spectrophotometry rather than visible xanthochromia, and CTA is performed on multidetector scanners. The aim of this study was to determine if such patients should still have a catheter angiography, given the associated risks. Patients positive for CSF spectrophotometry (n=26) were retrospectively identified from the clinical biochemistry information system and imaging data from the electronic radiology records were reviewed. Discharge letters were consulted to relate the biochemistry and radiology results to the final diagnosis. 15 patients with CT angiography were found. Nine patients had normal CT angiography. No causative aneurysms had been missed. One patient had small, coincidental aneurysms missed on initial reading of the CTA. The likelihood of a clinically significant aneurysm in a patient who is CT negative, lumbar puncture positive and CTA negative is low. Double reporting of negative CT angiograms may be advisable.

  18. Derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of faropenem in the presence of degradation products: an application for kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2013-07-01

    A simple and selective derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of faropenem in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage. The method is based on the zero-crossing effect of first-derivative spectrophotometry (λ = 324 nm), which eliminates the overlapping effect caused by the excipients present in the pharmaceutical preparation, as well as degradation products, formed during hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermolysis. The method was linear in the concentration range 2.5-300 μg/mL (r = 0.9989) at λ = 341 nm; the limits of detection and quantitation were 0.16 and 0.46 μg/mL, respectively. The method had good precision (relative standard deviation from 0.68 to 2.13%). Recovery of faropenem ranged from 97.9 to 101.3%. The first-order rate constants of the degradation of faropenem in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage were determined by using first-derivative spectrophotometry. A statistical comparison of the validation results and the observed rate constants for faropenem degradation with these obtained with the high-performance liquid chromatography method demonstrated that both were compatible.

  19. A simple and cost-effective method, as an appropriate alternative for visible spectrophotometry: development of a dopamine biosensor.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Khajehzadeh, Abdolreza; Ghaffarinejad, Ali

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and inexpensive method as an alternative to visible spectrophotometry is developed. In this method the cells containing the sample solution were scanned with a scanner, then the color of each cell was analyzed with software written in visual basic (VB 6) media to red, green and blue values. The cells were built by creating holes in the Plexiglas sheet. The dimensions of identical cells were examined by Cr (III) solution with known concentrations. The validity of this new method was studied by determination of dopamine (DA) without using any other reagent. The parameters which affect the system were optimized. The comparison between the current and traditional UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods was studied and the results revealed similar trends in both methods. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in serum and urine without using any pretreatment. Finally comparing the results obtained in the developed method showed that microwave irradiation of the solution can decrease the experimental time, increase sensitivity and improve the limit of detection.

  20. Intraoperative Vascular Neuromonitoring in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Pilot Study Using Combined Laser-Doppler Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Emilija; Bischoff, Barbara; Wolf, Dennis; Schmitt, Hubert J; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Roessler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Sommer, Björn

    2017-11-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral microcirculation in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may predict the postoperative neurologic outcome. In this pilot study, we examined the value of a novel noninvasive real-time measurement technique for detecting changes in local microcirculation. We used the O2C (Oxygen to see) laser-Doppler spectrophotometry system in 14 patients with Hunt & Hess grade 2-5 SAH who underwent microsurgical cerebral aneurysm clipping. A subdural probe recorded capillary venous oxygenation (SO 2 ), relative hemoglobin concentration, blood cell velocity, and blood flow at a tissue depth of 7 mm. Data were recorded immediately before dural closure. We also recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) with median and tibial nerve stimulation. Results were compared with neurologic performance, as measured on the modified Rankin Scale, at the day of discharge from the hospital and 12 months thereafter. Patient functional outcomes after discharge and 12 months were correlated with pathological decreased flow and increased SO 2 values. In 6 of 8 patients, microcirculatory monitoring parameters indicated ischemia during surgery, as shown by electrophysiological SEP changes and infarction detected on the postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. Pathological SEP results correlated closely with infarct demarcation as seen on CT. Our results indicate the potential benefit of intraoperative combined laser-Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry for predicting postoperative clinical outcomes in this small patient sample. Larger-cohort testing is needed to verify our findings and show the possible merits of this novel method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fjord light regime: Bio-optical variability, absorption budget, and hyperspectral light availability in Sognefjord and Trondheimsfjord, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, V. J.; Voß, D.; Wollschlaeger, J.; Zielinski, O.

    2017-05-01

    Optically active constituents (OACs) in addition to water molecules attenuate light via processes of absorption and scattering and thereby determine underwater light availability. An analysis of their optical properties helps in determining the contribution of each of these to light attenuation. With an aim to study the bio-optical variability, absorption budget and 1% spectral light availability, hydrographical (temperature and salinity), and hyperspectral optical (downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance) profiles were measured along fjord transects in Sognefjord and Trondheimsfjord, Norway. Optical water quality observations were also performed using Secchi disc and Forel-Ule scale. In concurrence, water samples were collected and analyzed via visible spectrophotometry, fluorometry, and gravimetry to quantify and derive inherent optical properties of the water constituents. An absorption model (R2 = 0.91, n = 36, p < 0.05) as a function of OACs is developed for Sognefjord using multiple regression analysis. Influenced by glacial meltwater, Sognefjord had higher concentration of inorganic suspended matter, while Trondheimsfjord had higher concentrations of CDOM. Increase in turbidity caused increased attenuation of light upstream, as a result of which the euphotic depth decreased from outer to inner fjord sections. Triangular representation of absorption budget revealed dominant absorption by CDOM at 443-555 nm, while that by phytoplankton at 665 nm. Sognefjord however exhibited much greater optical complexity. A significantly strong correlation between salinity and acdom440 is used to develop an algorithm to estimate acdom440 using salinity in Trondheimsfjord.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  3. Determination of silicon and aluminum in silicon carbide nanocrystals by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Bencs, László; Beke, Dávid; Gali, Adam

    2016-01-15

    The determination of Al contaminant and the main component Si in silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with the size-distribution of 1-8nm dispersed in an aqueous solution was developed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS). The vaporization/atomization processes were investigated in a transversally heated graphite atomizer by evaporating solution samples of Al and Si preserved in various media (HCl, HNO3). For Si, the best results were obtained by applying a mixture of 5µg Pd plus 5µg Mg, whereas for Al, 10µg Mg (each as nitrate solution) was dispensed with the samples, but the results obtained without modifier were found to be better. This way a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 1200°C for Si and 1300°C for Al could be used, and the optimum (compromise) atomization temperature was 2400°C for both analytes. The Si and Al contents of different sized SiC nanocrystals, dispersed in aqueous solutions, were determined against aqueous (external) calibration standards. The correlation coefficients (R values) of the calibrations were found to be 0.9963 for Si and 0.9991 for Al. The upper limit of the linear calibration range was 2mg/l Si and 0.25mg/l Al. The limit of detection was 3µg/l for Si and 0.5µg/l for Al. The characteristic mass (m0) was calculated to be 389pg Si and 6.4pg Al. The Si and Al content in the solution samples were found to be in the range of 1.0-1.7mg/l and 0.1-0.25mg/l, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  5. The role of the surfaces in the photon absorption in Ge nanoclusters embedded in silica.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Salvatore; Miritello, Maria; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Lo Savio, Roberto; Simone, Francesca; Spinella, Corrado; Terrasi, Antonio

    2011-02-11

    The usage of semiconductor nanostructures is highly promising for boosting the energy conversion efficiency in photovoltaics technology, but still some of the underlying mechanisms are not well understood at the nanoscale length. Ge quantum dots (QDs) should have a larger absorption and a more efficient quantum confinement effect than Si ones, thus they are good candidate for third-generation solar cells. In this work, Ge QDs embedded in silica matrix have been synthesized through magnetron sputtering deposition and annealing up to 800°C. The thermal evolution of the QD size (2 to 10 nm) has been followed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, evidencing an Ostwald ripening mechanism with a concomitant amorphous-crystalline transition. The optical absorption of Ge nanoclusters has been measured by spectrophotometry analyses, evidencing an optical bandgap of 1.6 eV, unexpectedly independent of the QDs size or of the solid phase (amorphous or crystalline). A simple modeling, based on the Tauc law, shows that the photon absorption has a much larger extent in smaller Ge QDs, being related to the surface extent rather than to the volume. These data are presented and discussed also considering the outcomes for application of Ge nanostructures in photovoltaics.PACS: 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Hc; 68.65.-k.

  6. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dominic Z; Soliman, Ian Jerry S; Pobre, Romeric F; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Airborne spectrophotometry of P/Halley from 16 to 30 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Campins, H.

    1986-01-01

    Comet Halley was observed in the 16 to 30 micron region using the Cornell University 7-channel spectrometer (resolution = 0.02) on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on 1985 Dec. 14.2. A 30-arcsec aperture (FWHM) was used. Measurements centered on the nuclear condensation micron indicate that if present, the 20 micron silicate feature is very weak, and that a relatively narrow strong feature centered at 28.4 microns possibly exists. However, this feature may be an artifact of incomplete correction for telluric water vapor absorption.

  8. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  9. Broadband absorption with gradient metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hoyeong; Chalabi, Hamidreza; Alù, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    A metasurface with appropriately designed transverse spatial inhomogeneities can provide the desired phase redistribution in response to an incident wave with arbitrary incident angle. This property of gradient metasurfaces has been used to modify light propagation in unusual manners, to transform the impinging optical wavefront with large flexibility. In this work, we show how gradient metasurfaces can be tailored to offer high absorption in thin absorptive layers, and how to design realistic metasurfaces for this purpose using dielectric materials.

  10. Assessment of cosmetic ingredients in the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis test method EpiSkin™ using HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry in the MTT-reduction assay.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Pfannenbecker, U; McNamee, P

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetics Europe recently established HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as a suitable alternative endpoint detection system for measurement of formazan in the MTT-reduction assay of reconstructed human tissue test methods irrespective of the test system involved. This addressed a known limitation for such test methods that use optical density for measurement of formazan and may be incompatible for evaluation of strong MTT reducer and/or coloured chemicals. To build on the original project, Cosmetics Europe has undertaken a second study that focuses on evaluation of chemicals with functionalities relevant to cosmetic products. Such chemicals were primarily identified from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010 memorandum (addendum) on the in vitro test EpiSkin™ for skin irritation testing. Fifty test items were evaluated in which both standard photometry and HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry were used for endpoint detection. The results obtained in this study: 1) provide further support for Within Laboratory Reproducibility of HPLC-UPLC-spectrophotometry for measurement of formazan; 2) demonstrate, through use a case study with Basazol C Blue pr. 8056, that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry enables determination of an in vitro classification even when this is not possible using standard photometry and 3) addresses the question raised by SCCS in their 2010 memorandum (addendum) to consider an endpoint detection system not involving optical density quantification in in vitro reconstructed human epidermis skin irritation test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Filonenko, E V; Telegina, L V

    2002-11-30

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after themore » endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)« less

  12. Comparison of HPLC, UV spectrophotometry and potentiometric titration methods for the determination of lumefantrine in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    da Costa César, Isabela; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Pianetti, Gérson Antônio

    2008-09-10

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HPLC, UV spectrophotometry and potentiometric titration methods to quantify lumefantrine in raw materials and tablets. HPLC analyses were carried out using a Symmetry C(18) column and a mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (80:20), with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and UV detection at 335nm. For the spectrophotometric analyses, methanol was used as solvent and the wavelength of 335nm was selected for the detection. Non-aqueous titration of lumefantrine was carried out using perchloric acid as titrant and glacial acetic acid/acetic anhydride as solvent. The end point was potentiometrically determined. The three evaluated methods showed to be adequate to quantify lumefantrine in raw materials, while HPLC and UV methods presented the most reliable results for the analyses of tablets.

  13. Application of wavelet and Fuorier transforms as powerful alternatives for derivative spectrophotometry in analysis of binary mixtures: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Said A.; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A.

    2018-02-01

    Two signal processing methods, namely, Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and the second was Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) were introduced as alternatives to the classical Derivative Spectrophotometry (DS) in analysis of binary mixtures. To show the advantages of these methods, a comparative study was performed on a binary mixture of Naltrexone (NTX) and Bupropion (BUP). The methods were compared by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. By comparing performance of the three methods, it was proved that CWT and DFT methods are more efficient and advantageous in analysis of mixtures with overlapped spectra than DS. The three signal processing methods were adopted for the quantification of NTX and BUP in pure and tablet forms. The adopted methods were validated according to the ICH guideline where accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be within appropriate limits.

  14. Catalog of far-ultraviolet objective-prism spectrophotometry: Skylab experiment S-019, ultraviolet steller astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Parsons, S. B.; Benedict, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet stellar spectra in the wavelength region from 1300 to 5000 A (130 to 500) were photographed during the three manned Skylab missions using a 15 cm aperture objective-prism telescope. The prismatic dispersion varied from 58 A mm/1 at 1400 A to 1600 A mm/1 at 3000 A. Approximately 1000 spectra representing 500 stars were measured and reduced to observed fluxes. About 100 stars show absorption lines of Si IV, C IV, or C II. Numerous line features are also recorded in supergiant stars, shell stars, A and F stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars. Most of the stars in the catalog are of spectral class B, with a number of O and A type stars and a sampling of WC, WN, F and C type stars. Spectrophotometric results are tabulated for these 500 stars.

  15. Seasonal skin colour changes in a sample teenage population measured by reflection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-11-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized reflectance spectra. Measurements made upon the inner forearm and the back of the hand produce results which indicate a decrease in total reflectance (increase in absorption) corresponding to different levels of tanning for limited and extended exposure to ambient sunlight, respectively. The rate of change of skin colour qualitatively matches that of the solar illuminance.

  16. Spectrophotometry of VIIZW421 and IIZW67 - s0 Galaxies Dominated by Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparke, L. S.; Kormendy, J.; Spinrad, H.

    1980-02-01

    We investigate the stellar content of two SO galaxies whose spectra show deep Balmer absorption lines but little emission. Continuum colors and the Faber-Burstein (Mg)0 index show that the blue light is dominated by young stars. In VII Zw 421 there is a radial population gradient; the nucleus has relatively more young stars than the lens. An approximate spectral synthesis confirms the need for young (rather than metal-poor) stars to produce sufficiently strong Balmer lines. In VII Zw 421 the best synthesis implies that 45Th of the nuclear light at 5000 Å comes from stars close to A1 V in type. In the lens, the young-star contribution is smaller by a factor of 2-3. Also, in the nucleus only, the observed Na D lines are much stronger than in our model. This suggests a connection with the young component and supports Faber and Burstein's conclusion that abnormally strong Na D absorption is sometimes interstellar. Thus VII Zw 421 and II Zw 67 are similar to NGC 5102, the nearest SO galaxy dominated by young stars. The present SO's provide important constraints on any interpretation of the young component. At - 19.9 and -21.5 absolute B mag (H0 = 50 km s-1 1 Mpc-1), they are unusually luminous for their early-type spectra. They are also unusually compact, which may provide them with gravitational potential wells deep enough to retain gas despite processes which remove gas from other early-type galaxies.

  17. Benefit of cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in the assessment of CT scan negative suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Hann, Angus; Chu, Kevin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Williams, Julian; Brown, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if performing cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry in addition to visual inspection detects more ruptured cerebral aneurysms than performing cerebrospinal fluid visual inspection alone in patients with a normal head CT scan but suspected of suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We performed a single-centre retrospective study of patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital who underwent both head CT scan and lumbar puncture to exclude SAH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an approach utilising both spectrophotometry and visual inspection (combined approach) was compared to visual inspection alone. A total of 409 patients (mean age 37.8 years, 56.2% female) were recruited and six (1.5%) had a cerebral aneurysm on angiography. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.4-82.6%), specificity was 99% (95% CI: 97.5-99.7%), PPV was 42.9% (95% CI: 10.4-81.3%) and NPV was 99.2% (95% CI: 97.8-99.8%). The combined approach had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 54.1-100%), specificity of 79.7% (95% CI: 75.4-83.5%), PPV of 6.8% (95% CI: 2.6-14.3%) and a NPV of 100% (95% CI: 98.8-100%). The sensitivity of the combined approach was not significantly different to that of visual inspection alone (p=0.25). Visual inspection had a significantly higher specificity than the combined approach (p<0.01). The combined approach detected more cases of aneurysmal SAH than visual inspection alone, however the difference in sensitivity was not statistically significant. Visual xanthochromia should prompt angiography because of a superior specificity and PPV. Due to its reduced sensitivity, caution should be applied when using only visual inspection of the supernatant. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid determination of lovastatin in the fermentation broth of Aspergillus terreus using dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Weng; Song, Hong-Ping; Leng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lovastatin, a hypocholesterolemic drug, is produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus terreus Thom (Trichocomaceae). High performance liquid chromatography is usually used to determine lovastatin in samples of the fermentation broth. However, this method is inconvenient and costly, especially in the context of high-throughput sample analysis. A direct and simple dual-wavelength ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for quantifying lovastatin in the fermentation broth of A. terreus was developed. A. terreus Z15-7 was used for all experiments. The liquid fermentation was conducted at 30 °C in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm for 15 d. Silica gel and neutral alumina column chromatography were used for the separation and purification of lovastatin from the fermentation broth. The limits of detection of lovastatin were 0.320 μg/ml in the lovastatin standard solution and 0.490 μg/ml in the fermentation broth sample and the limits of quantification of lovastatin were 1.265 μg/ml in the lovastatin standard solution and 3.955 μg/ml in the fermentation broth sample. The amounts of lovastatin in the fermentation broth ranged from 876.614 to 911.967 μg/ml, with relative standard deviations from 1.203 to 1.709%. The mean recoveries of lovastatin using silica gel and neutral alumina column chromatography were 84.2 ± 0.82 and 87.2 ± 0.21%, respectively. Dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry is a rapid, sensitive, accurate, and convenient method for quantifying lovastatin in fermentation broth. Neutral alumina column chromatography is more efficient than silica gel column chromatography for the purification and determination lovastatin using the developed dual-wavelength UV spectrophotometry method.

  19. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships.

  20. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid measurement of indocyanine green retention by pulse spectrophotometry: a validation study in 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tan To; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Yu, Wan Ching; Poon, Ronnie T P; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-06-01

    The indocyanine green (ICG) retention test is the most popular liver function test for selecting patients for major hepatectomy. Traditionally, it is done using spectrophotometry with serial blood sampling. The newly-developed pulse spectrophotometry is a faster alternative, but its accuracy on Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been well documented. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the LiMON(®), one of the pulse spectrophotometry systems, in measuring preoperative ICG retention in these patients and to devise an easy formula for conversion of the results so that they can be compared with classical literature records where ICG retention was measured by the traditional method. We measured the liver function of 70 Child-Pugh A cirrhotic patients before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma from September 2008 to January 2009. ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by traditional spectrophotometry (ICGR15) was compared with ICG retention at 15 minutes measured by the LiMON (ICGR15(L)). The median ICGR15 was 14.7% (5.6%-32%) and the median ICGR15(L) was 10.4% (1.2%-28%). The mean difference between them was -4.3606. There was a strong correlation between ICGR15 and ICGR15(L) (correlation coefficient, 0.844; 95% confidence interval, 0.762-0.899). The following formula was devised: ICGR15=1.16XICGR15(L)+2.73. The LiMON provides a fast and repeatable way to measure ICG retention at 15 minutes, but with constant underestimation of the real value. Therefore, when comparing results obtained by traditional spectrophotometry and the LiMON, adjustment of results from the latter is necessary, and this can be done with a simple mathematical calculation using the above formula.

  2. Cobalt internal standard for Ni to assist the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    de Babos, Diego Victor; Bechlin, Marcos André; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella

    2016-05-15

    A new method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS), employing direct solid sample analysis (DSS) and internal standardization (IS). Cobalt was used as internal standard to minimize matrix effects during Ni determinations, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9937. The performance of the method was checked by analysis of six plant certified reference materials, and the results for Mo and Ni were in agreement with the certified values (95% confidence level, t-test). Analysis was made of different types of plant materials used as renewable sources of energy, including sugarcane leaves, banana tree fiber, soybean straw, coffee pods, orange bagasse, peanut hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. The concentrations found for Mo and Ni ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 ng mg(-1) and from 0.41 to 6.92 ng mg(-1), respectively. Precision (RSD) varied from 2.1% to 11% for Mo and from 3.7% to 10% for Ni. Limits of quantification of 0.055 and 0.074 ng were obtained for Mo and Ni, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Ultra-trace Rhodium in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Cloud Point Extraction Using 2-(5-Iodo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Dimethylaminoaniline as a Chelating Agent.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan; Huo, Yanyan; Wu, Jiangyan; He, Yaping; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Longhu

    2017-03-24

    A highly sensitive method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium in water samples. A new reagent, 2-(5-iodo-2-pyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminoaniline (5-I-PADMA), was used as the chelating agent and the nonionic surfactant TritonX-114 was chosen as extractant. In a HAc-NaAc buffer solution at pH 5.5, Rh(III) reacts with 5-I-PADMA to form a stable chelate by heating in a boiling water bath for 10 min. Subsequently, the chelate is extracted into the surfactant phase and separated from bulk water. The factors affecting CPE were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-6.0 ng/mL, the detection limit was 0.023 ng/mL for rhodium and relative standard deviation was 3.67% ( c = 1.0 ng/mL, n = 11).The method has been applied to the determination of trace rhodium in water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. Themore » absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.« less

  5. Absorption of Orally Administered Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mamoru; Maeshima, Takuya; Kubota, Takumi; Kurihara, Hitoshi; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice. Oligosaccharide HA passed through excised large intestine sacs. Furthermore, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and polysaccharides HA were distributed to the skin of rats following oral administration of high molecular weight HA (300 kDa). The results of the study suggest that orally administered HA is degraded to oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria, and oligosaccharide HA is absorbed in the large intestine and is subsequently distributed throughout the tissues, including the skin.

  6. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  7. Imaging Spectrophotometry of the Jet/ISM Interaction in IC5063

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, G.; Schuft, B.; Morse, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2004-01-01

    IC5063 is a somewhat dusty z=0.0110 S0 galaxy with a Seyfert 2 nucleus. It has a triple radio source that spans 3 arcsec, mostly blueshifted H I absorption that spans 700 km/s, and ionization cones that extend for more than 2 arcmins. We obtained fully sampled [O III]\\lambda5007 grids at 0."9 and 70 km/s FWHM resolution using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot system on the Blanco 4m telescope. Complementary long-slit spectra using the RC spectrograph on the Blanco, and Taurus Tunable Filter spectral images in H\\alpha and [N II]\\lambda6583, were also obtained to assess gaseous ionization conditions. We present the results of our analysis, and correlate spectral structures to those visible in archival WFPC2 images. We find that, in the region near the radio triple, gaseous ionization and line velocity width is tightly correlated, in excellent quantitative agreement with the high-velocity shock regime in the diagnostic emission-line ratio diagrams of Dopita & Sutherland. We separate kinematically gas in normal disk rotation that is illuminated by the AGN in the ionization cones from that agitated mechanically by the jet, and assess the energy input from both processes.

  8. Flow injection spectrophotometry using natural reagent from Morinda citrifolia root for determination of aluminium in tea.

    PubMed

    Tontrong, Sopa; Khonyoung, Supada; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method with using natural reagent extracted from Morinda citrifolia root has been developed for determination of aluminium. The extract contained anthraquinone compounds which could react with Al(3+) to form reddish complexes which had maximum absorption wavelength at 499.0nm. The extract could be used as a reagent in FI system without further purification to obtain pure compound. A sensitive method for determination of aluminium in concentration range of 0.1-1.0mgL(-1), with detection limit of 0.05mgL(-1) was achieved. Relative standard deviations of 1.2% and 1.7% were obtained for the determination of 0.1 and 0.6mgL(-1) Al(3+) (n=11). Sample throughput of 35h(-1) was achieved with the consumption of 3mL each of carrier and reagent solutions per injection. The developed method was successfully applied to tea samples, validated by the FAAS standard method. The method is simple, fast, economical and could be classified as a greener analytical method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitation of Pyrantel Pamoate in Pharmaceuticals Using Permanganate by Visible Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-03-01

    Two simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for the assay of pyrantel pamoate (PP) in pharmaceuticals. The methods employ the oxidative property of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic and alkaline conditions. In the first method (method A), PP is converted into its free base, pyrantel (PR), and treated with known excess of KMnO4 in acidic condition followed by the measurement of unreacted KMnO4 at 550 nm. Method B is based on the registration of absorbance of green colored chromogen formed due to the reduction of KMnO4 by PP in alkaline condition. The methods obeyed Beer's law over a range of 1-20 μg/ml in inverse manner, and 0.75-15 μg/ml for method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 1.05ṡ104 and 2.85ṡ104 lṡmol-1ṡcm-1. The optical parameters such as limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), and the Sandell sensitivity values are also reported. The accuracy and precision of the methods are assessed on intra- and inter-day basis. A recovery study by standard addition procedure is also carried out for further assurance of accuracy. The developed methods are successfully applied to determine PP in tablets. The results are more satisfactory as per current ICH guidelines.

  10. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  11. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  12. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. An Inexpensive Optical Absorption Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2006-09-01

    This optical absorption experiment can be put together in only a few minutes with materials found in most secondary or undergraduate stockrooms. The absorption material is the partly transparent flexible anti-static plastic material used to package solid-state devices. The detector is a hand-held photographic exposure meter of the type that was in common use before the advent of point-and-shoot cameras. A graph of the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of the number of sheets of the material is a decreasing exponential. The emphasis of the experiment is on the mathematical form.

  14. Light absorption of organic carbon emitted from burning wood, charcoal, and kerosene in household cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingjie; Shen, Guofeng; Holder, Amara L; Hays, Michael D; Jetter, James J

    2018-05-02

    Household cookstove emissions are an important source of carbonaceous aerosols globally. The light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from cookstove emissions can impact the Earth's radiative balance, but is rarely investigated. In this work, PM 2.5 filter samples were collected during combustion experiments with red oak wood, charcoal, and kerosene in a variety of cookstoves mainly at two water boiling test phases (cold start CS, hot start HS). Samples were extracted in methanol and extracts were examined using spectrophotometry. The mass absorption coefficients (MAC λ , m 2 g -1 ) at five wavelengths (365, 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm) were mostly inter-correlated and were used as a measurement proxy for BrC. The MAC 365 for red oak combustion during the CS phase correlated strongly to the elemental carbon (EC)/OC mass ratio, indicating a dependency of BrC absorption on burn conditions. The emissions from cookstoves burning red oak have an average MAC λ 2-6 times greater than those burning charcoal and kerosene, and around 3-4 times greater than that from biomass burning measured in previous studies. These results suggest that residential cookstove emissions could contribute largely to ambient BrC, and the simulation of BrC radiative forcing in climate models for biofuel combustion in cookstoves should be treated specifically and separated from open biomass burning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin.

    PubMed

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-15

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2014-10-01

    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0 → S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.

  17. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  18. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  19. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  20. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  1. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  2. Spectrophotometry of Peculiar B-Stars and A-Stars - Part Nine - HD5797 HD12288 9-TAURI HD81009 HD111133 33-LIBRAE and HD216533

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, S. J.

    1981-02-01

    Optical region spectrophotometry of λλ3300-7100 is presented for seven sharp-lined peculiar A stars: HD 5797, HD 12288, 9 Tauri, HD 81009, HD 111133, 33 Librae, and HD 216533. Many of proposed periods in the literature are questioned. Some of the deviations from the predictions of normal stellar atmospheres suggest that such continua are only remotely related to those of peculiar A stars.

  3. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  4. Interaction of the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: in situ measurements of carbon monoxide binding by integrating cavity dual-beam spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rana, Namrata; McLean, Samantha; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that binds to haems, but also plays critical signalling and cytoprotective roles in mammalian systems; despite problems associated with systemic delivery by inhalation of the gas, it may be employed therapeutically. CO delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas; CO-RMs are also attractive candidates as novel antimicrobial agents. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans. Recent studies have implicated haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the protein that catalyses the degradation of haem into biliverdin, free iron and CO, in the host immune response to Salmonella infection. In several studies, CO administration via CO-RMs elicited many of the protective roles of HO-1 induction and so we investigated the effects of a well-characterized water-soluble CO-RM, Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3), on Salmonella. CORM-3 exhibits toxic effects at concentrations significantly lower than those reported to cause toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated here, through oxyhaemoglobin assays, that CORM-3 did not release CO spontaneously in phosphate buffer, buffered minimal medium or very rich medium. CORM-3 was, however, accumulated to high levels intracellularly (as shown by inductively coupled plasma MS) and released CO inside cells. Using growing Salmonella cultures without prior concentration, we showed for the first time that sensitive dual-beam integrating cavity absorption spectrophotometry can detect directly the CO released from CORM-3 binding in real-time to haems of the bacterial electron transport chain. The toxic effects of CO-RMs suggested potential applications as adjuvants to antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. The synthesis of corncobs (zea mays) active charcoal and water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes) adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) with it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Kurniastuti, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aim to examine the effect of the combination between corncobs and water hyacinth to adsorb lead (II), the most effective combination have determined by compared the ratio of corncobs adsorbent and water hyacinth to the increasing adsorption of the Pb(II), prove the effectiveness of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) to determine the levels of Pb(II) as the result of the corncobs active charcoal adsorption and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L. The research method used is experimental method. The data collecting technique is carried out by several stages, which are carbonization using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for 1.5 hours, activation of the corncobs charcoal and water hyacinth using HCl 1M and HCl 5M activator, contacting the adsorbent of corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation of corncobns and water hyacinth, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2, analysis of Pb(II) using an sps, characterization of corncobs active charcoal adsorbent and water hyacinth using FTIR. Research results show that the combined effect of activated charcoal corncobs and water hyacinth can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II), the optimum adsorbent mass ratio of 1:1 with the absorption level of 90.33%, SPS is an effective method to analyze the decreasing level of Pb(II) as the adsorbtion result of the corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg/L.

  6. Determination of carcinogenic herbicides in milk samples using green non-ionic silicone surfactant of cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Mohd, N I; Zain, N N M; Raoov, M; Mohamad, S

    2018-04-01

    A new cloud point methodology was successfully used for the extraction of carcinogenic pesticides in milk samples as a prior step to their determination by spectrophotometry. In this work, non-ionic silicone surfactant, also known as 3-(3-hydroxypropyl-heptatrimethylxyloxane), was chosen as a green extraction solvent because of its structure and properties. The effect of different parameters, such as the type of surfactant, concentration and volume of surfactant, pH, salt, temperature, incubation time and water content on the cloud point extraction of carcinogenic pesticides such as atrazine and propazine, was studied in detail and a set of optimum conditions was established. A good correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) in the range of 0.991-0.997 for all calibration curves was obtained. The limit of detection was 1.06 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 1.22 µg l -1 (propazine), and the limit of quantitation was 3.54 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 4.07 µg l -1 (propazine). Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 81-108% were determined in milk samples at 5 and 1000 µg l -1 , respectively, with low relative standard deviation, n  = 3 of 0.301-7.45% in milk matrices. The proposed method is very convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally friendly for food analysis.

  7. Episodes of apnea and bradycardia in the preterm newborn: impact on cerebral oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Huffel, Sabine; Craemers, Johan; Lenaerts, Bart; Daniels, Hans; Naulaers, Gunnar; Casaer, Paul

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of episodes of apneas and/or mild bradycardia (heart rate decreases of 10 to 20% or more) on cerebral oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and reduced hemoglobin (Hb) concentration as measured by Near Infrared Spectrophotometry (NIRS). Measurements were carried out on 7 preterm infants who experienced apneic and bradycardiac events. It is shown how to characterize these events using time-frequency analysis. In addition to NIRS (performed with a NIRO-500 from Hamamatsu, Japan), the heart rate, ECG, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (measured at the foot) and respiration (abdominal and thoracic pressure, and nasal airflow) were continuously recorded. The impact of apneic events and periodic breathing on these measurements reveals the clinical relevance of NIRS. In particular, we investigate whether these changes in heart rate and respiration also influence HbO2 and reduced Hb concentration in neonatal brain. These changes are characterized, as well as their relationships with the other simultaneously recorded signals such as peripheral arterial oxygen saturation.

  8. Can tissue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry help to identify patients at risk for wound healing disorders after neck dissection?

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Nils H; Flensberg, Sandra; Bauer, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Wales, Craig J; Koerdt, Steffen; Wolff, Klaus D; Hölzle, Frank; Steiner, Timm; Kesting, Marco R

    2014-03-01

    Microcirculation and oxygen supply in cervical skin were measured with an optical, noninvasive method in patients with or without radiotherapy before neck dissection. The course of wound healing was monitored after the surgical procedure to identify predictive factors for postoperative wound healing disorders. Tissue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry were used to determine capillary oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, blood flow, and blood velocity at 2-mm and 8-mm depths in the cervical skin of 91 patients before neck dissection in a maxillofacial unit of a university hospital in Munich, Germany. Parameters were evaluated for differences between patients with irradiation (24) and without (67) and patients with wound healing disorders (25) and without (66) (univariate or multivariate statistical analyses). Velocity at 2 mm was lower in irradiated skin (P = .016). Flow at 2 mm was higher in patients with wound healing disorders (P = .018). High flow values could help to identify patients at risk for cervical wound healing disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An optical investigation of dentinal discoloration due to commonly endodontic sealers, using the transmitted light polarizing microscopy and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Ioana; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Dimitriu, Bogdan Alexandru; Bartok, Ruxandra Ioana; Moldoveanu, Georgiana Florentina; Gheorghiu, Irina Maria; Suciu, Ileana; Ciocîrdel, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the degree of tooth crown staining by commonly used endodontic sealers. Crown discolorations by tooth canal sealers [AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); Endofill (Produits Dentaires SA, Vevey, Switzerland); Apexit (Dentsply DeTrey Gmbh, Konstanz, Germany); and MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil)] were tested on extracted human premolars. The samples were divided into five groups of five samples each, after root canal sealing. Five teeth were used as control groups. The spectrophotometric method was performed in order to quantify in terms of color change of the coronal part (it was also recorded a track on how the color changes over time). For the microscopic study of the extracted dental specimens subjected to this study, polarized transmitted light microscopy was used. This method involves the development of special microscopic preparations, called "thin sections". In our case, the thin section was performed on 20 prepared and obturated recently extracted teeth. The degree of discoloration was determined after one week and three months using spectrophotometry and polarized light microscopy. All sealers usually cause some degree of discoloration on the cervical aspect of the crowns that increases in time. AH Plus and Endofill caused the greatest discoloration, followed by Apexit and MTA Fillapex.

  10. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra Maciel; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis-β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (red-fleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity and induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation with near infrared spectrophotometry: a retrospective cohort study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Siebenthal, K.; Keel, M.; Dietz, V.; Fauchere, J. C.; Martin, X.; Wolf, Martin; Duc, G.; Bucher, H. U.

    1996-10-01

    Near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the neonatal brain. Using oxygen as a tracer, it is possible to calculate cerebral blood flow (cbf) and hemoglobin concentration (cHbc), which corresponds to cerebral blood volume, by inducing small changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Variability of tcpO2 is considered to be associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A preliminary analysis without control found a 51 percent incidence of ROP in infants subjected to NIRS measurements whereas among infants who were not exposed to oxygen changes, only 29 percent developed ROP. A controlled study with matched pairs was performed. Thirty-nine premature newborns who had received NIRS recordings were matched with 39 out of 172 infants who had not received NIRS. Using this controlled study design there was no difference in the incidence and severity of ROP between the two groups. The conclusions are that: 1) small changes in oxygen saturation of 3 to 10 percent to measure cbf and cHbc did not increase the incidence or the degree of severity of ROP. 2) A controlled study design is important. Analyses of uncontrolled data would have led to the conclusion that oxygen changes as used with NIRS increase the risk of ROP.

  12. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and chemometric analysis as tools for carotenoids analysis in cassava genotypes (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rodolfo; Uarrota, Virgílio G; Pereira, Aline; Tomazzoli, Maíra; Nunes, Eduardo da C; Martins Peruch, Luiz Augusto; Gazzola, Jussara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the metabolomics characterization focusing on the carotenoid composition of ten cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes cultivated in southern Brazil by UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography was performed. Cassava roots rich in β-carotene are an important staple food for populations with risk of vitamin A deficiency. Cassava genotypes with high pro-vitamin A activity have been identified as a strategy to reduce the prevalence of deficiency of this vitamin. The data set was used for the construction of a descriptive model by chemometric analysis. The genotypes of yellow-fleshed roots were clustered by the higher concentrations of cis- β-carotene and lutein. Inversely, cream-fleshed roots genotypes were grouped precisely due to their lower concentrations of these pigments, as samples rich in lycopene (redfleshed) differed among the studied genotypes. The analytical approach (UV-Vis, HPLC, and chemometrics) used showed to be efficient for understanding the chemodiversity of cassava genotypes, allowing to classify them according to important features for human health and nutrition.

  14. Catalysis of CO₂ absorption in aqueous solution by inorganic oxoanions and their application to post combustion capture.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duong T; Maeder, Marcel; Burns, Robert C; Puxty, Graeme

    2014-04-15

    To reduce CO2 emission into the atmosphere, particularly from coal-fired power stations, post combustion capture (PCC) using amine-based solvents to chemically absorb CO2 has been extensively developed. From an infrastructure viewpoint, the faster the absorption of CO2, the smaller the absorber required. The use of catalysts for this process has been broadly studied. In this manuscript, a study of the catalytic efficiencies of inorganic oxoanions such as arsenite, arsenate, phosphite, phosphate, and borate is described. The kinetics of the accelerated CO2 absorption at 25 °C was investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The catalytic rate constants of these anions for the reaction of CO2 with H2O were determined to be 137.7(3), 30.3(7), 69(2), 32.7(9), and 13.66(7) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. A new mechanism for the catalytic reaction of oxoanions with CO2 has also been proposed. The applicability of these catalysts to PCC was further studied by simulation of the absorption process under PCC conditions using their experimental catalytic rate constants. Arsenite and phosphite were confirmed to be the best catalysts for CO2 capture. However, considering the toxicological effect of arsenic and the oxidative instability of phosphite, phosphate would be the most promising inorganic catalyst for PCC process from the series of inorganic oxoanions studied.

  15. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  16. Ultraviolet absorption experiment MA-059

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Anderson, J.; Kaufman, F.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet absorption experiment performed during the Apollo Soyuz mission involved sending a beam of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen resonance radiation, strong unabsorbable oxygen and nitrogen radiation, and visual radiation, all filling the same 3 deg-wide field of view from the Apollo to the Soyuz. The radiation struck a retroreflector array on the Soyuz and was returned to a spectrometer onboard the Apollo. The density of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen between the two spacecraft was measured by observing the amount of resonance radiation absorbed when the line joining Apollo and Soyuz was perpendicular to their velocity with respect to the ambient atmosphere. Information concerning oxygen densities was also obtained by observation of resonantly fluorescent light. The absorption experiments for atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were successfully performed at a range of 500 meters, and abundant resonance fluorescence data were obtained.

  17. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  18. AERONET derived (BC) aerosol absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.

    2015-12-01

    AERONET is a ground-based sun-/sky-photometer network with good annual statistics at more than 400 sites worldwide. Inversion methods applied to these data define all relevant column aerosol optical properties and reveal even microphysical detail. The extracted data include estimates for aerosol size-distributions and for aerosol refractive indices at four different solar wavelengths. Hereby, the imaginary parts of the refractive indices define the aerosol column absorption. For regional and global averages and radiative impact assessment with off-line radiative transfer, these local data have been extended with distribution patterns offered by AeroCom modeling experiments. Annual and seasonal absorption distributions for total aerosol and estimates for component contributions (such as BC) are presented and associated direct forcing impacts are quantified.

  19. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  20. Absorption characteristics of forest fire particulate matter

    Treesearch

    E.M. Patterson; Charles K. McMahon

    1984-01-01

    Abstract. Absorption properties of smokes from laboratory fires that represent prescription hums in the Southern states have been quantified to relate variations in measured absorption parameters to variation in fire conditions and to estimate emission factors for elemental carbon. Results showed significant differences in absorption of the smoke...

  1. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  2. Acquiring Sediment and Element Compositional Changes Based on a Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry Technology from Cores Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H. J.; Chen, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy summer monsoon rainfall along with typhoon-induced extreme precipitation cause frequent geological hazards that often threaten the human's safety and property in Taiwan. These geological hazards can be triggered by both natural factors, and/or have become deteriorated by perturbations from more and more human activities ever since few thousand years ago. However, due to the limit of instrumental records for observing long-term environmental changes in Taiwan, few evidence exist for distinguishing the human-induced impacts from natural climate change. Here we report a study on a high quality marine sediment core (MD103264) which were retrieved from the high sedimentation rate area from offshore southwestern Taiwan and present evidence for the long-term climate and possibly human-induced environmental changes since the last glacial. We are using the VIS-NIR Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry (DRS) methods to study the cores. Interpreting the VIS-NIR reflectance spectra through the VARIMAX-rotation, principle component analysis (VPCA) helps conducting rapid and inexpensive measurements for acquiring high-resolution biogenic component, clay, and iron oxide mineral compositional data from the cores. We are also using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, which is also useful in determining the element compositional changes in the core. Our studies aim toward understanding the sediment and element compositional changes that reflect the patterns of changes in precipitation and soil erosion on land since the last glacial to the Holocene, during which the human activities (deforestation, agriculture, and land uses change) may have increased drastically. We will report and interpret the preliminary results of the optical analyses of the core.

  3. Determination of the unsulfonated color concentration from D&C Yellow No. 10 by the derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdie, A. D.; Jitian, S.

    2018-01-01

    The method that we used is based on the measurement of the first derivative of the mixture of the two colorants at the wavelength for which one of them has the first derivative equal to zero. The Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 74.1710) specifies for D&C Yellow No. 10 the maximum permitted levels of an unsulfonated subsidiary color and of diethyl ether-soluble matter other than that specified. In the proposed method a color additive sample is dissolved in water and the unsulfonated subsidiary color are extracted from this solution with dichloromethane. The analysts in dichloromethane solution are determined by spectrophotometry. The unsulfonated subsidiary colors determined are: - D&C Yellow No. 11 [2-(2-Quinolinyl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione] (Y11), from which D&C Yellow No. 10 is manufactured by sulfonating and - 1,5-Naphthyridinequinophthalone (1,5-NQ). Another compound soluble in water and dichloromethane (which I called S) is present in dichloromethane solution after extraction together with the other two colors and can affect the correct determination of the concentrations. The dichloromethane-soluble matter other than specified is a mixture consisting mostly of chlorinated derivatives of the unsulfonated subsidiary color. Because the S color is present both in aqueous and in dichloromethane solutions, the spectra of calibration solutions should be corrected. The applied correction does not affect the determination of the unsulfonated subsidiary colors concentrations. D&C Yellow No. 11 and 1,5-NQ are used as standard for unsulfonated subsidiary colors.

  4. NEUTRON ABSORPTION AND SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Axelrad, I.R.

    1960-06-21

    A neutron absorption and shielding device is described which is adapted for mounting in a radiation shielding wall surrounding a radioactive area through which instrumentation leads and the like may safely pass without permitting gamma or neutron radiation to pass to the exterior. The shielding device comprises a container having at least one nonrectilinear tube or passageway means extending therethrough, which is adapted to contain instrumentation leads or the like, a layer of a substance capable of absorbing gamma rays, and a solid resinous composition adapted to attenuate fast-moving neutrons and capture slow- moving or thermal neutrons.

  5. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  7. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  8. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-12-13

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility.

  9. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process. PMID:26120588

  10. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-05-20

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  11. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  12. Percutaneous absorption of selenium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, J.; Skelly, E.M.; Weber, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine selenium levels in the urine of Tinea patients before and after overnight application of a 2.5% selenium sulfide lotion. Selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Hydride generation and carbon rod atomization were studied. It was concluded from this study that selenium is absorbed through intact skin. Selenium is then excreted, at least partially, in urine, for at least a week following treatment. The data show that absorption and excretion of selenium vary on an individual basis. Selenium levels in urine following a single application of selenium sulfide lotion do notmore » indicate that toxic amounts of selenium are being absorbed. Repeated treatments with SeS/sub 2/ result in selenium concentrations in urine which are significantly higher than normal. Significant matrix effects are observed in the carbon rod atomization of urine samples for selenium determinations, even in the presence of a matrix modifier such as nickel. The method of standard additions is required to obtain accurate results in the direct determination of selenium in urine by carbon rod AAS.« less

  13. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  14. QED-driven laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Blackburn, T.; Ratan, N.; Sadler, J.; Ridgers, C.; Kasim, M.; Ceurvorst, L.; Holloway, J.; Baring, M.; Bell, A.; Glenzer, S.; Gregori, G.; Ilderton, A.; Marklund, M.; Tabak, M.; Wilks, S.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Absorption covers the physical processes which convert intense photon flux into energetic particles when a high-power laser (I >1018 W cm-2 where I is intensity at 1 μm wavelength) illuminates optically-thick matter. It underpins important applications of petawatt laser systems today, e.g., in isochoric heating of materials. Next-generation lasers such as ELI are anticipated to produce quantum electrodynamical (QED) bursts of γ-rays and anti-matter via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process which could enable scaled laboratory probes, e.g., of black hole winds. Here, applying strong-field QED to advances in plasma kinematic theory, we present a model elucidating absorption limited only by an avalanche of self-created electron-positron pairs at ultra-high-field. The model, confirmed by multidimensional QED-PIC simulations, works over six orders of magnitude in optical intensity and reveals this cascade is initiated at 1.8 x 1025 W cm-2 using a realistic linearly-polarized laser pulse. Here the laser couples its energy into highly-collimated electrons, ions, γ-rays, and positrons at 12%, 6%, 58% and 13% efficiency, respectively. We remark on attributes of the QED plasma state and possible applications.

  15. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  16. In situ, rapid, and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto lignocellulosic substrates by UV-vis spectrophotometry

    Treesearch

    Hao Liu; J. Y. Zhu; X. S. Chai

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated two in situ UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for rapid and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulase protein absorption peak at 280 nm was used for quantification. The spectral interferences from light scattering by small fibers (fines) and...

  17. Oxygen absorption in free-standing porous silicon: a structural, optical and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Rodolfo; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Wang, Chumin

    2010-01-16

    Porous silicon (PSi) is a nanostructured material possessing a huge surface area per unit volume. In consequence, the adsorption and diffusion of oxygen in PSi are particularly important phenomena and frequently cause significant changes in its properties. In this paper, we study the thermal oxidation of p+-type free-standing PSi fabricated by anodic electrochemical etching. These free-standing samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetry, atomic force microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The results show a structural phase transition from crystalline silicon to a combination of cristobalite and quartz, passing through amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon-oxide structures, when the thermal oxidation temperature increases from 400 to 900 °C. Moreover, we observe some evidence of a sinterization at 400 °C and an optimal oxygen-absorption temperature about 700 °C. Finally, the UV/Visible spectrophotometry reveals a red and a blue shift of the optical transmittance spectra for samples with oxidation temperatures lower and higher than 700 °C, respectively.

  18. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  19. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  20. Sound absorption with green materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  1. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  2. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  3. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  5. Studies on the oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H2O2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in alcohol-water medium by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huiling; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Xiwen; Shen, Hanxi

    2006-03-01

    An oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H(2)O(2) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry in the alcohol(methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol)-water mutual solubility system. Compared with the enzymatic-catalyzed reaction in the water medium, the fluorescence intensities of the product weakened, even extinguished. Because the addition of alcohols made the conformation of HRP change, the catalytic reaction shifted to the side of polymerization and the polymer (A(n)H(2), n>or=3) exhibited no fluorescence. The four alcohols cannot deactivate HRP. Moreover isopropanol activated HRP remarkably.

  6. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    PubMed

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  7. On pulsating cosmic /radio/ noise absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that some absorption events measured on riometers are actually due to backscatter of cosmic radio noise by E-region plasma waves (D'Angelo, 1976, 1978; D'Angelo and Mehta, 1980). Assuming that DC or nearly DC absorption is a viable process, it is shown that it may also be operative in producing pulsations in cosmic noise absorption on riometers, with periods ranging from a few seconds to several minutes.

  8. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    not observed at low energy level , are developed at high power levels . No matter how low the absorption is. the effect is objectionable at high-energy... levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...Presence of impurities can complicate the exponential tail. particularly at low absorption levels . The impurities may enter 12 the lattice singly or

  9. Spectrophotometry of Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Hanisch, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Postperihelion observations of Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) have been made with a Fourier transform spectrometer at heliocentric distances from 0.57 to 1.68 AU. Measurements were made of the emission bands of C2, CN, C3, CH, and NH2, as well as the emission lines of Na D and forbidden (O I), and the flux in the continuum in nine different bandpasses. Several ratios of the band strengths of CN have been used to determine the two free parameters in the fluorescence equilibrium model of CN of Danks and Arpigny (1973). From the values of the parameters it is inferred that the vibrational transition probability for the ground electronic state is between 0.025 and 0.075 per sec and that the ratio of oscillator strengths between the (0-0) bands of the violet and red systems is between 25 and 30. When corrected for field-of-view effects, NH2 shows no systematic variation in abundance relative to C2 while CH shows a small increase. The cometary continuum is found to be slightly redder than the solar continuum, consistent with results for other bright, dusty comets. The equivalent width of the Delta u = 0 sequence of C2 shows a marked decrease at r(H) = 1.2 AU.

  10. Application of derivative spectrophotometry under orthogonal polynomial at unequal intervals: determination of metronidazole and nystatin in their pharmaceutical mixture.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Abdine, Heba H; Ragab, Marwa A A; Aboras, Sara I

    2015-05-15

    This paper discusses a general method for the use of orthogonal polynomials for unequal intervals (OPUI) to eliminate interferences in two-component spectrophotometric analysis. In this paper, a new approach was developed by using first derivative D1 curve instead of absorbance curve to be convoluted using OPUI method for the determination of metronidazole (MTR) and nystatin (NYS) in their mixture. After applying derivative treatment of the absorption data many maxima and minima points appeared giving characteristic shape for each drug allowing the selection of different number of points for the OPUI method for each drug. This allows the specific and selective determination of each drug in presence of the other and in presence of any matrix interference. The method is particularly useful when the two absorption spectra have considerable overlap. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest that the method can be widely applied to similar problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NARROW LINE ABSORPTION IN CACO3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARBONATES), (*CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, (*ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CALCITE), (*CALCITE, RADIATION EFFECTS), ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE, SINGLE CRYSTALS , NEUTRONS, X RAYS, GAMMA RAYS, IONS, CRYSTAL DEFECTS, PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE.

  12. Validation of methods on formalin testing in tofu and determination of 3,5-diacetyl-dihydrolutidine stability by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Pribadi, Rizki Maulana

    2017-12-01

    Formalin is a food preservative that is prohibited by the government, but the abuse of these chemicals is still widely found. The presence of formalin can be detected by using a typical reagent that can ensure the presence of formaldehyde qualitatively and quantitatively. This research was conducted to validate the method of determining formalin in tofu by using Nash reagent in UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The addition of Nash reagent will lead to the formation of diacetyldihydrolutidin complex. The study was performed by stability test of deacetyldihydrolutidine complex against time and pH. Validation of methods for formalin testing in tofu with diacetyldihydrolutidine by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that 3,5-diacetyl-dihydrolutidine complex is stable at pH of 7 and stable in the range of 70-120 minutes. The validation shows that the method gives good precision and accuracy of 83.78%. The method has the limit of detection of 1.3681 µg/mL, limit of quantification of 4,5603 µg/mL, and the estimated uncertainty of measurement of 1.30 µg/mL. The test showed that the tofu contained formalin 3.09 ± 1.30 µg/mL. These values provide information that this method can be used as a procedure for the determination of formalin on tofu.

  13. Objective evaluation by reflectance spectrophotometry can be of clinical value for the verification of blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Eila; Fossum, Bjöörn; Berg, Elisabeth; Lindholm, Christina; Stark, André

    2014-08-01

    Early detection of non blanching erythema (pressure ulcer category I) is necessary to prevent any further skin damage. An objective method to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema is presently not available. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if a non invasive objective method could differentiate between blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Seventy-eight patients were included. The sacral area of all patients was assessed using (i) conventional finger-press test and (ii) digital reading of the erythema index assessed with reflectance spectrophotometry. The patients were examined at admission and during 5 days postsurgery. Reflectance spectrophotometry measurements proved able to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema. The reliability, quantified by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was excellent between repeated measurements over the measurement period, varying between 0·82 and 0·96, and a significant change was recorded in the areas from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0·0001). The value from the reference point did not show any significant changes over the same period (P = 0·32). An objective method proven to identify early pressure damage to tissue can be a valuable tool in clinical practice. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-03

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry for detection of formazan in in vitro Reconstructed human Tissue (RhT)-based test methods employing the MTT-reduction assay to expand their applicability to strongly coloured test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Barroso, J; De Smedt, A; De Wever, B; Hibatallah, J; Klaric, M; Mewes, K R; Millet, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; Templier, M; McNamee, P

    2015-06-01

    A number of in vitro test methods using Reconstructed human Tissues (RhT) are regulatory accepted for evaluation of skin corrosion/irritation. In such methods, test chemical corrosion/irritation potential is determined by measuring tissue viability using the photometric MTT-reduction assay. A known limitation of this assay is possible interference of strongly coloured test chemicals with measurement of formazan by absorbance (OD). To address this, Cosmetics Europe evaluated use of HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry as an alternative formazan measurement system. Using the approach recommended by the FDA guidance for validation of bio-analytical methods, three independent laboratories established and qualified their HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry systems to reproducibly measure formazan from tissue extracts. Up to 26 chemicals were then tested in RhT test systems for eye/skin irritation and skin corrosion. Results support that: (1) HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry formazan measurement is highly reproducible; (2) formazan measurement by HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry and OD gave almost identical tissue viabilities for test chemicals not exhibiting colour interference nor direct MTT reduction; (3) independent of the test system used, HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry can measure formazan for strongly coloured test chemicals when this is not possible by absorbance only. It is therefore recommended that HPLC/UPLC-spectrophotometry to measure formazan be included in the procedures of in vitro RhT-based test methods, irrespective of the test system used and the toxicity endpoint evaluated to extend the applicability of these test methods to strongly coloured chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  17. Do Atoms Really "Emit" Absorption Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Presents three absorption line sources that enhance student understanding of the phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter and help dispel the misconception that atoms "emit" absorption lines. Sources include neodymium, food coloring and other common household liquids, and fluorescent materials. (MDH)

  18. Absorption of sound by tree bark

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; L. D. Frank; O. H. McDaniel

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a standing wave tube to measure the acoustic absorption of normally incident sound by the bark of six species of trees. Twelve bark samples, 10 cm in diameter, were tested. Sound of seven frequencies between 400 and 1600 Hz was used in the measurements. Absorption was generally about 5 percent; it exceeded 10 percent for only three...

  19. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  20. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  1. Iron absorption from intrinsically-labeled lentils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low iron (Fe) absorption from important staple foods may contribute to Fe deficiency in developing countries. To date, there are few studies examining the Fe bioavailability of pulse crops as commonly prepared and consumed by humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the Fe absorpt...

  2. Nonlinear Absorption and Heating of Dense Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    plasma focus both illuminated by a high intensity CO2 laser. Results indicate the previously noted increases in absorption due to the inclusion of the nonlinear saturation mechanism. The previously obtained increases in absorption with increasing density scale height and decreasing temperatures are also recovered. The

  3. High-Absorptance Radiative Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cafferty, T.

    1983-01-01

    Absorptance of black-painted open-cell aluminum honeycomb improved by cutting honeycomb at angle or bias rather than straight across. This ensures honeycomb cavities escapes. At each reflection radiation attenuated by absorption. Applications include space-background simulators, space radiators, solar absorbers, and passive coolers for terrestrial use.

  4. Food Ingredients That Inhibit Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jesch, Elliot D.; Carr, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols, soluble fibers, phospholipids, and stearic acid. PMID:28702423

  5. Persistent sample circulation microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for trace determination of heavy metals in fish species marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Safari, Yahya; Karimaei, Mostafa; Sharafi, Kiomars; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Moradi, Masoud; Fattahi, Nazir

    2018-06-01

    Persistent sample circulation microextraction (PSCME) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed as a high pre-concentration technique for the determination of heavy metals in fish species. In this method, a few microliters of organic solvent (40.0 µL carbon tetrachloride) was transferred to the bottom of a conical sample cup. Then 10.0 mL of aqueous solution was transformed to fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. At this stage, metal-ligand hydrophobic complex was extracted into the organic solvent. After extraction, 20 µL of extraction solvent was injected into the graphite tube using an auto-sampler. Under optimal conditions, enrichment factors and enhancement factor were in the range of 180-240 and 155-214, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.03-200 µg kg -1 and the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.01-0.05 µg kg -1 . Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) for 0.50 µg L -1 Hg and 0.10 µg L -1 Cd and Pb were in the range of 3.1-4.2% (n = 7) and 4.3-6.1% (n = 7), respectively. Potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating fish and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. EWI data for the studied metals through fish consumption were lower than the PTWI values. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  7. Monitoring Telluric Absorption with CAMAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ashley D.; Blake, Cullen H.; Sliski, David H.

    2017-08-01

    Ground-based astronomical observations may be limited by telluric water vapor absorption, which is highly variable in time and significantly complicates both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the sensitivity required to detect Earth-sized exoplanets in the NIR, simultaneous monitoring of precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of variable telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive six-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins. CAMAL utilizes three narrowband NIR filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. Here, we present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our data analysis methods, and show results from 11 nights of PWV measurements taken with CAMAL. For seven nights of data we have independent PWV measurements extracted from high-resolution stellar spectra taken with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrometer (TRES) also located on Mount Hopkins. We use the TRES spectra to calibrate the CAMAL absolute PWV scale. Comparisons between CAMAL and TRES PWV estimates show excellent agreement, matching to within 1 mm over a 10 mm range in PWV. Analysis of CAMAL’s photometric precision propagates to PWV measurements precise to better than 0.5 mm in dry (PWV < 4 mm) conditions. We also find that CAMAL-derived PWVs are highly correlated with those from a GPS-based water vapor monitor located approximately 90 km away at Kitt Peak National Observatory, with a root mean square PWV difference of 0.8 mm.

  8. Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Naixing; Qi Ping

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml ofmore » Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.« less

  9. Variance of transionospheric VLF wave power absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Bortnik, J.; Friedrich, M.

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effects of D-region electron-density variance on wave power absorption, we calculate the power reduction of very low frequency (VLF) waves propagating through the ionosphere with a full wave method using the standard ionospheric model IRI and in situ observational data. We first verify the classic absorption curves of Helliwell's using our full wave code. Then we show that the IRI model gives overall smaller wave absorption compared with Helliwell's. Using D-region electron densities measured by rockets during the past 60 years, we demonstrate that the power absorption of VLF waves is subject to large variance, even though Helliwell's absorption curves are within ±1 standard deviation of absorption values calculated from data. Finally, we use a subset of the rocket data that are more representative of the D region of middle- and low-latitude VLF wave transmitters and show that the average quiet time wave absorption is smaller than that of Helliwell's by up to 100 dB at 20 kHz and 60 dB at 2 kHz, which would make the model-observation discrepancy shown by previous work even larger. This result suggests that additional processes may be needed to explain the discrepancy.

  10. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  11. Glucose absorption in acute peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Podel, J; Hodelin-Wetzel, R; Saha, D C; Burns, G

    2000-04-01

    During acute peritoneal dialysis (APD), it is known that glucose found in the dialysate solution contributes to the provision of significant calories. It has been well documented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that glucose absorption occurs. In APD, however, it remains unclear how much glucose absorption actually does occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether it is appropriate to use the formula used to calculate glucose absorption in CAPD (Grodstein et al) among patients undergoing APD. Actual measurements of glucose absorption (Method I) were calculated in 9 patients undergoing APD treatment for >24 hours who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Glucose absorption using the Grodstein et al formula (Method II) was also determined and compared with the results of actual measurements. The data was then further analyzed based on the factors that influence glucose absorption, specifically dwell time and concentration. The mean total amount of glucose absorbed was 43% +/- 15%. However, when dwell time and concentration were further examined, significant differences were noted. Method I showed a cumulative increase over time. Method II showed that absorption was fixed. This suggests that with the variation in dwell time commonly seen in the acute care setting, the use of Method II may not be accurate. In each of the 2 methods, a significant difference in glucose absorption was noted when comparing the use of 1.5% and 4.25% dialysate concentrations. The established formula designed for CAPD should not be used for calculating glucose absorption in patients receiving APD because variation in dwell time and concentration should be taken into account. Because of the time constraints and staffing required to calculate each exchange individually, combined with the results of the study, we recommend the use of the percentage estimate of 40% to 50%.

  12. Absorption rates and free radical scavenging values of vitamin C-lipid metabolites in human lymphoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin S; Perez, Pedro P

    2007-10-01

    In this study we investigated the cellular absorption rates, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites. The absorption was measured in a human lymphoblastic cell line using a spectrophotometric technique. Cellular vitamin C levels in the human lymphoblastic H9 cell line were measured using the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine spectrophotometric technique. Free radical scavenging activity of vitamin C-lipid metabolites was measured by the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine. Vitamin C-lipid metabolite scavenging of peroxyl radical oxygen reactive species (ORAC) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compared to ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA), and calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C), vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) were more rapidly absorbed by the H9 human T-lymphocytes. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) also reduced pesticide-induced T-lymphocyte aggregation by 84%, while calcium ascorbate-calcium threonate-dehydroascorbate (Ester-C) reduced aggregation by only 34%. The vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) demonstrated free radical scavenging activity of nearly 100% reduction of DPPH at 20 microg/ml and oxygen radical scavenging of over 1200 micro Trolox equivalents per gram. These data demonstrate that the vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are more rapidly taken-up and absorbed by cells than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C. This increased rate of absorption correlates with an increased protection of the T-lymphocytes from pesticide toxicities. Further, vitamin C-lipid metabolites (PureWay-C) are a potent antioxidant and have significant free radical scavenging capabilities.

  13. In vitro study of percutaneous absorption of aluminum from antiperspirants through human skin in the Franz™ diffusion cell.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Guillard, Olivier; Favreau, Frédéric; Marty, Marie-Hélène; Gaudin, Angeline; Vincent, Claire Marie; Marrauld, Annie; Fauconneau, Bernard; Marty, Jean-Paul

    2012-05-01

    Aluminum salts such as aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) are known for use as an active antiperspirant agent that blocks the secretion of sweat. A local case report of hyperaluminemia in a woman using an aluminum-containing antiperspirant for 4 years raises the problem of transdermal absorption of aluminum (Al). Only a very limited number of studies have shown that the skin is an effective barrier to transdermal uptake of Al. In accordance with our analytical procedure, the aim of this study with an in vitro Franz™ diffusion cell was to measure aluminum uptake from three cosmetic formulations of antiperspirant: the base for an "aerosol" (38.5% of ACH), a "roll-on" emulsion (14.5% ACH), and a "stick" (21.2%), by samples of intact and stripped human skin (5 donors). The Al assays were performed by Zeeman Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (ZEAAS). Following contacts lasting 6, 12 and 24h, the Al assays showed only insignificant transdermal absorption of Al (≤0.07% of the quantity of Al deposited) and particularly low cutaneous quantities that varied according to the formulations (1.8 μg/cm² for "aerosol base" and "stick" - 0.5 μg/cm² for the "roll-on"). On stripped skin, for which only the "stick" formulation was tested, the measured uptake was significantly higher (11.50 μg/cm² versus 1.81 μg/cm² for normal skin). These results offer reassurance as regards to the use of antiperspirants for topical application of ACH-containing cosmetic formulations on healthy skin over a limited time span (24h). On the other hand, high transdermal Al uptake on stripped skin should compel antiperspirant manufacturers to proceed with the utmost caution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological absorption. Affect investment in marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fabian, W D; Fishkin, S M

    1991-01-01

    Absorption (a trait capacity for total attentional involvement) was reported to increase during episodes of marijuana intoxication. Several subsets of the absorption scale items specifically characterized marijuana intoxication, and groups of users and nonusers showed differential affective involvement with these experiences. Additionally, within the drug-using group, a positive correlation between frequency of marijuana use and affective ratings of these experiences was found. The findings support the hypothesis that a specific type of alteration in consciousness that enhances capacity for total attentional involvement (absorption) characterizes marijuana intoxication, and that this enhancement may act as a reinforcer, possibly influencing future use.

  15. The effect of tea on iron absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Torrance, J D; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

    1975-01-01

    The effect of tea on iron absorption was studied in human volunteers. Absorption from solutions of FeCl3 and FeSO4, bread, a meal of rice with potato and onion soup, and uncooked haemoglobin was inhibited whether ascorbic acid was present or not. No inhibition was noted if the haemoglobin was cooked. The effect on the absorption of non-haem iron was ascribed to the formation of insoluble iron tannate complexes. Drinking tannin-containing beverages such as tea with meals may contribute to the pathogenesis of iron deficiency if the diet consists largely of vegetable foodstuffs. PMID:1168162

  16. Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-06-01

    As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.

  17. Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng

    2014-11-17

    We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.

  18. Nonlinear absorption properties of silicene nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Mengxia; Wang, Zhengping; Han, Kezhen; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xinguang

    2018-06-01

    As the cousins of graphene, i.e. same group IVA element, the nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of silicene nanosheets were rarely studied. In this paper, we successfully exfoliated the two-dimensional silicene nanosheets from bulk silicon crystal using liquid phase exfoliation method. The NLA properties of silicene nanosheets were systemically investigated for the first time, as we have known. Silicene performed exciting saturable absorption and two photon absorption (2PA) behavior. The lower saturable intensity and larger 2PA coefficient at 532 nm excitation indicates that silicene has potential application in ultrafast lasers and optical limiting devices, especially in visible waveband.

  19. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  20. Simultaneous determination of benznidazole and itraconazole using spectrophotometry applied to the analysis of mixture: A tool for quality control in the development of formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, Ludmila A. G.; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C. L.; Infante, Carlos M. C.; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the development of an analytical procedure using spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of benznidazole (BNZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) in a medicine used for the treatment of Chagas disease. In order to achieve this goal, the analysis of mixtures was performed applying the Lambert-Beer law through the absorbances of BNZ and ITZ in the wavelengths 259 and 321 nm, respectively. Diverse tests were carried out for development and validation of the method, which proved to be selective, robust, linear, and precise. The lower limits of detection and quantification demonstrate its sensitivity to quantify small amounts of analytes, enabling its application for various analytical purposes, such as dissolution test and routine assays. In short, the quantification of BNZ and ITZ by analysis of mixtures had shown to be efficient and cost-effective alternative for determination of these drugs in a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  1. A methodological approach to study the stability of selected watercolours for painting reintegration, through reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelosi, Claudia; Capobianco, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Morresi, Fabio; Rossi, Sara; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the stability to simulated solar radiation of some paintings samples through a new methodological approach adopting non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. In particular, commercial watercolours and iron oxide based pigments were used, these last ones being prepared for the experimental by gum Arabic in order to propose a possible substitute for traditional reintegration materials. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Hyperspectral Imaging in the short wave infrared were chosen as non-invasive techniques for evaluation the stability to irradiation of the chosen pigments. These were studied before and after artificial ageing procedure performed in Solar Box chamber under controlled conditions. Data were treated and elaborated in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the chosen techniques in identifying the variations on paint layers, induced by photo-degradation, before they could be observed by eye. Furthermore a supervised classification method for monitoring the painted surface changes adopting a multivariate approach was successfully applied.

  2. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  3. Simultaneous determination of benznidazole and itraconazole using spectrophotometry applied to the analysis of mixture: A tool for quality control in the development of formulations.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ludmila A G; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Infante, Carlos M C; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was the development of an analytical procedure using spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of benznidazole (BNZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) in a medicine used for the treatment of Chagas disease. In order to achieve this goal, the analysis of mixtures was performed applying the Lambert-Beer law through the absorbances of BNZ and ITZ in the wavelengths 259 and 321 nm, respectively. Diverse tests were carried out for development and validation of the method, which proved to be selective, robust, linear, and precise. The lower limits of detection and quantification demonstrate its sensitivity to quantify small amounts of analytes, enabling its application for various analytical purposes, such as dissolution test and routine assays. In short, the quantification of BNZ and ITZ by analysis of mixtures had shown to be efficient and cost-effective alternative for determination of these drugs in a pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comparative study between derivative spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools applied for the simultaneous quantitation of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Hany W; Hassan, Said A; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2013-09-01

    Four simple, accurate and specific methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine (AML), Valsartan (VAL) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in commercial tablets. The derivative spectrophotometric methods include Derivative Ratio Zero Crossing (DRZC) and Double Divisor Ratio Spectra-Derivative Spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS) methods, while the multivariate calibrations used are Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). The proposed methods were applied successfully in the determination of the drugs in laboratory-prepared mixtures and in commercial pharmaceutical preparations. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The linearity of the proposed methods is investigated in the range of 2-32, 4-44 and 2-20 μg/mL for AML, VAL and HCT, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SEM/EDX and vis spectrophotometry study of the stability of resin-bound mortars used for casting replicas and filling missing parts of historic stone fountains.

    PubMed

    Roig-Salom, José-Luis; Doménech-Carbó, María-Teresa; de la Cruz-Cañizares, Juana; Bolívar-Galiano, Fernando; Pelufo-Carbonell, María-José; Peraza-Zurita, Yaiza

    2003-04-01

    A study by SEM/EDX and spectrophotometry in the visible region attempting to assess the stability of new resin-bound mortars used for casting replicas of marble historic fountains is presented in this paper. Different accelerating tests such as thermal ageing, UV light ageing, ageing in an SO(2) pollutant chamber, freezing cycles ageing, salt crystallisation ageing, natural ageing and biological attack have been applied to a series of test specimens prepared with polyester-, epoxy- and gel-coat-bound mortars. Examination of morphology, measurement of chemical composition and chromatic coordinates before and after ageing treatments establish the higher stability and resistance properties of these resin-bound mortars by comparison to those from the natural marbles.

  6. Comparative study between derivative spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools applied for the simultaneous quantitation of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2013-09-01

    Four simple, accurate and specific methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine (AML), Valsartan (VAL) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in commercial tablets. The derivative spectrophotometric methods include Derivative Ratio Zero Crossing (DRZC) and Double Divisor Ratio Spectra-Derivative Spectrophotometry (DDRS-DS) methods, while the multivariate calibrations used are Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). The proposed methods were applied successfully in the determination of the drugs in laboratory-prepared mixtures and in commercial pharmaceutical preparations. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using the standard addition technique. The linearity of the proposed methods is investigated in the range of 2-32, 4-44 and 2-20 μg/mL for AML, VAL and HCT, respectively.

  7. Spectrophotometry of peculiar B and A stars. XIV - 56 Arietis, 41 Tauri, 25 Sextantis, HD 170973, HD 205087, and HD 215441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    Optical region spectrophotometry of six relatively hot Ap stars is presented. Additional scans of 56 Ari extend the results of an earlier paper in this series. The data for 41 Tau, 25 Sex, HD 170973, and HD 215441 are studied as a function of phase. The observations of HD 205087 are inconclusive about its variability although they show spectrophotometrically that it is a definite Ap star. The observations of HD 215441 show a prominent λ5200 broad, continuum feature with an unusual shape. However, when the data are corrected for interstellar reddening, the energy distribution resembles those of other silicon stars. The λ5200 feature is found to be variable in phase with the U-B and B-V colors and with the magnetic field strength. This feature is strongest when the Balmer jump is smallest, the Paschen continuum the bluest according to B-V, and the surface magnetic field strength the largest.

  8. Monitoring Pb in Aqueous Samples by Using Low Density Solvent on Air-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Coupled with UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mina Ghasemi; Faraji, Hakim; Moghimi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    In this study, AA-DLLME combined with UV-Vis spectrophotometry was developed for pre-concentration, microextraction and determination of lead in aqueous samples. Optimization of the independent variables was carried out according to chemometric methods in three steps. According to the screening and optimization study, 86 μL of 1-undecanol (extracting solvent), 12 times syringe pumps, pH 2.0, 0.00% of salt and 0.1% DDTP (chelating agent) were chosen as the optimum independent variables for microextraction and determination of lead. Under the optimized conditions, R = 0.9994, and linearity range was 0.01-100 µg mL -1 . LOD and LOQ were 3.4 and 11.6 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method was applied for analysis of real water samples, such as tap, mineral, river and waste water.

  9. Induced Transparency and Absorption in Coupled Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok

    2004-01-01

    We review the conditions for the occurrence of coherence phenomena in passive coupled optical microresonators. We derive the effective steady-state response and determine conditions for induced transparency and absorption in these systems.

  10. Detection of bacterial growth by gas absorption.

    PubMed

    Waters, J R

    1992-05-01

    When 24 different aerobic organisms were grown in a shaken culture, all were found to first absorb gas from the headspace. In a rudimentary medium, such as tryptic soy broth, 16 of the 24 organisms did not produce gas following the initial gas absorption. We have developed a simple, noninvasive method for detecting both gas absorption and production in multiple culture vials. The time to positivity was compared with that obtained by the BACTEC 460 blood culture system. For nearly all of these organisms, there was no difference. For some of those organisms that did not produce gas, e.g. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Moraxella osloensis, and Neisseria meningitidis, detection by gas absorption was a few hours faster. Gas absorption appears to be a promising technique for a new automated blood culture system because of its simplicity and because medium without special additives can be used to detect organisms that do not produce gas.

  11. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  12. Solar flare induced cosmic noise absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmodimu, Olugbenga; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil; Falayi, E. O.; Bolaji, O. S.

    2018-06-01

    Solar flare events are a major observing emphasis for space weather because they affect the ionosphere and can eject high-energy particles that can adversely affect Earth's technologies. In this study we model 38.2 MHz cosmic noise absorption (CNA) by utilising measurements from the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) at Kilpisjärvi, Finland obtained during solar cycle 23 (1996-2009). We utilised X-ray archive for the same period from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to study solar flare induced cosmic noise absorption. We identified the threshold of flare (M4 class) that could bear significant influence on CNA. Through epoch analysis, we show the magnitude of absorption that each class of flare could produce. Using the parameters of flare and absorption we present a model that could provide the basis for nowcast of CNA induced by M and X-class solar flares.

  13. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  14. Airborne spectrophotometry of Eta Carinae from 4.5 to 7.5 microns and a model for source morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hackwell, John A.; Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of Eta Car between 4.5 and 7.5 microns show a featureless thermal-like spectrum with no fine-structure lines or broad emission or absorption features. The color temperature of the spectrum is approximately 375 K. High spatial resolution maps at 3.5, 4.8, and 10 microns obtained from the ground are used to discuss the dust distribution and temperature structure, and to present a model for general source morphology. The upper limit to the brightness of the forbidden Ar II fine-structure emission line at 6.98 microns is less than 7 x 10 to the -16th W/sq cm, which still allows for a significant overabundance of argon and is consistent with the evolved nature of the source.

  15. A novel UV-photolysis approach with acetone and isopropyl alcohol for the rapid determination of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs by spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Mullapudi, Venkata Balarama Krishna; Dheram, Karunasagar

    2018-01-01

    A UV photolysis decomposition (UVPD) method for the determination of fluoride in fluorine containing pharmaceuticals by spectrophotometry is reported. It is based on the use of high intensity UV-irradiation in the presence of a digesting solution comprising a mixture of acetone and isopropanol. For the optimization of the UVPD procedure, three bulk drugs (levofloxacin, nebivolol and efavirenz) were chosen as representatives of three diverse compounds containing a single fluorine atom, two fluorine atoms, and trifluoromethyl groups respectively. Operational conditions of the UVPD method, such as concentration and volume of reagents (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), and UV irradiation time (1-6 minutes) were optimized. The efficiency of digestion was evaluated by the determination of fluoride in sample digests. Using the developed method, it was possible for complete conversion of the organofluoride to free fluoride ion for its subsequent determination by spectrophotometry based on bleaching of Zr-xylenol orange-color complex. Quantitative recovery (>98%) of the fluorine in the drug samples could be achieved using a mixture of 2% acetone + 2% isopropyl alcohol + 0.003% Na 2 CO 3 in just 5 minutes of UV irradiation, which can be considered an important aspect considering the difficulties involved in the cleavage of the CF bond. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained by the UVPD method with the values estimated using formula weight of the compound and no statistical difference was observed between the results. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for application in routine analysis of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Modification of the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototype classification for the Indian population, and its correlation with narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Gupta, V; Jangid, B L; Pathak, M

    2018-04-01

    The Fitzpatrick classification for skin phototyping is widely used, but its usefulness in dark-skinned populations has been questioned by some researchers. Recently, skin colour measurement has been proposed for phototyping skin colour objectively. To modify the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototyping for the Indian population and to study its correlation with skin colour using narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry METHODS: Answer choices for three items (eye colour, hair colour, colour of unexposed skin) out of 10 in the original Fitzpatrick questionnaire were modified, followed by self-administration of the original and the modified Fitzpatrick questionnaire by 70 healthy Indian volunteers. Skin colour (melanin and erythema indices) was measured from two photoexposed and two photoprotected sites using a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. The mean ± SD scores for the original and modified Fitzpatrick questionnaires were 25.40 ± 4.49 and 23.89 ± 4.82, respectively (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). The two items related to tanning habits were deemed irrelevant based on the subjects' response and were removed from the modified questionnaire. The Melanin Index (MI) of all sites correlated moderately well with both the modified (r = 0.61-0.64, P < 0.001) and original Fitzpatrick questionnaire scores (r = 0.64-0.67, P < 0.001), while the Erythema Index showed poor correlation with both. An MI value of ≧42 was found to be the cut-off between skin phototypes I-III and IV, and ≥ 47 between IV and V-VI. Our modification of the Fitzpatrick questionnaire makes it more relevant to the Indian population. Spectrophotometry can be a useful objective tool for skin phototyping. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. The economics of solar powered absorption cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic procedure evaluates cost of combining absorption-cycle chiller with solar-energy system in residential or commercial application. Procedure assumes that solar-energy system already exists to heat building and that cooling system must be added. Decision is whether to cool building with conventional vapor-compression-cycle chiller or to use solar-energy system to provide heat input to absorption chiller.

  18. Seasonal Solar Thermal Absorption Energy Storage Development.

    PubMed

    Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations.

  19. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de Concepción, Concepción CHILE foppiano@udec.cl ABSTRACT A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de ...range of frequencies used an inverse -square frequency dependence approximately holds. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

  20. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  1. A search for intervening HI absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Sarah N.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Allison, James R.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Curran, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    HI absorption-line studies provide a unique probe of the gas distribution and kinematics in galaxies well beyond the local universe (z ≳ 0.3). HI absorption-line surveys with next-generation radio telescopes will provide the first large-scale studies of HI in a redshift regime which is poorly understood. However, we currently lack the understanding to infer galaxy properties from absorption-line observations alone. To address this issue, we are conducting a search for intervening HI absorption in a sample of 20 nearby galaxies. Our aim is to investigate how the detection rate varies with distance from the galaxy. We target sight-lines to bright continuum sources, which intercept known gas-rich galaxies, selected from the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (Koribalski et al. 2004). In our pilot sample, six galaxies with impact parameters < 20 kpc, we do not detect any absorption lines - although all are detected in 21cm emission. This indicates that an absorption non-detection cannot simply be interpreted as an absence of neutral gas - see Fig. 1. Our detection rate is low compared to previous surveys e.g. Gupta et al. (2010). This is, at least partially, due to the high resolution of the observations reducing the flux of the background source, which will also be an issue in future surveys, such as ASKAP-FLASH.

  2. Spectral Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Bond, T. C.; Quinn, P. K.; Sierau, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the solar spectral absorption optical depth of atmospheric aerosols for specific case studies during several field programs (three cases have been reported previously; two are new results). We combined airborne measurements of the solar net radiant flux density and the aerosol optical depth with a detailed radiative transfer model for all but one of the cases. The field programs (SAFARI 2000, ACE Asia, PRIDE, TARFOX, INTEX-A) contained aerosols representing the major absorbing aerosol types: pollution, biomass burning, desert dust and mixtures. In all cases the spectral absorption optical depth decreases with wavelength and can be approximated with a power-law wavelength dependence (Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE). We compare our results with other recent spectral absorption measurements and attempt to briefly summarize the state of knowledge of aerosol absorption spectra in the atmosphere. We discuss the limitations in using the AAE for calculating the solar absorption. We also discuss the resulting spectral single scattering albedo for these cases.

  3. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  4. Cracking the perfusion code?: Laser-assisted Indocyanine Green angiography and combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry for intraoperative evaluation of tissue perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP or ms-TRAM flaps.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ingo; Arkudas, Andreas; Schmitz, Marweh; Boos, Anja M; Taeger, Christian D; Rother, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the correlation of flap perfusion analysis based on laser-assisted Indocyanine Green (ICG) angiography with combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry in autologous breast reconstruction using free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps. Between February 2014 and July 2015, 35 free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps were included in this study. Besides the clinical evaluation of flaps, intraoperative perfusion dynamics were assessed by means of laser-assisted ICG angiography and post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content (rHb) using combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry. Correlation of the aforementioned parameters was analysed, as well as the impact on flap design and postoperative complications. Flap survival rate was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. In three cases, flap design was based on the angiography, contrary to clinical evaluation and spectrophotometry. The final decision on the inclusion of flap areas was based on the angiographic perfusion pattern. Angiography and spectrophotometry showed a correlation in most of the cases regarding tissue perfusion, post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content. Laser-assisted ICG angiography is a useful tool for intraoperative evaluation of flap perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps, especially in decision making in cases where flap perfusion is not clearly assessable by clinical signs and exact determination of well-perfused flap margins is difficult to obtain. It provides an objective real-time analysis of flap perfusion, with high sensitivity for the detection of poorly perfused flap areas. Concerning the topographical mapping of well-perfused flap areas, laser-assisted angiography is superior to combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    PubMed

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  6. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Shaowei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a method of graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental waters. The adsorption behavior of inorganic Se(IV) and Se(VI) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite was investigated. It was found that Se(IV) was quantitatively retained on the GO-TiO2 composites within a wide pH range of 0.5-10, while Se(VI) was quantitatively adsorbed on GO-TiO2(1:1) composite at pH 0.5-2, and no obvious adsorption of Se(VI) within the pH range of 4-10 was found. By selecting pH 6.0, Se(IV) could be easily determined. After reduction of Se(VI), total Se was determined by the proposed method, and Se(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Se and Se(IV). The factors affecting the separation/preconcentration of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the isothermal adsorption of Se(IV) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite fitted Langmuir model; a linear range over 0.1-12ngmL(-1) was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) and precision of the method for Se(IV) was 0.04ngmL(-1) and 9.4% (cSe(IV)=0.5ngmL(-1), n=7), respectively. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a standard water sample (GSBZ50031-94) was analyzed, and the determined value was in a good agreement to the certified value. The established method was applied to inorganic Se speciation in environmental water samples and the recovery of 87.4-102% was obtained for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  8. Utility of solid phase spectrophotometry for the modified determination of trace amounts of cadmium in food samples.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S; Gouda, Ayman A

    2012-05-01

    A modified selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium which reacts with 1-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid (BTAHNA) to give a deep violet complex with high molar absorptivity (7.05×10(6)Lmol(-1) cm(-1), 3.92×10(7)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.78×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), and 4.10×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1)), fixed on a Dowex 1-X8 type anion-exchange resin for 10mL, 100mL, 500mL, and 1000mL, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.2-3.5μgL(-1) with RSD of ⩽1.14% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits were calculated. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) in food samples, water samples and some salts samples without interfering effect of various cations and anions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P < 0.0001) and phytosterol esters 30.6 ± 3.9% (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  10. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  11. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate thatmore » near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.« less

  12. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  13. Dynamics of water absorption through superabsorbent polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sooyoung; Kim, Wonjung

    2017-11-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) consist of hydrophilic cross-linked polymer networks that can absorb and retain a great amount of water relative to their own mass, so that they are widely used for disposable diapers and holding soil moisture in agriculture. SAPs are typically available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles, and the water absorption is driven by capillary flows between particles as well as diffusion that entail swelling. Although the control of water absorption of SAPs is important in engineering applications, but the dynamics of water absorption in SAP particles has not been fully understood. We examine the dynamics of the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate, one of the most common SAP. We experimentally measured the water absorption of sodium polyacrylate particles in one-dimensional confined channel. The water flows through the particles were analyzed by capillarity dominant at the early stage and by diffusion involving volume expansion critical at a later stage. The results provide a quantitative basis of the hydrodynamic analysis of the water flow through SAP particles from a macroscopic point of view, facilitating the prediction of water uptake of SAPs in hygienic and agricultural applications. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No.2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  14. Aerosol Absorption Measurements from LANDSAT and CIMEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Karnieli, A.; Remer, L.; Holben, B.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral remote observations of dust properties from space and from the ground create a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption of solar radiation with an unprecedented accuracy. Absorption is a key component in understanding dust impact on climate. We use Landsat space-borne measurements at 0.47 to 2.2 micrometer over Senegal with ground-based sunphotometers to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than in models. Though dust absorbs in the blue, almost no absorption was found for wavelengths greater than 0.6 micrometer. The new finding increases by 50% recent estimated solar radiative forcing by dust and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption probably due to the presence of black carbon from populated regions. Large-scale application of this method to satellite data from the Earth Observing System can reduce significantly the uncertainty in the dust radiative effects.

  15. Controlling enhanced absorption in graphene metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qihui; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Genghui

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a controllable terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber (MA) is designed with the circuit analog method. Taking advantage of the patterned graphene on SiO2/doped Si/polyimide substrates with a gold reflector, the controllable MA achieves perfect absorption at 0.75 THz. The chemical potential of graphene is regulated by controlling the voltage between graphene and doped Si layers. As the chemical potential varies from 0 eV to 0.5 eV, the MA is changed from reflection (<0.37) to absorption (>0.99). The distributions of surface current and electric field are illustrated to analyze the resonant characteristic of patterned graphene. According to the resonant characteristic, we introduce patterned graphene elements with different dimension in a unit cell, which effectively extends the effective absorption bandwidth (absorption > 0 . 9) from 0.67-0.93 THz to 0.52-0.95 THz. Moreover, replacing part of the graphene structure with gold, the switchable MA is turned into a frequency tunable MA. The absorption peak moves from 0.62 THz to 0.92 THz as the chemical potential increases from 0.1 eV to 0.5 eV. These designs overcome limitation of traditional absorbers and exhibit great potentials in many practical applications.

  16. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  17. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    PubMed

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  18. Iron absorption from Southeast Asian diets. II. Role of various factors that might explain low absorption.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Rossander, L; Suwanik, R

    1977-04-01

    Previously reported levels of iron absorption from common Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices were too low to be consistent with the known prevalence of iron deficiency. In the present paper the cause of the low absorption was systematically sought. Variables investigated comprised methodological errors, factors in the diet such as certain foodstuffs, or contaminants inhibiting the absorption and characteristics of the subjects accompanied by malabsorption of dietary iron. The latter was excluded by comparing the absorption from both wheat rolls and a composit rice meal in Thai and Swedish women using the absorption of a small dose of ferrous ascorbate as a common basis of comparison. Two main factors were identified as causing the low absorption in the previous studies: the homogenization of the labeled meals before serving and the use of rice flour instead of rice. Iron absorption from nonhomogenized meals of identical composition as studied previously was many times higher (on an average 0.16 mg) and was consistent with the actual prevalence of iron deficiency in lower socioeconomic groups of Thais mainly consuming the simple meals studied. Recent modifications of the method to measure nonheme iron absorption from composite meals have thus not only made the determination simpler but also more accurate.

  19. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  20. Nanofibrous membrane-based absorption refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Isfahani, RN; Sampath, K; Moghaddam, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the efficacy of highly porous nanofibrous membranes for application in membrane-based absorbers and desorbers. Permeability studies showed that membranes with a pore size greater than about one micron have a sufficient permeability for application in the absorber heat exchanger. Membranes with smaller pores were found to be adequate for the desorber heat exchanger. The membranes were implemented in experimental membrane-based absorber and desorber modules and successfully tested. Parametric studies were conducted on both absorber and desorber processes. Studies on the absorption process were focused on the effects of water vapor pressure, cooling water temperature,more » and the solution velocity on the absorption rate. Desorption studies were conducted on the effects of wall temperature, vapor and solution pressures, and the solution velocity on the desorption rate. Significantly higher absorption and desorption rates than in the falling film absorbers and desorbers were achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.« less

  1. Outskirts of Distant Galaxies in Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    QSO absorption spectroscopy provides a sensitive probe of both the neutral medium and diffuse ionized gas in the distant Universe. It extends 21 cm maps of gaseous structures around low-redshift galaxies both to lower gas column densities and to higher redshifts. Combining galaxy surveys with absorption-line observations of gas around galaxies enables comprehensive studies of baryon cycles in galaxy outskirts over cosmic time. This chapter presents a review of the empirical understanding of the cosmic neutral gas reservoir from studies of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). It describes the constraints on the star formation relation and chemical enrichment history in the outskirts of distant galaxies from DLA studies. A brief discussion of available constraints on the ionized circumgalactic gas from studies of lower column density Lyα absorbers and associated ionic absorption transitions is presented at the end.

  2. Laser absorption phenomena in flowing gas devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P. K.; Otis, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of CW CO2 laser radiation in flowing gases seeded with alkali metals. In order to motivate this development, some simple models are described of several space missions which could use laser powered rocket vehicles. Design considerations are given for a test call to be used with a welding laser, using a diamond window for admission of laser radiation at power levels in excess of 10 kW. A detailed analysis of absorption conditions in the test cell is included. The experimental apparatus and test setup are described and the results of experiments presented. Injection of alkali seedant and steady state absorption of the laser radiation were successfully demonstrated, but problems with the durability of the diamond windows at higher powers prevented operation of the test cell as an effective laser powered thruster.

  3. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  4. A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.

    2017-10-01

    Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.

  5. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the

  6. Intestinal fluid absorption in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Dorey, P G; King, J; Munday, K A; Parsons, B J; Poat, J A

    1983-01-01

    A comparison has been made of intestinal fluid absorption between male Okamoto spontaneously hypertensive rats (s.h.r.) and normotensive male Wistar controls. S.h.r. show enhanced fluid absorption both in hypertensive adults and in young s.h.r. before hypertension has developed. Several potential causes for increased fluid transport in s.h.r. were tested using pharmacological antagonists. It is unlikely that enhanced fluid absorption is due to high sympathetic nervous activity, the renin-angiotensin system or is secondary to hypertension. Intestine from s.h.r. have a high short-circuit current indicating a change in ion pump activity. These results are discussed in relation to the possible causes of increased fluid (ion) transport by the intestine of s.h.r. PMID:6361232

  7. Subwavelength total acoustic absorption with degenerate resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Meng, Chong; Fu, Caixing; Li, Yong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental realization of perfect sound absorption by sub-wavelength monopole and dipole resonators that exhibit degenerate resonant frequencies. This is achieved through the destructive interference of two resonators' transmission responses, while the matching of their averaged impedances to that of air implies no backscattering, thereby leading to total absorption. Two examples, both using decorated membrane resonators (DMRs) as the basic units, are presented. The first is a flat panel comprising a DMR and a pair of coupled DMRs, while the second one is a ventilated short tube containing a DMR in conjunction with a sidewall DMR backed by a cavity. In both examples, near perfect absorption, up to 99.7%, has been observed with the airborne wavelength up to 1.2 m, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the composite absorber. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  8. Resonant indirect optical absorption in germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, José; Noël, Mario; Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Lockwood, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The optical absorption coefficient of pure Ge has been determined from high-accuracy, high-precision optical measurements at photon energies covering the spectral range between the indirect and direct gaps. The results are compared with a theoretical model that fully accounts for the resonant nature of the energy denominators that appear in perturbation-theory expansions of the absorption coefficient. The model generalizes the classic Elliott approach to indirect excitons, and leads to a predicted optical absorption that is in excellent agreement with the experimental values using just a single adjustable parameter: the average deformation potential DΓ L coupling electrons at the bottom of the direct and indirect valleys in the conduction band. Remarkably, the fitted value, DΓ L=4.3 ×108eV /cm , is in nearly perfect agreement with independent measurements and ab initio predictions of this parameter, confirming the validity of the proposed theory, which has general applicability.

  9. Absorption of acoustic waves by sunspots. II - Resonance absorption in axisymmetric fibril models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical calculations of acoustic waves scattered by sunspots which concentrate on the absorption at the magnetohydrodynamic Alfven resonance are extended to the case of a flux-tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. The model is based on a flux-tubes of varying radius that are highly structured, translationally invariant, and axisymmetric. The absorbed fractional energy is determined for different flux-densities and subphotospheric locations with attention given to the effects of twist. When the flux is highly concentrated into annuli efficient absorption is possible even when the mean magnetic flux density is low. The model demonstrates low absorption at low azimuthal orders even in the presence of twist which generally increases the range of wave numbers over which efficient absorption can occur. Resonance absorption is concluded to be an efficient mechanism in monolithic sunspots, fibril sunspots, and plage fields.

  10. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  11. Calcium absorption is not increased by caseinophosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Teucher, Birgit; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Dainty, Jack R; McDonagh, David; FitzGerald, Richard J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2006-07-01

    One of the suggested health benefits of caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) is their ability to enhance calcium absorption. This possibility is based on the assumption that they resist proteolysis in the upper gastrointestinal tract and maintain calcium in a soluble form at alkaline pH in the distal ileum. The effects of CPP-enriched preparations (containing candidate functional food ingredients) on calcium absorption from a calcium lactate drink were tested. A randomized crossover trial was undertaken in 15 adults in whom we measured the absorption of calcium from a calcium lactate drink (drink A: 400 mg Ca as lactate) and 2 preparations enriched with forms of CPP (1.7 g each; drinks B and C). Both drinks B and C contained 400 mg Ca as calcium lactate plus approximately 100 mg CPP-derived calcium). Each volunteer received the 3 drinks in random order. Absorption was measured by the dual-label calcium stable-isotope technique. The quantity of calcium absorbed was significantly lower from drink A (103 mg) than from drink B (117 mg; P = 0.012) or drink C (121 mg; P = 0.002), which indicated a positive effect of the CPPs. However, because the CPP preparations contributed additional calcium besides that found in the calcium lactate (drink A), fractional absorption of calcium from drink B (23%) was slightly but significantly (P = 0.015) lower than that from drink A (26%). The differences in calcium absorption are unlikely to have any biological significance. CPPs are unsuitable as candidate ingredients for functional foods that are designed to deliver improved calcium nutrition.

  12. Simultaneous determination of cetirizine, phenyl propanolamine and nimesulide using third derivative spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Aly, Fatma Ahmed; El-Enany, Nahed; Elmansi, Heba; Nabil, Amany

    2017-10-05

    The combination between cetirizine (CET), phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and nimesulide (NMS) under trade name Nemeriv Cp tablet is prescribed for nasal congestion, cold, sneezing, and allergy. Among all published methods for the three drugs; there is no reported method concerning estimation of CTZ, PPA and NMS simultaneously and this motivates us to develop new and simple methods for their assay in pure form and tablet preparations. Two new methodologies were described for the simultaneous quantification of cetirizine (CTZ), PPA and NMS. Spectrophotometric procedures relies on measuring the amplitudes of the third derivative curves at 238 nm for CTZ, 218 nm for PPA and 305 nm for NMS. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 8-90 µg/mL for CTZ, 20-100 µg/mL for PPA and 20-200 µg/mL for NMS respectively. Regarding the HPLC method; monolithic column (100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d) was used for the separation. The used mobile phase composed of 0.1 M phosphate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 40:60, v/v at pH 7.0. The analysis was performed using UV detector at 215 nm. Calibration curves showed the linearity over concentration ranges of 5-40, 10-100 and 10-120 µg/mL for CTZ, PPA and NMS. Application of the proposed methods to the laboratory prepared tablets was carried out successfully. The results were compared with those obtained from previously published methods and they were satisfactory. Graphical abstract Graphical abstract represents the chemical structures, representative chromatogram for the HPLC separation of a PPA, b NMS and c CTZ and third derivative absorption spectra of a PPA, b NMS and c CTZ for the spectrophotometric method.

  13. Application of derivative ratio spectrophotometry for determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma extract*

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hui; He, Guo-qing; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Qi-he; Chen, Feng

    2005-01-01

    A derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was used for the simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin produced from Phaffia rhodozyma. Absorbencies of a series of the standard carotenoids in the range of 441 nm to 490 nm demonstrated that their absorptive spectra accorded with Beer’s law and that the additivity when the concentrations of β-carotene and astaxanthin and their mixture were within the range of 0 to 5 µg/ml, 0 to 6 µg/ml, and 0 to 6 µg/ml, respectively. When the wavelength interval (Δλ) at 2 nm was selected to calculate the first derivative ratio spectra values, the first derivative amplitudes at 461 nm and 466 nm were suitable for quantitatively determining β-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Effect of divisor on derivative ratio spectra could be neglected; any concentration used as divisor in range of 1.0 to 4.0 µg/ml is ideal for calculating the derivative ratio spectra values of the two carotenoids. Calibration graphs were established for β-carotene within 0–6.0 µg/ml and for astaxanthin within 0–5.0 µg/ml with their corresponding regressive equations in: y=−0.0082x−0.0002 and y=0.0146x−0.0006, respectively. R-square values in excess of 0.999 indicated the good linearity of the calibration graphs. Sample recovery rates were found satisfactory (>99%) with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5%. This method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin in the laboratory-prepared mixtures and the extract from the Phaffia rhodozyma culture. PMID:15909336

  14. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Tandy, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22254012

  15. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  16. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C.; McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D.

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organicmore » chemicals in fish and mammals.« less

  17. Energy absorption of composite material and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

  18. Simultaneous optimization method for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Simms, Jean M; An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Ramesh, Varun; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-05-10

    A simultaneous optimization method is proposed for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing. This method is particularly useful for thermometry measurements based on congested spectra, as commonly encountered in combustion applications of H2O absorption spectroscopy. A comparison test demonstrated that the simultaneous optimization method had greater accuracy, greater precision, and was more user-independent than the common step-wise postprocessing method previously used by the authors. The simultaneous optimization method was also used to process experimental data from an environmental chamber and a constant volume combustion chamber, producing results with errors on the order of only 1%.

  19. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  20. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  1. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  2. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C. Paul; Rockwood, Stephen D.; Jensen, Reed J.; Lyman, John L.; Aldridge, III, Jack P.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, in the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  3. Thin structured rigid body for acoustic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, T. A.; Smith, J. D.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Rance, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a thin acoustic metamaterial absorber, comprised of only rigid metal and air, that gives rise to near unity absorption of airborne sound on resonance. This simple, easily fabricated, robust structure comprising a perforated metal plate separated from a rigid wall by a deeply subwavelength channel of air is an ideal candidate for a sound absorbing panel. The strong absorption in the system is attributed to the thermo-viscous losses arising from a sound wave guided between the plate and the wall, defining the subwavelength channel.

  4. High sensitivity background absorption measurements in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Silva, Junior R.; Wang, Chengao; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Melgaard, Seth D.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling in InGaP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has been a sought after goal. Even though very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) has been achieved, background absorption has remained a bottleneck in achieving net cooling. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the source of the background absorption for InGaP|GaAs DHS as well as GaAs|AlGaAs DBRs by employing an excite-probe thermal Z-scan measurement.

  5. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  6. [Improvement and prediction of intestinal drug absorption].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    The suppository preparation, which can improve the absorption of poorly absorbable drugs safer than commercially available suppositories, was developed by utilizing sodium laurate and taurine. Additionally, the novel oral absorption-improving system was also established by utilizing polyamines and bile acids. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficacy of these new formulations and estimate the absorbability of new drug candidates in humans, the in vitro prediction system utilizing an isolated human intestinal tissues was developed and successfully predicted the fraction of dose absorbed for several model drugs. These findings would contribute to the development of new dosage forms and new drugs for oral administration.

  7. Determination of Alkaloid Contents in Various Tissues of Coptis Chinensis Franch. by Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfang; Peng, Jingling; Li, Fangping; Liu, Xin; Deng, Meng; Wu, Hezhen

    2017-05-01

    A simple and intuitive method for optimizing the chemical constituents of Coptis Chinensis Franch. is important to assess its quality and clinical efficacy. An high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry method was developed for the determination of berberine hydrochloride, palmatine chloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, epiberberine, coptisine, columbamine and magnoflorine in various tissues (i.e., phloem, xylem and medulla) and rizhome of C. Chinensis Franch. The transection of rhizome from outside-in includes cork layer, cortex, phloem, cambium, xylem and medulla. Cork layer consists of dead cells, and therefore is not of any research significance. Cortex, phloem and cambium were almost impossible to separate, therefore they were studied as a whole in our experiments. They were collectively referred to as "phloem". The analytes were separated on a Gemini-NX C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) reversed phase column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.03 mol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine and 0.6% ammonium hydroxide) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 270 nm. The method allowing the simultaneous quantification of seven major active constituents was optimized and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification. The LOD ranged from 0.102 to 0.651 mg/mL (r ≥ 0.9993). Accuracy, precision and recovery were all within the required limits. The average recovery was between 100.14% and 102.75% and the relative standard deviations were <3.34%. At the same time, the absorbance was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 345 nm wavelength. Based on contents of the seven constituents and clustering result, this investigation suggests that there are significant differences in the distribution of seven alkaloids in the tissues examined. Furthermore, the total alkaloid content in xylem is relatively lower than that in phloem, medulla and

  8. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  9. [Shock absorption of mouthguard materials--influence of temperature conditions and shore hardness on shock absorption].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Tsukimura, Naoki; Ohno, Shigeru; Umekawa, Yoshitada; Sawano, Muneyuki; Fujimoto, Toshiki; Takamura, Masaaki; Majima, Aiko; Katakura, Yuusuke; Kurata, Akemi; Ohyama, Tetsuo; Ishigami, Tomohiko

    2006-04-01

    To consider changes in the physical properties of mouthguard materials with the change of temperature, shock-absorbing examination and Shore hardness measurement of existing MG materials and other elastic materials were carried out. Both examinations were done under two temperature conditions: at room temperature (25 degrees C) and simulated intraoral temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, a comparative study of the relation between Shore hardness and shock absorption of the materials was made. A self-made drop impact machine was used for the shock-absorbing examination. The thickness of a sample was assumed to be 3 mm. The loading was applied by dropping 3 kinds of steel ball, phi 10 mm (4.0 g), phi 15 mm (13.7 g), and phi 20 mm (32.6 g) from a height of 60 cm. The shock absorption of all materials was compared by the maximum impact force. Shore hardness was measured based on the JIS standard. The shock absorption of each material showed a different tendency depending on the loading condition. Furthermore, the shock absorption of the same material showed different results depending on the temperature condition. Shore hardness measurements tended to show low values with the condition of 37 degrees C for all materials. From the relation between shock absorption and Shore hardness, it was confirmed that there is a correlation between hardness and the maximum impact force in the materials that showed shock absorption by elastic deformation. Some materials showed high shock absorption compared with existing MG materials.

  10. [The study of CO2 cavity enhanced absorption and highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Pei, Shi-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Fen-Ping; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jie; Fan, Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2005-12-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a new spectral technology that is based on the cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy. In the present paper, a DFB encapsulation narrow line width tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as the light source. At the center output, the TDL radiation wavelength was 1.573 microm, and an optical cavity, which consisted of two high reflectivity mirrors (near 1.573 microm, the mirror reflectivity was about 0.994%), was used as a sample cell. A wavemeter was used to record the accurate frequency of the laser radiation. In the experiment, the method of scanning the optical cavity to change the cavity mode was used, when the laser frequency was coincident with one of the cavity mode; the laser radiation was coupled into the optical cavity and the detector could receive the light signals that escaped the optical cavity. As a result, the absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide weak absorption at low pressure was obtained with an absorption intensity of 1.816 x 10(-23) cm(-1) x (molecule x cm(-2)(-1) in a sample cell with a length of only 33.5 cm. An absorption sensitivity of about 3.62 x 10(-7) cm(-1) has been achieved. The experiment result indicated that the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has the advantage of high sensivity, simple experimental setup, and easy operation.

  11. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  12. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Leland V.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption. PMID:22617116

  13. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-02-28

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.

  14. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  15. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) oral absorption and clinical influences.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Decker, John F; Patrick, Jeffrey T

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used nonopioid, non-NSAID analgesic that is effective against a variety of pain types, but the consequences of overdose can be severe. Because acetaminophen is so widely available as a single agent and is increasingly being formulated in fixed-ratio combination analgesic products for the potential additive or synergistic analgesic effect and/or reduced adverse effects, accidental cumulative overdose is an emergent concern. This has rekindled interest in the sites, processes, and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen oral absorption and the clinical factors that can influence these. The absorption of oral acetaminophen occurs primarily along the small intestine by passive diffusion. Therefore, the rate-limiting step is the rate of gastric emptying into the intestines. Several clinical factors can affect absorption per se or the rate of gastric emptying, such as diet, concomitant medication, surgery, pregnancy, and others. Although acetaminophen does not have the abuse potential of opioids or the gastrointestinal bleeding or organ adverse effects of NSAIDs, excess amounts can produce serious hepatic injury. Thus, an understanding of the sites and features of acetaminophen absorption--and how they might be influenced by factors encountered in clinical practice--is important for pain management using this agent. It can also provide insight for design of formulations that would be less susceptible to clinical variables. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Gamma ray astrophysics. [emphasizing processes and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.

  17. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  18. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Sarkisian, Paul H.; Reimann, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  19. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  20. The facilitated component of intestinal glucose absorption

    PubMed Central

    Kellett, George L

    2001-01-01

    Over the last decade, a debate has developed about the mechanism of the passive or ‘diffusive’ component of intestinal glucose absorption and, indeed, whether it even exists. Pappenheimer and colleagues have proposed that paracellular solvent drag contributes a passive component, which, at high concentrations of sugars similar to those in the jejunal lumen immediately after a meal, is severalfold greater than the active component mediated by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1. On the other hand, Ferraris & Diamond maintain that the kinetics of glucose absorption can be explained solely in terms of SGLT1 and that a passive or paracellular component plays little, if any, part. Recently, we have provided new evidence that the passive component of glucose absorption exists, but is in fact facilitated since it is mediated by the rapid, glucose-dependent activation and recruitment of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT2 to the brush-border membrane; regulation involves a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway activated by glucose transport through SGLT1 and also involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signalling pathways. This topical review seeks to highlight the significant points of the debate, to show how our proposals on GLUT2 impact on different aspects of the debate and to look at the regulatory events that are likely to be involved in the short-term regulation of sugar absorption during the assimilation of a meal. PMID:11251042

  1. Terahertz absorption of lysozyme in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2017-08-01

    Absorption of radiation by solution is described by its frequency-dependent dielectric function and can be viewed as a specific application of the dielectric theory of solutions. For ideal solutions, the dielectric boundary-value problem separates the polar response into the polarization of the void in the liquid, created by the solute, and the response of the solute dipole. In the case of a protein as a solute, protein nuclear dynamics do not project on significant fluctuations of the dipole moment in the terahertz domain of frequencies and the protein dipole can be viewed as dynamically frozen. Absorption of radiation then reflects the interfacial polarization. Here we apply an analytical theory and computer simulations to absorption of radiation by an ideal solution of lysozyme. Comparison with the experiment shows that Maxwell electrostatics fails to describe the polarization of the protein-water interface and the "Lorentz void," which does not anticipate polarization of the interface by the external field (no surface charges), better represents the data. An analytical theory for the slope of the solution absorption against the volume fraction of the solute is formulated in terms of the cavity field response function. It is calculated from molecular dynamics simulations in good agreement with the experiment. The protein hydration shell emerges as a separate sub-ensemble, which, collectively, is not described by the standard electrostatics of dielectrics.

  2. The Absorption Refrigerator as a Thermal Transformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential. (Contains 1 footnote and 6 figures.)

  3. Oral Exposure and Absorption of Toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of the toxicokinetics of orally absorbed xenobiotics. This includes a description of the basic anatomy and physiology of the digestive tract most relevant to the absorption process. In addition, differences in anatomy and physiology between human...

  4. Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

  5. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the rate of Chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite -- S(IV) -- solutions at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred-cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pHs of 3.5-8.5. Experiment...

  6. Absorption machine with desorber-resorber

    DOEpatents

    Biermann, Wendell J.

    1985-01-01

    An absorption refrigeration system utilizing a low temperature desorber and intermediate temperature resorber. The system operates at three temperatures and three pressures to increase the efficiency of the system and is capable of utilizing a lower generator temperature than previously used.

  7. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  8. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  9. Sound absorption by clamped poroelastic plates.

    PubMed

    Aygun, H; Attenborough, K

    2008-09-01

    Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the results for the different materials differ as a consequence mainly of their different elasticity, thickness, and cell structure.

  10. Peculiarities of light absorption by spherical microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yurii E.; Panina, Ekaterina K.; Zemlyanov, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    Optical radiation absorption in the poly-layer spherical microparticles simulating the inorganic/organic polyshell absorbing microcapsules is considered. With the aim of the finite-difference time-domain technique, the spatial distribution of the absorbed light power in microcapsules of various sizes and internal structure is numerically calculated. For the purpose of light absorption enhancement, we have engineered the optimal structure of a capsule consisting of a strong-refracting transparent outer coating and an absorbing layer which covers a liquid core. The proposed microcapsule prototype provides for a manifold increase in the absorbed light power density in comparison with the usual single-layer absorbing capsule. We show that for light-wavelengths-scaled microcapsules it is optimal to use a material with the refractive index larger than two as an outer shell, for example, titanium dioxide (TiO2). The highest values of the absorbed power density can be obtained in microcapsules with absorbing shell thickness of approximately a tenth of a laser wavelength. When laser radiation is scattered by a dimer constituted by two identical absorbing microcapsules the absorbed power density can be maximized by the choosing of proper dimer spatial configuration. In the case of strongly absorbing particles, the absorption maximum corresponds to a shift of the capsules to a distance of about their diameter, and in the case of weakly absorbing particles the absorption is maximal when particles are in geometrical shades of each other.

  11. Laser Absorption by Over-Critical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    Absorption of high intensity laser light by matter has important applications to emerging sciences and technology, such as Fast Ignition ICF and ion acceleration. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of this absorption is key to developing these technologies. Critical features which distinguish the interaction of high intensity light - defined here as a laser field having a normalized vector potential greater than unity - are that the reaction of the material to the fields results in sharp high-density interfaces; and that the movement of the electrons is in general relativistic, both in a fluid and a thermal sense. The results of these features are that the absorption mechanisms are qualitatively distinct from those at lower intensities. We will review previous work, by our group and others, on the absorption mechanisms, and highlight current research. We will show that the standing wave structure of the reflected laser light is key to particle dynamics for normally incident lasers. The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy under contract DE-NA 0001833 and the National Science Foundation under contract ACI 1339893.

  12. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  13. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  14. Absorption of light dark matter in semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Hochberg, Yonit; Lin, Tongyan; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors are by now well-established targets for direct detection of MeV to GeV dark matter via scattering off electrons. We show that semiconductor targets can also detect significantly lighter dark matter via an absorption process. When the dark matter mass is above the band gap of the semiconductor (around an eV), absorption proceeds by excitation of an electron into the conduction band. Below the band gap, multiphonon excitations enable absorption of dark matter in the 0.01 eV to eV mass range. Energetic dark matter particles emitted from the sun can also be probed for masses below an eV. We derivemore » the reach for absorption of a relic kinetically mixed dark photon or pseudoscalar in germanium and silicon, and show that existing direct detection results already probe new parameter space. Finally, with only a moderate exposure, low-threshold semiconductor target experiments can exceed current astrophysical and terrestrial constraints on sub-keV bosonic dark matter.« less

  15. In vivo measurements of the influence of the skin on cerebral oxygenation changes measured with near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; van Os, Sandra H. G.; Hopman, Jeroen C. W.; Liem, K. D.; van de Bor, Margot; Thijssen, Johan M.

    2004-07-01

    Goal: To investigate the influence of skin on the accuracy and precision of regional cerebral oxygenation measurements using CW-NIRS and to reduce the inter individual variability of NIRS measurements by normalization with data from an extra wavelength. Method: Three piglets (7.8-9.3 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated. Receiving optodes were placed over the left and right hemisphere (C3, C4 EEG placement code) and one emitting optode on Cz position (optode distance=1.8cm). Optical densities (OD) were measured for 3 wavelengths (767, 850, 905 nm) (OXYMON) during stable normoxic, mild and deep hypoxemic conditions (SaO2=100%, 80% and 60%) of one minute in each region. This was repeated 3 times: all optodes with skin (condition 1); one receiving optode directly on the skull (2); emitting and also receiving optode on the skull (3). The absolute cO2Hb, cHHb, ctHb concentrations (μmol/L) were calculated from the OD's and changes with respect to the SaO2=100% condition were estimated. Because ODs varied over a large range, the light intensity was externally attenuated to adapt to the range of the spectrophotometer. The data were then corrected for these attenuation effects and for pathlength changes caused by skin removal using the OD at the independent wavelength (λ=975nm). Results: Removal of the skin resulted in an increase of the absorption values (average 0.25 OD in condition 2 and 0.42 OD in condition 3 with respect to condition 1). The change from normoxic to medium, and to deep hypoxic conditions produced a decrease of cO2Hb (-15, and -29 μmol/L, respectively), an increase in cHHb (+16, and +35 μmol/L) and in ctHb (+1, and +5 μmol/L). Total skin removal yielded an extra change in cO2Hb (-5, -1 μmol/L), cHHb (+8, +9 μmol/L), and ctHb (+3, +8 μmol /L). The coefficient of variability of the absolute concentration changes was considerably decreased by the normalization of densities by the density obtained at 795 nm. Conclusion: Skin

  16. The saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption properties of Cu doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Cheng-Bao; Wen, Xin; Li, Qiang-Hua; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Sun, Wen-Jun; Bai, Li-Na; Yang, Shou-Bin

    2017-03-01

    We present the structure and nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results show that the CZO films can maintain a wurtzite structure. Furthermore, the open-aperture (OA) Z-scan measurements of the film were carried out by nanosecond laser pulse. A transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) was observed as the excitation intensity increasing. With good excellent nonlinear optical coefficient, the samples were expected to be the potential applications in optical devices.

  17. Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.

  18. A methodological approach to study the stability of selected watercolours for painting reintegration, through reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Claudia; Capobianco, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Morresi, Fabio; Rossi, Sara; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia

    2018-06-05

    The aim of this work is to investigate the stability to simulated solar radiation of some paintings samples through a new methodological approach adopting non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. In particular, commercial watercolours and iron oxide based pigments were used, these last ones being prepared for the experimental by gum Arabic in order to propose a possible substitute for traditional reintegration materials. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Hyperspectral Imaging in the short wave infrared were chosen as non-invasive techniques for evaluation the stability to irradiation of the chosen pigments. These were studied before and after artificial ageing procedure performed in Solar Box chamber under controlled conditions. Data were treated and elaborated in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the chosen techniques in identifying the variations on paint layers, induced by photo-degradation, before they could be observed by eye. Furthermore a supervised classification method for monitoring the painted surface changes adopting a multivariate approach was successfully applied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionic Liquid Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method for the Determination of Irinotecan, an Anticancer Drug, in Water and Urine Samples Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Deniz; Karadaş, Cennet; Kara, Derya

    2017-05-01

    A new, simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for the determination of irinotecan, an anticancer drug, in water and urine samples using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extraction solvent, and ethanol was used as the disperser solvent. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including sample pH, volume of the ionic liquid, choice of the dispersive solvent and its volume, concentration of NaCl, and extraction and centrifugation times, were investigated and optimized. The effect of interfering species on the recovery of irinotecan was also examined. Under optimal conditions, the LOD (3σ) was 48.7 μg/L without any preconcentration. Because the urine sample was diluted 10-fold, the LOD for urine would be 487 μg/L. However, this could be improved 16-fold if preconcentration using a 40 mL aliquot of the sample is used. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of irinotecan in tap water, river water, and urine samples spiked with 10.20 mg/L for the water samples and 8.32 mg/L for the urine sample. The average recovery values of irinotecan determined were 99.1% for tap water, 109.4% for river water, and 96.1% for urine.

  20. Determination of thiamine HCl and pyridoxine HCl in pharmaceutical preparations using UV-visible spectrophotometry and genetic algorithm based multivariate calibration methods.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Durmus; Dinc, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Simultaneous determination of binary mixtures pyridoxine hydrochloride and thiamine hydrochloride in a vitamin combination using UV-visible spectrophotometry and classical least squares (CLS) and three newly developed genetic algorithm (GA) based multivariate calibration methods was demonstrated. The three genetic multivariate calibration methods are Genetic Classical Least Squares (GCLS), Genetic Inverse Least Squares (GILS) and Genetic Regression (GR). The sample data set contains the UV-visible spectra of 30 synthetic mixtures (8 to 40 microg/ml) of these vitamins and 10 tablets containing 250 mg from each vitamin. The spectra cover the range from 200 to 330 nm in 0.1 nm intervals. Several calibration models were built with the four methods for the two components. Overall, the standard error of calibration (SEC) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) for the synthetic data were in the range of <0.01 and 0.43 microg/ml for all the four methods. The SEP values for the tablets were in the range of 2.91 and 11.51 mg/tablets. A comparison of genetic algorithm selected wavelengths for each component using GR method was also included.