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Sample records for absorption spectroscopic investigation

  1. Optical absorption and photoluminescence properties of Nd3+ doped mixed alkali phosphate glasses-spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Ratnakaram, Y C; Srihari, N V; Kumar, A Vijaya; Naidu, D Thirupathi; Chakradhar, R P S

    2009-02-01

    Spectroscopic investigations were performed on 68NH(4)H(2)PO(4).xLi(2)CO(3)(30-x)K(2)CO(3) and 68NH(4)H(2)PO(4).xNa(2)CO(3)(30-x)K(2)CO(3) (where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25) glasses containing 2 mol% Nd(2)O(3). Various spectroscopic parameters (Racah (E(1), E(2), E(3)), spin-orbit (xi(4f)) and configuration interaction (alpha)) are reported. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Omega(2), Omega(4), Omega(6)) are calculated for Nd(3+) doped two mixed alkali phosphate glass matrices. From the magnitude of Judd-Ofelt parameters, covalency is studied as a function of x in the glass matrix. Using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, total radiative transition probabilities (A(T)), radiative lifetimes (tau(R)), branching ratios (beta) and integrated absorption cross sections (Sigma) have been computed for certain excited states of Nd(3+) in these mixed alkali phosphate glasses. Emission cross sections (sigma(P)) are calculated for the two transitions, (4)G(7/2)-->(4)I(11/2) and (4)G(7/2)-->(4)I(13/2) of Nd(3+) in these mixed alkali phosphate glasses. Optical band gaps (E(opt)) for direct and indirect transitions are reported.

  2. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characteristics of dipterex and its molecularly imprinted recognition: A TD-DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xueli; Li, Liqing; Zhao, Yanyun; Wang, Chang'an

    2016-05-01

    By using G09 program package, the absorption and fluorescence/phosphorescence spectra of dipterex were explored, and its spectroscopic characters were altered by methacrylic acid (MAA) as the imprinted molecule. The TD-DFT results revealed that: (1) All absorption and emission excitations of dipterex are assigned to the nσ∗ transition; (2) without MAA as imprinted molecule, one of the dipterex Csbnd Cl bonds is extended significantly and dipterex is almost destroyed in transition states; (3) dipterex is connected to methacrylic acid via two hydrogen bonds; (4) for the dipterex-MAA complex, the electronic excitation (ππ∗ excitation) in absorption spectra is dominated by the configuration HOMO → LUMO.

  3. Absorption and Emission Spectroscopic Investigation of Thermal Dynamics and Photo-Dynamics of the Rhodopsin Domain of the Rhodopsin-Guanylyl Cyclase from the Nematophagous Fungus Catenaria anguillulae

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Alfons; Scheib, Ulrike; Stehfest, Katja; Hegemann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase from the nematophagous fungus Catenaria anguillulae belongs to a recently discovered class of enzymerhodopsins and may find application as a tool in optogenetics. Here the rhodopsin domain CaRh of the rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase from Catenaria anguillulae was studied by absorption and emission spectroscopic methods. The absorption cross-section spectrum and excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence quantum distributions of CaRh samples were determined (first absorption band in the green spectral region). The thermal stability of CaRh was studied by long-time attenuation measurements at room temperature (20.5 °C) and refrigerator temperature of 3.5 °C. The apparent melting temperature of CaRh was determined by stepwise sample heating up and cooling down (obtained apparent melting temperature: 62 ± 2 °C). The photocycle dynamics of CaRh was investigated by sample excitation to the first inhomogeneous absorption band of the CaRhda dark-adapted state around 590 nm (long-wavelength tail), 530 nm (central region) and 470 nm (short-wavelength tail) and following the absorption spectra development during exposure and after exposure (time resolution 0.0125 s). The original protonated retinal Schiff base PRSBall-trans in CaRhda photo-converted reversibly to protonated retinal Schiff base PRSBall-trans,la1 with restructured surroundings (CaRhla1 light-adapted state, slightly blue-shifted and broadened first absorption band, recovery to CaRhda with time constant of 0.8 s) and deprotonated retinal Schiff base RSB13-cis (CaRhla2 light-adapted state, first absorption band in violet to near ultraviolet spectral region, recovery to CaRhda with time constant of 0.35 s). Long-time light exposure of light-adapted CaRhla1 around 590, 530 and 470 nm caused low-efficient irreversible degradation to photoproducts CaRhprod. Schemes of the primary photocycle dynamics of CaRhda and the secondary photocycle dynamics of CaRhla1 are developed. PMID:28981475

  4. L-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Investigation of {FeNO} 6: Delocalization vs Antiferromagnetic Coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, James J.; Gonzales, Margarita A.; Mascharak, Pradip K.; ...

    2016-12-22

    NO is a classic non-innocent ligand, and iron nitrosyls can have different electronic structure descriptions depending on their spin state and coordination environment. These highly covalent ligands are found in metalloproteins and are also used as models for Fe–O 2 systems. Here, this study utilizes iron L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted using a valence bond configuration interaction multiplet model, to directly experimentally probe the electronic structure of the S = 0 {FeNO} 6 compound [Fe(PaPy 3)NO] 2+ (PaPy 3 = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine-N-ethyl-2-pyridine-2-carboxamide) and the S = 0 [Fe(PaPy 3)CO] + reference compound. This method allows separation of the σ-donation andmore » π-acceptor interactions of the ligand through ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer mixing pathways. The analysis shows that the {FeNO} 6 electronic structure is best described as Fe III–NO(neutral), with no localized electron in an NO π* orbital or electron hole in an Fe dπ orbital. This delocalization comes from the large energy gap between the Fe–NO π-bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals relative to the exchange interactions between electrons in these orbitals. This study demonstrates the utility of L-edge XAS in experimentally defining highly delocalized electronic structures.« less

  5. Geometry of Pt(IV) in H 2PtCl 6 aqueous solution: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Chu, Wangsheng; Wang, Lei; Wu, Ziyu

    2009-02-01

    The noble metal ions play an important role in many chemical reactions, but at the present time they represent also potentially new environmental contaminants. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards, so that to evaluate the potential hazards and identify the necessary actions to reduce the risks associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds it is important to understand the local structure around noble metal ions. In this contribution, the local coordination around platinum (IV) ions e.g., Pt 4+ in aqueous solution, has been investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of both [PtCl 6] 2- and [PtCl 4(OH) 2] 2- in an aqueous solution have been calculated using FEFF8.2 and both are characterized by an octahedral geometry. From these calculations, we may also assign a characteristic post-edge feature to a contribution of Cl d-states. From the EXAFS analysis we also determined the corresponding Pt bond distances, e.g., 2.33 Å for the Pt-Cl distance and 2.03 Å for the Pt-O distance in these aqueous solutions. The same analysis provides evidence that the peaks in the Fourier transform at about 4.0 Å are due to multiple scattering collinear Cl-Pt-Cl contributions.

  6. Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopic Biofilm Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2004-01-01

    An ultraviolet-absorption spectrometer system has been developed as a prototype instrument to be used in continuous, real-time monitoring to detect the growth of biofilms. Such monitoring is desirable because biofilms are often harmful. For example, biofilms in potable-water and hydroponic systems act as both sources of pathogenic bacteria that resist biocides and as a mechanism for deterioration (including corrosion) of pipes. Biofilms formed from several types of hazardous bacteria can thrive in both plant-growth solutions and low-nutrient media like distilled water. Biofilms can also form in condensate tanks in air-conditioning systems and in industrial heat exchangers. At present, bacteria in potable-water and plant-growth systems aboard the space shuttle (and previously on the Mir space station) are monitored by culture-plate counting, which entails an incubation period of 24 to 48 hours for each sample. At present, there are no commercially available instruments for continuous monitoring of biofilms in terrestrial or spaceborne settings.

  7. Effect of Co and O defects on ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Rishi K.; Jakhar, Narendra; Samariya, A.; Dolia, S. N.; Kumar, Sudhish

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of origin of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic oxides (DMO's) has become one of the most challenging research problems in condensed matter physics. Here we are reporting a detailed study of magnetic properties and electronic structure of two 5% Co-doped ZnO samples (the as-prepared sample Zn0.95Co0.05O and the hydrogenated sample Zn0.95Co0.05O:H). The as-prepared sample is found to be paramagnetic while through hydrogenation, we observed inducement of remarkable ferromagnetism in it. The H-mediated magnetic transition is accompanied by electronic structure modifications with no structural deviations. To get in-depth information into electronic structure correlations of the observed ferromagnetism, we have investigated their electronic properties in detail. For this purpose, we have employed the site-selective and element-sensitive X-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the vicinity of the Cobalt L2,3 edge, the oxygen K edge, and the Zinc L3 edge using synchrotron radiation. The Co L2,3 edge spectra clearly show that Co dopants reside at the Zn sites for both these samples and that they are tetrahedrally coordinated with the ligand O atoms. Very minor changes are observed in the Zn L3 edge spectra. However, the O 1s edge spectra display dominant additional components in the ferromagnetic hydrogenated sample Zn0.95Co0.05O:H, not observed in the as-prepared non-magnetic sample Zn0.95Co0.05O. We conclude that the observed spectral features can be attributed to the presence of O vacancies and the hybridization of Co 3d states with O 2p vacancy states. These two factors together are likely to play important role in inducement of ferromagnetic ordering in this Co-doped ZnO system. However, which of these two weighs more in this mechanism, cannot be pinpointed and more studies are required in this regard.

  8. Absorption spectroscopic studies of Np(IV) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D. T.

    2004-01-01

    The complexation of neptunium (IV) with selected inorganic and organic ligands was studied as part of an investigation to establish key subsurface interactions between neptunium and biological systems. The prevalence of reducing environments in most subsurface migation scenarios, which are in many cases induced by biological activity, has increased the role and importance of Np(IV) as a key subsurface neptunium oxidation state. The biodegradation of larger organics that often coexist with actinides in the subsurface leads to the formation of many organic acids as transient products that, by complexation, play a key role in defining the fate and speciation ofmore » neptunium in biologically active systems. These often compete with inorganic complexes e.g. hydrolysis and phosphate. Herein we report the results of a series of complexation studies based on new band formation of the characteristic 960 nm band for Np(IV). Formation constants for Np(IV) complexes with phosphate, hydrolysis, succinate, acetohydroxamic acid, and acetate were determined. These results show the 960 nm absorption band to be very amenable to these types of complexation studies.« less

  9. Operando Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode during Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Oike, Ryo; Kimura, Yuta; Tamenori, Yusuke; Kawada, Tatsuya; Amezawa, Koji

    2017-05-09

    An operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic technique, which enabled the analysis of the electronic structures of the electrode materials at elevated temperature in a controlled atmosphere and electrochemical polarization, was established and its availability was demonstrated by investigating the electronic structural changes of an La 2 NiO 4+δ dense-film electrode during an electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. Clear O K-edge and Ni L-edge X-ray absorption spectra could be obtained below 773 K under an atmospheric pressure of 100 ppm O 2 /He, 0.1 % O 2 /He, and 1 % O 2 /He gas mixtures. Considerable spectral changes were observed in the O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra upon changing the PO2 and application of electrical potential, whereas only small spectral changes were observed in Ni L-edge X-ray absorption spectra. A pre-edge peak of the O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra, which reflects the unoccupied partial density of states of Ni 3d-O 2p hybridization, increased or decreased with cathodic or anodic polarization, respectively. The electronic structural changes of the outermost orbital of the electrode material due to electrochemical polarization were successfully confirmed by the operando X-ray absorption spectroscopic technique developed in this study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Arsenate Adsorption On Ruthenium Oxides: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate adsorption on amorphous (RuO2•1.1H2O) and crystalline (RuO2) ruthenium oxides was evaluated using spectroscopic and kinetic methods to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) was ...

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies on gold nanoparticles in mesoporous and microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Akolekar, Deepak B; Foran, Garry; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2004-05-01

    Au L(3)-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic measurements were carried out over a series of mesoporous and microporous materials containing gold nanoparticles to investigate the effects of the host matrix and preparation methods on the properties of gold nanoparticles. The materials of structure type MCM-41, ZSM-5, SAPO-18 and LSX with varying framework composition containing low concentrations of gold nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. In these materials the size of the gold nanoparticles varied in the range approximately 1 to 4 nm. A series of gold nanoparticles within different mesoporous and microporous materials have been investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES, EXAFS) and other techniques. Information such as atomic distances, bonding and neighbouring environment obtained from XAFS measurements was useful in elucidating the nature and structure of gold nanoparticles on these catalytic materials. The influence of the high-temperature (823, 1113, 1273 K) treatment on gold nanoparticles inside the mesoporous matrix was investigated using the XAFS technique. The XAFS and XANES results confirm various characteristics of gold nanoparticles in these materials suitable for catalysis, fabrication of nanodevices and other applications.

  12. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of 8-amino-riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, A.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.; Mack, M.; Ghisla, S.

    2009-10-01

    The flavin dye 8-amino-8-demethyl- D-riboflavin (AF) in the solvents water, DMSO, methanol, and chloroform/DMSO was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The first absorption band is red-shifted compared to riboflavin, and blue-shifted compared to roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-D-riboflavin). The fluorescence quantum yield of AF in the studied solvents varies between 20% and 50%. The fluorescence lifetimes were found to be in the 2-5 ns range. AF is well soluble in DMSO, weakly soluble in water and methanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform. The limited solubility causes AF aggregation, which was seen in differences between measured absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra. Light scattering in the dye absorption region is discussed and approximate absorption cross-section spectra are determined from the combined measurement of transmission and fluorescence excitation spectra. The photo-stability of AF was studied by prolonged light exposure. The photo-degradation routes of AF are discussed.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-li, Zhao; Jiu-sheng, Li

    2011-02-01

    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of inner filter effect by magnolol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; YuzhuHu

    2007-12-01

    Spectroscopy is useful tool for aggregation studies on fluorephores. One of the major problems with this technique is that the inner filter effect becomes unavoidable since the samples are used at high concentration. In this work, our investigation on magnolol spectroscopic properties shows that the inner filter effect (IFE) of fluorescence plays a critical role in the spectra of magnolol. The strong dependence of the fluorescence parameters on the concentration accounts for the apparent experimental evidence of magnolol aggregation at high concentrations. There are some questions despite the aggregation model based on fluorescent aggregates seems to describe the behavior of the system. The mathematical correction on the emission intensities shows the linear fluorescence-concentration relationship. Furthermore, we propose a mathematic model of excitation spectrum based on the primary IFE (absorption of light of excitation wavelength), which provide a correct explanation of the unusual spectral shift and spectral narrowing in the excitation spectra of magnolol at high concentrations. The shapes of spectra are completely independent on magnolol aggregation and are due only to experimental artifacts, i.e. IFE.

  15. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of a fullerene poly(3-hexylthiophene) dyad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Natalie; Seifter, Jason; Wang, Mingfeng; Vauthey, Eric; Wudl, Fred; Heeger, Alan J.

    2011-08-01

    We present the femtosecond spectroscopic investigation of a covalently linked dyad, PCB-P3HT, formed by a segment of the conjugated polymer P3HT (regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)) that is end capped with the fullerene derivative PCB ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid ester), adapted from PCBM. The fluorescence of the P3HT segment in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution is reduced by 64% in the dyad compared to a control compound without attached fullerene (P3HT-OH). Fluorescence upconversion measurements reveal that the partial fluorescence quenching of PCB-P3HT in THF is multiphasic and occurs on an average time scale of 100 ps, in parallel to excited-state relaxation processes. Judging from ultrafast transient absorption experiments, the origin of the quenching is excitation energy transfer from the P3HT donor to the PCB acceptor. Due to the much higher solubility of P3HT compared to PCB in THF, the PCB-P3HT dyad molecules self-assemble into micelles. When pure C60 is added to the solution, it is incorporated into the fullerene-rich center of the micelles. This dramatically increases the solubility of C60 but does not lead to significant additional quenching of the P3HT fluorescence by the C60 contained in the micelles. In PCB-P3HT thin films drop-cast from THF, the micelle structure is conserved. In contrast to solution, quantitative and ultrafast (<150 fs) charge separation occurs in the solid-state films and leads to the formation of long-lived mobile charge carriers with characteristic transient absorption signatures similar to those that have been observed in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction blends. While π-stacking interactions between neighboring P3HT chains are weak in the micelles, they are strong in thin films drop-cast from ortho-dichlorobenzene. Here, PCB-P3HT self-assembles into a network of long fibers, clearly seen in atomic force microscopy images. Ultrafast charge separation occurs also for the fibrous morphology, but the transient absorption experiments

  17. Catalog of Narrow Mg II Absorption Lines in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Using the Data Release 9 Quasar spectra from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, which does not include quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we detect narrow Mg ii λλ2796, 2803 absorption doublets in the spectral data redward of 1250 Å (quasar rest frame) until the red wing of the Mg ii λ2800 emission line. Our survey is limited to quasar spectra with a median signal-to-noise ratio < {{S}}/{{N}}> ≥slant 4 pixel-1 in the surveyed spectral region, resulting in a sample that contains 43,260 quasars. We have detected a total of 18,598 Mg ii absorption doublets with 0.2933 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.6529. About 75% of absorbers have an equivalent width at rest frame of {W}rλ 2796≥slant 1 \\mathringA . About 75% of absorbers have doublet ratios ({DR}={W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803) in the range of 1 ≤ DR ≤ 2, and about 3.2% lie outside the range of 1 - σDR ≤ DR ≤ 2 + σDR. We characterize the detection false positives/negatives by the frequency of detected Mg ii absorption doublets in the limits of the S/N of the spectral data. The S/N = 4.5 limit is assigned a completeness fraction of 53% and tends to be complete when the S/N is greater than 4.5. The redshift number densities of all of the detected Mg ii absorbers moderately increase from z ≈ 0.4 to z ≈ 1.5, which parallels the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. Limiting our investigation to those quasars whose emission redshift can be determined from narrow emission lines, the relative velocities (β) of Mg ii absorbers have a complex distribution which probably consists of three classes of Mg ii absorbers: (1) cosmologically intervening absorbers; (2) environmental absorbers that reside within the quasar host galaxies or galaxy clusters; (3) quasar outflow absorbers. After subtracting contributions from cosmologically intervening absorbers and environmental absorbers, the β distribution of the Mg iiabsorbers might mainly be contributed by the quasar outflow

  18. Investigation into Spectroscopic Techniques for Thermal Barrier Coating Spall Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim; Opila, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods are proposed for detection of thermal barrier coating (TBC) spallation from engine hot zone components. These methods include absorption and emission of airborne marker species originally embedded in the TBC bond coat. In this study, candidate marker materials for this application were evaluated. Thermochemical analysis of candidate marker materials combined with additional constraints such as toxicity and uniqueness to engine environment, provided a short list of four potential species: platinum, copper oxide, zinc oxide. and indium. The melting point of indium was considered to be too low for serious consideration. The other three candidate marker materials, platinum, copper oxide, and zinc oxide were placed in a high temperature furnace and emission and absorption properties were measured over a temperature range from 800-1400 C and a spectral range from 250 to 18000 nm. Platinum did not provide the desired response, likely due to the low vapor Pressure of the metallic species and the low absorption of the oxide species. It was also found, however. that platinum caused a broadening of the carbon dioxide absorption at 4300 nm. The nature of this effect is not known. Absorption and emission caused by sodium and potassium impurities in the platinum were found in the platinum tests. Zinc oxide did not provide the desired response, again, most likely due to the low vapor pressure of the metallic species and the low absorption of the oxide species. Copper oxide generated two strongly temperature dependent absorption peaks at 324.8 and 327.4 nm. The melting point of copper oxide was determined to be too low for serious consideration as marker material.

  19. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of combined wildtype LOV1-LOV2 domain of phot from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Song, S-H; Dick, B; Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Schiereis, T; Hegemann, P

    2005-10-03

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the combined wild-type LOV1-LOV2 domain string (abbreviated LOV1/2) of phot from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is carried out at pH 8. A LOV1/2-MBP fusion protein (MBP=maltose binding protein) and LOV1/2 with a His-tag at the C-terminus (LOV1/2-His) expressed in an Escherichia coli strain are investigated. Blue-light photo-excitation generates a non-fluorescent intermediate photoproduct (flavin-C(4a)-cysteinyl adduct with absorption peak at 390 nm). The photo-cycle dynamics is studied by dark-state absorption and fluorescence measurement, by following the temporal absorption and emission changes under blue and violet light exposure, and by measuring the temporal absorption and fluorescence recovery after light exposure. The fluorescence quantum yield, phi(F), of the dark adapted samples is phi(F)(LOV1/2-His) approximately 0.15 and phi(F)(LOV1/2-MBP) approximately 0.17. A bi-exponential absorption recovery after light exposure with a fast (in the several 10-s range) and a slow component (in the near 10-min range) are resolved. The quantum yield of photo-adduct formation, phi(Ad), is extracted from excitation intensity dependent absorption measurements. It decreases somewhat with rising excitation intensity. The behaviour of the combined wildtype LOV1-LOV2 double domains is compared with the behaviour of the separate LOV1 and LOV2 domains.

  20. Impact of absorption in the top layer of a two layer sample on spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry of the bottom layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, F.; Feuchter, T.; Leick, L.; Rajendram, R.; Podoleanu, A.

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopic spectral domain interferometry and spectroscopic optical coherence tomography combine depth information with spectrally-resolved localised absorption data. These additional data can improve diagnostics by giving access to functional information of the investigated sample. One possible application is measuring oxygenation levels at the retina for earlier detection of several eye diseases. Here measurements with different hollow glass tube phantoms are shown to measure the impact of a superficial absorbing layer on the precision of reconstructed attenuation spectra of a deeper layer. Measurements show that a superficial absorber has no impact on the reconstructed absorption spectrum of the deeper absorber. Even when diluting the concentration of the deeper absorber so far that an incorrect absorption maximum is obtained, still no influence of the superficially placed absorber is identified.

  1. Narrow C IV absorption doublets on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Zhou, Luwenjia; Chen, Yan-Mei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we extend our work of Papers I and II, which are assigned to systematically survey C IV λλ1548,1551 narrow absorption lines (NALs) with zabs ≪ zem on quasar spectra of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) to collect C IV NALs with zabs ≈ zem from blue to red wings of C IV λ1549 emission lines. Together with Papers I and II, we have collected a total number of 41 479 C IV NALs with 1.4544 ≤ zabs ≤ 4.9224 in surveyed spectral region redward of Lyα until red wing of C IV λ1549 emission line. We find that the stronger C IV NALs tend to be the more saturated absorptions, and associated systems (zabs ≈ zem) seem to have larger absorption strengths when compared to intervening ones (zabs ≪ zem). The redshift density evolution behaviour of absorbers (the number of absorbers per redshift path) is similar to the history of the cosmic star formation. When compared to the quasar-frame velocity (β) distribution of Mg II absorbers, the β distribution of C IV absorbers is broader at β ≈ 0, shows longer extended tail, and exhibits a larger dispersion for environmental absorptions. In addition, for associated C IV absorbers, we find that low-luminosity quasars seem to exhibit smaller β and stronger absorptions when compared to high-luminosity quasars.

  2. Investigation of silicate mineral sanidine by vibrational and NMR spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbalagan, G.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.; kumar, R. Thilak; Gunasekaran, S.

    2009-10-01

    Sanidine, a variety of feldspar minerals has been investigated through optical absorption, vibrational (IR and Raman), EPR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The principal reflections occurring at the d-spacings, 3.2892, 3.2431, 2.9022 and 2.6041 Å confirm the presence of sanidine structure in the mineral. Sanidine shows five prominent characteristic infrared absorption bands in the region 1200-950, 770-720, 590-540 and 650-640 cm -1. The Raman spectrum shows the strongest band at 512 cm -1 characteristic of the feldspar structure, which contains four membered rings of tetrahedra. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum had strong absorption features at 6757, 5780 and 5181 cm -1 due to the combination of fundamental OH- stretching. The bands at 11236 and 8196 cm -1and the strong, well-defined band at (30303 cm -1 attest the presence of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+, respectively, in the sample. The signals at g = 4.3 and 3.7 are interpreted in terms of Fe 3+ at two distinct tetrahedral positions Tl and T2 of the monoclinic crystal structure The 29Si NMR spectrum shows two peaks at -97 and -101 ppm corresponding to T2 and T1, respectively, and one peak in 27Al NMR for Al(IV).

  3. Investigation of silicate mineral sanidine by vibrational and NMR spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, G; Sankari, G; Ponnusamy, S; Kumar, R Thilak; Gunasekaran, S

    2009-10-01

    Sanidine, a variety of feldspar minerals has been investigated through optical absorption, vibrational (IR and Raman), EPR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The principal reflections occurring at the d-spacings, 3.2892, 3.2431, 2.9022 and 2.6041 A confirm the presence of sanidine structure in the mineral. Sanidine shows five prominent characteristic infrared absorption bands in the region 1200-950, 770-720, 590-540 and 650-640 cm(-1). The Raman spectrum shows the strongest band at 512 cm(-1) characteristic of the feldspar structure, which contains four membered rings of tetrahedra. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum had strong absorption features at 6757, 5780 and 5181 cm(-1) due to the combination of fundamental OH- stretching. The bands at 11236 and 8196 cm(-1)and the strong, well-defined band at (30303 cm(-1) attest the presence of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), respectively, in the sample. The signals at g = 4.3 and 3.7 are interpreted in terms of Fe(3+) at two distinct tetrahedral positions Tl and T2 of the monoclinic crystal structure The (29)Si NMR spectrum shows two peaks at -97 and -101 ppm corresponding to T2 and T1, respectively, and one peak in (27)Al NMR for Al(IV).

  4. Absorption spectrometer balloon flight and iodine investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A high altitude balloon flight experiment to determine the technical feasibility of employing absorption spectroscopy to measure SO2 and NO2 gases in the earth's atmosphere from above the atmospheric ozone layer is discussed. In addition to the balloon experiment the contract includes a ground-based survey of natural I emissions from geological sources and studies of the feasibility of mapping I2 from spacecraft. This report is divided into three major sections as follows: (1) the planning engineering and execution of the balloon experiment, (2) data reduction and analysis of the balloon data, and (3) the results of the I2 phase of the contract.

  5. Molecular dynamics and a spectroscopic study of sulfur dioxide absorption by an ionic liquid and its mixtures with PEO.

    PubMed

    Hoher, Karina; Cardoso, Piercarlo F; Lepre, Luiz F; Ando, Rômulo A; Siqueira, Leonardo J A

    2016-10-19

    An investigation comprising experimental techniques (absorption capacity of SO 2 and vibrational spectroscopy) and molecular simulations (thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics) has been performed for the polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the ionic liquid butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N 4111 ][Tf 2 N]) and their mixtures as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) absorbing materials. The polymer PEO has higher capacity to absorb SO 2 than the neat ionic liquid, whereas the mixtures presented intermediary absorption capacities. The band assigned to the symmetric stretching band of SO 2 at ca. 1140 cm -1 , which is considered a spectroscopic probe for the strength of SO 2 interactions with its neighborhood, shifts to lower wavenumbers as more negative total interaction energy values of SO 2 were evaluated from the simulations. The solvation free energy of SO 2 , ΔG sol , correlates linearly with the absorption capacity of SO 2 . The negative values of ΔG sol are due to negative and positive values of enthalpy and entropy, respectively. In the ionic liquid, SO 2 weakens the cation-anion interactions, whereas in the mixture with a high content of PEO these interactions are slightly increased. Such effects were correlated with the relative population of cisoid and transoid conformers of Tf 2 N anions as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 in the systems provokes the increase of diffusion coefficients of the absorbing species in comparison with the systems without the gas. Proper to the slow dynamics of the polymer, the diffusion coefficient of ions and SO 2 diminishes with the increase of the PEO content.

  6. Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

    2002-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb(3+) and Er(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-05

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80-x-y) TeO2+(0.20) ZnO+xEr2O3+yYb2O3 (x=0, y=0; x=0.004, y=0; x=0, y=0.05 and x=0.004, y=0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er(3+) glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55μm in infrared emission region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb3 + and Er3 + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80 - x - y) TeO2 + (0.20) ZnO + xEr2O3 + yYb2O3 (x = 0, y = 0; x = 0.004, y = 0; x = 0, y = 0.05 and x = 0.004, y = 0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er3 + glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55 μm in infrared emission region.

  9. Quantum-chemical investigations of spectroscopic properties of a fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, T. Yu.; Morozova, Yu. P.; Zharkova, O. M.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Korolev, B. V.

    2012-09-01

    The prodan molecule (6-propionyl-2-dimethylamino naphthalene) - fluorescence probe - is investigated by quantum-chemical methods of intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). The dipole moments of the ground and excited states, the nature and position of energy levels, the centers of specific solvation, the rate constants of photoprocesses, and the fluorescence quantum yield are estimated. To elucidate the role of the dimethylamino group in the formation of bands and spectral characteristics, the molecule only with the propionyl group (pron) is investigated. The long-wavelength absorption bands of prodan and pron molecules are interpreted. The results obtained for the prodan molecule by the INDO method with original spectroscopic parameterization are compared with the literature data obtained by the DFT/CIS, ZINDO/S, and AM1/CISD methods.

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Westre, Tami E.

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s→3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been appliedmore » to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.« less

  11. Confocal Light Absorption and Scattering Spectroscopic (CLASS) imaging: From cancer detection to sub-cellular function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Le

    Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), an optical technique that relates the spectroscopic properties of light elastically scattered by small particles to their size, refractive index and shape, has been recently successfully employed for sensing morphological and biochemical properties of epithelial tissues and cells in vivo. LSS does not require exogenous markers, is non-invasive, and, due to its multispectral nature, can sense biological structures well beyond the diffraction limit. All that makes LSS be a very good candidate to be used both in clinical medicine for in vivo detection of disease and in cell biology to monitor cell function on the organelle scale. Recently we developed two LSS-based imaging modalities: clinical Polarized LSS (PLSS) Endoscopic Technique for locating early pre-cancerous changes in GI tract and Confocal Light Absorption and Scattering Spectroscopic (CLASS) Microscopy for studying cells in vivo without exogenous markers. One important application of the clinical PLSS endoscopic instrument, a noncontact scanning imaging device compatible with the standard clinical endoscopes and capable of detecting dysplastic changes, is to serve as a guide for biopsy in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The instrument detects parallel and perpendicular components of the polarized light, backscattered from epithelial tissues, and determines characteristics of epithelial nuclei from the residual spectra. It also can find tissue oxygenation, hemoglobin content and other properties from the diffuse light component. By rapidly scanning esophagus the PLSS endoscopic instrument makes sure the entire BE portion is scanned and examined for the presence of dysplasia. CLASS microscopy, on the other hand, combines principles of light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) with confocal microscopy. Its main purpose is to image cells on organelle scale in vivo without the use of exogenous labels which may affect the cell function. The confocal geometry selects specific region and

  12. High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) Team Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1998-01-01

    This report covers activities on the above grant for the period through the end of September 1997. The work originally proposed to be performed under a three-year award was converted at that time to a two-year award for the remainder of the period, and is now funded under award NAGS-4027 through Goddard Space Flight Center. The P.I. is a co-investigator on the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) team, selected as a Small-Class Explorer (SNMX) mission in 1997. He has also been a participant in the Space Physics Roadmap Planning Group. Our research has been strongly influenced by the NASA mission opportunities related to these activities. The report is subdivided into four sections, each dealing with a different aspect of our research within this guiding theme. Personnel involved in this research at UAH include the P.I. and graduate students Michele Montgomery and Amy Winebarger. Much of the work has been carried out in collaboration with investigators at other institutions, as detailed below. Attachment: Laser wakefield acceleration and astrophysical applications.

  13. Intermolecular interaction of fosinopril with bovine serum albumin (BSA): The multi-spectroscopic and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai-Li; Pan, Dong-Qi; Lou, Yan-Yue; Shi, Jie-Hua

    2018-04-16

    The intermolecular interaction of fosinopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) by multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular docking technique. The results obtained from fluorescence and UV absorption spectroscopy revealed that the fluorescence quenching mechanism of BSA induced by fosinopril was mediated by the combined dynamic and static quenching, and the static quenching was dominant in this system. The binding constant, K b , value was found to lie between 2.69 × 10 3 and 9.55 × 10 3  M -1 at experimental temperatures (293, 298, 303, and 308 K), implying the low or intermediate binding affinity between fosinopril and BSA. Competitive binding experiments with site markers (phenylbutazone and diazepam) suggested that fosinopril preferentially bound to the site I in sub-domain IIA on BSA, as evidenced by molecular docking analysis. The negative sign for enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ) and entropy change (ΔS 0 ) indicated that van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds played important roles in the fosinopril-BSA interaction, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate binding assay experiments offered evidence of the involvements of hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, spectroscopic results (synchronous fluorescence, 3-dimensional fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) indicated a slight conformational change in BSA upon fosinopril interaction. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spectroscopic investigations of Nd3+ doped flouro- and chloro-borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Sharma, Gopi; Gerward, Leif

    2008-10-01

    Spectroscopic and physical properties of Nd3+ doped sodium lead flouro- and chloro-borate glasses of the type 20NaX-30PbO-49.5B2O3-0.5Nd2O3 (X=F and Cl) have been investigated. Optical absorption spectra have been used to determine the Slater Condon (F2, F4, and F6), spin orbit xi4f and Racah parameters (E1, E2, and E3). The oscillator strengths and the intensity parameters Omega2, Omega4 and Omega6 have been determined by the Judd-Ofelt theory, which in turn provide the radiative transition probability (A), total transition probability (A(T)), radiative lifetime (tauR) and branching ratio (beta) for the fluorescent level 4F3/2. The lasing efficiency of the prepared glasses has been characterized by the spectroscopic quality factor (Omega4/Omega6), the value of which is in the range of 0.2-1.5, typical for Nd3+ in different laser hosts. Nephelauxetic effect results in a red shift in the energy levels of Nd3+ for chloroborate glass. The radiative transition probability of the potential lasing transition 4F3/2-->4I11/2 of Nd3+ ions is found to be higher for flouroborate as compared to chloroborate glass.

  15. Vibrational spectroscopic investigation of polymorphs and cocrystals of indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Refat H; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-05-01

    Identification of optimal solid form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and form control are very important in drug development. Thus, the structural information of these forms and in-depth insight on the modes of molecular interactions are necessary, and vibrational spectroscopic methods are well suited for this purpose. In-depth structural analysis of different solid forms of indomethacin (IND) using Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is the objective. We have investigated the modes of molecular interactions in polymorphs (α and γ), amorphous and discovered cocrystals of IND with nicotinamide (NIC) and trans-cinnamic acid (CIN) coformers. The solid forms of IND have been prepared; their purity has been verified by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry and then studied in the solid-state by Raman and IR spectroscopy. The modes of the interactions were closely investigated from the vibrational data. The key vibrational features of IND solid forms have been specified. The IR (C=O) band at 1713 cm(-1) attributed to cyclic acid dimer of γ IND has disappeared in IND-NIC/CIN whilst retained in IND-SAC cocrystal. IND cocrystallizes in different conformations and crystal lattices with different coformers. The cyclic acid dimer of IND has been kept on its cocrystallization with saccharin and it could have been broken with NIC and CIN. The complementary nature of Raman and IR spectroscopy allowed unambiguous investigation of the chemical composition of pharmaceutical materials which is of particular importance in the absence of detailed structural information, as in the case of IND-NIC and IND-CIN.

  16. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOEpatents

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  17. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOEpatents

    Westerfield, Curtis L.; Morris, John S.; Agnew, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  18. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dibo; Li, Xian; Cai, Jinhui; Ma, Yehao; Kang, Xusheng; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin

    2014-09-01

    Human dehydrated normal and cancerous gastric tissues were measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Based on the obtained terahertz absorption spectra, the contrasts between the two kinds of tissue were investigated and techniques for automatic identification of cancerous tissue were studied. Distinctive differences were demonstrated in both the shape and amplitude of the absorption spectra between normal and tumor tissue. Additionally, some spectral features in the range of 0.2~0.5 THz and 1~1.5 THz were revealed for all cancerous gastric tissues. To systematically achieve the identification of gastric cancer, principal component analysis combined with t-test was used to extract valuable information indicating the best distinction between the two types. Two clustering approaches, K-means and support vector machine (SVM), were then performed to classify the processed terahertz data into normal and cancerous groups. SVM presented a satisfactory result with less false classification cases. The results of this study implicate the potential of the terahertz technique to detect gastric cancer. The applied data analysis methodology provides a suggestion for automatic discrimination of terahertz spectra in other applications.

  19. Spectroscopic quantification of extremely rare molecular species in the presence of interfering optical absorption

    DOEpatents

    Ognibene, Ted; Bench, Graham; McCartt, Alan Daniel; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Rella, Chris W.; Tan, Sze; Hoffnagle, John A.; Crosson, Eric

    2017-05-09

    Optical spectrometer apparatus, systems, and methods for analysis of carbon-14 including a resonant optical cavity configured to accept a sample gas including carbon-14, an optical source configured to deliver optical radiation to the resonant optical cavity, an optical detector configured to detect optical radiation emitted from the resonant cavity and to provide a detector signal; and a processor configured to compute a carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal, wherein computing the carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal includes fitting a spectroscopic model to a measured spectrogram, wherein the spectroscopic model accounts for contributions from one or more interfering species that spectroscopically interfere with carbon-14.

  20. Novel Molecular Spectroscopic Multimethod Approach for Monitoring Water Absorption/Desorption Kinetics of CAD/CAM Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Wiedemair, Verena; Mayr, Sophia; Wimmer, Daniel S; Köck, Eva Maria; Penner, Simon; Kerstan, Andreas; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Huck, Christian W

    2017-07-01

    behavior of O-H (1400-1800 cm -1 ) absorption bands with increasing temperature over time and the release of CO 2 (2450 cm -1 ) from the polymers. In addition, an ATR FT-IR imaging setup was optimized in order to investigate the surface homogeneity of the PMMA-based resins with a spatial resolution to 2 µm. From this vibrational spectroscopic multimethod approach and the collection of several analytical data, conclusions were drawn as to which degree the surface structure and/or its porosity have an impact onto the amount of water absorption.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations on Pr3+ ions doped lead telluro-borate glasses for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Mariyappan, M.; Marimuthu, K.

    2018-04-01

    A new series of Lead telluro-borate glasses doped with different concentrations of Pr3+ ions (xPLTB) were prepared by melt quenching technique and their structural and spectroscopic properties were investigated by recording XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and luminescence spectral measurements. XRD measurements confirm the amorphous nature and the FTIR spectra reveal the presence of different vibrational modes of borate and tellurite networks in the prepared glasses. The bonding parameter values (δ) obtained from the absorption band positions indicates that the bonding between Pr3+ ions and their surrounding ligands is of ionic in nature. The optical band gap (Eopt) corresponding to the direct and indirect allowed transitions were determined with the framework of tauc's plot. From the luminescence spectra, important radiative parameters such as stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) , branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetime (τR) were calculated for the dominant emission transition 3P0→3H4 (blue) in order to suggest the suitability of the studied glasses for suitable photonic applications.

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of novel pharmaceuticals: Stability and resonant interaction with laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Adriana; Boni, Mihai; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Staicu, Angela; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents data about photophysics of two novel thio-hydantoins that exhibit promising pharmaceutical properties in multidrug resistance control. Time stability studies are necessary to establish the proper use of these compounds in different applications. As for their administration as drugs, it is imperative to know their shelf life, as well as storage conditions. At the same time, laser induced modified properties of the two new compounds are valuable to further investigate their specific interactions with other materials, including biological targets. The two new thio-hydantoins under generic names SZ-2 and SZ-7 were prepared as solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide at different concentrations, as well as in deionised water. For the stability assay they were kept in various light/temperature conditions up to 60 days. The stability was estimates based on UV-vis absorption measurements. The samples in bulk shape were exposed different time intervals to laser radiation emitted at 266 nm as the fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The resonant interaction of the studied compounds with laser beams was analysed through spectroscopic methods UV-vis and FTIR absorption, as well as laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. As for stability assay, only solutions kept in dark at 4 °C have preserved the absorption characteristics, considering the cumulated measuring errors, less than one week. The vibrational changes that occur in their FTIR and modified fluorescence spectra upon laser beam exposure are also discussed. A result of the experimental analysis is that modifications are induced in molecular structures of the investigated compounds by resonant interaction with laser radiation. This fact evidences that the molecules are photoreactive and their characteristics might be shaped through controlled laser radiation exposure using appropriate protocols. This conclusion opens many opportunities both in the biomedical field, but also in other industrial activities

  3. Spectroscopic investigation of Ni speciation in hardened cement paste.

    PubMed

    Vespa, M; Dähn, R; Grolimund, D; Wieland, E; Scheidegger, A M

    2006-04-01

    Cement-based materials play an important role in multi-barrier concepts developed worldwide for the safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Cement is used to condition and stabilize the waste materials and to construct the engineered barrier systems (container, backfill, and liner materials) of repositories for radioactive waste. In this study, Ni uptake by hardened cement paste has been investigated with the aim of improving our understanding of the immobilization process of heavy metals in cement on the molecular level. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques were used to determine the local environment of Ni in cement systems. The Ni-doped samples were prepared at two different water/cement ratios (0.4, 1.3) and different hydration times (1 hour to 1 year) using a sulfate-resisting Portland cement. The metal loadings and the metal salts added to the system were varied (50 up to 5000 mg/kg; NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl-). The XAS study showed that for all investigated systems Ni(ll) is predominantly immobilized in a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase, which was corroborated by DRS measurements. Only a minor extent of Ni(ll) precipitates as Ni-hydroxides (alpha-Ni(OH)2 and beta-Ni(OH)2). This finding suggests that Ni-Al LDH, rather than Ni-hydroxides, is the solubility-limiting phase in the Ni-doped cement system.

  4. Combined Mössbauer spectroscopic, multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic, and density functional theoretical study of the radical SAM enzyme spore photoproduct lyase.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sunshine C; Gardenghi, David J; Naik, Sunil G; Shepard, Eric M; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Szilagyi, Robert K; Broderick, Joan B

    2014-03-01

    Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL), a member of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily, catalyzes the direct reversal of the spore photoproduct, a thymine dimer specific to bacterial spores, to two thymines. SPL requires SAM and a redox-active [4Fe-4S] cluster for catalysis. Mössbauer analysis of anaerobically purified SPL indicates the presence of a mixture of cluster states with the majority (40 %) as [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters and a smaller amount (15 %) as [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters. On reduction, the cluster content changes to primarily (60 %) [4Fe-4S](+). The speciation information from Mössbauer data allowed us to deconvolute iron and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra to uncover electronic (X-ray absorption near-edge structure, XANES) and geometric (extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS) structural features of the Fe-S clusters, and their interactions with SAM. The iron K-edge EXAFS data provide evidence for elongation of a [2Fe-2S] rhomb of the [4Fe-4S] cluster on binding SAM on the basis of an Fe···Fe scatterer at 3.0 Å. The XANES spectra of reduced SPL in the absence and presence of SAM overlay one another, indicating that SAM is not undergoing reductive cleavage. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy data for SPL samples and data for model complexes from the literature allowed the deconvolution of contributions from [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters to the sulfur K-edge XANES spectra. The analysis of pre-edge features revealed electronic changes in the Fe-S clusters as a function of the presence of SAM. The spectroscopic findings were further corroborated by density functional theory calculations that provided insights into structural and electronic perturbations that can be correlated by considering the role of SAM as a catalyst or substrate.

  5. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of alkali metal linoleates and oleinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świsłocka, Renata; Regulska, Ewa; Jarońko, Paweł; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2017-11-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium on the electronic system of the linoleic (cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic) and oleic (cis-9-octadecenoic) acids was investigated. The complementary analytical methods: vibrational (IR, Raman) and electronic (UV) molecular absorption spectroscopy as well as DFT quantum mechanical calculations (charge distribution, angles between bonds, bond lengths, theoretical IR and NMR spectra) were carried out. The regular shifts of bands connected with carboxylate anion in the spectra of studied salts were observed. Some bonds and angles reduced or elongated in the series: acid→Li→Na→K linoleates/oleinates. The highest changes were noted for bond lengths and angles concerning COO- ion. The electronic charge distribution in studied molecules was also discussed. Total atomic charges of carboxylate anion decrease as a result of the replacement of hydrogen atom with alkali metal cation. The increasing values of dipole moment and decreasing values of total energy in the order: linoleic/oleic acid→lithium→sodium→potassium linoleates/oleinates indicate an increase in stability of the compounds.

  6. Investigating broad absorption line quasars with SDSS and UKIDSS .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hewett, P. C.

    The SDSS contains the largest set of spectroscopically confirmed broad line quasars ever compiled. Upon its completion, the UKIDSS LAS will provide a near-infrared counterpart to the SDSS, reaching 3 magnitudes deeper than 2MASS over a 4000 square degree area within the SDSS footprint. Combining the SDSS optical and UKIDSS near-infrared data, allows a new insight into the photometric and spectroscopic properties of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) relative to the quasar population as a whole. An accurate estimate of the intrinsic BALQSO fraction is essential for determining the BAL cloud covering fraction and the implications for the co-evolution of accreting supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Defining a K-band limited sample of quasars makes clear the significantly redder distribution of i-K colours of the BALQSOs. The BALQSO i-K colour distribution enables us to estimate a lower limit to the intrinsic BALQSO fraction, computed to be ˜ 30 percent, significantly larger than the optical fraction of 15-20 percent found by several authors. We combined the high-quality SDSS spectra of the quasar sample to make several composite spectra based on i-K colour, and the properties of these composites are compared to a composite spectrum of unreddened quasars. If the origin of the wavelength dependent differences between the red and unreddened objects is ascribed to attenuation by dust, we find that the extinction curve of the material is intermediate in form between the steep SMC-like extinction curve and the recent, empirically determined, extinction curve presented by Gaskell & Benker (2007).

  7. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of BLUF domain of AppA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Schiereis, T.; Hegemann, P.; Jung, A.; Schlichting, I.

    2005-08-01

    The BLUF domain of the transcriptional anti-repressor protein AppA from the non-sulfur anoxyphototrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides was characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. The BLUF domain constructs AppA 148 (consisting of amino-acid residues 1-148) and AppA 126 (amino-acid residues 1-126) are investigated. The cofactor of the investigated domains is found to consist of a mixture of the flavins riboflavin, FMN, and FAD. The dark-adapted domains exist in two different active receptor conformations (receptor states) with different sub-nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes (BLUF r,f and BLUF r,sl) and a small non-interacting conformation (BLUF nc). The active receptor conformations are transformed to putative signalling states (BLUF s,f and BLUF s,sl) of low fluorescence efficiency and picosecond fluorescence lifetime by blue-light excitation (light-adapted domains). In the dark at room temperature both signalling states recover back to the initial receptor states with a time constant of about 17 min. A quantum yield of signalling state formation of about 25% was determined by intensity dependent transmission measurements. A photo-cycle scheme is presented including photo-induced charge transfer complex formation, charge recombination, and protein binding pocket reorganisation.

  8. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic investigations, and computational studies of optically pure β-ketoamide

    SciTech Connect

    Mtat, D.; Touati, R.; Guerfel, T., E-mail: taha-guerfel@yahoo.fr

    2016-12-15

    Chemical preparation, X-ray single crystal diffraction, IR and NMR spectroscopic investigations of a novel nonlinear optical organic compound (C{sub 17}H{sub 22}NO{sub 2}Cl) are described. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with the non-centrosymmetric sp. gr. P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. In the crystal structure, molecules are interconnected by N–H…O hydrogen bonds forming infinite chains along a axis. The Hirshfeld surface and associated fingerprint plots of the compound are presented to explore the nature of intermolecular interactions and their relative contributions in building the solid-state architecture. The molecular HOMO–LUMO compositions and their respective energy gaps are also drawn to explain themore » activity of the compound. The first hyperpolarizability β{sub tot} of the title compound is determined using DFT calculations. The optical properties are also investigated by UV–Vis absorption spectrum.« less

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of a dielectric barrier discharge in modified atmosphere packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Vladimir; Cullen, Patrick J.

    2017-11-01

    Diagnostics of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), in a sealed package (with and without meat) filled with gas mixtures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide (O2-CO2), is reported. The generation and evaluation of the plasma chemistry induced within the confines of the sealed package is studied. The plasma discharges were analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) over a range of plasma process parameters. The study includes a detailed experimental investigation of the spatial and temporal spectroscopic data and links them with plasma kinetics. The results from the spectral radiation from package provide information about the electron energy distribution function. The experimental data indicates that the humidity level in the package with and without meat is unchanged, and that the gas temperature was not significantly modified. Oxygen and nitrogen radicals (trapped gas atmosphere and modified atmosphere) are increased in the package containing meat; at the same time there is no evidence of the presence of carbon monoxide molecules. The role of the nitrogen molecule in the quenching of O2 and CO2 molecules is also evaluated.

  10. Investigating a physical basis for spectroscopic estimates of leaf nitrogen concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of dried and ground plant foliage are examined for changes directly due to increasing nitrogen concentration. A broadening of the 2.1-??m absorption feature is observed as nitrogen concentration increases. The broadening is shown to arise from two absorptions at 2.054 ??m and 2.172 ??m. The wavelength positions of these absorptions coincide with the absorption characteristics of the nitrogen-containing amide bonds in proteins. The observed presence of these absorption features in the reflectance spectra of dried foliage is suggested to form a physical basis for high correlations established by stepwise multiple linear regression techniques between the reflectance of dry plant samples and their nitrogen concentration. The consistent change in the 2.1-??m absorption feature as nitrogen increases and the offset position of protein absorptions compared to those of other plant components together indicate that a generally applicable algorithm may be developed for spectroscopic estimates of nitrogen concentration from the reflectance spectra of dried plant foliage samples. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  11. Spectroscopic investigations on the interaction of thioacetamide with ZnO quantum dots and application for its fluorescence sensing.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipika; Negi, Devendra P S

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method for the sensing of thioacetamide by using spectroscopic techniques. Thioacetamide is a carcinogen and it is important to detect its presence in food-stuffs. Semiconductor quantum dots are frequently employed as sensing probes since their absorption and fluorescence properties are highly sensitive to the interaction with substrates present in the solution. In the present work, the interaction between thioacetamide and ZnO quantum dots has been investigated by using UV-visible, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Besides, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has also been utilized for the interaction studies. UV-visible absorption studies indicated the bonding of the lone pair of sulphur atom of thioacetamide with the surface of the semiconductor. The fluorescence band of the ZnO quantum dots was found to be quenched in the presence of micromolar concentrations of thioacetamide. The quenching was found to follow the Stern-Volmer relationship. The Stern-Volmer constant was evaluated to be 1.20×10 5 M -1 . Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicated the participation of the NH 2 group and the sulphur atom of thioacetamide in bonding with the surface of the ZnO quantum dots. DLS measurements indicated that the surface charge of the semiconductor was shielded by the thioacetamide molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectroscopic investigations on the interaction of thioacetamide with ZnO quantum dots and application for its fluorescence sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Dipika; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method for the sensing of thioacetamide by using spectroscopic techniques. Thioacetamide is a carcinogen and it is important to detect its presence in food-stuffs. Semiconductor quantum dots are frequently employed as sensing probes since their absorption and fluorescence properties are highly sensitive to the interaction with substrates present in the solution. In the present work, the interaction between thioacetamide and ZnO quantum dots has been investigated by using UV-visible, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. Besides, dynamic light scattering (DLS) has also been utilized for the interaction studies. UV-visible absorption studies indicated the bonding of the lone pair of sulphur atom of thioacetamide with the surface of the semiconductor. The fluorescence band of the ZnO quantum dots was found to be quenched in the presence of micromolar concentrations of thioacetamide. The quenching was found to follow the Stern-Volmer relationship. The Stern-Volmer constant was evaluated to be 1.20 × 105 M- 1. Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicated the participation of the sbnd NH2 group and the sulphur atom of thioacetamide in bonding with the surface of the ZnO quantum dots. DLS measurements indicated that the surface charge of the semiconductor was shielded by the thioacetamide molecules.

  13. Spectroscopic investigations on oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Anandhi, C. M. S.; Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed

    2016-05-06

    The pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized by the ultrasonication process. The oxidized MWCNTs were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform -Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopic techniques. The XRD analysis confirms that the oxidized MWCNTs exist in a hexagonal structure and the sharp XRD peak corresponds to the (002) Bragg’s reflection plane, which indicates that the MWCNTs have higher crystalline nature. The UV-Vis analysis confirms that the MWCNTs functionalized with the carboxylic acid. The red shift was observed corresponds to the D band in the Raman spectrum, which reveals that the reduced disordered graphitic structure ofmore » oxidized MWCNTs. The strong Raman peak was observed at 2563 cm{sup -1} corresponds to the overtone of the D band, which is the characteristic vibrational mode of oxidized MWCNTs. The carboxylic acid functionalization of MWCNTs enhances the dispersibility, which paves the way for potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery.« less

  14. Spectroscopic Investigations with Dual Neutron-Gamma Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, P.; Brown, T.; Doucet, E.; Lister, C. J.; Morse, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Wilson, G. L.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Gomez, J. A.; Mosby, S.

    2017-09-01

    The spectroscopic capabilities of 7Li-enriched Cs27LiYCl6 (C7LYC) dual neutron-gamma scintillators are being tested in diverse application arenas to exploit the excellent pulse-shape discrimination together with the unprecedented pulse height resolution ( 10%) for fast neutrons in the < 8 MeV range via the 35Cl(n,p) reaction. Test experiments include both elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections on 56Fe at Los Alamos with a pulsed white neutron source, as well as (p,n) and (d,n) reactions on low-Z targets using mono-energetic proton and deuteron beams from the 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the UMass Lowell Radiation Laboratory. Tests of waveform digitizers with different sampling rates are also being performed. A key goal is to evaluate whether the low intrinsic efficiency of C7LYC for fast neutrons compared to traditional neutron detectors, such as liquid scintillators, can be effectively offset by the gain in solid angle obtained by positioning the detectors much closer to the target, since the typical long time-of-flight arms for energy resolution are not necessary. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance Program under Grant DE-NA0002932.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and spectroscopic investigation of benzoxazole conjugated Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabiano S; Costa, Tania M H; Stefani, Valter; Gonçalves, Paulo F B; Descalzo, Rodrigo R; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Rodembusch, Fabiano S

    2011-11-24

    Two Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of 2-(4'-aminophenyl)benzoxazole derivatives with 4-N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde. UV-visible (UV-vis) and steady-state fluorescence in solution were applied in order to characterize its photophysical behavior. The Schiff bases present absorption in the UV region with fluorescence emission in the blue-green region, with a large Stokes' shift. The UV-vis data indicates that each dye behaves as two different chromophores in solution in the ground state. The fluorescence emission spectra of the dye 5a show that an intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism takes place in the excited state, whereas a twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) state is observed for the dye 5b. Theoretical calculations were performed in order to study the conformation and polarity of the molecules at their ground and excited electronic states. Using density functional theory (DFT) methods at theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-SV(P) for geometry optimizations and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations indicate that the lowest energy conformations are in all cases nonplanar and that the dipole moments of the excited state relaxed structures are much larger than those of the ground state structures, which corroborates the experimental UV-vis absorption results.

  16. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrier, Maryline Ghislaine; Batista, Enrique Ricardo; Berg, John M.

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac III reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–O H2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively.more » The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac III and Am III in HCl solutions indicate Ac III coordinates more inner-sphere Cl 1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am III (0.8±0.3). Finally, these results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac III chemical behaviour.« less

  17. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Ferrier, Maryline Ghislaine; Batista, Enrique Ricardo; Berg, John M.; ...

    2016-08-17

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac III reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–O H2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively.more » The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac III and Am III in HCl solutions indicate Ac III coordinates more inner-sphere Cl 1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am III (0.8±0.3). Finally, these results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac III chemical behaviour.« less

  18. Spectroscopic method for determination of the absorption coefficient in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Johannes D.

    2010-09-01

    I use Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements to characterize a probe with adjacent optical fibres for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during stereotactic surgery in the brain. Simulations and measurements have been fitted to a modified Beer-Lambert model for light transport in order to be able to quantify chromophore content based on clinically measured spectra in brain tissue. It was found that it is important to take the impact of the light absorption into account when calculating the apparent optical path length, lp, for the photons in order to get good estimates of the absorption coefficient, μa. The optical path length was found to be well fitted to the equation lp=a+b ln(Is)+c ln(μa)+d ln(Is)ln(μa), where Is is the reflected light intensity for scattering alone (i.e., zero absorption). Although coefficients a-d calculated in this study are specific to the probe used here, the general form of the equation should be applicable to similar probes.

  19. Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of manganese centers in aluminium lead borate glasses.

    PubMed

    SivaRamaiah, G; LakshmanaRao, J

    2012-12-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al(2)O(3)+75H(3)BO(3)+(20-x)PbO+xMnSO(4) (where x=0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO(4)) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g≈2.0 has been attributed to Mn(2+) centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g≈3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn(2+) ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to (5)E(g)→(5)T(2g) transition of Mn(3+)centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-15

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of leather in terahertz wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed THz time-domain spectroscopy is a coherent technique, in which both the amplitude and the phase of a THz pulse are measured. Recently, material characterization using THz spectroscopy has been applied to biochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers and semiconductors and has given us important information. Moreover, THz imaging has progressed and is expected to be applicable for the identification of narcotics and explosives. The most important and characteristic point of THz spectroscopy is said to be its ability to observe intermolecular vibrations in contrast to infrared spectroscopy (IR), which observes intramolecular vibrations. Coherent detection enables direct calculations of both the imaginary and the real parts of the refractive index without using the Kramers-Kronig relations. Terahertz wave spectroscopy has been used to study the properties and absorption spectra characteristic of materials. In this paper, the spectral characteristics of cow skin, pig skin sheep skin, horse skin and deer skin have been measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.1~2.0THz. The results show that THz-TDS technology provides an important tool for quality analysis and detection of leathers.

  2. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-01

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  3. Spectroscopic studies of Wolf-Rayet stars with absorption lines. VIII - HD 193793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, P. S.; Dupre, D. Roussel; Massey, P.; Rensing, M.

    1984-07-01

    The authors present absorption-line velocities for the O type star spanning over 16 years and emission-line velocities for the WC star covering 10 years. They find no periodicities in either of these sets of data. In particular, they are unable to confirm the claim of Lamontagne, Moffat, and Seggewiss that the two stars are in orbit about one another. Rather, it seems that a generic relationship between the two components has not been established and one is dealing with a situation in which two stars are in the same line of sight.

  4. Spectroscopic investigations of neodymium doped barium bismuth fluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Manasa, P.

    2018-06-01

    A new series of neodymium doped barium bismuth fluoroborate glasses with the chemical composition of (70-x)H3BO3 + 5Bi2O3 + 10BaCO3 + 7.5CaF2 + 7.5ZnO + xNd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 (in wt.%) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The Urbach energy reveals the minimum disorderness of the glass samples. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were derived from the absorption spectrum and were used to calculate the emission properties. The near infrared emission spectra recorded with 808 nm laser diode excitation for different concentrations of Nd3+ ions and the emission for the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition at 1060 nm found to be high intense. The measured decay curves for 4F3/2 fluorescent level exhibit single exponential nature with shortening of lifetime with increase in concentration. The laser parameters such as stimulated emission cross-section, branching ratios, gain band width and optical gain values are found to be high for BBFB:Nd3+ (0.5 wt%) glass. Hence, the results suggested that the present BBFB:Nd3+ (0.5 wt%) glass could be used as an efficient infrared laser source around 1.06 μm region.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations on spectroscopic properties of the imidazole-fused phenanthroline and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Rongfeng; Xu, Shengxian; Wang, Jinglan; Zhao, Feng; Xia, Hongying; Wang, Yibo

    2016-05-01

    Two phenanthroline derivatives, 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (imPhen) and 2-(9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (Flu-imPhen), have been synthesized and characterized and the corresponding absorption and emission spectroscopic properties have been studied in CH2Cl2 solution. The imPhen exhibits the main two absorption bands at 282 nm and 229 nm and these bands are assigned as the typical π → π*(Phen) state. In addition, the weak absorption bands at 313 nm associated with a shoulder near 302 nm were assigned to the π → π*(Phen) state with partial charge transfer (CT) character. A similar absorption spectra are observed in the case of the Flu-imPhen in the region of 200-300 nm, while the region of 300-400 nm of the spectra are dominated by the characteristic π → π* transition of the fluorene moiety. imPhen shows the typical ligand-centered 1π → π* emission, while Flu-imPhen emits from the mixed 1π → π*/CT states. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) were employed to rationalize the photophysical properties of these ligands studied. The theoretical data confirm the assignment of the experimental absorption spectra and the nature of the emitting states.

  6. Asymmetry between absorption and photoluminescence line shapes of TPD: spectroscopic fingerprint of the twisted biphenyl core.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Reinhard; Gisslén, Linus; Himcinschi, Cameliu; Vragović, Igor; Calzado, Eva M; Louis, Enrique; San Fabián Maroto, Emilio; Díaz-García, María A

    2009-01-08

    We analyze absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and resonant Raman spectra of N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD), with the aim of providing a microscopic interpretation of a significant Stokes shift of about 0.5 eV that makes this material suitable for stimulated emission. The optical spectra were measured for TPD dissolved in toluene and chloroform, as well as for polystyrene films doped with varying amounts of TPD. In addition, we measured preresonant and resonant Raman spectra, giving direct access to the vibrational modes elongated in the relaxed excited geometry of the molecule. The experimental data are interpreted with calculations of the molecular geometry in the electronic ground state and the optically excited state using density functional theory. Several strongly elongated high-frequency modes within the carbon rings results in a vibronic progression with a calculated spacing of 158 meV, corroborated by the observation of vibrational sidebands in the PL spectra. The peculiarities of the potential energy surfaces related to a twisting around the central bond in the biphenyl core of TPD allow to quantify the asymmetry between the line shapes observed in absorption and emission.

  7. Spectroscopic Investigation of TW Dra: Improved Stellar and System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Lehmann, H.; Mkrtichian, D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the Algol-type system TW Dra by means of the new computer program Shellspec07_inverse which is specially designed for the fine-tuning of stellar and system parameters of eclipsing binaries. We derive precise atmospheric and system parameters of TW Dra with an accuracy comparable to that expected from photometric data, and give a short comparison of our results with previous determinations.

  8. Highly specific spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging of dynamic optical absorption shifts of an antibody-ICG contrast agent (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen C.; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Juergen K.

    2017-03-01

    Improved techniques for breast cancer screening are critically needed as current methods lack diagnostic accuracy. Using spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) molecular imaging with a priori knowledge of optical absorption spectra allows suppression of endogenous background signal, increasing the overall sensitivity and specificity of the modality to exogenous contrast agents. Here, sPA imaging was used to monitor antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates as they undergo optical absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation to allow differentiation between normal murine mammary glands from breast cancer by enhancing molecular imaging signal from target (B7-H3)-bound antibody-ICG. First, B7-H3 was shown to have highly specific (AUC of 0.93) expression on both vascular endothelium and tumor stroma in malignant lesions through quantitative immunohistochemical staining of B7-H3 on 279 human samples (normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=182), breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97)), making B7-H3 a promising target for sPA imaging. Second, absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control (Iso-ICG) were characterized through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was imaged, and sPA imaging in found a 3.01 (IQR 2.63, 3.38, P<0.001) fold increase in molecular B7-H3-ICG signal in tumors (n=80) compared to control conditions (B7-H3-ICG in tumor negative animals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)) despite significant tumor accumulation of Iso-ICG, confirmed through ex vivo histology. Overall, leveraging anti-B7-H3 antibody-ICG contrast agents, which have dynamic optical absorption spectra representative of molecular interactions, allows for highly specific sPA imaging of murine breast cancer.

  9. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 μm. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100μm, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  10. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of gallic acid and its monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Shaoping; Wang, Chenyang; Zou, Tao; Pan, Tingting; Zhang, Jianbing; Xu, Zhou; Ren, Guanhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2018-02-01

    The low-frequency spectra of gallic acid (GA) and its monohydrate were investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5 to 4.5 THz. The dehydration process of GA monohydrate was monitored on-line. The kinetic mechanism of the dehydration process was analyzed depending on the THz spectral change at different temperatures. The results indicate that the diffusion of water molecule dominates the speed of the entire dehydration process. Solid-state density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the vibrational modes of both GA and its monohydrate were performed based on their crystalline structures for better interpreting the experimental THz spectra. The results demonstrate that the characterized features of GA mainly originate from the collective vibrations of molecules. And the interactions between GA and water molecules are responsible for THz fingerprint of GA monohydrate. Multi-techniques including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (DSC-TG) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were also carried out to further investigate GA and its monohydrate.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of interaction between mangiferin and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Lan, Jingfeng; Guan, Min; Sheng, Fenling; Zhang, Haixia

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of interaction between mangiferin (MA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence spectra, absorbance spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The binding constants and binding sites of MA to BSA at different reaction times were calculated. And the distance between MA and BSA was estimated to be 5.20 nm based on Föster's theory. In addition, synchronous fluorescence and FT-IR measurements revealed that the secondary structures of the protein changed after the interaction of MA with BSA. As a conclusion, the interaction between the anti-diabetes Chinese medicine MA and BSA may provide some significant information for the mechanism of the traditional chinese medicine MA on the protein level to cure diabetes or other diseases.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation on CH Bond Acidity in Cationic Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated large enhancements of CH bond acidities in alcohol, ether, and amine cations through infrared predissociation spectroscopy based on the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization detection. In this study, we investigate for the cationic alkanes (pentane, hexane, and heptane) with different alkyl chain lengths. The σ electrons are ejected in the ionization of alkanes, while nonbonding electrons are ejected in ionization of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Nevertheless, the acidity enhancements of CH in these cationic alkanes have also been demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. The correlations of their CH bond acidities with the alkyl chain lengths as well as the mechanisms of their acidity enhancements will be discussed by comparison of infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.

  13. Biotransformations of anticancer ruthenium(III) complexes: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; Aitken, Jade B; Gwee, Yee Yen; Lim, Zhi Jun; Liu, Mimi; Singharay, Anannya Mitra; Wong, Pok Fai; Lay, Peter A

    2013-03-11

    An anti-metastatic drug, NAMI-A ((ImH)[Ru(III) Cl4 (Im)(dmso)]; Im=imidazole, dmso=S-bound dimethylsulfoxide), and a cytotoxic drug, KP1019 ((IndH)[Ru(III) Cl4 (Ind)2 ]; Ind=indazole), are two Ru-based anticancer drugs in human clinical trials. Their reactivities under biologically relevant conditions, including aqueous buffers, protein solutions or gels (e.g, albumin, transferrin and collagen), undiluted blood serum, cell-culture medium and human liver (HepG2) cancer cells, were studied by Ru K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). These XAS data were fitted from linear combinations of spectra of well-characterised Ru compounds. The absence of XAS data from the parent drugs in these fits points to profound changes in the coordination environments of Ru(III) . The fits point to the presence of Ru(IV/III) clusters and binding of Ru(III) to S-donor groups, amine/imine and carboxylato groups of proteins. Cellular uptake of KP1019 is approximately 20-fold higher than that of NAMI-A under the same conditions, but it diminishes drastically after the decomposition of KP1019 in cell-culture media, which indicate that the parent complex is taken in by cells through passive diffusion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Investigating Functional Extension of Optical Coherence Tomography for Spectroscopic Analysis of Blood Oxygen Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu

    Over the past two decades, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied to various fields of biomedical researching and clinical studies, including cardiology, urology, dermatology, dentistry, oncology, and most successfully, ophthalmology. This dissertation seeks to extend the current OCT practice, which is still largely morphology-based, into a new dimension, functional analysis of metabolic activities in vivo. More specifically, the investigation is focused on retrieving blood oxygen saturation (sO2) using intrinsic hemoglobin optical absorption contrast. Most mammalian cells rely on aerobic respiration to support cellular function, which means they consume oxygen to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2), a key hemodynamic parameter, characterizes how much oxygen is consumed during a given period of time, reflecting the metabolic activity of the target tissue. For example, retinal neurons are highly active and almost entirely rely on the moment-to-moment oxygen supply from retinal circulations. Thus, variation in MRO2 reveals the instantaneous activity of these neurons, shedding light on the physiological and pathophysiological change of cellular functions. Eventually, measuring MRO2 can potentially provide a biomarker for early-stage disease diagnosis, and serve as one benchmark for evaluating effectiveness of medical intervention during disease management. Essential in calculating MRO2, blood sO2 measurements using spectroscopic OCT analysis has been attempted as early as 2003. OCT is intrinsically sensitive to the blood optical absorption spectrum due to its wide-band illumination and detection scheme relying on back-scattered photon. However, accurate retrieval of blood sO2 using conventional near infrared (NIR) OCT systems in vivo has remained challenging. It was not until the development of OCT systems using visible light illumination (vis-OCT) when accurate measurement of blood sO2 was reported in live

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of stars on the lower main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Soubiran, C.; Bienaymé, O.; Korotin, S. A.; Belik, S. I.; Usenko, I. A.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to provide fundamental parameters and abundances with a high accuracy for a large sample of cool main sequence stars. This study is part of wider project, in which the metallicity distribution of the local thin disc is investigated from a complete sample of G and K dwarfs within 25 pc. Methods: The stars were observed at high resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio with the ELODIE echelle spectrograph. The V sin i were obtained with a calibration of the cross-correlation function. Effective temperatures were estimated by the line depth ratio method. Surface gravities (log g) were determined by two methods: parallaxes and ionization balance of iron. The Mg and Na abundances were derived using a non-LTE approximation. Abundances of other elements were obtained by measuring equivalent widths. Results: Rotational velocities, atmospheric parameters (T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], V_t), and Li, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Zn abundances are provided for 131 stars. Among them, more than 30 stars are active stars with a fraction of BY Dra and RS CVn type stars for which spectral peculiarities were investigated. We find the mean abundances of the majority of elements in active and nonactive stars to be similar, except for Li, and possibly for Zn and Co. The lithium is reliably detected in 54% of active stars but only in 20% of nonactive stars. No correlation is found between Li abundances and rotational velocities. A possible anticorrelation of log A(Li) with the index of chromospheric activity GrandS is observed. Conclusions: Active and nonactive cool dwarfs show similar dependencies of most elemental ratios vs. [Fe/H]. This allows us to use such abundance ratios to study the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy. Among active stars, no clear correlation has been found between different indicators of activity for our sample stars. Based on spectra collected with the ELODIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of the

  16. Spectroscopic investigations of ThF and ThF+.

    PubMed

    Barker, Beau J; Antonov, Ivan O; Heaven, Michael C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2012-03-14

    The electronic spectra of ThF and ThF(+) have been examined using laser induced fluorescence and resonant two-photon ionization techniques. The results from high-level ab initio calculations have been used to guide the assignment of these data. Spectra for ThF show that the molecule has an X (2)Δ(3/2) ground state. The upper spin-orbit component, X (2)Δ(5/2) was found at an energy of 2575(15) cm(-1). The low-lying states of ThF(+) were probed using dispersed fluorescence and pulsed field ionization-zero kinetic energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy. Vibronic progressions belonging to four electronic states were identified. The lowest energy states were clearly (1)Σ(+) and (3)Δ(1). Although the energy ordering could not be rigorously determined, the evidence favors assignment of (1)Σ(+) as the ground state. The (3)Δ(1) state, of interest for investigation of the electron electric dipole moment, is just 315.0(5) cm(-1) above the ground state. The PFI-ZEKE measurements for ThF yielded an ionization energy of 51 581(3) cm(-1). Molecular constants show that the vibrational constant increases and the bond length shortens on ionization. This is consistent with removal of a non-bonding Th-centered 6d or 7s electron. Laser excitation of ThF(+) was used to probe electronically excited states in the range of 19,000-21,500 cm(-1).

  17. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 with roseoflavin cofactor.

    PubMed

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2009-11-09

    The wild-type BLUF protein Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (BLUF=blue-light sensor using FAD) has flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) as natural cofactor. This light sensor causes positive phototaxis of the marine cyanobacterium. In this study the FAD cofactor of the wild-type Slr1694 was replaced by roseoflavin (RoF) and the roseoflavin derivatives RoFMN and RoFAD during heterologous expression in a riboflavin auxotrophic E. coli strain. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of the cofactor-exchanged-Slr1694 (RoSlr) was carried out both under dark conditions and under illuminated conditions. The behaviour of RoF embedded in RoSlr in aqueous solution at pH 8 is compared with the behaviour of RoF in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of RoF and RoSlr is quenched by photo-induced twisted intra-molecular charge transfer at room temperature with stronger effect for RoF. The fluorescence quenching is diminished at liquid nitrogen temperature. Light exposure of RoSlr causes irreversible conversion of the protein embedded roseoflavins to 8-methylamino-flavins, 8-dimethylamino-lumichrome and 8-methylamino-lumichrome.

  18. Improved Sensitivity of Spectroscopic Quantification of Stable Isotope Content Using Capillary Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Kriesel, J.; Linley, T. J.; Kelly, J.; Coleman, M. L.; Christensen, L. E.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopy-based platforms have recently risen to the forefront for making stable isotope measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, water, or other analytes. These spectroscopy systems can be relatively straightforward to operate (versus a mass spectrometry platform), largely relieve the analyst of mass interference artifacts, and many can be used in the field. Despite these significant advantages, however, existing spectroscopy techniques suffer from a lack of measurement sensitivity that can ultimately limit select applications including spatially resolved and compound-specific measurements. Here we present a capillary absorption spectroscopy (CAS) system that is designed to mitigate sensitivity issues in spectroscopy-based stable isotope evaluation. The system uses mid-wave infrared excitation generated from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser. Importantly, the sample `chamber' is a flexible capillary with a total volume of less than one cc. Proprietary coatings on the internal surface of the fiber improve optical performance, guiding the light to a detector and facilitating high levels of interaction between the laser beam and gaseous analytes. We present data demonstrating that a tapered hollow fiber cell, with an internal diameter that broadens toward the detector, reduces optical feedback to further improve measurement sensitivity. Sensitivity of current hollow fiber / CAS systems enable measurements of only 10's of picomoles CO2 while theoretical improvements should enable measurements of as little as 10's of femtomoles. Continued optimization of sample introduction and improvements to optical feedback are being explored. Software is being designed to provide rapid integration of data and generation of processed isotope measurements using a graphical user interface. Taken together, the sensitivity improvements of the CAS system under development could, when coupled to a laser ablation sampling device, enable up to 2 µm spatial resolution (roughly the

  19. Femtosecond coherent nuclear dynamics of excited tetraphenylethylene: Ultrafast transient absorption and ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, Surajit; Roy, Khokan; Umapathy, Siva

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast torsional dynamics plays an important role in the photoinduced excited state dynamics. Tetraphenylethylene (TPE), a model system for the molecular motor, executes interesting torsional dynamics upon photoexcitation. The photoreaction of TPE involves ultrafast internal conversion via a nearly planar intermediate state (relaxed state) that further leads to a twisted zwitterionic state. Here, we report the photoinduced structural dynamics of excited TPE during the course of photoisomerization in the condensed phase by ultrafast Raman loss (URLS) and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. TA measurements on the S1 state reveal step-wise population relaxation from the Franck-Condon (FC) state → relaxed state → twisted state, while the URLS study provides insights on the vibrational dynamics during the course of the reaction. The TA spectral dynamics and vibrational Raman amplitudes within 1 ps reveal vibrational wave packet propagating from the FC state to the relaxed state. Fourier transformation of this oscillation leads to a ˜130 cm-1 low-frequency phenyl torsional mode. Two vibrational marker bands, Cet=Cet stretching (˜1512 cm-1) and Cph=Cph stretching (˜1584 cm-1) modes, appear immediately after photoexcitation in the URLS spectra. The initial red-shift of the Cph=Cph stretching mode with a time constant of ˜400 fs (in butyronitrile) is assigned to the rate of planarization of excited TPE. In addition, the Cet=Cet stretching mode shows initial blue-shift within 1 ps followed by frequency red-shift, suggesting that on the sub-picosecond time scale, structural relaxation is dominated by phenyl torsion rather than the central Cet=Cet twist. Furthermore, the effect of the solvent on the structural dynamics is discussed in the context of ultrafast nuclear dynamics and solute-solvent coupling.

  20. Femtosecond coherent nuclear dynamics of excited tetraphenylethylene: Ultrafast transient absorption and ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Surajit; Roy, Khokan; Umapathy, Siva

    2018-01-14

    Ultrafast torsional dynamics plays an important role in the photoinduced excited state dynamics. Tetraphenylethylene (TPE), a model system for the molecular motor, executes interesting torsional dynamics upon photoexcitation. The photoreaction of TPE involves ultrafast internal conversion via a nearly planar intermediate state (relaxed state) that further leads to a twisted zwitterionic state. Here, we report the photoinduced structural dynamics of excited TPE during the course of photoisomerization in the condensed phase by ultrafast Raman loss (URLS) and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. TA measurements on the S 1 state reveal step-wise population relaxation from the Franck-Condon (FC) state → relaxed state → twisted state, while the URLS study provides insights on the vibrational dynamics during the course of the reaction. The TA spectral dynamics and vibrational Raman amplitudes within 1 ps reveal vibrational wave packet propagating from the FC state to the relaxed state. Fourier transformation of this oscillation leads to a ∼130 cm -1 low-frequency phenyl torsional mode. Two vibrational marker bands, C et =C et stretching (∼1512 cm -1 ) and C ph =C ph stretching (∼1584 cm -1 ) modes, appear immediately after photoexcitation in the URLS spectra. The initial red-shift of the C ph =C ph stretching mode with a time constant of ∼400 fs (in butyronitrile) is assigned to the rate of planarization of excited TPE. In addition, the C et =C et stretching mode shows initial blue-shift within 1 ps followed by frequency red-shift, suggesting that on the sub-picosecond time scale, structural relaxation is dominated by phenyl torsion rather than the central C et =C et twist. Furthermore, the effect of the solvent on the structural dynamics is discussed in the context of ultrafast nuclear dynamics and solute-solvent coupling.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations on Pr³+ and Nd³+ doped strontium-lithium-bismuth borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, D; Balakrishna, A; Seshadri, M; Ratnakaram, Y C

    2012-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations on different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mol%) of Pr(3+) and Nd(3+) doped strontium lithium bismuth borate glasses have been done. X-ray diffraction, SEM with EDS, absorption and luminescence spectra were recorded for all the glass matrices and analyzed. X-ray diffraction profiles and SEM images conformed amorphous nature of investigated glass samples. EDS spectra of host glass and Pr(3+)doped glass matrices gave information about the chemical composition of glass samples. From the absorption spectra of Pr(3+) and Nd(3+) ions, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω(λ),λ=2, 4 and 6) have been calculated and compared with other glass matrices. The emission characteristics such as radiative lifetimes (τ(R)), measured and calculated branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ(P)) have been obtained for the observed emission transitions of Pr(3+) and Nd(3+) ions in the above glass matrix for all the concentrations. From the emission spectra of Pr(3+) and Nd(3+) doped glass matrices, the effect of concentration on the quenching of intensity of (1)D(2)→(3)H(4) transition of Pr(3+) ion and (4)F(3/2)→(4)I(9/2), (4)I(11/2) and (4)I(13/2) transitions of Nd(3+) have been studied and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of photo-dynamics of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase mutant bPAC-Y7F of Beggiatoa sp.

    PubMed

    Penzkofer, Alfons; Stierl, Manuela; Mathes, Tilo; Hegemann, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The photoactivated cyclase bPAC of the microbial mats bacterium Beggiatoa sp. consists of a BLUF domain and an adenylyl cyclase domain. It has strong activity of photo-induced cyclic adenylyl monophosphate (cAMP) formation and is therefore an important optogenetic tool in neuroscience applications. The SUMO-bPAC-Y7F mutant where Tyr-7 is replaced by Phe-7 in the BLUF domain has lost the typical BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics. Instead, the investigated SUMO-bPAC-Y7F mutant consisted of three protein conformations with different triplet based photo-dynamics: (i) reversible flavin quinone (Fl) cofactor reduction to flavin semiquinone (FlH), (ii) reversible violet/near ultraviolet absorbing flavin photoproduct (FlA) formation, and (iii) irreversible red absorbing flavin photoproduct (FlC) formation. Absorption and emission spectroscopic measurements on SUMO-bPAC-Y7F were carried out before, during and after light exposure. Flavin photo-dynamics schemes are developed for the SUMO-bPAC-Y7F fractions performing photo-induced FlH, FlA, and FlC formation. Quantitative parameters of the flavin cofactor excitation, relaxation and recovery dynamics in SUMO-bPAC-Y7F are determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of amore » library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].« less

  4. Broadband, high-resolution investigation of advanced absorption line shapes at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Paul J.; Cich, Matthew J.; Yang, Jinyu; Swann, William C.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.; Drouin, Brian J.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres and high-temperature processes (e.g., combustion) require absorption line-shape models that are accurate over extended temperature ranges. To date, advanced line shapes, like the speed-dependent Voigt and Rautian profiles, have not been tested above room temperature with broadband spectrometers. We investigate pure water vapor spectra from 296 to 1305 K acquired with a dual-frequency comb spectrometer spanning from 6800 to 7200 c m-1 at a point spacing of 0.0033 c m-1 and absolute frequency accuracy of <3.3 ×10-6c m-1 . Using a multispectral fitting analysis, we show that only the speed-dependent Voigt accurately models this temperature range with a single power-law temperature-scaling exponent for the broadening coefficients. Only the data from the analysis using this profile fall within theoretical predictions, suggesting that this mechanism captures the dominant narrowing physics for these high-temperature conditions.

  5. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  6. A nearly on-axis spectroscopic system for simultaneously measuring UV-visible absorption and X-ray diffraction in the SPring-8 structural genomics beamline.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Kimura, Tetsunari; Nishida, Takuma; Tosha, Takehiko; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ueno, Go; Murakami, Hironori; Ago, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ogura, Takashi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Kubo, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is useful for probing the electronic and structural changes of protein active sites, and thus the on-line combination of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analysis is increasingly being applied. Herein, a novel absorption spectrometer was developed at SPring-8 BL26B2 with a nearly on-axis geometry between the X-ray and optical axes. A small prism mirror was placed near the X-ray beamstop to pass the light only 2° off the X-ray beam, enabling spectroscopic analysis of the X-ray-exposed volume of a crystal during X-ray diffraction data collection. The spectrometer was applied to NO reductase, a heme enzyme that catalyzes NO reduction to N2O. Radiation damage to the heme was monitored in real time during X-ray irradiation by evaluating the absorption spectral changes. Moreover, NO binding to the heme was probed via caged NO photolysis with UV light, demonstrating the extended capability of the spectrometer for intermediate analysis.

  7. Investigating the variability in brown carbon light-absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, R.; Cheng, Z.; Atwi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels contributes a significant portion of brown carbon (BrC), the light-absorbing fraction of organic aerosols. BrC exhibits highly variable light-absorption properties, with imaginary part of the refractive indices (k) reported in the literature varying over two orders of magnitude. This high variability in k is attributed to the chaotic nature of combustion; however, there is a major gap in the fundamental understanding of this variability. To address this gap, we hypothesize that BrC is comprised of black carbon (BC) precursors whose transformation to BC has not seen fruition. Depending on the combustion conditions, these BC precursors exhibit different maturity levels which dictate their light-absorption properties (k). The more mature are the precursors, the more absorptive (or BC-like) they are. Therefore, k of BrC obtained from a certain measurement depends on the specific combustion conditions associated with the measurement, leading to the aforementioned variability in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we performed controlled combustion experiments in which the combustion conditions (temperature and air/fuel ratio) were varied and k was retrieved from real-time multi-wavelength light-absorption measurements at each condition. We used benzene, the inception of which during combustion is the initial critical step leading to BC formation, as a model fuel. By varying the combustion conditions from relatively inefficient (low temperature and/or air/fuel ratio) to relatively efficient (high temperature and/or air/fuel ratio), we isolated BrC components with progressively increasing k, spanning the wide range reported in the literature. We also performed thermodenuder measurements to constrain the volatility of the BrC, as well as laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis to constrain its molecular mass. We found that as the combustion conditions approached the BC-formation threshold, the increase in k was associated

  8. Spectroscopic, DFT and Z-scan supported investigation of dicyanoisophorone based push-pull NLOphoric styryl dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erande, Yogesh; Sreenath, Mavila C.; Chitrambalam, Subramaniyan; Joe, Isaac H.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-04-01

    The dicyanoisophorone acceptor based NLOphores with Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) character are newly synthesised, characterised and explored for linear and non linear optical (NLO) property investigation. Strong ICT character of these D-π-A styryl NLOphores is established with support of emission solvatochromism, polarity functions and Generalised Mulliken Hush (GMH) analysis. First, second and third order polarizability of these NLOphores is investigated by spectroscopic and TDDFT computational approach using CAM/B3LYP-6-311 + g (d, p) method. BLA and BOA values of these chromophores are evaluated from ground and excited state optimized geometries and found that the respective structures are approaching towards cyanine limit. Third order nonlinear susceptibility (X(3)) along with nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) are evaluated for these NLOphores using Z-scan experiment. All four chromophores exhibit large polarization anisotropy (Δα), first order hyperpolarizability (β0), second order hyperpolarizability (γ) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (X(3)). TGA analysis proved these NLOphores are stable up to 320 °C and hence can be used in device fabrication.

  9. Investigations on the photoreactions of phenothiazine and phenoxazine in presence of 9-cyanoanthracene by using steady state and time resolved spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; Tzeng, Wen-Bih; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-09-01

    By using electrochemical, steady state and time resolved (fluorescence lifetime and transient absorption) spectroscopic techniques, detailed investigations were made to reveal the mechanisms of charge separation or forward electron transfer reactions within the electron donor phenothiazine (PTZH) or phenoxazine (PXZH) and well known electron acceptor 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA). The transient absorption spectra suggest that the charge separated species formed in the excited singlet state resulted from intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions within the donor PTZH (or PXZH) and CNA acceptor relaxes to the corresponding triplet state. Though alternative mechanisms of via formations of contact neutral radical by H-transfer reaction have been proposed but the observed results obtained from the time resolved measurements indicate that the regeneration of ground state reactants is primarily responsible due to direct recombination of triplet contact ion-pair (CIP) or solvent-separated ion-pair (SSIP).

  10. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almandoz, M. C.; Sancho, M. I.; Blanco, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π*). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  11. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic characterisation of the circadian blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome from Drosophila melanogaster (dCry)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Breitkreuz, H.; Wolf, E.

    2008-09-01

    The absorption and fluorescence behaviour of the circadian blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome from Drosophila melanogaster (dCry) in a pH 8 aqueous buffer solution is studied. The flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor of dCry is identified to be present in its oxidized form (FAD ox), and the 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) cofactor is found to be hydrolyzed and oxidized to 10-formyldihydrofolate (10-FDHF). The absorption and the fluorescence behaviour of dCry is investigated in the dark-adapted (receptor) state, the light-adapted (signalling) state, and under long-time violet light exposure. Photo-excitation of FAD ox in dCry causes a reductive electron transfer to the formation of anionic FAD semiquinone (FAD rad - ), and photo-excitation of the generated FAD rad - causes an oxidative electron transfer to the back formation of FAD ox. In light adapted dCry a photo-induced equilibrium between FAD ox and FAD rad - exists. The photo-cycle dynamics of signalling state formation and recovery is discussed. Quantum yields of photo-induced signalling state formation of about 0.2 and of photo-induced back-conversion of about 0.2 are determined. A recovery of FAD rad - to FAD ox in the dark with a time constant of 1.6 min at room temperature is found.

  12. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of blue-light receptor Slr1694 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Zirak, P; Penzkofer, A; Lehmpfuhl, C; Mathes, T; Hegemann, P

    2007-01-03

    The BLUF protein Slr1694 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Slr1694 expressed from E. coli which non-covalently binds FAD, FMN, and riboflavin (called Slr1694(I)), and reconstituted Slr1694 which dominantly contains FAD (called Slr1694(II)) are investigated. The receptor conformation of Slr1694 (dark adapted form Slr1694(r)) is transformed to the putative signalling state (light adapted form Slr1694(s)) with red-shifted absorption and decreased fluorescence efficiency by blue-light excitation. In the dark at 22 degrees C, the signalling state recovers back to the initial receptor state with a time constants of about 14.2s for Slr1694(I) and 17s for Slr1694(II). Quantum yields of signalling state formation of approximately 0.63+/-0.07 for both Slr1694(I) and Slr1694(II) were determined by transient transmission measurements and intensity dependent steady-state transmission measurements. Extended blue-light excitation causes some bound flavin conversion to the hydroquinone form and some photo-degradation, both with low quantum efficiency. The flavin-hydroquinone re-oxidizes slowly back (time constant 5-9 min) to the initial flavoquinone form in the dark. A photo-cycle dynamics scheme is presented.

  13. Raman spectroscopic investigation of thorium dioxide-uranium dioxide (ThO₂-UO₂) fuel materials.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rekha; Bhagat, R K; Salke, Nilesh P; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic investigations were carried out on proposed nuclear fuel thorium dioxide-uranium dioxide (ThO2-UO2) solid solutions and simulated fuels based on ThO2-UO2. Raman spectra of ThO2-UO2 solid solutions exhibited two-mode behavior in the entire composition range. Variations in mode frequencies and relative intensities of Raman modes enabled estimation of composition, defects, and oxygen stoichiometry in these compounds that are essential for their application. The present study shows that Raman spectroscopy is a simple, promising analytical tool for nondestructive characterization of this important class of nuclear fuel materials.

  14. Time- and Space-Resolved Spectroscopic Investigation on Pi-Conjugated Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-26

    compared with 1 suggest that the nonradiative rates in the S1 states of 2 and 3 substantially decrease with respect to the radiative rate constants. By... nonradiative internal conversion rates. Moreover, to investigate the NLO properties of the biradical 2-OS, two-photon absorption measurements were

  15. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  16. Investigation of infrared spectra of atmospheric gases to support stratospheric spectroscopic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Four papers are presented which discuss the following: information measures in nonlinear experimental design; information in spectra of collision broadened absorption lines; band analysis by spectral curve fitting; and least squares analysis of Voight shaped lines. Abstracts of five research papers on which the author collaborated and which were delivered at the 34th Symposium of Molecular Spectroscopy (Ohio State University, June 1979) are included along with a subroutine for use with BMDP3R to retrieve the parameters of 10 Voight shaped lines.

  17. Spectroscopic and thermal investigations of charge-transfer complexes formed between sulfadoxine drug and different types of acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions between sulfadoxine (SDOX) as a donor with iodine (I 2), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), p-chloranil (CHL) and picric acid (PA) have been studied in solid and solution forms. The stoichiometry of all complexes was found to be 1:1 by molar ratio method between donor and acceptor at a CT-band absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant ( KCT), molar extinction coefficient ( ɛCT), standard free energy (Δ Go), oscillator strength (ƒ), transition dipole moment ( μ), resonance energy ( RN) and ionization potential ( ID). The results indicate that the formation constant ( KCT) for the complexes were shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents which were used. IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques, Elemental analyses (CHN) and TG-DTG investigation were used to characterize the four sulfadoxine charge-transfer complexes.

  18. The chemical environment of iron in mineral fibres. A combined X-ray absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Pollastri, Simone; D'Acapito, Francesco; Trapananti, Angela; Colantoni, Ivan; Andreozzi, Giovanni B; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2015-11-15

    Although asbestos represents today one of the most harmful contaminant on Earth, in 72% of the countries worldwide only amphiboles are banned while controlled use of chrysotile is allowed. Uncertainty on the potential toxicity of chrysotile is due to the fact that the mechanisms by which mineral fibres induces cyto- and geno-toxic damage are still unclear. We have recently started a long term project aimed at the systematic investigation of the crystal-chemistry, bio-interaction and toxicity of the mineral fibres. This work presents a systematic structural investigation of iron in asbestos and erionite (considered the most relevant mineral fibres of social and/or economic-industrial importance) using synchrotron X-ray absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopy. In all investigated mineral fibres, iron in the bulk structure is found in octahedral sites and can be made available at the surface via fibre dissolution. We postulate that the amount of hydroxyl radicals released by the fibers depends, among other factors, upon their dissolution rate; in relation to this, a ranking of ability of asbestos fibres to generate hydroxyl radicals, resulting from available surface iron, is advanced: amosite > crocidolite ≈ chrysotile > anthophyllite > tremolite. Erionite, with a fairly high toxicity potential, contains only octahedrally coordinated Fe(3+). Although it needs further experimental evidence, such available surface iron may be present as oxide nanoparticles coating and can be a direct cause of generation of hydroxyl radicals when such coating dissolves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructure and spectroscopic investigations of calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneel Kumar, A.; Sambasiva Rao, M. V.; Chinna Ram, G.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2018-01-01

    Multi-component 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15 - x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:xMnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) glass ceramics were synthesised by melt quenching technique and heat treatment. The prepared glass ceramics were characterised by XRD, DTA, EDS and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR, FTIR and Raman were also carried out on these glass ceramics. The XRD and SEM studies have indicated that ceramic samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. The observed increase of enthalpy from DTA patterns up to 1 mol% of MnO indicates that the crystallisation starts initially from the surface of the material then gradually it is extended to the volume of the material and this influence is meagre at higher concentrations of MnO. The absorption spectra of manganese doped glass ceramics have exhibited two types of conventional bands; one due to Mn2+ ions and other due to Mn3+ ions. The EPR spectra of MnO doped glass ceramics showed a resonance signal around g2 = 2.023 with a six line hyperfine structure and another signal at about g1 = 4.314. The relative intensity and half-width of these two signals are observed to increase with the increase in the concentration of manganese ions up to 1 mol% beyond this concentration it is found to decrease. Such observation indicates the conversion of part of Mn2+ ions into Mn3+ ions in the glass ceramic matrix. The observed increase in the intensity of symmetrical structural units at the expense of asymmetrical structural units from the FTIR and Raman spectra at higher concentration of MnO indicating that Mn2+ ions occupy the network forming positions in the glass ceramic structure.

  20. Spectroscopic investigation, hirshfeld surface analysis and molecular docking studies on anti-viral drug entecavir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathima Rizwana, B.; Prasana, Johanan Christian; Abraham, Christina Susan; Muthu, S.

    2018-07-01

    Entecavir, a new deoxyguanine nucleoside analogue, is a selective inhibitor of the replication of the hepatitis B virus. In the present study, Quantum mechanical approach was carried out on the title compound to study the vibrational spectrum, the stability of the compound, the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The B3LYP/DFT method was chosen because diverse studies have shown that the results obtained with it are in good agreement with those determined by other costly computational methods. The computational methods were aided by the experimental spectroscopic techniques, namely FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopies. The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities were calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies were found to be -6.397 eV and -1.504 eV which indicate the charge transfer within the molecule. The maximum absorption wavelength and the band gap energy of the title compound were obtained from the UV absorption spectrum computed theoretically. Natural Bond Orbital analysis has been carried out to explain the charge transfer (or) delocalization of charge due to the intra molecular interactions. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), First order hyperpolarizability, Hirshfield surface analysis and Fukui functions calculation were also performed. From the calculations the first order hyperpolarizability was found to be 2.3854 × 10-30 esu. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Molecular docking studies were made on the title compound to study the hydrogen bond interactions and the minimum binding energy was calculated.

  1. Spectroscopic determination of leaf biochemistry using band-depth analysis of absorption features and stepwise multiple linear regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Clark, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using spectroscopy. Normalized band depths calculated from the continuum-removed reflectance spectra of dried and ground leaves were used to estimate their concentrations of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to select wavelengths in the broad absorption features centered at 1.73 ??m, 2.10 ??m, and 2.30 ??m that were highly correlated with the chemistry of samples from eastern U.S. forests. Band depths of absorption features at these wavelengths were found to also be highly correlated with the chemistry of four other sites. A subset of data from the eastern U.S. forest sites was used to derive linear equations that were applied to the remaining data to successfully estimate their nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations. Correlations were highest for nitrogen (R2 from 0.75 to 0.94). The consistent results indicate the possibility of establishing a single equation capable of estimating the chemical concentrations in a wide variety of species from the reflectance spectra of dried leaves. The extension of this method to remote sensing was investigated. The effects of leaf water content, sensor signal-to-noise and bandpass, atmospheric effects, and background soil exposure were examined. Leaf water was found to be the greatest challenge to extending this empirical method to the analysis of fresh whole leaves and complete vegetation canopies. The influence of leaf water on reflectance spectra must be removed to within 10%. Other effects were reduced by continuum removal and normalization of band depths. If the effects of leaf water can be compensated for, it might be possible to extend this method to remote sensing data acquired by imaging spectrometers to give estimates of nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose concentrations over large areas for use in ecosystem studies.We develop a new method for estimating the biochemistry of plant material using

  2. Potential drug - nanosensor conjugates: Raman, infrared absorption, surface - enhanced Raman, and density functional theory investigations of indolic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.

    2017-05-01

    An extremely important aspect of planning cancer treatment is not only the drug efficiency but also a number of challenges associated with the side effects and control of this process. That is why it is worth paying attention to the promising potential of the gold nanoparticles combined with a compound treated as a potential drug. This work presents Raman (RS), infrared absorption (IR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopic investigations of N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) and α-methyl-DL-tryptophan, regarding as anti breast cancer agents. The experimental spectroscopic analysis was supported by the quantum-chemical calculations based on the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP 6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The studied compounds were adsorbed onto two colloidal gold nanosensors synthesized by a chemical reduction method using sodium borohydride (SB) and trisodium citrate (TC), respectively. Its morphology characteristics were obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been suggested that the NH moiety from the aromatic ring, a well-known proton donor, causes the formation of hydrogen bonds with the negatively charged gold surface.

  3. Spectroscopic investigation on the efficient organic nonlinear crystals of pure and diethanolamine added DAST.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, C; Haja Hameed, A S; Sagaya Agnes Nisha, J; Ravi, G

    2013-11-01

    4-N,N'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium toyslate (DAST) and diethanolamine (DEA) added DAST crystals are grown by slow cooling method. The corresponding powder samples are examined by characterization studies such as XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the powder X-ray diffraction, their lattice parameter values are found out. Since the vibrational spectra of the molecules are considerably contributed to their linear and nonlinear optical effects, Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies are carried out for the samples. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of the samples are used to find the nature of transitions occurred in the samples. Using the density functional theory, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) analyses are done in order to explain the transition and density of states (DOS). The first order hyperpolarizability is calculated by HF and B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) basis sets for the DAST molecule. From the photoluminescence (PL) spectral studies, the strong excitation emissions are observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical investigation of active porous composites with enhanced acoustic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Tomasz G.

    2011-10-01

    The paper presents numerical analysis - involving an advanced multiphysics modeling - of the concept of active porous composite sound absorbers. Such absorbers should be made up of a layer or layers of poroelastic material (porous foams) with embedded elastic inclusions having active (piezoelectric) elements. The purpose of such active composite material is to significantly absorb the energy of acoustic waves in a wide frequency range, particularly, at lower frequencies. At the same time the total thickness of composite should be very moderate. The active parts of composites are used to adapt the absorbing properties of porous layers to different noise conditions by affecting the so-called solid-borne wave - originating mainly from the vibrations of elastic skeleton of porous medium - to counteract the fluid-borne wave - resulting mainly from the vibrations of air in the pores; both waves are strongly coupled, especially, at lower frequencies. In fact, since the traction between the air and the solid frame of porous medium is the main absorption mechanism, the elastic skeleton is actively vibrated in order to adapt and improve the dissipative interaction of the skeleton and air in the pores. Passive and active performance of such absorbers is analyzed to test the feasibility of this approach.

  5. An adiabatic spectroscopic investigation of the CsRb system in ground and numerous excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, Hanen; Jellali, Soulef; Maha, Chaieb; Habli, Héla; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Via ab-initio approximations, we investigate the electronic and structural features of the CsRb molecule. Adiabatic potential energy curves of 261,3Σ+, 181,3Π and 61,3Δ electronic states with their derived spectroscopic constants as well as vibrational levels spacing have been carried out and well explained. Our approach is founded on an Effective Core Potential (ECP) describing the valence electrons of the system. Using a large Gaussian basis set, the full valence Configuration Interaction can be applied easily on the two-effective valence electrons of the CsRb system. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the electric dipolar properties has been made through the investigation of both permanent and transition dipole moments (PDM and TDM). It is significant that the ionic character connected with electron transfer that is linked to Cs+ Rb- state has been clearly illustrated in the adiabatic permanent dipole moment.

  6. DFT based vibrational spectroscopic investigations and biological activity of toxic material monocrotophos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmi, D. E.; Sam, S. P. Chandhini; Praveen, S. G.; Binoy, J.

    2018-05-01

    Many organophosphate compounds exhibiting toxicity are widely used as pesticides and insecticides whose structural features can be explained excellently using geometric simulation using density functional theory and vibrational spectrum. In this work, the molecular structural parameters and vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of Monocrotophoshave been obtained using Density functional theory (DFT), using B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d, p) basis sets and the detailed vibrational analysis of FT-IR and FT-Ramanspectral bands have been carried out using potential energy distribution (PED). The deviation from the resonance structure of phosphate group due to `bridging of oxygen' and π-resonance of amides has been investigated based on the spectral and geometric data. The molecular docking simulation of Monocrotophos with BSA and DNA has been performed to find the mode of binding and the interactions with BSA has been investigated with UV-Visible spectroscopic method, to assess the strength of binding.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Coţa, C.; Cioica, N., E-mail: cioica@inma.ro; Nagy, E. M.

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR relaxation and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimenmore » (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5)« less

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coťa, C.; Cioica, N.; Filip, C.; Fechete, R.; Todica, M.; Nagy, E. M.; Cozar, O.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by 1H NMR relaxation and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5).

  9. Functionalization of Ti99.2 substrates surface by hybrid treatment investigated with spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Jaroslaw Jan; Lubas, Malgorzata; Kurpaska, Lukasz; Napadlek, Wojciech; Sitarz, Maciej

    2018-07-01

    The article presents spectroscopic investigation of Ti 99.2 based functional substrates formed by hybrid oxidation process. Surface treatments were performed by combining methods of fluidized bed atmospheric diffusion treatment (FADT) with physical vapor deposition (PVD) - magnetron sputtering and laser surface texturing (LST) treatments. The processes were implemented to form a titanium diffusive layer saturated with oxygen in the substrate and a tight homogeneous oxide coating on Ti surface deposited with magnetron sputtering or laser texturing technique. The hybrid treatment was realized in Al2O3 fluidized bed reactor with air atmosphere, at 640 °C for 8 h and 12 h. At the same time, magnetron sputtering with the use of TiO2 target at a pressure of 3 × 102 mbar and laser surface texturing treatment with Nd:YAG λ = 1064 nm was performed. In order to investigate the effects of hybrid oxidation, microscopic (AFM, CLSM, SEM/SEM-EDX), spectroscopic (RS) and X-ray investigations (GID-XRD) were performed. Applied hybrid technique made possible to combine the effects of the generated layers and to reduce the stresses in the area of the PVD coating/oxidized Ti substrate interface. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy results obtained at oxide layers manufactured with different variants of oxidation allowed detailed analysis of the created oxides. The coatings have shown structure with a Tiα(O) diffusion zone, a TiO2 rutile and anatase oxide zone deposited and textured on the substrate. Phase composition and morphology of these oxides is essential for the osseointegration process i.e. intensity of hydroxyapatite growing on the implant surface. Performed processes influenced the surface roughness parameter and cause the increase of substrate functional properties, which are important for biomedical applications.

  10. DFT simulation, quantum chemical electronic structure, spectroscopic and structure-activity investigations of 4-acetylpyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, A.; Yurdakul, Ş.; Erdogdu, Y.; Güllüoğlu, M. T.

    2018-06-01

    The spectroscopic (UV-Vis and infrared), structural and some electronic property observations of the 4-acetylpyridine (4-AP) were reported, which are investigated by using some spectral methods and DFT calculations. FT-IR spectra were obtained for 4-AP at room temperature in the region 4000 cm-1- 400 cm-1. In the DFT calculations, the B3LYP functional with 6-311G++G(d,p) basis set was applied to carry out the quantum mechanical calculations. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra were interpreted by using of normal coordinate analysis based on scaled quantum mechanical force field. The present work expands our understanding of the both the vibrational and structural properties as well as some electronic properties of the 4-AP by means of the theoretical and experimental methods.

  11. Spectroscopic investigations of beam-plasma interactions in an ion plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, W. M.; Friedly, V. J.; Peng, X.; Celenza, J. A.; Keefer, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic investigations of beam-plasma interactions in the plume from a 3 cm ion source operated on argon. Ion-electron, ion-neutral, and electron-neutral scattering are identified by studying the dependence of neutral and ion emission intensities on chamber pressure and mass flow rate, and by analyzing the emission lineshapes at a non-orthogonal angle to the plume axis. Through the Doppler shift, we are able to separate contributions from fast beam ions and fast charge-exchange neutrals on the one hand, and of slow neutrals and slow ions on the other. We discuss the application of this new technique to the characterization of beam plasma interactions in the downstream region of ion thruster engines, and its potential for identifying the processes which lead to grid erosion.

  12. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE)-BLOCK-OLIGO(ANTHRACENE-9,10-DIYL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Jacob; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanostructures featuring bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture are promising light harvesters in photovoltaic (PV) devices because they allow control of individual domain sizes, internal structure and ordering, as well as well-defined contact between the electron donor and acceptor. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PV devices strongly depends on photoinduced dynamics. Understanding and optimizing photoinduced charge transfer processes in BHJ's hence help improve the performance of PV devices and increase their PCE in particular. We have investigated the photoinduced dynamics of a block polymer containing moieties of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and polyanthracene (PANT) in solution and in solid state with femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The dynamics of the polymer PANT alone are also studied as a control. The TA spectra of PANT includes a strong excited state absorption centered at 610 (nm) along with a stimulated emission signal stretching past the detection limit into the UV region which is absent in the monomer's spectra in the detection window. The block polymer's TA spectra strongly resembles that of P3HT but a noticeable positive pull on P3HT's stimulated emission signal residing at 575-620 (nm) is indicative of the excited state absorption of PANT in the adjacent spectral region. The doubling of the lifetime exciton delocalization on the block polymer versus P3HT alone have alluded that the lifetime of P3HT is extended by the covalent addition of PANT. The current spectroscopic investigation represents an interesting example of photoinduced processes in systems with complex energy level structure. Studies of dependence of change generation and separation on composition, dimension, and morphology of the heterojunctions are in process.

  13. Experimental investigation of sound absorption of acoustic wedges for anechoic chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Zverev, A. Ya.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Sobolev, A. F.; Chernykh, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The results of measuring the sound absorption by acoustic wedges, which were performed in AC-3 and AC-11 reverberation chambers at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), are presented. Wedges of different densities manufactured from superfine basaltic and thin mineral fibers were investigated. The results of tests of these wedges were compared to the sound absorption of wedges of the operating AC-2 anechoic facility at TsAGI. It is shown that basaltic-fiber wedges have better sound-absorption characteristics than the investigated analogs and can be recommended for facing anechoic facilities under construction.

  14. Two-photon absorption of [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives in solution: A theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Fossgaard, Eirik; Ruud, Kenneth

    2007-12-01

    The two-photon absorption of a class of [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives has been studied using quadratic response and density functional theories. For the molecules investigated, several effects influencing the two-photon absorption spectra have been investigated, such as side-chain elongation, hydrogen bonding, the use of ionic species, and solvent effects, the latter described by the polarizable continuum model. The calculations have been carried out using a recent parallel implementation of the polarizable continuum model in the DALTON code. Special attention is given to those aspects that could explain the large solvent effect on the two-photon absorption cross sections observed experimentally for this class of compounds.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter sequence and three isoquinoline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li-Na; Xie, Meng-Xia

    2017-01-01

    KRAS promoter can form G-quadruplex structure and regulate gene transcription. The drugs which can bind with G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter may be potential remedy for treatment of cancers associated with KRAS mutation. The interaction mechanism between the G-quadruplex of KRAS promoter and three isoquinoline alkaloids (jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine) has been investigated by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. The results showed that the three alkaloids can form complexes with G-quadruplex KRAS promoter with the molecular ratio of 1:1, and the binding constants were (0.90 ± 0.16) × 106 L mol- 1, (0.93 ± 0.21) × 106 L mol- 1 and (1.16 ± 0.45) × 106 L mol- 1 for jatrorrhizine, berberine and sanguinarine. The absorption spectra, KI quenching and fluorescence anisotropy and polarization studies suggested jatrorrhizine and berberine interacted with G-quadruplex by not only end-stacking binding mode but also grooves or loops binding mode, while sanguinarine by end-stacking binding mode. Sanguinarine was more beneficial to maintain the stability and parallel conformation of KRAS promoter G-quadruplex. MTT assay was performed to evaluate antiproliferation effects of the three isoquinoline alkaloids on SW620 cells, and the antiproliferation effects of the three alkaloids were sanguinarine > berberine > jatrorrhizine. All the three alkaloids can bind with KRAS promoter G-quadruplex, and sanguinarine had the better binding property and antiproliferation effects on SW620 cells. The results obtained are meaningful to explore potential reagents targeting the parallel G-quadruplex structure of KRAS promoter for gene theraphy of colorectal carcinomas.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and antimicrobial investigations of charge-transfer complexes formed from the drug procaine hydrochloride with quinol, picric acid and TCNQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A.

    2012-12-01

    Intermolecular charge-transfer or proton-transfer complexes between the drug procaine hydrochloride (PC-HCl) as a donor and quinol (QL), picric acid (PA) or 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as a π-acceptor have been synthesized and spectroscopically studied in methanol at room temperature. Based on elemental analyses and photometric titrations, the stoichiometry of the complexes (donor:acceptor molar ratios) was determined to be 1:1 for all three complexes. The formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT) and other spectroscopic data have been determined using the Benesi-Hildebrand method and its modifications. The newly synthesized CT complexes have been characterized via elemental analysis, IR, Raman, 1H NMR, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The morphological features of these complexes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the sharp, well-defined Bragg reflections at specific 2θ angles have been identified from the powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGAs) and kinetic thermodynamic parameters were also used to investigate the thermal stability of the synthesized solid CT complexes. Finally, the CT complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against various bacterial and fungal strains, and only the complex obtained using picric acid exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against all of the tested strains.

  17. NO binding kinetics in myoglobin investigated by picosecond Fe K-edge absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silatani, Mahsa; Lima, Frederico A.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rittmann, Jochen; Reinhard, Marco E.; Rittmann-Frank, Hannelore M.; Borca, Camelia; Grolimund, Daniel; Milne, Christopher J.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Diatomic ligands in hemoproteins and the way they bind to the active center are central to the protein’s function. Using picosecond Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we probe the NO-heme recombination kinetics with direct sensitivity to the Fe-NO binding after 532-nm photoexcitation of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbNO) in physiological solutions. The transients at 70 and 300 ps are identical, but they deviate from the difference between the static spectra of deoxymyoglobin and MbNO, showing the formation of an intermediate species. We propose the latter to be a six-coordinated domed species that is populated on a timescale of ∼200 ps by recombination with NO ligands. This work shows the feasibility of ultrafast pump–probe X-ray spectroscopic studies of proteins in physiological media, delivering insight into the electronic and geometric structure of the active center. PMID:26438842

  18. Spectroscopic investigation of the pH controlled inclusion of doxycycline and oxytetracycline antibiotics in cationic micelles and their magnesium driven release.

    PubMed

    Cesaretti, Alessio; Carlotti, Benedetta; Gentili, Pier Luigi; Clementi, Catia; Germani, Raimondo; Elisei, Fausto

    2014-07-24

    This work presents a steady-state and time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopic investigation of two antibiotics belonging to the family of tetracyclines (doxycycline and oxytetracycline) in the micellar medium provided by p-dodecyloxybenzyltrimethylammonium bromide (pDoTABr). The spectroscopic analysis has been performed in absorption and emission with femtosecond time resolution, and at pH 5.0 and 8.7 where doxycycline and oxytetracycline are present in their neutral-zwitterionic and monoanionic forms, respectively. The experimental data have been processed by sophisticated data mining methods such as global/target analysis and the maximum entropy method. The results unambiguously indicate that, when doxycycline and oxytetracycline are in their zwitterionic form, they are entrapped within the micelle, while when they are in their monoanionic form, they preferentially show a strong one-to-one interaction with the positively charged surfactant heads. Thus, the pH of the solution controls the inclusion of the investigated drugs into the micelle. When the drugs are entrapped inside the micelles, their spectroscopic and dynamical properties after photoexcitation change appreciably. Interestingly, the entrapped drugs are still able to strongly bind Mg(2+) cations, crucial in determining the biological functioning of tetracyclines. The femtosecond resolved measurements reveal that the drugs are efficiently pulled out of the micelles by Mg(2+). In fact, magnesium-tetracycline complexes are detected in the aqueous phase. The present study suggests the potential promising use of ammonium surfactant micelles embedding doxycycline and oxytetracycline as "smart" drug delivery systems allowing their pH controlled inclusion and Mg(2+) induced release.

  19. Investigation on the interaction of Rutin with serum albumins: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Priti; Sardar, Pinki Saha; Roy, Pritam; Dasgupta, Swagata; Bose, Adity

    2018-06-01

    The binding interaction of Rutin, a flavonoid, with model transport proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), were investigated using different spectroscopic techniques, such as fluorescence, time-resolved single photon counting (TCSPC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as molecular docking method. The emission studies revealed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA/HSA by Rutin occurred through a simultaneous static and dynamic quenching process, and we have evaluated both the quenching constants individually. The binding constants of Rutin-BSA and Rutin-HSA system were found to be 2.14 × 10 6  M -1 and 2.36 × 10 6  M -1 at 298 K respectively, which were quite high. Further, influence of some biologically significant metal ions (Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ ) on binding of Rutin to BSA and HSA were also investigated. Thermodynamic parameters justified the involvement of hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals forces in the interaction of Rutin with both BSA and HSA. Further a site-marker competitive experiment was performed to evaluate Rutin binding site in the albumins. Additionally, the CD spectra of BSA and HSA revealed that the secondary structure of the proteins was perturbed in the presence of Rutin. Finally protein-ligand docking studies have also been performed to determine the probable location of the ligand molecule. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A spectroscopic and photometric investigation of the mercury-manganese star KIC 6128830

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümmerich, Stefan; Niemczura, Ewa; Walczak, Przemysław; Paunzen, Ernst; Bernhard, Klaus; Murphy, Simon J.; Drobek, Dominik

    2018-02-01

    The advent of space-based photometry provides the opportunity for the first precise characterizations of variability in mercury-manganese (HgMn/CP3) stars, which might advance our understanding of their internal structure. We have carried out a spectroscopic and photometric investigation of the candidate CP3 star KIC 6128830. A detailed abundance analysis based on newly acquired high-resolution spectra was performed, which confirms that the star's abundance pattern is fully consistent with its proposed classification. Photometric variability was investigated using 4 yr of archival Kepler data. In agreement with results from the literature, we have identified a single significant and independent frequency f1 = 0.2065424 d-1 with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ˜3.4 mmag and harmonic frequencies up to 5f1. Drawing on the predictions of state-of-the-art pulsation models and information on evolutionary status, we discuss the origin of the observed light changes. Our calculations predict the occurrence of g-mode pulsations at the observed variability frequency. On the other hand, the strictly mono-periodic nature of the variability strongly suggests a rotational origin. While we prefer the rotational explanation, the present data leave some uncertainty.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation on structure and pH dependent Cocrystal formation between gamma-aminobutyric acid and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Xue, Jiadan; Cai, Qiang; Zhang, Qi

    2018-02-15

    Vibrational spectroscopic methods, including terahertz absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopy, were utilized for the characterization and analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), benzoic acid (BA), and the corresponding GABA-BA cocrystal formation under various pH values of aqueous solution. Vibrational spectroscopic results demonstrated that the solvent GABA-BA cocrystal, similar as grinding counterpart, possessed unique characteristic features compared with that of starting parent compounds. The change of vibrational modes for GABA-BA cocrystal comparing with starting components indicates there is strong inter-molecular interaction between GABA and BA molecules during its cocrystallization process. Formation of GABA-BA cocrystal under slow solvent evaporation is impacted by the pH value of aqueous solution. Vibrational spectra indicate that the GABA-BA cocrystal could be stably formed with the solvent condition of 2.00≤pH≤7.00. In contrast, such cocrystallization did not occur and the cocrystal would dissociate into its parent components when the pH value of solvent is lower than 2.00. This study provides experimental benchmark to discriminate and identify the structure of cocrystal and also pH-dependent cocrystallization effect with vibrational spectroscopic techniques in solid-state pharmaceutical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation on structure and pH dependent Cocrystal formation between gamma-aminobutyric acid and benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Xue, Jiadan; Cai, Qiang; Zhang, Qi

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic methods, including terahertz absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopy, were utilized for the characterization and analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), benzoic acid (BA), and the corresponding GABA-BA cocrystal formation under various pH values of aqueous solution. Vibrational spectroscopic results demonstrated that the solvent GABA-BA cocrystal, similar as grinding counterpart, possessed unique characteristic features compared with that of starting parent compounds. The change of vibrational modes for GABA-BA cocrystal comparing with starting components indicates there is strong inter-molecular interaction between GABA and BA molecules during its cocrystallization process. Formation of GABA-BA cocrystal under slow solvent evaporation is impacted by the pH value of aqueous solution. Vibrational spectra indicate that the GABA-BA cocrystal could be stably formed with the solvent condition of 2.00 ≤ pH ≤ 7.00. In contrast, such cocrystallization did not occur and the cocrystal would dissociate into its parent components when the pH value of solvent is lower than 2.00. This study provides experimental benchmark to discriminate and identify the structure of cocrystal and also pH-dependent cocrystallization effect with vibrational spectroscopic techniques in solid-state pharmaceutical fields.

  3. Spectroscopic and structural investigation of 2,5-dicarboxy-1-methylpyridinium inner salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Komasa, A.; Katrusiak, A.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Nowaczyk, Ł.; Ratajczak-Sitarz, M.; Szafran, M.

    2014-03-01

    The structure of 2,5-dicarboxy-1-methylpyridinium inner salt (1), has been studied by X-ray diffraction, B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations, FTIR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. The molecules are linked by short intermolecular and asymmetric Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.486(2) Å between carboxyl and carboxylate groups of neighboring molecules into infinite chains. The hydrogen bonds in the molecules optimized by the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) approach in trimer (2) and dimer (3) are slightly longer than in the crystal. The FTIR spectrum of the investigated inner salt is dominated by a broad and intense absorption in the 1500-800 cm-1 region attributed to the νas(OHO) and γ(OHO) vibrations of the strong hydrogen bond. In the Raman spectrum the broad absorption is absent. Linear correlations, δexp = a + b σcalc between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts (δexp) of the investigated inner salt in D2O and the calculated magnetic isotropic shielding constants (σcalc) for the optimized monomer (4a) solvated in water are reported. The pKa value for 1 of 2.31 ± 0.02 was determined by the potentiometric titration.

  4. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  5. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions.

    PubMed

    Sathish, K; Thirumaran, S

    2015-08-05

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V₂O₅-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) VBS glass system and (x%MnO₂-(80-x)% B₂O₃-20% Na₂CO₃) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x=3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V₂O₅ doped glass system,(VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO₂ doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V₂O₅ with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO₂. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO₃ or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na₂CO₃, V₂O₅ and MnO₂ contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs

  6. Spectroscopic and ultrasonic investigations on structural characterization of borate glass specimen doped with transition metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, K.; Thirumaran, S.

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes the glass samples of composition (x% V2O5-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) VBS glass system and (x% MnO2-(80-x)% B2O3-20% Na2CO3) in MBS glass system with mol% ranging from x = 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 in steps of 3 mol% are prepared by melt quenching technique. For these prepared glass systems, sound velocity (longitudinal and shear velocities) and density have been measured. The sound velocity (longitudinal and shear) was measured by using pulse-echo technique at 5 MHz. The XRD study was carried to out to ascertain the amorphous nature of the glass specimen. Using these measured values, the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, acoustic impedance and thermal expansion coefficient of the two glass systems were evaluated. The elastic and mechanical properties of the prepared glass systems are analyzed from ultrasonic study and the structural characterization from spectroscopic study. The effects due to the doping of transition metal ions with borate have been discussed. In the V2O5 doped glass system, (VBS glass system) the sound velocity, density and elastic moduli, steeply increases after 12 mol% comparatively with MnO2 doped glass system (VBS glass system). The present study critically observes the doping of V2O5 with borate enhances the strengthening of network linkage and hardening of the glassy network structure than MnO2. The IR spectral analysis reveals depolymerization of the borate network and conversion of BO3 or BO4 units with the formation of non-bridging oxygen. The FTIR spectral studies confirm the presence of various functional groups of the sample. FTIR spectrum of sample exhibits broad absorption bands indicating the wide distribution of borate structural units. The effect of Na2CO3, V2O5 and MnO2 contents on the structures of borate glass is evaluated from the FTIR spectra. The topological aspects of the prepared glass samples are exhaustively reported from SEM micrographs.

  7. A spectroscopic investigation of the Schiff base reprotonation mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Terence Stephen

    This thesis reports time-resolved visible spectroscopy experiments performed on the light-driven proton pumping protein, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and a number of artificially produced analogs. These analogs comprise a variety of single and double amino acid substitutions produced in several of the residues previously implicated in proton transport in bR. Also addressed are the results of resonance Raman and FTIR difference spectroscopy which provide information about the vibrational modes of the protein. The results from these experiments confirm aspects of both structural and functional models of bR based on previous electron diffraction and spectroscopic data. During a phase of the proton pumping photocycle in bR known as Schiff base reprotonation (also referred to as M intermediate decay), a proton is transferred over a 12 A distance from a proton donor residue (Asp-96) to the light-absorbing active site. The behavior of the M intermediate was monitored by time-resolved visible spectroscopy. In the single substitution known as D96N, the Asp-96 residue was replaced with a less efficient proton donor, asparagine. This mutant exhibited an M intermediate which decayed slowly in comparison to that of wild-type bR. However, this effect was reversed with the double substitution, T46D/D96N. This result indicates that the proton donor group can be moved to another nearby location and still yield a system functionally similar to the native protein. Replacement of the donor group with a histidine, His-96, resulted in a photocycle similar to D96N above pH 7. However, below this pH, the M intermediate is not detected. FTIR difference spectroscopy indicates that the protonation state of the substituted His-96 residue influences the structure of the active site of bR which suggests that a proton that is associated with His-96 may move towards the active site and thereby block M intermediate formation. Finally, the residue Thr-89 was replaced with an asparagine. This

  8. Spectroscopic method for Earth-satellite-Earth laser long-path absorption measurements using Retroreflector In Space (RIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Minato, Atsushi; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) is a single element cube-corner retroreflector with a diameter of 0.5 m designed for earth-satellite-earth laser long-path absorption experiments. The RIS is to be loaded on the Advanced Earth Observing System (ADEOS) satellite which is scheduled for launch in Feb. 1996. The orbit for ADEOS is a sun synchronous subrecurrent polar-orbit with an inclination of 98.6 deg. It has a period of 101 minutes and an altitude of approximately 800 km. The local time at descending node is 10:15-10:45, and the recurrent period is 41 days. The velocity relative to the ground is approximately 7 km/s. In the RIS experiment, a laser beam transmitted from a ground station is reflected by RIS and received at the ground station. The absorption of the intervening atmosphere is measured in the round-trip optical path.

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Grace O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it,more » from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.« less

  10. Morphology, stability, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of iron oxide (Hematite) nanoparticles prepared by micelle nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Tiwari, N.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, considerable effort is being made towards synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this article, we report on the preparation and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) arrays supported on natively oxidized Si(100) surface. The NPs are synthesized by reverse micelle nanolithography technique and are then deposited onto natively oxidized Si(100) surface via spin-coating. Plasma oxidation followed by high temperature annealing results in a unimodal size distribution of pseudohexagonally-ordered array of iron oxide NPs (with ∼14 nm mean diameter and ∼5 nm mean height). High temperature annealing does not fragment the NPs. Particles are sinter-resistant: the unimodal arrays are robust with respect to thermal treatment. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), including X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), reveals that structure of the iron oxide particle resembles closely the hematite α-Fe2O3 structure. Furthermore, with the help of EXAFS spectra, we eliminate the possibility of γ-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO and FeO(OH) structures for the NPs.

  11. Investigation on optical absorption properties of ion irradiated single walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Vishalli,, E-mail: vishalli-2008@yahoo.com; Dharamvir, Keya, E-mail: keya@pu.ac.in; Kaur, Ramneek

    2015-08-28

    In the present study change in the optical absorption properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under nickel ion (60 MeV) irradiation at various fluences has been investigated. Langmuir Blodgett technique is used to deposit SWCNT thin film of uniform thickness. AFM analysis shows a network of interconnected bundles of nanotubes. UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra indicate that the sample mainly contain SWCNTs of semiconducting nature. It has been found in absorption spectra that there is decrease in the intensity of the characteristic SWCNT peaks with increase in fluence. At fluence value 1×10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} there is almost complete suppression of themore » characteristic SWCNTs peaks.The decrease in the optical absorption with increase in fluence is due to the increase in the disorder in the system which leads to the decrease in optically active states.« less

  12. Dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopic investigation of plant stress response and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Zachary; Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Marble, Kassie; Yakovlev, Vladislav

    2018-03-01

    Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy are powerful tools for non-invasive and non-destructive investigations of material chemical and mechanical properties. In this study, we use a newly developed custom-built dual Raman-Brillouin microspectroscopy instrument to build on previous works studying in-vivo stress response of live plants using only a Raman spectroscopy system. This dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopy system is capable of fast simultaneous spectra acquisition from single-point locations. Shifts and changes in a samples Brillouin spectrum indicate a change in the physical characteristics of the sample, namely mechano-elasticity; in measuring this change, we can establish a relationship between the mechanical properties of a sample and known stress response agents, such as reactive oxygen species and other chemical constituents as indicated by peaks in the Raman spectra of the same acquisition point. Simultaneous application of these spectroscopic techniques offers great promise for future development and applications in agricultural and biological studies and can help to improve our understanding of mechanochemical changes of plants and other biological samples in response to environmental and chemically induced stresses at microscopic or cellular level.

  13. Spectroscopic and structural investigation for the ground and excited states of CaNa+ molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellali, Soulef; Habli, Héla; Mejrissi, Leila; Hamdi, Rafika; Oujia, Brahim; Xavier Gadéa, Florent

    2018-04-01

    In the current theoretical study, we investigated several electronic states correlated with the {Ca+Na+} and {Ca++Na} asymptotic limits of different symmetries (Σ+, Π, Δ). Our calculations were based on ab intio method using semi-empirical pseudo-potential theory of both cores Na+ and Ca2+ and Full Configuration Interaction (FCI). Hence, we computed the adiabatic potential energy curves (PECs) and vibrational levels of the ground state along with several higher states of (CaNa)+ molecular ion. From these curves, we extracted all related spectroscopic parameters (De, D0, Te, Re, Be, ωe and ωeχe). Dipolar properties of (CaNa)+ such as Permanent and Transition Dipole Moments (PDM, TDM) were determined and analyzed. Numerous Avoided Crossings (ACs) were detected in PECs and their reflections were clearly observed in PDM and TDM functions. The strong interactions could lead to significant charge or excitation transfer for atom-ion collisions in the diverse charge or excited states.

  14. Corrosion investigation of fire-gilded bronze involving high surface resolution spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, G.; Chiavari, C.; Avila, J.; Esvan, J.; Raffo, S.; Bignozzi, M. C.; Asensio, M. C.; Robbiola, L.; Martini, C.

    2016-03-01

    Gilded bronzes are often affected by severe corrosion, due to defects in the Au layer and Au/Cu alloy galvanic coupling, stimulated by large cathodic area of the gilded layer. Galvanic corrosion, triggered by gilding defects, leads to products growth at the Au/bronze interface, inducing blistering or break-up of the Au layer. In this context, fire-gilded bronze replicas prepared by ancient methods (use of spreadable Au-Hg paste) was specifically characterised by compiling complementary spectroscopic and imaging information before/after accelerated ageing with synthetic rain. Fire-gilded bronze samples were chemically imaged in cross-section at nano-metric scale (<200 nm) using high energy and lateral resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission (HR-SRPES) of core levels and valence band after conventional characterisation of the samples by Glow Discharge optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) and conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We have found a net surface enrichment in Zn and Sn after fire-gilding and presence of metallic Hg, Pb and Cu within the Au layer. Moreover, the composition distribution of the elements together with their oxidation has been determined. It was also revealed that metallic phases including Hg and Pb remain in the gilding after corrosion. Moreover, selective dissolution of Zn and Cu occurs in the crater due to galvanic coupling, which locally induces relative Sn species enrichment (decuprification). The feasibility advantages and disadvantages of chemical imaging using HR-SRPES to study artworks have been investigated on representative replicas.

  15. Investigation of laser-tissue interaction in medicine by means of laser spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Weigmann, Hans-Juergen

    1995-01-01

    Toxic and carcinogenic substances were produced during laser application in medicine for the cutting and evaporation of tissue. The laser smoke presents a danger potential for the medical staff and the patients. The laser tissue interaction process was investigated by means of laser spectroscopic measurements which give the possibility of measuring metastable molecular states directly as a prerequisite to understand and to influence fundamental laser tissue interaction processes in order to reduce the amount of harmful chemicals. Highly excited atomic and molecular states and free radicals (CN, OH, C2, CH, CH2) have been detected applying spontaneous and laser induced fluorescence methods. It was found that the formation of harmful substances in the laser plumes can be reduced significantly by optimization of the surrounding gas atmosphere. A high content of oxygen or water in the interaction zone has been found, in agreement with the results of classical and analytical methods, as a suitable way to decrease pollutant emission. The experimental methods and the principal results are applicable not only in laser medicine but in laser material treatment generally.

  16. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, Joel

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied inmore » high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W 55+ through Ne-like W 64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W 44+ through Co-like W 47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W 64+ through Li-like W 71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W 6+ could be useful for plasma diagnostics.« less

  17. Physical, structural and spectroscopic investigations of Sm3+ doped ZnO mixed alkali borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailaja, B.; Joyce Stella, R.; Thirumala Rao, G.; Jaya Raja, B.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Glass of 20ZnO-15 Li2O-15 Na2O-49.9 B2O3 doped with 0.1 mol% of Sm3+ (ZLNB) was prepared by the melt quenching technique. Physical properties were studied and analysed. The XRD studies confirm the amorphous nature of sample. The FT-IR spectral investigation discloses the BO3, BO4 groups, H and OH bonds. Optical absorption and emission spectra were recorded and characterized. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to f ↔ f transitions to evaluate Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ). The oscillator strengths and bonding parameters were determined from absorption spectra. The trend observed was Ω4 > Ω6 > Ω2. High value of Ω4 reveals higher rigidity and covalency around the Sm3+ ion. Low value of Ω2 implies ionic nature of ligands and site symmetry around Sm3+ ion. luminescence data and Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, and 6) were used to evaluate various radiative probabilities like spontaneous radiative emission probabilities (AR), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratios (βR) stimulated emission cross section (σe) and CIE colour coordinates were measured, CCT temperature evaluated and the values were used to ascertain potential laser transitions at the optimum mixed alkali effect observed for the glass sample prepared. The preparedness of the material as the efficient laser active material is examined.

  18. Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

    2015-01-25

    Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectroscopic, orbital, and physical properties of the binary Feige 24 and detection of transient He II absorption in the system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Thorstensen, John R.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained new high-dispersion optical spectroscopy at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and new International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectroscopy of the white dwarf+red dwarf binary system Feige 24. The optical range shows a composite DA+dM spectrum, together with H I Balmer and He I emission. The orbital phase dependence of the emission shows that it results from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light reprocessing in the red dwarf upper atmosphere. The systems close enough and hot enough to show this reprocessing signature only recently emerged from common-envelope evolution. The ultraviolet spectrum exclusively emanates from the white dwarf and shows numerous heavy element absorption lines. We measured accurate radial velocities of the red dwarf component motion, traced by both optical absorption and emission lines, and new radial velocities of the white dwarf, traced by ultraviolet Fe V lines. Combining these measurements, we refined the orbital parameters presented by Vennes et al. (1991), and we confirmed that the white dwarf gravitational redshift is exceptionally small with 9 +/- 2 km/s. From this we deduced that the interior is either pure helium or carbon with a thick hydrogen layer, and we derived, for the combined interior compositions, a white dwarf mass and radius of M(sub WD) = 0.44-050 solar mass and R(sub WD) = 0.028-0.036 solar radius. We suggest that Feige 24 could be a typical case of close binary evolution leading to the formation of a low-mass helium white dwarf. The mass of the red dwarf and the inclination of the system naturally follow: M(sub dM) = 0.26-0.33 solar mass, i greater than or equal to 75 deg. High-dispersion H-alpha line profiles are asymmetrical, strongly enhanced toward the blue, suggesting a moving atmosphere possibly linked to a mass loss rate of 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr. The IUE spectra taken when the system is near inferior conjunction show strong He II 1640 A absorption. The profile is highly variable in width and

  20. Spectroscopic investigation on the energy transfer process in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Bei; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Xing-Kang; Zhao, Jing-Quan; Jiang, Li-Jin

    2004-06-01

    In this work, we employ cyanobacteria, Spirulina platensis, and separate their photosynthetic apparatus, phycobilisome (PBS), thylakoid membrane and phycobilisome-thylakoid membrane complex. The steady state absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and corresponding deconvoluted spectra and picosecond time-resolved spectra are used to investigate the energy transfer process in phycobilisome-thylakoid membrane complex. The results on steady state spectra show chlorophylls of the photosystem II are able to transfer excitation energy to phycobilisome with Chl a molecules selectively excited. The decomposition of the steady state spectra further suggest the uphill energy transfer originate from chlorophylls of photosystem II to cores of phycobilisome, while rods and cores of phycobilisome cannot receive energy from the chlorophylls of photosystem I. The time constant for the back energy transfer process is 18 ps.

  1. Effects of velocity-changing collisions on two-photon and stepwise-absorption spectroscopic line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, P. F.; Bjorkholm, J. E.; Berman, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of the effects of velocity-changing collisions on two-photon and stepwise-absorption line shapes. Excitation spectra for the 3S12-->3P12-->4D12 transitions of sodium atoms undergoing collisions with foreign gas perturbers are obtained. These spectra are obtained with two cw dye lasers. One laser, the pump laser, is tuned 1.6 GHz below the 3S12-->3P12 transition frequency and excites a nonthermal longitudinal velocity distribution of excited 3P12 atoms in the vapor. Absorption of the second (probe) laser is used to monitor the steady-state excited-state distribution which is a result of collisions with rare gas atoms. The spectra are obtained for various pressures of He, Ne, and Kr gases and are fit to a theoretical model which utilizes either the phenomenological Keilson-Störer or the classical hardsphere collision kernel. The theoretical model includes the effects of collisionally aided excitation of the 3P12 state as well as effects due to fine-structure state-changing collisions. Although both kernels are found to predict line shapes which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, the hard-sphere kernel is found superior as it gives a better description of the effects of large-angle scattering for heavy perturbers. Neither kernel provides a fully adequate description over the entire line profile. The experimental data is used to extract effective hard-sphere collision cross sections for collisions between sodium 3P12 atoms and helium, neon, and krypton perturbers.

  2. Investigation of the interaction of naringin palmitate with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV ) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at -4.11 ± 0.18 kJ·mol(-1) and -76.59 ± 0.32 J·mol(-1)·K(-1), respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal preparations may be clinically and practically significant

  3. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of oxali-palladium interactions with β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Ghalandari, Behafarid; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Haertlé, Thomas; Parivar, Kazem; Bazl, Roya; Eslami-Moghadam, Mahbube; Amanlou, Massoud

    2014-01-24

    The possibility of using a small cheap dairy protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), as a carrier for oxali-palladium for drug delivery was studied. Their binding in an aqueous solution at two temperatures of 25 and 37°C was investigated using spectroscopic techniques in combination with a molecular docking study. Fluorescence intensity changes showed combined static and dynamic quenching during β-LG oxali-palladium binding, with the static mode being predominant in the quenching mechanism. The binding and thermodynamic parameters were determined by analyzing the results of quenching and those of the van't Hoff equation. According to obtained results the binding constants at two temperatures of 25 and 37°C are 3.3×10(9) M(-1) and 18.4×10(6) M(-1) respectively. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed that the experimental results and the molecular docking results were coherent. An absence change of β-LG secondary structure was confirmed by the CD results. Molecular docking results agreed fully with the experimental results since the fluorescence studies also revealed the presence of two binding sites with a negative value for the Gibbs free energy of binding of oxali-palladium to β-LG. Furthermore, molecular docking and experimental results suggest that the hydrophobic effect plays a critical role in the formation of the oxali-palladium complex with β-LG. This agreement between molecular docking and experimental results implies that docking studies may be a suitable method for predicting and confirming experimental results, as shown in this study. Hence, the combination of molecular docking and spectroscopy methods is an effective innovative approach for binding studies, particularly for pharmacophores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the interaction of anticancer drug temsirolimus with human transferrin: Molecular docking and spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Anas; Ahmed, Azaj; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Amani, Samreen; Bano, Bilqees

    2018-05-16

    In our present study, binding between an important anti renal cancer drug temsirolimus and human transferrin (hTF) was investigated employing spectroscopic and molecular docking approach. In the presence of temsirolimus, hyper chromaticity is observed in hTF in UV spectroscopy suggestive of complex formation between hTF and temsirolimus. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of quenching in hTF in the presence of temsirolimus implying complex formation taking place between hTF and temsirolimus. Further, the mode of interaction between hTF and temsirolimus was revealed to be static by fluorescence quenching analysis at 3 different temperatures. Binding constant values obtained employing fluorescence spectroscopy depicts strong interaction between hTF and temsirolimus; temsirolimus binds to hTF at 298 K with a binding constant of .32 × 10 4  M -1 implying the strength of this interaction. The negative Gibbs free energy obtained through quenching experiments is evident of the fact that the binding is spontaneous. CD spectra of hTF also showed a downward shift in the presence of temsirolimus as compared with free hTF implying complex formation between hTF and temsirolimus. Molecular docking was performed with a view to find out which residues are key players in this interaction. The importance of our study stems from the fact it will provide an insight into binding pattern of commonly administered renal cancer drug with an important protein that plays a pivotal role in many physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 4-Cyano-α-methyl-l-phenylalanine as a spectroscopic marker for the investigation of peptaibiotic-membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    De Zotti, Marta; Bobone, Sara; Bortolotti, Annalisa; Longo, Edoardo; Biondi, Barbara; Peggion, Cristina; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio; Dalla Bona, Andrea; Kaptein, Bernard; Stella, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Two analogs of the ten-amino acid residue, membrane-active lipopeptaibiotic trichogin GA IV, mono-labeled with 4-cyano-α-methyl-L-phenylalanine, a potentially useful fluorescence and IR absorption probe of the local microenvironment, were synthesized by the solid-phase methodology and conformationally characterized. The single modification was incorporated either at the N-terminus (position 1) or near the C-terminus (position 8) of the peptide main chain. In both cases, the replaced amino acid was the equally helicogenic α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residue. We performed a solution conformational analysis by use of FT-IR absorption, CD, and 2D-NMR spectroscopies. The results indicate that both labeled analogs essentially maintain the overall helical propensity of the naturally occurring lipopeptaibiotic. Peptide-membrane interactions were assessed by fluorescence and ATR-IR absorption techniques. Analogies and differences between the two peptides were highlighted. Taken together, our data confirm literature results that some of the spectroscopic parameters of the 4-cyanobenzyl chromophore are sensitive markers of the local microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of the electronic structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götsch, Thomas; Bertel, Erminald; Menzel, Alexander; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Penner, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia are investigated as a function of the yttria content using multiple experimental and theoretical methods, including electron energy-loss spectroscopy, Kramers-Kronig analysis to obtain the optical parameters, photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory. It is shown that many properties, including the band gaps, the crystal field splitting, the so-called defect gap between acceptor (YZr') and donor (VO••) states, as well as the index of refraction in the visible range exhibit the same "zig-zag-like" trend as the unit cell height does, showing the influence of an increased yttria content as well as of the tetragonal-cubic phase transition between 8 mol % and 20 mol %Y2O3 . Also, with Čerenkov spectroscopy (CS), a new technique is presented, providing information complementary to electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In CS, the Čerenkov radiation emitted inside the TEM is used to measure the onset of optical absorption. The apparent absorption edges in the Čerenkov spectra correspond to the energetic difference between the disorder states close to the valence band and the oxygen-vacancy-related electronic states within the band gap. Theoretical computations corroborate this assignment: they find both, the acceptor states and the donor states, at the expected energies in the band structures for diverse yttria concentrations. In the end, a schematic electronic structure diagram of the area around the band gap is constructed, including the chemical potential of the electrons obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy. The latter reveal that tetragonal YSZ corresponds to a p -type semiconductor, whereas the cubic samples exhibit n -type semiconductor properties.

  7. Polarized XANES and EXAFS spectroscopic investigation into copper(II) complexes on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnare, Luca J.; Vailionis, Arturas; Strawn, Daniel G.

    2005-11-01

    Interaction of heavy metals with clay minerals can dominate solid-solution reactions in soil, controlling the fate of the metals in the environment. In this study we used powdered and polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to investigate Cu sorbed on Llano vermiculite and compare the results to reported Cu sorption mechanism on Wyoming (WY) smectite and reduced South African (SA) vermiculite. Analysis of the Cu K-edge spectra revealed that Cu sorbed on Llano vermiculite at high ionic strength ( I) has the greatest degree of covalent bond character, followed by Cu sorbed on montmorillonite at high I, and Cu sorbed on reduced SA vermiculite at high I. Cu sorbed on clay minerals at low I has the least covalent character. EXAFS data from Cu sorbed Ca- and K-equilibrated Llano vermiculites showed the presence of a second-shell Al, Si, or Mg backscatterer at 3.02 Å. This distance is consistent with Cu sorbing via a corner-sharing monodentate or bidentate bond. Polarized XANES and EXAFS results revealed that the angle between the Cu atom and the mineral sorption sites is 68° with respect to the [001] direction. From the bond angle and the persistence of the second-shell backscatterer when the interlayer is collapsed (K-equilibration), we conclude that Cu adsorption on the Llano vermiculite is not occurring in the interlayer but rather Cu is adsorbing onto the edges of the vermiculite. Results from this research provide evidence that Cu forms inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes on clay minerals, and does not form the vast multinuclear surface precipitates that have been observed for Co, Zn, and Ni.

  8. The spectroscopic properties of anticancer drug Apigenin investigated by using DFT calculations, FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, G.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Manoharan, S.

    2012-09-01

    The FT-Raman and FT-Infrared spectra of solid Apigenin sample were measured in order to elucidate the spectroscopic properties of title molecule in the spectral range of 3500-50 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively. The recorded FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral measurements favor the calculated (by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method) structural parameters which are further supported by spectral simulation. Additional support is given by the collected 1H and 13C NMR spectra recorded with the sample dissolved in DMSO. The predicted chemical shifts at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level obtained using the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbitals (GIAO) method with and without inclusion of solvent using the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). By using TD-DFT method, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with the TD-DFT method and the experimental one is determined. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in Ethanol, Methanol and DMSO were recorded in the range of 800-200 nm. The formation of hydrogen bond and the most possible interaction are explained using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) analysis and atomic charges of the title compound were investigated using theoretical calculations. The results are discussed herein and compared with similar molecules whenever appropriate.

  9. Spectrum of excess partial molar absorptivity. Part II: a near infrared spectroscopic study of aqueous Na-halides.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Fumie; Nishikawa, Keiko; Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-04-07

    Our earlier thermodynamic studies suggested that F(-) and Cl(-) form hydration shells with the hydration number 14 ± 2 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively, and leave the bulk H(2)O away from hydration shells unperturbed. Br(-) and I(-), on the other hand, form hydrogen bonds directly with the momentarily existing hydrogen bond network of H(2)O, and retard the degree of entropy-volume cross fluctuation inherent in liquid H(2)O. The effect of the latter is stronger for I(-) than Br(-). Here we seek additional information about this qualitative difference between Cl(-) and (Br(-) and I(-)) pair by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We analyze the ν(2) + ν(3) band of H(2)O in the range 4600-5500 cm(-1) of aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI, by a new approach. From observed absorbance, we calculate excess molar absorptivity, ε(E), excess over the additive contributions of solute and solvent. ε(E) thus contains information about the effect of inter-molecular interactions in the ν(2) + ν(3) spectrum. The spectrum of ε(E) shows three bands; two negative ones at 5263 and 4873 cm(-1), and the positive band at 5123 cm(-1). We then define and calculate the excess partial molar absorptivity of each salt, ε(E)(salt). From the behaviour of ε(E)(salt) we suggest that the negative band at 5263 cm(-1) represents free H(2)O without much hydrogen bonding under the influence of local electric field of ions. Furthermore, from a sudden change in the x(salt) (mole fraction of salt) dependence of ε(E)(salt), we suggest that there is an ion-pairing in x(salt) > 0.032, 0.036, and 0.04 for NaCl, NaBr and NaI respectively. The positive band of ε(E) at 5123 cm(-1) is attributed to a modestly organized hydrogen bond network of H(2)O (or liquid-likeness), and the x(salt) dependence of ε indicated a qualitative difference in the effect of Cl(-) from those of Br(-) and I(-). Namely, the values of ε(E)(salt) stay constant for Cl(-) but those for Br(-) and I(-) decrease smoothly on

  10. Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ammonium reineckate ion-pair complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Gamal H.; Amin, Alaa S.

    2004-03-01

    Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric, conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of norfloxacin (NRF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at λmax 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone in the range 5.0-65, 4.0-48, 5.0-56 and 6.0-72 μg ml -1 of NRF, CPF, OFL and ENF, respectively. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. The results obtained showed good recoveries of 99.15±1.15, 99.30±1.40, 99.60±1.50, and 99.00±1.25% with relative standard deviations of 0.81, 1.06, 0.97, and 0.69% for NRF, CPF, OFL, and ENF, respectively. Applications of the proposed methods to representative pharmaceutical formulations are successfully presented.

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives and investigation of its reactive properties by DFT and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, B.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Narayana, B.; Suma, S.

    2018-03-01

    Two 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (57DC8HQ) and 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxy quinoline (5CL7I8HQ) have been investigated in details by means of spectroscopic characterization and computational molecular modelling techniques. FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental spectroscopic approaches have been utilized in order to obtain detailed spectroscopic signatures of title compounds, while DFT calculations have been used in order to visualize and assign vibrations. The computed values of dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizability indicate that the title molecules exhibit NLO properties. The evaluated HOMO and LUMO energies demonstrate the chemical stability of the molecules. NBO analysis is made to study the stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. DFT calculations have been also used jointly with MD simulations in order to investigate in details global and local reactivity properties of title compounds. Also, molecular docking has been also used in order to investigate affinity of title compounds against decarboxylase inhibitor and quinoline derivatives can be a lead compounds for developing new antiparkinsonian drug.

  12. Investigation of the Interaction of Naringin Palmitate with Bovine Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic Analysis and Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) for the interaction were detected at −4.11±0.18 kJ·mol−1 and −76.59±0.32 J·mol−1·K−1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic and medicinal

  13. Structure of Nano-sized CeO 2 Materials: Combined Scattering and Spectroscopic Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Marchbank, Huw R.; Clark, Adam H.; Hyde, Timothy I.

    Here, the nature of nano-sized ceria, CeO 2, systems were investigated using neutron and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Whilst both diffraction andtotal pair distribution functions (PDFs) revealed that in all the samples the occupancy of both Ce 4+ and O 2- are very close to the ideal stoichiometry, the analysis using reverse Monte Carlo technique revealedsignificant disorder around oxygen atoms in the nano sized ceria samples in comparison to the highly crystalline NIST standard.In addition, the analysis reveal that the main differences observed in the pair correlations from various X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques were attributed to themore » particle size of the CeO 2 prepared by the reported three methods. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the Ce L 3– and K-edge EXAFS data support this finding; in particular the decrease in higher shell coordination numbers with respect to the NIST standard, are attributed to differences in particle size.« less

  14. Structure of Nano-sized CeO 2 Materials: Combined Scattering and Spectroscopic Investigations

    DOE PAGES

    Marchbank, Huw R.; Clark, Adam H.; Hyde, Timothy I.; ...

    2016-08-29

    Here, the nature of nano-sized ceria, CeO 2, systems were investigated using neutron and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Whilst both diffraction andtotal pair distribution functions (PDFs) revealed that in all the samples the occupancy of both Ce 4+ and O 2- are very close to the ideal stoichiometry, the analysis using reverse Monte Carlo technique revealedsignificant disorder around oxygen atoms in the nano sized ceria samples in comparison to the highly crystalline NIST standard.In addition, the analysis reveal that the main differences observed in the pair correlations from various X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques were attributed to themore » particle size of the CeO 2 prepared by the reported three methods. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the Ce L 3– and K-edge EXAFS data support this finding; in particular the decrease in higher shell coordination numbers with respect to the NIST standard, are attributed to differences in particle size.« less

  15. Mode of bindings of zinc oxide nanoparticles to myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase: A spectroscopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gopa; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Ganguly, Tapan

    2011-07-01

    The interactions between two heme proteins myoglobin (HMb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are investigated by using UV-vis absorption, steady state fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques under physiological condition of pH˜7.4. The presence of mainly static mode in fluorescence quenching mechanism of HMb and HRP by ZnO nanoparticle indicates the possibility of formation of ground state complex. The processes of bindings of ZnO nanoparticles with the two proteins are spontaneous molecular interaction procedures. In both cases hydrogen bonding plays a major role. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra reveal that a helicity of the proteins is reduced by increasing ZnO nanoparticle concentration although the α-helical structures of HMb and HRP retain their identity. On binding to the ZnO nanoparticles the secondary structure of HRP molecules (or HMb molecules) remains unchanged while there is a substantial change in the environment of the tyrosin active site in case of HRP molecules and tryptophan active site in case of HMb molecules. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied for the investigation the structure of HRP adsorbed in the environment of nanoparticles on the silicon and on the bare silicon. HRP molecules adsorb and aggregate on the mica with ZnO nanoparticle. The aggregation indicates an attractive interaction among the adsorbed molecules. The molecules are randomly distributed on the bare silicon wafer. The adsorption of HRP in the environment of ZnO nanoparticle changes drastically the domains due to a strong interaction between HRP and ZnO nanoparticles. Similar situation is observed in case of HMb molecules. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of biomedical applications of ZnO nanoparticles as well as in elucidating their mechanisms of action as drugs in both human and plant systems.

  16. Investigations on nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of a new photonic crystal using Z-scan

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, T. C. S., E-mail: tcsshetty@gmail.com; Department of Post Graduate Studies in Physics, St Aloysius College; Sandeep, K. M.

    A new photonic material, (2E)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DCPP) was synthesized and crystallised at room temperature. The functional groups of synthesised material were confirmed using FT-IR. The third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated using Z-scan technique with 5 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. Linear absorption spectrum of DCPP crystals shows an optical transmittance window and a lower cutoff wavelength of absorption at 380 nm. The direct transition band gap energy was determined using Tauc’s plot. The melting point and thermal stability of the crystal have been investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Themore » Thermo gravimetric curve showed absence of any phase transition before melting point.« less

  17. Investigation of clinical pharmacokinetic variability of an opioid antagonist through physiologically based absorption modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; He, Minxia; Kulkarni, Rajesh; Patel, Nita; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2013-08-01

    Identifying the source of inter- and/or intrasubject variability in pharmacokinetics (PK) provides fundamental information in understanding the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics relationship of a drug and project its efficacy and safety in clinical populations. This identification process can be challenging given that a large number of potential causes could lead to PK variability. Here we present an integrated approach of physiologically based absorption modeling to investigate the root cause of unexpectedly high PK variability of a Phase I clinical trial drug. LY2196044 exhibited high intersubject variability in the absorption phase of plasma concentration-time profiles in humans. This could not be explained by in vitro measurements of drug properties and excellent bioavailability with low variability observed in preclinical species. GastroPlus™ modeling suggested that the compound's optimal solubility and permeability characteristics would enable rapid and complete absorption in preclinical species and in humans. However, simulations of human plasma concentration-time profiles indicated that despite sufficient solubility and rapid dissolution of LY2196044 in humans, permeability and/or transit in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may have been negatively affected. It was concluded that clinical PK variability was potentially due to the drug's antagonism on opioid receptors that affected its transit and absorption in the GI tract. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies on (L)2[Cu2(S2)n]2+ Complexes: Disulfide Versus Disulfide(•1−) Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Ritimukta; York, John T.; Helton, Matthew E.; Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Karlin, Kenneth D.; Tolman, William B.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Cu K-, L- and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data have been combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations on [{(TMPA)Cu}2S2](ClO4)2 (1), [{Cu[HB(3,5-Pri2pz)3]}2(S2)] (2) and [{(TMEDA)Cu}2(S2)2](OTf)2 (3) to obtain a quantitative description of their ground state wavefunctions. The Cu L-edge intensities give 63% and 37% Cu d-character in the ground state of 1 and 2, respectively while the S K-pre-edge intensities reflect 20% and 48% S character in their ground states. These data indicate a more than two-fold increase in the total disulfide bonding character in 2 relative to 1. The increase in the number of Cu-S bonds in 2 (µ-η2:η2 S22− bridge) compared to 1 ((µ-η1:η1 S22− bridge), dominantly determines the large increase in covalency and Cu-disulfide bond strength in 2. Cu K- and L- and S K-pre-edge energy positions directly demonstrate the CuII/(S2−)2 nature of 3. The two disulfide(•1−)’s in 3 undergo strong bonding interactions which destabilize the resultant filled antibonding π* orbitals of the (S2−)2 fragment relative to the Cu 3d levels. This leads to an inverted bonding scheme in 3 with dominantly ligand based holes in its ground state, consistent with its description as a dicopper(II)-bis-disulfide(•1−) complex. PMID:18076173

  19. Combined Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Studies to Reveal Absorption Mechanisms and Conformational Changes of Protein on Nanoporous Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Saharnaz; Farokhi, Maryam; Padidar, Parisa; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effect of surface modification of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) on its adsorption capacities and protein stability after immobilization of beta-lactoglobulin B (BLG-B) was investigated. For this purpose, non-functionalized (KIT-6) and aminopropyl-functionalized cubic Ia3d mesoporous silica ([n-PrNH2-KIT-6]) nanoparticles were used as nanoporous supports. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous nanoparticles exhibited more potential candidates for BLG-B adsorption and minimum BLG leaching than non-functionalized nanoparticles. It was observed that the amount of adsorbed BLG is dependent on the initial BLG concentration for both KIT-6 and [n-PrNH2-KIT-6] mesoporous nanoparticles. Also larger amounts of BLG-B on KIT-6 was immobilized upon raising the temperature of the medium from 4 to 55 °C while such increase was undetectable in the case of immobilization of BLG-B on the [n-PrNH2-KIT-6]. At temperatures above 55 °C the amounts of adsorbed BLG on both studied nanomaterials decreased significantly. By Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC analysis the heterogeneity of the protein solution and increase in Tm may indicate that immobilization of BLG-B onto the modified KIT-6 results in higher thermal stability compared to unmodified one. The obtained results provide several crucial factors in determining the mechanism(s) of protein adsorption and stability on the nanostructured solid supports and the development of engineered nano-biomaterials for controlled drug-delivery systems and biomimetic interfaces for the immobilization of living cells. PMID:26230687

  20. Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines modeled properties of black carbon (BC), tar ball (TB), and soil dust (SD) absorption within clouds and aerosols to understand better Cloud Absorption Effects I and II, which are defined as the effects on cloud heating of absorbing inclusions in hydrometeor particles and of absorbing aerosol particles interstitially between hydrometeor particles at their actual relative humidity (RH), respectively. The globally and annually averaged modeled 550 nm aerosol mass absorption coefficient (AMAC) of externally mixed BC was 6.72 (6.3-7.3) m2/g, within the laboratory range (6.3-8.7 m2/g). The global AMAC of internally mixed (IM) BC was 16.2 (13.9-18.2) m2/g, less than the measured maximum at 100% RH (23 m2/g). The resulting AMAC amplification factor due to internal mixing was 2.41 (2-2.9), with highest values in high RH regions. The global 650 nm hydrometeor mass absorption coefficient (HMAC) due to BC inclusions was 17.7 (10.6-19) m2/g, ˜9.3% higher than that of the IM-AMAC. The 650 nm HMACs of TBs and SD were half and 1/190th, respectively, that of BC. Modeled aerosol absorption optical depths were consistent with data. In column tests, BC inclusions in low and mid clouds (CAE I) gave column-integrated BC heating rates ˜200% and 235%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the actual cloud RH (CAE II), which itself gave heating rates ˜120% and ˜130%, respectively, those of interstitial BC at the clear-sky RH. Globally, cloud optical depth increased then decreased with increasing aerosol optical depth, consistent with boomerang curves from satellite studies. Thus, CAEs, which are largely ignored, heat clouds significantly.

  1. An experimental investigation of energy absorption in TRIP steel under impact three-point bending deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is nowadays in widespread use in the automobile industry because of their favorable mechanical properties such as high strength, excellent formability and toughness because of strain-induced martensitic transformation. Moreover, when TRIP steel is applied to the components of the vehicles, it is expected that huge amount of kinetic energy will be absorbed into both plastic deformation and martensitic transformation during the collision. Basically, bending deformation due to buckling is one of the major crash deformation modes of automobile structures. Thus, an investigation of energy absorption during bending deformation at high impact velocity for TRIP steel is indispensable. Although TRIP steel have particularly attracted the recent interest of the scientific community, just few studies can be found on the energy absorption characteristic of TRIP steel, especially at impact loading condition. In present study, experimental investigations of bending deformation behaviors of TRIP steel are conducted in the three-point bending tests for both smooth and pre-cracked specimen. Then, energy absorption characteristic during plastic deformation and fracture process at high impact velocity in TRIP steel will be discussed.

  2. Investigation on the Acoustic Absorption of Flexible Micro-Perforated Panel with Ultra-Micro Perforations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoxin; Tang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qian, Y. J.; Kong, Deyi

    2017-11-01

    Flexible micro-perforated panel has unique advantages in noise reduction due to its good flexibility compared with traditional rigid micro-perforated panel. In this paper, flexible micro-perforated panel was prepared by computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. Three kinds of plastics including polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyimide (PI) were taken as the matrix materials to prepare flexible micro-perforated panel. It has been found that flexible micro-perforated panel made of PET possessing good porosity and proper density, elastic modulus and poisson ratio exhibited the best acoustic absorption properties. The effects of various structural parameters including perforation diameter, perforation ratio, thickness and air gap have also been investigated, which would be helpful to the optimization of acoustic absorption properties.

  3. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation on cocrystal formation between adenine and fumaric acid based on infrared and Raman techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Fang, Hong Xia; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hui Li; Hong, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of double-stranded DNA, adenine has powerful hydrogen-bond capability, due to rich hydrogen bond donors and acceptors existing within its molecular structure. Therefore, it is easy to form cocrystal between adenine and other small molecules with intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect. In this work, cocrystal of adenine and fumaric acid has been characterized as model system by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The experimental results show that the cocrystal formed between adenine and fumaric acid possesses unique spectroscopical characteristic compared with that of starting materials. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been performed to optimize the molecular structures and simulate vibrational modes of adenine, fumaric acid and the corresponding cocrystal. Combining the theoretical and experimental vibrational results, the characteristic bands corresponding to bending and stretching vibrations of amino and carbonyl groups within cocrystal are shifted into lower frequencies upon cocrystal formation, and the corresponding bond lengths show some increase due to the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Different vibrational modes shown in the experimental spectra have been assigned based on the simulation DFT results. The study could provide experimental and theoretical benchmarks to characterize cocrystal formed between active ingredients and cocrystal formers and also the intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect within cocrystal formation process by vibrational spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation on cocrystal formation between adenine and fumaric acid based on infrared and Raman techniques.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Fang, Hong Xia; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hui Li; Hong, Zhi

    2016-01-15

    As an important component of double-stranded DNA, adenine has powerful hydrogen-bond capability, due to rich hydrogen bond donors and acceptors existing within its molecular structure. Therefore, it is easy to form cocrystal between adenine and other small molecules with intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect. In this work, cocrystal of adenine and fumaric acid has been characterized as model system by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The experimental results show that the cocrystal formed between adenine and fumaric acid possesses unique spectroscopical characteristic compared with that of starting materials. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been performed to optimize the molecular structures and simulate vibrational modes of adenine, fumaric acid and the corresponding cocrystal. Combining the theoretical and experimental vibrational results, the characteristic bands corresponding to bending and stretching vibrations of amino and carbonyl groups within cocrystal are shifted into lower frequencies upon cocrystal formation, and the corresponding bond lengths show some increase due to the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Different vibrational modes shown in the experimental spectra have been assigned based on the simulation DFT results. The study could provide experimental and theoretical benchmarks to characterize cocrystal formed between active ingredients and cocrystal formers and also the intermolecular hydrogen-bond effect within cocrystal formation process by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Time- and Space-Resolved Spectroscopic Investigation on Pi-Conjugated Nanostructures - 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-12

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Materials Characterization, Materials Chemistry, Nonlinear Optical Materials, Spectroscopy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...nanostructures will translate into new ground-breaking developments that not only allow the structure-property relationships to be probed in greater detail... spectroscopy . I. Experimental method 1. Steady-state Spectroscopy - UV-Vis-NIR Absorption & Emission Steady-state Spectroscopy - NIR

  7. Structure and function of proteins investigated by crystallographic and spectroscopic time-resolved methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Namrta

    crystal. Time-resolved X-ray data collected at pH's of 4, 7 and 9 demonstrate that pH alters the kinetics of the PYP photocycle dramatically. At pH 4 the photocycle lasts almost one order of magnitude longer in time compared to pH 7. The final intermediate that accumulates at both pH 7 and pH 4 is absent at pH 9. Results from the dose- and the pH-dependent time-resolved crystallographic experiments show that it is imperative to carefully control the conditions under which time-resolved data are collected. With these considerations we collected a comprehensive time-series from nanoseconds to seconds at 14 different temperature settings from -40 °C to 70 °C. Results from time-resolved crystallography are corroborated by employing time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. For this, absorption spectra on crystals and solution are collected by a fast micro-spectrophotometer custom-designed in our lab. We identify kinetic phases of the PYP photocycle at all 14 temperature settings. Relaxation times associated with these phases are temperature-dependent and can be fit by the Van't Hoff-Arrhenius equation. Kinetic modeling yields entropy and enthalpy values at the barriers of the activation solely from the time-resolved crystallographic data. With this, we advance crystallography to a new frontier: the determination of free energy surfaces. Investigating enzymatic reactions can be challenging, because they are non-cyclic. After one turnover product must be washed away and substrate must be reloaded. A promising approach for routine application can be envisioned at the new 4th generation X-ray sources, such as X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). With our results we set the scene to comprehensively investigate all kinds of enzymatic reactions with these instruments.

  8. Photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the oscillating Algol type binary: EW Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğruel, Mustafa Burak; Gürol, Birol

    2015-10-01

    We obtained the physical and geometrical parameters of the EW Boo system, which exhibits short period and small amplitude pulsations as well as brightness variations due to orbital motion of components. Towards this end we carried out photometric observations at Ankara University Kreiken Observatory (AUKO) as well as spectroscopic observations at TUBITAK National Observatory (TNO). The light and radial velocity curves obtained from these observations have been simultaneously analyzed with PHOEBE and the absolute parameters of the system along with the geometric parameters of the components have been determined. Using model light curves of EW Boo, light curve regions in which the pulsations are active have been determined and as a result of analyses performed in the frequency region, characteristic parameters of pulsations have been obtained. We find that the results are compatible with current parameters of similar systems in the literature. The evolutionary status of the components is propounded and discussed.

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of carbon migration with tungsten walls in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, A.; Dux, R.; Harhausen, J.; Maggi, C. F.; Neu, R.; Pütterich, T.; Rohde, V.; Schmid, K.; Wolfrum, E.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2007-06-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of carbon fluxes in the mainly tungsten-coated ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are analysed with a particle transport and migration code. The transport parameters for deuterium and carbon are calibrated against flux measurements for different experimental conditions. Additional information is obtained from the re-appearance time of carbon after a boronisation. The code reproduces the experimental finding that despite a 85% (2006 campaign) tungsten coverage of the primary PFCs, the carbon concentration in the core and edge plasma is reduced by about a factor 2 only compared to full carbon PFCs. This behaviour is explained by the strong main chamber recycling of carbon in comparison with the loss flux to the inner divertor. The quick recovery of the carbon level in the plasma after a boronisation is explained by carbon influx from the outer divertor.

  10. Raman and terahertz spectroscopical investigation of cocrystal formation process of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Xia, Yi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Cocrystallization can improve physical and chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient, and this feature has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid under grinding condition has been characterized by Raman and terahertz spectroscopical techniques. The major vibrational modes of individual starting components and cocrystal are obtained and assigned. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman and THz spectra. The formation rate is pretty fast in first several 20 min grinding time, and then it becomes slow. After ∼35 min, such process has been almost completed. These results offer us the unique means and benchmark for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic during cocrystal formation process in pharmaceutical fields.

  11. Efficient ultrasound-assisted synthesis, spectroscopic, crystallographic and biological investigations of pyrazole-appended quinolinyl chalcones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasath, R.; Bhavana, P.; Sarveswari, S.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2015-02-01

    Two series of new quinolinyl chalcones containing a pyrazole group, 3a-f and 4a-r, have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the derivatives of 2-methyl-3-acetylquinoline with either substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde or 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde in 76-93% yield under ultrasonic method. The compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic methods and, for representative compounds, by X-ray crystallography. An E-configuration about the Cdbnd C ethylene bond has been established via 1H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. These compounds show promising anti-microbial properties, with 4a and 3e being the most potent against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively and the methoxy substituted compounds showed moderate anti-oxidant activity.

  12. Theoretical Investigation of OCN(-) Charge Transfer Complexes in Condensed Phase Media: Spectroscopic Properties in Amorphous Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Jin-Young; Woon, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of cyanate (OCN(-)) charge-transfer complexes were performed to model the "XCN" feature observed in interstellar icy grain mantles. OCN(-) charge-transfer complexes were formed from precursor combinations of HNCO or HOCN with either NH3 or H2O. Three different solvation strategies for realistically modeling the ice matrix environment were explored, including (1) continuum solvation, (2) pure DFT cluster calculations, and (3) an ONIOM DFT/PM3 cluster calculation. The model complexes were evaluated by their ability to reproduce seven spectroscopic measurements associated with XCN: the band origin of the OCN(-) asymmetric stretching mode, shifts in that frequency due to isotopic substitutions of C, N, O, and H, plus two weak features. The continuum solvent field method produced results consistent with some of the experimental data but failed to account for other behavior due to its limited capacity to describe molecular interactions with solvent. DFT cluster calculations successfully reproduced the available spectroscopic measurements very well. In particular, the deuterium shift showed excellent agreement in complexes where OCN(-) was fully solvated. Detailed studies of representative complexes including from two to twelve water molecules allowed the exploration of various possible solvation structures and provided insights into solvation trends. Moreover, complexes arising from cyanic or isocyanic acid in pure water suggested an alternative mechanism for the formation of OCN(-) charge-transfer complexes without the need for a strong base such as NH3 to be present. An extended ONIOM (B3LYP/PM3) cluster calculation was also performed to assess the impact of a more realistic environment on HNCO dissociation in pure water.

  13. Investigational study of tamoxifen phase I metabolites using chromatographic and spectroscopic analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, S F; Rosing, H; Seoane, M Dominguez; Brunsveld, L; Schellens, J H M; Schinkel, A H; Beijnen, J H

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive overview is presented of currently known phase I metabolites of tamoxifen consisting of their systematic name and molecular structure. Reference standards are utilized to elucidate the MS(n) fragmentation patterns of these metabolites using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. UV-absorption spectra are recorded and absorption maxima are defined. Serum extracts from ten breast cancer patients receiving 40mg tamoxifen once daily were qualitatively analyzed for tamoxifen phase I metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry set-up. In total, 19 metabolites have been identified in these serum samples. Additionally a synthetic method for the preparation of the putative metabolite 3',4'-dihydroxytamoxifen is described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of certain alkaline metals on Pr doped glasses to investigate spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkennavar Susheela, K.; Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.; Kokila, M. K.

    2018-02-01

    Incorporation of different Alkaline earth metal like Barium, Calcium and strontium in sodium lead borate glass doped with Pr3+ is studied. Physical parameters such as density, molar volume, molar refractivity etc have been evaluated. Effect of different atomic size of alkaline metal using optical and physical parameters is analysed. XRD and FTIR were carried out to know the structural behaviour of the glasses. Absorption and Emission spectra are recorded at room temperature and the results were discussed.

  15. Absorption and Emission of the Apigenin and Luteolin Flavonoids: A TDDFT Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amat, Anna; Clementi, Catia; de Angelis, Filippo; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Fantacci, Simona

    2009-09-01

    The absorption and emission properties of the two components of the yellow color extracted from weld (Reseda luteola L.), apigenin and luteolin, have been extensively investigated by means of DFT and TDDFT calculations. Our calculations reproduce the absorption spectra of both flavonoids in good agreement with the experimental data and allow us to assign the transitions giving rise to the main spectral features. For apigenin, we have also computed the electronic spectrum of the monodeprotonated species, providing a rationale for the red-shift of the experimental spectrum with increasing pH. The fluorescence emission of both apigenin and luteolin has then been investigated. Excited-state TDDFT geometry optimizations have highlighted an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the 5-hydroxyl to the 4-carbonyl oxygen of the substituted benzopyrone moiety. By computing the potential energy curves at the ground and excited states as a function of an approximate proton transfer coordinate for apigenin, we have been able to trace an ESIPT pathway and thus explain the double emission observed experimentally.

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection.

    PubMed

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj; Ray, Asim K

    2010-01-15

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of the optical properties of graphene oxide dip-coated on magnetron sputtered gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politano, Grazia Giuseppina; Vena, Carlo; Desiderio, Giovanni; Versace, Carlo

    2018-02-01

    Despite intensive investigations on graphene oxide-gold nanocomposites, the interaction of graphene oxide sheets with magnetron sputtered gold thin films has not been studied yet. The optical constants of graphene oxide thin films dip-coated on magnetron sputtered gold thin films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the [300-1000] wavelength range. Moreover, the morphologic properties of the samples were investigated by SEM analysis. Graphene oxide absorbs mainly in the ultraviolet region, but when it is dip-coated on magnetron sputtered gold thin films, its optical constants show dramatic changes, becoming absorbing in the visible region, with a peak of the extinction coefficient at 3.1 eV. Using magnetron sputtered gold thin films as a substrate for graphene oxide thin films could therefore be the key to enhance graphene oxide optical sheets' properties for several technological applications, preserving their oxygen content and avoiding the reduction process.

  18. Supramolecular interactions of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in nanochannels of molecular containers: a spectroscopic, thermogravimetric and microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Maity, Banibrata; Chatterjee, Aninda; Ahmed, Sayeed Ashique; Seth, Debabrata

    2014-11-10

    Supramolecular host-guest complexation between the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (IMC) and molecular containers were investigated. The weakly fluorescent drug molecule becomes highly fluorescent on complexation with different molecular containers, and time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy reveals that the lifetime components of IMC significantly increase in the presence of molecular containers, compared with the lifetimes in neat water. The respective solid host-guest complexes were synthesised and characterised by Fourier transform infrared and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis. Microscopy techniques were used to analyse modifications of the surface morphology, owing to the formation of supramolecular complexes. The effect of the molecular container on the optical properties of IMC has also been investigated to determine the effect of nanochannels of different size and structure. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking of imidazole derivatives and investigation of its reactive properties by DFT and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Renjith; Hossain, Mossaraf; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Ranjan, Vivek Kumar; Vijayakumar, G.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Solvent-free synthesis pathway for obtaining two imidazole derivatives (2-chloro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole (CLMPDI) and 1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-chloro-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole (BPCLDI) has been reported in this work, followed by detailed experimental and computational spectroscopic characterization and reactivity study. Spectroscopic methods encompassed IR, FT-Raman and NMR techniques, with the mutual comparison of experimentally and computationally obtained results at DFT/B3LYP level of theory. Reactivity study based on DFT calculations encompassed molecular orbitals analysis, followed by calculations of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and average local ionization energy (ALIE) values, Fukui functions and bond dissociation energies (BDE). Additionally, the stability of title molecules in water has been investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, while interactivity with aspulvinonedimethylallyl transferase protein has been evaluated by molecular docking procedure. CLMPDI compound showed antimicrobial activity against all four bacterial strain in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria while, BPCLDI showed only in gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus Aureus (MTCC1144). The first order hyperpolarizability of CLMPDI and BPCLDI are 20.15 and 6.10 times that of the standard NLO material urea.

  20. Investigating the Spectroscopic Variability of Magentically Active M Dwarfs In SDSS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Jean-Paul; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; Rice, Emily; Cid, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic activity, a wide range of observable phenomena produced in the outer atmospheres of stars is, currently, not well understood for M dwarfs. In higher mass stars, magnetic activity is powered by a dynamo process involving the differential rotation of a star’s inner regions. This process generates a magnetic field, heats up regions in the chromosphere and produces Hα emission line radiation from collisional excitation. Using spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), I compare Hα emission line strengths for a subsample of 12,000 photometric variability selected M dwarfs from Pan-STARRS1 with those of a known non-variable sample. Presumably, the photometric variability originates from the occurrence of star spots at the stellar surface, which are the result of an intense magnetic field and associated chromospheric heating. We proceed with this work in order to test whether the photometric variability of the sample correlates with chromospheric Hα emission features. If not, we explore alternate reasons for that photometric variability (e.g. binarity or transiting planetary companions)

  1. Investigation of the interaction between berberine and nucleosomes in solution: Spectroscopic and equilibrium dialysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Mollaei, Hossein; Sargolzaei, Javad

    2017-02-01

    Berberine is a natural plant alkaloid with high pharmacological potential. Although its interaction with free DNA has been the subject of several reports, to date there is no work concerning the effect of berberine on nucleoprotein structure of DNA, the nucleosomes. The present study focuses on the binding affinity of berberine to nucleosomes and histone H1 employing various spectroscopic techniques, fluorescence, circular dichroism, thermal denaturation as well as equilibrium dialysis. The results showed that the binding of berberine to nucleosomes is positive cooperative with Ka = 5.57 × 103 M- 1. Berberine quenched with the chromophores of protein moiety of nucleosomes and reduced fluorescence emission intensity at 335 nm with Ksv value of 0.135. Binding of berberine to nucleosomes decreased the absorbance at 210 and 260 nm, produced hypochromicity in thermal denaturation profiles and its affinity to nucleoprotein structure of nucleosomes was much higher than to free DNA. Berberine also exhibited high affinity to histone H1 in solution and the binding was positive cooperative with. Ka = 3.61 × 103 M- 1. Moreover berberine decreased fluorescence emission intensity of H1 by quenching with tyrosine residue in its globular core domain. The circular dichroism profiles demonstrated that the binding of drug induced secondary structural changes in both DNA stacking and histone H1. It is concluded that berberine is genotoxic drug, interacts with nucleosomes and in this process histone H1 is involved to exert its anticancer activity.

  2. Investigation into structure and dehydration dynamic of gallic acid monohydrate: A Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiang; Xue, Jiadan; Wang, Qiqi; Du, Yong

    2018-05-02

    The dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate was carried out by heating method and characterized using Raman spectroscopic technique. Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP function is applied to simulate optimized structures and vibrational frequencies of anhydrous gallic acid and its corresponding monohydrated form. Different vibrational modes are assigned by comparison between experimental and theoretical Raman spectra of above two polymorphs. Raman spectra show that vibrational modes of the monohydrate are distinctively different from those of anhydrous one. Meanwhile, the dynamic information about dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate could also be observed and monitored directly with the help of Raman spectral analysis. The decay rate of the characteristic band from gallic acid monohydrate and the growth rate of anhydrous one are pretty consistent with each other. It indicates that there is no intermediate present during the dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate. The results could offer us benchmark works for identifying both anhydrous and hydrated pharmaceutical compounds, characterizing their corresponding molecular conformation within various crystalline forms, and also providing useful information about the process of dehydration dynamic at the microscopic molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in animal depression model.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, J; Sowa-Kucma, M; Nowak, G; Papp, M; Gruca, P; Misztak, P; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2017-04-05

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the major causes being chronic stress. Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of rats subjected to chronic mild stress, which is a common animal depression model. Moreover, the efficiency of the imipramine treatment was evaluated. It was found that chronic mild stress not only damages the structure of the phospholipids and proteins, but also decreases their level in the blood serum. A 5weeks imipramine treatment did increase slightly the quantity of proteins, leaving the damaged phospholipids unchanged. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of stressed rats was normalized after imipramine therapy, while the impaired structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that the depression factor, which is chronic mild stress, may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation and direct comparison of the reactivities of iron pyridyl oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Mayes, Howard G.; Queensen, Matthew J.; Bauer, Eike B.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2017-03-01

    The growing interest in green chemistry has fueled attention to the development and characterization of effective iron complex oxidation catalysts. A number of iron complexes are known to catalyze the oxidation of organic substrates utilizing peroxides as the oxidant. Their development is complicated by a lack of direct comparison of the reactivities of the iron complexes. To begin to correlate reactivity with structural elements, we compare the reactivities of a series of iron pyridyl complexes toward a single dye substrate, malachite green (MG), for which colorless oxidation products are established. Complexes with tetradentate, nitrogen-based ligands with cis open coordination sites were found to be the most reactive. While some complexes reflect sensitivity to different peroxides, others are similarly reactive with either H2O2 or tBuOOH, which suggests some mechanistic distinctions. [Fe(S,S-PDP)(CH3CN)2](SbF6)2 and [Fe(OTf)2(tpa)] transition under the oxidative reaction conditions to a single intermediate at a rate that exceeds dye degradation (PDP = bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) bipyrrolidine; tpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). For the less reactive [Fe(OTf)2(dpa)] (dpa = dipicolylamine), this reaction occurs on a timescale similar to that of MG oxidation. Thus, the spectroscopic method presented herein provides information about the efficiency and mechanism of iron catalyzed oxidation reactions as well as about potential oxidative catalyst decomposition and chemical changes of the catalyst before or during the oxidation reaction.

  5. Raman and terahertz spectroscopical investigation of cocrystal formation process of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Huili; Xue, Jiadan; Fang, Hongxia; Zhang, Qi; Xia, Yi; Li, Yafang; Hong, Zhi

    2015-03-15

    Cocrystallization can improve physical and chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient, and this feature has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of piracetam and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid under grinding condition has been characterized by Raman and terahertz spectroscopical techniques. The major vibrational modes of individual starting components and cocrystal are obtained and assigned. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman and THz spectra. The formation rate is pretty fast in first several 20 min grinding time, and then it becomes slow. After ∼35 min, such process has been almost completed. These results offer us the unique means and benchmark for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic during cocrystal formation process in pharmaceutical fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopic Techniques for Investigating Membrane-Bound Ion Channel Activities

    PubMed Central

    Székács, Inna; Kaszás, Nóra; Gróf, Pál; Erdélyi, Katalin; Szendrő, István; Mihalik, Balázs; Pataki, Ágnes; Antoni, Ferenc A.; Madarász, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopic (OWLS) techniques were probed for monitoring ion permeation through channels incorporated into artificial lipid environment. A novel sensor set-up was developed by depositing liposomes or cell-derived membrane fragments onto hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. The fibrous material of PTFE membrane could entrap lipoid vesicles and the water-filled pores provided environment for the hydrophilic domains of lipid-embedded proteins. The sensor surface was kept clean from the lipid holder PTFE membrane by a water- and ion-permeable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mesh. The sensor set-up was tested with egg yolk lecithin liposomes containing gramicidin ion channels and with cell-derived membrane fragments enriched in GABA-gated anion channels. The method allowed monitoring the move of Na+ and organic cations through gramicidin channels and detecting the Cl–-channel functions of the (α5β2γ2) GABAA receptor in the presence or absence of GABA and the competitive GABA-blocker bicuculline. PMID:24339925

  7. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in animal depression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depciuch, J.; Sowa-Kucma, M.; Nowak, G.; Papp, M.; Gruca, P.; Misztak, P.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the major causes being chronic stress. Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of rats subjected to chronic mild stress, which is a common animal depression model. Moreover, the efficiency of the imipramine treatment was evaluated. It was found that chronic mild stress not only damages the structure of the phospholipids and proteins, but also decreases their level in the blood serum. A 5 weeks imipramine treatment did increase slightly the quantity of proteins, leaving the damaged phospholipids unchanged. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of stressed rats was normalized after imipramine therapy, while the impaired structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that the depression factor, which is chronic mild stress, may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression.

  8. Broadband optical properties of graphene and HOPG investigated by spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Baokun; Gu, Honggang; Zhu, Simin; Jiang, Hao; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan

    2018-05-01

    Optical properties of mono-graphene fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are comparatively studied by Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) over an ultra-wide energy range of 0.73-6.42 eV. A multilayer stacking model is constructed to describe the CVD mono-graphene, in which the roughness of the glass substrate and the water adsorption on the graphene are considered. We introduce a uniaxial anisotropic dielectric model to parameterize the optical constants of both the graphene and the HOPG. With the established models, broadband optical constants of the graphene and the HOPG are determined from the Mueller matrix spectra based on a point-by-point method and a non-linear regression method, respectively. Two significant absorption peaks at 4.75 eV and 6.31 eV are observed in the extinction coefficient spectra of the mono-graphene, which can be attributed to the von-Hove singularity (i.e., the π-to-π∗ exciton transition) near the M point and the σ-to-σ∗ exciton transition near the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, respectively. Comparatively, only a major absorption peak at 4.96 eV appears in the ordinary extinction coefficient spectra of the HOPG, which is mainly formed by the π-to-π∗ interband transition.

  9. Application of thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for investigation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sirirat, Natnicha; Tetbuntad, Kornrawee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2017-03-01

    Thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was applied to investigate the time-dependent absorption peak profile of various forms of silver. The thermospray flame furnace was set up with a 10-cm-long nickel tube with six holes, each 2.0 mm in diameter, to allow the flame to enter, and this nickel tube acted as a furnace. A sample of 300 μL was introduced into this furnace by use of water as a carrier at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min -1 through the ceramic capillary (0.5-mm inner diameter and 2.0-mm outer diameter), which was inserted into the front hole of the nickel tube. The system was applied to examine atomization behaviors of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm. The atomization rate of AgNPs was faster than that of the dissolved silver ion. With increased amount of silver, the decay time observed from the time-dependent absorption peak profile was shortened in the case of dissolved silver ion, but it was increased in the case of AgNPs. With the particle size ranging from 10 to 100 nm, the detection sensitivity was indirectly proportional to the particle size, suggesting that TS-FF-AAS may offer insights into the particle size of AgNPs provided that the concentration of the silver is known. To obtain quantitative information on AgNPs, acid dissolution of the particles was performed before TS-FF-AAS analysis, and recoveries of 80-110% were obtained.

  10. Investigating the Luminous Environment of SDSS Data Release 4 Mg II Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caler, Michelle A.; Ravi, Sheth K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the luminous environment within a few hundred kiloparsecs of 3760 Mg II absorption line systems. These systems lie along 3760 lines of sight to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 QSOs, have redshifts that range between 0.37 ≤ z ≤ 0.82, and have rest equivalent widths greater than 0.18 Å. We use the SDSS Catalog Archive Server to identify galaxies projected near 3 arcminutes of the absorbing QSO’s position, and a background subtraction technique to estimate the absolute magnitude distribution and luminosity function of galaxies physically associated with these Mg II absorption line systems. The Mg II absorption system sample is split into two parts, with the split occurring at rest equivalent width 0.8 Å, and the resulting absolute magnitude distributions and luminosity functions compared on scales ranging from 50 h-1 kpc to 880 h-1 kpc. We find that, on scales of 100 h-1 kpc and smaller, the two distributions differ: the absolute magnitude distribution of galaxies associated with systems of rest frame equivalent width ≥ 0.8 Å (2750 lines of sight) seems to be approximated by that of elliptical-Sa type galaxies, whereas the absolute magnitude distribution of galaxies associated with systems of rest frame equivalent width < 0.8 Å (1010 lines of sight) seems to be approximated by that of Sa-Sbc type galaxies. However, on larger scales greater than 200 h-1 kpc, both distributions are broadly consistent with that of elliptical-Sa type galaxies. We note that, in a broader context, these results represent an estimate of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function at a median redshift of z ˜ 0.65.

  11. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of a Mononuclear Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Reveal Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity

    DOE PAGES

    Leto, Domenick F.; Massie, Allyssa A.; Rice, Derek B.; ...

    2016-11-01

    The mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+, where N4py is the pentadentate ligand N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine, we propose to attack C–H bonds by an excited-state reactivity pattern [Cho, K.-B.; Shaik, S.; Nam, W. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 2851-2856 (DOI: 10.1021/jz301241z)]. In this model, a 4E excited state is utilized to provide a lower-energy barrier for hydrogen-atom transfer. This proposal is intriguing, as it offers both a rationale for the relatively high hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity of [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+ and a guideline for creating more reactive complexes through ligand modification. Here we employ a combination of electronic absorption and variable-temperature magnetic circularmore » dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy to experimentally evaluate this excited-state reactivity model. Using these spectroscopic methods, in conjunction with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete-active space self-consistent-field calculations (CASSCF), we define the ligand-field and charge-transfer excited states of [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+. Through a graphical analysis of the signs of the experimental C-term MCD signals, we unambiguously assign a low-energy MCD feature of [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+ as the 4E excited state predicted to be involved in hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity. The CASSCF calculations predict enhanced Mn III-oxyl character on the excited-state 4E surface, consistent with previous DFT calculations. Potential-energy surfaces, developed using the CASSCF methods, are used to determine how the energies and wave functions of the ground and excited states evolved as a function of Mn=O distance. Furthermore, the unique insights into ground- and excited-state electronic structure offered by these spectroscopic and computational studies are harmonized with a thermodynamic model of hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity, which predicts a correlation between transition-state barriers and driving force« less

  12. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of a Mononuclear Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Reveal Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Leto, Domenick F.; Massie, Allyssa A.; Rice, Derek B.

    The mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+, where N4py is the pentadentate ligand N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine, we propose to attack C–H bonds by an excited-state reactivity pattern [Cho, K.-B.; Shaik, S.; Nam, W. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 2851-2856 (DOI: 10.1021/jz301241z)]. In this model, a 4E excited state is utilized to provide a lower-energy barrier for hydrogen-atom transfer. This proposal is intriguing, as it offers both a rationale for the relatively high hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity of [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+ and a guideline for creating more reactive complexes through ligand modification. Here we employ a combination of electronic absorption and variable-temperature magnetic circularmore » dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy to experimentally evaluate this excited-state reactivity model. Using these spectroscopic methods, in conjunction with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete-active space self-consistent-field calculations (CASSCF), we define the ligand-field and charge-transfer excited states of [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+. Through a graphical analysis of the signs of the experimental C-term MCD signals, we unambiguously assign a low-energy MCD feature of [Mn IV(O)(N4py)] 2+ as the 4E excited state predicted to be involved in hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity. The CASSCF calculations predict enhanced Mn III-oxyl character on the excited-state 4E surface, consistent with previous DFT calculations. Potential-energy surfaces, developed using the CASSCF methods, are used to determine how the energies and wave functions of the ground and excited states evolved as a function of Mn=O distance. Furthermore, the unique insights into ground- and excited-state electronic structure offered by these spectroscopic and computational studies are harmonized with a thermodynamic model of hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity, which predicts a correlation between transition-state barriers and driving force« less

  13. A Theoretical Investigation of the Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of PAH cations which explore both size and electronic structure effects on the infrared spectroscopic of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms and (2) protonated PAH cations. Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18, in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared to those of the other species. Closed-shell species are inherently less reactive than radical (or open-shell) cations and are known to play a role in combustion chemistry. Since interstellar PAHs are typically exposed to abundant atomic hydrogen and are thought to originate under pseudo-combustion conditions in carbon-rich circumstellar shells, such species may represent an important component of the interstellar PAH population. Furthermore, species larger than 50 carbon atoms are more representative of the size of the typical interstellar PAH. Overall, as has been the case for previous studies of PAH radical cations, the general pattern of band positions and intensities are consistent with that of the interstellar infrared emission spectrum. In addition, the spectra of closed-shell and open-shell cations are found to converge with increasing molecular size and are found to be relatively similar for species containing about 50 carbon atoms.

  14. Near- and far-field spectroscopic imaging investigation of resonant square-loop infrared metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    D' Archangel, Jeffrey; Tucker, Eric; Kinzel, Ed; Muller, Eric A; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C; Raschke, Markus B; Boreman, Glenn

    2013-07-15

    Optical metamaterials have unique properties which result from geometric confinement of the optical conductivity. We developed a series of infrared metasurfaces based on an array of metallic square loop antennas. The far-field absorption spectrum can be designed with resonances across the infrared by scaling the geometric dimensions. We measure the amplitude and phase of the resonant mode as standing wave patterns within the square loops using scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Further, using a broad-band synchrotron-based FTIR microscope and s-SNOM at the Advanced Light Source, we are able to correlate far-field spectra to near-field modes of the metasurface as the resonance is tuned between samples. The results highlight the importance of multi-modal imaging for the design and characterization of optical metamaterials.

  15. LEAD SORPTION ON RUTHENIUM OXIDE: A MACROSCOPIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption and desorption of Pb on RuO2 xH2O were examined kinetically and thermodynamically via spectroscopic and macroscopic investigations. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to determine the sorption mechanism with regard to identity of nearest atomic neighbo...

  16. A Multi-spectroscopic Investigation of Sulphur Speciation in Silicate Glasses and Slags

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P.; Connelly, A; Hand, R

    2010-01-01

    Sulphur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), sulphur K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} high resolution x-ray emission spectroscopies (XES), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectroscopies have been used to study the speciation of sulphur in a range of soda-lime-silica glasses and silicate slags. Several inorganic standards with known sulphur oxidation states and structural environments have also been analysed. Results confirm that the average oxidation state of sulphur in glasses decreases, as expected, in the order (colourless>light olive>dark olive>light amber>dark amber). This behaviour is consistent with decreasing S{sup 6+}/{Sigma}S ratio, which has been quantified by linear combination fitting ofmore » XES S K{alpha} spectra, and with analysed sulphur contents which exhibit a characteristic relationship with oxygen partial pressure, pO{sub 2}. A combination of S{sup 6+}, S{sup 5+}, S{sup 4+} and more reduced sulphur species has been detected in olive and amber glasses. The S{sup 4+} and S{sup 5+} species are most evident in olive-coloured glasses produced under moderately reducing conditions that coincide with minimum sulphur solubilities. The reduced form of sulphur, present in all reduced glasses, is interpreted as being present as S{sup 2-} on the basis of XANES, XES, EPR and optical measurements. An alternative interpretation of the data is that there is a continuum of less strongly reduced species, primarily S{sup +} and S{sup 2+}; this interpretation has less merit. In this paper we show that the established relationship that describes sulphur redox only in terms of S{sup 6+} and S{sup 2-}, and which states that only these two species co-exist over a narrow, moderately reducing range of pO{sub 2}, does not fully describe the behaviour of S in the industrial, non-equilibrated glasses studied. Hence this relationship requires slight modification for non-equilibrated systems to explain the existence of

  17. Molecular structure and spectroscopic investigations combined with hypoglycemic/anticancer and docking studies of a new barbituric acid derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, Assem; Soliman, Saied M.; Elshaier, Yaseen A. M. M.; Ali, M.; Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed; Ghabbour, Hazem A.

    2017-04-01

    The one-pot synthesis reaction of barbituric acid derivative, 1,3-cyclohexandione, and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde in water mediated by NHEt2 as base afforded 4 with excellent yield. The synthesized compound was characterized by spectrophotometric tools as well as X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. The stability of the nine possible isomers of the synthesized compound was studied using the B3LYP method and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The electronic and spectroscopic properties of the most stable isomer were predicted. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum displayed two bands at 203 and 257 nm in the solvent chloroform. The latter was calculated at 235.6 nm (f = 0.1995) in the gas phase due to H-2→L (42%) and H-1→L+2 (14%) excitations. In solution, using chloroform as a solvent, a slight bathochromic shift to 237.6 nm with an increase in the absorption intensity (f = 0.2898) was predicted. The molecular orbital energy level diagram of this transition band was characterized mainly by π-π* transitions. The 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts correlated well with the experimental data. The correlations had higher correlation coefficients (R2) when solvent effects were considered. The atomic charges were calculated using natural population analysis and the charged regions were presented using a molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map. The synthesized compound was examined as a hypoglycemic agent via inhibition of α-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Its inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase was 10 times greater than the inhibitory activity of the standard drug acarbose (IC50 77.9 ± 0.3 μM and 840 ± 1.73 μM, respectively). Moreover, the target compound was evaluated for anticancer activity against MCF-7, H460, 3T3, and Hela cell lines. It demonstrated inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 and H460 cell lines with IC50 5.80 ± 0.12 and 19.6 ± 0.5 μM, respectively, in comparison to doxorubicin. The docking study was performed using the OpenEye program.

  18. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations on intramolecular charge transfer phenomenon in 1-3-dioxolane derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2018-02-01

    High fluorescence quantum yield (FQY) and large Stokes shift (SS) cannot be easily achieved simultaneously by traditional PICT or TICT fluorescent probe. However, an 1-3-dioxolane derivative named 5-methyl-8,9-dihydro-5H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-b]carbazol-6(7H)-one (MDDCO) features both high FQY and large SS. The purpose of this study is to search the mechanism behind this phenomenon by theoretical method. Simulated structure changes and charge transfer suggest ICT process in MDDCO is similar to PLICT (Planarized Intramolecular Charge Transfer) process. Calculated UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra show that PLICT-like state (S1 state) of MDDCO leads to large SS. Computed transient-absorption spectra and radiative decay rates indicate that PLICT-like state is key factor for high FQY of MDDCO. These findings suggest that PLICT-like state in 1,3-dioxolane derivatives can achieve both large SS and high FQY, which presents a new method for high-performance fluorescent probe design.

  19. The investigation of the interaction between piracetam and bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingjia; Han, Xiaowei; Tong, Jian; Guo, Chuang; Yang, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jifen; Fu, Bing

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between piracetam (OPA) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been thoroughly studied by fluorescence quenching technique in combination with UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies under the simulative physiological conditions. The quenching of BSA fluorescence by OPA was found to be a static quenching process. The binding constants ( K a) are 3.014, 2.926, and 2.503 × 10 3 M -1 at 292, 298, and 309 K, respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the thermodynamic functions standard enthalpy (Δ H) and standard entropy (Δ S) for the reaction were calculated to be -74.560 kJ mol -1 and -159.380 J mol -1 K -1, which indicated that OPA binds to BSA mainly by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The binding distance between BSA and OPA was calculated to be 4.10 nm according to the theory of FÖrster's non-radiation energy transfer. The displacement experiments confirmed that OPA could bind to the site I of BSA. Furthermore, the effects of pH and some common ions on the binding constant were also examined. And the alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of OPA were observed by the CD and FT-IR spectra.

  20. Theoretical investigation of electronic states and spectroscopic properties of tellurium selenide molecule employing relativistic effective core potentials.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyaya, Surya; Nath, Abhijit; Das, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Ab initio based relativistic configuration interaction calculations have been performed to study the electronic states and spectroscopic properties of tellurium selenide (TeSe) - the heaviest heteronuclear diatomic group 16-16 molecule. Potential energy curves of several spin-excluded (Λ-S) electronic states of TeSe have been constructed and spectroscopic constants of low-lying bound Λ-S states within 3.85 eV are reported in the first stage of calculations. The X(3)Σ(-), a(1)Δ and b(1)Σ(+) are found as the ground, first excited and second excited state, respectively, at the Λ-S level and all these three states are mainly dominated by …π(4)π(*2) configuration. The computed ground state dissociation energy is in very good agreement with the experimental results. In the next stage of calculations, effects of spin-orbit coupling on the potential energy curves and spectroscopic properties of the species are investigated in details and compared with the existing experimental results. After inclusion of spin-orbit coupling the X(3)(1)Σ(-)(0(+)) is found as the ground-state spin component of TeSe. The computed spin-orbit splitting between two components of X(3)Σ(-) state is 1285 cm(-1). Also, significant amount of spin-orbit splitting are found between spin-orbit components (Ω-components) of several other excited states. Transition moments of some important spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions are calculated from configuration interaction wave functions. The spin-allowed transition B(3)Σ(-)-X(3)Σ(-) and spin-forbidden transition b(1)Σ(+)(0(+))-X(3)(1)Σ(-)(0(+)) are found to be the strongest in their respective categories. Electric dipole moments of all the bound Λ-S states along with those of the two Ω-components of X(3)Σ(-) are also calculated in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigations on the spectroscopic properties of Dy3 + ions doped Zinc calcium tellurofluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Arunkumar, S.; Annapoorani, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2018-03-01

    A new series of Dy3 + doped (30-x)B2O3 + 30TeO2 + 20CaCO3 + 10ZnO + 10ZnF2 + xDy2O3 (x = 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 in wt%) Zinc calcium tellurofluoroborate glasses were prepared and their structural, luminescence and excited state dynamics have been studied and reported. The structural properties have been characterized through XRD and FTIR studies to confirm the amorphous nature and to explore the presence of fundamental stretching vibrations. The bonding parameters (δ and β), optical band gap, Urbach's energy, oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra. The JO intensity parameters and the Y/B intensity ratio values have been used to explore the nature of the bonding and asymmetry around the Dy-ligand field environment. The luminescence properties of the present Dy3 + doped glasses have been analyzed through luminescence excited state dynamics and radiative properties such as transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) branching ratio (β) and radiative lifetime (τR) values. The combination of dominant blue (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and yellow (4F9/2 → 6H13/2) emissions generates white light emission in the CIE chromaticity diagram thus suggests that the present Dy3 + doped glasses are suitable for white light applications. The lifetime of the 4F9/2 excited state is found to decrease with the increase in Dy3 + ion content and the concentration quenching of the Dy3 + ions emission could be ascribed due to the resonant energy transfer and cross-relaxation processes. The non-exponential behavior of the decay curves has been analyzed with Inokuti-Hirayama model and the interaction between the Dy3 + ions is of electric dipole-dipole in nature.

  2. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; ...

    2014-12-16

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  3. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  4. QUANTITATIVE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCE FUNCTIONAL GROUP COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been widely used for the structural investigation of humic substances. Although Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrumentation has been available for sometime, relatively little work with these instruments has been reported for humic substances,...

  5. Spectroscopic investigation on the interaction of copper porphyrazines and phthalocyanine with human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham

    2014-01-01

    The G-quadruplex DNA is a novel target for anticancer drug discovery and many scientific groups are investigating interaction of small molecules with G-quadruplex DNA to discover therapeutic agents for cancer. Here, interaction of a phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two tetrapyridinoporphyrazines ([Cu(2,3-tmtppa)](4+) and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)](4+)) with Na(+) and K(+) forms of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA has been investigated by spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated that interaction of the cationic porphyrazines is remarkably stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine and they presumably bind to the G-quadruplex DNA through end-stacking. Fluorescent intercalator displacement assay implied the displacement ability of the complexes with thiazole orange. In addition, circular dichroism spectra of both quadruplex forms converge to the Na(+) isoform after binding to the porphyrazines. In conclusion, the porphyrazines as the complexes that bind to the G-quadruplex DNA, could be suitable candidates for further investigations about inhibition of telomerase enzyme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Binding affinities of Schiff base Fe(II) complex with BSA and calf-thymus DNA: Spectroscopic investigations and molecular docking analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Suparna; Dasmandal, Somnath; Patra, Chiranjit; Kundu, Arjama; Mahapatra, Ambikesh

    2016-09-01

    The binding interaction of a synthesized Schiff base Fe(II) complex with biological macromolecules viz., bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calf thymus(ct)-DNA have been investigated using different spectroscopic techniques coupled with viscosity measurements at physiological pH and 298 K. Regular amendments in emission intensities of BSA upon the action of the complex indicate significant interaction between them, and the binding interaction have been characterized by Stern Volmer plots and thermodynamic binding parameters. On the basis of this quenching technique one binding site with binding constant (Kb = (7.6 ± 0.21) × 105) between complex and protein have been obtained at 298 K. Time-resolved fluorescence studies have also been encountered to understand the mechanism of quenching induced by the complex. Binding affinities of the complex to the fluorophores of BSA namely tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) have been judged by synchronous fluorescence studies. Secondary structural changes of BSA rooted by the complex has been revealed by CD spectra. On the other hand, hypochromicity of absorption spectra of the complex with the addition of ct-DNA and the gradual reduction in emission intensities of ethidium bromide bound ct-DNA in presence of the complex indicate noticeable interaction between ct-DNA and the complex with the binding constant (4.2 ± 0.11) × 106 M- 1. Life-time measurements have been studied to determine the relative amplitude of binding of the complex to ct-DNA base pairs. Mode of binding interaction of the complex with ct-DNA has been deciphered by viscosity measurements. CD spectra have also been used to understand the changes in ct-DNA structure upon binding with the metal complex. Density functional theory (DFT) and molecular docking analysis have been employed in highlighting the interactive phenomenon and binding location of the complex with the macromolecules.

  7. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation of Iron(III) Cysteine Dioxygenase: Implications for the Nature of the Putative Superoxo-Fe(III) Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a mononuclear, non-heme iron-dependent enzyme that converts exogenous cysteine (Cys) to cysteine sulfinic acid using molecular oxygen. Although the complete catalytic mechanism is not yet known, several recent reports presented evidence for an Fe(III)-superoxo reaction intermediate. In this work, we have utilized spectroscopic and computational methods to investigate the as-isolated forms of CDO, as well as Cys-bound Fe(III)CDO, both in the absence and presence of azide (a mimic of superoxide). An analysis of our electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance data of the azide-treated as-isolated forms of CDO within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) computations reveals that azide coordinates directly to the Fe(III), but not the Fe(II) center. An analogous analysis carried out for Cys-Fe(III)CDO provides compelling evidence that at physiological pH, the iron center is six coordinate, with hydroxide occupying the sixth coordination site. Upon incubation of this species with azide, the majority of the active sites retain hydroxide at the iron center. Nonetheless, a modest perturbation of the electronic structure of the Fe(III) center is observed, indicating that azide ions bind near the active site. Additionally, for a small fraction of active sites, azide displaces hydroxide and coordinates directly to the Cys-bound Fe(III) center to generate a low-spin (S = 1/2) Fe(III) complex. In the DFT-optimized structure of this complex, the central nitrogen atom of the azide moiety lies within 3.12 Å of the cysteine sulfur. A similar orientation of the superoxide ligand in the putative Fe(III)-superoxo reaction intermediate would promote the attack of the distal oxygen atom on the sulfur of substrate Cys. PMID:25093959

  8. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Iodine Capture by Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Abney, Carter W.; Nan, Yue; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    Capture of radioactive iodine is a significant consideration during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and disposal of legacy wastes. While silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is widely regarded as a benchmark material for assessing iodine adsorption performance, previous research efforts have largely focused on bulk material properties rather than the underpinning molecular interactions that achieve effective iodine capture. As a result, the fundamental understanding necessary to identify and mitigate deactivation pathways for the recycle of AgZ is not available. In this paper, we applied X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to investigate AgZ following activation, adsorption of iodine, regeneration, and recycle, observingmore » no appreciable degradation in performance due to the highly controlled conditions under which the AgZ was maintained. Fits of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) data reveal complete formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles upon treatment with H 2, and confirm the formation of α-AgI within the mordenite channels in addition to surface γ/β-AgI nanoparticles following iodine exposure. Analysis of the nanoparticle size and fractional composition of α-AgI to γ/β-AgI supports ripening of surface nanoparticles as a function of recycle. Finally, this work provides a foundation for future investigation of AgZ deactivation under conditions relevant to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.« less

  9. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Iodine Capture by Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    DOE PAGES

    Abney, Carter W.; Nan, Yue; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2017-03-29

    Capture of radioactive iodine is a significant consideration during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and disposal of legacy wastes. While silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is widely regarded as a benchmark material for assessing iodine adsorption performance, previous research efforts have largely focused on bulk material properties rather than the underpinning molecular interactions that achieve effective iodine capture. As a result, the fundamental understanding necessary to identify and mitigate deactivation pathways for the recycle of AgZ is not available. In this paper, we applied X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to investigate AgZ following activation, adsorption of iodine, regeneration, and recycle, observingmore » no appreciable degradation in performance due to the highly controlled conditions under which the AgZ was maintained. Fits of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) data reveal complete formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles upon treatment with H 2, and confirm the formation of α-AgI within the mordenite channels in addition to surface γ/β-AgI nanoparticles following iodine exposure. Analysis of the nanoparticle size and fractional composition of α-AgI to γ/β-AgI supports ripening of surface nanoparticles as a function of recycle. Finally, this work provides a foundation for future investigation of AgZ deactivation under conditions relevant to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.« less

  10. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation of the spectroscopic signatures of 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT: their interactions with sand particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Alejandro; Mina, Nairmen; Castro, Miguel E.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2004-09-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is a well established tool for vibrational spectroscopy analysis. Interactions of explosives with different substrates can be measured by using quantitative vibrational signal shift information of scattered Raman light associated with these interactions. A vibrational spectroscopic study has been carried out on 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT crystals. Raman Microscopy spectrometers equipped with 514 nm and 785 nm laser excitation lines were used. The samples were recrystallized on different solvents (water, methanol and acetonitrile) and allowed to interact with soil samples. The interaction with sand and soil samples doped with the nitroaromatic compounds showed significant shifts in its peaks. The above information was used to detect DNT in soil using Raman Microscopy. These results will make possible the development of highly sensitive sensors for detection of explosives materials.

  12. Experimental investigation of the heat and mass transfer in a tube bundle absorber of an absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbricht, Michael; Luke, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    The design of the absorber of absorption chillers is still subject to great uncertainty since the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer as well as the influence of systemic interactions on the absorption process are not fully understood. Unfortunately, only a few investigations on the transport phenomena in the absorber during operation in an absorption chiller are reported in the literature. Therefore, experimental investigations on the heat and mass transfer during falling film absorption of steam in aqueous LiBr-solution are carried out in an absorber installed in an absorption chiller in this work. An improvement of heat and mass transfer due to the increase in convective effects are observed as the Ref number increases. Furthermore, an improvement of the heat transfer in the absorber with increasing coolant temperature can be identified in the systemic context. This is explained by a corresponding reduction in the average viscosity of the solution in the absorber. A comparison with experimental data from literature obtained from so-called absorber-generator test rigs shows a good consistency. Thus, it has been shown that the findings obtained on these simplified experimental setups can be transferred to the absorber in an absorption chiller. However, a comparison with correlations from the literature reveals a strong deviation between experimental and calculated results. Hence, further research activities on the development of better correlations are required in future.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF REDUCTION OF ABSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL BY MEANS OF ASTRINGENTS (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrnbecher, W.

    1963-02-01

    An attempt was made to use the astringent properties of two substances, adrenalin and tannin, for reducing skin absorption of radioactive substances on female Wistar rats. The effect of 1/2% adrenalin emulsion and of a 2% tannin solution on the absorption of a BETA -emitting substance (Sr/sup 89/Cl/sub 2/ solution) was observed over three periods of 30, 60, and 90 min. A reduction of absorption was found after using adrenalin and tanning. The effect of adrenalin was small, particularly over prolonged periods of observation, and there was a marked reduction of absorption resulting from the use of tannin during allmore » periods of observation-. A method is described that permits an estimate of the reduction in skin absorption of BETA rays. (P.C.H.)« less

  14. Investigation into the absorptivity change in metals with increased laser power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blidegn, M. Sc. K.; Olsen, Flemming O.

    1997-04-01

    At first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG or carbon-dioxide lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However, it has been demonstrated that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser interaction. An increase which cannot be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing and when modeling processes the Drude free electron model or simplifications, such as the Hagen-Rubens relation, have often been used. This paper discusses the need to extend the Drude model taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect at low light intensities and a multiphoton absorption model in order to describe the increase in the absorptivity at high intensities. The model is compared with experimental results carried out at low power, and tested on experimental absorptivity measurements at high power YAG laser pulses, found in literature.

  15. Experimental investigation of sound absorption properties of perforated date palm fibers panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwaleed, A. K.; Nikabdullah, N.; Nor, M. J. M.; Tahir, M. F. M.; Zulkifli, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the sound absorption properties of a natural waste of date palm fiber perforated panel. A single layer of the date palm fibers was tested in this study for its sound absorption properties. The experimental measurements were carried out using impedance tube at the acoustic lab, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The experiment was conducted for the panel without air gap, with air gap and with perforated plate facing. Three air gap thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm were used between the date palm fiber sample and the rigid backing of the impedance tube. The results showed that when facing the palm date fiber sample with perforated plate the sound absorption coefficient improved at the higher and lower frequency ranges. This increase in sound absorption coincided with reduction in medium frequency absorption. However, this could be improved by using different densities or perforated plate with the date palm fiber panel.

  16. Raman Spectroscopic Investigations of Some Bismuthate Oxide Glasses with Manganese Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelean, I.; Todor, Ioana; PǍŞUŢǍ, P.; Ioncu, V.

    Glasses from xMnO·(100-x)Bi2O3 and xMnO·(100-x)[Bi2O3·MO] (MO⇒GeO2 and As2O3 systems, with 0≤x≤50 mol%) were prepared in the same conditions and investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The study is particularly focused on the influence of a gradual increase of MnO content on the glass structure and the effect of changing the glass matrix composition. The spectra obtained certify the presence of [BiO6] octahedral units for all systems and their content progressively increasing with the MnO content. The specific changes in the glass structure according to the matrix composition observed for each system were investigated.

  17. Magnetic cooling at a single molecule level: a spectroscopic investigation of isolated molecules on a surface.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Valdis; Ghirri, Alberto; Candini, Andrea; Biagi, Roberto; del Pennino, Umberto; Dotti, Gianluca; Otero, Edwige; Choueikani, Fadi; Blagg, Robin J; McInnes, Eric J L; Affronte, Marco

    2013-05-28

    A sub-monolayer distribution of isolated molecular Fe14 (bta)6 nanomagnets is deposited intact on a Au(111) surface and investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The entropy variation with respect to the applied magnetic field is extracted from the magnetization curves and evidences high magnetocaloric values at the single molecule level. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of Ligand Binding to IspH: Discovery of Non-diphosphate Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dowd, Bing; Williams, Sarah; Wang, Hongxin

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis is an important area for anti-infective drug development. One isoprenoid target described is (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl 4-diphosphate (HMBPP) reductase (IspH), which forms isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate from HMBPP in a 2H + /2e - reduction. IspH contains a 4 Fe-4 S cluster, and in this work, we first investigated how small molecules bound to the cluster by using HYSCORE and NRVS spectroscopies. The results of these, as well as other structural and spectroscopic investigations, led to the conclusion that, in most cases, ligands bound to IspH 4 Fe-4 S clusters by η 1 coordination, forming tetrahedral geometries at themore » unique fourth Fe, ligand side chains preventing further ligand (e.g., H 2 O, O 2 ) binding. Based on these ideas, we used in silico methods to find drug-like inhibitors that might occupy the HMBPP substrate binding pocket and bind to Fe, leading to the discovery of a barbituric acid analogue with a K i value of ≈500 nm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa IspH.« less

  19. Quantification of zinc-porphyrin in dry-cured ham products by spectroscopic methods Comparison of absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristoffer; Adamsen, Christina E; Laursen, Jens; Olsen, Karsten; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-03-01

    Zinc-protoporphyrin (Zn-pp), which has been identified as the major pigment in certain dry-cured meat products, was extracted with acetone/water (75%) and isolated from the following meat products: Parma ham, Iberian ham and dry-cured ham with added nitrite. The quantification of Zn-pp by electron absorption, fluorescence and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was compared (concentration range used [Zn-pp]=0.8-9.7μM). All three hams were found to contain Zn-pp, and the results show no significant difference among the content of Zn-pp quantified by fluorescence, absorbance and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for Parma ham and Iberian ham. All three methods can be used for quantification of Zn-pp in acetone/water extracts of different ham types if the content is higher than 1.0ppm. For dry-cured ham with added nitrite, XRF was not applicable due to the low content of Zn-pp (<0.1ppm). In addition, XRF spectroscopy provides further information regarding other trace elements and can therefore be advantageous in this aspect. This study also focused on XRF determination of Fe in the extracts and as no detectable Fe was found in the three types of ham extracts investigated (limit of detection; Fe⩽1.8ppm), it allows the conclusion that iron containing pigments, e.g., heme, do not contribute to the noticeable red colour observed in some of the extracts.

  20. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Characterization of the Synthesis Process: Revealing the Interactions in Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Modified Sulfur–Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Yifan; Kawase, Ayako; Song, Min-Kyu

    In this paper, we have investigated the chemical bonding interaction of S in a CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH 3(CH 2) 15N +(CH 3) 3Br –)-modified sulfur–graphene oxide (S–GO) nanocomposite used as the cathode material for Li/S cells by S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results show that the introduction of CTAB to the S–GO nanocomposite and changes in the synthesis recipe including alteration of the S precursor ratios and the sequence of mixing ingredients lead to the formation of different S species. CTAB modifies the cathode materials through bonding with Na 2S x in the precursor solution, which ismore » subsequently converted to C–S bonds during the heat treatment at 155 °C. Moreover, GO bonds with CTAB and acts as the nucleation center for S precipitation. Finally, all these interactions among S, CTAB, and GO help to immobilize the sulfur in the cathode and may be responsible for the enhanced cell cycle life of CTAB–S–GO nanocomposite-based Li/S cells.« less

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Characterization of the Synthesis Process: Revealing the Interactions in Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Modified Sulfur–Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Yifan; Kawase, Ayako; Song, Min-Kyu; ...

    2016-04-22

    In this paper, we have investigated the chemical bonding interaction of S in a CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH 3(CH 2) 15N +(CH 3) 3Br –)-modified sulfur–graphene oxide (S–GO) nanocomposite used as the cathode material for Li/S cells by S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The results show that the introduction of CTAB to the S–GO nanocomposite and changes in the synthesis recipe including alteration of the S precursor ratios and the sequence of mixing ingredients lead to the formation of different S species. CTAB modifies the cathode materials through bonding with Na 2S x in the precursor solution, which ismore » subsequently converted to C–S bonds during the heat treatment at 155 °C. Moreover, GO bonds with CTAB and acts as the nucleation center for S precipitation. Finally, all these interactions among S, CTAB, and GO help to immobilize the sulfur in the cathode and may be responsible for the enhanced cell cycle life of CTAB–S–GO nanocomposite-based Li/S cells.« less

  2. Spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical investigations of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ujval; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K.; Kant, Rajni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2015-04-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile have been carried out and investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, natural atomic charges and thermodynamic properties in the ground state have been investigated by using Hartree Fock Theory (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Both HF and DFT methods yield good agreement with the experimental data. Vibrational modes are assigned with the help of Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the spectral range of 190-800 nm and the results are compared with the calculated values using TD-DFT approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results obtained from the studies of Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) are used to calculate molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electron chemical potential and global electrophilicity.

  3. Spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical investigations of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ujval; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2015-04-05

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile have been carried out and investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, natural atomic charges and thermodynamic properties in the ground state have been investigated by using Hartree Fock Theory (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Both HF and DFT methods yield good agreement with the experimental data. Vibrational modes are assigned with the help of Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the spectral range of 190-800nm and the results are compared with the calculated values using TD-DFT approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results obtained from the studies of Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) are used to calculate molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electron chemical potential and global electrophilicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular structure activity on pharmaceutical applications of Phenacetin using spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanagopal, A.; Periandy, S.; Gayathri, P.; Ramalingam, S.; Xavier, S.

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical compound; Phenacetin was investigated by analyzing FT-IR, FT-Raman and 1H &13C NMR spectra. The hybrid efficient computational calculations performed for computing physical and chemical parameters. The cause of pharmaceutical activity due to the substitutions; carboxylic, methyl and amine groups in appropriate positions on the pedestal compound was deeply investigated. Moreover, 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts correlated with TMS standard to explain the truth of compositional ratio of base and ligand groups. The bathochromic shift due to chromophores over the energy levels in UV-Visible region was strongly emphasized the Anti-inflammatory chemical properties. The chemical stability was pronounced by the strong kubo gap which showed the occurring of charge transformation within the molecule. The occurrence of the chemical reaction was feasibly interpreted by Gibbs free energy profile. The standard vibrational analysis stressed the active participation of composed ligand groups for the existence of the analgesic as well as antipyretic properties of the Phenacetin compound. The strong dipole interaction energy utilization for the transition among non-vanishing donor and acceptor for composition of the molecular structure was interpreted.

  5. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  6. Near-field spectroscopic investigation of dual-band heavy fermion metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Gilbert Corder, Stephanie N; Chen, Xinzhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hu, Fengrui; Zhang, Jiawei; Luan, Yilong; Logan, Jack A; Ciavatti, Thomas; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C; Aronson, Meigan; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Iizuka, Takuya; Fei, Zhe; Imura, Keiichiro; Sato, Noriaki K; Tao, Tiger H; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-12-22

    Broadband tunability is a central theme in contemporary nanophotonics and metamaterials research. Combining metamaterials with phase change media offers a promising approach to achieve such tunability, which requires a comprehensive investigation of the electromagnetic responses of novel materials at subwavelength scales. In this work, we demonstrate an innovative way to tailor band-selective electromagnetic responses at the surface of a heavy fermion compound, samarium sulfide (SmS). By utilizing the intrinsic, pressure sensitive, and multi-band electron responses of SmS, we create a proof-of-principle heavy fermion metamaterial, which is fabricated and characterized using scanning near-field microscopes with <50 nm spatial resolution. The optical responses at the infrared and visible frequency ranges can be selectively and separately tuned via modifying the occupation of the 4f and 5d band electrons. The unique pressure, doping, and temperature tunability demonstrated represents a paradigm shift for nanoscale metamaterial and metasurface design.

  7. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography, thermal studies, spectroscopic and electrochemistry investigations of uranyl Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Zahra; Shorkaei, Mohammad Ranjkesh

    2013-03-15

    Some tetradentate salen type Schiff bases and their uranyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, NMR, IR, TG, C.H.N. and X-ray crystallographic studies. From these investigations it is confirmed that a solvent molecule occupied the fifth position of the equatorial plane of the distorted pentagonal bipyramidal structure. Also, the kinetics of complex decomposition by using thermo gravimetric methods (TG) was studied. The thermal decomposition reactions are first order for the studied complexes. To examine the properties of uranyl complexes according to the substitutional groups, we have carried out the electrochemical studies. The electrochemical reactions of uranyl Schiff base complexes in acetonitrile were reversible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of plasma electrolytic borocarburizing on q235 low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run; Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Xue, Wenbin; Jin, Xiaoyue; Du, Jiancheng; Hua, Ming

    2014-12-01

    A plasma electrolytic borocarburizing process (PEB/C) in borax electrolyte with glycerin additive was employed to fabricate a hardening layer on Q235 low-carbon steel. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was utilized to investigate the spectroscopy characteristics of plasma discharge around the steel during PEB/C process. Some plasma parameters were calculated in terms of OES. The electron temperature and electron concentration in plasma discharge zone is about 3000-12,000 K and 2 × 1022 m-3-1.4 × 1023 m-3. The atomic ionization degrees of iron, carbon and boron are 10-16-10-3, and 10-23-10-6, 10-19-10-4, respectively, which depend on discharge time. The surface morphology and cross-sectional microstructure of PEB/C hardening layer were observed, and the electrolyte decomposition and plasma discharge behaviors were discussed.

  9. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-05

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of light-induced intracellular reactions of hydrophilic meso-tetraphenylporphyrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueck, Angelika C.; Strauss, Wolfgang S. L.; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1992-06-01

    Light-induced reactions of different hydrophilic meso-tetraphenyl porphyrins (TPPS4, TPPC4, T4MPyP) were investigated during PDT treatment. These measurements were carried out in vitro using micro-spectrofluorometry and were correlated with measurements in buffer solutions. In the case of the anionic TPPS4, before light exposure, a neutral free base and a protonated species could be detected simultaneously in the cells. During irradiation, the protonated species first disappeared. Due to the fact that a coexistence of a protonated and unprotonated species requires a pH value around 5, TPPS4 was at first located in the lysosomes (pH 5) and was released into the cytoplasm during irradiation as a result of lysosomal rupture. Further light exposure led to a drastic fluorescence formation in the nuclei, in particular the nucleoli of the cells, which was concomitant with a renewed observation of a fluorescence emission spectrum similar to that of the protonated species. In the case of the anionic TPPC4, a similar fluorescence increase was observed during irradiation. However, the formation of a protonated species played a less important role. The cationic T4MPyP again showed fluorescence increase during irradiation. Two Soret-bands separated by about 20 nm could be detected. The red-shifted band may be due to a special intercalation of T4MPyP in nucleic acids.

  11. Near-field spectroscopic investigation of dual-band heavy fermion metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert Corder, Stephanie N.; Chen, Xinzhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; ...

    2017-12-22

    Broadband tunability is a central theme in contemporary nanophotonics and metamaterials research. Combining metamaterials with phase change media offers a promising approach to achieve such tunability, which requires a comprehensive investigation of the electromagnetic responses of novel materials at subwavelength scales. In this work, we demonstrate an innovative way to tailor band-selective electromagnetic responses at the surface of a heavy fermion compound, samarium sulfide (SmS). By utilizing the intrinsic, pressure sensitive, and multi-band electron responses of SmS, we create a proof-of-principle heavy fermion metamaterial, which is fabricated and characterized using scanning near-field microscopes with < 50 nm spatial resolution. Themore » optical responses at the infrared and visible frequency ranges can be selectively and separately tuned via modifying the occupation of the 4f and 5d band electrons. The unique pressure, doping, and temperature tunability demonstrated represents a paradigm shift for nanoscale metamaterial and metasurface design.« less

  12. A combined TD-DFT and spectroscopic investigation of the solute-solvent interactions of efavirenz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, Maryam A.; Singh, Parvesh; Martincigh, Bice S.

    2016-03-01

    Efavirenz, commercially known as Sustiva® or Stocrin®, is a first-line antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS. The clinical efficacy of efavirenz is, however, hindered by its solubility. We sought to investigate the solute-solvent effects of efavirenz by means of a combined qualitative study implementing UV-visible spectrophotometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The UV spectrum displayed two main absorbance maxima, band I and band II at 246-260 and 291-295 nm, respectively. A general bathochromic shift was noticed from the non-polar solvent cyclohexane to the most polar solvent DMSO (≈ 13.69 nm) in band I and a smaller bathochromic (≈ 2.17 nm) and hyperchromic shift was observed in band II. We propose that these observations are due to the role of the amino (NH) and carbonyl (CO) functionalities which induce charge-transfer and intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. The aromatic and amine protons showed the most deshielded effects in the observed chemical shifts (δ) in the more polar DMSO-d6 solvent relative to CDCl3. The 1H NMR chemical shifts observed are due to the increased delocalization of the lone pair electrons of the amino nitrogen with increased polarity of the more polar DMSO solvent. The theoretical reproduction of the UV and 1H NMR spectra by means of TD-DFT is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of alloyed quantum dot-based FRET to cresyl violet dye.

    PubMed

    Kotresh, M G; Adarsh, K S; Shivkumar, M A; Mulimani, B G; Savadatti, M I; Inamdar, S R

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), bright luminescent semiconductor nanoparticles, have found numerous applications ranging from optoelectronics to bioimaging. Here, we present a systematic investigation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from hydrophilic ternary alloyed quantum dots (CdSeS/ZnS) to cresyl violet dye with a view to explore the effect of composition of QD donors on FRET efficiency. Fluorescence emission of QD is controlled by varying the composition of QD without altering the particle size. The results show that quantum yield of the QDs increases with increase in the emission wavelength. The FRET parameters such as spectral overlap J(λ), Förster distance R0, intermolecular distance (r), rate of energy transfer k(T)(r), and transfer efficiency (E) are determined by employing both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, dynamic quenching is noticed to occur in the present FRET system. Stern-Volmer (K(D)) and bimolecular quenching constants (k(q)) are determined from the Stern-Volmer plot. It is observed that the transfer efficiency follows a linear dependence on the spectral overlap and the quantum yield of the donor as predicted by the Förster theory upon changing the composition of the QD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Raman spectroscopic investigation of spinal cord injury in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Tarun; Deng, Bin; Stelzner, Dennis; Hasenwinkel, Julie; Chaiken, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to study temporal molecular changes associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model. Raman spectra of saline-perfused, injured, and healthy rat spinal cords were obtained and compared. Two injury models, a lateral hemisection and a moderate contusion were investigated. The net fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed clear differences between the injured and healthy spinal cords. Based on extensive histological and biochemical characterization of SCI available in the literature, these differences were hypothesized to be due to cell death, demyelination, and changes in the extracellular matrix composition, such as increased expression of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, at the site of injury where the glial scar forms. Further, analysis of difference spectra indicated the presence of carbonyl containing compounds, hypothesized to be products of lipid peroxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosaminoglycan moieties. These results compared well with in vitro experiments conducted on chondroitin sulfate sugars. Since the glial scar is thought to be a potent biochemical barrier to nerve regeneration, this observation suggests the possibility of using near infrared Raman spectroscopy to study injury progression and explore potential treatments ex vivo, and ultimately monitor potential remedial treatments within the spinal cord in vivo.

  16. Investigation of the interaction of deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaman; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yuhao; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of Deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin (HSA) under the condition of simulating human blood pH environment (pH = 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. It was shown that DM was a static quencher of HSA. The binding constants (Ka) are 3.598 × 104 L mol-1 (25 °C); the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH = -3.269 × 104 kJ mol-1, ΔS = -22.81 kJ mol-1 k-1, ΔG = -25889.8 kJ mol-1) obtained with the thermodynamic equation. The hydrogen bond and Vander Waals were the main driving force. The effect of DM on the conformation of HSA was observed by three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, indicating that the interaction between DM and HSA was achieved through the binding of DM with the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of HSA. The study on the interaction of DM and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was researched and compared. Difference exists in the interactions of with each of the serum albumins. We will verify and supplement that DM residue in animals and human metabolism, toxicology and other mechanisms are different.

  17. In situ Raman spectroscopic investigation of zirconium-niobium alloy corrosion under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslar, J. E.; Hurst, W. S.; Bowers, W. J.; Hendricks, J. H.

    2001-10-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate corrosion of a zirconium-niobium alloy in air-saturated water at a pressure of 15.5 MPa and temperatures ranging from 22 to 407 °C in an optically accessible flow cell. Monoclinic ZrO 2 (m-ZrO 2) was identified under all conditions after the coupon was heated to 255 °C for 19 h. Cubic ZrO 2 (c-ZrO 2) was tentatively identified in situ during heating at temperatures between 306 and 407 °C, but was not observed under any other conditions. Species tentatively identified as α-CrOOH and a Cr VI and/or Cr III/Cr VI compound were observed in situ during heating at temperatures between 255 and 407 °C, but were not observed under any other conditions. The chromium compounds were identified as corrosion products released from the optical cell and/or flow system.

  18. Spectroscopic investigation on formation and growth of mineralized nanohydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, D.; Nithiya, S.; Shinyjoy, E.; Kavitha, L.

    Synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP,Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is a well-known bioceramic material used in orthopaedic and dental applications because of its excellent biocompatibility and bone-bonding ability. Substitution of trace elements, such as Sr, Mg and Zn ions into the structure of calcium phosphates is the subject of widespread investigation. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of Sr, Mg and Zn co-substituted nanohydroxyapatite by soft solution freezing method. The effect of pH on the morphology of bioceramic nanomaterial was also discussed. The in vitro bioactivity of the as-synthesized bioceramic nanomaterial was determined by soaking it in SBF for various days. The as-synthesized bioceramic nanomaterial was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X- ray diffraction analysis, Scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Transmission electron microscopic techniques respectively. The results obtained in our study have revealed that pH 10 was identified to induce the formation of mineralized nanohydroxyapatite. It is observed that the synthesis of bioceramic nanomaterial not only support the growth of apatite layer on its surface but also accelerate the growth which is evident from the in vitro studies. Therefore, mineralized nanohydroxyapatite is a potential candidate in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Salih, Ashraf M; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2015-08-04

    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic investigations of an Nb-bearing silicate melt in contact with an aqueous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayanovic, R. A.; Anderson, A. J.; Bassett, W. A.; Chou, I.

    2006-05-01

    Understanding the structural properties of trace elements in hydrous silicate melts in contact with a hydrothermal fluid is fundamentally important for a better assessment of the role of such elements in silicate melts being subjected to hydrothermal processes. We describe the use of synchrotron x-ray microprobe techniques and the modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell for in-situ spectroscopic analysis of individual phases of a silicate-melt/fluid system. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements were made on sectors ID20 and ID13 at the Advanced Photon Source, at the Argonne National Laboratory, on a Nb-bearing granitic glass in H2O and separately in a 1 M Na2CO3 aqueous solution at temperatures ranging from 25 to 880 °C and at up to 700 MPa of pressure. Individual phases of the Nb-glass/fluid system (at low temperatures) or the hydrous-silicate-melt/fluid system (at elevated temperatures) were probed using an X-ray beam focused to a diameter of 5 μm at the location of the sample. XRF analysis shows that the Nb partitions selectively from the hydrous silicate melt into the aqueous fluid at high temperatures in the Nb-glass/Na2CO3/H2O system but not so in the Nb-glass/H2O system. Analysis of XAFS spectra measured from the hydrous silicate melt phase of the Nb-glass/H2O sample in the 450 to 700 °C range shows that the first shell contains six oxygen atoms at a distance of ~1.98 Å. Our results suggest that reorganization of the silicate structure surrounding Nb occurs in the melt when compared to that of the starting glass. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a pre-edge peak feature located at ~18995 eV that exhibits sharpening and becomes more intensified in the 450 to 700 °C range. Fitting of the Nb K-edge XANES spectra measured from the melt is accomplished using FEFF8.28 and an atomic model NbSi4O6-4(Na, K). The model is based on the structure of fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8

  1. Ultrafast carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Lin Yun; Weng, Yu Xiang; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2010-12-01

    Carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes (phase of H2Ti2O5.H2O) deposited on a quartz plate was examined by visible/near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy with an ultraviolet excitation. The carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes follows the fast trapping process which attributed to the intrinsic tubular structure, the relaxation of shallow trapped carriers and the recombination as a second-order kinetic process. Transient absorption of titanic acid nanotubes was dominated by the absorption of surface-trapped holes in visible region around 500 nm, which was proved by the faster decay dynamics in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a hole-scavenger. However, the slow relaxation of free carriers was much more pronounced in the TiO2 single crystals, as compared with the transient absorption spectra of titanic acid nanotubes under the similar excitation.

  2. Immersion in altered experience: An investigation of the relationship between absorption and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Cherise; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A.; Melbourne, Jennifer K.; Grossman, Linda S.; Sharma, Rajiv P.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding alterations in perceptual experiences as a component of the basic symptom structure of psychosis may improve early detection and the identification of subtle shifts that can precede symptom exacerbation. We explored the phenomenological construct of absorption and psychotic experiences in both clinical (bipolar psychosis and schizophrenia spectrum) and non-clinical participants. Participants with psychosis endorsed significantly higher absorption compared to the non-clinical group. Absorption was positively correlated with all types of hallucinations and multiple types of delusions. The analysis yielded two distinct cluster groups that demarcated a distinction along the continuum of self-disturbance: on characterized by attenuated ego boundaries and the other stable ego boundaries. The study suggests that absorption is a potentially important but under-researched component of psychosis that overlaps with, but is not identical to the more heavily theorized constructs of aberrant salience and hyperreflexivity. PMID:28219788

  3. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D.; Bhowmick, D.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H+ ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ˜4 × 1017 cm-3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ˜175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  4. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H(+) irradiated ZnO single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-08-15

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H(+) ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a 'hydrogen at oxygen vacancy' type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10(17) cm(-3) (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  5. Spectroscopic and TDDFT investigation on highly selective fluorogenic chemosensor and construction of molecular logic gates.

    PubMed

    Basheer, Sabeel M; Kumar, Saravana Loganathan Ashok; Kumar, Moorthy Saravana; Sreekanth, Anandaram

    2017-03-01

    1,5-Bis(2-fluorene)thiocarbohydrazone (FBTC) was designed and synthesized for selective sensing of fluoride and copper ions. The binding constants of FBTC towards fluoride and copper ions have been calculated using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation, and FBTC has more binding affinity towards copper ion than fluoride ion. The 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR titration studies strongly support the deprotonation was taken from the N-H protons followed by the formation of hydrogen bond via N-H … F. To understand the fluoride ion sensing mechanism, theoretical investigation had been carried out using the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The theoretical data well reproduced the experimental results. The deprotonation process has a moderate transition barrier (481.55kcal/mol). The calculated ΔE and ΔG values (-253.92 and -192.41kcal/mol respectively) suggest the feasibility of sensing process. The potential energy curves give the optimized structures of FBTC-F complex in the ground state and excited state, which states the proton transition occurs at the excited state. The excited state proton transition mechanism was further confirmed with natural bond orbital analysis. The reversibility of the sensor was monitored by the alternate addition of F - and Cu 2+ ions, which was explained with "Read-Erase-Write-Read" behaviour. The multi-ion detection of sensor used to construct the molecular logic gate, such as AND, OR, NOR and INHIBITION logic gates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  7. Interaction of triblock co-polymer micelles with phospholipid-bilayer: a spectroscopic investigation using a potential chloride channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Soumen; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2015-03-07

    Interaction of a potential chloride channel blocker, 9-methyl anthroate (9-MA), has been studied with zwitterionic l-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC) lipid vesicles, which ascertains the utility of the drug as an efficient molecular reporter for probing the microheterogeneous environment of lipid-bilayers. The effect of a non-ionic triblock co-polymer P123 on the stability of these drug-bound lipid-bilayers has also been investigated by means of steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques exploiting the fluorescence properties of the drug. Experimental results reveal that the addition of P123 to the drug-bound lipid results in a preferential complexation of the drug with the Pluronic leaving the lipid vesicles aside, which has been attributed to a substantially stronger binding interaction of the drug with P123 than that with egg-PC. The result is of potential interest from a medical perspective owing to the context of excess drug desorption from bio-membranes.

  8. Multi-spectroscopic investigation on the complexation of tetracycline with dissolved organic matter derived from algae and macrophyte.

    PubMed

    Bai, Leilei; Zhao, Zhen; Wang, Chunliu; Wang, Changhui; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Helong

    2017-11-01

    Interactions of antibiotics with algae-derived dissolved organic matter (ADOM) and macrophyte-derived dissolved organic matter (MDOM) are of vital importance to the transport and ecotoxicity of antibiotics in eutrophic freshwater lakes. Multi-spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the complexation of tetracycline (TTC) with ADOM and MDOM collected from Lake Taihu (China). The 3 fluorescent components, tyrosine-, tryptophan-, and humic-like component, were identified by excitation emission matrix spectra with parallel factor analysis. Their fluorescence was quenched at different degree by TTC titration through static quenching. The complexation of TTC induced conformational changes in DOM fractions. Synchronous fluorescence spectra combined with two dimensional correlation spectroscopy further suggested that the formation of TTC-DOM complexes occurred on the sequential order of tryptophan-like→tyrosine-like→humic-like component. The effective quenching constants of tryptophan- and tyrosine-like component were similar, higher than those of humic-like component. The strong binding ability and abundant content of protein-like substances indicated their prominent role in the TTC-DOM complexation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further revealed that the heterogeneous functional groups, including amide I and II, aromatics, and aliphatics, were responsible for the complexation. These results highlight the significant impact of the overgrowth of algae and macrophyte on the environmental behavior of antibiotics in waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time and space resolved spectroscopic investigation during anode plume formation in a high-current vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, A.; Methling, R.; Uhrlandt, D.; Franke, St.; Gortschakow, S.; Popov, S.; Batrakov, A.; Weltmann, K. D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents time and space resolved results of spectroscopic measurements during the formation of an anode plume in the late current pulse phase of a high-current vacuum arc. The formation of the anode plume is investigated systematically based on the occurrence of high-current anode spots, depending on gap distance and current for AC 100 Hz and CuCr7525 butt contacts with a diameter of 10 mm. The anode plume is observed after the extinction of anode spot type 2 in which both the anode and cathode are active. It is concluded from the spatial profiles of the atomic and ionic radiation, parallel and perpendicular to anode surface, that the inner part of the plume is dominated by Cu I radiation, whereas a halo of light emitted by Cu II covers the plume. The radiation intensity of Cu III lines is quite low across the whole anode plume. Upper level excited state densities corresponding to Cu I lines at 510.55, 515.32, 521.82, 578.21 nm are determined. The temporal evolution of the resulting excitation temperature in the centre of the plume varies from 8500 K to 6000 K at 500 µs to 100 µs before current zero, respectively. The density calculated for Cu I at position in the plume is in the range of 1-5  ×  1019 m-3.

  10. Spectroscopic Investigation of p-Shell Lambda Hypernuclei by the (e,e'K +) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chunhua

    2014-08-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate Lambda-N interaction. Compared with other Lambda hypernuclei productions, electroproduction via the (e,e'K+) reaction has the advantage of exciting states deeply inside of the hypernucleus and achieving sub-MeV energy resolution. The E05-115 experiment, which was successfully performed in 2009, is the third generation hypernuclear experiment in JLab Hall C. A new splitter magnet and electron spectrometer were installed, and beam energy of 2.344 GeV was selected in this experiment. These new features gave better field uniformity, optics quality and made the tilt method more effective in improving yield-to-background ratio. The magnetic optics ofmore » the spectrometers were carefully studied with GEANT simulation, and corrections were applied to compensate for the fringe field cross talk between the compact spectrometer magnets. The non-linear least chi-squared method was used to further calibrate the spectrometer with the events from Lambda, Sigma0 and B12Lambda and uniform magnetic optics as well as precise kinematics were achieved. Several p-shell Lambda hypernuclear spectra, including B 12 Λ, Be 10 Λ, He 7 Λ, were obtained with high energy resolution and good accuracy. For B 12 Λ, eight peaks were recognized with the resolution of ~540keV (FWHM), and the ground state binding energy was obtained as 11.529 ± 0.012(stat.) ± 0.110(syst.) MeV. Be 10 Λ, twelve peaks were recognized with the resolution of ~520keV (FWHM), and the binding energy of the ground state was determined as 8.710 ± 0.059(stat.) ± 0.114(syst.) MeV. For He 7 Λ, three peaks were recognized with the resolution of ~730keV, and the ground state binding energy was obtained as 5.510 ± 0.050(stat.) ± 0.120(syst.) MeV. Compared with the published data of B 12 Λ from the JLab Hall A experiment, four extra peaks were fitted and interpreted thanks to the highest ever energy resolution and sufficient statistics. The determined binding

  11. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigation of the Interactions of Ionic Liquids and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing; Fan, Yunchang; Yang, Peng; Kong, Jichuan; Li, Dandan; Miao, Juan; Hua, Shaofeng; Hu, Chaobing

    2016-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of nine ionic liquids (ILs) on the catalase activity were investigated using fluorescence, absorption ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The interactions of ILs and catalase on the molecular level were studied. The experimental results indicated that ILs could inhibit the catalase activity and their inhibitory abilities depended on their chemical structures. Fluorescence experiments showed that hydrogen bonding played an important role in the interaction process. The inhibitory abilities of ILs on catalase activity could be simply described by their hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding abilities. Unexpected less inhibitory effects of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO - ) might be ascribed to its larger size, which makes it difficult to go through the substrate channel of catalase to the active site. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Experimental investigation of chair type, row spacing, occupants, and carpet on theatre chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ji; Bradley, John S; Jeong, Dae-Up

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the individual variations of chair type, row spacing, as well as the presence of occupants and carpet, combine to influence the absorption characteristics of theater chairs as a function of sample perimeter-to-area (P/A) ratios. Scale models were used to measure the interactive effects of the four test variables on the chair absorption characteristics, avoiding the practical difficulties of full scale measurements. All of the test variables led to effects that could lead to important changes to auditorium acoustics conditions. At mid and higher frequencies, the various effects can usually be explained as due to, more or less, porous absorbing material. In the 125 and 250 Hz octave bands, the major changes were attributed to resonant absorbing mechanisms. The results indicate that for accurate predictions of the effective absorption of the chairs in an auditorium, one should use the P/A method and reverberation chamber tests of the chair absorption coefficients to predict the absorption coefficients of each block of chairs and use these results as input in a room acoustics computer model of the auditorium. The application of these results to auditorium acoustics design is described, more approximate approaches are considered, and relations to existing methods are discussed.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations on oxidized Ni/Au contacts to p-GaN.

    PubMed

    Jan, J C; Asokan, K; Chiou, J W; Pong, W F; Tseng, P K; Chen, L C; Chen, F R; Lee, J F; Wu, J S; Lin, H J; Chen, C T

    2001-03-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the electronic structure of as-deposited and oxidized Ni/Au contacts to p-GaN and to elucidate the mechanism responsible for low impedance. X-ray absorption near edge spectra of Ni K- and L3,2-edges clearly indicate formation of NiO on the sample surface after annealing. The reason for low impedance may be attributed to increase in hole concentration and existence of p-NiO layer on the surface.

  14. The crystalline nanocluster phase as a medium for structural and spectroscopic studies of light absorption of photosensitizer dyes on semiconductor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Jason B; Coppens, Philip

    2010-03-10

    The crystalline nanocluster phase, in which nanoscale metal oxide clusters are self-assembled in three-dimensional periodic arrays, is described. The crystalline assembly of nanoparticles functionalized with technologically relevant ligands offers the opportunity to obtain unambiguous structural information that can be combined with theoretical calculations based on the known geometry and used to interpret spectroscopic and other information. A series of Ti/O clusters up to approximately 2.0 nm in diameter have been synthesized and functionalized with the adsorbents catechol and isonicotinic acid. Whereas the isonicotinate is always adsorbed in a bridging monodentate mode, four different adsorption modes of catechol have been identified. The particles show a significantly larger variation of the Ti-O distances than observed in the known TiO(2) phases and exhibit both sevenfold overcoordination and five- and fourfold undercoordination of the Ti atoms. Theoretical calculations show only a moderate dependence of the catecholate net charge on the geometry of adsorption. All of the catechol-functionalized clusters have a deep-red color due to penetration of the highest occupied catechol levels into the band gap of the Ti/O particles. Spectroscopic measurements of the band gap of the Ti(17) cluster are in good agreement with the theoretical values and show a blue shift of approximately 0.22 eV relative to those reported for anatase nanoparticles.

  15. Investigation into the origin of parasitic absorption in GaInP|GaAs double heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Yang, Zhou; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    Despite achievements of extremely high external quantum efficiency (EQE), 99.5%, the net cooling of GaInP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has never been realized. This is due to an unknown source of parasitic absorption. Prior studies have ruled out the possibility of the bulk absorption from the GaAs layer. Thus it is thought to be either at the air- GaInP interface, through the presence of dangling bonds, or in bulk GaInP through impurities. Using two-color thermallens calorimetry (based on the Z-scan technique), this study indicates that that the parasitic absorption likely originates from the GaInP bulk layers.

  16. Investigation on the energy absorption performance of a fixed-bottom pressure-differential wave energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Babarit, A.; Wendt, F.; Yu, Y. -H.

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the energy absorption performance of a fixed-bottom pressure-differential wave energy converter. Two versions of the technology are considered: one has the moving surfaces on the bottom of the air chambers whereas the other has the moving surfaces on the top. We developed numerical models in the frequency domain, thereby enabling the power absorption of the two versions of the device to be assessed. It is observed that the moving surfaces on the top allow for easier tuning of the natural period of the system. Taking into account stroke limitations, the design is optimized. Results indicatemore » that the pressure-differential wave energy converter is a highly efficient technology both with respect to energy absorption and selected economic performance indicators.« less

  17. X ray absorption by dark nebulae (HEAO-2 guest investigator program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    A study is described of data obtained from the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) x ray detector aboard the HEAO-2 satellite (Einstein Observatory). The research project involved a search for absorption of diffuse low energy x ray background emission by galactic dark nebulae. The commonly accepted picture that the bulk of the C band emission originates locally, closer that a few hundred parsec, and the bulk of the M band emission originates farther away than a few hundred parsec, was tested. The idea was to look for evidence of absorption of the diffuse background radiation by nearby interstellar clouds.

  18. Description of the Role of Shot Noise in Spectroscopic Absorption and Emission Measurements with Photodiode and Photomultiplier Tube Detectors: Information for an Instrumental Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Robert L.; Wright, John C.

    2014-01-01

    A description of shot noise and the role it plays in absorption and emission measurements using photodiode and photomultiplier tube detection systems is presented. This description includes derivations of useful forms of the shot noise equation based on Poisson counting statistics. This approach can deepen student understanding of a fundamental…

  19. To Investigate the Absorption, Dynamic Contact Angle and Printability Effects of Synthetic Zeolite Pigments in an Inkjet Receptive Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil

    Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented

  20. Spectroscopic temperature measurements in interior ballistic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, G.; Mach, H.

    1984-11-01

    Spectroscopic temperature measurements during the interior ballistic cycle of a 20 mm test fixture gun and inside the muzzle flash of a 7.62 mm rifle are described. The investigation yields information on temperature distribution in the burning propellant charge of the 20 mm test fixture and on radial temperature profiles in the 7.62 mm muzzle flash region. A technique to obtain temperature during the ignition and combustion within the 20 mm propellant charge is presented. Additional in-bore measurements by quartz windows mounted into bores along the barrel and emission-absorption measurements inside the muzzle flash of the 20 mm test fixture yield a complete temperature profile for the gun system. Spectroscopic infrared measurements inside the muzzle flash of a 7.62 mm rifle complete the investigation.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations on the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots on catalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haoyu; Yang, Bingjun; Cui, Erqian; Liu, Rutao

    2014-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are recognized as some of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals in biomedical applications. However, the potential toxicity of QDs has aroused wide public concern. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme in animal and plant tissues. For the potential application of QDs in vivo, it is important to investigate the interaction of QDs with CAT. In this work, the effect of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots with fluorescence emission peak at 612 nm (QDs-612) on CAT was investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Binding of QDs-612 to CAT caused static quenching of the fluorescence, the change of the secondary structure of CAT and the alteration of the microenvironment of tryptophan residues. The association constants K were determined to be K288K = 7.98 × 105 L mol-1 and K298K = 7.21 × 105 L mol-1. The interaction between QDs-612 and CAT was spontaneous with 1:1 stoichiometry approximately. The CAT activity was also inhibited for the bound QDs-612. This work provides direct evidence about enzyme toxicity of QDs-612 to CAT in vitro and establishes a new strategy to investigate the interaction between enzyme and QDs at a molecular level, which is helpful for clarifying the bioactivities of QDs in vivo.

  2. Molecular interaction of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) with human serum albumin (HSA): The spectroscopic, calorimetric and computational investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pragna Lakshmi, T.; Mondal, Moumita; Ramadas, Krishna; Natarajan, Sakthivel

    2017-08-01

    Drug molecule interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) affects the distribution and elimination of the drug. The compound, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) has been known for its antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelminthic and anticancer properties. However, its interaction with HSA is not yet reported. In this study, the interaction between HSA and DAPG was investigated through steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence (TRF), circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Fluorescence spectroscopy results showed the strong quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of HSA due to interaction with DAPG, through dynamic quenching mechanism. The compound bound to HSA with reversible and moderate affinity which explained its easy diffusion from circulatory system to target tissue. The thermodynamic parameters from fluorescence spectroscopic data clearly revealed the contribution of hydrophobic forces but, the role of hydrogen bonds was not negligible according to the ITC studies. The interaction was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Binding with DAPG reduced the helical content of protein suggesting the unfolding of HSA. Site marker fluorescence experiments revealed the change in binding constant of DAPG in the presence of site I (warfarin) but not site II marker (ibuprofen) which confirmed that the DAPG bound to site I. ITC experiments also supported this as site I marker could not bind to HSA-DAPG complex while site II marker was accommodated in the complex. In silico studies further showed the lowest binding affinity and more stability of DAPG in site I than in site II. Thus the data presented in this study confirms the binding of DAPG to the site I of HSA which may help in further understanding of pharmacokinetic properties of DAPG.

  3. An ultrafast spectroscopic and quantum mechanical investigation of multiple emissions in push-pull pyridinium derivatives bearing different electron donors.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, B; Benassi, E; Cesaretti, A; Fortuna, C G; Spalletti, A; Barone, V; Elisei, F

    2015-08-28

    A joint experimental and theoretical approach, involving state-of-the-art femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion measurements and quantum mechanical computations including vibronic effects, was employed to get a deep insight into the excited state dynamics of two cationic dipolar chromophores (Donor-π-Acceptor(+)) where the electron deficient portion is a N-methyl pyridinium and the electron donor a trimethoxyphenyl or a pyrene, respectively. The ultrafast spectroscopic investigation, and the time resolved area normalised emission spectra in particular, revealed a peculiar multiple emissive behaviour and allowed the distinct emitting states to be remarkably distinguished from solvation dynamics, occurring in water in a similar timescale. The two and three emissions experimentally detected for the trimethoxyphenyl and pyrene derivatives, respectively, were associated with specific local emissive minima in the potential energy surface of S1 on the ground of quantum-mechanical calculations. A low polar and planar Locally Excited (LE) state together with a highly polar and Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) state is identified to be responsible for the dual emission of the trimethoxyphenyl compound. Interestingly, the more complex photobehaviour of the pyrenyl derivative was explained considering the contribution to the fluorescence coming not only from the LE and TICT states but also from a nearly Planar Intramolecular Charge Transfer (PICT) state, with both the TICT and the PICT generated from LE by progressive torsion around the quasi-single bond between the methylpyridinium and the ethene bridge. These findings point to an interconversion between rotamers for the pyrene compound taking place in its excited state against the Non-equilibrated Excited Rotamers (NEER) principle.

  4. Indium-chlorine and gallium-chlorine tetrasubstituted phthalocyanines in a bulk system, Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett nanolayers--spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Bursa, B; Wróbel, D; Biadasz, A; Kędzierski, K; Lewandowska, K; Graja, A; Szybowicz, M; Durmuş, M

    2014-07-15

    The paper deals with spectroscopic characterization of metallic phthalocyanines (Pc's) (indium and gallium) complexed with chlorine and substituted with four benzyloxyphenoxy peripheral groups in bulk systems, 2D Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett nanolayers. An influence of the molecular structure of dyes (the presence of metal and of substitutes attached to the phthalocyanine macroring) on the in situ measurements of light absorption is reported. Molecular arrangement of the phthalocyanine molecular skeleton in the Langmuir monolayers on water substrate and in the Langmuir-Blodgett nanolayers is evaluated. A comparison of the light absorption spectra of the phthalocyanine monolayers with the spectra of the dyes in solution supports the existence of dye aggregates in the monolayer. It was shown that the type of dye aggregates (oblique and H types) depends markedly on the dye molecular structures. The NIR-IR, IR reflection-absorption and Raman spectra are also monitored for Langmuir-Blodgett nanolayers in non-polarized and polarized light. It was shown that the dye molecules in the Langmuir-Blodgett layers are oriented nearly vertically with respect to a gold substrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    atmosphere”. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 82(1):133–140, 2006. 11. Barrass, S., Y. Grard, R.J. Holdsworth, and P.A. Martin . “Near-infrared tun...15. Brown, M. S., S. Williams, C. D. Lindstrom , and D. L. Barone. Progress in Applying Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Scramjet

  6. Spectroscopic investigations of Nd3+ doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate glasses for 1.06 μm laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deopa, Nisha; Rao, A. S.; Gupta, Mohini; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2018-01-01

    Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li2Osbnd 10PbOsbnd (10-x) Al2O3sbnd 70B2O3sbnd x Nd2O3 (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentialities using the absorption, emission and photoluminescence decay spectral measurements. The oscillator strengths measured from the absorption spectra were used to estimate the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters using least square fitting procedure. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 (1063 nm) and 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd3+ ion concentration up to 1 mol % and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd3+ ion concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, the non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively higher values of emission cross-sections, branching ratios and quantum efficiency values obtained for 1.0 mol% of Nd3+ ions in LiPbAlB glass suggests it's aptness in generating lasing action at 1063 nm in NIR region.

  7. Characterization of the physico-chemical properties of polymeric materials for aerospace flight. [differential thermal and atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodes and electrolytes of nickel cadmium sealed batteries were analyzed. Different thermal analysis of negative and positive battery electrodes was conducted and the temperature ranges of occurrence of endotherms indicating decomposition of cadmium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide are identified. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for traces of nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and potassium. Calibration curves and data are given for each sample analyzed. Instrumentation and analytical procedures used for each method are described.

  8. Absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopic characters of naphtho-homologated yy-DNA bases and effect of methanol solution and base pairing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laibin; Li, Huifang; Li, Jilai; Chen, Xiaohua; Bu, Yuxiang

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of electronic transitions of naphtho-homologated base analogs, namely, yy-T, yy-C, yy-A, and yy-G, was performed. The nature of the low-lying excited states is discussed, and the results are compared with those from experiment and also with those of y-bases. Geometrical characteristics of the lowest excited singlet pipi* and npi* states were explored using the CIS method, and the effects of methanol solution and paring with their complementary natural bases on the relevant absorption and emission spectra of these modified bases were examined. The calculated excitation and emission energies agree well with the measured data, where experimental results are available. In methanol solution, the fluorescence from yy-A and yy-G would be expected to occur around 539 and 562 nm, respectively, suggesting that yy-A is a green-colored fluorophore, whereas yy-G is a yellow-colored fluorophore. The methanol solution was found to red-shift both the absorption and emission maxima of yy-A, yy-T, and yy-C, but blue-shift those for yy-G. Generally, though base pairing has no significant effects on the absorption and fluorescence maxima of yy-A, yy-C, and yy-T, it blue-shifts those for yy-G. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Investigation of Water Absorption and Diffusion in Microparticles Containing Xylitol to Provide a Cooling Effect by Thermal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaün, F.; Bedek, G.; Devaux, E.; Dupont, D.; Deranton, D.

    2009-08-01

    Polyurethane microparticles containing xylitol as a sweat sensor system were prepared by interfacial polymerization. The structural and thermal properties of the resultant microparticles were studied. The surface morphology and chemical structure of microparticles were investigated using an optical microscope (OM) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), respectively. The thermal properties of samples were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus, two types of microparticles were synthesized by varying the percentage of monomers introduced. The obtained morphology is directly related to the synthesis conditions. DSC analysis indicated that the mass content of crystalline xylitol was up to 63.8 %, which resulted in a high enthalpy of dilution of 127.7 J · g-1. Furthermore, the water release rate monitored by TGA analysis was found to be faster from the microparticles than from raw xylitol. Thus, the microparticles could be applied for thermal energy storage and moisture sensor enhancement.

  10. Investigation of the effect of Alfven resonance absorption on fast wave current drive in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alava, M. J.; Heikkinen, J. A.; Hellsten, T.

    The use of frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency of minority ion species or second harmonic of majority species has been proposed for fast wave current drive in order to reduce or to avoid ion cyclotron damping. For these scenarios, the Alfven resonance can appear on the high field side of a tokamak. The presence of this resonance causes parasitic absorption competing with the electron Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping responsible for the fast wave current drive. In the present study, the mode conversion at the Alfven resonance is shown to be of the order of 5 to 10 percent in the current drive scenarios for the planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) experiment. However, if the single pass absorption in the center can be made sufficiently high, the conversion at the Alfven resonance becomes negligible.

  11. Numerical Investigation on Absorption Enhancement of Black Carbon Aerosols Partially Coated With Nonabsorbing Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Mao, Mao; Yin, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    This study numerically evaluates the effects of aerosol microphysics, including coated volume fraction of black carbon (BC), shell/core ratio, and size distribution, on the absorption enhancement (Eab) of polydisperse BC aggregates partially coated by organics, which is calculated by the exact multiple-sphere T-matrix method. The coated volume fraction of BC plays a substantial role in determining the absorption enhancement of partially coated BC aggregates, which typically have an Eab in the range of 1.0-2.0 with a larger value for larger coated volume fraction of BC as the shell/core ratio, BC geometry, and size distribution are fixed. The shell/core ratio, BC geometry, and size distribution have little impact on the Eab of coated BC with small coated volume fraction of BC, while they become significant for large coated volume fraction of BC. The Eab of partially coated BC particles can be slightly less than 1.0 for the large BC in the accumulation mode exhibiting large shell/core ratio and small coated volume fraction of BC, indicating that the absorption shows even slight decrease relative to uncoated BC particles. For partially coated BC aggregates in the accumulation and coarse modes, the refractive index uncertainties of BC result in the Eab differences of less than 9% and 2%, respectively, while those of organics can induce larger variations with the maximum differences up to 22% and 18%, respectively. Our study indicates that accounting for particle coating microphysics, particularly the coated volume fraction of BC, can potentially help to understand the differences in observations of largely variable absorption enhancements over various regions.

  12. Investigation of rf power absorption in the plasma of helicon ion source.

    PubMed

    Mordyk, S; Alexenko, O; Miroshnichenko, V; Storizhko, V; Stepanov, K; Olshansky, V

    2008-02-01

    The simulations of the spatial distribution of rf power absorbed in a helicon ion source reveal a correlation between the depth of penetration of rf power into the plasma and the tilt angle of lines of force of the outer magnetic field. The deeper field penetration and greater power absorption were observed at large tilt angles of the field line to the plasma surface. The evaluations as to the possibility of excitation of helicon waves in compact rf ion sources were performed.

  13. Investigation of Molecule-Surface Interactions With Overtone Absorption Spectroscopy and Computational Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    method at a fraction of the computational cost . The overtone frequency serves as the bridge between the molecule-surface interaction model and...the computational cost of utilizing higher levels of theory such as MP2. The second task is the calculation of absorption frequencies as a function...the methyl C-H bonds, and n\\ and inn are the carbon and hydrogen atomic masses, respectively. The calculation of the fundamental and overtone

  14. The role of absorption in women's sexual response to erotica: a cognitive-affective investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jade; Koukounas, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of absorption on women's emotional and cognitive processing of erotic film. Absorption was experimentally manipulated using 2 different sets of test session instructions. The first, participant-oriented, instruction set directed participants to absorb themselves in the erotic film presentation, imagining that they were active participants in the sexual activities depicted. The second, spectator-oriented, instruction set directed participants to observe and assess the erotic film excerpt as impartial spectators. The participant-oriented instruction set was found to elicit greater subjective absorption in women than the spectator-oriented instruction set, and women reported greater subjective sexual arousal in the former set compared with the latter. Thus, it appears that the degree to which a woman becomes absorbed in an erotic stimulus may affect her subsequent subjective sexual arousal. Also, women reported greater degrees of positive affect when they took a participant-oriented perspective than when they viewed the erotic materials as impartial spectators. Thus, participants who were highly absorbed in the erotic film excerpt were more likely to view the stimulus favorably. By contrast, the degree to which women became absorbed in the stimulus had no effect on their reported negative affect. Future directions for examining female response patterns are suggested.

  15. Investigation on stability and moisture absorption of superhydrophobic wood under alternating humidity and temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Yan; Liu, Ming; Wu, Yiqiang; Jia, Shanshan; Wang, Shuang; Li, Xingong

    The application of superhydrophobic wood is majorly limited by its durability when subjected to natural conditions. Herein, the stability of two representative superhydrophobic woods (i.e., Poplar (Populus tomentosa) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata)), were prepared via a one-step hydrothermal process using tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OC4H9)4, TBOT) and vinyltriethoxysilane (CH2CHSi(OC2H5)3, VTES) as a co-precursor and sequentially tested under different humidity and temperature conditions. The variables including morphology, water contact angle (WCA), color parameter, chemical components of the surface, and moisture absorption property were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), WCA measurement, a colorimeter, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and a moisture absorption test, respectively. It was found that initial static WCAs of superhydrophobic wood were larger than 150°. Micron-sized cracks were formed on the coatings after the alternating humidity and temperature aging cycles. This lowered the water repellency, but the WCA was still greater than 140°. There was nearly no chemical change of wood after the aging test; the color change between the same species of untreated and superhydrophobic wood was very small, only with a difference of 0.42 and 4.05 in overall color change ΔE∗ values for Chinese fir and poplar, respectively. The superhydrophobic coatings had a trivial influence on wood moisture absorption property, which only lowered 3% in poplar and 2% in Chinese fir, respectively.

  16. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Interactions between Reactive Red 223 and Reactive Orange 122 Anionic Dyes and Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) Cationic Surfactant in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Mansha, Asim; Rasool, Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Siddiq, Mohammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and the entropy (ΔS) of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies (ΔG p and ΔG b). PMID:25243216

  17. Nickel complexes of o-amidochalcogenophenolate(2-)/o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonate(1-) pi-radical: synthesis, structures, electron spin resonance, and x-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Hsu, I-Jui; Lee, Chien-Ming; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Wang, Tze-Yuan; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Jin-Ming; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2003-06-16

    The preparation of complexes trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (1), cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (2), trans-[Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) (3), and [Ni(-SC(6)H(4)-o-S-)(2)](-) (4) by oxidative addition of 2-aminophenyl dichalcogenides to anionic [Ni(CO)(SePh)(3)](-) proves to be a successful approach in this direction. The cis arrangement of the two tellurium atoms in complex 2 is attributed to the intramolecular Te.Te contact interaction (Te.Te contact distance of 3.455 A). The UV-vis electronic spectra of complexes 1 and 2 exhibit an intense absorption at 936 and 942 nm, respectively, with extinction coefficient epsilon > 10000 L mol(-)(1) cm(-)(1). The observed small g anisotropy, the principal g values at g(1) = 2.036, g(2) = 2.062, and g(3) = 2.120 for 1 and g(1) = 2.021, g(2) = 2.119, and g(3) = 2.250 for 2, respectively, indicates the ligand radical character accompanied by the contribution of the singly occupied d orbital of Ni(III). The X-ray absorption spectra of all four complexes show L(III) peaks at approximately 854.5 and approximately 853.5 eV. This may indicate a variation of contribution of the Ni(II)-Ni(III) valence state. According to the DFT calculation, the unpaired electron of complex 1 and 2 is mainly distributed on the 3d(xz)() orbital of the nickel ion and on the 4p(z)() orbital of selenium (tellurium, 5p(z)()) as well as the 2p(z)() orbital of nitrogen of the ligand. On the basis of X-ray structural data, UV-vis absorption, electron spin resonance, magnetic properties, DFT computation, and X-ray absorption (K- and L-edge) spectroscopy, the monoanionic trans-[Ni(-SeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) and cis-[Ni(-TeC(6)H(4)-o-NH-)(2)](-) complexes are appositely described as a resonance hybrid form of Ni(III)-bis(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-)) and Ni(II)-(o-amidochalcogenophenolato(2-))-(o-iminochalcogenobenzosemiquinonato(1-) pi-radical; i.e., complexes 1 and 2 contain delocalized oxidation levels of the nickel ion and ligands.

  18. Structural-conformational aspects of tRNA complexation with chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives: A molecular modeling and spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shweta; Tyagi, Gunjan; Chadha, Deepti; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2017-01-01

    Chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives (CENUs) represent an important family of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, which are used in the treatment of different types of cancer such as brain tumors, resistant or relapsed Hodgkin's disease, small cell lung cancer and malignant melanoma. This work focuses towards understanding the interaction of chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives; lomustine, nimustine and semustine with tRNA using spectroscopic approach in order to elucidate their auxiliary anticancer action mechanism inside the cell. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to investigate the binding parameters of tRNA-CENUs complexation. Results of present study demonstrate that all CENUs, studied here, interact with tRNA through guanine nitrogenous base residues and possibly further crosslink cytosine residues in paired region of tRNA. Moreover, spectral data collected for nimustine-tRNA and semustine-tRNA complex formation indicates towards the groove-directed-alkylation as their anti-malignant action, which involves the participation of uracil moiety located in major groove of tRNA. Besides this, tRNA-CENUs adduct formation did not alter the native conformation of biopolymer and tRNA remains in A-form after its interaction with all three nitrosourea derivatives studied. The binding constants (K a ) estimated for tRNA complexation with lomustine, nimustine and semustine are 2.55×10 2 M -1 , 4.923×10 2 M -1 and 4.223×10 2 M -1 respectively, which specify weak type of CENU's binding with tRNA. Moreover, molecular modeling simulations were also performed to predict preferential binding orientation of CENUs with tRNA that corroborates well with spectral outcomes. The findings, presented here, recognize tRNA binding properties of CENUs that can further help in rational designing of more specific and

  19. Investigation of a transiting planet candidate in Trumpler 37: An astrophysical false positive eclipsing spectroscopic binary star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errmann, R.; Torres, G.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Howard, A. W.; Maciejewski, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Meibom, S.; Kellerer, A.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Dincel, B.; Marka, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Ginski, Ch.; Adam, Ch.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, J. G.; Hohle, M. M.; Berndt, A.; Kitze, M.; Trepl, L.; Moualla, M.; Eisenbeiß, T.; Fiedler, S.; Dathe, A.; Graefe, Ch.; Pawellek, N.; Schreyer, K.; Kjurkchieva, D. P.; Radeva, V. S.; Yotov, V.; Chen, W. P.; Hu, S. C.-L.; Wu, Z.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Pribulla, T.; Budaj, J.; Vaňko, M.; Kundra, E.; Hambálek, Ľ.; Krushevska, V.; Bukowiecki, Ł.; Nowak, G.; Marschall, L.; Terada, H.; Tomono, D.; Fernandez, M.; Sota, A.; Takahashi, H.; Oasa, Y.; Briceño, C.; Chini, R.; Broeg, C. H.

    We report our investigation of the first transiting planet candidate from the YETI project in the young (˜4 Myr old) open cluster Trumpler 37. The transit-like signal detected in the lightcurve of F8V star 2M21385603+5711345 repeats every 1.364894±0.000015 days, and has a depth of 54.5±0.8 mmag in R. Membership in the cluster is supported by its mean radial velocity and location in the color-magnitude diagram, while the Li diagnostic and proper motion are inconclusive in this regard. Follow-up photometric monitoring and adaptive optics imaging allow us to rule out many possible blend scenarios, but our radial-velocity measurements show it to be an eclipsing single-lined spectroscopic binary with a late-type (mid-M) stellar companion, rather than one of planetary nature. The estimated mass of the companion is 0.15-0.44 M⊙. The search for planets around very young stars such as those targeted by the YETI survey remains of critical importance to understand the early stages of planet formation and evolution. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Proposal ID H215Hr). The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC, Proposal IDs H10-3.5-015 and H10-2.2-004). Some of the observations reported here were obtained at

  20. Spectroscopic and first principles investigation on 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid bearing pyridyl and carboxyl anchoring groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Qiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational investigation on the structure and photophysics of 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid, a functional molecule bearing two anchoring groups for attachment onto a TiO2 surface and perovskite surface, for potential solar cell application. This molecule possesses interesting adsorption properties in perovskite solar cell because the pyridyl group serves as the Lewis base and targets Lewis acidic sites in the perovskite surface, while the carboxyl group targets TiO2 surface, improving the coupling between the perovskite surface and the TiO2 surface. The electronic structures of the molecule and its photochemistry are revealed by the UV-vis absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra under visible light irradiation, which are combined with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) analysis. Considering the bi-anchoring groups and the conjugated π system embedded in the molecule, we anticipate it can molecular engineer the TiO2/perovskite interface in perovskite solar cell.

  1. Investigation of the binding affinity in vitamin B12-Bovine serum albumin system using various spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    The binding affinity between vitamin B12 (VitB12) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, employing UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative effects noted for BSA intrinsic fluorescence resulting from the interactions with VitB12 confirm the formation of π-π stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in the system VitB12-BSA. All the determined parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants (of the order of 104 L mol- 1, 103 L mol- 1 and 1011 L mol- 1 s- 1, respectively), as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters validate the mechanism of static quenching. The interaction with VitB12 induces folding of the polypeptide chains around Trp residues of BSA, resulting in a more hydrophobic surrounding. Presented outcomes suggest that the addition of VitB12 can lead to the more organized BSA conformation and its more folded tertiary structure, what could influence the physiological functions of bovine serum albumin, notably in case of its overuse or abnormal metabolism.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation, HOMO-LUMO and NLO studies on L-histidinium maleate based on DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanavel, S.; Stephen, A.; Asirvatham, P. Samuel

    2017-05-01

    The molecular structure of the title compound L-Histidinium Maleate (LHM) was constructed and optimized based on Density Functional Theory method (DFT-B3LYP) with the 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The fundamental vibrational spectral assignment was analyzed with the aid of optimized structure of LHM. The study on electronic properties such as, HOMO-LUMO energies and absorption wavelength were performed using Time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach which reveals that energy transfer occur within the molecule. 13C NMR chemical shift values were measured using Gauge independent atomic orbital method (GIAO) and the obtained values are in good agreement with the reported experimental values. Hardness, ionization potential and electrophilicity index also calculated. The electric dipole moment (μtot) and hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecules were computed. The calculated value (β) was 3.7 times higher than that of urea, which confirms the LHM molecule is a potential candidate for NLO applications.

  3. Investigating Langmuir films at the air-water interface using a planar array infrared reflection-absorption spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Shin

    In this work, a new planar array infrared reflection-absorption spectrograph (PA-IRRAS) was developed to investigate a broad range of Langmuir films at the air-water interface. This instrument is capable of recording sample and reference spectra simultaneously with an optical setup that is the same as that of a single-beam instrument but splits the incident infrared beam into two sections on a plane mirror (H) or a water trough. With this design, the instrument could accommodate large infrared accessories, such as a water trough. In addition, water bands were subtracted to obtain a high quality spectrum for a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Langmuir film on the water subphase with a resolution of about 8 cm-1 in 10.8 sec. With this instrument, two types of monolayer systems were studied; polymeric and lipid Langmuir films at the air-water interface. For the polymeric monolayer system, PA-IRRAS was used as a probe to follow the real-time conformational changes associated with intermolecular interactions of the polymer chains during the compression of the monolayers. It was found that the mixture of poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) (D/L) formed a stereocomplex when the mixed solution developed the two-dimensional monolayer at the air-water interface. The stereocomplexation occurred before film compression, indicating that there is no direct correlation between film compression and stereocomplexation. For the lipid monolayer system, PA-IRRAS was also used as a probe to investigate the origin of the disruption of a lipid monolayer upon protein adsorption at the air-water interface. Analysis of the time-resolved PA-IRRAS spectra revealed that Cu(II) ion-chelated DSIDA lipid monolayer (Cu 2+-DSIDA) was readily disrupted by myoglobin adsorption as demonstrated by a blue shift of 1.7 cm-1 and a lower intensity in the vas(CH2) stretch mode of the lipid monolayer over a period of five hours. To find the origin of the disruption of the lipid monolayer, a

  4. Investigation of potential of differential absorption Lidar techniques for remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. F.; Shipley, S. T.; Allen, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system uses two high conversion efficiency dye lasers which are optically pumped by two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers mounted rigidly on a supporting structure that also contains the transmitter, receiver, and data system. The DIAL system hardware design and data acquisition system are described. Timing diagrams, logic diagrams, and schematics, and the theory of operation of the control electronics are presented. Success in obtaining remote measurements of ozone profiles with an airborne systems is reported and results are analyzed.

  5. Investigation of periodically driven systems by x-ray absorption spectroscopy using asynchronous data collection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Donetsky, D.; Liu, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Cheng, B.; Trelewicz, J. R.; Lubomirsky, I.; Stavitski, E.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the development, testing, and demonstration of a setup for modulation excitation spectroscopy experiments at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source - II. A computer algorithm and dedicated software were developed for asynchronous data processing and analysis. We demonstrate the reconstruction of X-ray absorption spectra for different time points within the modulation pulse using a model system. This setup and the software are intended for a broad range of functional materials which exhibit structural and/or electronic responses to the external stimulation, such as catalysts, energy and battery materials, and electromechanical devices.

  6. Apparatus for experimental investigation of aerodynamic radiation with absorption by ablation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. L.; Snow, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given and calibration procedures are presented for an apparatus that is used to simulate aerodynamic radiant heating during planetary entry. The primary function of the apparatus is to simulate the spectral distribution of shock layer radiation and to determine absorption effects of simulated ablation products which are injected into the stagnation region flow field. An electric arc heater is used to heat gas mixtures that represent the planetary atmospheres of interest. Spectral measurements are made with a vacuum ultraviolet scanning monochromator.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of Ginkgo biloba terpene trilactones and their interaction with amyloid peptide Aβ(25-35)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiangtao; Petrovic, Ana G.; Dzyuba, Sergei V.; Berova, Nina; Nakanishi, Koji; Polavarapu, Prasad L.

    2008-04-01

    The beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in the "treatment" of dementia are attributed to its terpene trilactone (TTL) constituents. The interactions between TTLs and amyloid peptide are believed to be responsible in preventing the aggregation of peptide. These interactions have been investigated using infrared vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Four TTLs, namely ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC) and bilobalide (BB) and amyloid Aβ(25-35) peptide, as a model for the full length peptide, are used in this study. GA-monoether and GA-diether have also been synthesized and investigated to help understand the role of individual carbonyl groups in these interactions. The precipitation and solubility issues encountered with the mixture of ginkgolide + Aβ peptide for VA and VCD studies were overcome using binary ethanol-D 2O solvent mixture. The experimental VA and VCD spectra of GA, GB, GC and BB, GA-monoether and GA-diether have been analyzed using the corresponding spectra predicted with density functional theory. The time-dependent experimental VA and VCD spectra of Aβ(25-35) peptide and the corresponding experimental spectra in the presence of TTLs indicated that the effect of the TTLs in modulating the aggregation of Aβ(25-35) peptide is relatively small. Such small effects might indicate the absence of a specific interaction between the TTLs and Aβ(25-35) peptide as a major force leading to the reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides. It is possible that the therapeutic effect of G. biloba extract does not originate from direct interactions between TTLs and the Aβ(25-35) peptide and is more complex.

  8. Investigations into the absorption of insulin and insulin derivatives from the small intestine of the anaesthetised rat.

    PubMed

    McGinn, B J; Morrison, J D

    2016-06-28

    Experiments have been undertaken to determine the extent to which cholic acid conjugates of insulin were absorbed from the small intestine of anaesthetised rats by means of the bile salt transporters of the ileum. The measure used to assess the absorption of the cholyl-insulins was the amount of hypoglycaemia following infusion into the small intestine. Control experiments involving infusion of natural insulin into the ileum showed either nil absorption or absorption of a small amount of insulin as indicated by transient dip in the blood glucose concentration. However, when insulin was co-infused with the bile salt taurocholate, this was followed by a marked hypoglycaemic response which was specific to the ileum and did not occur on infusion into the jejunum. When the two cholyl conjugates of insulin were tested viz. B(29)-Lys-cholyl-insulin and B(1)-Phe-cholyl-insulin, both were biologically active as indicated by hypoglycaemic responses on systemic injection, though their potency was about 40% of that of natural insulin. While there was no evidence for the absorption of B(29)-Lys-cholyl-insulin when infused into the ileum, B(1)-Phe-cholyl-insulin did cause a long lasting hypoglycaemic response, indicating that absorption had occurred. Since the hypoglycaemic response was blocked on co-infusion with taurocholate and was absent for infusion of the conjugate into the jejunum, these results were taken as evidence that B(1)-Phe-cholyl-insulin had been taken up by the ileal bile salt transporters. This would indicate that B(1)-Phe-cholyl-insulin is worthy of further investigation for use in an oral insulin formulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A multi-epoch spectroscopic study of the BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. II. Emission- and absorption-line variability time lags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturni, F. G.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.; Perna, M.; Dadina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The study of high-redshift bright quasars is crucial to gather information about the history of galaxy assembly and evolution. Variability analyses can provide useful data on the physics of quasar processes and their relation with the host galaxy. Aims: In this study, we aim to measure the black hole mass of the bright lensed BAL QSO APM 08279+5255 at z = 3.911 through reverberation mapping, and to update and extend the monitoring of its C IV absorption line variability. Methods: We perform the first reverberation mapping of the Si IV and C IV emission lines for a high-luminosity quasar at high redshift with the use of 138 R-band photometric data and 30 spectra available over 16 years of observations. We also cross-correlate the C IV absorption equivalent width variations with the continuum light curve to estimate the recombination time lags of the various absorbers and infer the physical conditions of the ionised gas. Results: We find a reverberation-mapping time lag of ~900 rest-frame days for both Si IV and C IV emission lines. This is consistent with an extension of the BLR size-to-luminosity relation for active galactic nuclei up to a luminosity of ~1048 erg s-1, and implies a black hole mass of 1010 M⊙. Additionally, we measure a recombination time lag of ~160 days in the rest frame for the C IV narrow absorption system, which implies an electron density of the absorbing gas of ~2.5 × 104 cm-3. Conclusions: The measured black hole mass of APM 08279+5255 indicates that the quasar resides in an under-massive host-galaxy bulge with Mbulge ~ 7.5MBH, and that the lens magnification is lower than ~8. Finally, the inferred electron density of the narrow-line absorber implies a distance of the order of 10 kpc of the absorbing gas from the quasar, placing it within the host galaxy.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of C7H3(+) and C7H3˙: electronic absorption and fluorescence in 6 K neon matrices.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arghya; Fulara, Jan; Dietsche, Rainer; Maier, John P

    2014-04-21

    Mass selective deposition of C7H3(+) (m/z = 87) into solid neon reveals the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 electronic absorption system of hepta-1,2,3,4,5,6-heptahexaenylium cation B(+) [H2CCCCCCCH](+) with an origin band at 441.3 nm, 1(1)A'←X(1)A' transition of 2,4-pentadiynylium,1-ethynyl cation C(+) [HCCCHCCCCH](+) starting at 414.6 nm and the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 one of cyclopropenylium,1,3-butadiynyl cation A(+) [HCCCCC<(CH=CH)](+) with an onset at 322.2 nm. Vibrationally resolved fluorescence was observed for isomer B(+) upon laser excitation of the absorption bands in the 1(1)A1←X(1)A1 transition. After neutralization of the cations in the matrix five absorption systems of the C7H3 neutral radicals starting at 530.3, 479.4, 482.3, 325.0 and 302.5 nm were detected. These were identified as the 1(2)A'←X(2)A' and 2(2)A'←X(2)A' electronic transitions of 2-(buta-1,3-diynyl)cycloprop-2yl-1-1ylidene E˙ [HCCCCC<(C=CH2)]˙, 1(2)B1←X(2)B1 of 1,2,3,4,5,6-heptahexaenyl B˙ [H2CCCCCCCH]˙, 3(2)B1←X(2)B1 of 3-buta-1,3-diynyl-cyclopropenyl A˙ [HCCCCC<(CH=CH)]˙ and 2(2)B1←X(2)A2 transition of 1,2-divinylidene-cyclopropanyl radical F˙ [HCC-cyc-(CCHC)-CCH]˙, respectively. The assignment is based on calculated vertical excitation energies using the CASPT2 method. Comparison of the calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies with those inferred from the spectra supports the assignment.

  11. Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    R. James Kirkpatrick; Andrey G. Kalinichev

    2008-11-25

    significantly larger systems. These calculations have allowed us, for the first time, to study the effects of metal cations with different charges and charge density on the NOM aggregation in aqueous solutions. Other computational work has looked at the longer-time-scale dynamical behavior of aqueous species at mineral-water interfaces investigated simultaneously by NMR spectroscopy. Our experimental NMR studies have focused on understanding the structure and dynamics of water and dissolved species at mineral-water interfaces and in two-dimensional nano-confinement within clay interlayers. Combined NMR and MD study of H2O, Na+, and Cl- interactions with the surface of quartz has direct implications regarding interpretation of sum frequency vibrational spectroscopic experiments for this phase and will be an important reference for future studies. We also used NMR to examine the behavior of K+ and H2O in the interlayer and at the surfaces of the clay minerals hectorite and illite-rich illite-smectite. This the first time K+ dynamics has been characterized spectroscopically in geochemical systems. Preliminary experiments were also performed to evaluate the potential of 75As NMR as a probe of arsenic geochemical behavior. The 75As NMR study used advanced signal enhancement methods, introduced a new data acquisition approach to minimize the time investment in ultra-wide-line NMR experiments, and provides the first evidence of a strong relationship between the chemical shift and structural parameters for this experimentally challenging nucleus. We have also initiated a series of inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements of water dynamics in the interlayers of clays and layered double hydroxides. The objective of these experiments is to probe the correlations of water molecular motions in confined spaces over the scale of times and distances most directly comparable to our MD simulations and on a time scale different than that probed by NMR. This work is being done

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of optical absorption anisotropy in β-Ga2O3.

    PubMed

    Ricci, F; Boschi, F; Baraldi, A; Filippetti, A; Higashiwaki, M; Kuramata, A; Fiorentini, V; Fornari, R

    2016-06-08

    The question of optical bandgap anisotropy in the monoclinic semiconductor β-Ga2O3 was revisited by combining accurate optical absorption measurements with theoretical analysis, performed using different advanced computation methods. As expected, the bandgap edge of bulk β-Ga2O3 was found to be a function of light polarization and crystal orientation, with the lowest onset occurring at polarization in the ac crystal plane around 4.5-4.6 eV; polarization along b unambiguously shifts the onset up by 0.2 eV. The theoretical analysis clearly indicates that the shift in the b onset is due to a suppression of the transition matrix elements of the three top valence bands at Γ point.

  13. Investigations of Baikal Lake water absorption with ASP-15 device: measurement method and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanenko, Grigorii P.; Tarashchansky, Boris A.; Budnev, Nikolai M.; Mirgazov, Rashid R.

    2006-02-01

    Operation of the device ASP-15 is analyzed in the paper. The device is arranged in the south part of Lake Baikal, and it is capable of all-the-year-round measurements of hydro-optical characteristics at the depths down to 1300 m. The method for determining the absorption coefficient is based on measurement of the rate of decrease of the irradiance from an isotropic source with the distance between the source and the receiver. Possible reasons of appearance of anomalous dependences of the irradiance with the distance are revealed on the basis of numerical simulation, and the errors of the applied method are estimated. The experimental data obtained by means of the device ASP-15 last years are presented.

  14. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  15. FTIR, Raman, and UV-Vis spectroscopic and DFT investigations of the structure of iron-lead-tellurate glasses.

    PubMed

    Rada, Simona; Dehelean, Adriana; Culea, Eugen

    2011-08-01

    In this work, the effects of iron ion intercalations on lead-tellurate glasses were investigated via FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. This homogeneous glass system has compositions xFe(2)O(3)·(100-x)[4TeO(2)·PbO(2)], where x = 0-60 mol%. The presented observations in these mechanisms show that the lead ions have a pronounced affinity towards [TeO(3)] structural units, resulting in the deformation of the Te-O-Te linkages, and leading to the intercalation of [PbO( n )] (n = 3, 4) and [FeO( n )] (n = 4, 6) entities in the [TeO(4)] chain network. The formation of negatively charged [FeO(4)](1-) structural units implies the attraction of Pb(2+) ions in order to compensate for this electrical charge. Upon increasing the Fe(2)O(3) content to 60 mol%, the network can accommodate an excess of oxygen through the formation of [FeO(6)] structural units and the conversion of [TeO(4)] into [TeO(3)] structural units. For even higher Fe(2)O(3) contents, Raman spectra indicate a greater degree of depolymerization of the vitreous network than FTIR spectra do. The bands due to the Pb-O bond vibrations are very strongly polarized and the [TeO(4)] structural units convert into [TeO(3)] units via an intermediate coordination stage termed "[TeO(3+1)]" structural units. Our UV-Vis spectroscopic data show two mechanisms: (i) the conversion of the Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) at the same time as the oxidation of Pb(2+) to Pb(+4) ions for samples with low Fe(2)O(3) contents; (ii) when the Fe(2)O(3) content is high (x ≥ 50 mol%), the Fe(2+) ions capture positive holes and are transferred to Fe(3+) ions through a photochemical reaction, while the Pb(2+) ions are formed by the reduction of Pb(4+) ions. DFT calculations show that the addition of Fe(2)O(3) to lead-tellurate glasses seems to break the axial Te-O bonds, and the [TeO(4)] structural units are gradually transformed into [TeO(3+1)]- and [TeO(3)]-type polyhedra. Analyzing these data further indicates a gradual

  16. Alteration of fluorescent protein spectroscopic properties upon cryoprotection.

    PubMed

    von Stetten, David; Batot, Gaëlle O; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Royant, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Cryoprotection of a protein crystal by addition of small-molecule compounds may sometimes affect the structure of its active site. The spectroscopic and structural effects of the two cryoprotectants glycerol and ethylene glycol on the cyan fluorescent protein Cerulean were investigated. While glycerol had almost no noticeable effect, ethylene glycol was shown to induce a systematic red shift of the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. Additionally, ethylene glycol molecules were shown to enter the core of the protein, with one of them binding in close vicinity to the chromophore, which provides a sound explanation for the observed spectroscopic changes. These results highlight the need to systematically record spectroscopic data on crystals of light-absorbing proteins and reinforce the notion that fluorescent proteins must not been seen as rigid structures.

  17. Heterogeneous structure and solvation dynamics of DME/water binary mixtures: A combined spectroscopic and simulation investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Mahanta, Debasish; Rana, Debkumar; Patra, Animesh; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Mitra, Rajib Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Water is often found in (micro)-heterogeneous environments and therefore it is necessary to understand their H-bonded network structure in such altered environments. We explore the structure and dynamics of water in its binary mixture with relatively less polar small biocompatible amphiphilic molecule 1,2-Dimethoxyethane (DME) by a combined spectroscopic and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study. Picosecond (ps) resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using coumarin 500 as the fluorophore establishes a non-monotonic behaviour of the mixture. Simulation studies also explore the various possible H-bond formations between water and DME. The relative abundance of such different water species manifests the heterogeneity in the mixture.

  18. Absorption spectroscopic and FTIR studies on EDA complexes between TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with amines in DMSO and determination of the vertical electron affinity of TNT.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S P; Lahiri, S C

    2008-06-01

    TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) formed deep red 1:1 CT complexes with chromogenic agents like isopropylamine, ethylenediamine, bis(3-aminopropyl)amine and tetraethylenepentamine in DMSO. The complexes were also observed in solvents like methanol, acetone, etc. when the amines were present in large excess. The isopropylamine, complex showed three absorption peaks (at 378, 532 and 629 nm) whereas higher amines showed four peaks (at 370, 463, 532 and 629 nm). The peak at 463 nm vanished rapidly. The peak of the complexes near 530 nm required about 8-10 min to develop and the complexes were stable for about an hour but the peak slowly shifted towards 500 nm and the complexes were found to be stable for more than 24 h. The evidence of complex formation was obtained from distinct spots in HPTLC plates and from the shifts in frequencies and formation of new peaks in FTIR spectra. The peaks near 460 nm (transient) and 530 nm may be due to Janovsky reaction but could not be established. The extinction coefficients of the complexes were determined directly which enabled the accurate determination of the association constants KDA with TNT and amines in stoichiometric ratios. The results were verified using iterative method. The quantification of TNT was made using epsilon value of the complex with ethylenediamine. The vertical electron affinity (EA) of TNT was calculated using the method suggested by Mulliken.

  19. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Merroun, Mohamed L; Nedelkova, Marta; Ojeda, Jesus J; Reitz, Thomas; Fernández, Margarita López; Arias, José M; Romero-González, María; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2011-12-15

    This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detailed transient heme structures of Mb-CO in solution after CO dissociation: an X-ray transient absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Stickrath, Andrew B; Mara, Michael W; Lockard, Jenny V; Harpham, Michael R; Huang, Jier; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Attenkofer, Klaus; Chen, Lin X

    2013-04-25

    Although understanding the structural dynamics associated with ligand photodissociation is necessary in order to correlate structure and function in biological systems, few techniques are capable of measuring the ultrafast dynamics of these systems in solution-phase at room temperature. We present here a detailed X-ray transient absorption (XTA) study of the photodissociation of CO-bound myoglobin (Fe(II)CO-Mb) in room-temperature aqueous buffer solution with a time resolution of 80 ps, along with a general procedure for handling biological samples under the harsh experimental conditions that transient X-ray experiments entail. The XTA spectra of (Fe(II)CO-Mb) exhibit significant XANES and XAFS alterations following 527 nm excitation, which remain unchanged for >47 μs. These spectral changes indicate loss of the CO ligand, resulting in a five-coordinate, domed heme, and significant energetic reorganization of the 3d orbitals of the Fe center. With the current experimental setup, each X-ray pulse in the pulse train, separated by ~153 ns, can be separately discriminated, yielding snapshots of the myoglobin evolution over time. These methods can be easily applied to other biological systems, allowing for simultaneous structural and electronic measurements of any biological system with both ultrafast and slow time resolutions, effectively mapping out all of the samples' relevant physiological processes.

  1. An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the metal site preference in Al1-xGaxFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James D. S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoelectric materials have potential for being introduced into next generation technologies, especially memory devices. The AFeO3 (Pna21; A=Al, Ga) system has received attention to better understand the origins of magnetoelectric coupling. The magnetoelectric properties this system exhibits depend on the amount of anti-site disorder present, which is affected by the composition and the method of synthesis. In this study, Al1-xGaxFeO3 was synthesized by the ceramic method and studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Al L2,3-, Ga K-, and Fe K-edge spectra were collected to examine how the average metal coordination number changes with composition. Examination of XANES spectra from Al1-xGaxFeO3 indicate that with increasing Ga content, Al increasingly occupies octahedral sites while Ga displays a preference for occupying the tetrahedral site. The Fe K-edge spectra indicate that more Fe is present in the tetrahedral site in AlFeO3 than in GaFeO3, implying more anti-site disorder is present in AlFeO3.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopic analysis of crystal orientation in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeyanagi, Chisato; Kaneko, Takuya; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2018-05-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is attracting keen attention as a new spectroscopic tool for characterizing various materials. In this research, the possibility of analyzing the crystal orientation in a crystalline polymer by THz-TDS is investigated by measuring angle-resolved THz absorption spectra for sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and poly(phenylene sulfide). The resultant angle dependence of the absorption intensity of each polymer is similar to that of the crystal orientation examined using pole figures of X-ray diffraction. More specifically, THz-TDS can indicate the alignment of molecules in polymers.

  3. X-ray absorption investigation of the electronic structure of the CuI@SWCNT nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generalov, A. V.; Brzhezinskaya, M. M.; Vinogradov, A. S.; Püttner, R.; Chernysheva, M. V.; Lukashin, A. V.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    The Cu 2 p, I 3 d, and C 1 sX-ray absorption spectra of the CuI@SWCNT nanocomposite prepared by filling single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the CuI melt by the capillary technique have been measured with a high-energy resolution using the equipment of the Russian-German beamline at the BESSY electron storage ring. In order to characterize the electronic structure of the nanocomposite and possible changes in the atomic and electronic structures of CuI and SWCNTs in the CuI@SWCNT nanocomposite, the spectra obtained have been analyzed in the framework of the quasi-molecular approach by comparing with the spectra of the pristine (CuI and SWCNT) and reference (CuO) systems. It has been revealed that the encapsulation of the CuI compound inside SWCNTs is accompanied by changes in the electronic structure of CuI and SWCNTs due to the chemical interaction between the filler and carbon nanotubes and the change in the atomic structure of CuI.

  4. Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide characterization by coupling micro-X-ray diffraction and absorption investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Martin, M.; Kuri, G.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.

    2011-09-01

    Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The potential differences of metal redox state and microstructural developments of the matrix before and after irradiation are commonly analysed by electron probe microanalysis. In this work the structure and next-neighbor atomic environments of Pu and U oxide features within unirradiated homogeneous MOX and irradiated (60 MW d kg -1) MOX samples was analysed by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The grain properties, chemical bonding, valences and stoichiometry of Pu and U are determined from the experimental data gained for the unirradiated as well as for irradiated fuel material examined in the center of the fuel as well as in its peripheral zone (rim). The formation of sub-grains is observed as well as their development from the center to the rim (polygonization). In the irradiated sample Pu remains tetravalent (>95%) and no (<5%) Pu(V) or Pu(VI) can be detected while the fuel could undergo slight oxidation in the rim zone. Any slight potential plutonium oxidation is buffered by the uranium dioxide matrix while locally fuel cladding interaction could also affect the redox of the fuel.

  5. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Primary Reaction Intermediates in the Oxidation of Levitated Droplets of Energetic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Brotton, Stephen J; Lucas, Michael; Chambreau, Steven D; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; Yu, Jiang; Anderson, Scott L; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2017-12-21

    The production of the next generation of hypergolic, ionic-liquid-based fuels requires an understanding of the reaction mechanisms between the ionic liquid and oxidizer. We probed reactions between a levitated droplet of 1-methyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium dicyanamide ([MAT][DCA]), with and without hydrogen-capped boron nanoparticles, and the nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) oxidizer. The apparatus exploits an ultrasonic levitator enclosed within a pressure-compatible process chamber equipped with complementary Raman, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic probes. Vibrational modes were first assigned to the FTIR and Raman spectra of droplets levitated in argon. Spectra were subsequently collected for pure and boron-doped [MAT][DCA] exposed to nitrogen dioxide. By comparison with electronic structure calculations, some of the newly formed modes suggest that the N atom of the NO 2 molecule bonds to a terminal N on the dicyanamide anion yielding [O 2 N-NCNCN] - . This represents the first spectroscopic evidence of a key reaction intermediate in the oxidation of levitated ionic liquid droplets.

  6. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of conformational changes of proteins by synthesized pyrimidine derivative and its sensitivity towards FRET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swadesh; Singharoy, Dipti; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2018-04-01

    Interest in synthesizing and characterizing (IR, NMR and HRMS spectroscopic methods) a pyrimidine based Schiff-base ligand, 2-(2-(Anthracen-9-ylmethylene) hydrazinyl)-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ANHP) has been developed for its application to ascertain the conformational change of protein and sensitivity towards fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Location of ANHP in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) proteins environment has been determined using different spectroscopic techniques. Weakly fluorescent ANHP have shown greater protein induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) in case of HSA than BSA, though in both cases energy transfer efficiency are almost same but difference in binding constant values encourages us to find the location of ANHP within the complex protein environment. From the FRET parameter and α-helicity change, it has been found that ANHP bound with Trp-214 of HSA and surface Trp-134 of BSA. Conformational changes of proteins have been observed more for HSA than BSA in presence of ANHP, which has confirmed the location of ANHP in both the protein environments. Coupled with experimental studies, molecular docking analysis has also been done to explain the locations and distance dependent FRET process of ANHP in both proteins.

  7. Aziridinyl-substituted benzo-1,4-quinones: A preliminary investigation on the theoretical and experimental studies of their structure and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarlauskas, Jonas; Tamulienė, Jelena; Čėnas, Narimantas

    2017-05-01

    The detailed structure, chemical and spectroscopic properties of the derivatives of the selected 2,5-bis(1-aziridinyl)-benzo-1,4-quinone conformers were studied by applying quantum chemical and experimental methods. The relationship between the structure and chemical activity of the selected 3 bifunctional bioreductive quinonic anticancer agents - aziridinyl benzoquinones (AzBQ compounds) was obtained. The results obtained showed that the position of aziridine rings influenced by the chemical activity of the investigated compound were more significant than the substitutions of the benzene ring of the AzBQ compounds. The solvents influencing this activity were obtained, too.

  8. Spectroscopic remote sensing of plant stress at leaf and canopy levels using the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature with continuum removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanches, Ieda Del´Arco; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de; Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of spectral feature analysis to detect plant stress in visible/near infrared wavelengths. A time series of close range leaf and canopy reflectance data of two plant species grown in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was acquired with a portable spectrometer. The ProSpecTIR-VS airborne imaging spectrometer was used to obtain far range hyperspectral remote sensing data over the field experiment. Parameters describing the chlorophyll 680 nm absorption feature (depth, width, and area) were derived using continuum removal applied to the spectra. A new index, the Plant Stress Detection Index (PSDI), was calculated using continuum-removed values near the chlorophyll feature centre (680 nm) and on the green-edge (560 and 575 nm). Chlorophyll feature’s depth, width and area, the PSDI and a narrow-band normalised difference vegetation index were evaluated for their ability to detect stressed plants. The objective was to analyse how the parameters/indices were affected by increasing degrees of plant stress and to examine their utility as plant stress indicators at the remote sensing level (e.g. airborne sensor). For leaf data, PSDI and the chlorophyll feature area revealed the highest percentage (67–70%) of stressed plants. The PSDI also proved to be the best constraint for detecting the stress in hydrocarbon-impacted plants with field canopy spectra and airborne imaging spectroscopy data. This was particularly true using thresholds based on the ASD canopy data and considering the combination of higher percentage of stressed plants detected (across the thresholds) and fewer false-positives.

  9. Silver binding in argentiferous manganese oxide minerals investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chenzi; Li, Qiaoying; Chu, Binbin; Lu, Guohui; Gao, Yuhong; Xu, Lingxiao

    2018-02-01

    The knowledge of the nature of silver occurrence and sites in argentiferous manganese oxides is significant for developing better process to extract silver from manganese-silver ores. Synchrotron radiation has been used to collect Ag K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of three natural and five synthetic samples of silver-containing manganese oxide, basically in the phases of tunnel-type cryptomelane or todorokite and layer-type birnessite or chalcophanite. Data were also gathered on five standards including Ag foil, Ag2O, Ag2SO4, Ag2CO3, and AgNO3 to compare the local environments of Ag atoms with the samples. Ag K-edge XANES studies show that Ag is present in most of the samples in Ag+ oxidation state, except in the Ag-Tod sample through annealing step in the form of Ag0 nanoparticles which are also identified by TEM. The natural samples from Xiangguang manganese-silver ores exhibit similar coordination distances as the corresponding tunnel or layer structured synthetic samples. In the argentiferous cryptomelanes, silver cations do not occupy the tunnel centers like K+, but rather place on the common face sites of the cubic cage formed by MnO6 octahedra, coordinated with about four oxygen anions at 2.4 Å bond distances proved by the EXAFS results. In the silver-exchanged birnessites or natural argentiferous chalcophanite, silver cations probably occupy a tetrahedral coordination to interlayer O atoms and a position located above or below the vacant cavities in the Mn octahedra layers.

  10. Investigating the correlation between in vivo absorption and in vitro release of fenofibrate from lipid matrix particles in biorelevant medium.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Nrupa; Xia, Dengning; Holm, René; Gan, Yong; Müllertz, Anette; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2014-01-23

    Lipid matrix particles (LMP) may be used as better carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs than liquid lipid carriers because of reduced drug mobilization in the formulations. However, the digestion process of solid lipid particles and their effect on the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs are not fully understood. This study aimed at investigating the effect of particle size of LMP on drug release in vitro as well as absorption in vivo in order to get a better understanding on the effect of degradation of lipid particles on drug solubilisation and absorption. Fenofibrate, a model poorly water-soluble drug, was incorporated into LMP in this study using probe ultrasound sonication. The resultant LMP were characterised in terms of particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo absorption in rat model. LMP of three different particle sizes i.e. approximately 100 nm, 400 nm, and 10 μm (microparticles) were produced with high entrapment efficiencies. The in vitro lipolysis study showed that the recovery of fenofibrate in the aqueous phase for 100 nm and 400 nm LMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of microparticles after 30 min of lipolysis, suggesting that nano-sized LMP were digested to a larger extent due to greater specific surface area. The 100 nm LMP showed faster initial digestion followed by 400 nm LMP and microparticles. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) following oral administration of 100 nm LMP was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of microparticles and fenofibrate crystalline suspension (control). However, no significant difference was observed between the AUCs of 100 nm and 400 nm LMP. The same rank order on the in vivo absorption and the in vitro response was observed. The recovery (%) of fenofibrate partitioning into the aqueous phase during in vitro lipolysis and the AUC of plasma concentration-time curve of fenofibric acid was in the order of 100 nm

  11. Trap level spectroscopic investigations of U: ZnAl2O4: Role of defect centres in the TSL process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Kadam, R. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to evaluate the trap level spectroscopic properties of Uranium in ZnAl2O4 spinel host, undoped and Uranium doped ZnAl2O4 samples were synthesized. From photoluminescence (PL) data it was confirmed that uranium gets stabilized in the system as UO66- (octahedral uranate). Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies for the gamma irradiated sample suggested the formation of O2-, F+ and V centres. From the TSL (thermally stimulated luminescence) data, the trap parameters such as frequency factor and activation energy etc. were evaluated. From ESR-TSL correlation it was confirmed that the destruction of O2- ion coincides with TSL glow peak appeared at 332 K.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and structural investigations of new adduct compound of carbazole with picric acid: DNA binding and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanabhavan, Munusamy; Sathya, Krishnan; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Sekar, Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Carbazole picrate (CP), a new organic compound has been synthesized, characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic technique such as FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. An orthorhombic geometry was proposed based on single crystal XRD study. The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses and found that it was stable up to 170 °C. Further, the newly synthesized title compound was tested for its in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against various bacterial and fungal species. Also, the compound was tested for its binding activity with Calf thymus (CT) DNA and the results show a considerable interaction between CP and CT-DNA.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and structural investigations of new adduct compound of carbazole with picric acid: DNA binding and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Munusamy; Sathya, Krishnan; Puranik, Vedavati G; Sekar, Marimuthu

    2014-01-24

    Carbazole picrate (CP), a new organic compound has been synthesized, characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic technique such as FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. An orthorhombic geometry was proposed based on single crystal XRD study. The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses and found that it was stable up to 170°C. Further, the newly synthesized title compound was tested for its in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against various bacterial and fungal species. Also, the compound was tested for its binding activity with Calf thymus (CT) DNA and the results show a considerable interaction between CP and CT-DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro investigations on CoO doped CaF2sbnd CaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5-MO bioactive glasses by means of spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhanachalam, P.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Raghavaiah, B. V.; Ravi Kumar, Valluri; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Gandhi, Y.; Syam Prasad, P.; Veeraiah, N.

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation we have synthesized CaF2sbnd CaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5: CoO glasses mixed with different therapeutically active ions viz., Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ (that play a vital role in the normal functioning of human body) and performed in vitro bioactivity studies by immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for a period of about a month and the obtained results were analyzed using spectroscopic studies. Due to immersion in SBF solution, a thin layer of hydroxy apatite (HAp) is developed on the surface of the samples. The results of XRD, SEM and also IR spectra have confirmed that the layer deposited on the surface of the samples is crystalline HAp mixed with cobalt ions. The quantitative analysis of the results in vitro bioactive studies with the help of optical absorption and IR spectral studies have indicated that BaO is an efficient modifier in accelerating the HAp growth. The cobalt ions are found to be in tetrahedral positions and participated in the glass network with BO4 and PO4 structural units in larger quantities in CoZn and CoMg glasses and such occupancy is found to be the reason for the relatively low bioactive efficiency of these glasses when compared with that of CoBa glass.

  15. Spectral reflectance "deconstruction" of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and implications for spectroscopic investigations of dark asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Pietrasz, Valerie B.; Kiddell, Cain; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Vernazza, Pierre; Burbine, Thomas H.; DeMeo, Francesca; Tait, Kimberly T.; Bell, James F.; Mann, Paul; Applin, Daniel M.; Reddy, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) are important materials for understanding the early evolution of the solar system and delivery of volatiles and organic material to the early Earth. Presumed CC-like asteroids are also the targets of two current sample return missions: OSIRIS-REx to asteroid Bennu and Hayabusa-2 to asteroid Ryugu, and the Dawn orbital mission at asteroid Ceres. To improve our ability to identify and characterize CM2 CC-type parent bodies, we have examined how factors such as particle size, particle packing, and viewing geometry affect reflectance spectra of the Murchison CM2 CC. The derived relationships have implications for disc-resolved examinations of dark asteroids and sampleability. It has been found that reflectance spectra of slabs are more blue-sloped (reflectance decreasing toward longer wavelengths as measured by the 1.8/0.6 μm reflectance ratio), and generally darker, than powdered sample spectra. Decreasing the maximum grain size of a powdered sample results in progressively brighter and more red-sloped spectra. Decreasing the average grain size of a powdered sample results in a decrease in diagnostic absorption band depths, and redder and brighter spectra. Decreasing porosity of powders and variations in surface texture result in spectral changes that may be different as a function of viewing geometry. Increasing thickness of loose dust on a denser powdered substrate leads to a decrease in absorption band depths. Changes in viewing geometry lead to different changes in spectral metrics depending on whether the spectra are acquired in backscatter or forward-scatter geometries. In backscattered geometry, increasing phase angle leads to an initial increase and then decrease in spectral slope, and a general decrease in visible region reflectance and absorption band depths, and frequent decreases in absorption band minima positions. In forward scattering geometry, increasing phase angle leads to small non-systematic changes in spectral slope

  16. Investigations of Spectroscopic Factors and Sum Rules from the Single Neutron Transfer Reaction 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium isotopes have been presented for decades as excellent examples of vibrational nuclei, with low-lying levels interpreted as multi-phonon quadrupole, octupole, and mixed-symmetry states. A large amount of spectroscopic data has been obtained through various experimental studies of cadmiumisotopes. In the present work, the 111Cd(overrightarrow {{d}} ,p)112Cd reaction was used to investigate the single-particle structure of the 112Cd nucleus. A 22 MeV beam of polarized deuterons was obtained at the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Garching, Germany. The reaction ejectiles were momentum analyzed using a Q3D spectrograph, and 130 levels have been identified up to 4.2 MeV of excitation energy. Using DWBA analysis with optical model calculations, spin-parity assignments have been made for observed levels, and spectroscopic factors have been extracted from the experimental angular distributions of differential cross section and analyzing power. In this high energy resolution investigation, many additional levels have been observed compared with the previous (d,p) study using 8 MeV deuterons [1]. There were a total of 44 new levels observed, and the parity assignments of 34 levels were improved.

  17. A HIRES/KECK SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF THE MEASUREMENT OF SODIUM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect

    Langland-Shula, Laura E.; Vogt, Steven S.; Charbonneau, David

    We present high-resolution High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES)/Keck spectra of HD 209458, and a Monte Carlo variation on the basic method used by other workers, to look for the excess in-transit absorption in the NaD doublet at 5893 A due to the extrasolar planet. The HIRES data, binned by bandpass, allow a direct comparison with previous results. We find >3{sigma} results in most test bandpasses around the NaD doublet, including relative absorption of (-108.8 {+-} 25.7) x 10{sup -5} in the 'narrow' bandpass used by other workers. This is {approx}4.7 times larger than the 'narrow' results reported by Charbonneau etmore » al. for HD 209458b. However, >2{sigma} absorption is detected in some weak Fe I and Ni I lines that were tested for comparison, raising concern about the uncertainties introduced by continuum-fitting and terrestrial atmosphere subtraction.« less

  18. A HIRES/Keck Spectroscopic Investigation of the Measurement of Sodium in the Atmosphere of HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langland-Shula, Laura E.; Vogt, Steven S.; Charbonneau, David; Butler, Paul; Marcy, Geoff

    2009-05-01

    We present high-resolution High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES)/Keck spectra of HD 209458, and a Monte Carlo variation on the basic method used by other workers, to look for the excess in-transit absorption in the NaD doublet at 5893 Å due to the extrasolar planet. The HIRES data, binned by bandpass, allow a direct comparison with previous results. We find >3σ results in most test bandpasses around the NaD doublet, including relative absorption of (-108.8 ± 25.7) × 10-5 in the "narrow" bandpass used by other workers. This is ≈4.7 times larger than the "narrow" results reported by Charbonneau et al. for HD 209458b. However, >2σ absorption is detected in some weak Fe I and Ni I lines that were tested for comparison, raising concern about the uncertainties introduced by continuum-fitting and terrestrial atmosphere subtraction. Based on data obtained with the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by a partnership consisting of the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Diimine triscarbonyl Re(I) of isomeric pyridyl-fulvene ligands: an electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Daniel; Castro Ruiz, Carlos A; Hanan, Garry S

    2012-12-03

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel family of positively charged fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(L)]PF(6) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes are reported, where L is a pyridine functionalized in para or meta position with a fulvene moiety, namely, 4-fluoren-9-ylidenemethyl-pyridine (pFpy) and 3-fluoren-9-ylidenemethyl-pyridine (mFpy). The complexes were prepared in high yield (86%) by direct addition at room temperature of the corresponding pyridine to the tetrahydrofuran (THF) adduct fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(THF)][PF(6)] precursor. Both ligand and complex structures were fully characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray crystallography. The complexes did not exhibit the expected triplet mixed metal-ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLLCT) emission, because of its deactivation by the non-emissive triplet excited state of fulvene. The absorption profile shows that the MLLCT is overshadowed by the fulvene centered π-π* transition of higher molar absorptivity as shown by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The position of the fulvene on the pyridyl ring has a large effect on this transition, the para position displaying a much higher absorption coefficient (21.3 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)) at lower energy (364 nm) than the meta position (331 nm, 16.0 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1)).

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    a wide surface band gap, as seen in Cu-poor films. A novel absorber was prepared Cu-rich with a final In-Se treatment to produce a Cu-poor surface, and compared directly to Cu-poor and Cu-rich produced samples. Despite reduced Cu at the surface, the novel absorber was found to have a surface band gap similar to that of traditional, Cu-poor grown absorbers. Furthermore, estimation of the near-surface bulk band gap suggests a narrowing of the band gap away from the surface, similar to highly efficient, Cu-poor grown absorbers. Long-term degradation is another concern facing solar cells, as heat and moistures stress can result in reduced efficiencies over time. The interface of the back contact material and absorber layer in (Au/Cu)/CdTe/CdS thin-film structures from the University of Toledo were investigated after a variety of accelerated stress treatments with the aim of further understanding the chemical and/or electronic degradation of this interface. Sulfur migration to the back contact was observed, along with the formation of Au-S and Cu-S bonds. A correlation between heat stress under illumination and the formation of Cu-Cl bonds was also found. Nanocomposite materials hold promise as a next-generation photovoltaic material and for use in LED devices, due in part to the unique ability to tune the absorption edge of the film by adjusting the semiconductor particle size, and the prospective for long-range charge-carrier (exciton) transport through the wide band gap matrix material. Thin films of CdTe were sputter deposited onto ZnO substrates at the University of Arizona and studied before and after a short, high temperature annealing to further understand the effects of annealing on the CdTe/ZnO interface. A clumping of the CdTe layer and the formation of Cd- and Te-oxides was observed using surface microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. These findings help to evaluate post-deposition annealing as a treatment to adjust the final crystallinity and

  1. UV absorption investigation of ferromagnetically filled ultra-thick carbon onions, carriers of the 217.5 nm Interstellar Absorption Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Zhang, Xiaotian; Ivaturi, Sameera; Liu, Qianyang; Wen, Jiqiu; Wang, Shanling

    2017-12-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are fullerene-like structures which consist of quasi-spherical closed carbon shells. These structures have become a subject of great interest thanks to their characteristic absorption feature of interstellar origin (at 217.5 nm, 4.6 μm-1). An additional extinction peak at 3.8 μm-1 has also been reported and attributed to absorption by graphitic residues between the as-grown CNOs. Here, we report the ultraviolet absorption properties of ultra-thick CNOs filled with FePt3 crystals, which also exhibit two main absorption peaks—features located at 4.58 μm-1 and 3.44 μm-1. The presence of this additional feature is surprising and is attributed to nonmagnetic graphite flakes produced as a by-product in the pyrolysis experiment (as confirmed by magnetic separation methods). Instead, the feature at 4.58 μm-1 is associated with the π-plasmonic resonance of the CNOs structures. The FePt3 filled CNOs were fabricated in situ by an advanced one-step fast process consisting in the direct sublimation and pyrolysis of two molecular precursors, namely, ferrocene and dichloro-cyclooctadiene-platinum in a chemical vapour deposition system. The morphological, structural, and magnetic properties of the as-grown filled CNOs were characterized by a means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetometry.

  2. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and theoretical studies of 2-((E)-(2-(2-cyanoacetyl)hydrazono)methyl)-4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl methyl carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arokiasamy, A.; Manikandan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.; Gokula Krishnan, K.

    2017-04-01

    Synthesis and computational optimization studies have been carried out by Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT-B3LYP) methods with 6-31+G(d, p) basis set for 2-((E)-(2-(2-cyanoacetyl)hydrazono)methyl)-4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl methyl carbonate (CHPMC). The stable configuration of CHPMC was confirmed theoretically by potential energy surface scan analysis. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) analysis. The vibrational properties studied by IR and Raman spectroscopic data complemented by quantum chemical calculations support the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond. Furthermore, the UV-Vis spectra are interpreted in terms of TD-DFT quantum chemical calculations. The shapes of the simulated absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical values of FT-IR, FT-Raman vibrational spectra, NMR (1H and 13C) and UV-Vis spectra have also been discussed.

  4. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1988-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approximately 10 meters/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar-type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this investigation is to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight are made in the near infrared (approximately 2 micrometer), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with an N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. Researchers currently achieve an accuracy of approximately 5 meters/sec. Solar rotation velocities vary by plus or minus 2000 meters/sec across the solar disk, and imperfect optical integration of these velocities is the principal source of error. We have been monitoring the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight since 1983. They initially saw a decrease of approximately 30 meters/sec in the integrated light velocity from 1983 through 1985, but in 1987 to 1988 the integrated light velocity returned to its 1983 level. It is too early to say whether these changes are solar-cycle related. Although the FTS, unlike a slit spectrograph, has a large field of view, researchers are always looking for ways to improve the optical integration of the solar disk. They recently made an improvement in the method used to optically collimate the FTS, and this has reduced the error level, eliminating some systematic effects seen earlier.

  5. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in Novel Donor-Acceptor Core-Shell Nanostructures for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Jacob; Jamhawi, Abdelqader; Abeywickrama, Thulitha M.; Loomis, Wendy; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2016-06-01

    Novel donor-acceptor nanostructures were synthesized via covalent synthesis and/or UV cross-linking method. Their photoinduced dynamics were investigated with ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. These new nanostructures are made with the strategy in mind to reduce manufacturing steps in the process of fabricating an organic photovoltaic cell. By imitating the heterojunction interface within a fixed particle domain, several fabrication steps can be bypassed reducing cost and giving more applicability to other film deposition methods. Such applications include aerosol deposition and ink-jet printing. The systems that were studied by TA spectroscopy include PDIB core, PDIB-P3HT core-shell, and PDIB-PANT core-shell which range in size from 60 to 130 nm. Within the experimentally accessible spectra range there resides a region of ground state bleaching, stimulated emission, and excited-state absorption of both neutrals and anions. Control experiments have been carried out to assign these features. At high pump fluences the TA spectra of PDIB core alone also indicate an intramolecular charge separation. The TA spectroscopy results thus far suggest that the core-shells resemble the photoinduced dynamics of a standard film although the particles are dispersed in solution, which indicates the desired outcome of the work.

  6. Laser-induced periodic surface structures formation: investigation of the effect of nonlinear absorption of laser energy in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Yoann; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    To get insight into laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation, the relaxation of a modulation in the temperature profile is investigated numerically on surfaces of two different kinds of materials (metals and dielectrics; gold and fused silica as examples) upon irradiation by ultrashort laser pulses. The temperature modulation is assumed to originate from the interference between the incoming laser pulse and the surface electromagnetic wave, which is considered as the main mechanism of LIPSS formation. For comparative studies of laser energy dissipation, a simplified 2D approach is used. It is based on the two-temperature model (TTM) and considers the mechanisms of nonlinear absorption of laser light (multiphoton ionization in fused silica; temperature-dependent thermophysical and optical properties in gold) and relaxation (electron trapping to excitonic states in fused silica). The TTM is coupled with the Drude model, considering the evolution of optical properties as a function of free-carrier density and/or temperature. The development and decay of the lattice temperature modulation, which can govern the LIPSS formation, is followed during electron-lattice thermalization time and beyond. It is shown that strong temperature gradients can form along the surfaces of both kinds of materials under study within the fluence range typical for LIPSS formation. Considerable changes in optical properties of these materials are found as a function of time, including metals, for which a constant reflectivity is usually assumed. Effects of nonlinear absorption on the surface temperature dynamics are reported.

  7. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; ...

    2017-02-01

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effectsmore » of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.« less

  8. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effectsmore » of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.« less

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, DFT studies, molecular docking and antimicrobial potential of certain new indole-isatin molecular hybrids: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Maha S.; Zakaria, Azza S.; Ignasius, P. Primsa; Al-Wabli, Reem I.; Joe, Isaac Hubert; Attia, Mohamed I.

    2018-02-01

    Indole-isatin molecular hybrids 5a-i have been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods to be evaluated as new antimicrobial agents against a panel of Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and moulds. Compound 5h was selected as a representative example of the prepared compounds 5a-i to perform computational investigations. Its vibrational properties have been studied using FT-IR and FT-Raman with the aid of density functional theory approach. The natural bond orbital analysis as well as HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals investigations of compound 5h were carried out to explore its possible intermolecular delocalization or hyperconjugation and its possible interactions with the target protein. Molecular docking of compound 5h predicted its binding mode with the fungal target protein.

  10. Investigation of the Spectroscopic Information on Functional Groups Related to Carbohydrates in Different Morphological Fractions of Corn Stover and Their Relationship to Nutrient Supply and Biodegradation Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hangshu; Ding, Xue; Zhang, Liyang; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yonggen

    2017-05-24

    The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) nutritive values and biodegradation characteristics and (2) mid-IR spectroscopic features within the regions associated with carbohydrate functional groups (including cellulosic component (CELC), structural carbohydrate (STCHO), and total carbohydrate (CHO)) in different morphological fractions of corn stover. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses were also applied to determine the relationship between nutritional values and spectroscopic parameters. The results showed that different morphological sections of corn stover had different nutrient supplies, in situ biodegradation characteristics, and spectral structural features within carbohydrate regions. The stem rind and ear husk were both high in fibrous content, which led to the lowest effective degradabilities (ED) among these stalk fractions. The ED values of NDF were ranked ear husk > stem pith > leaf blade > leaf sheath > whole plant > stem rind. Intensities of peak height and area within carbohydrate regions were relatively more stable compared with spectral ratio profiles. Significant difference was found only in peak area intensity of CELC, which was at the highest level for stem rind, followed by stem pith, leaf sheath, whole plant, leaf blade, and ear husk. Correlation results showed that changes in some carbohydrate spectral ratios were highly associated with carbohydrate chemical profiles and in situ rumen degradation kinetics. Among the various carbohydrate molecular spectral parameters that were tested in multiple regression analysis, CHO height ratios, and area ratios of CELC:CHO and CELC:STCHO as well as CELC area were mostly sensitive to nutrient supply and biodegradation characteristics in different morphological fractions of corn stover.

  11. Interaction of a potential chloride channel blocker with a model transport protein: a spectroscopic and molecular docking investigation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Aniruddha; Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ghosh, Soumen; Dalapati, Sasanka; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2014-05-14

    The present work demonstrates a detailed characterization of the interaction of a potential chloride channel blocker, 9-methyl anthroate (9-MA), with a model transport protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The modulated photophysical properties of the emissive drug molecule within the microheterogeneous bio-environment of the protein have been exploited spectroscopically to monitor the probe-protein binding interaction. Apart from evaluating the binding constant, the probable location of the neutral molecule within the protein cavity (subdomain IB) is explored by an AutoDock-based blind docking simulation. The absence of the Red-Edge Effect has been corroborated by the enhanced lifetime of the probe, being substantially greater than the solvent reorientation time. A dip-and-rise characteristic of the rotational relaxation profile of the drug within the protein has been argued to originate from a significant difference in the lifetime as well as amplitude of the free and protein-bound drug molecule. Unfolding of the protein in the presence of the drug molecule has been probed by the decrease of the α-helical content, obtained via circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, which is also supported by the gradual loss of the esterase activity of the protein in the presence of the drug molecule.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation into the design of solid-acid catalysts for the low temperature dehydration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Potter, Matthew E; Aswegen, Sivan V; Gibson, Emma K; Silverwood, Ian P; Raja, Robert

    2016-07-14

    The increased demand for bulk hydrocarbons necessitates research into increasingly sustainable, energy-efficient catalytic processes. Owing to intricately designed structure-property correlations, SAPO-34 has become established as a promising material for the low temperature ethanol dehydration to produce ethylene. However, further optimization of this process requires a precise knowledge of the reaction mechanism at a molecular level. In order to achieve this a range of spectroscopic characterization techniques are required to probe both the interaction with the active site, and also the wider role of the framework. To this end we employ a combination of in situ infra-red and neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the influence of the surface ethoxy species in the activation of both diethyl ether and ethanol, towards the improved formation of ethylene at low temperatures. The combined conclusions of these studies is that the formation of ethylene is the rate determining step, which is of fundamental importance towards the development of this process and the introduction of bio-ethanol as a viable feedstock for ethylene production.

  13. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation of Room-Temperature Decomposition of a Chemical Warfare Agent Simulant on Polycrystalline Cupric Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Trotochaud, Lena; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Holdren, Scott

    Certain organophosphorus molecules are infamous due to their use as highly toxic nerve agents. The filtration materials currently in common use for protection against chemical warfare agents were designed before organophosphorus compounds were used as chemical weapons. A better understanding of the surface chemistry between simulant molecules and the individual filtration-material components is a critical precursor to the development of more effective materials for filtration, destruction, decontamination, and/or sensing of nerve agents. Here, we report on the surface adsorption and reactions of a sarin simulant molecule, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), with cupric oxide surfaces. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron andmore » infrared spectroscopies are coupled with density functional calculations to propose mechanisms for DMMP decomposition on CuO. We find extensive room temperature decomposition of DMMP on CuO, with the majority of decomposition fragments bound to the CuO surface. We observe breaking of PO-CH3, P-OCH3, and P-CH3bonds at room temperature. On the basis of these results, we identify specific DMMP decomposition mechanisms not seen on other metal oxides. Participation of lattice oxygen in the decomposition mechanism leads to significant changes in chemical and electronic surface environment, which are manifest in the spectroscopic and computational data. This study establishes a computational baseline for the study of highly toxic organophosphorous compounds on metal oxide surfaces.« less

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of different concentrations of the vapour deposited copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Anton; Yordanov, Dancho; Dimov, Dean; Assa, Jacob; Spassova, Erinche; Danev, Gencho

    2015-04-05

    Nanocomposite layers 250 nm copper phthalocyanine/polyimide prepared by simultaneous vapour deposition of three different sources were studied. Different concentrations of copper phthalocyanine as a "guest" in polyimide matrix as a function of conditions of the preparation have been determined by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) and UV-VIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) spectroscopies. The aim was to estimate the possibility of the spectroscopic methods for quantitative determination of the "guest" and compare with the quality of the polyimide thin films in relation to the "guest" concentration. The band at 1334 cm(-1) has been used for quantitative estimation of "guest" in polyimide matrix. The concentrations of the copper phthalocyanine less than 20% require curve fitting techniques with Fourier self deconvolution. The relationship between "guest" concentrations and degree of imidization, as well as the electronic UV-VIS spectra are discussed in relation to the composition, imidization degree and the two crystallographic modification of the embedded chromophore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the biochemical progression of liver disease through fibrosis, cirrhosis, dysplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Pant, Mamta; Ronquillo, Nemencio R.; Davidson, Bennett; Nguyen, Peter; Chennuri, Rohini; Choi, Jacqueline; Herrera, Joaquin A.; Hinojosa, Ana C.; Jin, Ming; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary hepatic carcinoma. HCC ranks the fourth most prevalent malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in the context of chronic liver disease and its evolution is characterized by progression through intermediate stages to advanced disease and possibly even death. The primary sequence of hepatocarcinogenesis includes the development of cirrhosis, followed by dysplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1 We addressed the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, both as a diagnostic tool of the different stages of the disease and to gain insight into the biochemical process associated with disease progression. Tissue microarrays were obtained from the University of Illinois at Chicago tissue bank consisting of liver explants from 12 transplant patients. Tissue core biopsies were obtained from each explant targeting regions of normal, liver cell dysplasia including large cell change and small cell change, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We obtained FT-IR images of these tissues using a modified FT-IR system with high definition capabilities. Firstly, a supervised spectral classifier was built to discriminate between normal and cancerous hepatocytes. Secondly, an expanded classifier was built to discriminate small cell and large cell changes in liver disease. With the emerging advances in FT-IR instrumentation and computation there is a strong drive to develop this technology as a powerful adjunct to current histopathology approaches to improve disease diagnosis and prognosis.

  16. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation of Room-Temperature Decomposition of a Chemical Warfare Agent Simulant on Polycrystalline Cupric Oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Trotochaud, Lena; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Holdren, Scott; ...

    2017-08-21

    Certain organophosphorus molecules are infamous due to their use as highly toxic nerve agents. The filtration materials currently in common use for protection against chemical warfare agents were designed before organophosphorus compounds were used as chemical weapons. A better understanding of the surface chemistry between simulant molecules and the individual filtration-material components is a critical precursor to the development of more effective materials for filtration, destruction, decontamination, and/or sensing of nerve agents. Here, we report on the surface adsorption and reactions of a sarin simulant molecule, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), with cupric oxide surfaces. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron andmore » infrared spectroscopies are coupled with density functional calculations to propose mechanisms for DMMP decomposition on CuO. We find extensive room temperature decomposition of DMMP on CuO, with the majority of decomposition fragments bound to the CuO surface. We observe breaking of PO-CH3, P-OCH3, and P-CH3bonds at room temperature. On the basis of these results, we identify specific DMMP decomposition mechanisms not seen on other metal oxides. Participation of lattice oxygen in the decomposition mechanism leads to significant changes in chemical and electronic surface environment, which are manifest in the spectroscopic and computational data. This study establishes a computational baseline for the study of highly toxic organophosphorous compounds on metal oxide surfaces.« less

  17. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in olfactory bulbectomy animal depression model.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, J; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2018-01-30

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the potential causes being impaired smell. In this study Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of bulbectomized rats (OB_NaCl), which is a common animal depression model. The efficiency of amitriptyline (AMI) treatment was also evaluated. The obtained results show a significant decrease in the phospholipid and protein fractions (as well as changes in their secondary structures) in blood serum of bulbectomized rats. AMI treatment in bulbectomized rats increased protein level and did not affect the level of phospholipids. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of bulbectomized rats was normalized after amitriptyline therapy, while the damaged structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that impaired smell could be one of the causes of depression and may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopic Studies of [L2Fe2S2]n Model Complexes: Implications for the Experimental Evaluation of Redox States in Iron–Sulfur Clusters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein, a systematic study of [L2Fe2S2]n model complexes (where L = bis(benzimidazolato) and n = 2-, 3-, 4-) has been carried out using iron and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and iron Kβ and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopies (XES). These data are used as a test set to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of X-ray core level spectroscopies in assessing redox changes in iron–sulfur clusters. The results are correlated to density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the spectra in order to further support the quantitative information that can be extracted from the experimental data. It is demonstrated that due to canceling effects of covalency and spin state, the information that can be extracted from Fe Kβ XES mainlines is limited. However, a careful analysis of the Fe K-edge XAS data shows that localized valence vs delocalized valence species may be differentiated on the basis of the pre-edge and K-edge energies. These findings are then applied to existing literature Fe K-edge XAS data on the iron protein, P-cluster, and FeMoco sites of nitrogenase. The ability to assess the extent of delocalization in the iron protein vs the P-cluster is highlighted. In addition, possible charge states for FeMoco on the basis of Fe K-edge XAS data are discussed. This study provides an important reference for future X-ray spectroscopic studies of iron–sulfur clusters. PMID:27097289

  19. Structural investigation of the cocrystal formed between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid based on vibrational spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Qiang; Xue, Jiadan; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Dan

    2017-05-01

    The vibrational spectra of 5-fluorocytosine, fumaric acid and their cocrystal were measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Experimental THz results show that the cocrystal has distinct fingerprint spectra in terahertz region. The absorption peaks observed in the terahertz spectra of the cocrystal were at 0.61 and 0.91 THz. These are quite different from corresponding raw starting materials. Raman spectra also show similar results about differences between the cocrystal and corresponding raw starting materials. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to simulate the structure of the possible salt form and the cocrystal form between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid. The theoretical terahertz result shows that the cocrystal form has absorption at 0.62 and 0.87 THz, which is in agreement with the experimental result. The theoretical Raman result also indicates that the cocrystal form has more possibilities than the salt form. So, it is more reasonable that the structure between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid could be the corresponding cocrystal form. The characteristic bands of the cocrystal between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid are also assigned based on the simulation results from the DFT calculation.

  20. Structural investigation of the cocrystal formed between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid based on vibrational spectroscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Cai, Qiang; Xue, Jiadan; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Dan

    2017-05-05

    The vibrational spectra of 5-fluorocytosine, fumaric acid and their cocrystal were measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Experimental THz results show that the cocrystal has distinct fingerprint spectra in terahertz region. The absorption peaks observed in the terahertz spectra of the cocrystal were at 0.61 and 0.91THz. These are quite different from corresponding raw starting materials. Raman spectra also show similar results about differences between the cocrystal and corresponding raw starting materials. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to simulate the structure of the possible salt form and the cocrystal form between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid. The theoretical terahertz result shows that the cocrystal form has absorption at 0.62 and 0.87THz, which is in agreement with the experimental result. The theoretical Raman result also indicates that the cocrystal form has more possibilities than the salt form. So, it is more reasonable that the structure between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid could be the corresponding cocrystal form. The characteristic bands of the cocrystal between 5-fluorocytosine and fumaric acid are also assigned based on the simulation results from the DFT calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of the noncovalent association of the nerve agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) with zinc(II) porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Maza, William A; Vetromile, Carissa M; Kim, Chungsik; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Larsen, Randy W

    2013-11-07

    Organophosphonates pose a significant threat as chemical warfare agents, as well as environmental toxins in the form of pesticides. Thus, methodologies to sense and decontaminate these agents are of significant interest. Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins offer an excellent platform to develop chemical threat sensors and photochemical degradation systems. These highly conjugated planar molecules exhibit relatively long-lived singlet and triplet states with high quantum yields and also form self-associated complexes with a wide variety of molecules. A significant aspect of porphyrins is the ability to functionalize the peripheral ring system either directly to the pyrrole rings or to the bridging methine carbons. In this report, steady-state absorption and fluorescence are utilized to probe binding affinities of a series of symmetric and asymmetric zinc(II) metalloporphyrins for the nerve agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) in hexane. The red shifts in the absorption and emission spectra observed for all of the metalloporphyrins probed are discussed in the frame of Gouterman's four orbital model and a common binding motif involving coordination between the metalloporphyrin and DIMP via interaction between the zinc metal center of the porphyrin and phosphoryl oxygen of DIMP (Zn-O═P) is proposed.

  2. The role of Te(IV) and Bi(III) chloride complexes in hydrothermal mass transfer: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Etschmann, Barbara E.; Liu, Weihua; Pring, Allan

    2016-05-01

    Tellurium (Te) and bismuth (Bi) are two metal(loid)s often enriched together with gold (Au) in hydrothermal deposits; however the speciation and transport properties for these two metals in hydrothermal systems are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of chloride on the speciation of Te(IV) and Bi(III) in hydrothermal solutions using in-situ XAS spectroscopy. At ambient temperature, oxy-hydroxide complexes containing the [TeO3] moiety (e.g., H3TeO3+ under highly acidic conditions) predominate in salty solutions over a wide range in pH and salt concentrations. Te(IV)-Cl complexes only appear at pH(25 degrees C) <= 2 and high Cl- activity (>= 10). The highest ordermore » Te(IV) chloride complex detected is TeCl4(aq), and contains the [TeCl4] moiety. Upon heating to 199 degrees C, the Te(IV)-Cl complexes become more stable; however they still required highly acidic conditions which are likely to exist only in very limited environments in nature. At ambient temperature, Bi(III) is coordinated to 5.5(5) Cl atoms in high salinity, acidic (HCl >= 0.5 m) chloride solutions. This, combined with large EXAFS-derived structural disorder parameters, suggests that the Bi(III) complex is most likely present as both BiCl52- and BiCl63-. The number of Cl atoms coordinated to Bi(III) decreases with increasing temperature; at around 200 degrees C and above, Bi(III) is coordinated to three Cl atoms. Overall the data show that Te(IV) chloride complexes can be ignored in predicting Te mobility under oxidizing conditions in most geological environments, but that Bi(III) chloride complexes are expected to account for Bi mobility in acidic brines. New thermodynamic properties for Bi(III) chloride complexes are provided to improve reactive transport modeling of Bi up to 500 degrees C. Although higher order complexes such as BiCl52- and BiCl63- exist at ambient temperature, the BiCl3(aq) complex becomes the predominant chloride complex in saline solutions at T >= 200 degrees C.« less

  3. Research Investigation on Dense Scintillation Glass for Use in Total Absorption Nuclear Cascade Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Three approaches to the development of a high density scintillation glass were investigated: They include the increase of density of glass systems containing cerium - the only systems which were known to show scintillation, the testing of a novel silicate glass system containing significant concentrations of silver produced by ion exchange and never tested previously, and the hot pressing of a diphasic compact of low density scintillation glass with high density passive glass. In first two cases, while ultraviolet excited fluorescence was maintained in the glasses showing high density, scintillation response to high energy particles was not retained in the case of the cerium containing glasses or developed in the case of the silver containing glasses. In the case of the compacts, the extremely long path length caused by the multiple internal reflections which occur in such a body resulted in attenuation even with glasses of high specific transmission. It is not clear why the scintillation efficiency is not maintained in the higher density cerium containing glasses.

  4. An FTIR investigation of isocyanate skin absorption using in vitro guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Smith, Thomas J; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Boeniger, Mark F; Redlich, Carrie A; Liu, Youcheng

    2006-05-01

    Isocyanates may cause contact dermatitis, sensitization and asthma. Dermal exposure to aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates can occur in various exposure settings. The fate of isocyanates on skin is an important unanswered question. Do they react and bind to the outer layer of skin or do they penetrate through the epidermis as unreacted compounds? Knowing the kinetics of these processes is important in developing dermal exposure sampling or decontamination strategies, as well as understanding potential health implications such exposure may have. In this paper the residence time of model isocyanates on hairless guinea pig skin was investigated in vitro using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry. Model isocyanates tested were octyl isocyanate, polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate isocyanurate (pHDI), polymeric isophorone diisocyanate isocyanurate (pIPDI) and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Isocyanates in ethyl acetate (30 microL) were spiked directly on the skin to give 0.2-1.8 micromol NCO cm(-2) (NCO = -N=C=O), and absorbance of the isocyanate group and other chemical groups of the molecule were monitored over time. The ATR-FTIR findings showed that polymeric isocyanates pHDI and pIPDI may remain on the skin as unreacted species for many hours, with only 15-20% of the total isocyanate group disappearing in one hour, while smaller compounds octyl isocyanate and MDI rapidly disappear from the skin surface (80+% in 30 min). Isocyanates most likely leave the skin surface by diffusion predominantly, with minimal reaction with surface proteins. The significance of these findings and their implications for dermal exposure sampling and isocyanate skin decontamination are discussed.

  5. Mixed valent stannide EuRuSn 3 - Structure, magnetic properties, and Mössbauer spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmening, Thomas; Hermes, Wilfried; Eul, Matthias; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    The stannide EuRuSn 3 was synthesized by induction melting of the elements in a sealed tantalum tube in a water-cooled quartz glass sample chamber. The structure was refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data (LaRuSn 3 type, Pm3¯n, a = 976.0(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0399, 317 F2 values, and 13 variables). EuRuSn 3 shows modified Curie-Weiss behaviour in the temperature range 50-305 K with an experimental magnetic moment of 7.34(1) μB per formula unit. Thus, the europium atoms are not in a purely divalent state. Low field susceptibility measurement indicates a ferro- or ferrimagnetic ordering at TC = 11.2(2) K and magnetization measurements indicate EuRuSn 3 as a non-collinear ferro- or ferrimagnet. 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements suggested one europium site to be static mixed valent with a Eu 2+/Eu 3+ ratio close to one and the other site purely divalent. This was supported by substituting the Eu 3+ atoms with Y 3+ in a sample with a composition of Eu 0.7Y 0.3RuSn 3 ( a = 971.24(8) pm, wR2 = 0.0485, 313 F2 values, 14 variables). The 119Sn Mössbauer spectra show a pronounced Gol'danskii-Karyagin effect in the paramagnetic range and a magnetic hyperfine field distribution at 4.2 K, due to the complex magnetic structure. The influence of the valence electron concentration on the europium valence was tested via Ru/Pd substitution. A EuRu 0.8Pd 0.2Sn 3 sample shows almost purely divalent europium.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of the wettability of multilayer graphene using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model material.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ali; Wu, Yanbin; Wang, Michael C; Aluru, Narayana R; Dastgheib, Seyed A; Nam, SungWoo

    2014-11-04

    We report the intrinsic water contact angle (WCA) of multilayer graphene, explore different methods of cleaning multilayer graphene, and evaluate the efficiency of those methods on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was used as a model material system to study the wettability of the multilayer graphene surface by WCA measurements. A WCA value of 45° ± 3° was measured for a clean HOPG surface, which can serve as the intrinsic WCA for multilayer graphene. A 1 min plasma treatment (100 W) decreased the WCA to 6°, owing to the creation of surface defects and functionalization by oxygen-containing groups. Molecular dynamics simulations of water droplets on the HOPG surface with or without the oxygen-containing defect sites confirmed the experimental results. Heat treatment at near atmospheric pressure and wet chemical cleaning methods using hydrofluoric acid and chloroform did not change the WCA significantly. Low-pressure, high-temperature annealing under argon and hydrogen reduced the WCA to 54°, close to the intrinsic WCA of HOPG. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy did not show any significant change for the HOPG surface after this treatment, confirming low-pressure, high-temperature annealing as an effective technique to clean multilayer graphene without damaging the surface. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the existence of hydrocarbon species on the surface of the HOPG sample that was exposed to air for <5 min and the absence of these impurities in the bulk. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the sample surfaces after the different cleaning techniques were performed to correlate the WCA to the surface chemistry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that the WCA value changed drastically, depending on the amounts of oxygen-containing and hydrocarbon-containing groups on the surface.

  7. Laboratory investigations of Mars - Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of a suite of clays as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, Amos; Carle, Glenn C.; Chang, Sherwood; Coyne, Lelia M.; Orenberg, James B.

    1988-01-01

    A model system of Mars soil analog materials (MSAMs) was prepared, and the properties of these clays, such as chemical composition, surface-ion composition, water adsorption isotherms, and reflectance spectra, were examined. The results of these studies, performed along with simulations of the Viking Labeled Release Experiement using MSAMs, indicate that surface iron and adsorbed water are important determinants of clay behavior, as evidenced by changes in reflectance, water absorption, and clay surface reactions. The paper discusses the relevance of these results to the two major questions raised by prior explorations of Mars: has there ever been abundant water on Mars, and why is the iron found in the Martian soil not readily seen in the reflectance spectra of the surface?

  8. Bio-important antipyrine derived Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial, anthelmintic and DNA cleavage investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunath, M.; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Bagihalli, Gangadhar B.; Malladi, Shridhar; Patil, Sangamesh A.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic (IR, NMR, UV-vis, ESR, ESI-mass), magnetic and TGA studies suggests octahedral geometry for all the CoII, NiII and CuII complexes of the Schiff bases, derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and 8-formyl-7-Hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin/5-formyl-6-hydroxycoumarin, coordinated through ONO donor sites. Antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi), antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium) and DNA cleavage properties of the metal complexes are investigated. The results suggested that some of the synthesized compounds are potential antimicrobials. The synthesized compounds tested for their anthelmintic activities and it was found that CoII and NiII complexes exhibited good anthelmintic properties.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pongamia pinnata seed: Characterization, antibacterial property, and spectroscopic investigation of interaction with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beg, Maidul; Maji, Anukul; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Somnath; Aktara, Mt Nasima; Jha, Pradeep K; Hossain, Maidul

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, green synthesized nanoparticles from plant extract have drawn a great interest due to their prospective nanomedicinal application. This study investigates a proficient, safer, and sustainable way for the preparation of AgNPs using medicinal plant Pongamia pinnata (family: Leguminoseae, species: Pinnata) seeds extract without using any external reducing and stabilizing agent. Both ultraviolet-visible spectrum at λ max  = 439 nm and energy dispersive X-ray spectra proof the formation of AgNPs. An average diameter of the AgNPs was 16.4 nm as revealed from transmission electron microscope. Hydrodynamic size (d = ~19.6 nm) was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -23.7 mV, which supports its dispersion and stability. Fourier transform infrared study revealed that the O ─ H, C ═ O, and C-O-C groups were responsible for the formation of AgNPs. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was checked against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. AgNPs at its LD 50 dose exhibited synergistic effect with ampicillin. Because protein-AgNPs association greatly affects its adsorption, distribution, and functionality and can also influence the functions of biomolecules. So in order to understand the adsorption and bioavailability, we investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible, and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods the interaction of synthesized AgNPs toward human serum albumin. The binding affinity and binding sites of human serum albumin toward AgNPs were measured by using the fluorescence quenching data. The circular dichroism spectroscopic results revealed that there was a negligible change of α-helical content in their native structure. Overall, these AgNPs show versatile biological activities and may be applied in the field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The structural and spectroscopic investigation of 2-chloro-3-methylquinoline by DFT method and UV-Vis, NMR and vibrational spectral techniques combined with molecular docking analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Bardak, Fehmi

    2018-07-01

    This study comprises the structural and spectroscopic evaluation of a quinoline derivative, 2-chloro-3-methylquinoline (2Cl3MQ), via UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques experimentally, theoretically with DFT and TD-DFT quantum chemical calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) level of theory, and investigation of the in silico pharmaceutical potent of 2Cl3MQ in comparison to 2ClnMQ (n = 3,4,7,8,9,10) substituted quinolines. The experimental measurements were recorded as follows; UV-vis spectra were obtained in the range of 200-400 nm in the water and ethanol solvents. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl3. Vibrational spectra were obtained in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1 for FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, respectively. Structural and spectroscopic features obtained through theoretical evaluations include: electrostatic features, atomic charges and molecular electrostatic potential surface, the frontier molecular orbital characteristics, the density of states and their overlapping nature, the electronic transition properties, thermodynamical and nonlinear optical characteristics, and predicted UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. Ligand-enzyme interactions of 2ClnMQ (n = 3,4,7,8,9,10) substituted quinolines with Malate Synthase from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MtbMS) were investigated via molecular docking. The role of position of methyl substitution on the inhibitor character of the ligands was discussed on the basis of noncovalent interaction profiles.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopic evidence for binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-mercaptoethanol to the nickel sites of Jack bean urease. A new Ni-Ni interaction in the inhibited enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.A.; Wilcox, D.E.; Scott, R.A.

    The enzyme Jack bean urease has been identified as the first nickel-containing metalloenzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia. Competitive inhibitors such as 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) have been shown to dramatically affect the ground-state electronic properties of the urease Ni(II) ions. Results of preliminary structural investigations using x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the nickel salts of urease in its native and 2-ME bound forms are presented. The binding of 2-ME to Ni(II) through the thiolate sulfur is confirmed by the results of this study. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Spectroscopic database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husson, N.; Barbe, A.; Brown, L. R.; Carli, B.; Goldman, A.; Pickett, H. M.; Roche, A. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Smith, M. A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Several aspects of quantitative atmospheric spectroscopy are considered, using a classification of the molecules according to the gas amounts in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, and reviews of quantitative atmospheric high-resolution spectroscopic measurements and field measurements systems are given. Laboratory spectroscopy and spectral analysis and prediction are presented with a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy capabilities. Spectroscopic data requirements for accurate derivation of atmospheric composition are discussed, where examples are given for space-based remote sensing experiments of the atmosphere: the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) experiment. A review of the basic parameters involved in the data compilations; a summary of information on line parameter compilations already in existence; and a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy studies are used to assess the data base.

  13. Unraveling sorption of lead in aqueous solutions by chemically modified biochar derived from coconut fiber: A microscopic and spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weidong; Li, Jianhong; Lan, Tian; Müller, Karin; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Chen, Xin; Xu, Song; Zheng, Lirong; Chu, Yingchao; Li, Jianwu; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Hailong

    2017-01-15

    In this study, we examined the efficacy of nine different types of coconut-fiber derived biochars (CFBs), prepared at different temperatures and chemically modified with ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, to remove lead (Pb 2+ ) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir-q m values of the biochars pyrolyzed at 300°C and modified with ammonia and nitric acid increased from 49.5 to 105.5 and 85.2mgg -1 , respectively, compared to control (unmodified), whereas hydrogen peroxide treatment had no effect. The maximum amount of Pb adsorbed on biochars was in the order of CFB-700>MCFB-300-NH 3 ·H 2 O>CFB-500>MCFB-300-HNO 3 >CFB-300. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results revealed that Pb-montmorillonite, Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , Pb-Al 2 O 3 and Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2 were the five most important Pb species observed in Pb-loaded biochars, and as such, favoring Pb immobilization in aqueous solutions. Overall, the sorption capacity of CFBs pyrolyzed at 300°C substantially increased for Pb 2+ with ammonia and nitric acid modification. However, these chemical modifications did not improve the sorption of Pb on CFBs pyrolyzed at temperatures ≥500°C, thereby highlighting a temperature dependent response of chemically modified biochars to Pb sorption in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation confirms retaining the pristine nature of single-walled carbon nanotubes on dissolution in aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Somdutta; Ghosh, Swapankumar

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes in all forms are very much insoluble in both organic and inorganic solvents due to its high agglomeration and entangled morphology. General methods for dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are mostly associated with complexation or polymerization or addition of macromolecules which change the physical or chemical properties of SWNTs and the pristine nature of SWNTs is lost. Dissolution of SWNTs in a solvent like aniline is practiced here which is a very simple reaction method. Here aniline is capable to form a SWNT-aniline charge transfer complex without attachment of macromolecules or polymer which is also soluble in other organic solvents. Solvation of SWNTs by this method is also capable of maintaining the similarity between the structure of SWNTs before and after the dissolution, which means that the pristine nature of SWNTs is preserved. Formation of charge transfer complex in this reaction has been proven by UV-Vis/NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM) are the evidences for protection of the pristine nature of SWNTs even after high-temperature complexation reaction with aniline and also after solubilization in organic solvents.

  15. Spectroscopic investigations using density functional theory on 2-methoxy- 4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol: A non linear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijas, K. M.; Madan Kumar, S.; Byrappa, K.; Geethakrishnan, T.; Jeyaram, S.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of 2-methoxy-4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol were grown from ethanol by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiment reveals the crystallization in orthorhombic system having non-centrosymmetric space group C2221. Geometrical optimization by density functional theory method was carried out using Gaussian program and compared with experimental results. Detailed experimental and theoretical vibrational analyses were carried out and the results were correlated to find close agreement. Thermal analyses show the material is thermally stable with a melting point of 159 °C. Natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to explain charge transfer interactions through hydrogen bonding. Relatively smaller HOMO-LUMO band gap favors the non linear optical activity of the molecule. Natural population analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculations visualize the charge distribution in an isolated molecule. Calculated first-order molecular hyperpolarizability and preliminary second harmonic generation test carried out using Kurtz-Perry technique establish 2-methoxy-4(phenyliminomethyl)phenol crystal as a good non linear optical material. Z-scan proposes the material for reverse saturable absorption.

  16. Investigation of antimicrobial activities, DNA interaction, structural and spectroscopic properties of 2-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evecen, Meryem; Kara, Mehmet; Idil, Onder; Tanak, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    2-Chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine has been characterized by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR experiment. FT-IR spectra of the molecule has been recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 region. The molecular structural parameters and vibrational frequencies were computed using the HF and DFT (B3LYP, B3PW91) methods with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. 1H and 13C NMR Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) chemical shifts of the compound were calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational wavenumbers and chemical shifts were compared with the experimental data of the compound. Using the TD-DFT methodology, electronic absorption spectra of the compound have been computed. Besides, solvent effects on the excitation energies and chemical shifts were carried out using the integral equation formalism of the polarisable continuum model (IEF-PCM). DFT calculations of the compound, Mulliken's charges, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbital (NBO) and thermodynamic properties were also obtained theoretically. In addition, the antimicrobial activities were tested by using minimal inhibitory concentration method (MIC) and also the effect of the molecule on pBR322 plasmid DNA was monitored byagarose gel electrophoresis experiments.

  17. Externally controlled pressure and temperature microreactor for in situ x-ray diffraction, visual and spectroscopic reaction investigations under supercritical and subcritical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenbacher, Jason; McKelvy, Michael; Chizmeshya, Andrew V.G.

    2005-01-01

    A microreactor has been developed for in situ, spectroscopic investigations of materials and reaction processes with full external pressure and temperature control from ambient conditions to 400 deg. C and 310 bar. The sample chamber is in direct contact with an external manifold, whereby gases, liquids or fluids can be injected and their activities controlled prior to and under investigation conditions. The microreactor employs high strength, single crystal moissanite windows which allow direct probe beam interaction with a sample to investigate in situ reaction processes and other materials properties. The relatively large volume of the cell, along with full opticalmore » accessibility and external temperature and pressure control, make this reaction cell well suited for experimental investigations involving any combination of gas, fluid, and solid interactions. The microreactor's capabilities are demonstrated through an in situ x-ray diffraction study of the conversion of a meta-serpentine sample to magnesite under high pressure and temperature. Serpentine is one of the mineral candidates for the implementation of mineral carbonation, an intriguing carbon sequestration candidate technology.« less

  18. Externally controlled pressure and temperature microreactor for in situ x-ray diffraction, visual and spectroscopic reaction investigations under supercritical and subcritial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenbacher, J.; McKelvy, M.; Chizemeshya, A.V.

    2010-07-13

    A microreactor has been developed for in situ, spectroscopic investigations of materials and reaction processes with full external pressure and temperature control from ambient conditions to 400 C and 310 bar. The sample chamber is in direct contact with an external manifold, whereby gases, liquids or fluids can be injected and their activities controlled prior to and under investigation conditions. The microreactor employs high strength, single crystal moissanite windows which allow direct probe beam interaction with a sample to investigate in situ reaction processes and other materials properties. The relatively large volume of the cell, along with full optical accessibilitymore » and external temperature and pressure control, make this reaction cell well suited for experimental investigations involving any combination of gas, fluid, and solid interactions. The microreactor's capabilities are demonstrated through an in situ x-ray diffraction study of the conversion of a meta-serpentine sample to magnesite under high pressure and temperature. Serpentine is one of the mineral candidates for the implementation of mineral carbonation, an intriguing carbon sequestration candidate technology.« less

  19. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV absorption, 1H and 13C NMR) and theoretical (in B3LYP/6-311++G** level) studies on alkali metal salts of caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Świsłocka, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The effect of some metals on the electronic system of benzoic and nicotinic acids has recently been investigated by IR, Raman and UV spectroscopy [1-3]. Benzoic and nicotinic acids are regarded model systems representing a wide group of aromatic ligands which are incorporated into enzymes. In this work the FT-IR (in solid state and in solution), FT-Raman, UV absorption and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) and its salts with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium were registered, assigned and analyzed. The effect of alkali metals on the electronic system of ligands was discussed. Studies of differences in the number and position of bands from the IR, Raman, UV absorption spectra and chemical shifts from NMR spectra allowed to conclude on the distribution of electronic charge in the molecules, the delocalization energy of π electrons and the reactivity of ligands in metal complexes. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G** basis set. Bond lengths, angles and dipole moments for the optimized structures of caffeic acid and lithium, sodium, potassium caffeinates were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Treesearch

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of phenolic groups ionization in the vipoxin neurotoxic phospholipase A 2: comparison with the X-ray structure in the region of the tyrosyl residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Genov, Nicolay; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Aleksiev, Boris; Betzel, Christian

    1998-12-01

    The neurotoxin vipoxin is the major lethal component of the venom of Vipera ammodites meridionalis, the most toxic snake in Europe. It is a complex between a toxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2) and a non-toxic protein inhibitor (Inh). Tyrosyl residues are involved in the catalytic site (Tyr 52 and 73) and in the substrate binding (Tyr 22). Spectroscopic studies demonstrated differences in the ionization behavior of the various phenolic hydroxyl groups in the toxic PLA 2. The tyrosyl side chains of the enzyme can be classified into three groups: (a) three phenolic hydroxyls are accessible to the solvent and titrate normally, with a p Keff=10.45; (b) three residues are partially 'buried' and participate in hydrogen bonds with neighboring functional groups. They titrate anomalously with a p Keff=12.17; (c) two tyrosines with a p Keff=13.23 are deeply 'buried' in the hydrophobic interior of PLA 2. They became accessible to the titrating agent only after alkaline denaturation of the protein molecule. The spectroscopic data are related to the X-ray structure of the vipoxin PLA 2. The refined model was investigated in the region of the tyrosyl side chains. The accessible surface area of each tyrosyl residue and each phenolic hydroxyl group was calculated. A good correlation between the spectrophotometric and the crystallographic data was observed. The ionization behavior of the phenolic groups is explained by peculiarities of the protein three-dimensional structure and the participation of tyrosines in the catalytic site hydrogen bond network. Attempts are made to assign the calculated p Keff values to individual residues. The high degree of 'exposure' on the protein surface of Tyr 22 and 75 is probably important for their function as parts of the substrate binding and pharmacological sites.

  2. Adsorption and co-adsorption of graphene oxide and Ni(II) on iron oxides: A spectroscopic and microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guodong; Huang, Chengcai; Chen, Guohe; Sheng, Jiang; Ren, Xuemei; Hu, Baowei; Ma, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiangke; Huang, Yuying; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) may strongly interact with toxic metal ions and mineral particles upon release into the soil environment. We evaluated the mutual effects between GO and Ni (Ni(II)) with regard to their adsorption and co-adsorption on two minerals (goethite and hematite) in aqueous phase. Results indicated that GO and Ni could mutually facilitate the adsorption of each other on both goethite and hematite over a wide pH range. Addition of Ni promoted GO co-adsorption mainly due to the increased positive charge of minerals and cation-π interactions, while the presence of GO enhanced Ni co-adsorption predominantly due to neutralization of positive charge and strong interaction with oxygen-containing functional groups on adsorbed GO. Increasing adsorption of GO and Ni on minerals as they coexist may thus reduce their mobility in soil. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy data revealed that GO altered the microstructure of Ni on minerals, i.e., Ni formed edge-sharing surface species (at R Ni-Fe ∼3.2 Å) without GO, while a GO-bridging ternary surface complexes (at R Ni-C ∼2.49 Å and R Ni-Fe ∼4.23 Å) was formed with GO. These findings improved the understanding of potential fate and toxicity of GO as well as the partitioning processes of Ni ions in aquatic and soil environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How does the plasmonic enhancement of molecular absorption depend on the energy gap between molecular excitation and plasmon modes: a mixed TDDFT/FDTD investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Li, Guang; Liang, WanZhen

    2015-07-14

    A real-time time-dependent density functional theory coupled with the classical electrodynamics finite difference time domain technique is employed to systematically investigate the optical properties of hybrid systems composed of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and organic adsorbates. The results demonstrate that the molecular absorption spectra throughout the whole energy range can be enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs; however, the absorption enhancement ratio (AER) for each absorption band differs significantly from the others, leading to the quite different spectral profiles of the hybrid complexes in contrast to those of isolated molecules or sole NPs. Detailed investigations reveal that the AER is sensitive to the energy gap between the molecular excitation and plasmon modes. As anticipated, two separate absorption bands, corresponding to the isolated molecules and sole NPs, have been observed at a large energy gap. When the energy gap approaches zero, the molecular excitation strongly couples with the plasmon mode to form the hybrid exciton band, which possesses the significantly enhanced absorption intensity, a red-shifted peak position, a surprising strongly asymmetric shape of the absorption band, and the nonlinear Fano effect. Furthermore, the dependence of surface localized fields and the scattering response functions (SRFs) on the geometrical parameters of NPs, the NP-molecule separation distance, and the external-field polarizations has also been depicted.

  4. A First Step Toward Understanding Nucleation Processes: in situ High-Temperature X-ray Diffraction and Absorption Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strukelj, E.; Neuville, D. R.; Cochain, B.; Hennet, L.; Thiaudière, D.; Guillot, B.; Roskosz, M.; Comte, M.; Richet, P.

    2009-05-01

    Nucleation is the first step of the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and thus plays a key role in Earth and Materials sciences whenever crystallization takes place. In spite of its considerable importance in igneous petrology and industrial applications (ceramics, glass-ceramics, etc.), nucleation remains known poorly because of the difficulties of investigating the structural rearrangements that take place at a nm scale when an ordered atomic packing begins to develop in a melt. In addition, the structure of amorphous phases is not only difficult to determine, but the wealth of information available for glasses is not necessarily applicable to nucleation because of the existence of temperature-induced structural changes in melts. In view of the basic geological and industrial importance of the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system, we have investigated a calcium aluminosilicate whose crystallization has already been studied. And because elements such as Ti or Zr can promote rapid nucleation, information can be gained about the structural changes they induce by probing specifically their own environment. In this work we have thus performed a high-temperature study of the very first steps of crystallization in a calcium aluminosilicate with 7 mol percent ZrO2 by X-ray absorption measurements at the Zr K-edge et 1873 K on the homogenous melt and 1173 K on a nucleating supercooled liquid. To complement these results with information on medium range order (MRO) X-Ray diffraction experiments have also been performed under the same conditions. As a reference, the glass has been investigated by both techniques at room temperature.

  5. Spectroscopic detection

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Hadidi, Kamal

    2003-01-01

    In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

  6. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  7. Dopant activation in Sn-doped Ga2O3 investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siah, S. C.; Brandt, R. E.; Lim, K.; Schelhas, L. T.; Jaramillo, R.; Heinemann, M. D.; Chua, D.; Wright, J.; Perkins, J. D.; Segre, C. U.; Gordon, R. G.; Toney, M. F.; Buonassisi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Doping activity in both beta-phase (β-) and amorphous (a-) Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn) is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A single crystal of β-Ga2O3:Sn grown using edge-defined film-fed growth at 1725 °C is compared with amorphous Ga2O3:Sn films deposited at low temperature (<300 °C). Our XAS analyses indicate that activated Sn dopant atoms in conductive single crystal β-Ga2O3:Sn are present as Sn4+, preferentially substituting for Ga at the octahedral site, as predicted by theoretical calculations. In contrast, inactive Sn atoms in resistive a-Ga2O3:Sn are present in either +2 or +4 charge states depending on growth conditions. These observations suggest the importance of growing Ga2O3:Sn at high temperature to obtain a crystalline phase and controlling the oxidation state of Sn during growth to achieve dopant activation.

  8. Water structure in polyethylene glycols for preservation of wooden artefacts. A NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Jensen, P.; Schnell, U.

    2005-02-01

    The interaction between polyethylene glycol (PEG) and water in mixtures has been investigated with a particular emphasis on the existence of 'free' water with a tetragonal bulk-like water structure. PEG is used in museum preservation of wooden objects, where free water must be avoided due to the danger of further microbial growth, contractile capillary forces and aqueous transport in wooden archaeological artefacts. A NIR-FT-Raman instrument with excitation at 1064 nm was used for this investigation. The OH stretch region around 3200 cm-1 shows changes in intensity with changing water content and the R(νbar)-function was applied in order to observe free water in the 100-300 cm-1 region. Mixtures of PEG and water were investigated with water contents ranging from 0 to 90% volume. It was found that free water appears around 28-32% volume in a PEG 600 mixture.

  9. Circular dichroism spectroscopic investigation of double-decker phthalocyanine with G-Quadruplex as promising telomerase inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baǧda, Efkan; Baǧda, Esra; Yabaş, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, interaction of a double-decker phthalocyanine with two G-quadruplex DNA, Tel 21 and cMYC, was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about G-quadruplex-double decker phthalocyanine interaction. The spectrophotometric titration method was used for binding constant calculations. From the binding constants, it can be said that double-decker phthalocyanine more likely to bind Tel 21 rather than cMYC. The conformational changes upon binding were monitored via circular dichroism spectroscopy. The ethidium bromide replacement assay was investigated spectrofluorometrically.

  10. Spectroscopic and time-dependent density functional theory investigation of the photophysical properties of zearalenone and its analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Structures of the mycotoxin zearalenone and its analogs were investigated using density functional theory methods to gain insight into the ground state and excited state properties related to detection. Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin that can occur in agricultural commodities, and ultraviole...

  11. A new look into the quantum chemical and spectroscopic investigations of 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Raj, Arushma; Anitha, R; Mohan, S

    2014-05-05

    Optimised geometrical structural parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, natural bonding orbital analysis and frontier molecular orbitals are determined by B3LYP and B3PW91 methods. The exact geometry of 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole is determined through conformational analysis. The experimentally observed infrared and Raman bands have been assigned and analysed. The (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the compound are investigated. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potentials are determined. The electrostatic potential (electron+nuclei) distribution, molecular shape, size and dipole moments of the molecule have been displayed. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals and LUMO-HOMO energy gap are measured. The possible electronic transitions of the molecule are studied by TD-DFT method along with the UV-Visible spectrum. The structure-activity relationship of the compound is also investigated by conceptual DFT methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Lande gJ - factors of La I levels using laser spectroscopic methods: Complementary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) and Optogalvanic Spectroscopy (OG) were used for the investigation of the Zeeman hyperfine structures of 26 spectral lines of La I in the wavelength range between 569.7 and 665.4 nm. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. The spectra were recorded in the presence of a magnetic field of about 800G produced by a permanent magnet for two linear polarizations of the exciting laser light. As a result of the study, we determined for the first time the Landé gJ- factors of 20 levels of La I. For several other levels the Landé gJ- factors were re-investigated and determined with higher precision.

  13. UV–Vis and ATR–FTIR spectroscopic investigations of postmortem interval based on the changes in rabbit plasma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; He, Haijun; Li, Bing; Lin, Hancheng; Zhang, Yinming; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Estimating PMI is of great importance in forensic investigations. Although many methods are used to estimate the PMI, a few investigations focus on the postmortem redistribution. In this study, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) measurement combined with visual inspection indicated a regular diffusion of hemoglobin into plasma after death showing the redistribution of postmortem components in blood. Thereafter, attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the variations caused by this phenomenon. First, full-spectrum partial least-squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm combined with PLS (GA-PLS) models were constructed to predict the PMI. The performance of GA-PLS model was better than that of full-spectrum PLS model based on its root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.95) and the RMSE of prediction of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.94). The investigation on the similarity of spectra between blood plasma and formed elements also supported the role of redistribution of components in spectral changes in postmortem plasma. These results demonstrated that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with the advanced mathematical methods could serve as a convenient and reliable tool to study the redistribution of postmortem components and estimate the PMI. PMID:28753641

  14. Molecular docking and spectroscopic investigations aided by density functional theory of Parkinson's drug 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlin, Y. Sheeba; Vijayakumar, T.; Roy, S. D. D.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular geometry of Parkinson's drug 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride (Dopamine, DA) has been evaluated and compared with experimental XRD data. Molecular docking and vibrational spectral analysis of DA have been carried out using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra aided by Density Functional Theory at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). The present investigation deals with the analysis of structural and spectral features responsible for drug activities, nature of hydrogen bonding interactions of the molecule and the correlation of Parkinson's nature with its molecular structural features.

  15. Conformational, spectroscopic and nonlinear optical investigations on 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propen-1-one: a DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altürk, Sümeyye; Boukabcha, Nourdine; Benhalima, Nadia; Tamer, Ömer; Chouaih, Abdelkader; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Hamzaoui, Fodil

    2017-05-01

    The density functional theory calculations on 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propen-1-one (CPCPP) are performed by using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels. These methods along with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine optimized molecular geometries, vibrational frequencies, electronic absorption wavelengths and bonding features of CPCPP. The solvent effect on the electronic absorption properties of CPCPP is examined at polar (ethanol and water) and nonpolar (toluene and n-hexane) solvents. In order to find the most stable conformers, conformational analysis is carried out by using B3LYP level. The computed small energy gaps between HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfers occur within CPCPP. DFT calculations have been also performed to investigate the dipole moment (μ), mean polarizability (α), anisotropy of polarizability (Δα), first order static hyperpolarizability (β) for CPCPP. The obtained values show that CPCPP is an excellent candidate to nonlinear optical materials. NBO analysis has been used to investigate the bond strengths, molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT).

  16. Vibrational, NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic investigation and NLO studies on benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone using computational calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N.; Prabakar, P. C. Jobe; Ramalingam, S.; Pandian, G. V.; Anbusrinivasan, P.

    2016-04-01

    In order to investigate the vibrational, electronic and NLO characteristics of the compound; benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (BTSC), the XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV-visible spectra were recorded and were analysed with the calculated spectra by using HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The XRD results revealed that the stabilized molecular systems were confined in orthorhombic unit cell system. The cause for the change of chemical and physical properties behind the compound has been discussed makes use of Mulliken charge levels and NBO in detail. The shift of molecular vibrational pattern by the fusing of ligand; thiosemicarbazone group with benzaldehyde has been keenly observed. The occurrence of in phase and out of phase molecular interaction over the frontier molecular orbitals was determined to evaluate the degeneracy of the electronic energy levels. The thermodynamical studies of the temperature region 100-1000 K to detect the thermal stabilization of the crystal phase of the compound were investigated. The NLO properties were evaluated by the determination of the polarizability and hyperpolarizability of the compound in crystal phase. The physical stabilization of the geometry of the compound has been explained by geometry deformation analysis.

  17. Arsenic removal by Japanese oak wood biochar in aqueous solutions and well water: Investigating arsenic fate using integrated spectroscopic and microscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Shahid, Muhammad; Ok, Yong Sik; Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg; Wang, Hailong; Murtaza, Behzad; Islam, Ejazul; Farrakh Nawaz, M; Lüttge, Andreas

    2018-04-15

    In this study, we examined the sorption of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) to Japanese oak wood-derived biochar (OW-BC) in aqueous solutions, and determined its efficiency to remove As from As-contaminated well water. Results revealed that, among the four sorption isotherm models, Langmuir model showed the best fit to describe As(III) and As(V) sorption on OW-BC, with slightly greater sorption affinity for As(V) compared to As(III) (Q L =3.89 and 3.16mgg -1 ; R 2 =0.91 and 0.85, respectively). Sorption edge experiments indicated that the maximum As removal was 81% and 84% for As(III)- and As(V)-OW-BC systems at pH7 and 6, respectively, which decreased above these pH values (76-69% and 80-58%). Surface functional groups, notably OH, COOH, CO, CH 3 , were involved in As sequestration by OW-BC, suggesting the surface complexation/precipitation and/or electrostatic interaction of As on OW-BC surface. Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicated that 36% of the added As(III) was partially oxidized to As(V) in the As(III) sorption experiment, and in As(V) sorption experiment, 48% of As(V) was, albeit incompletely, reduced to As(III) on OW-BC surface. Application of OW-BC to As-contaminated well water (As: 27-144μgL -1 ; n=10) displayed that 92 to 100% of As was depleted despite in the presence of co-occurring competing anions (e.g., SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , PO 4 3- ). This study shows that OW-BC has a great potential to remove As from solution and drinking (well) water. Overall, the combination of macroscopic sorption data and integrated spectroscopic and microscopic techniques highlight that the fate of As on biochar involves complex redox transformation and association with surface functional moieties in aquatic systems, thereby providing crucial information required for implication of biochar in environmental remediation programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IR-spectroscopical investigations on the glass structure of porous and sintered compacts of colloidal silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasen, Rolf; Hornfeck, M.; Theiss, Wolfgang

    1991-08-01

    The forming and sintering of fumed silica powders is an interesting route for the preparation of large, very pure or doped silica glasses with a precise geometry. The processing from the shaping of a porous compact to the sintering of transparent silica glass can be successfully investigated with optical spectroscopy. As only the dielectric function DF (a dielectric function is the square root of the complex refractive index) characterizes the material, the vibrational bands were calculated from reflectance measurements. In compacts of fine particles, the topology cannot be neglected. Therefore, the models describing topological effects are briefly reviewed. With these model calculations it could be proven that new bands in the compacts and the significant shifts in the reflectance spectra during sintering are mainly caused by topological effects and that changes in the glass structure play only a secondary role.

  19. From the molecular structure to spectroscopic and material properties: computational investigation of a bent-core nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Greco, Cristina; Marini, Alberto; Frezza, Elisa; Ferrarini, Alberta

    2014-05-19

    We present a computational investigation of the nematic phase of the bent-core liquid crystal A131. We use an integrated approach that bridges density functional theory calculations of molecular geometry and torsional potentials to elastic properties through the molecular conformational and orientational distribution function. This unique capability to simultaneously access different length scales enables us to consistently describe molecular and material properties. We can reassign (13)C NMR chemical shifts and analyze the dependence of phase properties on molecular shape. Focusing on the elastic constants we can draw some general conclusions on the unconventional behavior of bent-core nematics and highlight the crucial role of a properly-bent shape. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Spectroscopic (far or terahertz, mid-infrared and Raman) investigation, thermal analysis and biological activity of piplartine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Karthick, T.; Joshi, B. D.; Mishra, Rashmi; Tandon, Poonam; Ayala, A. P.; Ellena, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Research in the field of medicinal plants including Piper species like long pepper (Piper longum L.- Piperaceae) is increasing all over the world due to its use in traditional and Ayurvedic medicine. Piplartine (piperlongumine, 5,6-dihydro-1-[(2E)-1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone), a biologically active alkaloid/amide was isolated from the phytochemical investigations of Piper species, as long pepper. This alkaloid has cytotoxic, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumoral, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, anti-leishmanial, and genotoxic activities, but, its anticancer property is the most promising and has been widely explored. The main purpose of the work is to present a solid state characterization of PPTN using thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopy. Quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory was also applied to investigate the molecular conformation and vibrational spectrum, which was compared with experimental results obtained by Raman scattering, far (terahertz) and mid-infrared adsorption spectroscopy. NBO analysis has been performed which predict that most intensive interactions in PPTN are the hyperconjugative interactions between n(1) N6 and π*(O1sbnd C7) having delocalization energy of 50.53 kcal/mol, Topological parameters have been analyzed using 'AIM' analysis which governs the three bond critical points (BCPs), one di-hydrogen, and four ring critical points (RCPs). MEP surface has been plotted which forecast that the most negative region is associated with the electronegative oxygen atoms (sites for nucleophilic activity). Theoretically, to confirm that the title compound has anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation activities, it was analyzed by molecular docking interactions with the corresponding target receptors. The obtained values of H-bonding parameters and binding affinity prove that its anti-cancer activity is the more prominent than the

  1. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1991-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approx. 10 meter/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this study was to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight were made in the near infrared (approx. 2 micron), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with a N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. An accuracy of approx. 5 meter/sec was achieved.

  2. Intramolecular electronic energy transfer in peptides carrying naphthalene and protoporphyrin molecules: a spectroscopic and conformational statistics investigation.

    PubMed

    Pispisa, B; Venanzi, M; Palleschi, A; Zanotti, G

    1995-10-01

    Short linear peptides, carrying an AA spacer in the backbone chain (AA = Aib or Ala), and naphthalene (N) and protoporphyrin IX (P) covalently bound to epsilon-amino groups of lysine side chains, were synthesized. The general formula is Boc-Leu-Leu-Lys(P)-(AA)n-Leu-Leu-Lys(N)-OtBu, with n = 0-2. The photophysical behavior of these compounds was investigated in water/methanol 75/25 (v/v) solution by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments. Quenching of excited naphthyl chromophore takes place by electronic energy transfer to the porphyrin ground state, and proceeds on a time scale of 3-8 ns, while a minor and slower (approximately 45 ns) fluorescence lifetime measures the decay of the exciplexes. The results were compared with those earlier obtained with the P(Ala)nN peptides (n = 0-4) in methanol solution, showing that addition of water does not significantly alter the dynamic relaxation behavior of the systems investigated, but affects the dissipation mechanism of the energy transferred to P. Quenching efficiencies from both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime measurements follow a different trend as the number of AA units increases, depending on whether AA = Aib or Ala, indicating that there are differences in the structural features of the two series of peptides. Consistently, CD spectral results suggest that the former compounds attain ordered conformations, possibly of the 3(10)-helical type, while the latter populate alpha-helical structures to an extent depending on the chain length. The ir data in dilute CD3OD or CDCl3 solution confirm this conclusion in that there is an increased percentage of intramolecular H bonds in the P(Aib)nN as compared to the corresponding P(Ala)nN peptides. The photophysical results can be well described by a long-range dipole-dipole interaction model, provided the separation distances distribution and mutual orientation of N and P groups are taken into account. The need of using the angular

  3. Spectroscopic properties and radiation damage investigation of a diamond based Schottky diode for ion-beam therapy microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, C.; Magrin, G.; Solevi, P.; Grilj, V.; Jakšić, M.; Mayer, R.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a detailed analysis of the properties of a novel microdosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond is reported. Focused ion microbeams were used to investigate the device spectropscopic properties as well as the induced radiation damage effects. A diamond based Schottky diode was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition with a very thin detecting region, about 400 nm thick (approximately 1.4 μm water equivalent thickness), corresponding to the typical size in microdosimetric measurements. A 200 × 200 μm2 square metallic contact was patterned on the diamond surface by standard photolithography to define the sensitive area. Experimental measurements were carried out at the Ruder Bo\\vskovic' Institute microbeam facility using 4 MeV carbon and 5 MeV silicon ions. Ion beam induced charge maps were employed to characterize the microdosimeter response in terms of its charge collection properties. A stable response with no evidence of polarization or memory effects was observed up to the maximum investigated ion beam flux of about 1.7 × 109 ions.cm-2.s-1. A homogeneity of the response about 6% was found over the sensitive region with a well-defined confinement of the response within the active area. Tests of the radiation damage effect were performed by selectively irradiating small areas of the device with different ion fluences, up to about 1012 ions/cm2. An exponential decrease of the charge collection efficiency was observed with a characteristic decay constant of about 4.8 MGy and 1 MGy for C and Si ions, respectively. The experimental data were analyzed by means of GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. A direct correlation between the diamond damaging effect and the Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) fraction was found. In particular, an exponential decay of the charge collection efficiency with an exponential decay as a function of NIEL is observed, with a characteristic constant of about 9.3 kGy-NIEL for both carbon and silicon ions.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation on sonodynamic and sonocatalytic damage of BSA molecules by Thymol Blue (TB) derivants under ultrasonic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Chen, Dandan; Li, Ying; Gao, Jingqun; Wang, Baoxin

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the Thymol Blue derivants including Thymol Blue (thymolsulfonphthalein), Thymol Blue-DA (3,3‧-Bis [N,N-bis (carboxymethyl) aminomethyl] thymolsulfonphthalein) and Thymol Blue-DA-Fe(III) (3,3‧-Bis [N,N-bis (carboxymethyl) aminomethyl] thymolsulfonphthalein-Ferrous(III)) were adopted as sonosensitizers to study the sonodynamic and sonocatalytic activities under ultrasonic irradiation. At first, the interaction of Thymol Blue derivants with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. On that basis, the sonodynamic and sonocatalytic damages of Thymol Blue derivants to BSA under ultrasonic irradiation were investigated by the combination of UV-vis, circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, some influenced factors (ultrasonic irradiation time, Thymol Blue derivants concentration and ionic strength) on the damaging degree of BSA molecules were also reviewed. In addition, synchronous fluorescence spectra were used to estimate the binding and damage sites of Thymol Blue derivants to BSA. Finally, the generation of ROS during sonodynamic and sonocatalytic processes was confirmed by the method of Oxidation-Extraction Spectrometry (OEP). Perhaps, this paper may offer some important subjects for the study of Thymol Blue derivants in sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and sonocatalytic therapy (SCT) technologies for tumor treatment and the effect of the amino acid and central metal.

  5. Vibrational and spectroscopic investigation on the structure of 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azipine-5-carboxamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Renuga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra of 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide were recorded in the regions 4000-100 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1 respectively in the solid phase. 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide is typically used for the treatment of seizure disorders and neuropathic pain. The equilibrium geometry harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities were calculated by density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated Potential energy distribution (PED). The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above methods and basis set. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide is reported. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using DFT quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The observed and calculated wave numbers are found to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra.

  6. Metal (II) Complexes Derived from Naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and Diacetylmonoxime Schiff Base: Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Electrochemical, and Biological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sumathi, R. B.; Halli, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    A new Schiff base and a new series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes were synthesized by the condensation of naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and diacetylmonoxime. Metal complexes of the Schiff base were prepared from their chloride salts of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) in ethanol. The ligand along with its metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical data, IR, electronic, mass, 1HNMR, ESR spectral data, thermal studies, magnetic susceptibility, and molar conductance measurements. The nonelectrolytic behaviour of the complexes was assessed from the measured low conductance data. The elemental analysis of the complexes confirm the stoichiometry of the type CuL2Cl2 and MLCl2 where M = Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) and L = Schiff base. The redox property of the Cu(II) complex was investigated by electrochemical method using cyclic voltammetry. In the light of these results, Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes are assigned octahedral geometry, Cd(II), and Hg(II) complexes tetrahedral geometry. In order to evaluate the effect of metal ions upon chelation, both the ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleaving capacity of all the complexes was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:24592203

  7. Synthesis, geometry optimization, spectroscopic investigations (UV/Vis, excited states, FT-IR) and application of new azomethine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Sheikhi, Masoome; Filippovich, Liudmila; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikusar, Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the quantum theoretical calculations of the molecular structures of the four new synthesized azomethine dyes such as: (E)-N-(4-butoxybenzylidene)-4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)aniline (PAZB-6), (E)-N-(4-(benzyloxy)benzylidene)-4-((E))-phenyldiazenyl)aniline (PAZB-7), 4-((E)-4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (PAZB-8), (E)-N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-((E))-phenyldiazenyl)aniline (PAZB-9) have been predicted using Density Functional Theory in the solvent Dimethylformamide. The geometries of the azomethine dyes were optimized by PBE1PBE/6-31+G* level of theory. The electronic spectra of the title compounds in the solvent DMF was carried out by TDPBE1PBE/6-31+G* method. FT-IR spectra of the title compounds are recorded and discussed. Frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, electronic properties, natural charges and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of the mentioned compounds were investigated and discussed by theoretical calculations. The azomethine dyes were synthesized after quantum chemical modeling for optical applications. A new study of anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the colored stretched PVA-films have been undertaken.

  8. Investigations on the interactions of aurintricarboxylic acid with bovine serum albumin: Steady state/time resolved spectroscopic and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Munmun; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the nature of the interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) has been investigated by measuring steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), FT-IR and fluorescence anisotropy in protein environment under physiological conditions. From the analysis of the steady state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching of BSA in aqueous solution in presence of ATA it has been inferred that the nature of the quenching originates from the combined effect of static and dynamic modes. From the determination of the thermodynamic parameters obtained from temperature-dependent changes in K(b) (binding constant) it was apparent that the combined effect of hydrophobic association and electrostatic attraction is responsible for the interaction of ATA with BSA. The effect of ATA on the conformation of BSA has been examined by analyzing CD spectrum. Though the observed results demonstrate some conformational changes in BSA in presence of ATA but the secondary structure of BSA, predominantly of α-helix, is found to retain its identity. Molecular docking of ATA with BSA also indicates that ATA docks through hydrophobic interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Macroscopic and spectroscopic investigations of the adsorption of nitroaromatic compounds on graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Baoliang

    2015-05-19

    The surface properties and adsorption mechanisms of graphene materials are important for potential environmental applications. The adsorption of m-dinitrobenzene, nitrobenzene, and p-nitrotoluene onto graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and graphene (G) nanosheets was investigated using IR spectroscopy to probe the molecular interactions of graphene materials with nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). The hydrophilic GO displayed the weakest adsorption capability. The adsorption of RGO and G was significantly increased due to the recovery of hydrophobic π-conjugation carbon atoms as active sites. RGO nanosheets, which had more defect sites than did GO or G nanosheets, resulted in the highest adsorption of NACs which was 10-50 times greater than the reported adsorption of carbon nanotubes. Superior adsorption was dominated by various interaction modes including π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions between the π-electron-deficient phenyls of the NACs and the π-electron-rich matrix of the graphene nanosheets, and the charge electrostatic and polar interactions between the defect sites of graphene nanosheets and the -NO2 of the NAC. The charge transfer was initially proved by FTIR that a blue shift of asymmetric -NO2 stretching was observed with a concomitant red shift of symmetric -NO2 stretching after m-dinitrobenzene was adsorbed. The multiple interaction mechanisms of the adsorption of NAC molecule onto flat graphene nanosheets favor the adsorption, detection, and transformation of explosives.

  10. Investigation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot interactions via spectroscopic methods and effects on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S K

    2015-01-05

    The paper presents the interactions between trypsin and water soluble cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots investigated by spectrophotometric methods. CdSe quantum dots have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin by a static quenching mechanism. The quenching has been studied at three different temperatures where the results revealed that electrostatic interactions exist between CdSe quantum dots and trypsin and are responsible to stabilize the complex. The Scatchard plot from quenching revealed 1 binding site for quantum dots by trypsin, the same has been confirmed by making isothermal titrations of quantum dots against trypsin. The distance between donor and acceptor for trypsin-CdSe quantum dot complexes is calculated to be 2.8 nm by energy transfer mechanisms. The intrinsic fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots has also been enhanced by the trypsin, and is linear for concentration of trypsin ranging 1-80 μl. All the observations evidence the formation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot conjugates, where trypsin retains the enzymatic activity which in turn is temperature and pH dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectroscopic and molecular docking approaches for investigating conformation and binding characteristics of clonazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Lou, Yan-Yue; Zhou, Kai-Li; Pan, Dong-Qi; Shen, Jia-Le; Shi, Jie-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Clonazepam, a type of benzodiazepine, is a classical drug used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, movement disorder, among others. For further clarifying the distribution of clonazepam in vivo and the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms, the binding interaction between clonazepam and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking methods. The results well confirmed that clonazepam bound on the subdomain III A (Site II) of BSA through van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction, and quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching process. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K b ) of clonazepam-BSA complex were about 1 and 7.94×10 4 M -1 at 308K, respectively. The binding process of clonazepam with BSA was spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process due to ΔG 0 <0 and|ΔH 0 |>T|ΔS 0 | over the studied temperature range. Meanwhile, the binding interaction of clonazepam with BSA resulted in the slight change in the conformation of BSA and the obvious change in the conformation of clonazepam, implying that the flexibility of clonazepam also played an important role in increasing the stability of the clonazepam-BSA complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Deamidation of Protonated Asparagine-Valine Investigated by a Combined Spectroscopic, Guided Ion Beam, and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Kempkes, L J M; Boles, G C; Martens, J; Berden, G; Armentrout, P B; Oomens, J

    2018-03-08

    Peptide deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a spontaneous post-translational modification that is believed to play a role in aging and several diseases. It is also a well-known small-molecule loss channel in the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides. Here we investigate the deamidation reaction, as well as other decomposition pathways, of the protonated dipeptide asparagine-valine ([AsnVal + H] + ) upon low-energy activation in a mass spectrometer. Using a combination of infrared ion spectroscopy, guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, and theoretical calculations, we have been able to identify product ion structures and determine the energetics and mechanisms for decomposition. Deamidation proceeds via ammonia loss from the asparagine side chain, initiated by a nucleophilic attack of the peptide bond oxygen on the γ-carbon of the Asn side chain. This leads to the formation of a furanone ring containing product ion characterized by a threshold energy of 129 ± 5 kJ/mol (15 kJ/mol higher in energy than dehydration of [AsnVal + H] + , the lowest energy dissociation channel available to the system). Competing formation of a succinimide ring containing product, as has been observed for protonated asparagine-glycine ([AsnGly + H] + ) and asparagine-alanine ([AsnAla + H] + ), was not observed here. Quantum-chemical modeling of the reaction pathways confirms these subtle differences in dissociation behavior. Measured reaction thresholds are in agreement with predicted theoretical reaction energies computed at several levels of theory.

  13. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling approaches to investigate the interaction of bisphenol A, bisphenol F and their diglycidyl ethers with PPARα.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Tiehua; Guan, Tianzhu; Ruan, Ping; Ren, Dayong; Dai, Weichang; Yu, Hansong; Li, Tiezhu

    2017-08-01

    A fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) was developed. The method was based on the competition between bisphenols (BPs) and fluorescein-labeled dexamethasone derivative (Dex-fl) for mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand binding domain (mPPARα-LBD). A recombinant soluble protein derivative mPPARα-LBD* was prepared, then in vitro binding of 4 BPs to mPPARα-LBD* was investigated. Fluorescence polarization assay showed that these compounds exhibited different binding potencies with mPPARα-LBD*. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to further understand the mechanism of BPs binding affinity for mPPARα-LBD*. Docking results elucidated that the driving forces for the binding of BPs to mPPARα-LBD* were predominantly dependent on hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Comparison of the calculated binding energies vs. experimental binding affinities yielded a good correlation (R 2  = 0.7258). The proposed method has potential for multi-residue detection of BPA, BPF, BADGE, and BFDGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface chemistry changes and microstructure evaluation of low density nanocluster polyethylene under natural weathering: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, M.; Khenfouch, M.; Rjeb, A.; Sayouri, S.; Houssaini, D. S.; Darhouri, M.; Srinivasu, VV

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylene is the most commonly used plastic in daily life, covering wide areas of application e.g. this polymer is used as a greenhouses covering material. This article investigates the effect of photo-oxidation on commercial unstabilised Low Density Polyethylene (uLDPE), as result of outdoor weathering factors. In this study, the samples were exposed for four months to the natural weather. The physico-chemical effects of natural ageing were studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy to elucidate the chemical composition, the nature of chemical bonds established and further to interrogate the changes that occur on the surface of the uLDPE samples. The main chemical change of uLDPE results in the formation of different kinds of carbonyl and vinyl groups identifiable in the ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra. The degree of crystallinity for these samples was calculated in terms of time exposure. An increase in the degree of crystallinity due to chemicrystallization was observed, which we indicative of the occurrences of chain scission. During outdoor exposure it was found that the photo-oxidation results in the formation of chain scission occurrences via Norrish type II reactions.

  15. Structure investigation of three hydrazones Schiff's bases by spectroscopic, thermal and molecular orbital calculations and their biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Arafa A. M.; Zayed, M. A.; El-Desawy, M.; Rakha, Sh. M. A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Three Schiff's bases AI (2(1-hydrazonoethyl)phenol), AII (2, 4-dibromo 6-(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) and AIII (2(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) were prepared as new hydrazone compounds via condensation reactions with molar ratio (1:1) of reactants. Firstly by reaction of 2-hydroxy acetophenone solution and hydrazine hydrate; it gives AI. Secondly condensation between 3,5-dibromo-salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AII. Thirdly condensation between salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AIII. The structures of AI-AIII were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), mass (MS), FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra, and thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA). The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, ΔE∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were calculated from the TG curves using Coats-Redfern method. It is important to investigate their molecular structures to know the active groups and weak bond responsible for their biological activities. Consequently in the present work, the obtained thermal (TA) and mass (MS) practical results are confirmed by semi-empirical MO-calculations (MOCS) using PM3 procedure. Their biological activities have been tested in vitro against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillissubtilies and Staphylococcus aurous bacteria in order to assess their anti-microbial potential.

  16. Fitting by Orthonormal Polynomials of Silver Nanoparticles Spectroscopic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, Nina; Koleva, Mihaela

    2018-02-01

    Our original Orthonormal Polynomial Expansion Method (OPEM) in one-dimensional version is applied for first time to describe the silver nanoparticles (NPs) spectroscopic data. The weights for approximation include experimental errors in variables. In this way we construct orthonormal polynomial expansion for approximating the curve on a non equidistant point grid. The corridors of given data and criteria define the optimal behavior of searched curve. The most important subinterval of spectra data is investigated, where the minimum (surface plasmon resonance absorption) is looking for. This study describes the Ag nanoparticles produced by laser approach in a ZnO medium forming a AgNPs/ZnO nanocomposite heterostructure.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of vitamin E models in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. B. A.; Colherinhas, G.; Fonseca, T. L.; Castro, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the first absorption band and the 13C and 17O magnetic shieldings of vitamin E models in chloroform and in water using the S-MC/QM methodology in combination with the TD-DFT and GIAO approaches. The results show that the solvent effects on these spectroscopic properties are small but a proper description of the solvent shift for 17O magnetic shielding of the hydroxyl group in water requires the use of explicit solute-solvent hydrogen bonds. In addition, the effect of the replacement of hydrogen atoms by methyl groups in the vitamin E models only affects magnetic shieldings.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of the ethyl radical-water complex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Finney, Brian A; Laufer, Allan H; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2016-10-14

    An ab initio investigation has been employed to determine the structural and spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, vertical excitation energies, and the stability of the ethyl-water complex. The ethyl-water complex has a binding energy of 1.15 kcal⋅mol -1 . The interaction takes place between the hydrogen of water and the unpaired electron of the radical. This interaction is found to produce a red shift in the OH stretching bands of water of ca. 84 cm -1 , and a shift of all UV absorption bands to higher energies.

  19. Binding of naringin and naringenin with hen egg white lysozyme: A spectroscopic investigation and molecular docking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sourav; Ghosh, Pooja; Koley, Sudipta; Singha Roy, Atanu

    2018-03-01

    The interactions of naringenin (NG) and naringin (NR) with Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) in aqueous medium have been investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking analyses. Both NG and NR can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HEWL via static quenching mechanism. At 300 K, the value of binding constant (Kb) of HEWL-NG complex (5.596 ± 0.063 × 104 M- 1) was found to be greater than that of HEWL-NR complex (3.404 ± 0.407 × 104 M- 1). The negative ΔG° values in cases of both the complexes specify the spontaneous binding. The binding distance between the donor (HEWL) and acceptor (NG/NR) was estimated using the Försters theory and the possibility of non-radiative energy transfer from HEWL to NG/NR was observed. The presence of metal ions (Ca2 +, Cu2 + and Fe2 +) decreased the binding affinity of NG/NR towards HEWL. Synchronous fluorescence studies indicate the change in Trp micro-environment due to the incorporation of NG/NR into HEWL. CD and FT-IR studies indicated that the α-helicity of the HEWL was slightly enhanced due to ligand binding. NG and NR inhibited the enzymatic activity of HEWL and exhibited their affinity for the active site of HEWL. Molecular docking studies revealed that both NG and NR bind in the close vicinity of Trp 62 and Trp 63 residues which is vital for the catalytic activity.

  20. Spectroscopic Characterization, Computational Investigation, and Comparisons of ECX – (E = As, P, and N; X = S and O) Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Gao-Lei; Chen, Bo; Transue, Wesley J.

    Three newly-synthesized [Na+(221-kryptofix)] salts containing AsCO–, PCO–, and PCS– anions were successfully electrosprayed into the vacuum, and the ECX– (E = As, P; X = O, S) anions were investigated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and high resolution photoelectron imaging spectroscopy. For each ECX– anion, a well-resolved NIPE spectrum was obtained, in which every major peak is split into a doublet. The splittings are attributed to spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the ECX• radicals. Vibrational progressions in the NIPE spectra of ECX– were assigned to the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes in ECX• radicals. The electron affinities (EAs) and SOCmore » splittings of ECX• are determined from the NIPE spectra to be: AsCO•: EA = 2.414 ± 0.002 eV, SOC splitting = 988 cm-1; PCO•: EA = 2.670 ± 0.005 eV, SOC splitting = 175 cm-1; PCS•: EA = 2.850 ± 0.005 eV, SOC splitting = 300 cm-1. Calculations using the B3LYP, CASPT2, and CCSD(T) methods all predict linear geometries for both the anions and neutral radicals. The calculated EAs and SOC splittings for ECX• are in excellent agreement with the experimentally-measured values. The simulated NIPE spectra, based on the calculated Franck-Condon factors, and SOC splittings nicely reproduce all of the observed spectral peaks, thus allowing unambiguous spectral assignments. The finding that PCS has the greatest EA of the three triatomic molecules considered here is counterintuitive based upon electronegativity considerations, but understandable in terms of the HOMO of PCS– having the greatest degree of delocalization onto both terminal atoms.« less

  1. Chemical and spectroscopic investigation of the Raphael's cartoon of the School of Athens from the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioele, Marcella; Sodo, Armida; Casanova Municchia, Annalaura; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Russo, Alfonso Pio

    2016-12-01

    The cartoon of "The School of Athens", realized by the famous artist Raffaello Sanzio, is a masterpiece of Italian Renaissance. It is a full-scale (804 × 285 cm2) preparatory cartoon, stored at the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana (Milan, Italy). In order to characterize the cartoon and the drawing and to investigate its conservation state, several scientific analyses have been performed, both in situ and on sampled fragments. This multi-analytical approach has identified most of the materials used in the original drawing and in restored areas and provided a map of previous restoration works. Here we report the results obtained by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDS), pH measurements and micro-chemical tests. pH measurements proved the absence of an acidic decay of the paper. The original paper from linen and hemp fibres is well preserved. It is filled with calcium carbonate and has received a light sizing with protein glue, now almost completely transformed into oxalates. 1797 French intervention paper is of lower quality and has been covered with a patina of lead white in Arabic gum, most likely in an attempt to match the colour to the tone of the original. Both papers are stuck to a support paper with flour glue (containing starch and gluten) and glued with the same adhesive to a canvas lining. In situ Raman spectroscopy has clearly shown that the original drawing was in charcoal and lead white, while the restored areas have been drawn using charcoal and graphite.

  2. Internal structural changes in keratin fibres resulting from combined hair waving and stress relaxation treatments: a Raman spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Kuzuhara, A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our research was to investigate the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, stress relaxation and oxidation) on hair keratin fibres. The structure of cross-sections at various depths of virgin white human hair resulting from permanent waving treatments with stress relaxation process was directly analysed at a molecular level using Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the three disulphide (-SS-) conformations in human hair were compared by S-S band analysis. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) and gauche-gauche-trans (GGT) contents of -SS- groups remarkably decreased, while the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) content was not changed by performing the reduction process with thioglycolic acid. In addition, the high-temperature stress relaxation process after reduction accelerated the disconnection of -SS- (GGG and GGT) groups in the human hair, while the low-temperature stress relaxation process after reduction accelerated the reconnection of -SS- (GGG and GGT) groups. Moreover, the S-O band intensity at 1042 cm(-1) , assigned to cysteic acid, existing in the cuticle region and the surface of the cortex region increased, while the GGG content significantly decreased by performing the oxidation process after the reduction and the high-temperature stress relaxation processes. The author concluded that the high-temperature relaxation process after reduction accelerated the disconnection of -SS- (GGG and GGT) groups, thereby leading to the remarkable local molecular disorganization (an increase in the cysteic acid content and a decrease in the GGG content) on the cuticle and cortex cells during the oxidation process. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. An Electrochemical, Microtopographical and Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Investigation of Si/TiO 2/Ni/Electrolyte Interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Lichterman, Michael F.; Richter, Matthias H.; Hu, Shu; ...

    2015-12-05

    The electrical and spectroscopic properties of the TiO 2/Ni protection layer system, which enables stabilization of otherwise corroding photoanodes, have been investigated in contact with electrolyte solutions by scanning-probe microscopy, electrochemistry and in-situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). Specifically, the energy-band relations of the p +-Si/ALD-TiO 2/Ni interface have been determined for a selected range of Ni thicknesses. AP-XPS measurements using tender X-rays were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical arrangement under potentiostatic control to obtain information from the semiconductor near-surface region, the electrochemical double layer (ECDL) and the electrolyte beyond the ECDL. The degree of conductivity depended on themore » chemical state of the Ni on the TiO 2 surface. At low loadings of Ni, the Ni was present primarily as an oxide layer and the samples were not conductive, although the TiO 2 XPS core levels nonetheless displayed behavior indicative of a metal-electrolyte junction. In contrast, as the Ni thickness increased, the Ni phase was primarily metallic and the electrochemical behavior became highly conductive, with the AP-XPS data indicative of a metal-electrolyte junction. Electrochemical and microtopographical methods have been employed to better define the nature of the TiO 2/Ni electrodes and to contextualize the AP-XPS results.« less

  4. Spectroscopic investigations on the simulated solar light induced photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol by using three novel copper(II) porphyrin-TiO2 photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiang-fei; Sun, Wan-jun; Li, Jun; Xu, Wei-xia; Zhang, Feng-xing

    2013-07-01

    Three porphyrins containing different functional groups (-OH, C-O2C2H5, -COOH), 5-(4-hydroxy) phenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (1a), 5-(4-ethylacetatatomethoxy) phenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (1b), 5-(4-carboxylatomethoxy) phenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (1c), were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The CuPp(2a, 2b, 2c)-TiO2 photocatalysts were then prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts were investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol in aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation. It was found that the CuPp(2a, 2b, 2c)-TiO2 enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency of bare TiO2 in photodegrading the 4-NP due to the interaction between CuPp(2a, 2b, 2c) and TiO2, resulted in the enhancement of the photogenerated electron-hole separation. The reasons of this enhanced photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Based on the present study, it could be considered as a promising photocatalyst for the further industrial application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring water contents in animal organ tissues using terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyumin; Jeoung, Kiyong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ji, Young-Bin; Son, Hyeyoung; Choi, Yuna; Huh, Young-Min; Suh, Jin-Suck; Oh, Seung Jae

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the water contents in several organ tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain tissue of rats using the terahertz spectroscopic imaging technique. The water contents of the tissues were determined by using a simple equation containing the absorption coefficients of fresh and lyophilized tissues and water. We compared the measured water contents with the difference in mass of tissues before and after lyophilization. All results showed a good match except for the kidney, which has several Bowman's capsules.

  6. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of cysteine capped CuS nanoparticles with tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Prasanth, S.; Raj, D. Rithesh; Kumar, T. V. Vineesh

    2015-06-24

    Biocompatible cysteine coated CuS nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple aqueous solution method. Hexagonal phase of the samples were confirmed from X-ray diffraction and particle size found to be 9 nm. The possible interaction between the bioactive cysteine capped CuS nanoparticles and tyrosine were investigated using spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is observed that the luminescence intensity of tyrosine molecule enhanced by the addition CuS nanoparticles.

  7. Spectroscopic study of intermolecular complexes between FAD and some β-carboline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codoñer, Armando; Monzó, Isidro S.; Tomás, Francisco; Valero, Rosa

    The formation of molecular complexes between flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and some β-carboline derivatives [antidepressant drugs that have a pronounced inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO)] has been studied by using electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Thermodynamic parameters have been determined from the values of association constants for the molecular complexes at various temperatures. The influence of substituents in the β-carboline molecule on the stability of the complexes formed was also investigated.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of water in supercritical CO2 and the effect of CaCl2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the dissolution and chemical interaction of water dissolved into supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and the influence of CaCl2 in the co-existing aqueous phase at fo empe e : 40 50 75 nd 100 C at 90 atm. Consistent with the trend of the vapor pressure of water, the solubility of pure water in scCO2 inc e ed f om 40 °C (0.32 mole%) o 100 °C (1.61 mole%). The presence of CaCl2 negatively affects the solubility of water in scCO2: at a given temperature and pressure the solubility of water decreased as themore » concentration of CaCl2 in the aqueous phase increased, following the trend of the activity of water. A 40 °C, the water concentration in scCO2 in contact with saturated CaCl2 aqueous solution was only 0.16 mole%, a drop of more than 50% as compared to pure water while that a 100 °C was 1.12 mole%, a drop of over 30% as compared to pure water, under otherwise the same conditions. Analysis of the spectral profiles suggested that water dissolved into scCO2 exists in the monomeric form under the evaluated temperature and pressure conditions, for both neat water and CaCl2 solutions. However, its rotational degrees of freedom decrease at lower temperatures due to higher fluid densities, leading to formation of weak H2O:CO2 Lewis acid-base complexes. Similarly, the nearly invariant spectral profiles of dissolved water in the presence and absence of saturated CaCl2 under the same experimental conditions was taken as evidence that CaCl2 dissolution in scCO2 was limited as the dissolved Ca2+/CaCl2 would likely be highly hydrated and would alter the overall spectra of waters in the scCO2 phase.« less

  9. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  10. Accurate quantum yields by laser gain vs absorption spectroscopy - Investigation of Br/Br(asterisk) channels in photofragmentation of Br2 and IBr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugen, H. K.; Weitz, E.; Leone, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Various techniques have been used to study photodissociation dynamics of the halogens and interhalogens. The quantum yields obtained by these techniques differ widely. The present investigation is concerned with a qualitatively new approach for obtaining highly accurate quantum yields for electronically excited states. This approach makes it possible to obtain an accuracy of 1 percent to 3 percent. It is shown that measurement of the initial transient gain/absorption vs the final absorption in a single time-resolved signal is a very accurate technique in the study of absolute branching fractions in photodissociation. The new technique is found to be insensitive to pulse and probe laser characteristics, molecular absorption cross sections, and absolute precursor density.

  11. New derivatives of (E,E)-azomethines: Design, quantum chemical modeling, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV/Vis, polarization) studies, synthesis and their applications: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhi, Masoome; Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Yahyaei, Hooriye; Dikusar, Evgenij; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh

    2018-01-01

    In present work, Polarization, Excited States, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, Trans-Cis (E → Z) Isomerization Properties and Anisotropy of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of the three new Azomethines dyes such as: 4-((E)-((4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)imino)methyl)benzoic acid (I), 5-phenyl-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)isoxazole-3-carboxamide (II) and (Z)-1-(4-((E)-((4-phenylcyclopenta-1,4-dien-1-yl)methylene)amino)phenyl)ethanone oxime (III) in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were studied. The absorption spectrum of the I, II and III in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution was calculated. The nature of absorption peaks of the dyes in the UV/Vis spectral regions was interpreted. The molecular HOMO-LUMO, excitation energies and oscillator strengths for E and Z isomers of the I, II and III have also been calculated and presented. Optical Properties of the PVA-films containing these new synthesized dyes have investigated. Polarizing Efficiency (PE) of obtained PVA-film is 97-98% at Stretching Degree (Rs) 3.5. Anisotropy of thermal and electrical conductivity of the PVA-films containing the title compounds was also measured and discussed.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the molecular structure, spectroscopic and electric properties of 2,4-dinitrodiphenylamine, 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline and 4-bromo-2-nitroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Paredes, Javier; Hernández-Negrete, Ofelia; Carrillo-Torres, Roberto C.; Sánchez-Zeferino, Raúl; Duarte-Moller, Alberto; Alvarez-Ramos, Mario E.

    2015-10-01

    2,4-Dinitrodiphenylamine (I), 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline (II) and 4-bromo-2-nitroaniline (III) have been investigated by DFT and experimental FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The gas-phase molecular geometries were consistent with similar compounds already reported in the literature. From the vibrational analysis, the main functional groups were identified and their absorption bands were assigned. Some differences were found between the calculated and the experimental UV-Vis spectra. These differences were analyzed and explained in terms of the TD-DFT/B3LYP limitations, which were mainly attributed to charge-transfer (CT) effects. These findings were in agreement with previous works, which reported that TD-DFT/B3LYP calculations diverge from experimental results when the electronic transitions involve CT. Despite this, TD-DFT/B3LYP calculations provided satisfactory results and a detailed description of the electronic transitions involved in the absorption bands of the UV-Vis spectra. In terms of the NLO properties, it was found that compound (I) is a good candidate for NLO applications and deserves further study due to its good β values. However, the β values for compounds (II) and (III) were negatively affected compared to those found on o-nitroaniline.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the molecular structure, spectroscopic and electric properties of 2,4-dinitrodiphenylamine, 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline and 4-bromo-2-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Paredes, Javier; Hernández-Negrete, Ofelia; Carrillo-Torres, Roberto C; Sánchez-Zeferino, Raúl; Duarte-Moller, Alberto; Alvarez-Ramos, Mario E

    2015-10-05

    2,4-Dinitrodiphenylamine (I), 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline (II) and 4-bromo-2-nitroaniline (III) have been investigated by DFT and experimental FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The gas-phase molecular geometries were consistent with similar compounds already reported in the literature. From the vibrational analysis, the main functional groups were identified and their absorption bands were assigned. Some differences were found between the calculated and the experimental UV-Vis spectra. These differences were analyzed and explained in terms of the TD-DFT/B3LYP limitations, which were mainly attributed to charge-transfer (CT) effects. These findings were in agreement with previous works, which reported that TD-DFT/B3LYP calculations diverge from experimental results when the electronic transitions involve CT. Despite this, TD-DFT/B3LYP calculations provided satisfactory results and a detailed description of the electronic transitions involved in the absorption bands of the UV-Vis spectra. In terms of the NLO properties, it was found that compound (I) is a good candidate for NLO applications and deserves further study due to its good β values. However, the β values for compounds (II) and (III) were negatively affected compared to those found on o-nitroaniline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1998-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  15. NIR spectroscopic investigation of m. vastus lateralis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies as detected by respirometric investigation of mitochondrial function in skinned fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellerich, Frank N.; Mueller, Tobias; Nioka, Shoko; Hertel, Katrin; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm J.; Zierz, Stephan; Chance, Britton

    1997-12-01

    Noninvasive measurement of changes in oxygenation of human skeletal muscle can be done with a dual-wavelength near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer. This allows a noninvasive investigation of muscle mitochondria. An exercise protocol was developed to study the load dependent changes in oxygenation of m. vastus lateralis of myopathic patients. On a bicycle ergometer exercise was done periodically. One period consisted of 1.5 min exercise followed by 3 min rest. Work load in the first period was 20 W, and was increased by 10 W for each subsequent period until maximal work load was reached. In 12 healthy volunteers we observed oxygenation of muscle during periods of low work load (warm-up effect). During periods of high work load the muscle deoxygenated. The work load at transition from oxygenation to deoxygenation (deoxygenation threshold) in controls was 75 W. In 3 patients with myopathies, in addition to NIR- spectroscopy, function of mitochondria of specimen of m. vastus lateralis was investigated biochemically. Muscle fibers were skinned with saponin and investigated with high resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-inhibitor- titration. Mitochondrial function was impaired in patients who had abnormal findings in NIR spectroscopy.

  16. Identification and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nonheme Iron(III) Hypochlorite Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Draksharapu, Apparao; Angelone, Davide; Quesne, Matthew G; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gómez, Laura; Hage, Ronald; Costas, Miquel; Browne, Wesley R; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-03-27

    Fe III -hypohalite complexes have been implicated in a wide range of important enzyme-catalyzed halogenation reactions including the biosynthesis of natural products and antibiotics and post-translational modification of proteins. The absence of spectroscopic data on such species precludes their identification. Herein, we report the generation and spectroscopic characterization of nonheme Fe III -hypohalite intermediates of possible relevance to iron halogenases. We show that Fe III -OCl polypyridylamine complexes can be sufficiently stable at room temperature to be characterized by UV/Vis absorption, resonance Raman and EPR spectroscopies, and cryo-ESIMS. DFT methods rationalize the pathways to the formation of the Fe III -OCl, and ultimately Fe IV =O, species and provide indirect evidence for a short-lived Fe II -OCl intermediate. The species observed and the pathways involved offer insight into and, importantly, a spectroscopic database for the investigation of iron halogenases.

  17. Identification and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nonheme Iron(III) Hypochlorite Intermediates**

    PubMed Central

    Draksharapu, Apparao; Angelone, Davide; Quesne, Matthew G; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gómez, Laura; Hage, Ronald; Costas, Miquel; Browne, Wesley R; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-01-01

    FeIII–hypohalite complexes have been implicated in a wide range of important enzyme-catalyzed halogenation reactions including the biosynthesis of natural products and antibiotics and post-translational modification of proteins. The absence of spectroscopic data on such species precludes their identification. Herein, we report the generation and spectroscopic characterization of nonheme FeIII–hypohalite intermediates of possible relevance to iron halogenases. We show that FeIII-OCl polypyridylamine complexes can be sufficiently stable at room temperature to be characterized by UV/Vis absorption, resonance Raman and EPR spectroscopies, and cryo-ESIMS. DFT methods rationalize the pathways to the formation of the FeIII-OCl, and ultimately FeIV=O, species and provide indirect evidence for a short-lived FeII-OCl intermediate. The species observed and the pathways involved offer insight into and, importantly, a spectroscopic database for the investigation of iron halogenases. PMID:25663379

  18. Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional π-acceptors: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional π-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the π-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (ɛCT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (ΔGo), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

  19. Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka

    2008-01-01

    A new type of DVD spectroscope, the periscope type, is described and the numerical analysis of the observed emission and absorption spectra is demonstrated. A small and thin mirror is put inside and an eighth part of a DVD is used as a grating. Using this improved DVD spectroscope, one can observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and…

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. M.; Driver, S. P.; Brough, S.; Owers, M. S.; Bauer, A. E.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Cluver, M. E.; Colless, M.; Foster, C.; Lara-López, M. A.; Roseboom, I.; Sharp, R.; Steele, O.; Thomas, D.; Baldry, I. K.; Brown, M. J. I.; Liske, J.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Bamford, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M.; Peacock, J. A.; Tuffs, R.; Agius, N.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrae, E.; Cameron, E.; Cole, S.; Ching, J. H. Y.; Christodoulou, L.; Conselice, C.; Croom, S.; Cross, N. J. G.; De Propris, R.; Delhaize, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ellis, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Graham, Alister W.; Grootes, M. W.; Häußler, B.; Heymans, C.; Hill, D.; Hoyle, B.; Hudson, M.; Jarvis, M.; Johansson, J.; Jones, D. H.; van Kampen, E.; Kelvin, L.; Kuijken, K.; López-Sánchez, Á.; Maddox, S.; Madore, B.; Maraston, C.; McNaught-Roberts, T.; Nichol, R. C.; Oliver, S.; Parkinson, H.; Penny, S.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Ponman, T.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Proctor, R.; Sadler, E. M.; Sansom, A. E.; Seibert, M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Sutherland, W.; Taylor, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Vázquez-Mata, J. A.; Warren, S.; Wijesinghe, D. B.; Wild, V.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-04-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic survey, using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain spectra for up to ˜300 000 galaxies over 280 deg2, to a limiting magnitude of rpet < 19.8 mag. The target galaxies are distributed over 0 < z ≲ 0.5 with a median redshift of z ≈ 0.2, although the redshift distribution includes a small number of systems, primarily quasars, at higher redshifts, up to and beyond z = 1. The redshift accuracy ranges from σv ≈ 50 km s-1 to σv ≈ 100 km s-1 depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum. Here we describe the GAMA spectroscopic reduction and analysis pipeline. We present the steps involved in taking the raw two-dimensional spectroscopic images through to flux-calibrated one-dimensional spectra. The resulting GAMA spectra cover an observed wavelength range of 3750 ≲ λ ≲ 8850 Å at a resolution of R ≈ 1300. The final flux calibration is typically accurate to 10-20 per cent, although the reliability is worse at the extreme wavelength ends, and poorer in the blue than the red. We present details of the measurement of emission and absorption features in the GAMA spectra. These measurements are characterized through a variety of quality control analyses detailing the robustness and reliability of the measurements. We illustrate the quality of the measurements with a brief exploration of elementary emission line properties of the galaxies in the GAMA sample. We demonstrate the luminosity dependence of the Balmer decrement, consistent with previously published results, and explore further how Balmer decrement varies with galaxy mass and redshift. We also investigate the mass and redshift dependencies of the [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ spectral diagnostic diagram, commonly used to discriminate between star forming and nuclear activity in galaxies.

  1. Cassini infrared Fourier spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunde, Virgil G.; Ade, Peter A.; Barney, Richard D.; Bergman, D.; Bonnal, Jean-Francois; Borelli, R.; Boyd, D.; Brasunas, John C.; Brown, G.; Calcutt, S. B.; Carroll, F.; Courtin, R.; Cretolle, Jacky; Crooke, Julie A.; Davis, Martin A.; Edberg, S.; Fettig, R.; Flasar, M.; Glenar, David A.; Graham, S.; Hagopian, John G.; Hakun, C. F.; Hayes, Patricia A.; Herath, L.; Horn, Linda; Jennings, Donald E.; Karpati, G.; Kellebenz, C.; Lakew, Brook; Lindsay, J.; Lohr, J.; Lyons, James J.; Martineau, Robert J.; Martino, Anthony J.; Matsumura, M.; McCloskey, J.; Melak, T.; Michel, G.; Morell, Armando; Mosier, C.; Pack, L.; Plants, M.; Robinson, D.; Rodriguez, Louis; Romani, Paul; Schaefer, W. J.; Schmidt, Steve; Trujillo, C.; Vellacott, Tim; Wagner, K.; Yun, D.

    1996-10-01

    The composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) is a remote sensing instrument to be flown on the Cassini orbiter. CIRS will retrieve vertical profiles of temperature and gas composition for the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn, from deep in their tropospheres to high in their stratospheres. CIRS will also retrieve information on the thermal properties and composition of Saturn's rings and Saturnian satellites. CIRS consists of a pair of Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) which together cover the spectral range from 10-1400 cm-1 with a spectral resolution up to 0.5 cm-1. The two interferometers share a 50 cm beryllium Cassegrain telescope. The far-infrared FTS is a polarizing interferometer covering the 10-600 cm-1 range with a pair of thermopile detectors, and a 3.9 mrad field of view. The mid-infrared FTS is a conventional Michelson interferometer covering 200-1400 cm-1 in two spectral bandpasses: 600-1100 cm- 1100-1400 cm(superscript -1 with a 1 by 10 photovoltaic HgCdTe array. Each pixel of the arrays has an approximate 0.3 mrad field of view. The HgCdTe arrays are cooled to approximately 80K with a passive radiative cooler.

  2. Laser diode absorption spectroscopy for accurate CO(2) line parameters at 2 microm: consequences for space-based DIAL measurements and potential biases.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lilian; Marnas, Fabien; Gibert, Fabien; Bruneau, Didier; Grouiez, Bruno; Flamant, Pierre H; Durry, Georges; Dumelie, Nicolas; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-10-10

    Space-based active sensing of CO(2) concentration is a very promising technique for the derivation of CO(2) surface fluxes. There is a need for accurate spectroscopic parameters to enable accurate space-based measurements to address global climatic issues. New spectroscopic measurements using laser diode absorption spectroscopy are presented for the preselected R30 CO(2) absorption line ((20(0)1)(III)<--(000) band) and four others. The line strength, air-broadening halfwidth, and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The results exhibit significant improvement for the R30 CO(2) absorption line: 0.4% on the line strength, 0.15% on the air-broadening coefficient, and 0.45% on its temperature dependence. Analysis of potential biases of space-based DIAL CO(2) mixing ratio measurements associated to spectroscopic parameter uncertainties are presented.

  3. NMR, FT-IR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic investigation and DFT study of 6-Bromo-3-Pyridinyl Boronic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Gökhan; Alver, Özgür

    2015-11-01

    Possible stable conformers and geometrical molecular structures of 6-Bromo-3-Pyridinyl Boronic acid (6B3PBA; C5H5BBrNO2) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm-1 and 3700-400 cm-1, respectively. The structural properties were investigated further, using 1H, 13C, 1H coupled 13C, HETCOR, COSY and APT NMR techniques. The optimized geometric structures were searched by Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. Vibrational wavenumbers of 6B3PBA were calculated whereby B3LYP density functional methods including 6-311++G(d, p), 6-311G(d, p), 6-311G(d), 6-31G(d, p) and 6-31G(d) basis sets. The comparison of the experimentally and theoretically obtained results using mean absolute error and experimental versus calculated correlation coefficients for the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d, p) gives more satisfactory results for predicting vibrational wavenumbers when compared to the 6-311G(d, p), 6-311G(d), 6-31G(d, p) and 6-31G(d) basis sets. However, this method and none of the mentioned methods here seem suitable for the calculations of OH stretching modes, most likely because increasing unharmonicity in the high wave number region and possible intra and inter molecular interactions at OH edges lead some deviations between experimental and theoretical results. Moreover, reliable vibrational assignments were made on the basis of total energy distribution (TED) calculated using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of new water soluble Mn(II)(2) and Mg(II)(2) complexes for the substrate binding models of xylose/glucose isomerases.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ayan; Bera, Manindranath

    2014-01-30

    In methanol, the reaction of stoichiometric amounts of Mn(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and the ligand H(3)hpnbpda [H(3)hpnbpda=N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid] in the presence of NaOH, afforded a new water soluble dinuclear manganese(II) complex, [Mn2(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)] (1). Similarly, the reaction of Mg(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and the ligand H3hpnbpda in the presence of NaOH, in methanol, yielded a new water soluble dinuclear magnesium(II) complex, [Mg2(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)(H2O)2] (2). DFT calculations have been performed for the structural optimization of complexes 1 and 2. The DFT optimized structure of complex 1 shows that two manganese(II) centers are in a distorted square pyramidal geometry, whereas the DFT optimized structure of complex 2 reveals that two magnesium(II) centers adopt a six-coordinate distorted octahedral geometry. To understand the mode of substrate binding and the mechanistic details of the active site metals in xylose/glucose isomerases (XGI), we have investigated the binding interactions of biologically important monosaccharides d-glucose and d-xylose with complexes 1 and 2, in aqueous alkaline solution by a combined approach of FTIR, UV-vis, fluorescence, and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence spectra show the binding-induced gradual decrease in emission of complexes 1 and 2 accompanied by a significant blue shift upon increasing the concentration of sugar substrates. The binding modes of d-glucose and d-xylose with complex 2 are indicated by their characteristic coordination induced shift (CIS) values in (13)C NMR spectra for C1 and C2 carbon atoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A theoretical and experimental study on isonitrosoacetophenone nicotinoyl hydrazone: Crystal structure, spectroscopic properties, NBO, NPA and NLMO analyses and the investigation of interaction with some transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zülfikaroğlu, Ayşin; Batı, Hümeyra; Dege, Necmi

    2018-06-01

    A new hydrazone oxime compound, isonitrosoacetophenone nicotinoyl hydrazone (inapNH2), was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The molecular geometry, NMR chemical shift values and vibrational frequencies of the inapNH2 in the ground state have been calculated by using the Density Functional Method (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The computational results obtained were in agreement with the experimental results. The thermodynamic parameters of the inapNH2 were calculated at different temperatures, and the changes in thermodynamic properties were studied with increasing temperature. The molecular stability originating from charge transfer and hyperconjugative interactions in the title compound was analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Localized Molecular Orbital (NLMO) analyzes. The Natural Population Analysis (NPA) charges obtained from NBO analysis were used in order to find out the possible coordination modes of the inapNH2 compound with metal ions. To predict the chemical reactivity of the molecule, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface map of inapNH2 was investigated and some of its global reactivity descriptors (chemical potential μ, electronegativity χ, hardness η and electrophilicity index ω) were calculated using DFT. Furthermore, the strength of metal-ligand interaction between chlorides of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and inapNH2, in both aqueous and ethanol phases, was elucidated by using the values of Charge Transfer (ΔN) and Energy Lowering (ΔE). The results indicated that the best interaction in both solvents is between CuCl2 and inapNH2.

  6. Investigation of the effective components of the flowers of Trollius chinensis from the perspectives of intestinal bacterial transformation and intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lina; Qiao, Shanshan; Hu, Junhong; Li, Deli; Zheng, Shiqi; Shi, Duozhi; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Rufeng

    2017-12-01

    The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae), used for respiratory tract infections, mainly contain flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids; however, the effective components are debatable because of their unclear in vivo activities. This study investigates the effective components from the perspectives of biotransformation and absorption. Both single person derived- and multiple people-derived intestinal florae were used to investigate the biotransformation of aqueous extract of the flowers of T. chinensis (AEOF) at the concentrations of 15.0, 30.0, and 60.0 mg/mL, respectively, for 72 h. Both human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) monolayers and everted gut sacs were employed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of the intestinal bacterial transformed AEOF at the concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, respectively, for 180 min. 2″-O-β-l-Galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline in AEOF were not transformed by intestinal bacteria, while isoquercetin and trollioside were completely transformed. The P app values of 2″-O-β-l-galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, and vitexin calculated based on the experimental data of intestinal absorption were at the levels of 10 -5 , whereas those of veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline were at 10 -4 . The mass ratio of flavonoids to phenolic acids to alkaloids changed from 16:10:7 to 9:12:8 before and after absorption. The dominant position of flavonoids was replaced by phenolic acids after absorption. In addition to flavonoids which are usually considered as the dominant effective ones, phenolic acids and alkaloids should be also very important for the efficacy of these flowers.

  7. The in vivo pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion investigation of mesaconine in rats and its in vitro intestinal absorption study using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxiu; Tang, Minghai; Liu, Taohong; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Qiaoxin; Xiao, Yaxin; Yang, Ruixin; Chao, Ruobing

    2017-12-27

    1. Mesaconine, an ingredient from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., has been proven to have cardiac effect. For further development and better pharmacological elucidation, the in vivo process and intestinal absorptive behavior of mesaconine should be investigated comprehensively. 2. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of mesaconine in rat plasma, tissue homogenates, urine and feces to investigate the in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and excretion. The intestinal absorptive behavior of mesaconine was investigated using in vitro everted rat gut sac model. 3. Mesaconine was well distributed in tissues and a mass of unchanged form was detected in feces. It was difficultly absorbed into blood circulatory system after oral administration. The insufficient oral bioavailability of mesaconine may be mainly attributed to its low intestinal permeability due to a lack of lipophilicity. The absorption of mesaconine in rat's intestine is a first-order process with the passive diffusion mechanism.

  8. Microscale Syntheses, Reactions, and 1H NMR Spectroscopic Investigations of Square Planar Macrocyclic Tetraamido-N Cu(III) Complexes Relevant to Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.; Doherty, Jonathan R.; Schulze, Carl; Burke, Amy L.; Bonnema, Kristen R.; Watson, Tanya T.; Lee, Daniel W., III

    2004-01-01

    Microscale fusions, description, and spectroscopic analysis of the reactivity of a square planar Cu(III) complex significant to green chemistry, are presented. The experiment also includes nine focal points on which pre-lab and post-lab questions are based, and the final exams reflect the students' comprehension of these and other features of…

  9. Supramolecular architecture of 5-bromo-7-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole.3H2O: Synthesis, spectroscopic investigations, DFT computation, MD simulations and docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, P. Krishna; Smitha, M.; Sheena Mary, Y.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Rao, R. Sreenivasa; Suchetan, P. A.; Giri, L.; Pavithran, Rani; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2017-12-01

    Crystal and molecular structure of newly synthesized compound 5-bromo-7-methoxy-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole (BMMBI) has been authenticated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques; compile both experimental and theoretical results which are performed by DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method at ground state in gas phase. Visualize nature and type of intermolecular interactions and crucial role of these interactions in supra-molecular architecture has been investigated by use of a set of graphical tools 3D-Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D-fingerprint plots analysis. The title compound stabilized by strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds N⋯Hsbnd O and O⋯Hsbnd O, which are envisaged by dark red spots on dnorm mapped surfaces and weak Br⋯Br contacts envisaged by red spot on dnorm mapped surface. The detailed fundamental vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were aid by with help of Potential Energy distribution (PED) analysis by using GAR2PED program and shows good agreement with experimental values. Besides frontier orbitals analysis, global reactivity descriptors, natural bond orbitals and Mullikan charges analysis were performed by same basic set at ground state in gas phase. Potential reactive sites of the title compound have been identified by ALIE, Fukui functions and MEP, which are mapped to the electron density surfaces. Stability of BMMBI have been investigated from autoxidation process and pronounced interaction with water (hydrolysis) by using bond dissociation energies (BDE) and radial distribution functions (RDF), respectively after MD simulations. In order to identify molecule's most important reactive spots we have used a combination of DFT calculations and MD simulations. Reactivity study encompassed calculations of a set of quantities such as: HOMO-LUMO gap, MEP and ALIE surfaces, Fukui functions, bond dissociation energies and radial distribution functions. To confirm the potential

  10. Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT Raman, UV, NMR and THz) investigation and hyperpolarizability studies of 3-(2-Chloro-6-fluorophenyl)-1-(2-thienyl) prop-2-en-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Amit; Deval, Vipin; Gupta, Archana; Tandon, Poonam; Patil, P. S.; Deshmukh, Prathmesh; Chaturvedi, Deepika; Watve, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, a combined experimental and theoretical study on ground state molecular structure, spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcone derivative 3-(2-Chloro-6-fluorophenyl)-1-(2-thienyl) prop-2-en-1-one (2C6F2SC) is reported. Initial geometry generated from single crystal X-ray diffraction parameters was minimized at DFT level employing B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) without any constraint to the potential energy surface. The molecule has been characterized using various experimental techniques FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, TD-THz and the spectroscopic data have been analyzed theoretically by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated theoretically using the optimized ground state geometry and the spectra were interpreted by means of potential energy distribution. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) has been used to calculate energies, absorption wavelengths, oscillator strengths of electronic singlet-singlet transitions. The calculated energy and oscillator strength complement with the experimental findings. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap explains the charge interaction taking place within the molecule. Good correlations between the experimental 1H NMR chemical shifts and calculated GIAO shielding tensors were found. Stability of the molecule, hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) of this molecular system and related properties (μ, <α> and Δα) have been calculated using the finite-field approach.

  11. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling of Poorly Complexing Metals in Concentrated Electrolyte Solutions: An X-Ray Absorption and UV-Vis Spectroscopic Study of Ni(II) in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Brugger, Joël; Etschmann, Barbara; Ngothai, Yung; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure and speciation of aqueous Ni(II)-chloride complexes is important for understanding Ni behavior in hydrometallurgical extraction. The effect of concentration on the first-shell structure of Ni(II) in aqueous NiCl2 and NiCl2-MgCl2 solutions was investigated by Ni K edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy at ambient conditions. Both techniques show that no large structural change (e.g., transition from octahedral to tetrahedral-like configuration) occurs. Both methods confirm that the Ni(II) aqua ion (with six coordinated water molecules at R Ni-O = 2.07(2) Å) is the dominant species over the whole NiCl2 concentration range. However, XANES, EXAFS and UV-Vis data show subtle changes at high salinity (> 2 mol∙kg-1 NiCl2), which are consistent with the formation of small amounts of the NiCl+ complex (up to 0.44(23) Cl at a Ni-Cl distance of 2.35(2) Å in 5.05 mol∙kg-1 NiCl2) in the pure NiCl2 solutions. At high Cl:Ni ratio in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, small amounts of [NiCl2]0 are also present. We developed a speciation-based mixed-solvent electrolyte (MSE) model to describe activity-composition relationships in NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, and at the same time predict Ni(II) speciation that is consistent with our XAS and UV-Vis data and with existing literature data up to the solubility limit, resolving a long-standing uncertainty about the role of chloride complexing in this system. PMID:25885410

  13. Investigation of quadratic electro-optic effects and electro-absorption process in GaN/AlGaN spherical quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quadratic electro-optic effects (QEOEs) and electro-absorption (EA) process in a GaN/AlGaN spherical quantum dot are theoretically investigated. It is found that the magnitude and resonant position of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility depend on the nanostructure size and aluminum mole fraction. With increase of the well width and barrier potential, quadratic electro-optic effect and electro-absorption process nonlinear susceptibilities are decreased and blueshifted. The results show that the DC Kerr effect in this case is much larger than that in the bulk case. Finally, it is observed that QEOEs and EA susceptibilities decrease and broaden with the decrease of relaxation time. PMID:24646318

  14. The impact of absorption coefficient on polarimetric determination of Berry phase based depth resolved characterization of biomedical scattering samples: a polarized Monte Carlo investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Koju, Vijay; John, Dwayne O

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of the state of polarization of photons due to scatter generates associated geometric phase that is being investigated as a means for decreasing the degree of uncertainty in back-projecting the paths traversed by photons detected in backscattered geometry. In our previous work, we established that polarimetrically detected Berry phase correlates with the mean photon penetration depth of the backscattered photons collected for image formation. In this work, we report on the impact of state-of-linear-polarization (SOLP) filtering on both the magnitude and population distributions of image forming detected photons as a function of the absorption coefficient of the scatteringmore » sample. The results, based on Berry phase tracking implemented Polarized Monte Carlo Code, indicate that sample absorption plays a significant role in the mean depth attained by the image forming backscattered detected photons.« less

  15. Biosorption of Cr(VI) by coconut coir: spectroscopic investigation on the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with lignocellulosic material.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Shuian; Wang, Shan-Li; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Jang-Hung

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir (CC) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that, upon reaction with CC at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to CC or released back into solution. As revealed by the FTIR spectra of CC before and after reacting with Cr(VI), the phenolic methoxyl and hydroxyl groups of lignin in CC are the dominant drivers of Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to carbonyl and carboxyl groups on CC. These functional groups can subsequently provide binding sites for Cr(III) resulting from Cr(VI) reduction. In conjunction with forming complexes with carbonyl and carboxyl groups, the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide precipitate could also readily occur as revealed by the linear combination fitting of the Cr K-edge XANES spectrum using a set of reference compounds. The phenolic groups in lignin are responsible for initiating Cr(VI) reduction, so lignocellulosic materials containing a higher amount of phenolic groups are expected to be more effective scavengers for removal of Cr(VI) from the environment. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum chemical modeling of new derivatives of (E,E)-azomethines: Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV/Vis, polarization) and thermophysical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Sheikhi, Masoome; Filippovich, Liudmila; Anatol'evich, Dikusar Evgenij; Yahyaei, Hooriye

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the molecular structures of three new azomethine dyes: N-benzylidene-4-((E)-phenyldiazenyl)aniline (PAZB-1), 2-methoxy-4-(((4-((E)- phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (PAZB-2) and 2-methoxy-5-((E)-((4-((E)- phenyldiazenyl)phenyl)imino)methyl)phenol (PAZB-8) have been predicted and investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in dimethylformamide (DMF). The geometries of the azomethine dyes were optimized by PBE0/6-31 + G* level of theory. The electronic spectra of these azomethine dyes in a DMF solution was carried out by TDPBE0/6-31 + G* method. After quantum-chemical calculations three new azomethine dyes for optoelectronic applications were synthesized. FT-IR spectra of the title compounds are recorded and discussed. The computed absorption spectral data of the azomethine dyes are in good agreement with the experimental data, thus allowing an assignment of the UV/Vis spectra. On the basis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the new synthesized azomethine dyes polarizing films for Visible region of spectrum were developed. The main optical parameters of polarizing PVA-films (Transmittance, Polarization Efficiency and Dichroic Ratio) have been measured and discussed. Anisotropy of thermal conductivity of the PVA-films has been studied.

  17. Spectroscopic investigations of the charge-transfer interaction between the drug reserpine and different acceptors: Towards understanding of drug-receptor mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldaroti, Hala H.; Gadir, Suad A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Adam, Abdel Majid A.

    2013-11-01

    The study of the charge-transfer interaction of the drugs may be useful in understanding the drug-receptor interactions and the mechanism of drug action. Structural and thermal stability of charge-transfer (CT) complexes formed between the drug reserpine (Res) as a donor and quinol (QL), picric acid (PA), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) as acceptors were reported. Elemental analysis, electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, 1H NMR and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the new products. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The stoichiometry of the complexes (donor:acceptor molar ratio) was determined to be 1:1 for all complexes. Accordingly the formed CT complexes could be formulated as [(Res)(QL)], [(Res)(PA)], [(Res)(TCNQ)] and [(Res)(DDQ)]. It was found that the obtained CT complexes are nanoscale, semi-crystalline particles, thermally stable and formed through spontaneous reaction. The results obtained herein are satisfactory for estimation of drug Res in the pharmaceutical form.

  18. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of the electronic states of layered perovskite oxyfluoride S r2Ru O3F2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamatsu, Akira; Kurauchi, Yuji; Kawahara, Keisuke; Onozuka, Tomoya; Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of a layered perovskite oxyfluoride S r2Ru O3F2 thin film by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. The core-level HAXPES spectra suggested that S r2Ru O3F2 is a Mott insulator. The DFT calculations described the total and site-projected density of states and the band dispersion for the optimized crystal structure of S r2Ru O3F2 , predicting that R u4 + takes a high-spin configuration of (xy ) ↑(yz ,z x ) ↑↑(3z2-r2 ) ↑ and that S r2Ru O3F2 has an indirect band gap of 0.7 eV with minima at the M ,A and X ,R points. HAXPES spectra near the Fermi level and the angular-dependent O 1 s XAS spectra of the S r2Ru O3F2 thin film, corresponding to the valence band and conduction band density of states, respectively, were drastically different compared to those of the S r2Ru O4 film, suggesting that the changes in the electronic states were mainly driven by the substitution of an oxygen atom coordinated to Ru by fluorine and subsequent modification of the crystal field.

  19. Infrared-spectroscopic single-shot laser mapping ellipsometry: Proof of concept for fast investigations of structured surfaces and interactions in organic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furchner, Andreas; Kratz, Christoph; Gkogkou, Dimitra; Ketelsen, Helge; Hinrichs, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    We present a novel infrared-spectroscopic laser mapping ellipsometer based on a single-shot measurement concept. The ellipsometric set-up employs multiple analyzers and detectors to simultaneously measure the sample's optical response under different analyzer azimuths. An essential component is a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) covering the important marker region of 1800-1540 cm-1. The ellipsometer allows for fast single-wavelength as well as spectroscopic studies with thin-film sensitivity at temporal resolutions of 60 ms per wavelength. We applied the single-shot mapping ellipsometer for the characterization of metal-island enhancement surfaces as well as of molecular interactions in organic thin films. In less than 3 min, a linescan with 1600 steps revealed profile and infrared-enhancement properties of a gradient gold-island film for sensing applications. Spectroscopic measurements were performed to probe the amide I band of thin films of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAAm], a stimuli-responsive polymer for bioapplications. The QCL spectra agree well with conventional FT-IR ellipsometric results, showing different band components associated with hydrogen-bond interactions between polymer and adsorbed water. Multi-wavelength ellipsometric maps were used to analyze homogeneity and surface contaminations of the polymer films.

  20. Nanoantenna-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kühner, Lucca; Hentschel, Mario; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Vogt, Jochen; Huck, Christian; Giessen, Harald; Neubrech, Frank

    2017-05-26

    Spectroscopic infrared chemical imaging is ideally suited for label-free and spatially resolved characterization of molecular species, but often suffers from low infrared absorption cross sections. Here, we overcome this limitation by utilizing confined electromagnetic near-fields of resonantly excited plasmonic nanoantennas, which enhance the molecular absorption by orders of magnitude. In the experiments, we evaporate microstructured chemical patterns of C 60 and pentacene with nanometer thickness on top of homogeneous arrays of tailored nanoantennas. Broadband mid-infrared spectra containing plasmonic and vibrational information were acquired with diffraction-limited resolution using a two-dimensional focal plane array detector. Evaluating the enhanced infrared absorption at the respective frequencies, spatially resolved chemical images were obtained. In these chemical images, the microstructured chemical patterns are only visible if nanoantennas are used. This confirms the superior performance of our approach over conventional spectroscopic infrared imaging. In addition to the improved sensitivity, our technique provides chemical selectivity, which would not be available with plasmonic imaging that is based on refractive index sensing. To extend the accessible spectral bandwidth of nanoantenna-enhanced spectroscopic imaging, we employed nanostructures with dual-band resonances, providing broadband plasmonic enhancement and sensitivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of nanoantenna-enhanced spectroscopic infrared chemical imaging for spatially resolved characterization of organic layers with thicknesses of several nanometers. This is of potential interest for medical applications which are currently hampered by state-of-art infrared techniques, e.g., for distinguishing cancerous from healthy tissues.

  1. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.; ...

    2018-04-24

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  2. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  3. In vitro solubility, dissolution and permeability studies combined with semi-mechanistic modeling to investigate the intestinal absorption of desvenlafaxine from an immediate- and extended release formulation.

    PubMed

    Franek, F; Jarlfors, A; Larsen, F; Holm, P; Steffansen, B

    2015-09-18

    Desvenlafaxine is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 1 (high solubility, high permeability) and biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) class 3, (high solubility, poor metabolism; implying low permeability) compound. Thus the rate-limiting step for desvenlafaxine absorption (i.e. intestinal dissolution or permeation) is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissolution and/or intestinal permeability rate-limit desvenlafaxine absorption from an immediate-release formulation (IRF) and Pristiq(®), an extended release formulation (ERF). Semi-mechanistic models of desvenlafaxine were built (using SimCyp(®)) by combining in vitro data on dissolution and permeation (mechanistic part of model) with clinical data (obtained from literature) on distribution and clearance (non-mechanistic part of model). The model predictions of desvenlafaxine pharmacokinetics after IRF and ERF administration were compared with published clinical data from 14 trials. Desvenlafaxine in vivo dissolution from the IRF and ERF was predicted from in vitro solubility studies and biorelevant dissolution studies (using the USP3 dissolution apparatus), respectively. Desvenlafaxine apparent permeability (Papp) at varying apical pH was investigated using the Caco-2 cell line and extrapolated to effective intestinal permeability (Peff) in human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Desvenlafaxine pKa-values and octanol-water partition coefficients (Do:w) were determined experimentally. Due to predicted rapid dissolution after IRF administration, desvenlafaxine was predicted to be available for permeation in the duodenum. Desvenlafaxine Do:w and Papp increased approximately 13-fold when increasing apical pH from 5.5 to 7.4. Desvenlafaxine Peff thus increased with pH down the small intestine. Consequently, desvenlafaxine absorption from an IRF appears rate-limited by low Peff in the upper small intestine, which "delays" the predicted

  4. Investigation of absorptance and emissivity of thermal control coatings on Mg–Li alloys and OES analysis during PEO process

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhongping; Xia, Qixing; Ju, Pengfei; Wang, Jiankang; Su, Peibo; Li, Dongqi; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    Thermal control ceramic coatings on Mg–Li alloys have been successfully prepared in silicate electrolyte system by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The PEO coatings are mainly composed of crystallized Mg2SiO4 and MgO, which have typical porous structure with some bulges on the surface; OES analysis shows that the plasma temperature, which is influenced by the technique parameters, determines the formation of the coatings with different crystalline phases and morphologies, combined with “quick cooling effect” by the electrolyte; and the electron concentration is constant, which is related to the electric spark breakdown, determined by the nature of the coating and the interface of coating/electrolyte. Technique parameters influence the coating thickness, roughness and surface morphology, but do not change the coating composition in the specific PEO regime, and therefore the absorptance (αS) and emissivity (ε) of the coatings can be adjusted by the technique parameters through changing thickness and roughness in a certain degree. The coating prepared at 10 A/dm2, 50 Hz, 30 min and 14 g/L Na2SiO3 has the minimum value of αS (0.35) and the maximum value of ε (0.82), with the balance temperature of 320 K. PMID:27383569

  5. Electronic [UV-Visible] and vibrational [FT-IR, FT-Raman] investigation and NMR-mass spectroscopic analysis of terephthalic acid using quantum Gaussian calculations.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, N; Prince, J Joseph; Ramalingam, S; Periandy, S

    2015-03-15

    In this research work, the vibrational IR, polarization Raman, NMR and mass spectra of terephthalic acid (TA) were recorded. The observed fundamental peaks (IR, Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The hybrid computational calculations were carried out for calculating geometrical and vibrational parameters by DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The molecular mass spectral data related to base molecule and substitutional group of the compound was analyzed. The modification of the chemical property by the reaction mechanism of the injection of dicarboxylic group in the base molecule was investigated. The (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and the absolute chemical shifts related to TMS were compared with experimental spectra. The study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by hybrid Gaussian calculation methods. The orbital energies of different levels of HOMO and LUMO were calculated and the molecular orbital lobe overlapping showed the inter charge transformation between the base molecule and ligand group. From the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), the possibility of electrophilic and nucleophilic hit also analyzed. The NLO activity of the title compound related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability were also discussed. The present molecule was fragmented with respect to atomic mass and the mass variation depends on the substitutions have also been studied. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of broadening and shift of vapour absorption lines of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O in the frequency range 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Pereslavtseva, A A; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2014-10-31

    We present the results of investigation of water vapour absorption spectra in the 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1} range that is of particular interest from the viewpoint of possible application of the data obtained for monitoring water vapour in the Earth's stratosphere. The doublet of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O near ν = 7185.596 cm{sup -1} is analysed. The coefficients of broadening and shift of water vapour lines are found in the selected range in mixtures with buffer gases and compared to those obtained by other authors. (laser spectroscopy)

  7. Investigation of the effect of solubility increase at the main absorption site on bioavailability of BCS class II drug (risperidone) using liquisolid technique.

    PubMed

    Khames, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    BCS class II drugs usually suffer inadequate bioavailability as dissolution step is the absorption rate limiting step. In this work, the effect of solubility increase at the main absorption site for these drugs was investigated using risperidone as a drug model. Liquisolid technique was applied to prepare risperidone per-oral tablets of high dissolution rate at intestinal pH (6.8) using versatile nonionic surfactants of high solubilizing ability [Transcutol HP, Labrasol and Labrasol/Labrafil (1:1) mixture] as liquid vehicles at different drug concentrations (10-30%) and fixed (R). The prepared liquisolid tablets were fully evaluated and the dissolution rate at pH 6.8 was investigated. The formulae that showed significantly different release rate were selected and subjected to mathematical modeling using DE 25 , MDT and similarity factor (f2). Depending on mathematical modeling results, formula of higher dissolution rate was subjected to solid state characterization using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the drug bioavailability was studied in comparison to conventional tablets in rabbits. Results showed that liquisolid tablet prepared using Labrasol/Labrafil (1:1) mixture as liquid vehicle containing 10% risperidone is a compatible formula with law drug crystallinity and higher dissolution rate (100% in 25 min). The drug bioavailability was significantly increased in comparison to the conventional tablets (1441.711 μg h/mL and 137.518 μg/mL in comparison to 321.011 μg h/mL and 38.673 μg/mL for AUC and Cp max , respectively). This led to the conclusion that liquisolid technique was efficiently improved drug solubility and solubility increase of BCS class II drugs at their main absorption site significantly increases their bioavailability.

  8. Band gap of corundumlike α -Ga2O3 determined by absorption and ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, A.; Artús, L.; Cuscó, R.; Goldhahn, R.; Feneberg, M.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structure near the band gap of the corundumlike α phase of Ga2O3 has been investigated by means of optical absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) range (400-190 nm). The absorption coefficient in the UV region and the imaginary part of the dielectric function exhibit two prominent absorption thresholds with wide but well-defined structures at 5.6 and 6.3 eV which have been ascribed to allowed direct transitions from crystal-field split valence bands to the conduction band. Excitonic effects with large Gaussian broadening are taken into account through the Elliott-Toyozawa model, which yields an exciton binding energy of 110 meV and direct band gaps of 5.61 and 6.44 eV. The large broadening of the absorption onset is related to the slightly indirect character of the material.

  9. Spectroscopic and Magnetic Investigations of Rhenium(i)chlorine(carbon MONOXIDE)(3)(ALPHA, - Complexes and Group (1B, 8B) Bimetallic Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striplin, Durwin Ray

    Complexes with the generic formula, Re(I)Cl(CO) _3(alpha,alpha-diimine), where alpha,alpha-diimine = 2,2^'-bipyridine, 1,10 -phenanthroline, or methyl-substituted analogs, were subjected to detailed optical investigations in the 77-4 K range, both in rigid glasses and in PMMA plastics. Excitation spectra, absorption spectra, and decay kinetics of the phosphorescing manifolds were complemented by detailed measurements of polarization ratios to arrive at a coherent picture of the emitting manifolds. Symmetry assignments and energy orderings of the ^3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) spin sublevels were made. Analogous assignments for the ^3MLCT spin -sublevels of Ru(alpha, alpha -diimine)_3^{2+} and Os(alpha,alpha-diimine) _{3}^{2+} ions are implied by this analysis. Increases in luminescence decay rates and emission intensities with increasing external magnetic field strength were observed at 4 K. The decay rates were found to be non-quadratic with respect to magnetic field strength. A simple parametric model that includes spin-orbit coupling and a magnetic field perturbation was developed to describe the MLCT excited states. The energies, symmetry assignments, and magnetic field mixing of the ^3MLCT states were rationalized by the model. Fluorescence, phosphorescence, and excitation spectra were measured on a series of mu -bridged bis(diphenylphosphinomethane) homo- and heterobimetallic compounds of Rh(I), Ir(I), Pt(II), and Au(I). These results were augmented with polarization ratios obtained at 77 K and detailed studies of the temperature dependence of the phosphorescence in the 77-4 K range. The triplet manifold is split by spin-orbit coupling into a forbidden state lying lowest in energy followed by a quasi-degenerate pair lying a few wavenumbers higher that decays two orders of magnitude faster. A quadratic dependence of the decay rate on magnetic field strength was recorded at 4 K for ail complexes. The results are consistent with a rm d_{sigma*}to p

  10. A quantum cascade laser-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for chemical sensing employing molecular absorption and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Jakob; Hugger, Stefan; Fuchs, Frank; Lendl, Bernhard

    2018-02-01

    We employ a novel spectroscopic setup based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to simultaneously record spectra of absorption and dispersion of liquid samples in the mid-infrared. We describe the theory underlying the interferometric measurement and discuss its implications for the experiment. The capability of simultaneously recording a refractive index and absorption spectrum is demonstrated for a sample of acetone in cyclohexane. The recording of absorption spectra is experimentally investigated in more detail to illustrate the method's capabilities as compared to direct absorption spectroscopy. We find that absorption signals are recorded with strongly suppressed background, but with smaller absolute sensitivity. A possibility of optimizing the setup's performance by unbalancing the interferometer is presented.

  11. The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Laurence S.; Gordon, Iouli E.; Barbe, Alain; Benner, D. Chris; Bernath, Peter F.; Birk, Manfred; Boudon, V.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Champion, J.-P.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e., spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross sections for bands in the ultra-violet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for forty-two molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  12. Spectroscopic Characterization of GEO Satellites with Gunma LOW Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.; Hashimoto, O.

    The spectroscopic observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. We present here the results of an investigation of energy spectra of GEO satellites obtained from a groundbased optical telescope. The spectroscopic observations were made from April to June 2016 with the Gunma LOW resolution Spectrograph and imager (GLOWS) at the Gunma Astronomical Observatory (GAO) in JAPAN. The observation targets consist of eleven different satellites: two weather satellites, four communications satellites, and five broadcasting satellites. All the spectra of those GEO satellites are inferred to be solar-like. A number of well-known absorption features such as H-alpha, H-beta, Na-D,water vapor and oxygen molecules are clearly seen in thewavelength range of 4,000 - 8,000 Å. For comparison, we calculated the intensity ratio of the spectra of GEO satellites to that of the Moon which is the natural satellite of the earth. As a result, the following characteristics were obtained. 1) Some variations are seen in the strength of absorption features of water vapor and oxygen originated by the telluric atmosphere, but any other characteristic absorption features were not found. 2) For all observed satellites, the intensity ratio of the spectrum of GEO satellites decrease as a function of wavelength or to be flat. It means that the spectral reflectance of satellite materials is bluer than that of the Moon. 3) A characteristic dip at around 4,800 Å is found in all observed spectra of a weather satellite. Based on these observations, it is indicated that the characteristics of the spectrum are mainly derived from the solar panels because the apparent area of the solar cell is probably larger than that of the satellite body.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure investigation, spectroscopic characterizations and DFT computations on a novel 1-(2-chloro-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl)ethanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugavel, S.; Stephen, C. S. Jacob Prasanna; Subashini, R.; Reddy, H. Raveendranatha; AnanthaKrishnan, Dhanabalan

    2016-10-01

    The title compound 1-(2-chloro-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl)ethanone (CPQE) was synthesised effectively by chlorination of 3-acetyl-4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one (APQ) using POCl3 reagent. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies were performed by utilizing single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR and NMR spectral analysis along with DFT method utilizing GAUSSIAN‧ 03 software. Veda program has been employed to perform a detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra. Mulliken population analyses on atomic charges, MEP, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, Global chemical reactivity descriptors and thermodynamic properties have been examined by (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set level.

  14. In-situ spectroscopic investigations of the redox behavior of poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) modified electrodes in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Talbi, H; Billaud, D; Louarn, G; Pron, A

    2001-03-01

    The oxidation of electrochemically grown poly(indole-5-carboxylic-acid) (P5CO2H) and its spectroscopic properties have been studied by in-situ spectroelectrochemical techniques. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the different modifications on the P5CO2H backbone, induced by the electrochemical oxidation in aqueous acidic solution. We have identified, on the basis of Raman spectra, the vibrational modes associated with neutral and oxidized segments of polymer. It was shown that at least three chemically and optically different species (perhaps other products too) are produced in different potential regimes upon oxidation of this polymer. The results obtained also indicate that the molecular properties of this conducting polymer are better revealed by in-situ resonant spectra than by ex-situ infrared and Raman studies.

  15. Investigating effects of sample pretreatment on protein stability using size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tobias; El Deeb, Sami; Hahne, Thomas; El-Hady, Deia Abd; AlBishri, Hassan M; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    In this study, size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometry methods have been developed and evaluated to test the stability of proteins during sample pretreatment. This especially includes different storage conditions but also adsorption before or even during the chromatographic process. For the development of the size exclusion method, a Biosep S3000 5 μm column was used for investigating a series of representative model proteins, namely bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody, and myoglobin. Ambient temperature storage was found to be harmful to all model proteins, whereas short-term storage up to 14 days could be done in an ordinary refrigerator. Freezing the protein solutions was always complicated and had to be evaluated for each protein in the corresponding solvent. To keep the proteins in their native state a gentle freezing temperature should be chosen, hence liquid nitrogen should be avoided. Furthermore, a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry method was developed to observe the adsorption of proteins on container material and chromatographic columns. Adsorption to any container led to a sample loss and lowered the recovery rates. During the pretreatment and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, adsorption caused sample losses of up to 33%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Conductivity and spectroscopic investigation of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solution in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Pizio, Benjamin S; Vaden, Timothy D

    2012-06-07

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) are promising alternatives to water for swelling Nafion as a fuel cell proton exchange membrane (PEM). PILs can significantly improve the high-temperature performance of a PEM. The proton dissociation and solvation mechanisms in a PIL, which are keys to understanding the proton transportation and conductivity, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we used FTIR, Raman, and electronic spectroscopy with computational simulation techniques to explore the spectroscopic properties of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (HTFSI) solutions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) ionic liquid at concentrations from ∼0.1 to as high as ∼1.0 M. Solution conductivities were measured at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to ∼65 °C. The solution structure and properties depend on the concentration of HTFSI. At lower concentration, around 0.1 M, the HTFSI solution has higher conductivity than pure BMITFSI. However, the conductivity decreases when the concentration increases from 0.1 to 1.0 M. Temperature-dependent conductivities followed the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation at all concentrations. Conductivity and spectroscopy results elucidate the complicated ionization and solvation mechanism of HTFSI in BMITFSI solutions. Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the complete ionization of HTFSI to generate solvated H(+) at low concentrations. FTIR, Raman, and electronic spectroscopic results as well as DFT computational simulation indicated that when the concentration is as high as 1.0 M, a significant amount of TFSI(-) is protonated, most likely at the imide nitrogen.

  17. Co-treatment of fruit and vegetable waste in sludge digesters: Chemical and spectroscopic investigation by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Cucina, Mirko; Massaccesi, Luisa; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    In a previous work co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge was performed in a pilot apparatus reproducing operating conditions of an existing full scale digester and processing waste mixed sludge (WMS) and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) at different organic loading rates. An analysis of the relationship among bio-methane generation, process stability and digestate phytotoxicity was conducted. In this paper we considered humification parameters and spectroscopic analysis. Humification parameters indicated a higher not humified fraction (NH) and a lower degree of humification (DH) of FVW with respect to WMS (NH=19.22 and 5.10%; DH=36.65 and 61.94% for FVW and WMS, respectively) associated with their different chemical compositions and with the stabilization process previously undergone by sludge. FVW additions seemed to be favourable from an agronomical point of view since a lower percentage of organic carbon was lost. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested consumption of aliphatics associated with rising in bio-methane generation followed by accumulation of aliphatics and carboxylic acids when the biogas production dropped. The trend of peaks ratios can be used as an indicator of the process efficiency. Fluorescence intensity of peak B associated with tryptophan-like substances and peak D associated with humic-like substances observed on tridimensional Excitation Emission Matrix maps increased up to sample corresponding to the highest rate of biogas production. Overall spectroscopic results provided evidence of different chemical pathways of anaerobic digestion associated with increasing amount of FVW which led to different levels of biogas production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Sugars Sucrose, Trehalose, and Maltose on the Hydration and Diffusion of DMPC Lipid Bilayer at Complete Hydration: Investigation of Structural and Spectroscopic Aspect of Lipid-Sugar Interaction.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Dutta, Rupam; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-05-24

    It is well-known that sugars protect membrane structures against fusion and leakage. Here, we have investigated the interaction between different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, and maltose) and phospholipid membrane of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshpocholine (DMPC) using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and other various spectroscopic techniques. DLS measurement reveals that the addition of sugar molecule results a significant increase of the average diameter of DMPC membrane. We have also noticed that in the presence of different sugars the rotational relaxation and solvation time of coumarin 480 (C480) and coumarin 153 (C153) surrounding DMPC membrane increases, suggesting a marked reduction of the hydration behavior at the surface of phospholipid membrane. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of sugar molecules on the lateral mobility of phospholipids. Interestingly, the relative increase in rotational, solvation and lateral diffusion is more prominent for C480 than that of C153 because of their different location in lipid bilayer. It is because of preferential location of comparatively hydrophilic probe C480 in the interfacial region of the lipid bilayer. Sugars intercalate with the phospholipid headgroup through hydrogen bonding and replace smaller sized water molecules from the membrane surface. Therefore, overall, we have monitored a comparative analysis regarding the interaction of different sugar molecules (sucrose, trehalose, and maltose) with the DMPC membrane through DLS, TEM, solvation dynamics, time-resolved anisotropy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements to explore the structural and spectroscopic aspect of lipid-sugar interaction.

  19. A further study to investigate the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints using visible absorption and luminescence chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Payne, Gemma; Reedy, Brian; Lennard, Chris; Comber, Bruce; Exline, David; Roux, Claude

    2005-05-28

    This study investigated the application of chemical imaging to the detection of latent fingerprints using the Condor macroscopic chemical imaging system (ChemImage Corp., Pittsburgh, USA). Methods were developed and optimised for the visualisation of untreated latent fingerprints and fingerprints processed with DFO, ninhydrin, cyanoacrylate, and cyanoacrylate plus rhodamine 6G stain. The results obtained with chemical imaging were compared to the detection achieved using conventional imaging techniques. The Condor significantly improved the detection of many prints, especially those that might be considered poor quality or borderline prints. Prints on newspaper treated with ninhydrin and DFO, and prints on white and yellow paper treated with ninhydrin, benefited the most from chemical imaging detection. In many cases, fingerprints undetectable using conventional imaging techniques could be visualised with chemical imaging. Ridge detail from untreated prints on yellow paper was also detected using the Condor. When prints of high quality were examined, both detection techniques produced quality results. The results of this project demonstrate that chemical imaging offers advantages over conventional visualisation techniques when examining latent fingerprints, especially those that would be considered difficult, such as weak prints or prints on surfaces that produce highly luminescent backgrounds. Standard testing procedures for the detection and enhancement of fingerprints by chemical imaging are presented and discussed.

  20. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO 2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F. Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; ...

    2016-04-04

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO 2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO 2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)–carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors formore » constructing selective CO 2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation.« less

  1. Spectroscopic analysis and control

    DOEpatents

    Tate; , James D.; Reed, Christopher J.; Domke, Christopher H.; Le, Linh; Seasholtz, Mary Beth; Weber, Andy; Lipp, Charles

    2017-04-18

    Apparatus for spectroscopic analysis which includes a tunable diode laser spectrometer having a digital output signal and a digital computer for receiving the digital output signal from the spectrometer, the digital computer programmed to process the digital output signal using a multivariate regression algorithm. In addition, a spectroscopic method of analysis using such apparatus. Finally, a method for controlling an ethylene cracker hydrogenator.

  2. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  3. Uranyl coordination in ionic liquids: the competition between ionic liquid anions, uranyl counterions, and Cl- anions investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and UV-visible spectroscopies and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Chaumont, A; Billard, I; Hennig, C; Ouadi, A; Wipff, G

    2007-06-11

    The first coordination sphere of the uranyl cation in room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) results from the competition between its initially bound counterions, the IL anions, and other anions (e.g., present as impurities or added to the solution). We present a joined spectroscopic (UV-visible and extended X-ray absorption fine structure)-simulation study of the coordination of uranyl initially introduced either as UO2X2 salts (X-=nitrate NO3-, triflate TfO-, perchlorate ClO4-) or as UO2(SO4) in a series of imidazolium-based ILs (C4mimA, A-=PF6-, Tf2N-, BF4- and C4mim=1-methyl-3-butyl-imidazolium) as well as in the Me3NBuTf2N IL. The solubility and dissociation of the uranyl salts are found to depend on the nature of X- and A-. The addition of Cl- anions promotes the solubilization of the nitrate and triflate salts in the C4mimPF6 and the C4mimBF4 ILs via the formation of chloro complexes, also formed with other salts. The first coordination sphere of uranyl is further investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on associated versus dissociated forms of UO2X2 salts in C4mimA ILs as a function of A- and X- anions. Furthermore, the comparison of UO2Cl(4)2-, 2 X- complexes with dissociated X- anions, to the UO2X2, 4 Cl- complexes with dissociated chlorides, shows that the former is more stable. The case of fluoro complexes is also considered, as a possible result of fluorinated IL anion's degradation, showing that UO2F42- should be most stable in solution. In all cases, uranyl is found to be solvated as formally anionic UO2XnAmClp2-n-m-p complexes, embedded in a cage of stabilizing IL imidazolium or ammonium cations.

  4. Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

    1999-02-01

    Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  6. Spectroscopic thermoacoustic imaging of water and fat composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Daniel R.; Wang, Xiong; Vollin, Jeff; Xin, Hao; Witte, Russell S.

    2012-07-01

    During clinical studies, thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) failed to reliably identify malignant breast tissue. To increase detection capability, we propose spectroscopic TAI to differentiate samples based on the slope of their dielectric absorption. Phantoms composed of different ratios of water and fat were imaged using excitation frequencies between 2.7 and 3.1 GHz. The frequency-dependent slope of the TA signal was highly correlated with that of its absorption coefficient (R2 = 0.98 and p < 0.01), indicating spectroscopic TAI can distinguish materials based on their intrinsic dielectric properties. This approach potentially enhances cancer detection due to the increased water content of many tumors.

  7. Interaction of sodium benzoate with trypsin by spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yue; Lin, Jing; Liu, Rutao

    2011-12-01

    The toxicity of sodium benzoate to trypsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. Sodium benzoate could unfold trypsin by decreasing the β-sheet structure, which leads to more exposure of internal amino acid groups and the obvious intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the rising concentration of sodium benzoate. The results of spectroscopic measurements indicated that sodium benzoate changed the internal microenvironment of trypsin and induced the alteration of the whole molecule, which were performed toxic effects on the organism. Trypsin and sodium benzoate interacted with each other to produce a substance by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond, the model of which was shown by AutoDock software. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of sodium benzoate with trypsin by spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yue; Lin, Jing; Liu, Rutao

    2011-12-01

    The toxicity of sodium benzoate to trypsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. Sodium benzoate could unfold trypsin by decreasing the β-sheet structure, which leads to more exposure of internal amino acid groups and the obvious intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the rising concentration of sodium benzoate. The results of spectroscopic measurements indicated that sodium benzoate changed the internal microenvironment of trypsin and induced the alteration of the whole molecule, which were performed toxic effects on the organism. Trypsin and sodium benzoate interacted with each other to produce a substance by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond, the model of which was shown by AutoDock software.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and structural investigations of a new charge transfer complex of 2,6-diaminopyridine with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid: DNA binding and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq; Kumar, Sarvendra

    2013-03-01

    A new charge transfer (CT) complex [(DAPH)+(DNB)-] consisting of 2,6-diaminopyridine (DAP) as donor and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNB-H) as acceptor, was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. The hydrogen bonding (N+-H⋯O-) plays an important role to consolidate the cation and anion together. CT complex shows a considerable interaction with Calf thymus DNA. The CT complex was also tested for its antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by using Tetracycline as standard, and antifungal property against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Penicillium sp. by using Nystatin as standard. The results were compared with standard drugs and significant conclusions were obtained. A polymeric net work through H-bonding interactions between neighboring moieties was observed. This has been attributed to the formation of 1:1 type CT complex.

  10. Spectroscopic and microscopic investigation of MBE-grown CdTe (211)B epitaxial thin films on GaAs (211)B substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Selin; Koc, Mumin Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    CdTe epitaxial thin films, for use as a buffer layer for HgCdTe defectors, were grown on GaAs (211)B using the molecular beam epitaxy method. Wet chemical etching (Everson method) was applied to the epitaxial films using various concentrations and application times to quantify the crystal quality and dislocation density. Surface characterization of the epitaxial films was achieved using Atomic force microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after each treatment. The Energy Dispersive X-Ray apparatus of SEM was used to characterize the chemical composition. Untreated CdTe films show smooth surface characteristics with root mean square (RMS) roughnesses of 1.18-3.89 nm. The thicknesses of the CdTe layers formed were calculated via FTIR spectrometry and obtained by ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Raman spectra were obtained for various temperatures. Etch pit densities (EPD) were measured, from which it could be seen that EPD changes between 1.7 × 108 and 9.2 × 108 cm-2 depending on the concentration of the Everson etch solution and treatment time. Structure, shape and depth of pits resulting from each etch pit implementation were also evaluated. Pit widths varying between 0.15 and 0.71 µm with heights varying between 2 and 80 nm were observed. RMS roughness was found to vary by anything from 1.56 to 26 nm.

  11. Raman spectroscopic investigations on natural samples from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311: indications for heterogeneous compositions in hydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Schicks, J M; Ziemann, M A; Lu, H; Ripmeester, J A

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates usually are found in the form of structure I, encasing predominantly methane in the hydrate lattices as guest molecules, sometimes also minor amount of higher hydrocarbons, CO2 or H2S. Raman spectroscopy is an approved tool to determine the composition of the hydrate phase. Thus, in this study Raman spectroscopic analyses have been applied to hydrate samples obtained from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 in two different approaches: studying the samples randomly taken from the hydrate core, and--as a new application--mapping small areas on the surface of clear hydrate crystals. The results obtained imply that the gas composition of hydrate, in terms of relative concentrations of CH4 and H2S, is not homogeneous over a core or even within a crystal. The mapping method yielded results with very high lateral resolution, indicating the coexistence of different phases with the same structure but different compositions within a hydrate crystal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation into the interaction of losartan with human serum albumin and glycated human serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular dynamics simulation techniques: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Moeinpour, Farid; Mohseni-Shahri, Fatemeh S; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Nassirli, Hooriyeh

    2016-09-25

    The interaction between losartan and human serum albumin (HSA), as well as its glycated form (gHSA) was studied by multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulation under physiological conditions. The binding information, including the binding constants, effective quenching constant and number of binding sites showed that the binding partiality of losartan to HSA was higher than to gHSA. The findings of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the binding of losartan to HSA and gHSA would alter the protein conformation. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drug were evaluated on the basis of the Förster theory, and it was indicated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA and gHSA to the losartan happened with a high possibility. According to molecular dynamics simulation, the protein secondary and tertiary structure changes were compared in HSA and gHSA for clarifying the obtained results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Picosecond flash spectroscopic studies on ultraviolet stabilizers and stabilized polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Spectroscopic and excited state decay kinetics are reported for monomeric and polymeric forms of ultraviolet stabilizers in the 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-benzotriazole and 2-hydroxybenzophenone classes. For some of these molecules in various solvents at room temperature, (1) ground state absorption spectra, (2) emission spectra, (3) picosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectra, (4) ground state absorption recovery kinetics, (5) emission kinetics, and (6) transient absorption kinetics are reported. In the solid state at low temperatures, emission spectra and their temperature dependent kinetics up to approximately 200K as well as, in one case, the 12K excitation spectra of the observed dual emission are also reported.

  14. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  15. Application of physiologically based absorption modeling to formulation development of a low solubility, low permeability weak base: mechanistic investigation of food effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hefei; Xia, Binfeng; Sheng, Jennifer; Heimbach, Tycho; Lin, Tsu-Han; He, Handan; Wang, Yanfeng; Novick, Steven; Comfort, Ann

    2014-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been broadly used to facilitate drug development, hereby we developed a PBPK model to systematically investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed positive food effect of compound X (cpd X) and to strategically explore the feasible approaches to mitigate the food effect. Cpd X is a weak base with pH-dependent solubility; the compound displays significant and dose-dependent food effect in humans, leading to a nonadherence of drug administration. A GastroPlus Opt logD Model was selected for pharmacokinetic simulation under both fasted and fed conditions, where the biopharmaceutic parameters (e.g., solubility and permeability) for cpd X were determined in vitro, and human pharmacokinetic disposition properties were predicted from preclinical data and then optimized with clinical pharmacokinetic data. A parameter sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of particle size on the cpd X absorption. A PBPK model was successfully developed for cpd X; its pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., C max, AUCinf, and t max) predicted at different oral doses were within ±25% of the observed mean values. The in vivo solubility (in duodenum) and mean precipitation time under fed conditions were estimated to be 7.4- and 3.4-fold higher than those under fasted conditions, respectively. The PBPK modeling analysis provided a reasonable explanation for the underlying mechanism for the observed positive food effect of the cpd X in humans. Oral absorption of the cpd X can be increased by reducing the particle size (<100 nm) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient under fasted conditions and therefore, reduce the cpd X food effect correspondingly.

  16. Thermal behavior of J-aggregates in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye investigated by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Shinsuke; Maio, Ari; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2009-03-05

    We have characterized the structure of J-aggregate in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye (MS18) fabricated under an aqueous subphase containing a cadmium ion (Cd2+) and have investigated its thermal behavior by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy in the range from 25 to 250 degrees C with a continuous scan. The results of both UV-visible and IR absorption spectra indicate that temperature-dependent changes in the MS18 aggregation state in the pure MS18 system are closely and mildly linked with the MS18 intramolecular charge transfer and the behavior of the packing, orientation, conformation, and thermal mobility of MS18 hydrocarbon chain, respectively. The J-aggregate in the pure MS18 system dissociates from 25 to 150 degrees C, and the dissociation temperature at 150 degrees C is higher by 50 degrees C than that in the previous MS18- arachidic acid (C20) binary system. The lower dissociation temperature in the binary system originates from the fact that temperature-dependent structural disorder of cadmium arachidate (CdC20), being phase-separated from MS18, has an influence on the dissociation of J-aggregate. From 160 to 180 degrees C, thermally induced blue-shifted bands, caused by the oligomeric MS18 aggregation, appear at around 520 nm in the pure MS18 system by contraries, regardless of the lack of driving force by the melting phenomenon of CdC20. The temperature at which the 520 nm bands occur is in good agreement with the melting point (160 degrees C) of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+, whereas its chromophore part is clearly observed to melt near 205 degrees C by UV-visible spectra. Therefore, it is suggested that the driving force that induces the 520 nm band in the pure MS18 system arises from the partial melting of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+.

  17. The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Hill, C.

    This paper describes the contents of the 2016 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2012 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of five major components: the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, collision-induced absorption data, aerosol indices of refraction, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additionalmore » absorption phenomena, added line-shape formalisms, and validity. Moreover, molecules, isotopologues, and perturbing gases have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Of considerable note, experimental IR cross-sections for almost 200 additional significant molecules have been added to the database.« less

  18. Theoretical Investigation of Absorptive Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    sections are plotted (log-log scale, MKS units throughout) vs. wavelength over the range from 0 . 1 to 100 microns, for a specified radius, length, and...long compared to wavelength (although one should note that no difficulties arise in the example shown, provided kL I’ 3. 5 ). It was thus decided to use...of the fiber, in that n is chosen as AoceslonFor n = Nearest integer to (ki + 1). 1NTIS GRA&I (1) jDTIC TAB 0 Unnnounced By __ 2 -vo-.-. ---. 1-- MS

  19. Molecular structure and spectroscopic investigation of sodium(E)-2-hydroxy-5-((4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl)benzoate: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Kumar, Rakesh; Darroudi, Mahdieh; Yousefzadeh Borzehandani, Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach for structural analysis of new azodye sodium(E)-2-hydroxy-5-((4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl) (trans isomer) is carried out using B3LYP methods with 6-31G∗ basis set. The comparison of measured UV-Vis data, IR and NMR spectra of the molecule with the experimental data were also described which allowed assignment of major spectral features of title molecule. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP methods show a good agreement with experimental data. On the basis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the dichroic synthesized dye polarizer absorbing in the UV region of the spectrum (λmax = 353 nm) with the effect of polarization in the absorption maximum 96% was developed. The spectral-polarization parameters of stretched PVA-films were calculated.

  20. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  1. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

  2. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.

    1998-11-17

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

  3. Applications of absorption