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Sample records for absorption spectroscopy ir

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, C. H.; Cho, Deok-Yong; Kuo, C.-T.; Sandilands, L. J.; Qi, T. F.; Cao, G.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We observed appearance of new electron-addition states with increasing Rh concentration (x in Sr2Ir1−xRhxO4) in accordance with the concept of hole doping. The intensity of the hole-induced state is however weak, suggesting weakness of charge transfer (CT) effect and Mott insulating ground states. Also, Ir Jeff = 1/2 upper Hubbard band shifts to lower energy as x increases up to x = 0.23. Combined with optical spectroscopy, these results suggest a hybridisation-related mechanism, in which Rh doping can weaken the (Ir Jeff = 1/2)–(O 2p) orbital hybridisation in the in-planar Rh-O-Ir bond networks. PMID:27025538

  2. Rapid screening and identification of illicit drugs by IR absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.

  3. Hot Carrier Dynamics in the X Valley in Si and Ge Measured by Pump-IR-Probe Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. B.; Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Si is the semiconductor of choice for nanoelectronic roadmap into the next century for computer and other nanodevices. With growing interest in Si, Ge, and Si(sub m)Ge(sub n) strained superlattices, knowledge of the carrier relaxation processes in these materials and structures has become increasingly important. The limited time resolution for earlier studies of carrier dynamics in Ge and Si, performed using Nd:glass lasers, was not sufficient to observe the fast cooling processes. In this paper, we present a direct measurement of hot carrier dynamics in the satellite X valley in Si and Ge by time-resolved infrared(IR) absorption spectroscopy, and show the potential of our technique to identify whether the X valley is the lowest conduction valley in semiconductor materials and structures.

  4. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  5. Utilizing Near-IR Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Detonation and Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    debris, such as soot . Velocity curves for the other equivalence ratios studied in this experiment are shown in Appendix A. Some of these curves show a...James R. Gord. “Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser based UV absorption sensor ”. Applied Optics, 44...Davidson, and R.K. Hanson. “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7µm”. Applied

  6. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: THE REALM OF ANHARMONICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Maltseva, Elena; Buma, Wybren Jan; Petrignani, Annemieke

    2015-11-20

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3-μm CH stretching region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (∼4 K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computationalmore » program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main bands that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the aromatic infrared bands, specifically the 3-μm band, are discussed.« less

  8. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  9. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    PubMed

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information.

  10. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  11. High-resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region: Role of Periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μm absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 cm-1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μm region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μm band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μm emission plateau.

  12. An overview on the research of Sr2IrO4-based system probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Zhu, Chaomin; Ma, Jingyuan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shengli

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of materials with 5d transition metal ions have opened up new paradigms in condensed-matter physics because of their large spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interactions. The typical compound is Sr2IrO4, which attracted much attention due to its similarities to the parent compound of high-Tc cuprate superconductor La2CuO4. Theoretical calculations predicted that the unconventional superconductivity can occur in carrier doped-Sr2IrO4 system. Until now, hundreds of experimental methods were devoted to investigate the carrier doping effect on Sr2IrO4. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) made great contributions to the local lattice and electronic structure, and also the intimate relationship between the local structure and physical properties induced by carrier doping. The aim of this review is a short introduction to the progress of research on Sr2IrO4-based system probed by the unique technique — XAS, including the strength of the SOC, valence changes upon doping and even local lattice structure with atomic level for this Sr2IrO4-based family.

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE 3 μ m REGION: ROLE OF PERIPHERY

    SciTech Connect

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μ m absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950–3150 cm{sup −1} range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μmore » m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μ m band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μ m emission plateau.« less

  14. Non-Destructive and Discriminating Identification of Illegal Drugs by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy in the Visible and Near-IR Wavelength Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Chie; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    We have tested the possibility of identifying illegal drugs by means of nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with a 10-ns UV-laser pulse for the excitation light and visible-to-near-IR light for the probe light. We measured the transient absorption spectra of acetonitrile solutions of d-methamphetamine, dl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA), and dl-N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine hydrochloride (MBDB), which are illegal drugs widely consumed in Japan. Transient absorption signals of these drugs were observed between 400 and 950 nm, a range in which they are transparent in the ground state. By analyzing the spectra in terms of exponential and Gaussian functions, we could identify the drugs and discriminate them from chemical substances having similar structures. We propose that transient absorption spectroscopy will be a useful, non-destructive method of inspecting for illegal drugs, especially when they are dissolved in liquids. Such a method may even be used for drugs packed in opaque materials if it is further extended to utilize intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  15. High-pressure insulator-to-metal transition in Sr3Ir2O7 studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnerer, C.; Sala, M. Moretti; Pascarelli, S.; Rosa, A. D.; Andreev, S. N.; Mazurenko, V. V.; Irifune, T.; Hunter, E. C.; Perry, R. S.; McMorrow, D. F.

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure x-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed at the Ir L3 and L2 absorption edges of Sr3Ir2O7 . The branching ratio of white-line intensities continuously decreases with pressure, reflecting a reduction in the angular part of the expectation value of the spin-orbit coupling operator, 〈L .S 〉 . Up to the high-pressure structural transition at 53 GPa, this behavior can be explained within a single-ion model, where pressure increases the strength of the cubic crystal field, which suppresses the spin-orbit induced hybridization of Jeff=3 /2 and eg levels. We observe a further reduction of the branching ratio above the structural transition, which cannot be explained within a single-ion model of spin-orbit coupling and cubic crystal fields. This change in 〈L .S 〉 in the high-pressure, metallic phase of Sr3Ir2O7 could arise from noncubic crystal fields or a bandwidth-driven hybridization of Jeff=1 /2 ,3 /2 states and suggests that the electronic ground state significantly deviates from the Jeff=1 /2 limit.

  16. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  17. Thermal behavior of J-aggregates in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye investigated by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Shinsuke; Maio, Ari; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2009-03-05

    We have characterized the structure of J-aggregate in a Langmuir-Blodgett film of pure merocyanine dye (MS18) fabricated under an aqueous subphase containing a cadmium ion (Cd2+) and have investigated its thermal behavior by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy in the range from 25 to 250 degrees C with a continuous scan. The results of both UV-visible and IR absorption spectra indicate that temperature-dependent changes in the MS18 aggregation state in the pure MS18 system are closely and mildly linked with the MS18 intramolecular charge transfer and the behavior of the packing, orientation, conformation, and thermal mobility of MS18 hydrocarbon chain, respectively. The J-aggregate in the pure MS18 system dissociates from 25 to 150 degrees C, and the dissociation temperature at 150 degrees C is higher by 50 degrees C than that in the previous MS18- arachidic acid (C20) binary system. The lower dissociation temperature in the binary system originates from the fact that temperature-dependent structural disorder of cadmium arachidate (CdC20), being phase-separated from MS18, has an influence on the dissociation of J-aggregate. From 160 to 180 degrees C, thermally induced blue-shifted bands, caused by the oligomeric MS18 aggregation, appear at around 520 nm in the pure MS18 system by contraries, regardless of the lack of driving force by the melting phenomenon of CdC20. The temperature at which the 520 nm bands occur is in good agreement with the melting point (160 degrees C) of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+, whereas its chromophore part is clearly observed to melt near 205 degrees C by UV-visible spectra. Therefore, it is suggested that the driving force that induces the 520 nm band in the pure MS18 system arises from the partial melting of hydrocarbon chain in MS18 with Cd2+.

  18. Potential-dependent recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in n- and p-type GaN photoelectrodes studied by time-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamakata, Akira; Yoshida, Masaaki; Kubota, Jun; Osawa, Masatoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-07-27

    Recombination kinetics of photogenerated electrons in n-type and p-type GaN photoelectrodes active for H(2) and O(2) evolution, respectively, from water was examined by time-resolved IR absorption (TR-IR) spectroscopy. Illumination of a GaN film with UV pulse (355 nm and 6 ns in duration) gives transient interference spectra in both transmittance and reflection modes. Simulation shows that the interference spectra are caused by photogenerated electrons. We observed that recombination in the microsecond region is greatly affected by the applied potentials, the lifetime becoming longer at negative and positive potentials for n- and p-type GaN electrodes, respectively. There is a good correlation between potential dependence of the steady-state reaction efficiency and that of the number of surviving electrons in the millisecond region. We also performed potential jump measurement to examine the shift in Fermi level by photogenerated charge carriers. In the case of n-type GaN, the electrode potential jumps to the negative side by accumulation of electrons in the bulk. However, in the case of p-type GaN, the electrode potential first jumps to the negative side within 20 μs and gradually shifts to the positive side in a few milliseconds, while the number of charge carriers is constant at >0.2 ms. This two-step process is ascribed to electron transport from the bulk to the surface of GaN, because the electrode potential is sensitive to the number of electrons in the bulk. The results confirm that TR-IR combined with potential jump measurement provides useful information for understanding the behavior of charge carriers in photoelectrochemical systems.

  19. Onco-hematological diagnostics by IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchuk, Sergey D.; Korovina, Larisa A.; Sizov, Fiodor F.; Bebeshko, Vladimir G.

    1998-10-01

    Application of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy to early medical onco-hematological diagnostics, in particular to leukemia, is described. Leukemia is characterized by the orthophosphates acid (soluble) forms (HPO42-) accumulation in bone apatites. Bone hydroxyapatite contains predominantly basic PO43- nonsoluble orthophosphate. At the same time condensed forms of pyrophosphates (e.g., CaH2P3O7) in bones and especially in dried urine were found by the analysis of IR absorption spectra of persons with leukemia. It was show that the dried urine infrared quantitative absorption spectra investigations of phosphates contents make it possible to trace the dynamics of these elements contents during the leukemia progression and can serve for onco-hematological diagnostics at early stage of leukemia.

  20. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2005-12-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local atmospheric chemical composition. Many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. Anthropogenic influences are of special interest, and seasonal and daily trends in amounts of tropospheric pollutants such as ozone correlate with other sources such as the EPA. Although obviously limited by weather considerations, the technique is suited to the regional climate and a body of data of more than two years extent is available for analysis.

  1. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 3 μm region: role of hydrogenation and alkylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Mackie, Cameron J.; Candian, Alessandra; Petrignani, Annemieke; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to elucidate the spectral changes in the 3 μm region that result from chemical changes in the molecular periphery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with extra hydrogens (H-PAHs) and methyl groups (Me-PAHs). Methods: Advanced laser spectroscopic techniques combined with mass spectrometry were applied on supersonically cooled 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene, 9-methylanthracene, and 9,10-dimethylanthracene, allowing us to record mass-selective and conformationally selective absorption spectra of the aromatic, aliphatic, and alkyl CH-stretches in the 3.175 - 3.636 µm region with laser-limited resolution. We compared the experimental absorption spectra with standard harmonic calculations and with second-order vibrational perturbation theory anharmonic calculations that use the SPECTRO program for treating resonances. Results: We show that anharmonicity plays an important if not dominant role, affecting not only aromatic, but also aliphatic and alkyl CH-stretch vibrations. The experimental high-resolution data lead to the conclusion that the variation in Me- and H-PAHs composition might well account for the observed variations in the 3 μm emission spectra of carbon-rich and star-forming regions. Our laboratory studies also suggest that heavily hydrogenated PAHs form a significant fraction of the carriers of IR emission in regions in which an anomalously strong 3 μm plateau is observed.

  2. Intercalation of IR absorber into layered double hydroxides: Preparation, thermal stability and selective IR absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haifeng; Tang, Pinggui; Feng, Yongjun, E-mail: yjfeng@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMIDA anions were intercalated into Mg{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH by anion-exchange method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared material has highly selective IR absorption property in 9-11 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained material has practical applications as heat-retaining additive. -- Abstract: N-phosphonomethyl aminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of layered double hydroxides (LDH) by an anion-exchange method. The intercalated LDHs were characterized by various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and simultaneous thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry (TG-MS) in details. The results show the formation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH based on the expansion of d-spacingmore » from 0.89 nm to 1.22 nm and the disappearance of the characteristic IR absorption band at 1384 cm{sup -1} for NO{sub 3}{sup -} anions. The incorporation of Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH into the low density polyethylene (LDPE) as an additive enhances the selectivity of IR absorption in the main wavelength region 9-11 {mu}m for radiant heat loss at night. Mg{sub 2}Al-PMIDA LDH as a heat-retaining additive has practical application in agricultural plastic films.« less

  3. IR Spectroscopy and Photo-Chemistry of Extraterrestrial Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Mastrapa, Rachel; Elsila, Jamie; Sandford, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Dense molecular clouds from which planetary systems form and the outer Solar System are both cold environments dominated by ices. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to probe these ices, but the IR absorptions of molecules depend on the conditions. As a result appropriate lab data is needed to correctly fit spectra of extraterrestrial ices. Such fits have shown that most of these ices are composed primarily of H2O, but also contain 1-10 percent of other simple molecules such as CO2, CO, CH4, & NH3;. We shall present near IR spectra of ice mixtures of relevance to icy outer Solar System bodies and show that they still hold surprises, such as the Cheshire cat-like CO2 (2v3) overtone near 2.134 micrometers (4685 cm-1) that is absent from spectra of pure CO2 but present in H2O-CO2 mixtures.

  4. Using IR spectroscopy to determine biodiesel conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas; Smith, Rachel B.

    This project’s aim was to develop a way to use Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy to determine the extent of the conversion of oil to biodiesel produced during a typical transesterification process. The most reliable method of biodiesel analysis is gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. This analysis is not ideal for the educational or field applications since it is time intensive and requires expensive, specialized equipment. The use of the FT-IR is faster and more affordable. A calibration curve was created by comparing data on the purity of biodiesel samples obtained from the GC-FID analysis to the ratio ofmore » the absorbances at 1197 cm -1 to 1166 cm -1 from the FT-IR spectrum. For field application, a similar method was developed using a portable IR spectrometer, the InfraSpecTM VFA-IR spectrometer. As a result, the data collected gave a good linear fit for % purity of the samples and can be used as a method for monitoring the conversion of different types of oils to biodiesel and determining the purity of biodiesel produced from oil.« less

  5. Using IR spectroscopy to determine biodiesel conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Tirla, Cornelia; Dooling, Thomas; Smith, Rachel B.; ...

    2013-01-01

    This project’s aim was to develop a way to use Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy to determine the extent of the conversion of oil to biodiesel produced during a typical transesterification process. The most reliable method of biodiesel analysis is gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. This analysis is not ideal for the educational or field applications since it is time intensive and requires expensive, specialized equipment. The use of the FT-IR is faster and more affordable. A calibration curve was created by comparing data on the purity of biodiesel samples obtained from the GC-FID analysis to the ratio ofmore » the absorbances at 1197 cm -1 to 1166 cm -1 from the FT-IR spectrum. For field application, a similar method was developed using a portable IR spectrometer, the InfraSpecTM VFA-IR spectrometer. As a result, the data collected gave a good linear fit for % purity of the samples and can be used as a method for monitoring the conversion of different types of oils to biodiesel and determining the purity of biodiesel produced from oil.« less

  6. Thermal behavior of H-aggregate in a mixed Langmuir-Blodgett film of merocyanine dye, arachidic acid, and n-octadecane ternary system investigated by UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Shinsuke; Yamashita, Yoshihide; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-11-13

    We have investigated the thermal behavior of H-aggregate in a mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of the merocyanine dye (MS18)-arachidic acid (C20)- n-octadecane (AL18) ternary system by means of UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy in the range from 25 to 250 degrees C with a continuous scan. The results of both UV-visible and IR spectra indicate that the temperature-dependent variation in MS 18 aggregation state is linked not only with the degree of intramolecular charge transfer and the behavior of packing, orientation, conformation, and thermal mobility of the MS18 hydrocarbon chain but also with the presence and absence of AL18. The H-aggregate dissociates from 25 up to 50 degrees C, which is caused by the AL18 evaporation from the mixed LB film and the increment of thermal mobility of the MS18 hydrocarbon chain. From 110 to 160 degrees C, blue-shifted bands, attributed to the oligomeric MS18 aggregation, appear near 515 nm in the MS18-C 20-AL18 ternary system as well. The temperature at which the 515 nm band occurs is identical for both present ternary system and previously investigated MS18-deuterated arachidic acid (C20- d) binary system, and it is in good agreement with the melting point (110 degrees C) of cadmium arachidate (CdC20). Therefore, it is indicated that the driving force which induces the 515 nm band comes from the melting phenomenon of CdC20 molecules which are phase-separated from MS 18 molecules in as-deposited LB films.

  7. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  8. AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dazzi, Alexandre; Prater, Craig B

    2016-12-13

    Atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is a rapidly emerging technique that provides chemical analysis and compositional mapping with spatial resolution far below conventional optical diffraction limits. AFM-IR works by using the tip of an AFM probe to locally detect thermal expansion in a sample resulting from absorption of infrared radiation. AFM-IR thus can provide the spatial resolution of AFM in combination with the chemical analysis and compositional imaging capabilities of infrared spectroscopy. This article briefly reviews the development and underlying technology of AFM-IR, including recent advances, and then surveys a wide range of applications and investigations using AFM-IR. AFM-IR applications that will be discussed include those in polymers, life sciences, photonics, solar cells, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and cultural heritage. In the Supporting Information , the authors provide a theoretical section that reviews the physics underlying the AFM-IR measurement and detection mechanisms.

  9. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na +(Glucose) Adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.

    Here in this paper we report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na +(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na +(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctivemore » Na+ coordination.« less

  10. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na +(Glucose) Adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; ...

    2017-09-27

    Here in this paper we report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na +(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na +(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctivemore » Na+ coordination.« less

  11. Simultaneous optimization method for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Simms, Jean M; An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Ramesh, Varun; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-05-10

    A simultaneous optimization method is proposed for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing. This method is particularly useful for thermometry measurements based on congested spectra, as commonly encountered in combustion applications of H2O absorption spectroscopy. A comparison test demonstrated that the simultaneous optimization method had greater accuracy, greater precision, and was more user-independent than the common step-wise postprocessing method previously used by the authors. The simultaneous optimization method was also used to process experimental data from an environmental chamber and a constant volume combustion chamber, producing results with errors on the order of only 1%.

  12. Exploiting the IR: Solar and stellar spectroscopy in the IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1987-01-01

    Recent instrumental advances have provided the capability to perform high resolution spectroscopy, in the thermal infrared region of the solar spectrum, with high sensitivity. The 8 to 12 micron region was extensively observed using Fourier transform (FTS) and laser heterodyne techniques. The continuous opacity of the solar atmosphere, due to H(-), increases with wavelength in the infrared region longward of 1.6 microns. Consequently thermal infrared observations probe the upper photosphere, and give an insight into the dynamics and structure of this region. The most notable spectral features in the 10 micron window include pure rotation lines of OH, and emission lines due to high-n states in MgI and AlI. The high-n lines due to MgI and AlI are important to solar and stellar physics because of their very large Zeeman sensitivity. The recent development of a cryogenic grating postdispenser for the FTS has allowed low-noise solar observations of these lines in 90 seconds. Limited mapping of the lines in a sunspot penumbra was performed, and gives information of the structure of the penumbral magnetic field. Although the MgI lines were detected in red giant spectra, instrumental sensitivity is not yet sufficient to see them in stars where significant magnetic fields are expected.

  13. Tumor diagnostics using fiber optical IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Harald; Bindig, Uwe; Waesche, Wolfgang; Liebold, K.; Roggan, Andre; Frege, P.; Gross, U. M.; Mueller, G.

    1999-04-01

    Aim of the project is the development of an in vivo endoscopic method to differentiate between cancerous from healthy tissue. The method is based on IR spectra in which each diseased state of the tissue has its own characteristic pattern as already shown in previous experiments. Two regions (1245 - 1195) cm-1 and (1045 - 995) cm-1 within the fingerprint (less than 1500 cm-1) region were selected for analysis. This paper will present the technical design of the laboratory set up and outcome of the development as well as the experiments. Two lead-salt diode lasers were used as excitation sources. The IR-radiation was transmitted via silverhalide fibers to the tissue to be investigated. On the detection side another IR fiber was used to transmit the signal to an MCT-detector (Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride). Measurement modes are Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and diffuse Reflection/Remission. Spatial resolution was 100 X 100 micrometer2. The tissue used for these experiments was human colon carcinoma under humidity conditions. Samples were mapped using a stepper motor powered x/y/z-translation stage with a resolution of 1 micrometer. Results were compared with measurements carried out using a FTIR-interferometer and an FTIR-microscope in the region from 4000 - 900 cm-1. Soft- and Hardware control of the experiment is done using Labwindows/CVI (National Instruments, USA).

  14. Mid-IR absorption sensing of heavy water using a silicon-on-sapphire waveguide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetesh; Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Hudson, Darren D; Read, Andrew; Mägi, Eric; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-12-15

    We demonstrate a compact silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) strip waveguide sensor for mid-IR absorption spectroscopy. This device can be used for gas and liquid sensing, especially to detect chemically similar molecules and precisely characterize extremely absorptive liquids that are difficult to detect by conventional infrared transmission techniques. We reliably measure concentrations up to 0.25% of heavy water (D2O) in a D2O-H2O mixture at its maximum absorption band at around 4 μm. This complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible SOS D2O sensor is promising for applications such as measuring body fat content or detection of coolant leakage in nuclear reactors.

  15. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Based on FT-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Rao, L. Lakshmana; Kumar, N. Krishna; Jose, Anupama; Nazeer, Shaiju S.

    2008-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most important malignant forms of cancer and a great threat to life for women. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal and cancerous state have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy in the spectral region from 4000 to 400 cm-1. Several spectral differences were detected in the frequency regions N-H stretching, C-H vibrations, amide bands and 900-1300 cm-1. The ratio of intensities of the bands of A3300/A3015 & A1650/A1550, A2924/A2853, A1080/A1236, A1204/A1650, A1055/A1467 and A1045/A1467 provide conformational changes of protein, lipids, nucleic acids, collagen, carbohydrates and glycogen respectively in the human breast tissues. There are obvious differences in the spectral features between normal and cancerous tissues because of changes in molecular compositions and structures that accompany the transformation from a normal to a cancerous state. The differences suggest that the spectral information are useful for the diagnosis of breast cancer and may serve as a basis for conformational changes in tissue components during carcinogenesis.

  16. Simultaneous multi-beam planar array IR (pair) spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Elmore, Douglas L.; Rabolt, John F.; Tsao, Mei-Wei

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method capable of providing spatially multiplexed IR spectral information simultaneously in real-time for multiple samples or multiple spatial areas of one sample using IR absorption phenomena requires no moving parts or Fourier Transform during operation, and self-compensates for background spectra and degradation of component performance over time. IR spectral information and chemical analysis of the samples is determined by using one or more IR sources, sampling accessories for positioning the samples, optically dispersive elements, a focal plane array (FPA) arranged to detect the dispersed light beams, and a processor and display to control the FPA, and display an IR spectrograph. Fiber-optic coupling can be used to allow remote sensing. Portability, reliability, and ruggedness is enhanced due to the no-moving part construction. Applications include determining time-resolved orientation and characteristics of materials, including polymer monolayers. Orthogonal polarizers may be used to determine certain material characteristics.

  17. Frequency Comb Spectroscopy - From IR to XUV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-09

    time resolution of 25 s. Publications: [1] A. Cingöz, Yost, D. C. , Allison, T. K. , Ruehl, A. , Fermann, M. E. , Hartl , I. , and Ye, J...J. , Eikema, K. S. E. , Fermann, M. E. , Hartl , I. , and Ye, J. , “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high...D. C. , Allison, T. K. , Ruehl, A. , Fermann, M. E. , Hartl , I. , and Ye, J. , “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet”, Nature

  18. OH absorption spectroscopy in a flame using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartula, Renata J.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.; Sanders, Scott T.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Fred L.; Harlander, John M.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate measurements of OH absorption spectra in the post-flame zone of a McKenna burner using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS). SHS permits high-resolution, high-throughput measurements. In this case the spectra span ~308-310 nm with a resolution of 0.03 nm, even though an extended source (extent of ~2×10-7 m2 rad2) was used. The high spectral resolution is important for interpreting spectra when multiple absorbers are present for inferring accurate gas temperatures from measured spectra and for monitoring weak absorbers. The present measurement paves the way for absorption spectroscopy by SHS in practical combustion devices, such as reciprocating and gas-turbine engines.

  19. Concepts for compact mid-IR spectroscopy in photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cu-Nguyen, Phuong-Ha; Wang, Ziyu; Zappe, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Mid-infrared (IR) spectroscopy, typically 3 to 5 µm, is often the technology of choice to monitor the interaction between and concentration of molecules during photochemical reactions. However, classical mid-IR spectrometers are bulky, complex and expensive, making them unsuitable for use in the miniaturized microreactors increasingly being employed for chemical synthesis. We present here the concept for an ultra-miniaturized mid-IR spectrometer directly integrated onto a chemical microreactor to monitor the chemical reaction. The spectrometer is based on micro-machined Fabry-Perot resonator filters realized using pairs of Bragg mirrors to achieve a high spectral resolution. The fabrication of the optical filters is outlined and the measurement of transmittance spectra in the mid-IR range show a good agreement with theory and are thus promising candidates for a fully integrated system.

  20. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  1. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were

  2. Distinction of three wood species by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Anmin; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Junliang; Fei, Benhua; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, Pterocarpus santalinus L.F. and Pterocarpus soyauxii are three kinds of the most valuable wood species, which are hard to distinguish. In this paper, differentiation of D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The three woods have their characteristic peaks in conventional IR spectra. For example, D. odorifera has obvious absorption peaks at 1640 and 1612 cm -1; P. santalinus has only one peak at 1614 cm -1; and P. soyauxii has one peak at 1619 cm -1 and one shoulder peak at 1597 cm -1. To enhance spectrum resolution and amplify the differences between the IR spectra of different woods, the second derivative technology was adopted to examine the three wood samples. More differences could be observed in the region of 800-1700 cm -1. Then, the thermal perturbation is applied to distinguish different wood samples in an easier way, because of the spectral resolution being enhanced by the 2D correlation spectroscopy. In the region of 1300-1800 cm -1, D. odorifera has five auto-peaks at 1518, 1575, 1594, 1620 and 1667 cm -1; P. santalinus has four auto-peaks at 1469, 1518, 1627 and 1639 cm -1 and P. soyauxii has only two auto-peaks at 1627 and 1639 cm -1. It is proved that the 2D correlation IR spectroscopy can be a new method to distinguish D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii.

  3. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  4. Remote laser evaporative molecular absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Cohen, Alexander; Madajian, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.

  5. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  6. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined IR-Raman vs vibrational sum-frequency heterospectral correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sandra; Beutier, Clémentine; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is a valuable probe of surface structure, particularly when the same molecules are present in one of the adjacent bulk solid or solution phases. As a result of the non-centrosymmetric requirement of SFG, the signal generated is a marker of the extent to which the molecules are ordered in an arrangement that breaks the up-down symmetry at the surface. In cases where the accompanying changes in the bulk are of interest in understanding and interpreting the surface structure, simultaneous analysis of the bulk IR absorption or bulk Raman scattering is helpful, and may be used in heterospectral surface-bulk two-dimensional correlation. We demonstrate that, in such cases, generating a new type of bulk spectrum that combines the IR and Raman amplitudes is a better candidate than the individual IR and Raman spectra for the purpose of correlation with the SFG signal.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  9. Detecting infrared luminescence and non-chemical signaling of living cells: single cell mid-IR spectroscopy in cryogenic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Many life-relevant interaction energies are in IR range, and it is reasonable to believe that some biochemical reactions inside cells can results in emission of IR photons. Cells can use this emission for non-chemical and non-electrical signaling. Detecting weak infrared radiation from live cells is complicated because of strong thermal radiation background and absorption of radiation by tissues. A microfluidic device with live cells inside a vacuum cryogenic environment should suppress this background, and thereby permit observation of live cell auto-luminescence or signaling in the IR regime. One can make IR-transparent windows not emitting in this range, so only the cell and a small amount of liquid around it will emit infrared radiation. Currently mid-IR spectroscopy of single cells requires the use of a synchrotron source to measure absorption or reflection spectra. Decreasing of thermal radiation background will allow absorption and reflection spectroscopy of cells without using synchrotron light. Moreover, cell auto-luminescence can be directly measured. The complete absence of thermal background radiation for cryogenically cooled samples allows the use IR photon-sensitive detectors and obtaining single molecule sensitivity in IR photo-luminescence measurements. Due to low photon energies, photo-luminescence measurements will be non-distractive for pressures samples. The technique described here is based upon US patent 9366574.

  10. Atmospheric Measurements by Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decade, atmospheric environmental monitoring has benefited from the development of novel spectroscopic measurement techniques owing to the significant breakthroughs in photonic technology from the UV to the infrared spectral domain [1]. In this presentation, we will overview our recent development and applications of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy techniques for in situ optical monitoring of chemically reactive atmospheric species (such as HONO, NO3, NO2, N2O5) in intensive campaigns [2] and/or in smog chamber studies [3]. These field deployments demonstrated that modern photonic technologies (newly emergent light sources combined with high sensitivity spectroscopic techniques) can provide a useful tool to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemical processes which affect climate, air quality, and the spread of pollution. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements. The financial support from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under the NexCILAS (ANR-11-NS09-0002) and the CaPPA (ANR-10-LABX-005) contracts is acknowledged. References [1] X. Cui, C. Lengignon, T. Wu, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez,L. Croisé, W. Chen, et al., "Photonic Sensing of the Atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 113 (2012) 1300-1316 [2] T. Wu, Q. Zha, W. Chen, Z. XU, T. Wang, X. He, "Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong", Atmos. Environ. 95 (2014) 544-551 [3] T. Wu, C. Coeur-Tourneur, G. Dhont,A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. He, W. Chen,"Application of IBBCEAS to kinetic study of NO3 radical formation from O3 + NO2 reaction in an atmospheric simulation chamber", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 133 (2014)199-205

  11. Precision saturated absorption spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-Chan; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Peng, Jin-Long; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2018-03-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb-dips of the ν2 fundamental band transitions of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). However, frequency modulation also caused errors in the absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we built a tunable offset locking system to lock the pump frequency of the OPO to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this improvement, we were able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the saturated absorption profile using intensity modulation. Furthermore, ion concentration modulation was employed to subtract the background noise and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. To determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the OPO signal frequency was locked to an optical frequency comb. The absolute frequency accuracy of our spectrometer was better than 7 kHz, demonstrated by measuring the wavelength standard transition of methane at 3.39 μm. Finally, we measured 16 transitions of H3+ and our results agree very well with other precision measurements. This work successfully resolved the discrepancies between our previous measurements and other precision measurements.

  12. Precision Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-chan; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Peng, Jin-Long; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-06-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb dips of the νb{2} fundamental band of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by the third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation [1]. However, the frequency modulation also causes error in absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we have built an offset-locking system to lock the OPO pump frequency to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this modification, we are able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the profile of the Lamb dips. Double modulation (amplitude modulation of the idler power and concentration modulation of the ion) is employed to subtract the interference fringes of the signal and increase the signal-to-noise ratio effectively. To Determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the pump wave is offset locked on the R(56) 32-0 a10 hyperfine component of 127I2, and the signal wave is locked on a GPS disciplined fiber optical frequency comb (OFC). All references and lock systems have absolute frequency accuracy better than 10 kHz. Here, we demonstrate its performance by measuring one transition of methane and sixteen transitions of H3+. This instrument could pave the way for the high-resolution spectroscopy of a variety of molecular ions. [1] H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, and J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263002 (2012).

  13. Non-destructive plant health sensing using absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Manukian, Ara; Pearce, Michael; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The sensor group of the 1988 EGM 4001 class, working on NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) project, investigated many different plant health indicators and the technologies used to test them. The project selected by the group was to measure chlorophyll levels using absorption spectroscopy. The spectrometer measures the amount of chlorophyll in a leaf by measuring the intensity of light of a specific wavelength that is passed through a leaf. The three wavelengths of light being used corresponded to the near-IR absorption peaks of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll-free structures. Experimentation showed that the sensor is indeed measuring levels of chlorophyll a and b and their changes before the human eye can see any changes. The detector clamp causes little damage to the leaf and will give fairly accurate readings on similar locations on a leaf, freeing the clamp from having to remain on the same spot of a leaf for all measurements. External light affects the readings only slightly so that measurements may be taken in light or dark environments. Future designs and experimentation will concentrate on reducing the size of the sensor and adapting it to a wider range of plants.

  14. IR/THz Double Resonance Spectroscopy Approach for Remote Chemical Detection at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Phillips, Dane J.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Everitt, Henry O.

    2013-06-01

    A remote sensing methodology based on infrared/terahertz (IR/THz) double resonance (DR) spectroscopy is shown to overcome limitations traditionally associated with either IR or THz spectroscopic approaches for detecting trace gases in an atmosphere. The applicability of IR/THz DR spectroscopy is explored by estimating the IR and THz power requirements for detecting a 100 part-per-million-meter cloud of methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, or methyl bromide at ranges up to 1km in three atmospheric windows below 0.3 THz. These prototypical molecules are used to ascertain the dependence of the DR signal-to-noise ratio on IR and THz beam power. A line-tunable CO_2 laser with 100 ps pulse duration generates a DR signature in four rotational transitions on a time scale commensurate with collisional relaxations caused by atmospheric N_2 and O_2. A continuous wave THz beam is frequency tuned to probe one of these rotational transitions so that laser-induced absorption variations in the analyte cloud are detected as temporal power fluctuations synchronized with the laser pulses. A combination of molecule-specific physics and scenario-dependent atmospheric conditions are used to predict the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for detecting an analyte as a function of cloud column density. A methodology is presented by which the optimal IR/THz pump/probe frequencies are identified. These estimates show the potential for low concentration chemical detection in a challenging atmospheric scenario with currently available or near term hardware components.

  15. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  16. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  17. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  18. FT-IR spectroscopy study on cutaneous neoplasie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, V.; De Domenico, D.; Interdonato, S.; Majolino, D.; Maisano, G.; Migliardo, P.; Venuti, V.

    2001-05-01

    In this work we report a preliminary study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on normal and neoplastic human skin samples suffering from two kinds of cancer, namely epithelioma and basalioma. The analyzed skin samples have been drawn from different parts of the human body, after biopsies. By performing a complex band deconvolution due to the complexity of the tissue composition, the analysis within the considered frequency region (900-4000 cm -1) of the collected IR spectra, allowed us, first of all, to characterize the presence of the pathologies and to show clear different spectral features passing from the normal tissue to the malignant one in particular within the region (1500-2000 cm -1) typical of the lipid bands.

  19. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  20. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  1. IR Spectroscopy of Ethylene Glycol Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, E. G.; Rodnikova, M. N.; Solonina, I. A.; Sirotkin, D. A.

    2018-07-01

    Features of ethylene glycol (EG) solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with low and moderate concentrations (from 2 to 50 mol % of DMSO) are studied by IR spectroscopy on a Bruker Tensor 37 FT-IR spectrometer in the wavenumber range of 400 to 4000 cm-1. The main monitored bands are the S=O stretching vibration band of DMSO (1057 cm-1) and the C-O (1086 and 1041 cm-1) and O-H (3350 cm-1) stretching vibration bands of EG. The obtained data show complex DMSO · 2EG to be present in all solutions with the studied concentrations due to formation of H-bonds between the S=O group of DMSO and the OH group of EG. In the concentration range of 6 to 25 mol % DMSO, the OH stretching vibration of EG is found to be broadened (by up to 70 cm-1), suggesting the strengthening of hydrogen bonds in the spatial network of the system due to the solvophobic effect of DMSO molecules and the formation of DMSO · 2EG. Starting from 25 mol % DMSO, narrowing of the OH stretching vibration is noted, and the bands of free DMSO appear along with the DMSO · 2EG complex, suggesting microseparation in the investigated system. At 50 mol % DMSO, the amounts of free and bound species in the system became comparable.

  2. Hydrogen Bond Lifetimes and Energetics for Solute-Solvent Complexes Studied with 2D-IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Junrong; Fayer, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Weak π hydrogen bonded solute-solvent complexes are studied with ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D-IR) vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy, temperature dependent IR absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Eight solute-solvent complexes composed of a number of phenol derivatives and various benzene derivatives are investigated. The complexes are formed between the phenol derivative (solute) in a mixed solvent of the benzene derivative and CCl4. The time dependence of the 2D-IR vibrational echo spectra of the phenol hydroxyl stretch is used to directly determine the dissociation and formation rates of the hydrogen bonded complexes. The dissociation rates of the weak hydrogen bonds are found to be strongly correlated with their formation enthalpies. The correlation can be described with an equation similar to the Arrhenius equation. The results are discussed in terms of transition state theory. PMID:17373792

  3. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  4. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F., E-mail: cfk23@cam.ac.uk

    2014-04-14

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  5. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded.

    PubMed

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-15

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrafast carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Lin Yun; Weng, Yu Xiang; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2010-12-01

    Carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes (phase of H2Ti2O5.H2O) deposited on a quartz plate was examined by visible/near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy with an ultraviolet excitation. The carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes follows the fast trapping process which attributed to the intrinsic tubular structure, the relaxation of shallow trapped carriers and the recombination as a second-order kinetic process. Transient absorption of titanic acid nanotubes was dominated by the absorption of surface-trapped holes in visible region around 500 nm, which was proved by the faster decay dynamics in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a hole-scavenger. However, the slow relaxation of free carriers was much more pronounced in the TiO2 single crystals, as compared with the transient absorption spectra of titanic acid nanotubes under the similar excitation.

  7. New High-Resolution Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of HCFC-142B in the Mid-Ir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly; Melo, Stella

    2009-06-01

    HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) is a temporary substitute for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). However, due to its high absorption cross-sections in the mid-IR, HCFC-142b is also a highly potent greenhouse gas, now detectable from space by satellite missions. So far, the accuracy of the retrieval has been limited by the lack of reference data in a range of temperatures compatible with atmospheric observations. We present new absorption cross section measurements of HCFC-142b at high-resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) from 223 K to 283 K in the 600 cm^{-1}- 4000 cm^{-1} spectral window. The composite spectra are calculated for each temperature from a set of acquisitions at different pressures by Fourier transform spectroscopy.

  8. Molecular Modeling of a Probe in 2D IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Anthony; Larini, Luca

    Proteins must adopt a precise three dimensional structure in the folding process in order to perform its designated function. Although much has been learned about folding, there are still many details in structural dynamics that are difficult to characterize by existing experimental techniques. In order to overcome these challenges, novel infrared and fluorescent spectroscopic techniques have recently been employed to probe the molecular structure at the atomistic scale. These techniques rely on the spectroscopic properties of the nitrile group attached to a phenylalanine. In this study, we model this probe and we compute its properties in different solvents. This is done by performing Molecular Dynamics simulations with a PheCN solvated in water, urea and TMAO. We measure the decay rate of the vibrational stretching of the CN group in order to characterize the effects of different solvents on the local structure of the molecule. This data can be used to identify non-trivial conformational changes of the protein in the folding process. Preliminary results show agreement with current experimental data on 2D IR spectroscopy.

  9. Human LDL Structural Diversity Studied by IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Higuero, José A.; Salvador, Ana M.; Martín, Cesar; Milicua, José Carlos G.; Arrondo, José L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins are responsible for cholesterol traffic in humans. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) delivers cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissues. A misleading delivery can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. LDL has a single protein, apoB-100, that binds to a specific receptor. It is known that the failure associated with a deficient protein-receptor binding leads to plaque formation. ApoB-100 is a large single lipid-associated polypeptide difficulting the study of its structure. IR spectroscopy is a technique suitable to follow the different conformational changes produced in apoB-100 because it is not affected by the size of the protein or the turbidity of the sample. We have analyzed LDL spectra of different individuals and shown that, even if there are not big structural changes, a different pattern in the intensity of the band located around 1617 cm−1 related with strands embedded in the lipid monolayer, can be associated with a different conformational rearrangement that could affect to a protein interacting region with the receptor. PMID:24642788

  10. QSO absorption spectroscopy and baryonic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirković, Milan M.

    2005-04-01

    The present book should serve a double purpose: first, as an introduction into the host of tightly related topics in astrophysics and cosmology all dealing with the history and evolution of the baryonic matter in the universe. Secondly, it gives argument for still somewhat controversial view that large baryonic reservoirs are present (at least in the low-redshift regime) in form of huge gaseous galactic haloes surrounding normal luminous galaxies, and manifesting through the Lyman-α absorption lines in spectra of background sources. If accepted, this view would profoundly impact our understanding of the galactic structure and evolution, and will deeply influence our views of the future evolution of galactic systems. After an introduction into cosmological jargon and symbols used throughout, and other important introductory material given in Chapter 1, the bulk of the argumentation is given in Chapter 2, which exposes phenomenology of Lyα absorption systems and various theories advanced to account for their physical origin. Chapter 3 deals with models of absorbing gas in the extended haloes of normal galaxies, and Chapter 4 gives a global discussion of main candidates for the reservoirs of the still elusive baryonic dark matter. A set of closely related technical issues which are used at several places in the main narrative are given in the appendices.

  11. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF₆ Decomposition Products.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ming; Zhang, Chongxing; Ren, Ming; Albarracín, Ricardo; Ye, Rixin

    2017-11-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF₆ decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF₆ decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF₆ decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF₆ decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations.

  12. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-02-17

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF₂ microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line.

  13. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  14. Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Effects of Nitrates and Sulfates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ATTACHED DDJ~P 1413 EDITION 01 INO, 6 5 IabSoLEr J UjN!LbAa~ A- i SELU 0 IONOF I tG 651 J Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Effects of Nitrates...analytical techniques, flameless atomic absorption is subject to matrix or interference effects. Upon heating, nitrate and sulfate salts decompose to...Eklund and J.E. Smith, Anal Chem, 51, 1205 (1979) R.H. Eklund and J.A. Holcombe, Anal Chim. Acta, 109, 97 (1979) FLAMELESS ATOMIC ABSORPTION

  15. Composite Reflective Absorptive IR-Blocking Filters Embedded in Metamaterial Antireflection Coated Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, C. D.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Miller, K. H.; Page, L. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared (IR)-blocking filters are crucial for controlling the radiative loading on cryogenic systems and for optimizing the sensitivity of bolometric detectors in the far-IR. We present a new IR filter approach based on a combination of patterned frequency-selective structures on silicon and a thin (2575 micron thick) absorptive composite based on powdered reststrahlen absorbing materials. For a 300 K blackbody, this combination reflects approximately 50% of the incoming light and blocks greater than.99.8% of the total power with negligible thermal gradients and excellent low-frequency transmission. This allows a reduction in the IR thermal loading to negligible levels in a single cold filter. These composite filters are fabricated on silicon substrates, which provide excellent thermal transport laterally through the filter and ensure that the entire area of the absorptive filter stays near the bath temperature. A metamaterial antireflection coating cut into these substrates reduces in-band reflections to below 1%, and the in-band absorption of the powder mix is below 1% for signal bands below 750 GHz. This type of filter can be directly incorporated into silicon refractive optical elements.

  16. [The study of CO2 cavity enhanced absorption and highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Pei, Shi-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Fen-Ping; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jie; Fan, Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2005-12-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a new spectral technology that is based on the cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy. In the present paper, a DFB encapsulation narrow line width tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as the light source. At the center output, the TDL radiation wavelength was 1.573 microm, and an optical cavity, which consisted of two high reflectivity mirrors (near 1.573 microm, the mirror reflectivity was about 0.994%), was used as a sample cell. A wavemeter was used to record the accurate frequency of the laser radiation. In the experiment, the method of scanning the optical cavity to change the cavity mode was used, when the laser frequency was coincident with one of the cavity mode; the laser radiation was coupled into the optical cavity and the detector could receive the light signals that escaped the optical cavity. As a result, the absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide weak absorption at low pressure was obtained with an absorption intensity of 1.816 x 10(-23) cm(-1) x (molecule x cm(-2)(-1) in a sample cell with a length of only 33.5 cm. An absorption sensitivity of about 3.62 x 10(-7) cm(-1) has been achieved. The experiment result indicated that the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has the advantage of high sensivity, simple experimental setup, and easy operation.

  17. Bringing NMR and IR Spectroscopy to High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Hass, Alisa L.; Pollock, David W.; Huebner, Aaron; Frost, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Development of benchtop, portable Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometers has opened up opportunities for creating university-high school partnerships that provide high school students with hands-on experience with NMR and IR instruments. With recent changes to the international baccalaureate chemistry…

  18. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  19. FT-IR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculation to explore solvent effects of vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing

    The infrared vibration frequencies of vinyl acetate (VAc) in 18 different solvents were theoretically computed at Density Function Theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G* level based on Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) and experimentally recorded by FT-IR spectroscopy. The solvent-induced long-range bulk electrostatic solvation free energies of VAc (ΔGelec) were calculated by the SMD model. The Cdbnd O stretching vibration frequencies of VAc were utilized as a measure of the chemical reactivities of the Cdbnd C group in VAc. The calculated and experimental Cdbnd O stretching vibration frequencies of VAc (νcal(Cdbnd O) and νexp(Cdbnd O)) were correlated with empirical solvent parameters including the KBM equation, the Swain equation and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). Through ab initio calculation, assignments of the two Cdbnd O absorption bands of VAc in alcohol solvents were achieved. The PCM, SMD and ab initio calculation offered supporting evidence to explain the FT-IR experimental observations from differing aspects.

  20. Developing a Transdisciplinary Teaching Implement for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explain why I wrote the set of teaching notes on Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and why they look the way they do. The notes were intended as a student reference to question, highlight and write over as much as they wish during an initial practical demonstration of the threshold concept being introduced, in this case…

  1. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  2. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Walter

    1982-01-01

    The status of current techniques and methods of atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy (flame, hybrid, and furnace AA) is discussed, including limitations. Technological opportunities and how they may be used in AA are also discussed, focusing on automation, microprocessors, continuum AA, hybrid analyses, and others. (Author/JN)

  3. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  4. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Cold Protonated Synephrine: Surprising Differences between IR-UV Hole-Burning and IR Photodissociation Spectroscopy of the O-H and N-H Modes.

    PubMed

    Nieuwjaer, N; Desfrançois, C; Lecomte, F; Manil, B; Soorkia, S; Broquier, M; Grégoire, G

    2018-04-19

    We report the UV and IR photofragmentation spectroscopies of protonated synephrine in a cryogenically cooled Paul trap. Single (UV or IR) and double (UV-UV and IR-UV) resonance spectroscopies have been performed and compared to quantum chemistry calculations, allowing the assignment of the lowest-energy conformer with two rotamers depending on the orientation of the phenol hydroxyl (OH) group. The IR-UV hole burning spectrum exhibits the four expected vibrational modes in the 3 μm region, i.e., the phenol OH, C β -OH, and two NH 2 + stretches. The striking difference is that, among these modes, only the free phenol OH mode is active through IRPD. The protonated amino group acts as a proton donor in the internal hydrogen bond and displays large frequency shifts upon isomerization expected during the multiphoton absorption process, leading to the so-called IRMPD transparency. More interestingly, while the C β -OH is a proton acceptor group with moderate frequency shift for the different conformations, this mode is still inactive through IRPD.

  5. Helium broadened propane absorption cross sections in the far-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A.; Billinghurst, B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2017-09-01

    Infrared absorption spectra for pure and He broadened propane have been recorded in the far-IR region (650-1300 cm-1) at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) facility using either the synchrotron or internal glowbar source depending on the required resolution. The measurements were made for 4 temperatures in the range 202-292 K and for 3 pressures of He broadening gas up to 100 Torr. Infrared absorption cross sections are derived from the spectra and the integrated cross sections are within 10 % of the corresponding values from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for all temperatures and pressures.

  6. Phthalocyanine adsorption to graphene on Ir(111): Evidence for decoupling from vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Endlich, M., E-mail: michael.endlich@tu-ilmenau.de; Gozdzik, S.; Néel, N.

    2014-11-14

    Phthalocyanine molecules have been adsorbed to Ir(111) and to graphene on Ir(111). From a comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images of individual molecules adsorbed to the different surfaces alone it is difficult to discern potential differences in the molecular adsorption geometry. In contrast, vibrational spectroscopy using inelastic electron scattering unequivocally hints at strong molecule deformations on Ir(111) and at a planar adsorption geometry on graphene. The spectroscopic evidence for the different adsorption configurations is supported by density functional calculations.

  7. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Near-IR Spectroscopy of Luminous LoBAL Quasars at 1 < z < 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Andreas; Schramm, Malte; Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Urrutia, Tanya; Kotilainen, Jari; Reynolds, Thomas; Terao, Koki; Nagao, Tohru; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2017-10-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopy of 22 luminous low-ionization broad absorption line quasars (LoBAL QSOs) at redshift 1.3< z< 2.5, with 12 objects at z ˜ 1.5 and 10 at z ˜ 2.3. The spectra cover the rest-frame Hα and Hβ line regions, allowing us to obtain robust black hole mass estimates based on the broad Hα line. We use these data, augmented by a lower-redshift sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to test the proposed youth scenario for LoBALs, which suggests that LoBALs constitute an early short-lived evolutionary stage of quasar activity, by probing for any difference in their masses, Eddington ratios, or rest-frame optical spectroscopic properties compared to normal quasars. In addition, we construct the UV to mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the LoBAL sample and a matched non-BAL quasar sample. We do not find any statistically significant difference between LoBAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs in their black hole mass or Eddington ratio distributions. The mean UV to mid-IR SED of the LoBAL QSOs is consistent with non-BAL QSOs, apart from their stronger reddening. At z> 1 there is no clear difference in their optical emission line properties. We do not see particularly weak [O III] or strong Fe II emission. The LoBAL QSOs do not show a stronger prevalence of ionized gas outflows as traced by the [O III] line, compared to normal QSOs of similar luminosity. We conclude that the optical-MIR properties of LoBAL QSOs are consistent with the general quasar population and do not support them to constitute a special phase of active galactic nucleus evolution.

  9. Influence of polarity of solvents on IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenko, S. A.; Danyaeva, Y. S.; Maximova, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The results of numerical calculations of IR absorption and Raman spectra of ascorbic acid in polar and nonpolar solutions are presented. The dependence of the change in the total energy and the dipole moment of the molecule on the characteristics of the solvents was investigated using the two solvation models. Spectral bands and the corresponding structural groups of the molecule are found, the characteristics of which are most vulnerable to solvents.

  10. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  11. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    2017-03-06

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  12. FT-IR spectroscopy characterization of schwannoma: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Neto, Lazaro P. M.; das Chagas, Maurilio José; Carvalho, Luís. Felipe C. S.; dos Santos, Laurita; Ribas, Marcelo; Loddi, Vinicius; Martin, Airton A.

    2016-03-01

    Schwannoma are rare benign neural neoplasia. The clinical diagnosis could be improved if novel optical techniques are performed. Among these techniques, FT-IR is one of the currently techniques which has been applied for samples discrimination using biochemical information with minimum sample preparation. In this work, we report a case of a schwannoma in the cervical region. A histological examination described a benign process. An immunohistochemically examination demonstrated positivity to anti-S100 protein antibody, indicating a diagnosis of schwannoma. The aim of this analysis was to characterize FT-IR spectrum of the neoplastic and normal tissue in the fingerprint (1000-1800 cm-1) and high wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1). The IR spectra were collect from tumor tissue and normal nerve samples by a FT-IR spectrophotometer (Spotlight Perkin Elmer 400, USA) with 64 scans, and resolution of 4 cm-1. A total of twenty spectra were recorded (10 from schwannoma and 10 from nerve). Multivariate Analysis was used to classify the data. Through average and standard deviation analysis we observed that the main spectral change occurs at ≍1600 cm-1 (amide I) and ≍1400 cm-1 (amide III) in the fingerprint region, and in CH2/CH3 protein-lipids and OH-water vibrations for the high wavenumber region. In conclusion, FT-IR could be used as a technique for schwannoma analysis helping to establish specific diagnostic.

  13. Rapid discrimination of extracts of Chinese propolis and poplar buds by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Zhou, Qun

    2008-07-01

    The extract of Chinese propolis (ECP) has recently been adulterated with that of poplar buds (EPB), because most of ECP is derived from the poplar plant, and ECP and EPB have almost identical chemical compositions. It is very difficult to differentiate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, how to effectively discriminate these two mixtures is a problem to be solved urgently. In this paper, a rapid method for discriminating ECP and EPB was established by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra combined with the two-dimensional infrared correlation (2D IR) analysis. Forty-three ECP and five EPB samples collected from different areas of China were analyzed by the FT-IR spectroscopy. All the ECP and EPB samples tested show similar IR spectral profiles. The significant differences between ECP and EPB appear in the region of 3000-2800 cm -1 of the spectra. Based on such differences, the two species were successfully classified with the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique. Furthermore, these differences were well validated by a series of temperature-dependent dynamic FT-IR spectra and the corresponding 2D IR plots. The results indicate that the differences in these two natural products are caused by the amounts of long-chain alkyl compounds (including long-chain alkanes, long-chain alkyl esters and long chain alkyl alcohols) in them, rather than the flavonoid compounds, generally recognized as the bioactive substances of propolis. There are much more long-chain alkyl compounds in ECP than those in EPB, and the carbon atoms of the compounds in ECP remain in an order Z-shaped array, but those in EPB are disorder. It suggests that FT-IR and 2D IR spectroscopy can provide a valuable method for the rapid differentiation of similar natural products, ECP and EPB. The IR spectra could directly reflect the integrated chemical

  14. Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Electro-Optic Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleisher, Adam J.; Long, David A.; Plusquellic, David F.; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    The application of electro-optic frequency combs to direct absorption spectroscopy has increased research interest in high-agility, modulator-based comb generation. This talk will review common architectures for electro-optic frequency comb generators as well as describe common self-heterodyne and multi-heterodyne (i.e., dual-comb) detection approaches. In order to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio on the recorded interferogram while allowing for manageable data volumes, broadband electro-optic frequency combs require deep coherent averaging, preferably in real-time. Applications such as cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, precision atomic and molecular spectroscopy, as well as time-resolved spectroscopy will be introduced. D.A. Long et al., Opt. Lett. 39, 2688 (2014) A.J. Fleisher et al., Opt. Express 24, 10424 (2016)

  15. Impact and radiation influence on solid hydrocarbon transformation and structuring (by IR-spectroscopy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, O.

    2009-04-01

    Solid hydrocarbons (bitumens)-typical specimens of natural organic minerals-are one of the most essential objects of petroleum geology and at the same time-one of the least investigated objects of organic mineralogy. Moreover they can be treated as admissible analogs of meteorite carbonaceous materials. According to terrestrial analog of meteoritic organic matter it's possible to estimate the chemical structure of extraterrestrial matter. Further investigation of impact force and radiation influence on the bitumen chemical structure change will make it possible to connect them with extraterrestrial organic matter. This work represents the research of impact influence on the processes of transformation and structuring of asphaltite and changes in the molecular structure of solid bitumens constituting the carbonization series (asphaltite--kerite--anthraxolite), which were subjected to the impact of high radiation doses (10 and 100 Mrad) by infrared spectroscopy (IRS). In percussion experiments peak pressure varied from 10 to 63.4 GPa; temperature - from the first tens degrees to several hundreds degrees Celsius. The radiation experiment was performed in the Arzamas-16 Federal Nuclear Center in line with conditions described in [1]. Asphaltite, which sustained shock load from 17.3 to 23 GPa, didn't undergo considerable changes in its element composition. Though their IR-spectra differ from the spectrum of initial asphaltite by heightened intensity of absorption bands of aromatic groups, as well as by insignificant rise of heterogroups and condensed structures oscillation strength. At the same time the intensity of aliphatic (СН2 and СН3) groups absorption hasn't changed. Probably there've just been the carbon and hydrogen atomic rearrangement. However, shock load up to 26.7 GPa leads to asphaltite transformation into the albertite. There've been observed the intensity decrease of aliphatic groups on its IR-spectrum. Under growth of shock load up to 60 GPa bitumen

  16. Potential Second-Harmonic Ghost Bands in Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Difference Spectroscopy of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kandori, Hideki; Lorenz-Fonfria, Victor A

    2018-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference absorption spectroscopy is a common method for studying the structural and dynamical aspects behind protein function. In particular, the 2800-1800 cm -1 spectral range has been used to obtain information about internal (deuterated) water molecules, as well as site-specific details about cysteine residues and chemically modified and artificial amino acids. Here, we report on the presence of ghost bands in cryogenic light-induced FT-IR difference spectra of the protein bacteriorhodopsin. The presence of these ghost bands can be particularly problematic in the 2800-1900 cm -1 region, showing intensities similar to O-D vibrations from water molecules. We demonstrate that they arise from second harmonics from genuine chromophore bands located in the 1400-850 cm -1 region, generated by double-modulation artifacts caused from reflections of the IR beam at the sample and at the cryostat windows back to the interferometer (inter-reflections). The second-harmonic ghost bands can be physically removed by placing an optical filter of suitable cutoff in the beam path, but at the cost of losing part of the multiplexing advantage of FT-IR spectroscopy. We explored alternatives to the use of optical filters. Tilting the cryostat windows was effective in reducing the intensity of the second harmonic artifacts but tilting the sample windows was not, presumably by their close proximity to the focal point of the IR beam. We also introduce a simple numerical post-processing approach that can partially, but not fully, correct for second-harmonic ghost bands in FT-IR difference spectra.

  17. Characterizing caged molecules through flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joseph P Y; Muralidharan, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Caged molecules are photosensitive molecules with latent biological activity. Upon exposure to light, they are rapidly transformed into bioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters or second messengers. They are thus valuable tools for using light to manipulate biology with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. Since the temporal performance of the caged molecule depends critically on the rate at which bioactive molecules are generated by light, it is important to characterize the kinetics of the photorelease process. This is accomplished by initiating the photoreaction with a very brief but intense pulse of light (i.e., flash photolysis) and monitoring the course of the ensuing reactions through various means, the most common of which is absorption spectroscopy. Practical guidelines for performing flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy are described in this chapter.

  18. Fusion of Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Data to Model Ultrafast Photoisomerization.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Orio, Maylis; Rehault, Julien; Burdzinski, Gotard; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Sliwa, Michel

    2017-08-03

    Ultrafast photoisomerization reactions generally start at a higher excited state with excess of internal vibrational energy and occur via conical intersections. This leads to ultrafast dynamics which are difficult to investigate with a single transient absorption spectroscopy technique, be it in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) or infrared (IR) domain. On one hand, the information available in the UV-vis domain is limited as only slight spectral changes are observed for different isomers. On the other hand, the interpretation of vibrational spectra is strongly hindered by intramolecular relaxation and vibrational cooling. These limitations can be circumvented by fusing UV-vis and IR transient absorption spectroscopy data in a multiset multivariate curve resolution analysis. We apply this approach to describe the spectrodynamics of the ultrafast cis-trans photoisomerization around the C-N double bond observed for aromatic Schiff bases. Twisted intermediate states could be elucidated, and isomerization was shown to occur through a continuous complete rotation. More broadly, data fusion can be used to rationalize a vast range of ultrafast photoisomerization processes of interest in photochemistry.

  19. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  20. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Revealing the structure of isolated peptides: IR-IR predissociation spectroscopy of protonated triglycine isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-05-01

    We report an isomer specific IR-IR double resonance study of the mass-selected protonated triglycine peptide. Comparison of experimental spectra with calculations reveals the presence of two isomers, with protonation occurring at either the terminal amine site or one of the amide oxygen sites. The amine protonated isomer identified in our experiment contains an atypical cis amide configuration as well as a more typical trans amide. The amide protonated peptide, on the other hand, contains two trans amide moieties. Both isomers are found to be the lowest energy structures for their respective protonation site, but it is unclear, from experiments and calculations, which one is the global minimum. The presence of both in our experiments likely points to kinetic trapping of a higher energy structure. Finally, the observed frequencies of the Nsbnd H and Osbnd H stretch vibrations are used to estimate the hydrogen-bond strengths present in each isomer, accounting for the relative stabilities of these structures.

  2. Galaxy Evolution Studies with the SPace IR Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA): The Power of IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoglio, L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Bianchi, S.; Bocchio, M.; Bolatto, A.; Bradford, C.; Braine, J.; Carrera, F. J.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Doi, Y.; Efstathiou, A.; Egami, E.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Ferrara, A.; Fischer, J.; Franceschini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giard, M.; González-Alfonso, E.; Gruppioni, C.; Guillard, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Imanishi, M.; Ishihara, D.; Isobe, N.; Kaneda, H.; Kawada, M.; Kohno, K.; Kwon, J.; Madden, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Marassi, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuura, M.; Miniutti, G.; Nagamine, K.; Nagao, T.; Najarro, F.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Oyabu, S.; Pallottini, A.; Piro, L.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Roelfsema, P.; Sakon, I.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schneider, R.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Shibai, H.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Sobacchi, E.; Sturm, E.; Suzuki, T.; Vallini, L.; van der Tak, F.; Vignali, C.; Yamada, T.; Wada, T.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    IR spectroscopy in the range 12-230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA's large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z 6.

  3. Mid-ir Properties Of Seyferts: Spitzer/irs Spectroscopy Of The Iras 12µM Seyfert Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanling; Charmandaris, V.; Huang, J.

    2009-05-01

    The study of Seyfert galaxies is of particular interest as they trace the build up of SMBH at the centers of galaxies and they are responsible for the most of the cosmic X-ray background at redshift z 0.8. Given the high obscuration of their nuclei by dust extinction, a large fraction of their emitted radiation is absorbed and reemitted in the infrared. It has been recently demonstrated that mid-infrared spectroscopy, in particular with ISO and Spitzer, is a powerful tool to probe the physics of the radiation field of deeply enshrouded galactic nuclei. Here we present our analysis on the properties of Seyfert galaxies based mostly on our uniformly extracted low-resolution Spitzer/IRS 5.5-35micron spectra for 103 Seyfert galaxies, nearly 90% of the local 12 µm IRAS Seyfert sample. We find that we are able to disentangle the AGN/starburst contribution of the mid-IR emission, and estimate the circumnuclear star formation rate using typical mid-IR tracers. We also find that the mid-IR properties of Type 1 and Type 2 Seyferts are indistinguishable at a given luminosiry range, placing constrains both on the infrared optical depth to their nuclei galaxies as well as to the applicability of the unified AGN model.

  4. Determination of Ethanol in Gasoline by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred, Jr.; Goldcamp, Michael J.; Barrett, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the primary oxygenate in gasoline in the United States. Gasoline containing various percentages of ethanol is readily available in the market place. A laboratory experiment has been developed in which the percentage of ethanol in hexanes can easily be determined using the O-H and alkane C-H absorptions in an infrared spectrum. Standard…

  5. External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy for Mid-IR Transmission Measurements of Proteins in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Alcaráz, Mirta R; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Kristament, Christian; Ramer, Georg; Brandstetter, Markus; Goicoechea, Héctor; Lendl, Bernhard

    2015-07-07

    In this work, we report mid-IR transmission measurements of the protein amide I band in aqueous solution at large optical paths. A tunable external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) operated in pulsed mode at room temperature allowed one to apply a path length of up to 38 μm, which is four times larger than that applicable with conventional FT-IR spectrometers. To minimize temperature-induced variations caused by background absorption of the ν2-vibration of water (HOH-bending) overlapping with the amide I region, a highly stable temperature control unit with relative temperature stability within 0.005 °C was developed. An advanced data processing protocol was established to overcome fluctuations in the fine structure of the emission curve that are inherent to the employed EC-QCL due to its mechanical instabilities. To allow for wavenumber accuracy, a spectral calibration method has been elaborated to reference the acquired IR spectra to the absolute positions of the water vapor absorption bands. Employing this setup, characteristic spectral features of five well-studied proteins exhibiting different secondary structures could be measured at concentrations as low as 2.5 mg mL(-1). This concentration range could previously only be accessed by IR measurements in D2O. Mathematical evaluation of the spectral overlap and comparison of second derivative spectra confirm excellent agreement of the QCL transmission measurements with protein spectra acquired by FT-IR spectroscopy. This proves the potential of the applied setup to monitor secondary structure changes of proteins in aqueous solution at extended optical path lengths, which allow experiments in flow through configuration.

  6. IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekal', N. D.; Motevich, I. G.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the IR absorption and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine adsorbed on a silver hydrosol and on the surface of a silver electrode for different potentials. Based on quantum chemical calculations, for the first time we have assigned the vibrations in the berberine molecule according to vibrational mode. The effect of the potential of the silver electrode on the geometry of sorption of the molecule on the surface is considered, assuming a short-range mechanism for enhancement of Raman scattering.

  7. Discrimination of Fritillary according to geographical origin with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao; Wang, Bao-Qin

    2003-09-19

    Fritillaria is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for eliminating phlegm and relieving a cough with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. The objective of this study is to develop a nondestructive and accurate method to discriminate Fritillaria of different geographical origins, which is a troublesome work by existing analytical methods. We conducted a systematic study on five kinds of Fritillaria by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, second derivative infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy under thermal perturbation. Because Fritillaria consist of a large amount of starch, the conventional IR spectra of different Fritillaria only have very limited spectral feature differences. Based on these differences, we can separate different Fritillaria to a limited extent, but this method was deemed not very practical. The second derivative IR spectra of Fritillaria could enhance spectrum resolution, amplify the differences between the IR spectra of different Fritillaria, and provide some dissimilarity in their starch content, when compared with the spectrum of pure starch. Finally, we applied thermal perturbation to Fritillaria and analyzed the resulting spectra by the 2D correlation method to distinguish different Fritillaria easily and clearly. The distinction of very similar Fritillaria was possible because the spectral resolution was greatly enhanced by the 2D correlation spectroscopy. In addition, with the dynamic information of molecular structure provided by 2D correlation IR spectra, we studied the differences in the stability of active components of Fritillaria. The differences embodied mainly on the intensity ratio of the auto-peak at 985 cm(-1) and other auto-peaks. The 2D correlation IR spectroscopy (2D IR) of Fritillaria can be a new and powerful method to discriminate Fritillaria.

  8. High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B.

    2010-02-01

    New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar "weed" species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular "flowers." With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

  9. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  10. Revealing the structure of isolated peptides: IR-IR predissociation spectroscopy of protonated triglycine isomers

    DOE PAGES

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-03-08

    Here, we report an isomer specific IR-IR double resonance study of the mass-selected protonated triglycine peptide. Comparison of experimental spectra with calculations reveals the presence of two isomers, with protonation occurring at either the terminal amine site or one of the amide oxygen sites. The amine protonated isomer identified in our experiment contains an atypical cis amide configuration as well as a more typical trans amide. The amide protonated peptide, on the other hand, contains two trans amide moieties. Both isomers are found to be the lowest energy structures for their respective protonation site, but it is unclear, from experimentsmore » and calculations, which one is the global minimum. The presence of both in our experiments likely points to kinetic trapping of a higher energy structure. Lastly, the observed frequencies of the NH and OH stretch vibrations are used to estimate the hydrogen-bond strengths present in each isomer, accounting for the relative stabilities of these structures.« less

  11. Revealing the structure of isolated peptides: IR-IR predissociation spectroscopy of protonated triglycine isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    Here, we report an isomer specific IR-IR double resonance study of the mass-selected protonated triglycine peptide. Comparison of experimental spectra with calculations reveals the presence of two isomers, with protonation occurring at either the terminal amine site or one of the amide oxygen sites. The amine protonated isomer identified in our experiment contains an atypical cis amide configuration as well as a more typical trans amide. The amide protonated peptide, on the other hand, contains two trans amide moieties. Both isomers are found to be the lowest energy structures for their respective protonation site, but it is unclear, from experimentsmore » and calculations, which one is the global minimum. The presence of both in our experiments likely points to kinetic trapping of a higher energy structure. Lastly, the observed frequencies of the NH and OH stretch vibrations are used to estimate the hydrogen-bond strengths present in each isomer, accounting for the relative stabilities of these structures.« less

  12. Polarization-controlled optimal scatter suppression in transient absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Malý, Pavel; Ravensbergen, Janneke; Kennis, John T. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Croce, Roberta; Mančal, Tomáš; van Oort, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study fast photo-induced processes, such as electron, proton and energy transfer, isomerization and molecular dynamics, in a diverse range of samples, including solid state materials and proteins. Many such experiments suffer from signal distortion by scattered excitation light, in particular close to the excitation (pump) frequency. Scattered light can be effectively suppressed by a polarizer oriented perpendicular to the excitation polarization and positioned behind the sample in the optical path of the probe beam. However, this introduces anisotropic polarization contributions into the recorded signal. We present an approach based on setting specific polarizations of the pump and probe pulses, combined with a polarizer behind the sample. Together, this controls the signal-to-scatter ratio (SSR), while maintaining isotropic signal. We present SSR for the full range of polarizations and analytically derive the optimal configuration at angles of 40.5° between probe and pump and of 66.9° between polarizer and pump polarizations. This improves SSR by (or compared to polarizer parallel to probe). The calculations are validated by transient absorption experiments on the common fluorescent dye Rhodamine B. This approach provides a simple method to considerably improve the SSR in transient absorption spectroscopy. PMID:28262765

  13. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  14. Implications of New Methane Absorption Coefficients on Uranus Vertical Structure Derived from Near-IR Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.

    2009-09-01

    Using new methane absorption coefficients from Karkoschka and Tomasko (2009, submitted to Icarus, "Methane Absorption Coefficients for the Jovian Planets from Laboratory, Huygens, and HST Data"), we fit Uranus near-IR spectra previously analyzed in Sromovsky et al. (2006, Icarus 182, 577-593, Fink and Larson, 1979 J- and H-band), Sromovsky and Fry (2008, Icarus 193, 252-266, 2006 NIRC2 J- and H-band, 2006 SpeX) using Irwin et al. (2006, Icarus 181, 309-319) methane absorption coefficients. Because the new absorption coefficients usually result in higher opacities at the low temperatures seen in Uranus' upper troposphere, our previously derived cloud altitudes are expected to generally rise to higher altitudes. For example, using Lindal et al. (1987, JGR 92, 14987-15001) model D temperature and methane abundance profiles, we are better able to fit the J-band 43-deg. south bright band with the new coefficients (chi-square=205, vs. 315 for Irwin), with the pressure of the upper tropospheric cloud decreasing to 1.6 bars (from 2.4 bars using Irwin coefficients). Improvements in fitting H-band spectra from the same latitude are not as readily obtained. Derived upper tropospheric cloud pressures are very similar using the two absorption datasets (1.6-1.7 bars), but the character of the fits differs. New Karkoschka and Tomasko coefficients better fit some details in the 1.5-1.58 micron region, but Irwin fits the broad absorption band wing at 1.61-1.62 microns better, and the fit chi-square values are similar (K&T: 243, Irwin: 220). Results for a higher methane concentration (Lindal et al. model F) were similar. Whether the new coefficients will simply raise derived altitudes across the planet or will result in fundamental changes in structure is as yet unclear. This work was suported by NASA planetary astronomy and planetary atmospheres programs.

  15. Differentiation of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergilli by FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Curtis; Pechanova, Olga; Sparks, Darrell L; Brown, Ashli; Rodriguez, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a well-established and widely accepted methodology to identify and differentiate diverse microbial species. In this study, FT-IR was used to differentiate 20 strains of ubiquitous and agronomically important phytopathogens of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. By analyzing their spectral profiles via principal component and cluster analysis, differentiation was achieved between the aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing strains of both fungal species. This study thus indicates that FT-IR coupled to multivariate statistics can rapidly differentiate strains of Aspergilli based on their toxigenicity.

  16. QCL- and CO_2 Laser-Based Mid-Ir Spectrometers for High Accuracy Molecular Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sow, P. L. T.; Chanteau, B.; Auguste, F.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Argence, B.; Lopez, O.; Chardonnet, C.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C.; Darquie, B.; Nicolodi, D.; Abgrall, M.; Le Coq, Y.; Santarelli, G.

    2013-06-01

    With their rich internal structure, molecules can play a decisive role in precision tests of fundamental physics. They are now being used, for example in our group, to test fundamental symmetries such as parity and time reversal, and to measure either absolute values of fundamental constants or their temporal variation. Most of those experiments can be cast as the measurement of molecular frequencies. Ultra-stable and accurate sources in the mid-IR spectral region, the so-called molecular fingerprint region that hosts many intense rovibrational signatures, are thus highly desirable. We report on the development of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) based spectrometer. Our first characterization of a free-running cw near-room-temperature DFB 10.3 μm QCL led to a ˜200 kHz linewidth beat-note with our frequency-stabilized CO_2 laser. Narrowing of the QCL linewidth was achieved by straightforwardly phase-locking the QCL to the CO_2 laser. The great stability of the CO_2 laser was transferred to the QCL resulting in a record linewidth of a few tens of hertz. The use of QCLs will allow the study of any species showing absorption between 3 and 25 μm which will broaden the scope of our experimental setups dedicated to molecular spectroscopy-based precision measurements. Eventually we want to lock the QCL to a frequency comb itself stabilized to an ultra-stable near-IR reference provided via a 43-km long fibre by the French metrological institute and monitored against atomic fountain clocks. We report on the demonstration of this locking-scheme with a ˜10 μm CO_2 laser resulting in record 10^{-14}-10^{-15} fractional accuracy and stability. Stabilizing a QCL this way will free us from having to lock it to a molecular transition or a CO_2 laser. It will make it possible for any laboratory to have a stabilized QCL at any desired wavelength with spectral performances currently only achievable in the visible and near-IR, in metrological institutes.

  17. Cryogenic IR spectroscopy combined with ion mobility spectrometry for the analysis of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Neelam; Masellis, Chiara; Kamrath, Michael Z; Clemmer, David E; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2018-04-16

    We report here our combination of cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared (IR) spectroscopy with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) as a way to identify and analyze a set of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) ranging from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. The added dimension of IR spectroscopy provides a diagnostic fingerprint in the OH and NH stretching region, which is crucial to identify these oligosaccharides, which are difficult to distinguish by IMS alone. These results extend our previous work in demonstrating the generality of this combined approach for distinguishing subtly different structural and regioisomers of glycans of biologically relevant size.

  18. Determination of gold nanoparticle shape from absorption spectroscopy and ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battie, Yann; Izquierdo-Lorenzo, Irene; Resano-Garcia, Amandine; Naciri, Aotmane En; Akil, Suzanna; Adam, Pierre Michel; Jradi, Safi

    2017-11-01

    A new methodology is developed to determine the shape distribution of gold nanoparticles (NPs) from optical spectroscopic measurements. Indeed, the morphology of Au colloids is deduced by fitting their absorption spectra with an effective medium theory which takes into account the nanoparticle shape distribution. The same procedure is applied to ellipsometric measurements recorded on photoresist films which contain Au NPs. Three spaces (L2, r2, P2) are introduced to interpret the NPs shape distribution. In the P2 space, the sphericity, the prolacity and the oblacity estimators are proposed to quantify the shape of NPs. The r2 space enables the determination of the NP aspect ratio distribution. The distributions determined from optical spectroscopy were found to be in very good agreement with the shape distributions obtained by transmission electron microscopy. We found that fitting absorption or ellipsometric spectra with an adequate effective medium theory, provides a robust tool for measuring the shape and concentration of metallic NPs.

  19. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  20. IR spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, Yu N; Petrova, T M; Solodov, A M; Solodov, A A

    2010-12-06

    The absorption spectrum of the water vapor, confined in the nanoporous silica aerogel, was measured within 5000-5600 cm(-1) with the IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer. It has been shown, that tight confinement of the molecules by the nanoporous size leads to the strong lines broadening and shift. For water vapor lines, the HWHM of confined molecules are on the average 23 times larger than those for free molecules. The shift values are in the range from -0.03 cm(-1) to 0.09 cm(-1). Some spectral lines have negative shift. The data on the half-widths and center shifts for some strongest H(2)O lines have been presented.

  1. Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the 12um Seyferts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanling; Charmandaris, V.; Huang, J.; Houck, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extended 12um galaxy sample is a flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog 2. A total of 118 objects from this sample have been classified optically as Seyfert galaxies, providing one of the largest infrared selected unbiased sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present our prelimary results from our analysis of mid-infrared Spitzer/IRS spectra of 102 12um Seyferts (that is 86 % of the 12um Seyfert sample) which have been observed by various Spitzer programs and are available in the Spitzer archive. A number of mid-infared diagnostics have been developed to study the nature of nuclear dust enshrouded emission from AGNs, in order to disentangle the starburst-AGN connection. Since PAH emission is a tracer of star formation activity we have measured the 11.3um PAH feature for our Seyfert sample. We find that as the strength of the radiation field in AGNs increases the PAH molecules are destroyed, while the PAH EWs increase with the IRAS f60/f25 ratios of the host galaxies. We further probe this warm/cold color diagnostic, by contrasting our findings with those of we starbust galaxies, ULIRGs, as well as blue compact dwarf galaxies.

  2. FT-IR Spectroscopy Study in Early Diagnosis of Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidou, Maria; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Koui, Maria; Theophanides, Theophile

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy (4000-500 cm -1 ) was used to analyze the spectral changes and differences of the characteristic absorption bands of the skin components due to cancer development for early clinical diagnosis. Human biopsies from basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and nevus were used, while normal skin tissue served as a control. The high quality of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed that upon cancer development the intensity of the absorption band at approximately 3062 cm -1 was increased, indicating that most of the proteins had the configuration of amide B and the β-sheet protein structure predominated. The stretching vibration bands of vCH 2 in the region 2950-2850 cm -1 were increased in melanoma and nevus, while were less pronounced in basal cell carcinoma due to the increased lipophilic environment. In addition, the intensity of a new band at 1744 cm -1 , which is assigned to aldehyde, was increased in melanoma and nevus and appeared as a shoulder in the spectra of normal skin. The absorption band of amide I at 1650 cm -1 was split into two bands, at 1650 cm -1 and 1633 cm -1 , due to the presence of both α-helix and random coil protein conformations for melanoma and nevus. This was confirmed from the amide II band at 1550 cm -1 , which shifted to lower frequencies at 1536 cm -1 and 1540 cm -1 for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, respectively, indicating a damage of the native structure of proteins. The bands at 841 and 815 cm -1 , which are assigned to B-DNA and Z-DNA, respectively, indicated that only the bands of the cancerous Z-DNA form are pronounced in melanoma, while in BCC both the characteristic bands of B-DNA and Z-DNA forms are found. It is proposed that the bands described above could be used as "diagnostic marker" bands for DNA forms, in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  4. Allophane on Mars: Evidence from IR Spectroscopy and TES Spectral Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp. T. G.; Golden, D. C.; Christensen, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Allophane is an alteration product of volcanic glass and a clay mineral precursor that is commonly found in basaltic soils on Earth. It is a poorly-crystalline or amorphous, hydrous aluminosilicate with Si/Al ratios ranging from approx.0.5-1 [Wada, 1989]. Analyses of thermal infrared (TIR) spectra of the Martian surface from TES show high-silica phases at mid-to-high latitudes that have been proposed to be primary volcanic glass [Bandfield et al., 2000; Bandfield, 2002; Rogers and Christensen, 2007] or poorly-crystalline secondary silicates such as allophane or aluminous amorphous silica [Kraft et al., 2003; Michalski et al., 2006; Rogers and Christensen, 2007; Kraft, 2009]. Phase modeling of chemical data from the APXS on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit suggest the presence of allophane in chemically weathered rocks [Ming et al., 2006]. The presence of allophane on Mars has not been previously tested with IR spectroscopy because allophane spectra have not been available. We synthesized allophanes and allophanic gels with a range of Si/Al ratios to measure TIR emission and VNIR reflectance spectra and to test for the presence of allophane in Martian soils. VNIR reflectance spectra of the synthetic allophane samples have broad absorptions near 1.4 m from OH stretching overtones and 1.9 m from a combination of stretching and bending vibrations in H2O. Samples have a broad absorption centered near 2.25 microns, from AlAlOH combination bending and stretching vibrations, that shifts position with Si/Al ratio. Amorphous silica (opaline silica or primary volcanic glass) has been identified in CRISM spectra of southern highland terrains based on the presence of 1.4, 1.9, and broad 2.25 m absorptions [Mustard et al., 2008]; however, these absorptions are also consistent with the presence of allophane. TIR emission spectra of the synthetic allophanes show two spectrally distinct types: Si-rich and Al-rich. Si-rich allophanes have two broad absorptions centered near 1080

  5. Chapter 1.1 Crystallinity of Nanocellulose Materials by Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Considering that crystallinity is one of the important properties that influence the end use of cellulose nanomaterials, it is important that the former be measured accurately. Recently, a new method based on near-IR FTRaman spectroscopy was proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. It was reported that in the Raman spectrum of cellulose materials, the...

  6. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  7. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  8. Probing the Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on Transition Metal Clusters Using IR Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoutre, Vivike J. F.; Oomens, Jos; Bakker, Joost M.

    2012-06-01

    The discovery of enhanced catalytic activity of small gold clusters has led to a great interest in size-dependent catalytic properties of metal clusters. To obtain a better understanding of the catalytic mechanisms it is essential to know the structures of these clusters and the nature of their interaction with reactant molecules. We have studied the structure of gas-phase niobium clusters with a carbon monoxide adsorbed using IR action spectroscopy. We present size-selective IR spectra obtained via IR multiple photon spectroscopy monitoring either photodetachment or photodissociation depending on the charge state. The combination of these spectra with DFT calculations allows for the structural determination of the adsorption product. M. Haruta et al., Journal of Catalysis 115 301-309 (1989). M. Haertelt et al., The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2 1720-1724 (2011)

  9. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  10. Terahertz Absorption and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Solvated Biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Plaxco, Kevin; Allen, S. James

    2006-03-01

    Biopolymers are expected to exhibit broad spectral features in the terahertz frequency range, corresponding to their functionally relevant, global and sub-global collective vibrational modes with ˜ picosecond timescale. Recent advances in terahertz technology have stimulated researchers to employ terahertz absorption spectroscopy to directly probe these postulated collective modes. However, these pioneering studies have been limited to dry and, at best, moist samples. Successful isolation of low frequency vibrational activities of solvated biopolymers in their natural water environment has remained elusive, due to the overwhelming attenuation of the terahertz radiation by water. Here we have developed a terahertz absorption and circular dichroism spectrometer suitable for studying biopolymers in biologically relevant water solutions. We have precisely isolated, for the first time, the terahertz absorption of solvated prototypical proteins, Bovine Serum Albumin and Lysozyme, and made important direct comparison to the existing molecular dynamic simulations and normal mode calculations. We have also successfully demonstrated the magnetic circular dichroism in semiconductors, and placed upper bounds on the terahertz circular dichroism signatures of prototypical proteins in water solution.

  11. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident lasermore » light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.« less

  12. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 -5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm -3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  13. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leen, J. Brian; O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10−10 cm−1/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\sqrt {{\\rm Hz;}}$\\end{document} Hz ; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  14. Characterization of crystallinity in PET bottles by IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuan Q.; Christopher, Plummer J. G.

    2000-03-01

    PET is a semicrystalline thermoplastic widely used to package foods and beverages. Most of these applications rely on the barrier properties of the polymer, which improve with the proportion of crystalline phase. It is therefore important for the industries concerned to develop a fast, simple and reliable technique to quantify the degree of crystallization. Current FTIR and Raman spectroscopy correlate cristallinity with the trans to gauche ratio of the ethylene conformational isomers. Such a procedure, however, is based on the naive assumption that the proportion of trans isomers in the crystalline regions and that of the trans/gauche isomers in the amorphous regions vary linearly with the total crystallinity. By combining density measurements with DSC, WAXS and FTIR, we have shown the conformer technique to work well for isotropic PET sheets, but not for bottles. Biaxial extension of the preform during processing results in strain-induced cristallinity with a different morphology to that induced thermally. As a result, PET should be treated as a three-component mixture with distinct physical and spectroscopic properties for each phase. Using ATR, micro-transmission FTIR and factor analysis, our primary goal has been to develop a routine technique which allows one to identify the contribution of each component in the spectra of commercial PET bottles.

  15. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikat, I. A.; Hamad, B. A.

    2013-11-01

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75 ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir-C and Ir-Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  16. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Erikat, I A; Hamad, B A

    2013-11-07

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75 ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir-C and Ir-Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  17. Temperature-dependent mid-IR absorption spectra of gaseous hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Adam E.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative mid-IR absorption spectra (2500 3400 cm-1) for 12 pure hydrocarbon compounds are measured at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 °C using an FTIR spectrometer. The hydrocarbons studied are n-pentane, n-heptane, n-dodecane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), 2-methyl-butane, 2-methyl-pentane, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, propene, toluene, m-xylene, and ethylbenzene. Room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbon vapor were made with an instrument resolution of both 0.1 and 1 cm-1 (FWHM) to confirm that the high-resolution setting was required only to resolve the propene absorption spectrum while the spectra of the other hydrocarbons could be resolved with 1 cm-1 resolution. High-resolution (0.1 cm-1), room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbons were made at low pressure (˜1 Torr, 133 Pa) and compared to measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure to verify that no pressure broadening could be observed over this pressure range. The temperature was varied between 25 and 500 °C for atmospheric-pressure measurements of hydrocarbon/N2 mixtures (Xhydrocarbon˜0.06 1.5%) and it was found that the absorption cross section shows simple temperature-dependent behavior for a fixed wavelength over this temperature range. Comparisons with previous FTIR data over a limited temperature range and with high-resolution laser absorption data over a wide temperature range show good agreement.

  18. Probing the CZTS/CdS heterojunction utilizing photoelectrochemistry and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, Daniel; Wong, Jonathan; Yiu, Yun Mui; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Ding, Zhifeng

    2018-04-01

    The importance of renewable resources is becoming more and more influential on research due to the depletion of fossil fuels. Cost-effective ways of harvesting solar energy should also be at the forefront of these investigations. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells are well within the frame of these goals, and a thorough understanding of how they are made and processed synthetically is crucial. The CZTS/CdS heterojunction was examined using photoelectrochemistry and synchrotron radiation (SR) spectroscopy. These tools provided physical insights into this interface that was formed by the electrophoretic deposition of CZTS nanocrystals and chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS for the respective films. It was discovered that CBD induced a change in the local and long range environment of the Zn in the CZTS lattice, which was detrimental to the photoresponse. X-ray absorption near-edge structures and extended X-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFSs) of the junction showed that this change was at an atomic level and was associated with the coordination of oxygen to zinc. This was confirmed through FEFF fitting of the EXAFS and through IR spectroscopy. It was found that this change in both photoresponse and the Zn coordination can be reversed with the use of low temperature annealing. Investigating CZTS through SR techniques provides detailed structural information of minor changes from the zinc perspective.

  19. Probing Gas Adsorption in Zeolites by Variable-Temperature IR Spectroscopy: An Overview of Current Research.

    PubMed

    Garrone, Edoardo; Delgado, Montserrat R; Bonelli, Barbara; Arean, Carlos O

    2017-09-15

    The current state of the art in the application of variable-temperature IR (VTIR) spectroscopy to the study of (i) adsorption sites in zeolites, including dual cation sites; (ii) the structure of adsorption complexes and (iii) gas-solid interaction energy is reviewed. The main focus is placed on the potential use of zeolites for gas separation, purification and transport, but possible extension to the field of heterogeneous catalysis is also envisaged. A critical comparison with classical IR spectroscopy and adsorption calorimetry shows that the main merits of VTIR spectroscopy are (i) its ability to provide simultaneously the spectroscopic signature of the adsorption complex and the standard enthalpy change involved in the adsorption process; and (ii) the enhanced potential of VTIR to be site specific in favorable cases.

  20. Collison-Induced Absorption of Oxygen Molecule as Studied by High Sensitivity Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashihara, Wataru; Shoji, Atsushi; Kawai, Akio

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen dimol is transiently generated when two oxygen molecules collide. At this short period, the electron clouds of molecules are distorted and some forbidden transition electronic transitions become partially allowed. This transition is called CIA (Collision-induced absorption). There are several CIA bands appearing in the spectral region from UV to near IR. Absorption of solar radiation by oxygen dimol is a small but significant part of the total budget of incoming shortwave radiation. However, a theory predicting the lineshape of CIA is still under developing. In this study, we measured CIA band around 630 nm that is assigned to optical transition, a^{1}Δ_{g}(v=0):a^{1}Δ_{g}(v=0)-X^{3}Σ_{g}^{-}(v=0):X^{3}Σ_{g}^{-}(v=0) of oxygen dimol. CRDS(Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy) was employed to measure weak absorption CIA band of oxygen. Laser beam around 630 nm was generated by a dye laser that was pumped by a YAG Laser. Multiple reflection of the probe light was performed within a vacuum chamber that was equipped with two high reflective mirrors. We discuss the measured line shape of CIA on the basis of collision pair model.

  1. Remote Thermal IR Spectroscopy of our Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Livengood, Timothy; Fast, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Indirect methods to detect extrasolar planets have been successful in identifying a number of stars with companion planets. No direct detection of an extrasolar planet has yet been reported. Spectroscopy in the thermal infrared region provides a potentially powerful approach to detection and characterization of planets and planetary systems. We can use knowledge of our own solar system, its planets and their atmospheres to model spectral characteristics of planets around other stars. Spectra derived from modeling our own solar system seen from an extrasolar perspective can be used to constrain detection strategies, identification of planetary class (terrestrial vs. gaseous) and retrieval of chemical, thermal and dynamical information. Emission from planets in our solar system peaks in the thermal infrared region, approximately 10 - 30 microns, substantially displaced from the maximum of the much brighter solar emission in the visible near 0.5 microns. This fact provides a relatively good contrast ratio to discriminate between stellar (solar) and planetary emission and optimize the delectability of planetary spectra. Important molecular constituents in planetary atmospheres have rotational-vibrational spectra in the thermal infrared region. Spectra from these molecules have been well characterized in the laboratory and studied in the atmospheres of solar system planets from ground-based and space platforms. The best example of such measurements are the studies with Fourier transform spectrometers, the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometers (IRIS), from spacecraft: Earth observed from NIMBUS 8, Mars observed from Mariner 9, and the outer planets observed from Voyager spacecraft. An Earth-like planet is characterized by atmospheric spectra of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water. Terrestrial planets have oxidizing atmospheres which are easily distinguished from reducing atmospheres of gaseous giant planets which lack oxygen-bearing species and are characterized by spectra

  2. The discrimination of 72 nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts using IR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic oxidizing energetic salts including nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are widely used in the manufacture of not only licit pyrotechnic compositions, but also illicit homemade explosive mixtures. Their identification in forensic laboratories is usually accomplished by either capillary electrophoresis or ion chromatography, with the disadvantage of dissociating the salt into its ions. On the contrary, vibrational spectroscopy, including IR and Raman, enables the non-invasive identification of the salt, i.e. avoiding its dissociation. This study focuses on the discrimination of all nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts that are commercially available, using both Raman and IR spectroscopy, with the aim of testing whether every salt can be unequivocally identified. Besides the visual spectra comparison by assigning every band with the corresponding molecular vibrational mode, a statistical analysis based on Pearson correlation was performed to ensure an objective identification, either using Raman, IR or both. Positively, 25 salts (out of 72) were unequivocally identified using Raman, 30 salts when using IR and 44 when combining both techniques. Negatively, some salts were undistinguishable even using both techniques demonstrating there are some salts that provide very similar Raman and IR spectra.

  3. IR multiphoton absorption of SF6 in flow with Ar at moderate energy fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, G. N.; Ronander, E.; van Heerden, S. P.; Gouws, M.; van der Merwe, K.

    1997-10-01

    IR multiple photon absorption (MPA) of SF6 in flow with Ar (SF6: Ar=1:100) in conditions of a large vibrational/rotational temperature difference (TV𪒮 K, TR䏐 K) was studied at moderate energy fluences from ۂ.1 to 𪐬 mJ/cm2, which are of interest for isotope selective two-step dissociation of molecules. A 50 cm Laval-type slit nozzle for the flow cooling, and a TEA CO2-laser for excitation of molecules were used in the experiments. The laser energy fluence dependences of the SF6 MPA were studied for several CO2-laser lines which are in a good resonance with the linear absorption spectrum of the Ƚ vibration of SF6 at low temperature. The effect of the laser pulse duration (intensity) on MPA of flow cooled SF6 with Ar was also studied. The results are compared with those obtained in earlier studies.

  4. Hyperspectral tomography based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jinghang; O'Hagan, Seamus; Liu, Hecong; Cai, Weiwei; Ewart, Paul

    2017-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a hyperspectral tomographic technique that can recover the temperature and concentration field of gas flows based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS). This method relies on the recently proposed concept of nonlinear tomography, which can take full advantage of the nonlinear dependency of MUMAS signals on temperature and enables 2D spatial resolution of MUMAS which is naturally a line-of-sight technique. The principles of MUMAS and nonlinear tomography, as well as the mathematical formulation of the inversion problem, are introduced. Proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations are presented using representative flame phantoms and assuming typical laser parameters. The results show that faithful reconstruction of temperature distribution is achievable when a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 is assumed. This method can potentially be extended to simultaneously reconstructing distributions of temperature and the concentration of multiple flame species.

  5. The application of UV LEDs for differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.

    2018-04-01

    Modern UV LEDs represent a potentially very advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular xenon arc lamps, which are the most common light sources in trace gas-analyzers. So, the light-emitting diodes are very attractive for use of as light sources for Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes have now allowed us to construct a portable, long path DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. First of all, we are talking about the measurement of sulphur dioxide, carbon disulphide and, oxides of chlorine and bromine. The parallel measurements of sulfur dioxide using a certified gas analyzer, were conducted and showed good correlation.

  6. La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.

  7. Rapid identification of Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-07-01

    Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  8. Time-domain SFG spectroscopy using mid-IR pulse shaping: practical and intrinsic advantages.

    PubMed

    Laaser, Jennifer E; Xiong, Wei; Zanni, Martin T

    2011-03-24

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is a ubiquitous tool in the surface sciences. It provides infrared transition frequencies and line shapes that probe the structure and environment of molecules at interfaces. In this article, we apply techniques learned from the multidimensional spectroscopy community to SFG spectroscopy. We implement balanced heterodyne detection to remove scatter and the local oscillator background. Heterodyning also separates the resonant and nonresonant signals by acquiring both the real and imaginary parts of the spectrum. We utilize mid-IR pulse shaping to control the phase and delay of the mid-IR pump pulse. Pulse shaping allows phase cycling for data collection in the rotating frame and additional background subtraction. We also demonstrate time-domain data collection, which is a Fourier transform technique, and has many advantages in signal throughput, frequency resolution, and line shape accuracy over existing frequency domain methods. To demonstrate time-domain SFG spectroscopy, we study an aryl isocyanide on gold, and find that the system has an inhomogeneous structural distribution, in agreement with computational results, but which was not resolved by previous frequency-domain SFG studies. The ability to rapidly and actively manipulate the mid-IR pulse in an SFG pules sequence makes possible new experiments and more accurate spectra. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  10. Time-resolved diode laser infrared absorption spectroscopy of the nascent HCl in the infrared laser chemistry of 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Peter; Quack, Martin; Seyfang, George

    1990-04-01

    The IR multiphoton excitation and the frequency, fluence and intensity dependence of the IR-laser chemical yields of CF 2ClCH 2Cl have been studied in the fluence range of 1 to 10 J cm -2 yielding a steady-state constant k(st)/ I=0.74×10 6 s -1 MW -1 cm 2 which is approximately independent of intensity. Time-resolved IR absorption spectroscopy with diode laser sources has been used to observe the nascent HCl during the first few 100 ns indicating a population inversion between the levels ν=1, J=4 and ν=2, J=5. At low reactant pressures ( p⩽10 Pa) the time-resolved measurement gives a steady-state rate constant consistent with the theoretical result adjusted to the static yield measurements. The capability of state-selective and time-resolved IR spectroscopy is thus demonstrated, giving real-time determinations of rate constants.

  11. Structural dynamics inside a functionalized metal–organic framework probed by ultrafast 2D IR spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Nishida, Jun; Tamimi, Amr; Fei, Honghan; ...

    2014-12-15

    One key property of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are their structural elasticity. IHere we show that 2D IR spectroscopy with pulse-shaping techniques can probe the ultrafast structural fluctuations of MOFs. 2D IR data, obtained from a vibrational probe attached to the linkers of UiO-66 MOF in low concentration, revealed that the structural fluctuations have time constants of 7 and 670 ps with no solvent. Filling the MOF pores with dimethylformamide (DMF) slows the structural fluctuations by reducing the ability of the MOF to undergo deformations, and the dynamics of the DMF molecules are also greatly restricted. Finally, methodology advances were requiredmore » to remove the severe light scattering caused by the macroscopic-sized MOF particles, eliminate interfering oscillatory components from the 2D IR data, and address Förster vibrational excitation transfer.« less

  12. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  13. Attosecond XUV absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states in helium atoms dressed by a time-delayed femtosecond infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. Q.; Ye, D. F.; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas; Fu, L. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy of doubly excited states of helium atoms by solving the time-dependent two-electron Schrödinger equation numerically based on a one-dimensional model. The helium atoms are subjected to an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse and a time-delayed infrared (IR) few-cycle laser pulse. A superposition of doubly excited states populated by the XUV pulse is identified, which interferes with the direct ionization pathway leading to Fano resonance profiles in the photoabsorption spectrum. In the presence of an IR laser, however, the Fano line profiles are strongly modified: A shifting, splitting, and broadening of the original absorption lines is observed when the XUV attosecond pulse and infrared few-cycle laser pulse overlap in time, which is in good agreement with recent experimental results. At certain time delays, we observe symmetric Lorentz, inverted Fano profiles, and even negative absorption cross sections indicating that the XUV light can be amplified during the interaction with atoms. We further prove that the above pictures are general for different doubly excited states by suitably varying the frequency of the IR field to coherently couple the corresponding states.

  14. Rapid detection of talcum powder in tea using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yuying; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the feasibility of Fourier transform infrared transmission (FT-IR) spectroscopy to detect talcum powder illegally added in tea based on chemometric methods. Firstly, 210 samples of tea powder with 13 dose levels of talcum powder were prepared for FT-IR spectra acquirement. In order to highlight the slight variations in FT-IR spectra, smoothing, normalize and standard normal variate (SNV) were employed to preprocess the raw spectra. Among them, SNV preprocessing had the best performance with high correlation of prediction (RP = 0.948) and low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.108) of partial least squares (PLS) model. Then 18 characteristic wavenumbers were selected based on a hybrid of backward interval partial least squares (biPLS) regression, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm and successive projections algorithm (SPA). These characteristic wavenumbers only accounted for 0.64% of the full wavenumbers. Following that, 18 characteristic wavenumbers were used to build linear and nonlinear determination models by PLS regression and extreme learning machine (ELM), respectively. The optimal model with RP = 0.963 and RMSEP = 0.137 was achieved by ELM algorithm. These results demonstrated that FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometrics could be used successfully to detect talcum powder in tea. PMID:27468701

  15. Application of Diffuse Reflectance FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Surface Study of Kevlar Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzi, E. G.; Ishida, H.; Koenig, J. L.

    1985-12-01

    The surfaces of Kevlar-49 aramid fibers, being used in high-performance composite materials, have been characterized by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Enhancement of the surface selectivity of the technique has been achieved using KBr overlayers. The water absorbed by both the skin and the core of the fibers has been characterized by using this technique and the accessibility of the fiber functional groups has been evaluated.

  16. Adaptive optics high-resolution IR spectroscopy with silicon grisms and immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; McDavitt, Daniel L.; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Bernecker, John L.; Miller, Shane

    2003-02-01

    The breakthrough of silicon immersion grating technology at Penn State has the ability to revolutionize high-resolution infrared spectroscopy when it is coupled with adaptive optics at large ground-based telescopes. Fabrication of high quality silicon grism and immersion gratings up to 2 inches in dimension, less than 1% integrated scattered light, and diffraction-limited performance becomes a routine process thanks to newly developed techniques. Silicon immersion gratings with etched dimensions of ~ 4 inches are being developed at Penn State. These immersion gratings will be able to provide a diffraction-limited spectral resolution of R = 300,000 at 2.2 micron, or 130,000 at 4.6 micron. Prototype silicon grisms have been successfully used in initial scientific observations at the Lick 3m telescope with adaptive optics. Complete K band spectra of a total of 6 T Tauri and Ae/Be stars and their close companions at a spectral resolution of R ~ 3000 were obtained. This resolving power was achieved by using a silicon echelle grism with a 5 mm pupil diameter in an IR camera. These results represent the first scientific observations conducted by the high-resolution silicon grisms, and demonstrate the extremely high dispersing power of silicon-based gratings. New discoveries from this high spatial and spectral resolution IR spectroscopy will be reported. The future of silicon-based grating applications in ground-based AO IR instruments is promising. Silicon immersion gratings will make very high-resolution spectroscopy (R > 100,000) feasible with compact instruments for implementation on large telescopes. Silicon grisms will offer an efficient way to implement low-cost medium to high resolution IR spectroscopy (R ~ 1000-50000) through the conversion of existing cameras into spectrometers by locating a grism in the instrument's pupil location.

  17. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  18. Molecular orientation in aligned electrospun polyimide nanofibers by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoqi; Jiang, Shaohua; Fang, Hong; Hu, Xiaowu; Duan, Gaigai; Hou, Haoqing

    2018-07-05

    Quantitative explanation on the improved mechanical properties of aligned electrospun polyimide (PI) nanofibers as the increased imidization temperatures is highly required. In this work, polarized FT-IR spectroscopy is applied to solve this problem. Based on the polarized FT-IR spectroscopy and the molecular model in the fibers, the length of the repeat unit of PI molecule, the angle between the fiber axis and the symmetric stretching direction of carbonyl group on the imide ring, and the angle between the PI molecular axis and fiber axis are all investigated. The Mark-Howink equation is used to calculate the number-average molar mass of PI molecules. The orientation states of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers are studied from the number-average molar mass of PI molecules and the average fiber diameter. Quantitative analysis of the orientation factor of PI molecules in the electrospun nanofibers is performed by polarized FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and sensing of protein monolayers using high performance enhancing substrates and a mobile phone (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Aykutlu; Ayas, Sencer; Bakan, Gokhan; Ozgur, Erol; Guner, Hasan; Celebi, Kemal

    2016-09-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy has greatly benefited from the electromagnetic field enhancement offered by plasmonic surfaces. However, because of the localized nature of plasmonic fields, such field enhancements are limited to nm-scale volumes. Here, we demonstrate that a relatively small, but spatially-uniform field enhancement can yield a superior infrared detection performance compared to the plasmonic field enhancement exhibited by optimized infrared nanoantennas. A specifically designed CaF2/Al thin film surface is shown to enable observation of stronger vibrational signals from the probe material, with wider bandwidth and a deeper spatial extent of the field enhancement as compared to optimized plasmonic surfaces. It is demonstrated that the surface structure presented here can enable chemically specific and label-free detection of organic monolayers using surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy. Also, a low cost hand held infrared absorption measurement setup is demonstrated using a miniature bolometric sensor and a mobile phone. A specifically designed grating in combination with an IR light source yields an IR spectrometer covering 7-12 um range, with about 100 cm-1 resolution. Combining the enhancing substrates with the spectroscopy setup, low cost, high sensitivity mobile infrared sensing is enabled. The results have implications in homeland security and environmental monitoring as well as chemical analysis.

  1. [Study of cubic boron nitride crystal UV absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Bo; Jia, Gang; Chen, Gang; Meng, Qing-Ju; Zhang, Tie-Chen

    2008-07-01

    UV absorption spectroscopy of artificial cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystal flake, synthesized under high-temperature and high-pressure, was studied in the present paper. UV WINLAB spectrometer was used in the experiments, and MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY software was used for data analysis. The UV-cBN limit of 198 nm was showed in this test by a special fixture quartz sample. We calculated the energy gap by virtue of the formula: lambda0 = 1.24/E(g) (microm). The energy gap is 6. 26 eV. There are many viewpoints about the gap of cBN. By using the first-principles theory to calculate energy band structure and density of electronic states of cBN, an indirect transition due to electronics in valence band jumping into conduction band by absorbing photon can be confirmed. That leads to UV absorption. The method of calculation was based on the quantum mechanics of CASTEP in the commercial software package of Cerius2 in the Co. Accerlrys in the United States. The theory of CASTEP is based on local density approximation or gradient corrected LDA. The crystal parameter of cBN was input to the quantum mechanics of CASTEP in order to construct the crystal parameter model of cBN. We calculated the energy gap of cBN by the method of gradient corrected LDA. The method underestimates the value of nonconductor by about 1 to 2 eV. We gaot some opinions as follows: cBN is indirect band semiconductor. The energy gap is 4.76 eV, less than our experiment. The reason may be defect that we ignored in calculating process. It was reported that the results by first principles method of calculation of the band generally was less than the experimental results. This paper shows good UV characteristics of cBN because of the good agreement of experimental results with the cBN band width. That is a kind of development prospect of UV photo-electronic devices and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  2. Indirect absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Ruf, Alexander; Fischer, Peer

    2013-11-04

    We record vibrational spectra with two indirect schemes that depend on the real part of the index of refraction: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. In the former, a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spot is imaged to determine the angles of total internal reflection, which yields the absorption line via a beam profile analysis. In the photothermal measurements, a tunable QCL excites vibrational resonances of a molecular monolayer, which heats the surrounding medium and changes its refractive index. This is observed with a probe laser in the visible. Sub-monolayer sensitivities are demonstrated.

  3. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  4. Absorption and emission spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.

    The advent of controllable synthetic methods for the production of semiconductor nanostructures has led to their use in a host of applications, including light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, sensors, and even television displays. This is, in part, due to the size, shape, and morphologically dependent optical and electrical properties that make this class of materials extremely customizable; wire-, rod- and sphere-shaped nanocrystals are readily synthesized through common wet chemical methods. Most notably, confining the physical dimension of the nanostructure to a size below its Bohr radius (aB) results in quantum confinement effects that increase its optical energy gap. Not only the size, but the shape of a particle can be exploited to tailor its optical and electrical properties. For example, confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires (NWs) of equivalent diameter possess significantly different optical gaps. This phenomenon has been ascribed to electrostatic contributions arising from dielectric screening effects that are more pronounced in an elongated (wire-like) morphology. Semiconducting nanostructures have thus received significant attention over the past two decades. However, surprisingly little work has been done to elucidate their basic photophysics on a single particle basis. What has been done has generally been accomplished through emission-based measurements, and thus does not fully capture the full breadth of these intriguing systems. What is therefore needed then are absorption-based studies that probe the size and shape dependent evolution of nanostructure photophysics. This thesis summarizes the single particle absorption spectroscopy that we have carried out to fill this knowledge gap. Specifically, the diameter-dependent progression of one-dimensional (1D) excitonic states in CdSe NWs has been revealed. This is followed by a study that focuses on the polarization selection rules of 1D excitons within single CdSe NWs. Finally

  5. [Measurements of IR absorption across section and spectrum simulation of lewisite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-peng; Wang, Hai-tao; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Liu; Guo, Xiao-di; Bai, Yun; Sun, Hao

    2015-02-01

    The vapor infrared transmission spectra of varied concentration of lewisite-1 were measured by a long-path FT-IR spectrometer, and its characteristic frequencies are 814, 930, 1563 cm(-1); their infrared absorption cross section (a) were determined using Beer-Lambert law. The corresponding sigma values are 3.89 +/- 0.01, 1.43 +/- 0.06, 4.47 +/- 0.05 ( X 10(-20) cm2 x molecule(-1)). Two little teeny peaks, 1158, 1288 cm(-1) were found in the measured spectra. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was applied to calculated the infrared spectra of lewisite-1, -2, -3 on a b3lyp/6-311+g(d, p) level by Gauss09 package. The vibration modes were assigned by Gaussview5. 08. The calculated spectra and experimental spectra are in good agreement with each other in 600-1600 cm(-1) range, for the Person's r is 0.9991. The calculated spectra also showed three characteristic frequencies (293, 360, 374 cm(-1)) related to As atom. 0.977 was a scaling factor we determined for lewisite-1 through least-square error and its performance to scale lewisite-1, -2, -3 was acceptable. The results of this work are useful for monitoring environmental atmospheric concentrations of lewisite.

  6. Differentiation of the root of Cultivated Ginseng, Mountain Cultivated Ginseng and Mountain Wild Ginseng using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Yong-Guo; Xu, Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-07-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal medicines. Based on the grown environments and the cultivate method, three kinds of ginseng, Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG) and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG) are classified. A novel and scientific-oriented method was developed and established to discriminate and identify three kinds of ginseng using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), secondary derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The findings indicated that the relative contents of starch in the CG were more than that in MCG and MWG, while the relative contents of calcium oxalate and lipids in MWG were more than that in CG and MCG, and the relative contents of fatty acid in MCG were more than that in CG and MWG. The hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to data analysis of MWG, CG and MWG, which could be classified successfully. The results demonstrated the macroscopic IR fingerprint method, including FT-IR, secondary derivative IR and 2D-IR, can be applied to discriminate different ginsengs rapidly, effectively and non-destructively.

  7. Study on antibacterial alginate-stabilized copper nanoparticles by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Visurraga, Judith; Daza, Carla; Pozo, Claudio; Becerra, Abraham; von Plessing, Carlos; García, Apolinaria

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1) the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2) structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix. Methods Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to studying the stabilization mechanism of Cu NPs by NaAlg molecules. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of stabilized Cu NPs against five bacterial strains (Staphylococccus aureus ATCC 6538P, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and O157: H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 and 14028) were evaluated with macrodilution

  8. Nanosecond step-scan FT-infrared absorption spectroscopy in photochemistry and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, H.

    1998-06-01

    Time-resolved step-scan FT-IR absorption spectroscopy has been expanded to a resolution of 20 nanosecond. Following a description of the experimental set-up, applications in four research areas are presented. In the first project, we discuss a reversible isomerization, namely the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Main results are the discovery of 2 processes with distinct kinetics on the nanosecond time scale not detected by previous spectroscopic techniques, and observation of an instantaneous response of the protein environment to chromophore dynamics within the nanosecond laser pulse duration. In a second project, alkane C-H bond activation by a transition metal complex in room temperature solution is investigated and the first measurement of the formation of a C-H insertion product reported (alkyl hydride). Then, a nanosecond study of a pericyclic reaction, the ring-opening of cyclohexadiene, is discussed. The fourth example describes the first observation of a transient molecule in a zeolite matrix, a triplet excited quinone, by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

  9. Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons under Interstellar Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1996-01-01

    The presence and importance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a large family of organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen) in the interstellar medium has already been well established. The Astrochemistry Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center (under the direction of Louis Allamandola and Scott Sandford) has been the center of pioneering work in performing spectroscopy on these molecules under simulated interstellar conditions, and consequently in the identification of these species in the interstellar medium by comparison to astronomically obtained spectra. My project this summer was twofold: (1) We planned on obtaining absorption spectra of a number of PAHs and their cations in cold (4K) Ne matrices. The purpose of these experiments was to increase the number of different PAHs for which laboratory spectra have been obtained under these simulated interstellar conditions; and (2) I was to continue the planning and design of a new laser facility that is being established in the Astrochemistry laboratory. The laser-based experimental set-up will greatly enhance our capability in examining this astrophysically important class of compounds.

  10. Quantification of atmospheric formaldehyde by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, John; Fleck, Derek; Rella, Chris; Kim-Hak, David

    2017-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a toxic, carcinogenic compound that can contaminate ambient air as a result of combustion or outgassing of commercial products such as adhesives used to fabricate plywood and to affix indoor carpeting. Like many small molecules, formaldehyde has an infrared absorption spectrum exhibiting bands of ro-vibrational transitions that are well resolved at low pressure and therefore well suited for optical analysis of formaldehyde concentration. We describe progress in applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy of the 2v5 band (the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch, origin at 1770 nm) to the quantitative analysis of formaldehyde concentration in ambient air. Preliminary results suggest that a sensitivity of 1-2 ppb in a measurement interval of a few seconds, and 0.1-0.2 ppb in a few minutes, should be achievable with a compact, robust, and field-deployable instrument. Finally, we note that recent satellites monitoring snapshots of formaldehyde columns give insights into global formaldehyde production, migration and lifetime. The ability to monitor formaldehyde with a small and portable analyzer has the potential to aid in validation of these snapshots and to provide complementary data to show vertical dispersions with high spatial accuracy.

  11. Potential of mid IR spectroscopy in the rapid label free identification of skin malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The rapid inspection of suspicious skin lesions for pathological cell types is the objective of optical point of care diagnostics technologies. A marker free fast diagnosis of skin malignancies would overcome the limitations of the current gold standard surgical biopsy. The time consuming and costly biopsy procedure requires the inspection of each sample by a trained pathologist, which limits the analysis of potentially malignant lesions. Optical technologies like RAMAN or infrared spectroscopy, which provide both, localization and chemical information, can be used to differentiate malignant from healthy tissue by the analysis of multi cell structures and cell type specific spectra. We here report the application of midIR spectroscopy towards fast and reliable skin diagnostics. Within the European research project MINERVA we developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional human skin equivalents. The standards were characterized in the established midIR range and also with newly developed systems for fast imaging up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially the tumor cells. The signals from single cell layers were sufficient for cell type differentiation. We have compared different midIR systems and found all of them suitable for specific cell type identification. Our data demonstrate the potential of midIR spectroscopy for fast image acquisition and an improved data processing as sensitive and specific optical biopsy technology.

  12. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  13. Electronic transitions and heterogeneity of the bacteriophytochrome Pr absorption band: An angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe study

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Martin; Yang, Yang; Zienicke, Benjamin; Hammam, Mostafa A.S.; von Haimberger, Theodore; Zacarias, Angelica; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Heyne, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Photoisomerization of biliverdin (BV) chromophore triggers the photoresponse in native Agp1 bacteriophytochrome. We discuss heterogeneity in phytochrome Pr form to account for the shape of the absorption profile. We investigated different regions of the absorption profile by angle balanced polarization resolved femtosecond VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy. We studied the Pr form of Agp1 with its natural chromophore and with a sterically locked 18Et-BV (locked Agp1). We followed the dynamics and orientations of the carbonyl stretching vibrations of ring D and ring A in their ground and electronically excited states. Photoisomerization of ring D is reflected by strong signals of the ring D carbonyl vibration. In contrast, orientational data on ring A show no rotation of ring A upon photoexcitation. Orientational data allow excluding a ZZZasa geometry and corroborates a nontwisted ZZZssa geometry of the chromophore. We found no proof for heterogeneity but identified a new, to our knowledge, electronic transition in the absorption profile at 644 nm (S0→S2). Excitation of the S0→S2 transition will introduce a more complex photodynamics compared with S0→S1 transition. Our approach provides fundamental information on disentanglement of absorption profiles, identification of chromophore structures, and determination of molecular groups involved in the photoisomerization process of photoreceptors. PMID:24138851

  14. Advanced algorithms for the identification of mixtures using condensed-phase FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Andersson, Greger; Levy, Dustin; Tomczyk, Carol; Zou, Peng; Zuidema, Eric

    2011-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. Advances in instrument portability have made possible the use of FT-IR spectroscopy in emergency response and military field applications. The samples collected in those harsh environments are rarely pure and typically contain multiple chemical species in water, sand, or inorganic matrices. In such critical applications, it is also desired that in addition to broad chemical identification, the user is warned immediately if the sample contains a threat or target class material (i.e. biological, narcotic, explosive). The next generation HazMatID 360 combines the ruggedized design and functionality of the current HazMatID with advanced mixture analysis algorithms. The advanced FT-IR instrument allows effective chemical assessment of samples that may contain one or more interfering materials like water or dirt. The algorithm was the result of years of cumulative experience based on thousands of real-life spectra sent to our ReachBack spectral analysis service by customers in the field. The HazMatID 360 combines mixture analysis with threat detection and chemical hazard classification capabilities to provide, in record time, crucial information to the user. This paper will provide an overview of the software and algorithm enhancements, in addition to examples of improved performance in mixture identification.

  15. Carbon monoxide recombination dynamics in truncated hemoglobins studied with visible-pump midIR-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lapini, Andrea; Di Donato, Mariangela; Patrizi, Barbara; Marcelli, Agnese; Lima, Manuela; Righini, Roberto; Foggi, Paolo; Sciamanna, Natascia; Boffi, Alberto

    2012-08-02

    Carbon monoxide recombination dynamics upon photodissociation with visible light has been characterized by means of ultrafast visible-pump/MidIR probe spectroscopy for the truncated hemoglobins from Thermobifida fusca and Bacillus subtilis. Photodissociation has been induced by exciting the sample at two different wavelengths: 400 nm, corresponding to the heme absorption in the B-band, and 550 nm, in the Q-bands. The bleached iron-CO coordination band located at 1850-1950 cm(-1) and the free CO absorption band in the region 2050-2200 cm(-1) have been observed by probe pulses tuned in the appropriate infrared region. The kinetic traces measured at 1850-1950 cm(-1) reveal multiexponential subnanosecond dynamics that have been interpreted as arising from fast geminate recombination of the photolyzed CO. A compared analysis of the crystal structure of the two proteins reveals a similar structure of their distal heme pocket, which contains conserved polar and aromatic amino acid residues closely interacting with the iron ligand. Although fast geminate recombination is observed in both proteins, several kinetic differences can be evidenced, which can be interpreted in terms of a different structural flexibility of the corresponding heme distal pockets. The analysis of the free CO band-shape and of its dynamic evolution brings out novel features about the nature of the docking site inside the protein cavity.

  16. Collaborative Student Laboratory Exercise Using FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Kinetics Study of a Biotin Analogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Jhaque; Ackroyd, Nathan C.; Ho, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of N-methoxycarbonyl-2-imidazolidone, an analogue of biotin, was conducted by organic chemistry students and confirmed using FT-IR and H NMR. Spectroscopy students used FT-IR to measure the rate of hydrolysis of the product and determined the rate constant for the reaction using the integrated rate law. From the magnitude of the rate…

  17. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  18. Thermal stability of chemically bonded phases on silica gel by photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierys, A.; Pasieczna, S.; Ryczkowski, J.; Goworek, J.

    2006-11-01

    The temperature resistance of chemically bonded phases on commercial silica gel, LiChrosorb RP 2, RP 8, RP 18 and unmodified Si 60 were tested at different temperatures by photoacoustic FT-IR spectroscopy. The surface characteristics and possible degradation of hydrocarbon phase at higher temperatures were investigated by means of FT-IR/PAS technique. For a series of investigated samples heated up to 423 K, the FT-IR/PAS spectra are similar to those for initial silica samples. The most characteristic band for alkyl modified silica gel, i.e., RP 2, RP 8, and RP 18 was observed between 3200 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1 corresponding to various hydrocarbon species. The bands at 3745 cm-1, 3650 cm-1, and 3430 cm-1 observed in the photoacoustic FT-IR spectra may be ascribed to isolated silanol groups (Si-OH), geminal groups (Si-(OH)2) and hydrogen-bonded Si-OH groups, respectively. For all samples the intensity of the broad band in the region 3800 cm-1 to 3200 cm-1 decreases with the increasing temperature. The additional peak at 3745 cm-1 for chemically bonded long hydrocarbon chain, i.e., C18 and C8 after thermal treatment at 573 K is observed.

  19. IR reflectance spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. Implications for Saturn's icy moons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oancea, A.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bezacier, L.; Bollengier, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Tobie, G.

    2012-04-01

    A CO2 spectral band was discovered by VIMS on the Saturn's satellites Dione, Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe [1]. The band position on the three first satellites corresponds to CO2 trapped in a complex material, but no indication exists whether this latter is water ice or some mineral or complex organic compound [1]. On Phoebe, the CO2 spectral band is consistent with solid CO2 or CO2 molecules trapped in the small cages of a clathrate hydrate structure [2]. It is thought that clathrate hydrates could play a significant role in the chemistry of the solar nebula [3] and in the physical evolution of astrophysical objects [4]. But so far, no clathrate hydrate structure has been observed in astrophysical environments. Moreover, identification of molecules trapped in a clathrate hydrate structure is extremely difficult because of the strong IR vibration modes of the water ice matrix. In this work, experimental IR reflectance spectra for CO2 clathrate hydrates are studied on grains and films. Clathrates are synthesized in a high pressure autoclave at low temperatures. IR spectral analysis is made with a low pressure and low temperature cryostat. These experimental conditions - 80 < T < 110 K, P~10-5 bar - are relevant to icy moons' surfaces. We have observed that the IR reflectance, in the spectral region (3 - 5 μm) characterized by H2O and CO2 high absorption coefficients, is strongly dependent on physical (size, surface) and optical (n and k) properties of the samples. The impact of these parameters on the CO2 clathrate IR reflectance spectrum will be presented. A comparison between the absorption bands of CO2 clathrate hydrates obtained in our lab and CO2 absorption bands as detected by VIMS on the icy satellites of Saturn will be shown. This experimental work confirms that VIMS data are not consistent with the presence of structure I CO2 clathrate hydrates on the surface of the icy moons. Possibility of having metastable structure II still remains unsolved and will be

  20. 193Ir Mössbauer spectroscopy of Pt-IrO 2 nanoparticle catalysts developed for detection and removal of carbon monoxide from air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, J. A.; Marcinkowska, K.; Wagner, F. E.

    2010-08-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy of 73.0 keV gamma-ray transition in 193Ir and supplementary analytical techniques were used to study the microstructure and chemical form of polymer-supported hydrophobic bimetallic Pt-Ir catalysts for detection and removal of CO from humid air at ambient conditions. The catalysts, typically with a composition of 9 wt.% Pt and 1 wt.% Ir, were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of polystyrene-divinylbenzene (SDB) granules with ethanol solutions of hexachloroplatinic and hexachloroiridic acids. This procedure, followed by reduction in H 2 or CO at only 200 °C or 250 °C, resulted in formation of highly-dispersed Pt-Ir particles usually smaller than 20 nm and having high catalytic activity and selectivity. Mössbauer spectra of 73.0 keV gamma-ray transition in 193Ir were taken after consecutive steps of preparation and exposure of catalysts to better understand and further improve the fabrication processes. In the as-impregnated state, iridium was found mostly as Ir(III) in [IrCl 6] 3- ions, with only a small fraction of Ir(IV) in [IrCl 6] 2- ions. The iridium in bimetallic clusters formed by reduction in hydrogen showed a strong tendency towards oxidation on exposure to air at room temperature, while Pt remained mostly metallic. In the most active and stable catalysts, the Ir and Pt in metallic regions of the clusters did not tend to segregate, unlike in Pt-Ir/silica-supported catalysts studied by us earlier. Further, this study shows that the IrO 2-like regions in the clusters exhibit stronger deviations from local symmetry and stoichiometry of crystalline IrO 2 than observed previously in Pt-Ir/silica catalysts. Our study also indicates that in the examined Pt-IrO 2 nanoparticles iridium largely provides the dissociative O 2 adsorption sites, while the CO adsorption occurs primarily at metallic Pt sites.

  1. Thermal properties of tannin extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. using TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Vinod; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Prabha, S Sabna; Prabhakumari, C; Potty, V P; Jisha, M S

    2016-01-01

    The chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. Testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. The use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. In this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional groups and thermal properties of tannins extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. The results of these analyses are compared with the commercial grade tannic acid. The FT-IR spectra showed bands characteristic of C = C, C-C and OH bonds. This important bioactive compound present in the cashew nut kernel testa was suggested as an interesting economical source of antioxidants for use in the food and nutraceutical industry.

  2. Super-resolved FT-IR spectroscopy: Strategies, challenges, and opportunities for membrane biophysics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica J; Yip, Christopher M

    2013-10-01

    Direct correlation of molecular conformation with local structure is critical to studies of protein- and peptide-membrane interactions, particularly in the context of membrane-facilitated aggregation, and disruption or disordering. Infrared spectroscopy has long been a mainstay for determining molecular conformation, following folding dynamics, and characterizing reactions. While tremendous advances have been made in improving the spectral and temporal resolution of infrared spectroscopy, it has only been with the introduction of scanned-probe techniques that exploit the raster-scanning tip as either a source, scattering tool, or measurement probe that researchers have been able to obtain sub-diffraction limit IR spectra. This review will examine the history of correlated scanned-probe IR spectroscopies, from their inception to their use in studies of molecular aggregates, membrane domains, and cellular structures. The challenges and opportunities that these platforms present for examining dynamic phenomena will be discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: FTIR in membrane proteins and peptide studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the regularization for nonlinear tomographic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jinghang; Yu, Tao; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic absorption spectroscopy (TAS) has attracted increased research efforts recently due to the development in both hardware and new imaging concepts such as nonlinear tomography and compressed sensing. Nonlinear TAS is one of the emerging modality that bases on the concept of nonlinear tomography and has been successfully demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. However, all the previous demonstrations were realized using only two orthogonal projections simply for ease of implementation. In this work, we examine the performance of nonlinear TAS using other beam arrangements and test the effectiveness of the beam optimization technique that has been developed for linear TAS. In addition, so far only smoothness prior has been adopted and applied in nonlinear TAS. Nevertheless, there are also other useful priors such as sparseness and model-based prior which have not been investigated yet. This work aims to show how these priors can be implemented and included in the reconstruction process. Regularization through Bayesian formulation will be introduced specifically for this purpose, and a method for the determination of a proper regularization factor will be proposed. The comparative studies performed with different beam arrangements and regularization schemes on a few representative phantoms suggest that the beam optimization method developed for linear TAS also works for the nonlinear counterpart and the regularization scheme should be selected properly according to the available a priori information under specific application scenarios so as to achieve the best reconstruction fidelity. Though this work is conducted under the context of nonlinear TAS, it can also provide useful insights for other tomographic modalities.

  5. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  6. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  7. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

  8. Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-08-03

    Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods.

  9. IR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Phase Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Gallstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, A. A.; Tsyro, L. V.; Unger, F. G.

    2018-01-01

    The composition of the inorganic and organic parts of gallstones was investigated by x-ray phase analysis and IR spectroscopy. Cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydrogen phosphate are all found in gallstones. The major component is cholesterol. A gallstone was separated into layers and the inorganic part was separated out by annealing. Inorganic compounds were found to predominate in the outer layer of the gallstone, which is related to the mechanism of its formation. The inorganic part contains calcium carbonate, present in both the calcite and waterite modifications.

  10. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Elucidate the Structures of Ablative Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The composition and structure of an ablative polymer has a multifaceted influence on its thermal, mechanical and ablative properties. Understanding the molecular level information is critical to the optimization of material performance because it helps to establish correlations with the macroscopic properties of the material, the so-called structure-property relationship. Moreover, accurate information of molecular structures is also essential to predict the thermal decomposition pathways as well as to identify decomposition species that are fundamentally important to modeling work. In this presentation, I will describe the use of infrared transmission spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a convenient tool to aid the discovery and development of thermal protection system materials.

  11. A structural study of fentanyl by DFT calculations, NMR and IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Zahra; Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Vessally, Esmail; Asnaashariisfahani, Manzarbanou; Yahyaei, Saeideh; Khani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    N-(1-(2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl-N-phenyl-propanamide (fentanyl) is synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The geometry optimization is performed using the B3LYP and M06 density functionals with 6-311 + G(d) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the all vibrational modes. Almost a nice correlation is found between the calculated 13C chemical shifts and experimental data. The frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential of fentanyl are also obtained.

  12. Structure-Activity Relations In Enzymes: An Application Of IR-ATR Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fringeli, Urs P.; Ahlstrom, Peter; Vincenz, Claudius; Fringeli, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Relations between structure and specific activity in immobilized acetylcholinesterase (ACNE) have been studied by means of pH- and Ca++-modulation technique combined with attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy and enzyme activity measurement. Periodic modulation of pH and Ca++-concentration enabled a periodic on-off switching of about 40% of the total enzyme activity. It was found that about 0.5 to 1% of the amino acids were involved in this process. These 15 to 30 amino acids assumed antiparallel pleated sheet structure in the inhibited state and random and/or helical structure in the activated state.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Trace Gases HCl, NO and SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haridass, C.; Aw-Musse, A.; Dowdye, E.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Misra, P.; Okabe, H.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data have been recorded in the spectral region 400-4000/cm of hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide with I/cm resolution and of nitric oxide with 0.25 cm-i resolution, under quasi-static conditions, when the sample gas was passed through tubings of aluminum, copper, stainless steel and teflon. The absorbance was measured for the rotational lines of the fundamental bands of (1)H(35)Cl and (1)H(37)Cl for pressures in the range 100-1000 Torr and for the (14)N(16)O molecule in the range 100-300 Torr. The absorbance was also measured for individual rotational lines corresponding to the three modes of vibrations (upsilon(sub 1) - symmetric stretch, upsilon(sub 2) - symmetric bend, upsilon(sub 3) - anti-symmetric stretch) of the SO2 molecule in the pressure range 25-150 Torr. A graph of absorbance versus pressure was plotted for the observed rotational transitions of the three atmospherically significant molecules, and it was found that the absorbance was linearly proportional to the pressure range chosen, thereby validating Beer's law. The absorption cross-sections were determined from the graphical slopes for each rotational transition recorded for the HCl, NO and SO2 species. Qualitative and quantitative spectral changes in the FT-IR data will be discussed to identify and characterize various tubing materials with respect to their absorption features.

  14. Conformational equilibrium of phenylacetic acid and its halogenated analogues through theoretical studies, NMR and IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandowski, Mariana N.; Rozada, Thiago C.; Melo, Ulisses Z.; Basso, Ernani A.; Fiorin, Barbara C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the conformational preferences of phenylacetic acid (PA) and its halogenated analogues (FPA, CPA, BPA). To clarify the effects that rule these molecules' behaviour, theoretical calculations were used, for both the isolated phase and solution, combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Most conformations of phenylacetic acid and its halogenated derivatives are stabilized through the hyperconjugative effect, which rules the conformational preference. NMR analyses showed that even with the variation in medium polarity, there was no significant change in the conformation population. Infrared spectroscopy showed similar results for all compounds under study. In most spectra, two bands were found through the carbonyl deconvolution, which is in accordance with the theoretical data. It was possible to prove that variation in the nature of the substituent in the ortho position had no significant influence on the conformational equilibrium.

  15. Infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of liquid-solid interfaces: The case of chiral modification of catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    An overview is provided here of our work on the characterization of chiral modifiers for the bestowing of enantioselectivity to metal-based hydrogenation catalysts, with specific reference to the so-called Orito reaction. We start with a brief discussion of the use of infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) for the characterization of chemical species at liquid-solid interfaces, describing the options available as well as the information that can be extracted from such experiments and the advantages and disadvantages associated with the technique. We then summarize the main results that we have reported to date from our IR study of the adsorption of cinchona alkaloids and related compounds from solutions onto platinum surfaces. Several observations are highlighted and placed in context in terms of the existing knowledge and their relevance to catalysis. Key conclusions include the uniqueness of the nature of the adsorbed species when in the presence of the solvent (versus when the uptake is done under vacuum, or versus the pure or dissolved molecules), the fact that each modifier adopts unique and distinct adsorption geometries on the surface and that those change with the concentration of the solution in ways that correlate well with the performance of the catalyst, the potential tendency of at least some of these chiral modifiers to bind to the surface primarily via the nitrogen atom of the amine group, not the aromatic ring as it is often assumed, and the observation that the ability of one modifier to dominate the catalytic chemistry in solutions containing mixtures of two or more of those is linked to their capacity for displacing each other from the surface, which in turn is determined by a balance between the strength of their binding to the surface and their solubility in the liquid solvent.

  16. Direct and Quantitative Photothermal Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Particulates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    1(a). By taking the ratio of the spectral absorption efficiency of the microwire to the corresponding volumetri - cally equivalent thin film, an...of D¼ 983 nm. For further comparison, the theoretical spectral absorption efficiency for a volumetri - cally equivalent (t¼ 983p/4 nm) thin film, Qabs

  17. 2D-IR Spectroscopy of an AHA Labeled Photoswitchable PDZ2 Domain.

    PubMed

    Stucki-Buchli, Brigitte; Johnson, Philip J M; Bozovic, Olga; Zanobini, Claudio; Koziol, Klemens L; Hamm, Peter; Gulzar, Adnan; Wolf, Steffen; Buchenberg, Sebastian; Stock, Gerhard

    2017-12-14

    We explore the capability of the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA) as an IR label to sense relatively small structural changes in proteins with the help of 2D IR difference spectroscopy. To that end, we AHA-labeled an allosteric protein (the PDZ2 domain from human tyrosine-phosphatase 1E) and furthermore covalently linked it to an azobenzene-derived photoswitch as to mimic its conformational transition upon ligand binding. To determine the strengths and limitations of the AHA label, in total six mutants have been investigated with the label at sites with varying properties. Only one mutant revealed a measurable 2D IR difference signal. In contrast to the commonly observed frequency shifts that report on the degree of solvation, in this case we observe an intensity change. To understand this spectral response, we performed classical MD simulations, evaluating local contacts of the AHA labels to water molecules and protein side chains and calculating the vibrational frequency on the basis of an electrostatic model. Although these simulations revealed in part significant and complex changes of the number of intraprotein and water contacts upon trans-cis photoisomerization, they could not provide a clear explanation of why this one label would stick out. Subsequent quantum-chemistry calculations suggest that the response is the result of an electronic interaction involving charge transfer of the azido group with sulfonate groups from the photoswitch. To the best of our knowledge, such an effect has not been described before.

  18. Biomolecular dynamics studied with IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers combined with nanosecond perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Scheerer, David; Heck, Benjamin; Hauser, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Early events of protein folding can be studied with fast perturbation techniques triggering non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics. A nanosecond laser-excited pH-jump or temperature-jump (T-jump) was applied to initiate helix folding or unfolding of poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). PGA is a homopolypeptide with titratable carboxyl side-chains whose protonation degree determines the PGA conformation. A pH-jump was realized by the photochemical release of protons and induces PGA folding due to protonation of the side-chains. Otherwise, the helical conformation can be unfolded by a T-jump. We operated under conditions where PGA does not aggregate and temperature and pH are the regulatory properties of its conformation. The experiments were performed in such a manner that the folding/unfolding jump proceeded to the same PGA conformation. We quantified the increase/decrease in helicity induced by the pH-/T-jump and demonstrated that the T-jump results in a relatively small change in helical content in contrast to the pH-jump. This is caused by the strong pH-dependence of the PGA conformation. The conformational changes were detected by time-resolved single wavelength IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers (QCL). We could independently observe the kinetics for α-helix folding and unfolding in PGA by using different perturbation techniques and demonstrate the high sensitivity of time-resolved IR-spectroscopy to study protein folding mechanisms.

  19. Oxide films state analysis by IR spectroscopy based on the simple oscillator approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, N. V.; Yakutkina, T. V.; Karpova, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Stabilization of structure-phase state in a wide temperature range is one of the most important problems of improving properties of oxide compounds. As such, the search of new effective methods for obtaining metal oxides with desired physic-chemical, electro-physical and thermal properties and their control is important and relevant. The aim of this work is identification features state of the oxide films of some metals Be, Al, Fe, Cu, Zr on the metal surface of the polycrystalline samples by infrared spectroscopy. To identify the resonance emission bands the algorithm of IR-spectra processing was developed and realized on the basis of table processor EXCEL-2010, which allow revealing characteristic resonance bands successfully and identification of inorganic chemical compounds. In the frame of simple oscillator model, resonance frequencies of normal vibrations of water and some inorganic compounds: metal oxides - Be, Al, Fe, Cu, Zr were calculated and characteristic frequencies for different states (aggregate, deformation, phase) were specified. By means of IR-spectroscopy fundamental possibility of revealing oxides films on metal substrate features state is shown, that allow development and optimization of the technology for production of the oxide films with desired properties.

  20. Probing the Circumstellar Disks of Be Stars with Contemporaneous Optical and IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkman, Karen S.; Hesselbach, E. N.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    Asymmetric double-peaked hydrogen emission line profiles in classical Be stars have been interpreted as evidence of one-armed density waves in the circumstellar disks. Contemporaneous optical and IR spectroscopy can aid in mapping the density structure of these one-armed waves as a function of radius. Furthermore, variability has been detected in these stars over both short (days to weeks) and longer (months) time-scales. We present preliminary results from contemporaneous Ritter Observatory (Hα) and IRTF SpeX (0.8-5.4 μm) spectroscopy of 16 classical Be stars observed in September 2005 and January 2006. The data illustrate a range of line profiles common in Be stars and show significant variability. These observations are the first of a larger project to utilize combined optical and IR data to investigate the physical details of these circumstellar disks. This research has been supported in part by a NASA GSRP fellowship to JPW, a NASA LTSA grant to KSB, and an NSF grant to JEB. We thank the NASA IRTF for observing time allocations and support. We thank the Ritter observing team, and especially Nancy Morrison, for crucial assistance with the supporting optical observations.

  1. Pigment and Binder Concentrations in Modern Paint Samples Determined by IR and Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Rita; Pagnin, Laura; Anghelone, Marta; Moretto, Ligia M; Orsega, Emilio F; Schreiner, Manfred

    2018-06-18

    Knowledge of the techniques employed by artists, such as the composition of the paints, colour palette, and painting style, is of crucial importance not only to attribute works of art to the workshop or artist but also to develop strategies and measures for the conservation and restoration of the art. While much research has been devoted to investigating the composition of an artist's materials from a qualitative point of view, little effort has been made in terms of quantitative analyses. This study aims to quantify the relative concentrations of binders (acrylic and alkyd) and inorganic pigments in different paint samples by IR and Raman spectroscopies. To perform this quantitative evaluation, reference samples of known concentrations were prepared to obtain calibration plots. In a further step, the quantification method was verified by additional test samples and commercially available paint tubes. The results obtained confirm that the quantitative method developed for IR and Raman spectroscopy is able to efficiently determine different pigment and binder concentrations of paint samples with high accuracy. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Broad band nonlinear optical absorption measurements of the laser dye IR26 using white light continuum Z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Soumyodeep; Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem Ballabh

    2017-03-01

    We study the nonlinear optical response of a standard dye IR26 using the Z-scan technique, but with the white light continuum. The continuum source of wavelength from 450 nm to 1650 nm has been generated from the photonic crystal fiber on pumping with 772 nm of Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The use of broadband incident pulse enables us to probe saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) over the large spectral range with a single Z-scan measurement. The system shows SA in the resonant region while it turns to RSA in the non-resonant regions. The low saturation intensity of the dye can be explained based on the simultaneous excitation from ground states to various higher energy levels with the help of composite energy level diagram. The cumulative effects of excited state absorption and thermal induced nonlinear optical effects are responsible for the observed RSA.

  3. Picosecond activation of the DEACM photocage unravelled by VIS-pump-IR-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van Wilderen, L J G W; Neumann, C; Rodrigues-Correia, A; Kern-Michler, D; Mielke, N; Reinfelds, M; Heckel, A; Bredenbeck, J

    2017-03-01

    The light-induced ultrafast uncaging process of the [7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl (DEACM) cage is measured by time-resolved visible-pump-infrared-probe spectroscopy, and supported by steady-state absorption spectroscopy in the visible and infrared spectral regions. Understanding the uncaging process is important because its favorable properties make DEACM an interesting case for chemical and biological applications. It has a convenient absorption in the visible spectral range, and is relatively easily modified to carry leaving groups (LGs) such as nucleotides, substrates or inhibitors, which are inactive when bound and active when released. Previous work suggested a lower limit for the uncaging rate, which places it among the fastest available cages. Here, we determine the photodissociation directly to occur on the picosecond time scale by monitoring the appearance of the released LG in the infrared spectral region. In the present study, azide (N 3 ) is chosen as an LG to monitor photodissociation because its vibrational mode is spectrally isolated (hence easy to follow) and its absorption wavenumber is sensitive to local structural rearrangements. The uncaging process is recorded up to 3 nanoseconds and compared to the collected steady-state spectra. The free LG appears on a picosecond time scale, rendering this one of the fastest known cages. No evidence is found for a tight-ion pair (TIP) preceding the free LG. The uncaging mechanism is found to be slowed down upon the addition of water to acetonitrile.

  4. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  5. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness. PMID:26889359

  6. Far-Ir Spectroscopy of Neutral Gas Phase Peptides: Signatures from Combined Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Bakker, Daniël; Jaeqx, Sander; Rijs, Anouk

    2016-06-01

    Within the past two decades, action vibrational spectroscopy has become an almost routine experimental method to probe the structures of molecules and clusters in the gas phase (neutral and ions). Such experiments are mainly performed in the 1000-4000 wn fingerprint regions. Though successful in many respects, these spectral domains can be however restrictive in the information provided, and sometimes reach limitations for unravelling structures without ambiguity. In a collaborative work with the group of Dr A.M. Rijs (FELIX laboratory, Radbout University, The Netherlands) we have launched a new strategy where the far-IR/Tera-Hertz domain (100-800 wn domain) is experimentally probed for neutral gas phase molecules. Our group in Paris apply finite temperature DFT-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations in order to unravel the complex signatures arising in the far-IR domain, and provide an unambiguous assignment both of the structural conformation of the gas phase molecules (taking into account the experimental conditions) and an understanding of the spectral signatures/fingerprints. We will discuss our experimental and theoretical investigations on two neutral peptides in the 100-800 wn far-IR spectral domain, i.e. Z-Ala6 and PheGly dipeptide, that represent two systems which definitive conformational assignment was not possible without the far IR signatures. We will also present our very recent results on the Phe-X peptide series, where X stands for Gly, Ala, Pro, Val, Ser, Cys, combining experiments and DFT-MD simulations, providing a detailed understanding of the vibrational fingerprints in the far-IR domain. In all exemples, we will show how DFT-MD simulations is the proper theoretical tool to account for vibrational anharmonicities and mode couplings, of prime importance in the far-IR domain. References : J. Mahé, S. Jaeqx, A.M. Rijs, M.P. Gaigeot, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17 :25905 (2015) S. Jaeqx, J. Oomens, A. Cimas, M.P. Gaigeot, A.M. Rijs, Angew

  7. Hybridized orbital states in spin-orbit coupled 3 d -5 d double perovskites studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Cheol; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, C. J.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Cho, Deok-Yong; Noh, T. W.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the orbital hybridization mechanism in 3 d -5 d double perovskites (DPs) of La2CoIrO6 and La2CoPtO6 using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is clearly evidenced by O K -edge and Co K -edge x-ray absorption spectra that the Co 3 d orbitals hybridize not only with the half-filled Ir/Pt jeff states but also with the fully empty (unpolarized) Ir/Pt eg states in both DPs. The Co 3 d eg-Ir 5 d eg hybridization cannot contribute to the ferrimagnetic long-range order in La2CoIrO6 established by spin-selective Co 3 d t2 g-Ir 5 d jeff hybridization through the intermediate oxygen p state but could serve as an origin of paramagnetism. The strengths of such orbital hybridizations were found to be almost invariant to temperature, even far above the Curie temperature, implying persistent paramagnetism against the antiferromagnetic ordering in the spin-orbit entangled 3 d -5 d DPs.

  8. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  9. Absorption Spectroscopy of Mercury's Exosphere During the 2016 Solar Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.; Leblanc, F.; Reardon, K.; Killen, R. M.; Gary, D. E.; Ahn, K.

    2018-05-01

    Solar transits of Mercury provide a rare opportunity to study the exosphere in absorption and a valuable analog to transiting exoplanet studies. This presentation will characterize the sodium exosphere during the 2016 transit.

  10. VUV absorption spectroscopy of bacterial spores and DNA components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure plasmas can be used to inactivate bacterial spores and sterilize goods for medical and pharmaceutical applications. A crucial factor are damages induced by UV and VUV radiation emitted by the plasma. To analyze inactivation processes and protection strategies of spores, absorption spectra of two B. subtilis strains are measured. The results indicate, that the inner and outer coat of the spore significantly contribute to the absorption of UV-C and also of the VUV, protecting the spore against radiation based damages. As the sample preparation can significantly influence the absorption spectra due to salt residues, the cleaning procedure and sample deposition is tested for its reproducibility by measuring DNA oligomers and pUC18 plasmid DNA. The measurements are compared and discussed with results from the literature, showing a strong decrease of the salt content enabling the detection of absorption structures in the samples.

  11. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  12. Ethylene polymerization on a SiH4-modified Phillips catalyst: detection of in situ produced α-olefins by operando FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Barzan, Caterina; Groppo, Elena; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Monteil, Vincent; Bordiga, Silvia

    2012-02-21

    Ethylene polymerization on a model Cr(II)/SiO(2) Phillips catalyst modified with gas phase SiH(4) leads to a waxy product containing a bimodal MW distribution of α-olefins (M(w) < 3000 g mol(-1)) and a highly branched polyethylene, LLDPE (M(w) ≈ 10(5) g mol(-1), T(m) = 123 °C), contrary to the unmodified catalyst which gives a linear and more dense PE, HDPE (M(w) = 86,000 g mol(-1) (PDI = 7), T(m) = 134 °C). Pressure and temperature resolved FT-IR spectroscopy under operando conditions (T = 130-230 K) allows us to detect α-olefins, and in particular 1-hexene and 1-butene (characteristic IR absorption bands at 3581-3574, 1638 and 1598 cm(-1)) as intermediate species before their incorporation in the polymer chains. The polymerization rate is estimated, using time resolved FT-IR spectroscopy, to be 7 times higher on the SiH(4)-modified Phillips catalyst with respect to the unmodified one.

  13. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  14. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to the study of the modification of epoxidized sunflower oil by acrylation.

    PubMed

    Irinislimane, Ratiba; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima

    2012-12-01

    Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized at the laboratory-scale. The epoxidized sunflower oil (ESFO) was modified following the acrylation reaction. Modification was carried out simultaneously using acrylic acid (AA) and triethylamine (TEA). To optimize the reaction conditions, the effects of four temperatures (40, 60, 80, and 100 °C), the ESFO:AA (100:100) ratio, and 0.2% TEA were investigated. The rate of conversion was analyzed with both FT-IR and titration of the oxirane ring. After that, the temperature with the highest conversion was selected and used throughout for all modification reactions. Then, four ratios (100:100, 100:90, 100:80, and 100:75) of ESFO:AA were analyzed at four different concentrations of TEA (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) to determine the best estimate for both the ESFO:AA ratio and the catalyst concentration. Conversion rate was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy by measuring the concentrations of ester, carbonyl, and alcohol groups. Moreover, oxirane-ring concentration was estimated using the titration method (with gentian violet as indicator) and FT-IR spectroscopy (epoxy ring absorptions at 1270 cm(-1) and 877 cm(-1)). Based on conversion yield, the optimum ESFO:AA ratio corresponds to 100:80; the best temperature reaction was at 60 °C, and the best TEA concentration was 0.2%. The critical amounts of reactants needed to reach maximum conversion were established. The final acid value of the acrylated ESFO after washing (pH = 7) was 2.1 mg potassium hydroxide (KOH)·g(-1). All results show that FT-IR spectroscopy is a simple, low-cost, rapid method for investigating the kinetics of a reaction.

  15. Structure of saligenin: microwave, UV and IR spectroscopy studies in a supersonic jet combined with quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Singh, Santosh K; Calabrese, Camilla; Maris, Assimo; Melandri, Sonia; Das, Aloke

    2014-08-28

    In this study, we have determined the structure of a medicinally important molecule saligenin (2-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) using UV, IR and microwave absorption spectroscopy in a supersonic jet combined with ab initio calculations. The structure of the only observed conformer of saligenin corresponds to the global minimum on the conformational surface. The observed structure is stabilized by an intramolecular strong O-H···O hydrogen bonding as well as a very weak O-H···π interaction. The hydrogen bond is formed through phenolic OH as the hydrogen bond donor and benzylic OH as the hydrogen bond acceptor while the O-H···π interaction is through benzylic O-H as the hydrogen bond donor and phenyl group as the hydrogen bond acceptor. It has been observed that the benzylic OH stretching frequency in saligenin is more red-shifted compared to that in benzyl alcohol as the strong O-H···O interaction present in saligenin acts on the benzylic O-H group. In fact, there is a subtle interplay among the strong O-H···O hydrogen bond, weak O-H···π interaction, and steric effects arising from the ortho substitution of the OH group in benzyl alcohol. This fine-tuning of multiple interactions very often governs the specific structures of biomolecules and materials.

  16. The hydration dependence of CaCO3 absorption lines in the Far IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Johnny; Emery, Logan P

    2014-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) absorption lines of CaCO3 have been measured at a range of relative humidities (RH) between 33 and 92% RH using a Bruker 66v/S spectrometer. Hydration measurements on CaCO3 have been made in the mid-infrared (MIR) by [Al-Hosney, H.A. and Grassian, V.H., 2005, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 1266], and astrophysically-motivated temperature-dependent FIR measurements of CaCO3 in vacuum have also been reported [Posch, T., et al., 2007, Ap. J., 668, 993]. The custom sample cell constructed for these hydrated-FIR spectra is required because the 66v/S bench is under vacuum (3 mbar) during typical measurements. Briefly, the sample cell consists of two Thalium Bromoiodide (KRS-5) windows, four O-rings, a plastic ring for separating the windows and providing a volume for the saturated atmosphere. CaCO3 was deposited on KRS-5 windows using doubly-distilled water as an intermediary. The KRS-5 window with sample and assembled sample cell were placed in a desiccator with the appropriated saturated salt solution [Washburn, E.W. (Ed.), International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 1, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926), p. 67-68] and allowed to hydrate for 23 hours. For spectroscopy the desiccator was quickly opened and the second KRS-5 window placed in the cell to seal the chamber. A spectrum was then taken of the sample at the appropriate RH. The spectra taken characterize the adsorption of water vapor and CaCO3 that might occur in circumstellar environments [Melnick, G.J., et al. 2001, Nature, 412, 160].The MIR and FIR reflectance spectra of calcite (CaCO3) have been thoroughly studied by [Hellwege, K.H., et al., 1970, Z. Physik, 232, 61]. Five Lorentzian curves were fit to our data in the range from 378-222 cm-1/SUP> and each was able to be assigned to a known mode of CaCO3. The data does not support the conclusion of a hydration effect on these modes of CaCO3, but it does suggest a possible broadening of three modes

  17. Adding a dimension to the infrared spectra of interfaces: 2D SFG spectroscopy via mid-IR pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanni, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy provides an infrared spectrum of interfaces and thus has widespread use in the materials and chemical sciences. In this presentation, I will present our recent work in developing a 2D pulse sequence to generate 2D SFG spectra of interfaces, in analogy to 2D infrared spectra used to measure bulk species. To develop this spectroscopy, we have utilized many of the tricks-of-the-trade developed in the 2D IR and 2D Vis communities in the last decade, including mid-IR pulse shaping. With mid-IR pulse shaping, the 2D pulse sequence is manipulated by computer programming in the desired frequency resolution, rotating frame, and signal pathway. We believe that 2D SFG will become an important tool in the interfacial sciences in an analogous way that 2D IR is now being used in many disciplines.

  18. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  19. Tracing the beginning of crystallization of amorphous forsterite thin films using AFM and IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehm, B.; Burchard, M.; Lattard, D.; Dohmen, R.; Chakraborty, S.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of accretion disks of Young Stellar Objects revealed dust of crystalline Mg-silicates, in particular of forsterite, which is assumed to result from high temperature annealing of amorphous cosmic dust particles. We are performing annealing experiments to obtain kinetic parameters of the crystallization that are necessary for the numerical modeling of accretion disks. We use thin films obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Si (111) wafers. The thin films are completely amorphous, chemically homogeneous (on the Mg2SiO4 composition) and with a continuous and flat surface. They are annealed for 1 to 260 h at 1073K in a vertical furnace and drop-quenched. To monitor the progress of crystallization, the samples are characterized by AFM and SEM imaging and IR spectroscopy. After 2.5 h of annealing AFM images reveal elliptical features, below 1 µm in diameter, with a central elevation and surrounded by a lowering of the surface which indicate material transport within the elliptical domains. These elliptical features most probably represent early nucleation sites in an amorphous matrix. The IR spectra still show the broad bands of Si-O stretching modes typical of amorphous silica without clear evidence for crystalline forsterite. After 6 h of annealing, AFM and SEM images show circular and square features both with a central elevation in the range of 80 to 120 nm. IR spectra show a few weak bands that can be assigned to crystalline forsterite (bending and stretching of tetrahedra). After 10 h of annealing planar faces appear in the former pyramidal features and the surrounding matrix evolves into domains with spherolitic appearance. IR spectra of these samples display typical bands of crystalline forsterite. With increasing annealing time AFM images picture the further growth of the planar faces towards idiomorphic crystals. SEM imaging shows surface roughening with increasing annealing time. The quantitative evaluation of the surface roughness of AFM

  20. Quantum Chemical Design Guidelines for Absorption and Emission Color Tuning of fac-Ir(ppy)₃ Complexes.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yoshiki; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Aoki, Shogo; Teramoto, Rena; Tada, Hayato; Era, Iori; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2018-03-05

    The fac -Ir(ppy)₃ complex, where ppy denotes 2-phenylpyridine, is one of the well-known luminescent metal complexes having a high quantum yield. However, there have been no specific molecular design guidelines for color tuning. For example, it is still unclear how its optical properties are changed when changing substitution groups of ligands. Therefore, in this study, differences in the electronic structures and optical properties among several substituted fac -Ir(ppy)₃ derivatives are examined in detail by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. On the basis of those results, we present rational design guidelines for absorption and emission color tuning by modifying the species of substituents and their substitution positions.

  1. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  2. Structural study of aggregated β-carotene by absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li Ping; Wei, Liang Shu

    2017-10-01

    By UV-visible absorption spectroscope, the aggregated β-carotene in hydrated ethanol was studied in the temperature range of 5 55°C, with different ethanol/water ratio. And the structural evolutions of these aggregates with time were detected. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the aggregate of β-carotene formed in 1:1 ethanol/water solution transfered from H-type to J-type with temperature increase. In 2:1 ethanol/water solution a new type of aggregate with strong coupling was predicated by the appearing absorption peak located at about 550 nm. In the time scales of 48 houses all the aggregated structures were stable, but the absorption intensity decreased with time. It was concluded that the types of aggregated β-carotene which wouldn't change with time depended on the solvent composition and temperature.

  3. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  4. Laser absorption spectroscopy - Method for monitoring complex trace gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    A frequency stabilized CO2 laser was used for accurate determinations of the absorption coefficients of various gases in the wavelength region from 9 to 11 microns. The gases investigated were representative of the types of contaminants expected to build up in recycled atmospheres. These absorption coefficients were then used in determining the presence and amount of the gases in prepared mixtures. The effect of interferences on the minimum detectable concentration of the gases was measured. The accuracies of various methods of solution were also evaluated.

  5. Experimental implementations of 2D IR spectroscopy through a horizontal pulse shaper design and a focal plane array detector

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Oudenhoven, Tracey A.; Ostrander, Joshua S.; Eklund, Elliot C.; Blair, Alexander F.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2017-01-01

    Aided by advances in optical engineering, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) has developed into a promising method for probing structural dynamics in biophysics and material science. We report two new advances for 2D IR spectrometers. First, we report a fully reflective and totally horizontal pulse shaper, which significantly simplifies alignment. Second, we demonstrate the applicability of mid-IR focal plane arrays (FPAs) as suitable detectors in 2D IR experiments. FPAs have more pixels than conventional linear arrays and can be used to multiplex optical detection. We simultaneously measure the spectra of a reference beam, which improves the signal-to-noise by a factor of 4; and two additional beams that are orthogonally polarized probe pulses for 2D IR anisotropy experiments. PMID:26907414

  6. gamma-Irradiation effects on the thermal decomposition behaviour and IR absorption spectra of piperacillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Gaffar, M. A.; Abu El-Fadl, A.; Hamad, Ar. G. K.

    2003-11-01

    The thermal decomposition behaviour of unirradiated and pre-gamma-irradiated piperacillin (pipril) as a semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic has been studied in the temperature range of (273-1072 K). The decomposition was found to proceed through three major steps both for unirradiated and gamma-irradiated samples. Neither appearance nor disappearance of new bands in the IR spectrum of piperacillin was recorded as a result of gamma-irradiation but only a decrease in the intensity of most bands was observed. A degradation mechanism was suggested to explain the bond rupture and the decrease in the intensities of IR bands of gamma-irradiated piperacillin.

  7. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Flours Obtained from Polish Producers

    PubMed Central

    Ceglińska, Alicja; Reder, Magdalena; Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Samples of wheat, spelt, rye, and triticale flours produced by different Polish mills were studied by both classic chemical methods and FT-IR MIR spectroscopy. An attempt was made to statistically correlate FT-IR spectral data with reference data with regard to content of various components, for example, proteins, fats, ash, and fatty acids as well as properties such as moisture, falling number, and energetic value. This correlation resulted in calibrated and validated statistical models for versatile evaluation of unknown flour samples. The calibration data set was used to construct calibration models with use of the CSR and the PLS with the leave one-out, cross-validation techniques. The calibrated models were validated with a validation data set. The results obtained confirmed that application of statistical models based on MIR spectral data is a robust, accurate, precise, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient methodology for determination of flour characteristics, as well as for detection of content of selected flour ingredients. The obtained models' characteristics were as follows: R2 = 0.97, PRESS = 2.14; R2 = 0.96, PRESS = 0.69; R2 = 0.95, PRESS = 1.27; R2 = 0.94, PRESS = 0.76, for content of proteins, lipids, ash, and moisture level, respectively. Best results of CSR models were obtained for protein, ash, and crude fat (R2 = 0.86; 0.82; and 0.78, resp.). PMID:28243483

  9. Identification of forged Bank of England £20 banknotes using IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnex, Emily; Almond, Matthew J.; Baum, John V.; Bond, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Bank of England notes of £20 denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. An aim of this work was to develop a non-destructive method so that a small, compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 cm-1 arising from νasym (CO32-) from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine £20 notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 cm-1), ν(Csbnd H) (ca. 2900 cm-1) and ν(Cdbnd O) (ca. 1750 cm-1) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper.

  10. Towards ultrasound enhanced mid-IR spectroscopy for sensing bacteria in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Stephan; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Radel, Stefan; Lendl, Bernhard

    2018-02-01

    We employ attenuated total reflection (ATR) mid-IR technology for sensing of bacteria present in aqueous solution. In ATR spectroscopy, the penetration depth of the evanescent field extends to approx. 1-2 micrometers into the aqueous solution depending on the refractive index of the employed materials (Si, ZnS, Ge) used as attenuated total reflection (ATR) element and the geometry of the optical set-up. Due to the flow profile in the microfluidic cell, an additional force is required to bring particles into the evanescent field for measurement. For that purpose, we employ standing ultrasound waves produced between a sound source vibrating at approx. 2 MHz and the ATR crystal acting as a reflector. This ultrasonic trap is integrated into the microfluidic channel. As aqueous solution is passing through that acoustofluidic cell, particles are concentrated in the nodal plane of the standing ultrasound wave, forming particle conglomerates. By selecting appropriate experimental conditions, it is then possible to press bacteria against the crystal surface for interaction with the evanescent wave (as well as to keep them away from the ATR element). Our current work aims at establishing a custommade US-ATR-IR setup for signal enhancement of bacteria (e.g. E. coli, P. aeruginosa as well as Salmonella) in drinking water.

  11. Identification of forged Bank of England £20 banknotes using IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sonnex, Emily; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2014-01-24

    Bank of England notes of £20 denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. An aim of this work was to develop a non-destructive method so that a small, compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 cm(-1) arising from νasym (CO3(2-)) from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine £20 notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 cm(-1)), ν(C-H) (ca. 2900 cm(-1)) and ν(C=O) (ca. 1750 cm(-1)) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomolecular dynamics studied with IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers combined with nanosecond perturbation techniques.

    PubMed

    Popp, Alexander; Scheerer, David; Heck, Benjamin; Hauser, Karin

    2017-06-15

    Early events of protein folding can be studied with fast perturbation techniques triggering non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics. A nanosecond laser-excited pH-jump or temperature-jump (T-jump) was applied to initiate helix folding or unfolding of poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA). PGA is a homopolypeptide with titratable carboxyl side-chains whose protonation degree determines the PGA conformation. A pH-jump was realized by the photochemical release of protons and induces PGA folding due to protonation of the side-chains. Otherwise, the helical conformation can be unfolded by a T-jump. We operated under conditions where PGA does not aggregate and temperature and pH are the regulatory properties of its conformation. The experiments were performed in such a manner that the folding/unfolding jump proceeded to the same PGA conformation. We quantified the increase/decrease in helicity induced by the pH-/T-jump and demonstrated that the T-jump results in a relatively small change in helical content in contrast to the pH-jump. This is caused by the strong pH-dependence of the PGA conformation. The conformational changes were detected by time-resolved single wavelength IR-spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers (QCL). We could independently observe the kinetics for α-helix folding and unfolding in PGA by using different perturbation techniques and demonstrate the high sensitivity of time-resolved IR-spectroscopy to study protein folding mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  14. Studies of Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica

    The objective of this Ph.D. project is to investigate Arctic middle atmosphere chemistry using solar infrared absorption spectroscopy. These measurements were made at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, which is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). This research is part of the CANDAC/PEARL Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry theme and aims to improve our understanding of the processes controlling the stratospheric ozone budget using measurements of the concentrations of stratospheric constituents. The instrument, a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, has been specifically designed for high-resolution measurements over a broad spectral range and has been used to measure reactive species, source gases, reservoirs, and dynamical tracers at PEARL since August 2006. The first part of this research focuses on the optimization of ozone retrievals, for which 22 microwindows were studied and compared. The spectral region from 1000 to 1005 cm-1 was found to be the most sensitive in both the stratosphere and troposphere, giving the highest number of independent pieces of information and the smallest total error for retrievals at Eureka. Similar studies were performed in coordination with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change for nine other species, with the goal of improving and harmonizing the retrieval parameters among all Infrared Working Group sites. Previous satellite validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar conditions of the spring period to be a challenge. In this work, comparisons between the 125HR and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer) from 2007 to 2010 have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. After applying these criteria, the differences between the two instruments were generally

  15. Gaz Phase IR and UV Spectroscopy of Neutral Contact Ion Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habka, Sana; Brenner, Valerie; Mons, Michel; Gloaguen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Cations and anions, in solution, tend to pair up forming ion pairs. They play a crucial role in many fundamental processes in ion-concentrated solutions and living organisms. Despite their importance and vast applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, they remain difficult to characterize namely because of the coexistence of several types of pairing in solution. However, an interesting alternative consists in applying highly selective gas phase spectroscopy which can offer new insights on these neutral ion pairs. Our study consists in characterizing contact ion pairs (CIPs) in isolated model systems (M+, Ph-(CH2)n-COO- with M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and n=1-3), to determine their spectral signatures and compare them to ion pairs in solution. We have used laser desorption to vaporize a solid tablet containing the desired salt. Structural information for each system was obtained by mass-selective, UV and IR laser spectroscopy combined with high level quantum chemistry calculations1. Evidence of the presence of neutral CIPs was found by scanning the π-π* transition of the phenyl ring using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). Then, conformational selective IR/UV double resonance spectra were recorded in the CO2- stretch region for each conformation detected. The good agreement between theoretical data obtained at the BSSE-corrected-fullCCSD(T)/dhf-TZVPP//B97-D3/dhf-TZVPP level and experimental IR spectra led us to assign the 3D structure for each ion pair formed. Spectral signatures of (M+, Ph-CH2-COO-) pairs, were assigned to a bidentate CIPs between the alkali cation and the carboxylate group. In the case of (Li+, Ph-(CH2)3-COO-) pairs, the presence of a flexible side chain promotes a cation-π interaction leading to a tridentate O-O-π structure with its unique IR and UV signatures. IR spectra obtained on isolated CIPs were found very much alike the ones published on lithium and sodium acetate in solution2. However, in the case of sodium acetate, solution

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure)

    SciTech Connect

    Alp, E.E.; Mini, S.M.; Ramanathan, M.

    1990-04-01

    The x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) had been an essential tool to gather spectroscopic information about atomic energy level structure in the early decades of this century. It has also played an important role in the discovery and systematization of rare-earth elements. The discovery of synchrotron radiation in 1952, and later the availability of broadly tunable synchrotron based x-ray sources have revitalized this technique since the 1970's. The correct interpretation of the oscillatory structure in the x-ray absorption cross-section above the absorption edge by Sayers et. al. has transformed XAS from a spectroscopic tool to a structural technique. EXAFS (Extended X-raymore » Absorption Fine Structure) yields information about the interatomic distances, near neighbor coordination numbers, and lattice dynamics. An excellent description of the principles and data analysis techniques of EXAFS is given by Teo. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure), on the other hand, gives information about the valence state, energy bandwidth and bond angles. Today, there are about 50 experimental stations in various synchrotrons around the world dedicated to collecting x-ray absorption data from the bulk and surfaces of solids and liquids. In this chapter, we will give the basic principles of XAS, explain the information content of essentially two different aspects of the absorption process leading to EXAFS and XANES, and discuss the source and samples limitations.« less

  17. Analysis of a Brazilian baroque sculpture using Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Pimenta, André R.; Pereira, Ronaldo V.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, samples were taken from the sculpture of Our Lady of Sorrows and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. This sculpture has been dated to the early eighteenth century. Samples were also examined using optical microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Based on chemical analysis, the pigments vermilion [HgS], massicot [PbO] and azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] were found in the sculpture polychrome. The results indicate that the green polychrome of the sculpture's mantle comes from the blending of massicot and azurite. Because the literature reports that the mantle of the Our Lady of Sorrows sculpture is blue, the mixing of these pigments results from a production error. The results also indicate the presence of Au in the sculpture, which indicates the originality of the piece. The results from this study helped restorers to choose the appropriate procedures for intervening in the sculpture and contributed to the knowledge about the manufacturing process of Brazilian baroque sculptures.

  18. 2D IR Spectroscopy using Four-Wave Mixing, Pulse Shaping, and IR Upconversion: A Quantitative Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rock, William; Li, Yun-Liang; Pagano, Philip; Cheatum, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to major changes in the apparatuses used to collect 2D IR spectra. Pulse shaping offers several advantages including rapid data collection, inherent phase stability, and phase cycling capabilities. Visible array detection via upconversion allows the use of visible detectors that are cheaper, faster, more sensitive, and less noisy than IR detectors. However, despite these advantages, many researchers are reluctant to implement these technologies. Here we present a quantitative study of the S/N of 2D IR spectra collected with a traditional four-wave mixing (FWM) apparatus, with a pulse shaping apparatus, and with visible detection via upconversion to address the question of whether or not weak chromophores at low concentrations are still accessible with such an apparatus. We find that the enhanced averaging capability of the pulse shaping apparatus enables the detection of small signals that would be challenging to measure even with the traditional FWM apparatus, and we demonstrate this ability on a sample of cyanylated dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). PMID:23687988

  19. Development of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy System Using HighLuminance LED for Measurement of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Nayuki, Takuya; Mori, Hideto; Goto, Naohiko; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for measurement of atmospheric NO2 was developed. The system uses a battery-operated, high luminance LED and a fiber-coupled spectrometer, and is portable. Laboratory experiments using a gas cell of length 0.22 m with varying NO2 concentrations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the DOAS system. The DOAS measurement results are in agreement with NO2 concentrations obtained simultaneously by a FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) system for NO2 concentrations down to 20 ppm. Experiments with an optical path length of 93 m were also performed, and NO2 concentrations down to 0.20 ppm were measured. Since measurement of atmospheric NO2, which is in the order of several tens of ppb, requires optical path lengths of several hundred m, system improvements to improve the signal detection are necessary.

  20. Cisplatin Binding to Biological Ligands Revealed at the Encounter Complex Level by IR Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Corinti, Davide; Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2016-03-07

    Cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] was the first platinum-based antineoplastic agent and is still a cornerstone for the treatment of various solid tumors. Reactive events responsible for cisplatin activity are unveiled here at the molecular level. Simple ligands (L) representing ubiquitous functional groups in the biological environment likely to be encountered by administered cisplatin have been allowed to react with cis-[PtCl(NH3)2 (H2O)](+), the primary intermediate from cisplatin hydrolysis. The substitution reactions have been examined by a combined experimental and computational approach and the structural features of the substitution product, cis-[PtCl(NH3)2(L)](+), have been probed by IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Furthermore, IRMPD spectroscopy has been exploited to elucidate the structure of [PtCl(NH3)2(L)(H2O)](+) clusters, also obtained by electrospray ionization (ESI) from the aqueous solution and representing the major focus of this investigation. These ions conform to the encounter complex of cis-[PtCl(NH3)2 (H2O)](+) with the incoming ligand and represent the first direct evidence of a prototypical Eigen-Wilkins encounter complex in solution, lying on the reaction coordinate for ligand substitution and extracted by ESI for mass spectrometric analysis. Activated [PtCl(NH3)2(L)(H2O)](+) ions dissociate by the loss of either H2O or L, the former process implying a ligand substitution event. IRMPD spectroscopy has thus revealed both structural details and reaction dynamics at the level of the isolated encounter complex. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of a two-wavelength IR laser absorption diagnostic for propene and ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, T. C.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    A two-wavelength infrared laser absorption diagnostic for non-intrusive, simultaneous quantitative measurement of propene and ethylene was developed. To this end, measurements of absorption cross sections of propene and potential interfering species at 10.958 µm were acquired at high-temperatures. When used in conjunction with existing absorption cross-section measurements of ethylene and other species at 10.532 µm, a two-wavelength diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure propene and ethylene, the two small alkenes found to generally dominate the final decomposition products of many fuel hydrocarbon pyrolysis systems. Measurements of these two species is demonstrated using this two-wavelength diagnostic scheme for propene decomposition between 1360 and 1710 K.

  2. Ultra-Broadband Infrared Pulses from a Potassium-Titanyl Phosphate Optical Parametric Amplifier for VIS-IR-SFG Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaienko, Oleksandr; Borguet, Eric

    A non-collinear KTP-OPA to provide ultra-broadband mid-infrared pulses was designed and characterized. With proper pulse-front and phase correction, the system has a potential for high-time resolution vibrational VIS-IR-SFG spectroscopy.

  3. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  4. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  5. Measurements of near-IR water vapor absorption at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Liu, X.; Li, H.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2007-03-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are used to measure high resolution (0.1 cm-1), near-infrared (NIR) water vapor absorption spectra at 700 K and pressures up to 30 atm within a high-pressure and -temperature optical cell in a high-uniformity tube furnace. Both direct absorption and wavelength modulation with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) spectra are obtained for 6 cm-1 regions near 7204 cm-1 and 7435 cm-1. Direct absorption measurements at 700 K and 10 atm are compared with simulations using spectral parameters from HITRAN and a hybrid database combining HITRAN with measured spectral constants for transitions in the two target spectral regions. The hybrid database reduces RMS error between the simulation and the measurements by 45% for the 7204 cm-1 region and 28% for the 7435 cm-1 region. At pressures above 10 atm, the breakdown of the impact approximation inherent to the Lorentzian line shape model becomes apparent in the direct absorption spectra, and measured results are in agreement with model results and trends at elevated temperatures reported in the literature. The wavelength-modulation spectra are shown to be less affected by the breakdown of the impact approximation and measurements agree well with the hybrid database predictions to higher pressures (30 atm).

  6. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV absorption, 1H and 13C NMR) and theoretical (in B3LYP/6-311++G** level) studies on alkali metal salts of caffeic acid.

    PubMed

    Świsłocka, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The effect of some metals on the electronic system of benzoic and nicotinic acids has recently been investigated by IR, Raman and UV spectroscopy [1-3]. Benzoic and nicotinic acids are regarded model systems representing a wide group of aromatic ligands which are incorporated into enzymes. In this work the FT-IR (in solid state and in solution), FT-Raman, UV absorption and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) and its salts with lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium were registered, assigned and analyzed. The effect of alkali metals on the electronic system of ligands was discussed. Studies of differences in the number and position of bands from the IR, Raman, UV absorption spectra and chemical shifts from NMR spectra allowed to conclude on the distribution of electronic charge in the molecules, the delocalization energy of π electrons and the reactivity of ligands in metal complexes. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP method using 6-311++G** basis set. Bond lengths, angles and dipole moments for the optimized structures of caffeic acid and lithium, sodium, potassium caffeinates were also calculated. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR spectra were obtained. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The thermal decomposition of fine-grained micrometeorites, observations from mid-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttle, Martin David; Genge, Matthew J.; Folco, Luigi; Russell, Sara S.

    2017-06-01

    We analysed 44 fine-grained and scoriaceous micrometeorites. A bulk mid-IR spectrum (8-13 μm) for each grain was collected and the entire micrometeorite population classified into 5 spectral groups, based on the positions of their absorption bands. Corresponding carbonaceous Raman spectra, textural observations from SEM-BSE and bulk geochemical data via EMPA were collected to aid in the interpretation of mid-IR spectra. The 5 spectral groups identified correspond to progressive thermal decomposition. Unheated hydrated chondritic matrix, composed predominantly of phyllosilicates, exhibit smooth, asymmetric spectra with a peak at ∼10 μm. Thermal decomposition of sheet silicates evolves through dehydration, dehydroxylation, annealing and finally by the onset of partial melting. Both CI-like and CM-like micrometeorites are shown to pass through the same decomposition stages and produce similar mid-IR spectra. Using known temperature thresholds for each decomposition stage it is possible to assign a peak temperature range to a given micrometeorite. Since the temperature thresholds for decomposition reactions are defined by the phyllosilicate species and the cation composition and that these variables are markedly different between CM and CI classes, atmospheric entry should bias the dust flux to favour the survival of CI-like grains, whilst preferentially melting most CM-like dust. However, this hypothesis is inconsistent with empirical observations and instead requires that the source ratio of CI:CM dust is heavily skewed in favour of CM material. In addition, a small population of anomalous grains are identified whose carbonaceous and petrographic characteristics suggest in-space heating and dehydroxylation have occurred. These grains may therefore represent regolith micrometeorites derived from the surface of C-type asteroids. Since the spectroscopic signatures of dehydroxylates are distinctive, i.e. characterised by a reflectance peak at 9.0-9.5 μm, and since

  8. Chemical Sensors Based on IR Spectroscopy and Surface-Modified Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Gabriel P.; Niemczyk, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sol-gel processing techniques have been used to apply thin porous films to the surfaces of planar infrared (IR) waveguides to produce widely useful chemical sensors. The thin- film coating serves to diminish the concentration of water and increase the concentration of the analyte in the region probed by the evanescent IR wave. These porous films are composed of silica, and therefore, conventional silica surface modification techniques can be used to give the surface a specific functional character. The sol-gel film was surface-modified to make the film highly hydrophobic. These sensors were shown to be capable of detecting non-polar organic analytes, such as benzonitrile, in aqueous solution with detection limits in the ppb range. Further, these porous sol-gel structures allow the analytes to diffuse into and out of the films rapidly, thus reaching equilibrium in less than ten seconds. These sensors are unique because of the fact that their operation is based on the measurement of an IR absorption spectrum. Thus, these sensors are able to identify the analytes as well as measure concentration with high sensitivity. These developments have been documented in previous reports and publications. Recently, we have also targeted detection of the polar organic molecules acetone and isopropanol in aqueous solution. Polar organics are widely used in industrial and chemical processes, hence it is of interest to monitor their presence in effluents or decontamination process flows. Although large improvements in detection limits were expected with non-polar organic molecules in aqueous solutions using very hydrophobic porous sol-gel films on silicon attenuated total reflectance (Si ATR) waveguides, it was not as clear what the detection enhancements might be for polar organic molecules. This report describes the use of modified sol-gel-coated Si ATR sensors for trace detection and quantitation of small polar organic molecules in aqueous solutions. The detection of both acetone

  9. Absorption spectroscopy at the limb of small transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenreich, D.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

    2005-12-01

    Planetary transits are a tremendous tool to probe into exoplanet atmospheres using the light from their parent stars (from 0.2 μm to ˜1 μm). The detection of atmospheric components in an extra-solar giant planet was performed using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with a sensitivity reaching ˜10-4 in relative absorption depth over ˜1 Å-wide features (Charbonneau et al., 2002). The next step is the detection and the characterization of smaller, possibly Earth-like worlds, which will require a sensitivity of ˜10-6. Fortunately, ˜0.1 μm-wide absorption bands of particular interest for small exoplanets do exist in this spectral domain. We developed a model to quantify the detectability of a variety of Earth-size planets harboring different kind of atmospheres. Key parameters are the density of the planet and the thickness of the atmosphere. We also evaluate in consequence the number of potential targets for a future space mission, and also find that K stars are best candidates. See Ehrenreich et al. (2005) for a complete description.

  10. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Ye, Rixin

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF6 decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF6 decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations. PMID:29140268

  11. Energy-absorption spectroscopy of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yu, Zhenhua

    2018-04-01

    We propose to use the energy absorption spectroscopy to measure the kinetic coefficients of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential. We show that, in our scheme, the energy absorption spectrum is proportional to the dynamic structure factor of the system. The profile of the spectrum depends on the shear viscosity η , the thermal conductivity κ , and the superfluid bulk viscosity ξ3. We show that extraction of these coefficients from the spectrum is achievable in present experiments.

  12. Phase-Sensitive Control Of Molecular Dissociation Through Attosecond Pump/Strong-Field Mid-IR Probe Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-15

    overarching goal of our program was to develop a novel laser and ion spectroscopy system and to use it for the study of strong-field light-matter...are accelerated into the ion TOF by means of a Fig. I.1 Schematic of ion spectroscopy with two color (EUV + mid-IR) laser fields, as constructed at...Abstract The overarching goal of our program was to develop a novel laser and ion spectroscopy system and to use it for the study of strong-field light

  13. Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the potential capabilities of a spectrally diversified DIAL technique for monitoring atmospheric species is presented assuming operation from an earth-orbiting platform. Emphasis is given to the measurement accuracies and spatial and temporal resolutions required to meet present atmospheric science objectives. The discussion points out advantages of spectral diversity to perform comprehensive studies of the atmosphere; in general it is shown that IR systems have an advantage in lower atmospheric measurements, while UV systems are superior for middle and upper atmospheric measurements.

  14. Near-IR laser frequency standard stabilized using FM-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ružička, Bohdan; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2006-02-01

    At the present time fiber-optics and optical communication are in rapid progress. Modern technologies such as DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex) need precise stability of laser frequencies. According to this fact, requirements of new etalons of optical frequencies in the telecommunication band is rapidly growing. Lasers working in near infrared telecommunication band (1500-1600 nm) can be stabilized to 12C IIH II or 13C IIH II (acetylene) gas absorption lines. The acetylene gas absorption has been widely studied and accepted by international bodies of standardization as a primary wavelength reference in the near infrared band around 1550nm. Our aim was to design and develop a compact fibre optics laser system generating coherent light in near-JR band with high frequency stability (at least 1.10 -8). This system should become a base for realization of a primary frequency standard for optical communications in the Czech Republic. Such an etalon will be needed for calibration of wavelength-meters and spectral analysers for DWDM communication systems. We are co-operating with CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) on this project. We present stabilized laser system based on a single frequency DFB (Distributed Feedback) laser diode with a narrow spectral profile. The laser is pre-stabilized by means of the FM-spectroscopy on a passive resonator. Thanks to a fast feed-back loop we are able to improve spectral characteristics of the laser. The laser frequency is locked by a relatively slow second feed-back loop on an absorption line of acetylene vapour which is sealed in a cell under the optimised pressure.

  15. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-12-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The AV/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous materials in

  16. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The A(sub V)/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous

  17. Adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode: An in situ IR spectroscopy search for adsorbed reaction intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Behm, R Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary As part of a mechanistic study of the electrooxidation of C1 molecules we have systematically investigated the dissociative adsorption/oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode under experimental conditions optimizing the chance for detecting weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates. Employing in situ IR spectroscopy in an attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR-FTIRS) with p-polarized IR radiation to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and using low reaction temperatures (3 °C) and deuterium substitution to slow down the reaction kinetics and to stabilize weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates, we could detect an IR absorption band at 1660 cm−1 characteristic for adsorbed formyl intermediates. This assignment is supported by an isotope shift in wave number. Effects of temperature, potential and deuterium substitution on the formation and disappearance of different adsorbed species (COad, adsorbed formate, adsorbed formyl), are monitored and quantified. Consequences on the mechanism for dissociative adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde are discussed. PMID:24991512

  18. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants include Raman backscattering (LIDAR) and passive radiometry (LOPAIR). Remote sensing techniques using laser spectrometry are presented and in particular a simple long-path laser absorption method (LOLA), which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels is discussed. A number of species were selected for study which are representative of those most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Computer programs were developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations, and comparison with other methods of analysis, are given.

  19. Design of mini-multi-gas monitoring system based on IR absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiu-lin; Zhang, Wen-dong; Xue, Chen-yang; Xiong, Ji-jun; Ma, You-chun; Wen, Fen

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a novel non-dispersive infrared ray (IR) gas detection system is described. Conventional devices typically include several primary components: a broadband source (usually an incandescent filament), a rotating chopper shutter, a narrow-band filter, a sample tube and a detector. But we mainly use the mini-multi-channel detector, electrical modulation means and mini-gas-cell structure. To solve the problems of gas accidents in coal mines, and for family safety that results from using gas, this new IR detection system with integration, miniaturization and non-moving parts has been developed. It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb infrared radiation at specific (and often unique) wavelengths. The infrared detection optics principle used in developing this system is mainly analyzed. The idea of multi-gas detection is introduced and guided through the analysis of the single-gas detection. Through researching the design of cell structure, a cell with integration and miniaturization has been devised. By taking a single-chip microcomputer (SCM) as intelligence handling, the functional block diagram of a gas detection system is designed with the analyzing and devising of its hardware and software system. The way of data transmission on a controller area network (CAN) bus and wireless data transmission mode is explained. This system has reached the technology requirement of lower power consumption, mini-volume, wide measure range, and is able to realize multi-gas detection.

  20. Resonant absorption induced fast melting studied with mid-IR QCLs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Lv, Yankun; Ji, Youxin; Tang, Xiaoliang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a pump-probe setup based on two mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to investigate the melting and crystallization of materials through resonant absorption. A combination of pump and probe beams fulfills the two-color synchronous detection. Furthermore, narrow linewidth advances the accuracy of measurements and the character of broad tuning range of QCLs enables wide applications in various sample and multiple structures. 1-Eicosene was selected as a simple model system to verify the feasibility of this method. A pulsed QCL was tuned to the absorption peak of CH 2 bending vibration at 1467 cm -1 to resonantly heat the sample. The other QCL in continuous mode was tuned to 1643 cm -1 corresponding the C=C stretching vibration to follow the fast melting dynamics. By monitoring the transmission intensity variation of pump and probe beams during pump-probe experiments, the resonant absorption induced fast melting and re-crystallization of 1-Eicosene can be studied. Results show that the thermal effect and melting behaviors strongly depend on the pump wavelength (resonant or non-resonant) and energy, as well as the pump time. The realization and detection of melting and recrystallization can be performed in tens of milliseconds, which improves the time resolution of melting process study based on general mid-infrared spectrum by orders of magnitude. The availability of resonant heating and detections based on mid-infrared QCLs is expected to enable new applications in melting study.

  1. The Synthesis and Characterization of a Group of Transition Metal Octabutoxynaphthalocyanines and the Absorption and Emission Properties of the Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd and Pt Members of This Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhwan; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Rodgers, Michael A. J.; Kenney, Malcolm E.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of new metallo-octabutoxynaphthalocyanines with Rh(III), Ir(III), and Pt(II) are reported. Various metals were inserted into the metal-free octabutoxynaphthalocyanine and the resultant metal complexes were fully characterized by NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The absorption and emission properties of these new complexes were also examined and compared to those of Co(II), Ni(II), and Pd(II) octabutoxynaphthalocyanines. The results provide useful information to understand the effect of these transition metals on the properties of this macrocyclic ring. PMID:23745014

  2. WaFIRS, a Waveguide Far-IR Spectrometer: Enabling Space-Borne Spectroscopy of High-z Galaxies in the Far-IR and Submm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of galaxies beyond z approximately equal to 1 which emit the bulk of their luminosity at long wavelengths has demonstrated the need for high sensitivity, broadband spectroscopy in the far-IR/submm/mm bands. Because many of these sources are not detectable in the optical, long wavelength spectroscopy is key to measuring their redshifts and ISM conditions. The continuum source list will increase in the next decade with new ground-based instruments (SCUBA2, Bolocam, MAMBO) and the surveys of HSO and SIRTF. Yet the planned spectroscopic capabilities lag behind, primarily due to the difficulty in scaling existing IR spectrograph designs to longer wavelengths. To overcome these limitations, we are developing WaFIRS, a novel concept for long-wavelength spectroscopy which utilizes a parallel-plate waveguide and a curved diffraction grating. WaFIRS provides the large (approximately 60%) instantaneous bandwidth and high throughput of a conventional grating system, but offers a dramatic reduction in volume and mass. WaFIRS requires no space overheads for extra optical elements beyond the diffraction grating itself, and is two-dimensional because the propagation is confined between two parallel plates. Thus several modules could be stacked to multiplex either spatially or in different frequency bands. The size and mass savings provide opportunities for spectroscopy from space-borne observatories which would be impractical with conventional spectrographs. With background-limited detectors and a cooled 3.5 telescope, the line sensitivity would be better than that of ALMA, with instantaneous broad-band coverage. We have built and tested a WaFIRS prototype for 1-1.6 mm, and are currently constructing Z-Spec, a 100 mK model to be used as a ground-based lambda/DELTAlambda approximately equal to 350 submillimeter galaxy redshift machine.

  3. Nanosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Hemoglobin: Elementary Processes in Kinetic Cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofrichter, James; Sommer, Joseph H.; Henry, Eric R.; Eaton, William A.

    1983-04-01

    A nanosecond absorption spectrometer has been used to measure the optical spectra of hemoglobin between 3 ns and 100 ms after photolysis of the CO complex. The data from a single experiment comprise a surface, defined by the time-ordered set of 50-100 spectra. Singular value decomposition is used to represent the observed spectra in terms of a minimal set of basis spectra and the time course of their amplitudes. Both CO rebinding and conformational changes are found to be multiphasic. Prior to the quaternary structural change, two relaxations are observed that are assigned to geminate recombination followed by a tertiary structural change. These relaxations are interpreted in terms of a kinetic model that points out their potential role in kinetic cooperativity. The rapid escape of CO from the heme pocket compared with the rate of rebinding observed for both R and T quaternary states shows that the quaternary structure controls the overall dissociation rate by changing the rate at which the Fe--CO bond is broken. A comparable description of the control of the overall association rates must await a more complete experimental description of the kinetics of the quaternary T state.

  4. Midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy in coiled hollow optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Gregory J.; Pittner, Anthony S.; Silkoff, Philip E.

    2003-07-01

    A new nitric oxide (NO) sensor is intended for use in assessment of airway inflammation with applications in asthma diagnosis and management as well as in other health care applications involving inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and the urogenital organs. The sensor was designed to measure trace quantities of NO in air using the combination of hollow optical waveguides and quantum cascade lasers. The primary application intended is analysis of exhaled breath. The unique marriage of the components and the novel design provides for rapid response to concentration changes while maintaining sensitive measurement capabilities. We achieved a lower detectable limit of 58.8 ppb of NO in N2 with a 0-90% response time of 0.48 s. The QC laser was operated at room temperature in pulsed current mode near 5.4μm. The hollow waveguide used to make these measurements was 9m in length and the inside diameter was 1000μm. The waveguide was coiled with a 15cm radius of curvature and perforated on the interior walls of the coils to allow gas to flow into and out of the waveguide. The sensor can easily be converted to measure other gases in the midinfrared by selecting a QC laser whose output is coincident with the absorption line of interest.

  5. Diagnostics of cancer tissues by fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform IR (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1997-08-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  6. Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

    1998-05-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  7. Identification of Forged Bank of England 20 Gbp Banknotes Using IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnex, Emily

    2014-06-01

    Bank of England notes of 20 GBP denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. A principal aim of this work was to develop a method so that a small, compact ATR FTIR instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 wn from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine 20 GBP notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 wn), ν(C-H) (ca. 2900 wn) and ν(C=O) (ca. 1750 wn) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper. Further to this, with an announcement by the Bank of England to produce polymer banknotes in the future, the work has been extended using Australian polymer banknotes to show that the method would be transferable.

  8. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  9. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The influence of atomic alignment on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Richter, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining physical parameters in the universe, providing information about the chemistry of various astronomical environments. The proper execution of the spectroscopic analysis requires accounting for all the physical effects that are compatible to the signal-to-noise ratio. We find in this paper the influence on spectroscopy from the atomic/ground state alignment owing to anisotropic radiation and modulated by interstellar magnetic field, has significant impact on the study of interstellar gas. In different observational scenarios, we comprehensively demonstrate how atomic alignment influences the spectral analysis and provide the expressions for correcting the effect. The variations are even more pronounced for multiplets and line ratios. We show the variation of the deduced physical parameters caused by the atomic alignment effect, including alpha-to-iron ratio ([X/Fe]) and ionisation fraction. Synthetic observations are performed to illustrate the visibility of such effect with current facilities. A study of PDRs in ρ Ophiuchi cloud is presented to demonstrate how to account for atomic alignment in practice. Our work has shown that due to its potential impact, atomic alignment has to be included in an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the interstellar gas with current observational capability.

  11. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  12. DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) urban pollution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Robert K.; Vossler, T. L.

    1991-05-01

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (03), sulfur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HNO2) formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRN) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of 03, NO2, and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for 03 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRN's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o- xylene. However, the correlation coefficient between the DOAS and GC measurements of toluene averaged only 0.15 for the two DOAS measurement paths. The lack of correlation and other factors indicate the possibility of a localized source of toluene near the GC. In general, disagreements between the two measurement methods could be caused by atmospheric inhomogeneities or interferences in the DOAS and other methods.

  13. Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Platinum Nitride in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Harris, Rachel A.; Whittemore, Sean; O'Brien, James J.

    2009-06-01

    A new electronic transition of PtN has been recorded using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. Four red-degraded branches are observed, with a bandheads located at 11733 and 11725 wn. The results of the analysis will be presented and compared with ab initio calculations.

  14. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    atmosphere”. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 82(1):133–140, 2006. 11. Barrass, S., Y. Grard, R.J. Holdsworth, and P.A. Martin . “Near-infrared tun...15. Brown, M. S., S. Williams, C. D. Lindstrom , and D. L. Barone. Progress in Applying Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Scramjet

  15. X-Ray Absorption near Edge Structure Spectroscopy of Nanodiamonds from the Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Hill, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy shows Allende DM nanodiamonds have two pre-edge peaks, consistent with other small diamonds, but fail to show a diamond exciton which is seen in 3.6 nm diamond thin films.

  16. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  17. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  18. In Situ Nondestructive Analysis of Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Surface Structure by Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hama, Tetsuya; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki; Enami, Shinichi; Shimoaka, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-12-14

    The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K. pinnata plant. The peak position of the CH 2 -related modes shows that the cuticular waxes on the leaf surface are mainly crystalline, and the alkyl chains are highly packed in an all-trans zigzag conformation. The surface selection rule of PM-IRRAS revealed the average orientation of the cuticular molecules, as indicated by the positive and negative signals of the IR peaks. This unique property of PM-IRRAS revealed that the alkyl chains of the waxes and the main chains of polysaccharides are oriented almost perpendicular to the leaf surface. The nondestructive, background-free, and environmental gas-free nature of PM-IRRAS allows the structure and chemistry of the leaf cuticle to be studied directly in its native environment.

  19. Time-Resolved O3 Chemical Chain Reaction Kinetics Via High-Resolution IR Laser Absorption Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcke, Axel; Blackmon, Brad; Chapman, William B.; Kim, In Koo; Nesbitt, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Excimer laser photolysis in combination with time-resolved IR laser absorption detection of OH radicals has been used to study O3/OH(v = 0)/HO2 chain reaction kinetics at 298 K, (i.e.,(k(sub 1) is OH + 03 yields H02 + 02 and (k(sub 2) is H02 + 03 yields OH + 202). From time-resolved detection of OH radicals with high-resolution near IR laser absorption methods, the chain induction kinetics have been measured at up to an order of magnitude higher ozone concentrations ([03] less than or equal to 10(exp 17) molecules/cu cm) than accessible in previous studies. This greater dynamic range permits the full evolution of the chain induction, propagation, and termination process to be temporally isolated and measured in real time. An exact solution for time-dependent OH evolution under pseudo- first-order chain reaction conditions is presented, which correctly predicts new kinetic signatures not included in previous OH + 03 kinetic analyses. Specifically, the solutions predict an initial exponential loss (chain "induction") of the OH radical to a steady-state level ([OH](sub ss)), with this fast initial decay determined by the sum of both chain rate constants, k(sub ind) = k(sub 1) + k(sub 2). By monitoring the chain induction feature, this sum of the rate constants is determined to be k(sub ind) = 8.4(8) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s for room temperature reagents. This is significantly higher than the values currently recommended for use in atmospheric models, but in excellent agreement with previous results from Ravishankara et al.

  20. Ultrafast forward and backward electron transfer dynamics of coumarin 337 in hydrogen-bonded anilines as studied with femtosecond UV-pump/IR-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Hirendra N; Verma, Sandeep; Nibbering, Erik T J

    2011-02-10

    Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy is used to study both forward and backward electron transfer (ET) dynamics between coumarin 337 (C337) and the aromatic amine solvents aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (MAN), and N,N-dimethylaniline (DMAN), where all the aniline solvents can donate an electron but only AN and MAN can form hydrogen bonds with C337. The formation of a hydrogen bond with AN and MAN is confirmed with steady state FT-IR spectroscopy, where the C═O stretching vibration is a direct marker mode for hydrogen bond formation. Transient IR absorption measurements in all solvents show an absorption band at 2166 cm(-1), which has been attributed to the C≡N stretching vibration of the C337 radical anion formed after ET. Forward electron transfer dynamics is found to be biexponential with time constants τ(ET)(1) = 500 fs, τ(ET)(2) = 7 ps in all solvents. Despite the presence of hydrogen bonds of C337 with the solvents AN and MAN, no effect has been found on the forward electron transfer step. Because of the absence of an H/D isotope effect on the forward electron transfer reaction of C337 in AN, hydrogen bonds are understood to play a minor role in mediating electron transfer. In contrast, direct π-orbital overlap between C337 and the aromatic amine solvents causes ultrafast forward electron transfer dynamics. Backward electron transfer dynamics, in contrast, is dependent on the solvent used. Standard Marcus theory explains the observed backward electron transfer rates.

  1. Extreme IR absorption in group IV-SiGeSn core-shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attiaoui, Anis; Wirth, Stephan; Blanchard-Dionne, André-Pierre; Meunier, Michel; Hartmann, J. M.; Buca, Dan; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2018-06-01

    Sn-containing Si and Ge (Ge1-y-xSixSny) alloys are an emerging family of semiconductors with the potential to impact group IV material-based devices. These semiconductors provide the ability to independently engineer both the lattice parameter and bandgap, which holds the premise to develop enhanced or novel photonic and electronic devices. With this perspective, we present detailed investigations of the influence of Ge1-y-xSixSny layers on the optical properties of Si and Ge based heterostructures and nanowires. We found that by adding a thin Ge1-y-xSixSny capping layer on Si or Ge greatly enhances light absorption especially in the near infrared range, leading to an increase in short-circuit current density. For the Ge1-y-xSixSny structure at thicknesses below 30 nm, a 14-fold increase in the short-circuit current is observed with respect to bare Si. This enhancement decreases by reducing the capping layer thickness. Conversely, decreasing the shell thickness was found to improve the short-circuit current in Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny and Ge/Ge1-y-xSixSny core/shell nanowires. The optical absorption becomes very important by increasing the Sn content. Moreover, by exploiting an optical antenna effect, these nanowires show extreme light absorption, reaching an enhancement factor, with respect to Si or Ge nanowires, on the order of 104 in Si/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12 and 12 in Ge/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12. Furthermore, we analyzed the optical response after the addition of a dielectric layer of Si3N4 to the Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny core-shell nanowire and found approximatively a 50% increase in the short-circuit current density for a dielectric layer of thickness equal to 45 nm and both a core radius and a shell thickness greater than 40 nm. The core-shell optical antenna benefits from a multiplication of enhancements contributed by leaky mode resonances in the semiconductor part and antireflection effects in the dielectric part.

  2. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  3. Improving Optical Absorption Models for Harsh Planetary Atmospheres: Laboratory Spectroscopy at Venus Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Ryan Kenneth; Schroeder, Paul James; Diego Draper, Anthony; Rieker, Gregory Brian

    2018-06-01

    Modelling absorption spectra in high pressure, high temperature environments is complicated by the increased relevance of higher order collisional phenomena (e.g. line mixing, collision-induced absorption, finite duration of collisions) that alter the spectral lineshape. Accurate reference spectroscopy in these conditions is of interest for mineralogy and radiative transfer studies of Venus as well as other dense planetary atmospheres. We present a new, high pressure, high temperature absorption spectroscopy facility at the University of Colorado Boulder. This facility employs a dual frequency comb absorption spectrometer to record broadband (500nm), high resolution (~0.002nm) spectra in conditions comparable to the Venus surface (730K, 90bar). Measurements of the near-infrared spectrum of carbon dioxide at high pressure and temperature will be compared to modeled spectra extrapolated from the HITRAN 2016 database as well as other published models that include additional collisional physics. This comparison gives insight into the effectiveness of existing absorption databases for modeling the lower Venus atmosphere as well as the need to expand absorption models to suit these conditions.

  4. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  5. The temperature measurement research for high-speed flow based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yue; Jin, Yi; Jiang, Hong-liang; Zhai, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Due to the particularity of the high-speed flow, in order to accurately obtain its' temperature, the measurement system should has some characteristics of not interfereing with the flow, non-contact measurement and high time resolution. The traditional measurement method cannot meet the above requirements, however the measurement method based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology can meet the requirements for high-speed flow temperature measurement. When the near-infared light of a specific frequency is through the media to be measured, it will be absorbed by the water vapor molecules and then the transmission light intensity is detected by the detector. The temperature of the water vapor which is also the high-speed flow temperature, can be accurately obtained by the Beer-Lambert law. This paper focused on the research of absorption spectrum method for high speed flow temperature measurement with the scope of 250K-500K. Firstly, spectral line selection method for low temperature measurement of high-speed flow is discussed. Selected absorption lines should be isolated and have a high peak absorption within the range of 250-500K, at the same time the interference of the other lines should be avoided, so that a high measurement accuracy can be obtained. According to the near-infrared absorption spectra characteristics of water vapor, four absorption lines at the near 1395 nm and 1409 nm are selected. Secondly, a system for the temperature measurement of the water vapor in the high-speed flow is established. Room temperature are measured through two methods, direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) ,the results show that this system can realize on-line measurement of the temperature and the measurement error is about 3%. Finally, the system will be used for temperature measurement of the high-speed flow in the shock tunnel, its feasibility of measurement is analyzed.

  6. Radiolytic formation of the carbon dioxide radical anion in acetonitrile revealed by transient IR spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Grills, David Charles; Lymar, Sergei

    2018-03-29

    In this study, the solvated electron in CH 3CN is scavenged by CO 2 with a rate constant of 3.2 × 10 10 M –1 s –1 to produce the carbon dioxide radical anion (CO 2 •–), a strong and versatile reductant. Using pulse radiolysis with time-resolved IR detection, this radical is unambiguously identified by its absorption band at 1650 cm –1 corresponding to the antisymmetric CO 2 •– stretch. This assignment is confirmed by 13C isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations. In neat CH 3CN, CO 2 •– decays on a ~10 μs time scale via recombination with solvent-derivedmore » radicals (R•) and solvated protons. Upon addition of formate (HCO 2 –), the radiation yield of CO 2 •– is substantially increased due to H-atom abstraction by R• from HCO 2 – (R• + HCO 2 – → RH + CO 2 •–), which occurs in two kinetically separated steps. The rapid step involves the stronger H-abstracting CN•, CH 3•, and possibly, H• primary radicals, while the slower step is due to the less reactive, but more abundant radical, CH 2CN•. The removal of solvent radicals by HCO 2 – also results in over a hundredfold increase in the CO 2 •– lifetime. CO 2 •– scavenging experiments suggest that at 50 mM HCO 2 –, about 60% of the solvent-derived radicals are engaged in CO 2 •– generation. Finally, even under CO 2 saturation, no formation of the radical adduct, (CO 2) 2 •–, could be detected on the microsecond time scale.« less

  7. Radiolytic formation of the carbon dioxide radical anion in acetonitrile revealed by transient IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, David Charles; Lymar, Sergei

    In this study, the solvated electron in CH 3CN is scavenged by CO 2 with a rate constant of 3.2 × 10 10 M –1 s –1 to produce the carbon dioxide radical anion (CO 2 •–), a strong and versatile reductant. Using pulse radiolysis with time-resolved IR detection, this radical is unambiguously identified by its absorption band at 1650 cm –1 corresponding to the antisymmetric CO 2 •– stretch. This assignment is confirmed by 13C isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations. In neat CH 3CN, CO 2 •– decays on a ~10 μs time scale via recombination with solvent-derivedmore » radicals (R•) and solvated protons. Upon addition of formate (HCO 2 –), the radiation yield of CO 2 •– is substantially increased due to H-atom abstraction by R• from HCO 2 – (R• + HCO 2 – → RH + CO 2 •–), which occurs in two kinetically separated steps. The rapid step involves the stronger H-abstracting CN•, CH 3•, and possibly, H• primary radicals, while the slower step is due to the less reactive, but more abundant radical, CH 2CN•. The removal of solvent radicals by HCO 2 – also results in over a hundredfold increase in the CO 2 •– lifetime. CO 2 •– scavenging experiments suggest that at 50 mM HCO 2 –, about 60% of the solvent-derived radicals are engaged in CO 2 •– generation. Finally, even under CO 2 saturation, no formation of the radical adduct, (CO 2) 2 •–, could be detected on the microsecond time scale.« less

  8. Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown in MW Plasma Torch: Electronic and Electrochemical Behavior, Gas Sensing, Field Emission, IR Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G.; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 μm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‐modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures. PMID:25629702

  9. Rapid evaluation and quantitative analysis of thyme, origano and chamomile essential oils by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Krüger, Hans

    2003-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from various chemotypes of thyme, origano and chamomile species were studied by ATR/FT-IR as well as NIR spectroscopy. Application of multivariate statistics (PCA, PLS) in conjunction with analytical reference data leads to very good IR and NIR calibration results. For the main essential oil components (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, α-bisabolol and β-farnesene) standard errors are in the range of the applied GC reference method. In most cases the multiple coefficients of determination ( R2) are >0.97. Using the IR fingerprint region (900-1400 cm -1) a qualitative discrimination of the individual chemotypes is possible already by visual judgement without to apply any chemometric algorithms.The described rapid and non-destructive methods can be applied in industry to control very easily purifying, blending and redistillation processes of the mentioned essential oils.

  10. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Proteolytically-induced changes of secondary structural protein conformation of bovine serum albumin monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Günnur; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatically-induced degradation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by serine proteases (trypsin and α-chymotrypsin) in various concentrations was monitored by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy. In this study, the applicability of both spectroscopies to monitor the proteolysis process in real time has been proven, by tracking the spectral changes together with secondary structure analysis of BSA as proteolysis proceeds. On the basis of the FTIR spectra and the changes in the amide I band region, we suggest the progression of proteolysis process via conversion of α-helices (1654 cm- 1) into unordered structures and an increase in the concentration of free carboxylates (absorption of 1593 and 1402 cm- 1). For the first time, the correlation between the degree of hydrolysis and the concentration of carboxylic groups measured by FTIR spectroscopy was revealed as well. The far UV-CD spectra together with their secondary structure analysis suggest that the α-helical content decreases concomitant with an increase in the unordered structure. Both spectroscopic techniques also demonstrate that there are similar but less spectral changes of BSA for the trypsin attack than for α-chymotrypsin although the substrate/enzyme ratio is taken the same.

  12. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics maymore » be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.« less

  13. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  14. Absorption spectroscopy at the ultimate quantum limit from single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, R.; Erven, C.; Neville, A.; Berry, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Cable, H.; Matthews, J. C. F.

    2017-02-01

    Absorption spectroscopy is routinely used to characterise chemical and biological samples. For the state-of-the-art in laser absorption spectroscopy, precision is theoretically limited by shot-noise due to the fundamental Poisson-distribution of photon number in laser radiation. In practice, the shot-noise limit can only be achieved when all other sources of noise are eliminated. Here, we use wavelength-correlated and tuneable photon pairs to demonstrate how absorption spectroscopy can be performed with precision beyond the shot-noise limit and near the ultimate quantum limit by using the optimal probe for absorption measurement—single photons. We present a practically realisable scheme, which we characterise both the precision and accuracy of by measuring the response of a control feature. We demonstrate that the technique can successfully probe liquid samples and using two spectrally similar types of haemoglobin we show that obtaining a given precision in resolution requires fewer heralded single probe photons compared to using an idealised laser.

  15. Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Pogue, B W; Patterson, M S

    1994-07-01

    The goal of frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy is the non-invasive determination of the absorption coefficient of a specific tissue volume. Since this allows the concentration of endogenous and exogenous chromophores to be calculated, there is considerable potential for clinical application. The technique relies on the measurement of the phase and modulation of light, which is diffusely reflected or transmitted by the tissue when it is illuminated by an intensity-modulated source. A model of light propagation must then be used to deduce the absorption coefficient. For simplicity, it is usual to assume the tissue is either infinite in extent (for transmission measurements) or semi-infinite (for reflectance measurements). The goal of this paper is to examine the errors introduced by these assumptions when measurements are actually performed on finite volumes. Diffusion-theory calculations and experimental measurements were performed for slabs, cylinders and spheres with optical properties characteristic of soft tissues in the near infrared. The error in absorption coefficient is presented as a function of object size as a guideline to when the simple models may be used. For transmission measurements, the error is almost independent of the true absorption coefficient, which allows absolute changes in absorption to be measured accurately. The implications of these errors in absorption coefficient for two clinical problems--quantitation of an exogenous photosensitizer and measurement of haemoglobin oxygenation--are presented and discussed.

  16. Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, Bertram; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-09-25

    Spectroscopic studies on heterogeneous catalysts have mostly been done in an integral mode. However, in many cases spatial variations in catalyst structure can occur, e.g. during impregnation of pre-shaped particles, during reaction in a catalytic reactor, or in microstructured reactors as the present overview shows. Therefore, spatially resolved molecular information on a microscale is required for a comprehensive understanding of theses systems, partly in ex situ studies, partly under stationary reaction conditions and in some cases even under dynamic reaction conditions. Among the different available techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-suited tool for this purpose as the differentmore » selected examples highlight. Two different techniques, scanning and full-field X-ray microscopy/tomography, are described and compared. At first, the tomographic structure of impregnated alumina pellets is presented using full-field transmission microtomography and compared to the results obtained with a scanning X-ray microbeam technique to analyse the catalyst bed inside a catalytic quartz glass reactor. On the other hand, by using XAS in scanning microtomography, the structure and the distribution of Cu(0), Cu(I), Cu(II) species in a Cu/ZnO catalyst loaded in a quartz capillary microreactor could be reconstructed quantitatively on a virtual section through the reactor. An illustrating example for spatially resolved XAS under reaction conditions is the partial oxidation of methane over noble metal-based catalysts. In order to obtain spectroscopic information on the spatial variation of the oxidation state of the catalyst inside the reactor XAS spectra were recorded by scanning with a micro-focussed beam along the catalyst bed. Alternatively, full-field transmission imaging was used to efficiently determine the distribution of the oxidation state of a catalyst inside a reactor under reaction conditions. The new technical approaches together with

  17. Fourier Transform Absorption Spectroscopy of C_3 in the ν_3 Antisymmetric Stretch Mode Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Pirali, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The C_3 molecule has been detected in a variety of astrophysical objects thanks to the well-known 4050 Å (A^1Π_u-X^1Σ ^+ _g) electronic transition as well as the two IR active modes of the electronic ground state: ν_2 (˜ 63.42 cm^{-1}) and ν_3 (˜ 2040.02 cm^{-1}). Previous laboratory data in the ν_3 region, obtained using diode laser spectroscopy and the photolysis of allene to produce C_3, permitted measurement of the fundamental (0,0,1)Σ-(0,0,0)Σ as well as the hot bands: (0,1,1)Π-(0,1,0)Π; (0,2,1)Σ-(0,2,0)Σ; (0,2,1)Δ-(0,2,0)Δ and provided insights on the anharmonicity of the (0,nν_2,1) vibrational pattern. We have recorded the absorption spectrum of C_3 in the 1800-2100 cm^{-1} region (at a resolution of 0.003 cm^{-1}) using the Bruker IFS 125 Fourier Transform spectrometer at the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. C_3 was produced in a DC discharge of methane heavily diluted in helium. The rovibrational temperature of C_3 produced in our discharge is noticeably higher than in Ref. [4], which allowed us to extend measurements to higher J values. More interestingly, we assigned new hot bands involving higher quanta of the ν_2 bending states: (0,nν_2,1) with n ranging from 0 to 5. Despite the absence of Q branches for these bands, which results in a possible ambiguous J-assignment of P and R lines, the large variety of data considered in this work, in addition to our experimental data and including observations of comet spectra, allows confident assignments. L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerqvist, B. Rosen, Astrophysical Journal, 45-81 (1965); T. F. Giesen et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 551, L181-L184 (2001) K. W. Hinkle, J. J. Keady, P. F. Bernath, Science, 241, 1319-1322 (1988) K. Kawaguchi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 91, 1953-1957 (1989)

  18. Analysis of Atmospheric Composition and Tropospheric Variability With Integrated Open- Path and Ground-Based Solar Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Compton, R. N.; Hager, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Ground-based solar infrared absorption spectroscopy coupled with open-path spectroscopy provides a means for analysis of the highly variable contribution of the boundary layer to problems of radiative transfer and atmospheric chemistry. This is of particular importance in geographic regions of significant local anthropogenic influence and large tropospheric fluctuations in general. A Bomem DA8 FT-IR integrated with a sun-tracking and open-path system (~0.5 km) is located at The University of Tennessee, in downtown Knoxville and near The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, an area known for problematic air quality. From atmospheric absorption spectra, boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. A record of more than 1000 solar-sourced atmospheric spectra covering a period greater than three years in duration is under analysis to characterize the limit of precision in total column abundance determinations for many gases such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, HF and CO2. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar-sourced spectra may not meet the precision required for the highly accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such global efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, the determined variability of CO2 and other gas concentrations is statistically significant and is indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. This is therefore an important data record in the southeastern United States, a somewhat under- sampled geographic region. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the trace gas concentrations. This provides an urban air quality monitor in addition to improving the description of the total atmospheric composition, as the open-path system is stable and permanent.

  19. Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Rubidium with a Dual-Comb Tequnique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Yoshida, Satoru; Hariki, Takuya; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopies have great potential for high-resolution molecular and atomic spectroscopies, thanks to the broadband comb spectrum consisting of dense narrow modes. In this study, we apply the dual-comb system to Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy. The outputs of two frequency combs excite several two-photon transitions of rubidium, and we obtained broadband Doppler-free spectra from dual-comb fluorescence signals. The fluorescence detection scheme circumvents the sensitivity limit which is effectively determined by the dynamic range of photodetectors in absorption-based dual-comb spectroscopies. Our system realized high-sensitive, Doppler-free high-resolution and broadband atomic spectroscopy. A part of observed spectra of 5S_{1/2} - 5D_{5/2} transition is shown in the figure. The hyperfine structures of the F" = 1 - F' = 3,2,1 transitions are fully-resolved and the spectral widths are approximately 5 MHz. The absolute frequency axis is precisely calibrated from comb mode frequencies which were stabilized to a GPS-disciplined clock. This work was supported by JST through the ERATO MINOSHIMA Intelligent Optical Synthesizer Project and Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (16J02345). A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, K. and Minoshima, Opt. Express 24, 25894 (2016). A. Hipke, S. A. Meek, T. Ideguchi, T.W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Phys. Rev. A 90, 011805(R) (2014).

  20. First calibration measurements of an FTIR absorption spectroscopy system for liquid hydrogen isotopologues for the isotope separation system of fusion power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Groessle, R.; Beck, A.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Fusion facilities like ITER and DEMO will circulate huge amounts of deuterium and tritium in their fuel cycle with an estimated throughput of kg per hour. One important capability of these fuel cycles is to separate the hydrogen isotopologues (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT). For this purpose the Isotope Separation System (ISS), using cryogenic distillation, as part of the Tritium Enrichment Test Assembly (TRENTA) is under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) has been selected to prove its capability for online monitoring of the tritium concentration in the liquid phase atmore » the bottom of the distillation column of the ISS. The actual research-development work is focusing on the calibration of such a system. Two major issues are the identification of appropriate absorption lines and their dependence on the isotopic concentrations and composition. For this purpose the Tritium Absorption IR spectroscopy experiment has been set up as an extension of TRENTA. For calibration a Raman spectroscopy system is used. First measurements, with equilibrated mixtures of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and HD demonstrate that FTIR can be used for quantitative analysis of liquid hydro-gen isotopologues and reveal a nonlinear dependence of the integrated absorbance from the D{sub 2} concentration in the second vibrational branch of D{sub 2} FTIR spectra. (authors)« less

  1. Investigation of periodically driven systems by x-ray absorption spectroscopy using asynchronous data collection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Donetsky, D.; Liu, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Cheng, B.; Trelewicz, J. R.; Lubomirsky, I.; Stavitski, E.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the development, testing, and demonstration of a setup for modulation excitation spectroscopy experiments at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source - II. A computer algorithm and dedicated software were developed for asynchronous data processing and analysis. We demonstrate the reconstruction of X-ray absorption spectra for different time points within the modulation pulse using a model system. This setup and the software are intended for a broad range of functional materials which exhibit structural and/or electronic responses to the external stimulation, such as catalysts, energy and battery materials, and electromechanical devices.

  2. Disentangling atomic-layer-specific x-ray absorption spectra by Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kato, Yukako; Hashimoto, Mie; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer at subsurface, we have proposed a new method, Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy, which is the combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) techniques. We have measured a series of Ni LMM AED patterns of the Ni film grown on Cu(001) surface for various thicknesses. Then we deduced a set of atomic-layer-specific AED patterns in a numerical way. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm to disentangle XANES spectra from different atomic layers using these atomic-layer-specific AED patterns. Surface and subsurface core level shift were determined for each atomic layer.

  3. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of nitric oxide synthase studied by visible broadband transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Chang; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chen, Pei-Feng; Liang, Keng S.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) oxygenase domain was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy pumping at Soret band. The broadband visible probe spectrum has visualized the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to Q-band and charge transfer (CT) band. Supported by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, global fitting analysis has successfully concluded the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to be (1) electronic transition to Q-band (0.16 ps), (2) ligand dissociation and CT (0.94 ps), (3) relaxation of the CT state (4.0 ps), and (4) ligand rebinding (59 ps).

  4. On the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Synthetic Calibration Spectra to Quantify Gas Concentrations in a Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2015-01-01

    One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments.

  5. On the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Synthetic Calibration Spectra to Quantify Gas Concentrations in a Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst System.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Frank T; Johnson, Natasha M; Nuth, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the High-Resolution Transmission Molecular Absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments.

  6. Nanoscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging of structural lipids in human stratum corneum using an atomic force microscope to directly detect absorbed light from a tunable IR laser source.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Domanov, Yegor; Balooch, Guive; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2013-06-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a tunable infrared (IR) laser source have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing ~200-nm spatial resolution IR spectra and absorption images. This new capability enables IR spectroscopic characterization of human stratum corneum at unprecendented levels. Samples of normal and delipidized stratum corneum were embedded, cross-sectioned and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A pulsed tunable IR laser source produces thermomechanical expansion upon absorption, which is detected through excitation of contact resonance modes in the AFM cantilever. In addition to reducing the total lipid content, the delipidization process damages the stratum corneum morphological structure. The delipidized stratum corneum shows substantially less long-chain CH2 -stretching IR absorption band intensity than normal skin. AFM-IR images that compare absorbances at 2930/cm (lipid) and 3290/cm (keratin) suggest that regions of higher lipid concentration are located at the perimeter of corneocytes in the normal stratum corneum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

  8. Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Platinum Nitride in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Womack, Kaitlin A.; O'Brien, James J.; Whittemore, Sean

    2013-06-01

    The (2,0) band of the A^{2}Σ^{-} - X^{2}Π_{1/2} electronic transition of PtN has been recorded using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. Transitions from ^{194}PtN, ^{195}PtN, and ^{196}PtN isotopologues are observed, as well as the nuclear hyperfine splitting due to ^{195}Pt with I=1/2. The results of the analysis will be presented and compared with ab initio calculations.

  9. Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by solvent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gooch, E G

    1993-01-01

    Silicone defoamers are used to control foam during the processing of fruit juices. Residual silicones in fruit juices can be separated from the naturally occurring siliceous materials in fruit products and selectively recovered by solvent extraction, after suitable pretreatment. The recovered silicone is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silicone concentrations as low as about 1 ppm can be measured. The juices are accurately spiked for recovery studies by the addition of silicone dispersed in D-sorbitol.

  10. Laser absorption spectroscopy applied to monitoring of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxuan; Shen, Fengjiao; Yi, Hongming; Hubert, Patrice; Deguine, Alexandre; Petitprez, Denis; Maamary, Rabih; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Fertein, Eric; Sigrist, Markus W.; Ba, Tong-Nguyen; Chen, Weidong

    2018-06-01

    Enhanced mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) has been recently paid more attention in order to provide more sizeable short-term reductions of global warming effects over the next several decades. We overview in this article our recent progress in the development of spectroscopic instruments for optical monitoring of major SLCPs based on laser absorption spectroscopy. Methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) are the most important SLCPs contributing to the human enhancement of the global greenhouse effect after CO2. We present optical sensing of these two climate-change related atmospheric species to illustrate how "classical" spectroscopy can help to address today's challenging issues: (1) Photoacoustic measurements of BC optical absorption coefficient in order to determine its radiative-forcing related optical parameters (such as mass absorption coefficient, absorption Ångström coefficient) with higher precision (∼7.4% compared to 12-30% for filter-based methods routinely used nowadays). The 1σ (SNR = 1) minimum measurable volumetric mass density of 21 ng/m3 (in 60 s) for black carbon. (2) Direct absorption spectroscopy-based monitoring of methane (CH4) in field campaign to identify pollution source in conjunction with air mass back-trajectory modeling. Using a White-type multipass cell (an effective path-length of 175 m), a 1σ detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a relative measurement precision of 1.1% and an overall measurement uncertainty of about 5.1%. Performance of the custom, lab-based instruments (in terms of detection limits, measurement precision, temporal response, etc.), spectroscopic measurement aspects, experimental details, spectral data processing, analysis and modeling of the observed environmental episode will be presented and discussed.

  11. Dynamic Optoelectronic Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films Measured with Ultrafast Transient Absorption & Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Sergey Y.

    Ultrafast transient absorption and reflectance spectroscopy are foundational techniques for studying photoexcited carrier recombination mechanisms, lifetimes, and charge transfer rates. Because quantifying photoexcited carrier dynamics is central to the intelligent design and improvement of many solid state devices, these transient optical techniques have been applied to a wide range of semiconductors. However, despite their promise, interpretation of transient absorption and reflectance data is not always straightforward and often relies on assumptions of physical processes, especially with respect to the influence of heating. Studying the material space of perovskite oxides, the careful collection, interpretation, and analysis of ultrafast data is presented here as a guide for future research into novel semiconductors. Perovskite oxides are a class of transition metal oxides with the chemical structure ABO3. Although traditionally studied for their diverse physical, electronic, and magnetic properties, perovskite oxides have gained recent research attention as novel candidates for light harvesting applications. Indeed, strong tunable absorption, unique interfacial properties, and vast chemical flexibility make perovskite oxides a promising photoactive material system. However, there is limited research characterizing dynamic optoelectronic properties, such as recombination lifetimes, which are critical to know in the design of any light-harvesting device. In this thesis, ultrafast transient absorption and reflectance spectroscopy was used to understand these dynamic optoelectronic properties in highquality, thin (<50 nm) perovskite oxide films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Starting with epitaxial LaFeO3 (LFO) grown on (LaAlO 3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT), transient absorption spectroscopy reveals two photoinduced absorption features at the band gap of LFO at 2.4 eV and at the higher energy absorption edge at 3.5 eV. Using a combination of temperature

  12. The IR Absorption Spectra of Aqueous Solutions of Dimethylsulfoxide over the Frequency Range 50-300 cm-1 and the Mobility of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemenkova, Z. S.; Novskova, T. A.; Lyashchenko, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The IR absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with concentrations from 100% H2O to 100% DMSO were recorded over the frequency range 50-500 cm-1. The absorption spectra were described using the theoretical scheme of hindered rotators. A model was developed according to which orientation relaxation in solution was related to separate rotations of H2O and DMSO molecules through fixed small and (or) large angles in a unified network of H-bonds consisting of several subsystems ordered to various degrees. The calculated absorption spectra were in agreement with the experimental data in the far IR region. Elementary motions of molecules were found to slow down in the passage from pure dimethylsulfoxide to its aqueous solutions. The special features of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration of DMSO polar and nonpolar groups were considered.

  13. Towards a Molecular Movie: Real Time Observation of Hydrogen Bond Breaking by Transient 2D-IR Spectroscopy in a Cyclic Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolano, Christoph; Helbing, Jan; Sander, Wolfram; Hamm, Peter

    Transient two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (T2D-IR) has been used to observe in real time the non-equilibrium structural dynamics of intramolecular hydrogen bond breaking in a small cyclic disulfide-bridged peptide.

  14. Gas trace detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a review of its process in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Luo, Zhifu; Tan, Zhongqi; Long, Xingwu

    2016-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a technology in which the intracavity absorption is deduced from the intensity of light transmitted by the high finesse optical cavity. Then the samples' parameters, such as their species, concentration and absorption cross section, would be detection. It was first proposed and demonstrated by Engeln R. [1] and O'Keefe[2] in 1998. This technology has extraordinary detection sensitivity, high resolution and good practicability, so it is used in many fields , such as clinical medicine, gas detection and basic physics research. In this paper, we focus on the use of gas trace detection, including the advance of CEAS over the past twenty years, the newest research progresses, and the prediction of this technology's development direction in the future.

  15. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  16. The visible absorption spectrum of NO3 measured by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, J.; Fellows, C. E.; Flaud, P.-M.

    2003-02-01

    The visible absorption spectrum of the nitrate radical NO3 has been measured using high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectrum was recorded at 294 K using a resolution of 0.6 cm-1 (corresponding to 0.026 nm at 662 nm) and covers the 12600-21500 cm-1 region (465-794 nm). Compared to absorption spectra of NO3 recorded previously, the new data show improvements concerning absolute wavelength calibration (uncertainty 0.02 cm-1), and spectral resolution. A new interpretation and model of the temperature dependence of the strong (0-0) band around 662 nm are proposed. The results are important for long-path tropospheric absorption measurements of NO3 and optical remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space.

  17. Novel Semi-Parametric Algorithm for Interference-Immune Tunable Absorption Spectroscopy Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Umberto; Venturini, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common limits to gas sensor performance is the presence of unwanted interference fringes arising, for example, from multiple reflections between surfaces in the optical path. Additionally, since the amplitude and the frequency of these interferences depend on the distance and alignment of the optical elements, they are affected by temperature changes and mechanical disturbances, giving rise to a drift of the signal. In this work, we present a novel semi-parametric algorithm that allows the extraction of a signal, like the spectroscopic absorption line of a gas molecule, from a background containing arbitrary disturbances, without having to make any assumption on the functional form of these disturbances. The algorithm is applied first to simulated data and then to oxygen absorption measurements in the presence of strong fringes.To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the algorithm enables an unprecedented accuracy particularly if the fringes have a free spectral range and amplitude comparable to those of the signal to be detected. The described method presents the advantage of being based purely on post processing, and to be of extremely straightforward implementation if the functional form of the Fourier transform of the signal is known. Therefore, it has the potential to enable interference-immune absorption spectroscopy. Finally, its relevance goes beyond absorption spectroscopy for gas sensing, since it can be applied to any kind of spectroscopic data. PMID:28991161

  18. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of NO2 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Peng, Wen Yu; Strand, Christopher; Mitchell Spearrin, R.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Bekal, Anish; Halder, Purbasha; Poonacha, Samhitha P.; Vartak, Sameer; Sridharan, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption sensor was developed for in-situ detection of NO2 in high-temperature gas environments. A cluster of spin-split transitions near 1599.9 cm-1 from the ν3 absorption band of NO2 was selected due to the strength of these transitions and the low spectral interference from water vapor within this region. Temperature- and species-dependent collisional broadening parameters of ten neighboring NO2 transitions with Ar, O2, N2, CO2 and H2O were measured and reported. The spectral model was validated through comparisons with direct absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 seeded in various bath gases. The performance of the scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS)-based sensor was demonstrated in a combustion exhaust stream seeded with varying flow rates of NO2, achieving reliable detection of 1.45 and 1.6 ppm NO2 by mole at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, with a measurement uncertainty of ±11%. 2σ noise levels of 360 ppb and 760 ppb were observed at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, in an absorption path length of 1.79 m.

  19. Single-ended retroreflection sensors for absorption spectroscopy in high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, Scott T.; Wang, Ze; Neal, Nicholas J.; Rothamer, David A.; Sanders, Scott T.

    2017-04-01

    Novel single-ended sensor arrangements are demonstrated for in situ absorption spectroscopy in combustion and related test articles. A single-ended optical access technique based on back-reflection from a polished test article surface is presented. H2O vapor absorption spectra were measured at 10 kHz in a homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engine using a sensor of this design collecting back-reflection from a polished piston surface. The measured spectra show promise for high-repetition-rate measurements in practical combustion devices. A second sensor was demonstrated based on a modification to this optical access technique. The sensor incorporates a nickel retroreflective surface as back-reflector to reduce sensitivity to beam steering and misalignment. In a propane-fired furnace, H2O vapor absorption spectra were obtained over the range 7315-7550 cm- 1 at atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 775 K at 20 Hz using an external-cavity diode laser spectrometer. Gas properties of temperature and mole fraction were obtained from this furnace data using a band-shape spectral fitting technique. The temperature accuracy of the band-shape fitting was demonstrated to be ±1.3 K for furnace measurements at atmospheric pressure. These results should extend the range of applications in which absorption spectroscopy sensors are attractive candidates.

  20. Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Johannes M; Abate, Yohannes; Cvitkovic, Antonija; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Huber, Andreas J; Leone, Stephen R; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2011-08-23

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful and widely used tool for analyzing the chemical composition and structure of materials. Because of the diffraction limit, however, it cannot be applied for studying individual nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that the phase contrast in substrate-enhanced scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides a map of the infrared absorption spectrum of individual nanoparticles with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We succeeded in the chemical identification of silicon nitride nanoislands with heights well below 10 nm, by infrared near-field fingerprint spectroscopy of the Si-N stretching bond. Employing a novel theoretical model, we show that the near-field phase spectra of small particles correlate well with their far-field absorption spectra. On the other hand, the spectral near-field contrast does not scale with the volume of the particles. We find a nearly linear scaling law, which we can attribute to the near-field coupling between the near-field probe and the substrate. Our results provide fundamental insights into the spectral near-field contrast of nanoparticles and clearly demonstrate the capability of s-SNOM for nanoscale chemical mapping based on local infrared absorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

  2. Applications of 2D IR spectroscopy to peptides, proteins, and hydrogen-bond dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yung Sam; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Following a survey of 2D IR principles this Feature Article describes recent experiments on the hydrogen-bond dynamics of small ions, amide-I modes, nitrile probes, peptides, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and amyloid fibrils. PMID:19351162

  3. Synthesis and selective IR absorption properties of iminodiacetic-acid intercalated MgAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lijing; Xu Xiangyu; Evans, David G.

    2010-05-15

    An MgAl-NO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor has been prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Reaction with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) under weakly acidic conditions led to the replacement of the interlayer nitrate anions by iminodiacetic acid anions. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA, ICP, elemental analysis and SEM. The results show that the original interlayer nitrate anions of LDHs precursor were replaced by iminodiacetic acid anions and that the resulting intercalation product MgAl-IDA-LDH has an ordered crystalline structure. MgAl-IDA-LDH was mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE) using a masterbatch method. LDPE films filledmore » with MgAl-IDA-LDH showed a higher mid to far infrared absorption than films filled with MgAl-CO{sub 3}-LDH in the 7-25 {mu}m range, particularly in the key 9-11 {mu}m range required for application in agricultural plastic films. - Graphical abstract: Intercalation of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) anions in a MgAl-NO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide host leads to an enhancement of its infrared absorbing ability for application in agricultural plastic films.« less

  4. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Microstructures as IR-sensors with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikova, T. V.; Danilov, P. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Yermachenko, V. M.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmelnitskii, R. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Nguyen, T. T. H.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Svistunova, T. S.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Using a micro-hole grating in a supported silver film as a laser-fabricated novel optical platform for surface-enhanced IR absoprtion/reflection spectroscopy, characteristic absorption bands of Staphylococcus aureus, especially - its buried carotenoid fragments - were detected in FT-IR spectra with 10-fold analytical enhancement, paving the way to spectral express-identification of the pathogenic microorganisms.

  6. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. PMID:28231130

  7. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra are best recorded when a highly intense beam of X-rays from a synchrotron is used along with a good resolution double crystal or curved crystal spectrometer and detectors like ionization chambers, scintillation counters, solid state detectors etc. Several synchrotrons around the world have X-ray beamlines dedicated specifically to XAFS spectroscopy. Fortunately, the Indian synchrotron (Indus-2) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore has started operation. A dispersive type EXAFS beamline called BL-8 has been commissioned at this synchrotron and another beamline having double crystal monochromator (DCM) is going to be commissioned shortly. In Indian context, in order that more research workers use these beamlines, the study of XAFS spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation becomes important. In the present work some of the works done by our group on XAFS spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation have been described.

  8. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) Applied to Study the Distribution of Ink Components in Printed Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Nuria; Molleda, Cristina; Quintana, Ester; Carbajo, José M; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Villar, Juan C

    2016-09-01

    A new method was developed to study how the oil and cyan pigments of cold-set ink are distributed in newspaper thickness. The methodology involved laboratory printing followed by delamination of the printed paper. The unprinted side, printed side, and resulting layers were analyzed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). Three commercial newspapers and black and cyan cold-set inks were chosen for the study. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy enabled the proportion of oil and cyan pigment on the printed surface and throughout the sheet thickness to be measured. Oil percentage was evaluated as the area increment of the region from 2800 cm(-1) to 3000 cm(-1) The relative amount of cyan pigment was determined as the area of the absorption band at 730 cm(-1) The ink oil was found mainly below half the paper thickness, whereas the pigment was detected at the layers closer to the printed surface, at a depth penetration of less than 15 µm (20% of thickness). Distribution of these two components in paper thickness depended on the type of cold-set ink, the amount of ink transferred, and the newspaper properties. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Infrared absorption and admittance spectroscopy of Ge quantum dots on a strained SiGe layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, A. I.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    A combined infrared absorption and admittance spectroscopy is carried out in examining the energy level structure and the hole emission process in self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) placed on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 quantum well (QW), which, in turn, is incorporated in a Si matrix. In the midinfrared spectral range, the dots exhibit three dominant absorption bands peaked at 130, 250 and 390 meV. By a comparison between absorption measurements and six-band {\\bf k}\\;{\\bm \\cdot}\\;{\\bf p} calculations, the long-wave (~130 meV) resonance is attributed to a transition from the QD hole ground state to the two-dimensional heavy-hole states confined in the Si0.65Ge0.35 layer. The mid-wave absorption band around 390 meV is ascribed to a transition from the QD hole ground state to the three-dimensional continuum states of the Si matrix. An equivalent absorption cross section for these two types of transitions is determined to be 1.2 × 10-15 cm2 and 1.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. The origin of the transmission minimum around 250 meV is more ambiguous. We tentatively propose that it can be due to transition either from the highest heavy-hole subband of the Si0.65Ge0.35 QW to continuum states above the Si barrier or from the dot states to the light-hole and split-off subbands of the Si0.65Ge0.35 layer. The photoinduced bleaching of the near-infrared absorption is detected under interband optical excitation of undoped samples. This finding is explained by blocking the interband transitions inside the dots due to the state filling effect. By using the admittance spectroscopy, the mechanism of hole escape from QDs in the presence of an ac vertical electric field is identified. A thermally activated emission from the QD ground state into the two-dimensional states of the Si0.65Ge0.35 well is observed. From the temperature- and frequency-dependent measurements the QD hole ground state is determined to be located ~160 meV below the heavy-hole subband of the Si0.65Ge0

  10. Distribution of Hydroxyl Groups in Kukersite Shale Oil: Quantitative Determination Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Zachariah Steven; Oja, Vahur; Järvik, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to quantitatively measure the hydroxyl concentrations among narrow boiling shale oil cuts. Shale oil samples were from an industrial solid heat carrier retort. Reference values were measured by titration and were used to create a partial least squares regression model from FT-IR data. The model had a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.44 wt% OH. This method was then used to study the distribution of hydroxyl groups among more than 100 shale oil cuts, which showed that hydroxyl content increased with the average boiling point of the cut up to about 350 °C and then leveled off and decreased.

  11. Observation and theory of reorientation-induced spectral diffusion in polarization-selective 2D IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Patrick L; Nishida, Jun; Giammanco, Chiara H; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D

    2015-05-14

    In nearly all applications of ultrafast multidimensional infrared spectroscopy, the spectral degrees of freedom (e.g., transition frequency) and the orientation of the transition dipole are assumed to be decoupled. We present experimental results which confirm that frequency fluctuations can be caused by rotational motion and observed under appropriate conditions. A theory of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) observable under various polarization conditions is introduced, and model calculations are found to reproduce the qualitative trends in FFCF rates. The FFCF determined with polarization-selective two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is a direct reporter of the frequency-rotational coupling. For the solute methanol in a room temperature ionic liquid, the FFCF of the hydroxyl (O-D) stretch decays due to spectral diffusion with different rates depending on the polarization of the excitation pulses. The 2D IR vibrational echo pulse sequence consists of three excitation pulses that generate the vibrational echo, a fourth pulse. A faster FFCF decay is observed when the first two excitation pulses are polarized perpendicular to the third pulse and the echo, 〈XXY Y〉, than in the standard all parallel configuration, 〈XXXX〉, in which all four pulses have the same polarization. The 2D IR experiment with polarizations 〈XY XY〉 ("polarization grating" configuration) gives a FFCF that decays even more slowly than in the 〈XXXX〉 configuration. Polarization-selective 2D IR spectra of bulk water do not exhibit polarization-dependent FFCF decays; spectral diffusion is effectively decoupled from reorientation in the water system.

  12. Observation and theory of reorientation-induced spectral diffusion in polarization-selective 2D IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Patrick L.; Nishida, Jun; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-05-01

    In nearly all applications of ultrafast multidimensional infrared spectroscopy, the spectral degrees of freedom (e.g., transition frequency) and the orientation of the transition dipole are assumed to be decoupled. We present experimental results which confirm that frequency fluctuations can be caused by rotational motion and observed under appropriate conditions. A theory of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) observable under various polarization conditions is introduced, and model calculations are found to reproduce the qualitative trends in FFCF rates. The FFCF determined with polarization-selective two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is a direct reporter of the frequency-rotational coupling. For the solute methanol in a room temperature ionic liquid, the FFCF of the hydroxyl (O-D) stretch decays due to spectral diffusion with different rates depending on the polarization of the excitation pulses. The 2D IR vibrational echo pulse sequence consists of three excitation pulses that generate the vibrational echo, a fourth pulse. A faster FFCF decay is observed when the first two excitation pulses are polarized perpendicular to the third pulse and the echo, , than in the standard all parallel configuration, , in which all four pulses have the same polarization. The 2D IR experiment with polarizations ("polarization grating" configuration) gives a FFCF that decays even more slowly than in the configuration. Polarization-selective 2D IR spectra of bulk water do not exhibit polarization-dependent FFCF decays; spectral diffusion is effectively decoupled from reorientation in the water system.

  13. IR spectroscopy analysis of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 interaction with phospholipids: 3. Monitoring DPPC lipolysis in mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Diaz, Eduardo; Sutto-Ortiz, Priscila; Sahaka, Moulay; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Carrière, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    Usual methods for the continuous assay of lipolytic enzyme activities are mainly based on the titration of free fatty acids, surface pressure monitoring or spectrophotometry using substrates labeled with specific probes. These approaches only give a partial information on the chemistry of the lipolysis reaction and additional end-point analyses are often required to quantify both residual substrate and lipolysis products. We used transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopy to monitor simultaneously the hydrolysis of phospholipids by guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (GPLRP2) and the release of lipolysis products. The substrate (DPPC, 1,2-Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) was mixed with sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) to form mixed micelles in D 2 O buffer at pD 6 and 8. After hydrogen/deuterium exchange, DPPC hydrolysis by GPLRP2 (100nM) was monitored at 35°C in a liquid cell by recording IR spectra and time-course variations in the CO stretching region. These changes were correlated to variations in the concentrations of DPPC, lysophospholipids (lysoPC) and palmitic acid (Pam) using calibration curves established with these compounds individually mixed with NaTDC. We were thus able to quantify each compound and its time-course variations during the phospholipolysis reaction and to estimate the enzyme activity. To validate the IR analysis, variations in residual DPPC, lysoPC and Pam were also quantified by thin-layer chromatography coupled to densitometry and similar hydrolysis profiles were obtained using both methods. IR spectroscopy can therefore be used to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of phospholipids and obtain simultaneously chemical and physicochemical information on substrate and all reaction products (H-bonding, hydration, acyl chain mobility). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Raman and IR-ATR spectroscopy studies of heteroepitaxial structures with a GaN:C top layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, M. F.; Vieira, L. G.; Alves, A.; Correia, R.; Huber, M.; Andreev, A.; Bonanni, A.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This work, motivated by the technologically important task of determination of carbon dopant location in the GaN crystal lattice, employed Raman spectroscopy, with both resonant and non-resonant excitation, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, to study lattice vibration modes in a set of carbon-doped GaN (GaN:C) epilayers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. We analyse Raman and IR-ATR spectra from the point of view of possible effects of the carbon doping, namely: (i) local vibration mode of C atoms in the nitrogen sublattice (whose frequency we theoretically estimate as 768 cm-1 using an isotope defect model), and (ii) shift in the positions of longitudinal modes owing to the phonon-plasmon coupling. We find only indirect hints of the doping effect on the resonant Raman spectra. However, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that the IR-ATR spectroscopy can be a much more sensitive tool for this purpose, at least for the considered structures. A weak perturbation of the dielectric function of GaN:C, caused by the substitutional carbon impurity, is shown to produce a measurable dip in the ATR reflectivity spectra at  ≈770 cm-1 for both p- and s-polarizations. Moreover, it influences a specific (guided-wave type) mode observed at  ≈737 cm-1, originating from the GaN layer, which appears in the narrow frequency window where the real parts of the two components of the dielectric tensor of the hexagonal crystal have opposite signs. This interpretation is supported by our modelling of the whole multilayer structure, using a transfer matrix formalism.

  15. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  16. Triosmium Clusters on a Support: Determination of Structure by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and High-Resolution Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shareghe, Mehraeen; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of small, robust metal clusters on a solid support were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods: extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and aberration-corrected STEM. The samples were synthesized from [Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] on MgO powder to provide supported clusters intended to be triosmium. The results demonstrate that the supported clusters are robust in the absence of oxidants. Conventional high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images demonstrate a high degree of uniformity of the clusters, with root-mean-square (rms) radii of 2.03 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. The EXAFS OsOs coordination number ofmore » 2.1 {+-} 0.4 confirms the presence of triosmium clusters on average and correspondingly determines an average rms cluster radius of 2.02 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom}. The high-resolution STEM images show the individual Os atoms in the clusters, confirming the triangular structures of their frames and determining OsOs distances of 2.80 {+-} 0.14 {angstrom}, matching the EXAFS value of 2.89 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. IR and EXAFS spectra demonstrate the presence of CO ligands on the clusters. This set of techniques is recommended as optimal for detailed and reliable structural characterization of supported clusters.« less

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Meier, D.C.; Benkstein, K.D.; Hurst, W.S.; Chu, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, −5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals. PMID:28090126

  19. Excited state X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Probing both electronic and structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Averbukh, Vitali; Ruberti, Marco; Yun, Renjie; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectra, simulated using a general method, to properties of molecular excited states. Recently, Averbukh and co-workers [M. Ruberti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184107 (2014)] introduced an efficient and accurate L 2 method for the calculation of excited state valence photoionization cross-sections based on the application of Stieltjes imaging to the Lanczos pseudo-spectrum of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. In this paper, we report an extension of this method to the calculation of excited state core photoionization cross-sections. We demonstrate that, at the ADC(2)x level of theory, ground state X-ray absorption spectra may be accurately reproduced, validating the method. Significantly, the calculated X-ray absorption spectra of the excited states are found to be sensitive to both geometric distortions (structural dynamics) and the electronic character (electronic dynamics) of the initial state, suggesting that core excitation spectroscopies will be useful probes of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics. We anticipate that the method presented here can be combined with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to simulate the time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of excited state molecular wavepacket dynamics.

  20. Direct absorption spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O concentration of flat flame burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin-hu; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Qu, Dong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption sensor, based on direct absorption spectroscopy and time division multiplexing scheme, was developed to measure H2O concentration and temperature of flat flame burner. At the height of 15mm from the furnace surface, temperature and concentration were measured at different equivalence ratios. Then the distance between the laser and the furnace surface was changed while the equivalence ratio was fixed at 1 and experiments were performed to measure temperature and H2O concentration at every height. At last flame temperatures and H2O concentrations were obtained by simulation and computational analysis and these combustion parameters were compared with the reference. The results showed that the experimental results were in accordance with the reference values. Temperature errors were less than 4% and H2O component concentration errors were less than 5%and both of them reached their maximum when the equivalent ratio was set at 1. The temperature and H2O concentration increased with the height from furnace surface to laser when it varied from 3mm to 9mm and it decreased when it varied from 9mm to 30mm and they reached their maximum at the height of 9mm. Keywords: tunable diode laser, direct absorption spectroscopy

  1. High-performance dispersive Raman and absorption spectroscopy as tools for drug identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Andrey, Sam; Nogas, Paul; Roy, Andrew; Pawluczyk, Romuald

    2009-02-01

    Due to increasing availability of pharmaceuticals from many sources, a need is growing to quickly and efficiently analyze substances in terms of the consistency and accuracy of their chemical composition. Differences in chemical composition occur at very low concentrations, so that highly sensitive analytical methods become crucial. Recent progress in dispersive spectroscopy with the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays, permits for signal integration along a long (up to 12 mm long) entrance slit of a spectrometer, thereby increasing signal to noise ratio and improving the ability to detect small concentration changes. This is achieved with a non-scanning, non-destructive system. Two different methods using P&P Optica high performance spectrometers were used. High performance optical dispersion Raman and high performance optical absorption spectroscopy were employed to differentiate various acetaminophen-containing drugs, such as Tylenol and other generic brands, which differ in their ingredients. A 785 nm excitation wavelength was used in Raman measurements and strong Raman signals were observed in the spectral range 300-1800 cm-1. Measurements with the absorption spectrometer were performed in the wavelength range 620-1020 nm. Both Raman and absorption techniques used transmission light spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings and provided sufficient spectral differences, often structural, allowing for drug differentiation.

  2. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  3. Underresolved absorption spectroscopy of OH radicals in flames using broadband UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Logan; Gamba, Mirko

    2018-04-01

    A broadband absorption spectroscopy diagnostic based on underresolution of the spectral absorption lines is evaluated for the inference of species mole fraction and temperature in combustion systems from spectral fitting. The approach uses spectrally broadband UV light emitting diodes and leverages low resolution, small form factor spectrometers. Through this combination, the method can be used to develop high precision measurement sensors. The challenges of underresolved spectroscopy are explored and addressed using spectral derivative fitting, which is found to generate measurements with high precision and accuracy. The diagnostic is demonstrated with experimental measurements of gas temperature and OH mole fraction in atmospheric air/methane premixed laminar flat flames. Measurements exhibit high precision, good agreement with 1-D flame simulations, and high repeatability. A newly developed model of uncertainty in underresolved spectroscopy is applied to estimate two-dimensional confidence regions for the measurements. The results of the uncertainty analysis indicate that the errors in the outputs of the spectral fitting procedure are correlated. The implications of the correlation between uncertainties for measurement interpretation are discussed.

  4. Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that emphasizes the interpretation of both infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in the elucidation of the structure of an unknown compound was developed. The method helps students determine [to the first power]H- and [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR spectra from the structures of compounds and to…

  5. New photocycle intermediates in the photoactive yellow protein from Ectothiorhodospira halophila: picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ujj, L; Devanathan, S; Meyer, T E; Cusanovich, M A; Tollin, G; Atkinson, G H

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the room temperature photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from Ectothiorhodospira halophila involves at least two intermediate species: I1, which forms in <10 ns and decays with a 200-micros lifetime to I2, which itself subsequently returns to the ground state with a 140-ms time constant at pH 7 (Genick et al. 1997. Biochemistry. 36:8-14). Picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy has been used here to reveal a photophysical relaxation process (stimulated emission) and photochemical intermediates in the PYP photocycle that have not been reported previously. The first new intermediate (I0) exhibits maximum absorption at approximately 510 nm and appears in absorptivity. Idouble dagger0 decays with a 3 +/- 0.15 ns time constant to form I1. Stimulated emission from an excited electronic state of PYP is observed both within the 4-6-ps cross-correlation times used in this work, and with a 16-ps delay for all probe wavelengths throughout the 426-525-nm region studied. These transient absorption and emission data provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanistic dynamics occurring during the PYP photocycle.

  6. High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy on Ti II VUV Resonance Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Lm; Fedchak, Ja; Lawler, Je

    2000-06-01

    The neutral hydrogen regions of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of our Galaxy and distant galaxies produce simple absorption spectra because most metals are singly ionized and in their ground fine structure level. Elemental abundance measurements and other studies of the ISM rely on accurate atomic oscillator strengths (f-values) for a few key lines in the second spectra of Ti and other metals. The Ti II VUV resonance lines at 1910.6 and 1910.9 Åare important in absorption line systems in which quasars provide the continuum and the ISM of intervening galaxies is observed. Some of these absorption line systems are redshifted to the visible and observed with ground based telescopes. We report the first laboratory measurement of these Ti II VUV resonance lines. Using High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy, we determined f-values for the 1910 Ålines relative to well-known Ti II resonance lines at 3067 and 3384 ÅContinuum radiation from an Aladdin Storage Ring bending magnet at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) is passed through a discharge plasma containing Ti^+. The transmitted light is analyzed by our 3m vacuum echelle spectrometer equipped with VUV sensitive CCD array. The resolving power of our spectrometer/detector array is 300,000. F-values are determined to within 10%.

  7. [Study of high temperature water vapor concentration measurement method based on absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-ying; Liu, Jian-guo; He, Jun-feng; He, Ya-bai; Zhang, Guang-le; Xu, Zhen-yu; Gang, Qiang; Wang, Liao; Yao, Lu; Yuan, Song; Ruan, Jun; Dai, Yun-hai; Kan, Rui-feng

    2014-12-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been developed to realize the real-time and dynamic measurement of the combustion temperature, gas component concentration, velocity and other flow parameters, owing to its high sensitivity, fast time response, non-invasive character and robust nature. In order to obtain accurate water vapor concentration at high temperature, several absorption spectra of water vapor near 1.39 μm from 773 to 1273 K under ordinary pressure were recorded in a high temperature experiment setup using a narrow band diode laser. The absorbance of high temperature absorption spectra was calculated by combined multi-line nonlinear least squares fitting method. Two water vapor absorption lines near 7154.35 and 7157.73 cm(-1) were selected for measurement of water vapor at high temperature. A model method for high temperature water vapor concentration was first proposed. Water vapor concentration from the model method at high temperature is in accordance with theoretical reasoning, concentration measurement standard error is less than 0.2%, and the relative error is less than 6%. The feasibility of this measuring method is verified by experiment.

  8. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-05

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor.

  9. Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.

  10. Measurement of temperature profiles in flames by emission-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, F. S.; Arnold, C. B.; Lindquist, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the use of infrared and ultraviolet emission-absorption spectroscopy for determination of temperature profiles in flames. Spectral radiances and absorptances were measured in the 2.7-micron H2O band and the 3064-A OH band in H2/O2 flames for several temperature profiles which were directly measured by a sodium line-reversal technique. The temperature profiles, determined by inversion of the infrared and ultraviolet spectra, showed an average disagreement with line-reversal measurements of 50 K for the infrared and 200 K for the ultraviolet at a temperature of 2600 K. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed in some detail.

  11. Identifying anthropogenic uranium compounds using soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark; Tom Resch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium ores mined for industrial use are typically acid-leached to produce yellowcake and then converted into uranium halides for enrichment and purification. These anthropogenic chemical forms of uranium are distinct from their mineral counterparts. The purpose of this study is to use soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize several common anthropogenic uranium compounds important to the nuclear fuel cycle. Non-destructive chemical analyses of these compounds is important for process and environmental monitoring and X-ray absorption techniques have several advantages in this regard, including element-specificity, chemical sensitivity, and high spectral resolution. Oxygen K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl nitrate, uranyl fluoride,more » and uranyl chloride, and fluorine K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl fluoride and uranium tetrafluoride. Interpretation of the data is aided by comparisons to calculated spectra. These compounds have unique spectral signatures that can be used to identify unknown samples.« less

  12. First total-absorption spectroscopy measurement on the neutron-rich Cu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, F.; Spyrou, A.; Liddick, S. N.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Campo, L. C.; Couture, A.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Ginter, T.; Lewis, R.; Mosby, S.; Perdikakis, G.; Prokop, C. P.; Quinn, S. J.; Renstrom, T.; Rubio, B.; Siem, S.

    2015-10-01

    The first beta-decay studies of 73-71Cu isotopes using the Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) will be reported. The Cu isotopes have one proton outside the Z = 28 shell and hence are good candidates to probe the single-particle structure in the region.Theories predict weakening of the Z = 28 shell gap due to the tensor interaction between the valence πν single-particle orbitals. Comparing the beta-decay strength distributions in the daughter Zn isotopes to the theoretical calculations will provide a stringent test of the predictions. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) employing the TAS technique with the Summing NaI(Tl) detector, while beta decays were measured in the NSCL beta-counting system. The experimentally obtained total absorption spectra for the neutron-rich Cu isotopes will be presented and the implications of the extracted beta-feeding intensities will be discussed.

  13. Demonstration of temperature imaging by H₂O absorption spectroscopy using compressed sensing tomography.

    PubMed

    An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Lauzier, Pascal T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Chen, Guang-Hong; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces temperature imaging by total-variation-based compressed sensing (CS) tomography of H2O vapor absorption spectroscopy. A controlled laboratory setup is used to generate a constant two-dimensional temperature distribution in air (a roughly Gaussian temperature profile with a central temperature of 677 K). A wavelength-tunable laser beam is directed through the known distribution; the beam is translated and rotated using motorized stages to acquire complete absorption spectra in the 1330-1365 nm range at each of 64 beam locations and 60 view angles. Temperature reconstructions are compared to independent thermocouple measurements. Although the distribution studied is approximately axisymmetric, axisymmetry is not assumed and simulations show similar performance for arbitrary temperature distributions. We study the measurement error as a function of number of beams and view angles used in reconstruction to gauge the potential for application of CS in practical test articles where optical access is limited.

  14. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  15. Quantifying the effect of finite spectral bandwidth on extinction coefficient of species in laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Baljit; Ghanshyam, C.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the finite spectral bandwidth effect on laser absorption spectroscopy for a wide-band laser source. Experimental analysis reveals that the extinction coefficient of an analyte is affected by the bandwidth of the spectral source, which may result in the erroneous conclusions. An approximate mathematical model has been developed for optical intensities having Gaussian line shape, which includes the impact of source's spectral bandwidth in the equation for spectroscopic absorption. This is done by introducing a suitable first order and second order bandwidth approximation in the Beer-Lambert law equation for finite bandwidth case. The derived expressions were validated using spectroscopic analysis with higher SBW on a test sample, Rhodamine B. The concentrations calculated using proposed approximation, were in significant agreement with the true values when compared with those calculated with conventional approach.

  16. Measurement of He neutral temperature in detached plasmas using laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, M.; Tsujihara, T.; Kajita, S.; Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.

    2018-01-01

    The reduction of the heat load onto plasma-facing components by plasma detachment is an inevitable scheme in future nuclear fusion reactors. Since the control of the plasma and neutral temperatures is a key issue to the detached plasma generation, we have developed a laser absorption spectroscopy system for the metastable helium temperature measurements and used together with a previously developed laser Thomson scattering system for the electron temperature and density measurements. The thermal relaxation process between the neutral and the electron in the detached plasma generated in the linear plasma device, NAGDIS-II was studied. It is shown that the electron temperature gets close to the neutral temperature by increasing the electron density. On the other hand, the pressure dependence of electron and neutral temperatures shows the cooling effect by the neutrals. The possibility of the plasma fluctuation measurement using the fluctuation in the absorption signal is also shown.

  17. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  18. Mid-infrared multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northern, Henry; O'Hagan, Seamus; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ewart, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy of ammonia and methane at 3.3 μm has been demonstrated using a source of multi-mode mid-infrared radiation based on difference frequency generation. Multi-mode radiation at 1.56 μm from a diode-pumped Er:Yb:glass laser was mixed with a single-mode Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal to produce multi-mode radiation in the region of 3.3 μm. Detection, by direct multi-mode absorption, of NH3 and CH4 is reported for each species individually and also simultaneously in mixtures allowing measurements of partial pressures of each species.

  19. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using Targets: SO2 and NO2 Measurements in Montevideo City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louban, Ilia; Píriz, Gustavo; Platt, Ulrich; Frins, Erna

    2008-04-01

    SO2 and NO2 were remotely measured in a main street of Montevideo city using Multiaxis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) combined with on-field selected targets. Target-based measurements are the basis of a new experimental procedure called Topographic Target Light scattering-DOAS (TOTAL-DOAS) that provides a well define absorption path to measure the near surface distribution of trace gases in the boundary layer. It combines the measurement principles of the long-path DOAS and zenith-scattered sunlight DOAS, within the near UV and VIS spectral range. We give a general description of the procedure and present first results of the 2006 campaign at Montevideo.

  20. SU-F-J-46: Feasibility of Cerenkov Emission for Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oraiqat, I; Rehemtulla, A; Lam, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov emission (CE) is a promising tool for online tumor microenvironment interrogation and targeting during radiotherapy. In this work, we utilize CE generated during radiotherapy as a broadband excitation source for real-time absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate the feasibility of CE spectroscopy using a controlled experiment of materials with known emission/absorption properties. Methods: A water tank is irradiated with 20 MeV electron beam to induce Cerenkov emission. Food coloring dyes (Yellow #5, Red #40, and Blue #1), which have known emission/absorption properties were added to the water tank with increasing concentration (1 drop (0.05 mL), 2 drops, and 4 dropsmore » from a dispenser bottle). The signal is collected using a condensing lens which is coupled into a 20m optical fiber that is fed into a spectrometer that measures the emitted spectra. The resulting spectra from water/food coloring dye solutions were normalized by the reference spectrum, which is the Cerenkov spectrum of pure water, correcting for both the nonlinearity of the broadband Cerenkov emission spectrum as well as the non-uniform spectral response of the spectrometer. The emitted spectra were then converted into absorbance and their characteristics were analyzed. Results: The food coloring dye had a drastic change on the Cerenkov emission, shifting its wavelength according to its visible color. The collected spectra showed various absorbance peaks which agrees with tabulated peak positions of the dyes added within 0.3% for yellow, 1.7% for red, and 0.16% for blue. The CE peak heights proportionally increased as the dye concentration is increased. Conclusion: This work shows the potential for real-time functional spectroscopy using Cerenkov emission during radiotherapy. It was demonstrated that molecule identification as well as relative concentration can be extracted from the Cerenkov emission color shift.« less

  1. Geographic identification of Boletus mushrooms by data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectroscopies combined with multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Li, JieQing; Liu, HongGao; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-06-01

    Boletus griseus and Boletus edulis are two well-known wild-grown edible mushrooms which have high nutrition, delicious flavor and high economic value distributing in Yunnan Province. In this study, a rapid method using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopies coupled with data fusion was established for the discrimination of Boletus mushrooms from seven different geographical origins with pattern recognition method. Initially, the spectra of 332 mushroom samples obtained from the two spectroscopic techniques were analyzed individually and then the classification performance based on data fusion strategy was investigated. Meanwhile, the latent variables (LVs) of FT-IR and UV spectra were extracted by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and two datasets were concatenated into a new matrix for data fusion. Then, the fusion matrix was further analyzed by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with single spectroscopic technique, data fusion strategy can improve the classification performance effectively. In particular, the accuracy of correct classification of SVM model in training and test sets were 99.10% and 100.00%, respectively. The results demonstrated that data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectra can provide higher synergic effect for the discrimination of different geographical origins of Boletus mushrooms, which may be benefit for further authentication and quality assessment of edible mushrooms.

  2. The characterization of natural gemstones using non-invasive FT-IR spectroscopy: New data on tourmalines.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mariano; Rossi, Manuela; Izzo, Francesco; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; Germinario, Chiara; Grifa, Celestino; Petrelli, Maurizio; Vergara, Alessandro; Langella, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    Fourteen samples of tourmaline from the Real Museo Mineralogico of Federico II University (Naples) have been characterized through multi-methodological investigations (EMPA-WDS, SEM-EDS, LA-ICP-MS, and FT-IR spectroscopy). The samples show different size, morphology and color, and are often associated with other minerals. Data on major and minor elements allowed to identify and classify tourmalines as follows: elbaites, tsilaisite, schorl, dravites, uvites and rossmanite. Non-invasive, non-destructive FT-IR and in-situ analyses were carried out on the same samples to validate this chemically-based identification and classification. The results of this research show that a complete characterization of this mineral species, usually time-consuming and expensive, can be successfully achieved through non-destructive FT-IR technique, thus representing a reliable tool for a fast classification extremely useful to plan further analytical strategies, as well as to support gemological appraisals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of edible oils and modeling of their physico-chemical properties by chemometric methods using mid-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    This research work describes two studies for the classification and characterization of edible oils and its quality parameters through Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) together with chemometric methods. The discrimination of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean oils was investigated using SVM-DA, SIMCA and PLS-DA. Using FT-mid-IR, DPLS was able to classify 100% of the samples from the validation set, but SIMCA and SVM-DA were not. The quality parameters: refraction index and relative density of edible oils were obtained from reference methods. Prediction models for FT-mid-IR spectra were calculated for these quality parameters using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). Several preprocessing alternatives (first derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, mean centering, and standard normal variate) were investigated. The best result for the refraction index was achieved with SVM as well as for the relative density except when the preprocessing combination of mean centering and first derivative was used. For both of quality parameters, the best results obtained for the figures of merit expressed by the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) were equal to 0.0001.

  4. Geographic identification of Boletus mushrooms by data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectroscopies combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Li, JieQing; Liu, HongGao; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-06-05

    Boletus griseus and Boletus edulis are two well-known wild-grown edible mushrooms which have high nutrition, delicious flavor and high economic value distributing in Yunnan Province. In this study, a rapid method using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopies coupled with data fusion was established for the discrimination of Boletus mushrooms from seven different geographical origins with pattern recognition method. Initially, the spectra of 332 mushroom samples obtained from the two spectroscopic techniques were analyzed individually and then the classification performance based on data fusion strategy was investigated. Meanwhile, the latent variables (LVs) of FT-IR and UV spectra were extracted by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and two datasets were concatenated into a new matrix for data fusion. Then, the fusion matrix was further analyzed by support vector machine (SVM). Compared with single spectroscopic technique, data fusion strategy can improve the classification performance effectively. In particular, the accuracy of correct classification of SVM model in training and test sets were 99.10% and 100.00%, respectively. The results demonstrated that data fusion of FT-IR and UV spectra can provide higher synergic effect for the discrimination of different geographical origins of Boletus mushrooms, which may be benefit for further authentication and quality assessment of edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The nature of hydrogen-bonding interactions in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs revealed by polarized IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hachuła, Barbara

    2018-01-05

    The influence of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the solid phase on the IR spectroscopic pattern of the ν OH band of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was studied experimentally by IR spectroscopy with the use of polarized light at two temperatures (293K and 77K) and in isotopic dilution. The neat and deuterated crystals of (S)-naproxen ((S)-NPX), (R)-flurbiprofen ((R)-FBP), (RS)-flurbiprofen ((RS)-FBP) and (RS)-ketoprofen ((RS)-KTP) were obtained by melt crystallization between the two squeezed CaF 2 plates. The vibrational spectra of selected α-aryl propionic acid derivatives (2APAs) reflected the characteristics of their hydrogen-bond networks, i.e., 2APAs were characterized by the chain ((S)-NPX, (R)-FBP) and by dimeric ((RS)-FBP, (RS)-KTP) arrangement of hydrogen bonds in the crystal lattice. Spectroscopic results showed that the interchain (through-space) exciton coupling, between two laterally-spaced hydrogen bonds, dominates in the crystals of four NSAIDs. The same exciton coupled hydrogen bonds were also responsible for the H/D isotopic recognition mechanism in the crystalline spectra of deuterated 2APAs. The presented spectral results may help to predict the hydrogen bond motifs in the crystalline NSAIDs, which structures are not yet known, based on their IR spectra of hydrogen bond in the crystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The nature of hydrogen-bonding interactions in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs revealed by polarized IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachuła, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the solid phase on the IR spectroscopic pattern of the νOsbnd H band of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was studied experimentally by IR spectroscopy with the use of polarized light at two temperatures (293 K and 77 K) and in isotopic dilution. The neat and deuterated crystals of (S)-naproxen ((S)-NPX), (R)-flurbiprofen ((R)-FBP), (RS)-flurbiprofen ((RS)-FBP) and (RS)-ketoprofen ((RS)-KTP) were obtained by melt crystallization between the two squeezed CaF2 plates. The vibrational spectra of selected α-aryl propionic acid derivatives (2APAs) reflected the characteristics of their hydrogen-bond networks, i.e., 2APAs were characterized by the chain ((S)-NPX, (R)-FBP) and by dimeric ((RS)-FBP, (RS)-KTP) arrangement of hydrogen bonds in the crystal lattice. Spectroscopic results showed that the interchain (through-space) exciton coupling, between two laterally-spaced hydrogen bonds, dominates in the crystals of four NSAIDs. The same exciton coupled hydrogen bonds were also responsible for the H/D isotopic recognition mechanism in the crystalline spectra of deuterated 2APAs. The presented spectral results may help to predict the hydrogen bond motifs in the crystalline NSAIDs, which structures are not yet known, based on their IR spectra of hydrogen bond in the crystals.

  7. Mid and Near-IR Absorption Spectra of PAH Neutrals and Ions in H20 Ice to Facilitate their Astronomical Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the most abundant and widespread class of organic compounds in the universe, having been observed in emission towards energetic regions and absorption towards colder ones.We will present IR spectra of PAHs and their cations in H20 ice measured in the laboratory in the hopes that this will facilitate the detection of these features in the interstellar medium.

  8. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; ...

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~10 6 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10 7 laser pulses, wemore » also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  9. FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for rapid identification and intra-species characterization of airborne filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Guido; Braun, Silvia; Thissen, Ralf; Dott, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Identification of microfungi is time-consuming due to cultivation and microscopic examination and can be influenced by the interpretation of the macro- and micro-morphological characters observed. Fungal conidia contain mycotoxins that may be present in bioaerosols and thus the capacity for production of mycotoxins (and allergens) needs to be investigated to create a basis for reliable risk assessment in environmental and occupational hygiene. The present investigation aimed to create a simple but sophisticated method for the preparation of samples and the identification of airborne fungi by FT-IR spectroscopy. The method was suited to reproducibly differentiate Aspergillus and Penicillium species on the generic, the species, and the strain level. There are strong indications that strains of one taxon differing in metabolite production can be reliably distinguished by FT-IR spectroscopy (e.g. Aspergillus parasiticus). On the other hand, species from different taxa being similar in secondary metabolite production showed comparably higher similarities. The results obtained here can serve as a basis for the development of a database for species identification and strain characterization of microfungi. The method presented here will improve and facilitate the risk assessment in case of bioaerosol exposure, as strains with different physiological properties (e.g. toxic, non-toxic) could be differentiated. Moreover, it has the potential to significantly improve the identification of microfungi in various fields of applied microbiological research, e.g. high throughput screening in view of specific physiological properties, biodiversity studies, inventories in environmental microbiology, and quality control measures.

  10. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool: an overview.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry.

  11. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  12. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  13. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  14. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cd binding onto a halophilic archaeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Allison R.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Fein, Jeremy B.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and cadmium (Cd) isotherm experiments determine how Cd adsorbs to the surface of halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense. This archaeon, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico could be involved with the transport of toxic metals stored in the transuranic waste in the salt mine. The isotherm experiments show that adsorption is relatively constant across the tolerable pH range for H. noricense. The XAS results indicate that Cd adsorption occurs predominately via a sulfur site, most likely sulfhydryl, with the same site dominating all measured pH values.

  15. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy--digital detection of gas absorption harmonics based on Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a detailed study of the theoretical aspects of the Fourier analysis method, which has been utilized for gas absorption harmonic detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lock-in detection of the harmonic signal is accomplished by studying the phase term of the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier spectrum that corresponds to the harmonic signal. The mathematics and the corresponding simulation results are given for each procedure when applying the Fourier analysis method. The present work provides a detailed view of the WMS technique when applying the Fourier analysis method.

  16. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  17. Identification of the fragment of the 1-methylpyrene cation by mid-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusko, Pavol; Simon, Aude; Wenzel, Gabi; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan; Joblin, Christine

    2018-04-01

    The fragment of the 1-methylpyrene cation, 17C 11H+, is expected to exist in two isomeric forms, 1-pyrenemethylium PyrCH2+ and the tropylium containing species PyrC7+. We measured the infrared (IR) action spectrum of cold 17C 11H+ tagged with Ne using a cryogenic ion trap instrument coupled to the FELIX laser. Comparison of the experimental data with density functional theory calculations allows us to identify the PyrCH2+ isomer in our experiments. The IR Multi-Photon Dissociation spectrum was also recorded following the C2H2 loss channel. Its analysis suggests combined effects of anharmonicity and isomerisation while heating the trapped ions, as shown by molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Chemical modification of TiO2 surfaces with methylsilanes and characterization by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finklea, H. O.; Vithanage, R.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of methylsilanes bonded to a TiO2 powder were obtained. The reacting silanes include Me sub (4-n)SiX sub n (n=1-4; X=Cl, OMe) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Reactions were performed on hydroxylated-but-anhydrous TiO2 surfaces in the gas phase. IR spectra confirm the presence of a bonded silane layer. Terminal surface OH groups are found to react more readily than bridging OH groups. By-products of the modification adsorp tenaciously to the surface. The various silanes show only small differences in their ability to sequester surface OH groups. Following hydrolysis in moist air, Si-OH groups are observed only for the tetrafunctional silanes.

  19. Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Isochorically Heated Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhorn, Kyle Craig

    This dissertation will present a series of new tools, together with new techniques, focused on the understanding of warm and dense matter. We report on the development of a high time resolution and high detection efficiency x-ray camera. The camera is integrated with a short pulse laser and an x-ray beamline at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. This provides an instrument for single shot, broadband x-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm and dense matter with 2 picosecond time resolution. Warm and dense matter is created by isochorically heating samples of known density with an ultrafast optical laser pulse, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy probes the unoccupied electronic density of states before the onset of hydrodynamic expansion and electron-ion equilibrium is reached. Measured spectra from a variety of materials are compared with first principle molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. In heated silicon dioxide spectra, two novel pre-edge features are observed, a peak below the band gap and absorption within the band gap, while a reduction was observed in the features above the edge. From consideration of the calculated spectra, the peak below the gap is attributed to valence electrons that have been promoted to the conduction band, the absorption within the gap is attributed to broken Si-O bonds, and the reduction above the edge is attributed to an elevated ionic temperature. In heated copper spectra, a time-dependent shift and broadening of the absorption edge are observed, consistent with and elevated electron temperature. The temporal evolution of the electronic temperature is accurately determined by fitting the measured spectra with calculated spectra. The electron-ion equilibration is studied with a two-temperature model. In heated nickel spectra, a shift of the absorption edge is observed. This shift is found to be inconsistent with calculated spectra and independent of incident laser fluence. A shift of the chemical potential

  20. Rapid authentication and identification of different types of A. roxburghii by Tri-step FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Huang, Jinfang; Yeap, Zhao Qin; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Shuisheng; Ng, Chiew Hoong; Yam, Mun Fei

    2018-06-15

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been perennially used to treat various illness. However, there were unethical sellers who adulterated wild A. roxburghii with tissue cultured and cultivated ones. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective authentication method to differentiate between these different types of A. roxburghii. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Second derivative infrared spectra (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra (2D-IR) was used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate between wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant. Through this study, all three types of A. roxburghii plant were successfully identified and discriminated through the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification method. Besides that, all the samples of wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant were analysed with the Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique to test and verify the experimental results. The results showed that the three types of A. roxburghii can be discriminated clearly as the recognition rate was 100% for all three types and the rejection rate was more than 60%. 70% of the validated samples were also identified correctly by the SIMCA model. The SIMCA model was also validated by comparing 70 standard herbs to the model. As a result, it was demonstrated that the macroscopic IR fingerprint method and the classification analysis could discriminate not only between the A. roxburghi samples and the standard herbs, it could also distinguish between the three different types of A. roxburghi plant in a direct, rapid and holistic manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid authentication and identification of different types of A. roxburghii by Tri-step FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Huang, Jinfang; Yeap, Zhao Qin; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Shuisheng; Ng, Chiew Hoong; Yam, Mun Fei

    2018-06-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been perennially used to treat various illness. However, there were unethical sellers who adulterated wild A. roxburghii with tissue cultured and cultivated ones. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective authentication method to differentiate between these different types of A. roxburghii. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Second derivative infrared spectra (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra (2D-IR) was used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate between wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant. Through this study, all three types of A. roxburghii plant were successfully identified and discriminated through the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification method. Besides that, all the samples of wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant were analysed with the Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique to test and verify the experimental results. The results showed that the three types of A. roxburghii can be discriminated clearly as the recognition rate was 100% for all three types and the rejection rate was more than 60%. 70% of the validated samples were also identified correctly by the SIMCA model. The SIMCA model was also validated by comparing 70 standard herbs to the model. As a result, it was demonstrated that the macroscopic IR fingerprint method and the classification analysis could discriminate not only between the A. roxburghi samples and the standard herbs, it could also distinguish between the three different types of A. roxburghi plant in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.

  2. Application of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for simple and easy determination of chylomicron-triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichi; Seimiya, Masanori; Kodera, Yoshio; Kitamura, Akihide; Nomura, Fumio

    2010-02-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a simple and reagent-free physicochemical analysis method, and is a potential alternative to more time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures. In this study, we aimed to use FT-IR spectroscopy to determine serum concentrations of chylomicron-triglyceride (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. We analyzed a chylomicron fraction and VLDL fraction, which had been obtained by ultracentrifugation, to search for wavelengths to designate to each fraction. Then, partial least square (PLS) calibrations were developed using a training set of samples, for which TG concentrations had been determined by conventional procedures. Validation was conducted with another set of samples using the PLS model to predict serum TG concentrations on the basis of the samples' IR spectra. We analyzed a total of 150 samples. Serum concentrations of chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG estimated by FT-IR spectroscopy agreed well with those obtained by the reference method (r=0.97 for both lipoprotein fractions). FT-IR spectrometric analysis required 15mul of serum and was completed within 1min. Serum chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG concentrations can be determined with FT-IR spectroscopy. This rapid and simple test may have a great impact on the management of patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Electrochemical Dissolution of Iridium and Iridium Oxide Particles in Acidic Media: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electrochemical Flow Cell Coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Jovanovič, Primož; Hodnik, Nejc; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Arčon, Iztok; Jozinović, Barbara; Zorko, Milena; Bele, Marjan; Šala, Martin; Šelih, Vid Simon; Hočevar, Samo; Gaberšček, Miran

    2017-09-13

    Iridium-based particles, regarded as the most promising proton exchange membrane electrolyzer electrocatalysts, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and by coupling of an electrochemical flow cell (EFC) with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Additionally, studies using a thin-film rotating disc electrode, identical location transmission and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been performed. Extremely sensitive online time-and potential-resolved electrochemical dissolution profiles revealed that Ir particles dissolve well below oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potentials, presumably induced by Ir surface oxidation and reduction processes, also referred to as transient dissolution. Overall, thermally prepared rutile-type IrO 2 particles are substantially more stable and less active in comparison to as-prepared metallic and electrochemically pretreated (E-Ir) analogues. Interestingly, under OER-relevant conditions, E-Ir particles exhibit superior stability and activity owing to the altered corrosion mechanism, where the formation of unstable Ir(>IV) species is hindered. Due to the enhanced and lasting OER performance, electrochemically pre-oxidized E-Ir particles may be considered as the electrocatalyst of choice for an improved low-temperature electrochemical hydrogen production device, namely a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer.

  4. Multiphoton-gated cycloreversion reaction of a fluorescent diarylethene derivative as revealed by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Tatsuhiro; Kunishi, Tomohiro; Sotome, Hikaru; Koga, Masafumi; Morimoto, Masakazu; Irie, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

    2018-06-07

    The one- and two-photon cycloreversion reactions of a fluorescent diarylethene derivative with oxidized benzothiophene moieties were investigated by means of ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy under the one-photon excitation condition revealed that the excited closed-ring isomer is simply deactivated into the initial ground state with a time constant of 2.6 ns without remarkable cycloreversion, the results of which are consistent with the very low cycloreversion reaction yield (<10-5) under steady-state light irradiation. On the other hand, an efficient cycloreversion reaction was observed under irradiation with a picosecond laser pulse at 532 nm. The excitation intensity dependence of the cycloreversion reaction indicates that a highly excited state attained by the stepwise two-photon absorption is responsible for the marked increase of the cycloreversion reaction, and the quantum yield at the highly excited state was estimated to be 0.018 from quantitative analysis, indicating that the reaction is enhanced by a factor of >1800.

  5. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  6. Combined characterization of bovine polyhemoglobin microcapsules by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Knirsch, Marcos Camargo; Dell'Anno, Filippo; Salerno, Marco; Larosa, Claudio; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Eggenhöffner, Roberto; Converti, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    Polyhemoglobin produced from pure bovine hemoglobin by reaction with PEG bis(N-succynimidil succinate) as a cross-linking agent was encapsulated in gelatin and dehydrated by freeze-drying. Free carboxyhemoglobin and polyhemoglobin microcapsules were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy in the absorption range 450-650 nm and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range from -0.8 to 0.6 mV to evaluate the ability to break the bond with carbon monoxide and to study the carrier's affinity for oxygen, respectively. SEM used to observe the shape of cross-linked gelatin-polyhemoglobin microparticles showed a regular distribution of globular shapes, with mean size of ~750 nm, which was ascribed to gelatin. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was also performed to detect iron presence in microparticles. Cyclic voltammetry using an Ag-AgCl electrode highlighted characteristic peaks at around -0.6 mV that were attributed to reversible oxygen bonding with iron in oxy-polyhemoglobin structure. These results suggest this technique as a powerful, direct and alternative method to evaluate the extent of hemoglobin oxygenation.

  7. A Controlled-Environment Chamber for Atmospheric Chemistry Studies Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    necessary and identify by block number) FELD GROUP SUB-GROUP i >Chamber, controlled environment; long-path cell ; 07 04 FT-IR; Hydrazine decay...modification doubles the useable path length of the original multipass cell described by White (Reference 8). The pattern of images formed on the nesting...system is shown in Figure 13. 24 z C C02, Ibm, El4 944 C3 ta) caC E-4- 252 14 $4 41) 41) 0. 0 04 04 4 41) ~0 to 0.0 V-4 (A q14 0~ 1% 4-r4 $4 0 u P416 4 4

  8. Improved Sensitivity of Spectroscopic Quantification of Stable Isotope Content Using Capillary Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Kriesel, J.; Linley, T. J.; Kelly, J.; Coleman, M. L.; Christensen, L. E.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopy-based platforms have recently risen to the forefront for making stable isotope measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, water, or other analytes. These spectroscopy systems can be relatively straightforward to operate (versus a mass spectrometry platform), largely relieve the analyst of mass interference artifacts, and many can be used in the field. Despite these significant advantages, however, existing spectroscopy techniques suffer from a lack of measurement sensitivity that can ultimately limit select applications including spatially resolved and compound-specific measurements. Here we present a capillary absorption spectroscopy (CAS) system that is designed to mitigate sensitivity issues in spectroscopy-based stable isotope evaluation. The system uses mid-wave infrared excitation generated from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser. Importantly, the sample `chamber' is a flexible capillary with a total volume of less than one cc. Proprietary coatings on the internal surface of the fiber improve optical performance, guiding the light to a detector and facilitating high levels of interaction between the laser beam and gaseous analytes. We present data demonstrating that a tapered hollow fiber cell, with an internal diameter that broadens toward the detector, reduces optical feedback to further improve measurement sensitivity. Sensitivity of current hollow fiber / CAS systems enable measurements of only 10's of picomoles CO2 while theoretical improvements should enable measurements of as little as 10's of femtomoles. Continued optimization of sample introduction and improvements to optical feedback are being explored. Software is being designed to provide rapid integration of data and generation of processed isotope measurements using a graphical user interface. Taken together, the sensitivity improvements of the CAS system under development could, when coupled to a laser ablation sampling device, enable up to 2 µm spatial resolution (roughly the

  9. A Study of the Applicability of Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Direct Reading and Analytical Ferrography on High Performance Aircraft Engine Lubricating Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Ferrography on High Performance Aircraft Engine Lubricating Oils Allison M. Toms, Sharon 0. Hem, Tim Yarborough Joint Oil Analysis Program Technical...turbine engines by spectroscopy (AES and FT-IR) and direct reading and analytical ferrography . A statistical analysis of the data collected is...presented. Key Words: Analytical ferrography ; atomic emission spectroscopy; condition monitoring; direct reading ferrography ; Fourier transform infrared

  10. ESIPT and photodissociation of 3-hydroxychromone in solution: photoinduced processes studied by static and time-resolved UV/Vis, fluorescence, and IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Katharina; Grün, Anneken; Stamm, Anke; Schmitt, Yvonne; Gerhards, Markus; Diller, Rolf

    2013-11-07

    The spectral properties of fluorescence sensors such as 3-hydroxychromone (3-HC) and its derivatives are sensitive to interaction with the surrounding medium as well as to substitution. 3-HC is a prototype system for other derivatives because it is the basic unit of all flavonoides undergoing ESIPT and is not perturbed by a substituent. In this study, the elementary processes and intermediate states in the photocycle of 3-HC as well as its anion were identified and characterized by the use of static and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy in different solvents (methylcyclohexane, acetonitrile, ethanol, and water at different pH). Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra and lifetimes of the intermediate states were obtained for the normal, tautomer and anionic excited state, while mid-IR vibrational spectra yielded structural information on ground and excited states of 3-HC. A high sensitivity on hydrogen-bonding perturbations was observed, leading to photoinduced anion formation in water, while in organic solvents, different processes are suggested, including slow picosecond ESIPT and contribution of the trans-structure excited state or a different stable solvation state with different direction of OH. The formation of the latter could be favored by the lack of a substituent increasing contact points for specific solute-solvent interactions at the hydroxyl group compared to substituted derivatives. The effect of substituents has to be considered for the design of future fluorescence sensors based on 3-HC.

  11. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Gd3+-loaded ultra-short carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Jebb, M.; Tweedle, M. F.; Wilson, L. J.

    2013-04-01

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure around the Gd3+ion loaded in ultra short (20-100 nm) carbon nanotubes (GNTs). X-ray Gd L3 absorption near edge structure data shows that the 31.2-μM GNT suspension exhibits a clear characteristic of hydration at the [GdOn] cluster. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure data show that the Gd3+ ion is coordinated by about 9 oxygen ions and that this first coordination shell exhibits an asymmetry similar to that found in triclinic Gd-acetate or Gd[C2H3O2]3·4H2O or GdAc. After correction for the asymmetry using the cumulant of the third order, the Gd-O bond distance is found to be 2.345 Å, instead of 2.406 Å for a symmetrical (or Gaussian) distribution. It is shorter than that in the Gd-containing MRI contrast agents currently in clinical uses. This may account in part for high proton relaxivity observed for the GNT suspension.

  13. Photochemically Generated Thiyl Free Radicals Observed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sneeden, Eileen Y.; Hackett, Mark J.; Cotelesage, Julien J. H.; ...

    2017-07-27

    Sulfur-based thiyl radicals are known to be involved in a wide range of chemical and biological processes, but they are often highly reactive, which makes them difficult to observe directly. We report herein X-ray absorption spectra and analysis that support the direct observation of two different thiyl species generated photochemically by X-ray irradiation. The thiyl radical sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of both species are characterized by a uniquely low energy transition at about 2465 eV, which occurs at a lower energy than any previously observed feature at the sulfur K-edge and corresponds to a 1s → 3p transition tomore » the singly occupied molecular orbital of the free radical. In conclusion, our results constitute the first observation of substantial levels of thiyl radicals generated by X-ray irradiation and detected by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.« less

  14. Miniaturized differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for the analysis of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. Alberto; Walsh, James E.; Treacy, Jack E.; Garland, Wendy E.

    2003-03-01

    Current trends in optical design engineering are leading to the development of new systems which can analyze atmospheric pollutants in a fast and easy way, allowing remote-sensing and miniaturization at a low cost. A small portable fiber-optic based system is presented for the spectroscopic analysis of a common gas pollutant, NO2. The novel optical set-up described consists of a small telescope that collects ultraviolet-visible light from a xenon lamp located 600 m away. The light is coupled into a portable diode array spectrometer through a fiber-optic cable and the system is controlled by a lap-top computer where the spectra are recorded. Using the spectrum of the lamp as a reference, the absorption spectrum of the open path between the lamp and the telescope is calculated. Known absorption features in the NO2 spectrum are used to calculate the concentration of the pollutant using the principles of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Calibration is carried by using sample gas bags of known concentration of the pollutant. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to detect and determine NO2 concentrations directly from the atmosphere at typical environment levels by using an inexpensive field based fiber-optic spectrometer system.

  15. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  16. Identification of Uranyl Minerals Using Oxygen K-Edge X Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Resch, Charles T.

    2016-03-01

    Uranium analysis is consistently needed throughout the fuel cycle, from mining to fuel fabrication to environmental monitoring. Although most of the world’s uranium is immobilized as pitchblende or uraninite, there exists a plethora of secondary uranium minerals, nearly all of which contain the uranyl cation. Analysis of uranyl compounds can provide clues as to a sample’s facility of origin and chemical history. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one technique that could enhance our ability to identify uranium minerals. Although there is limited chemical information to be gained from the uranium X-ray absorption edges, recent studies have successfully used ligand NEXAFS tomore » study the physical chemistry of various uranium compounds. This study extends the use of ligand NEXAFS to analyze a suite of uranium minerals. We find that major classes of uranyl compounds (carbonate, oxyhydroxide, silicate, and phosphate) exhibit characteristic lineshapes in the oxygen K-edge absorption spectra. As a result, this work establishes a library of reference spectra that can be used to classify unknown uranyl minerals.« less

  17. Laser-induced micro-plasmas in air for incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Albert; Dixneuf, Sophie; Orphal, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) is an experimentally straightforward absorption method where the intensity of light transmitted by an optically stable (high finesse) cavity is measured. The technique is realized using broadband incoherent sources of radiation and therefore the amount of light transmitted by a cavity consisting of high reflectance mirrors (typically R > 99.9%) can be low. In order to find an alternative to having an incoherent light source outside the cavity, an experiment was devised, where a laser-induced plasma in ambient air was generated inside a quasi-confocal cavity by a high-power femtosecond laser. The emission from the laser-induced plasma was utilized as pulsed broadband light source. The time-dependent spectra of the light leaking from the cavity were compared with those of the laser-induced plasma emission without the cavity. It was found that the light emission was sustained by the cavity despite the initially large optical losses caused by the laser-induced plasma in the cavity. The light sustained by the cavity was used to measure part of the S1 ← S0 absorption spectrum of gaseous azulene at its vapour pressure at room temperature in ambient air, as well as the strongly forbidden γ-band in molecular oxygen (b1Σ(2,0) ← X3Σ(0,0)).

  18. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Applied to Monitoring Biodiesel Degradation: Correlation with Acid Value and UV Absorption Analyses.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Maydla Dos Santos; Passos, Wilson Espíndola; Lescanos, Caroline Honaiser; Pires de Oliveira, Ivan; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves; Caires, Anderson Rodrigues Lima; Muzzi, Rozanna Marques

    2018-01-01

    The techniques used to monitor the quality of the biodiesel are intensely discussed in the literature, partly because of the different oil sources and their intrinsic physicochemical characteristics. This study aimed to monitor the thermal degradation of the fatty acid methyl esters of Sesamum indicum L. and Raphanus sativus L. biodiesels (SILB and RSLB, resp.). The results showed that both biodiesels present a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, ∼84% (SILB) and ∼90% (RSLB). The SILB had a high content of polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18  :  2), about 49%, and the oleic monounsaturated (18  :  1), ∼34%. On the other hand, RSLB presented a considerable content of linolenic fatty acid (18  :  3), ∼11%. The biodiesel samples were thermal degraded at 110°C for 48 hours, and acid value, UV absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis were carried out. The results revealed that both absorption and fluorescence presented a correlation with acid value as a function of degradation time by monitoring absorptions at 232 and 270 nm as well as the emission at 424 nm. Although the obtained correlation is not completely linear, a direct correlation was observed in both cases, revealing that both properties can be potentially used for monitoring the biodiesel degradation.

  19. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dominic Z; Soliman, Ian Jerry S; Pobre, Romeric F; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  1. Utilization of UV and IR Supercontinua in Gas-Phase Subpicosecond Kinetic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glownia, J. H.; Misewich, J.; Sorokin, P. P.

    Through the work of photochemists extending over many decades, there now exists a wealth of information on the various reactions that photoexcited gas phase molecules undergo. Most of this information relates to the product molecules that are formed, either as the direct result of a primary photochemical act, such as photodissociation, or through subsequent secondary reactions, involving collisions with other molecules in the gas. Recently, there has been an extensive effort directed at determining the exact energy distributions of the primary products formed in photodissociation. With the use of nanosecond tunable-laser techniques, such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), scientists have successfully determined the nascent electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy distributions of various diatomic fragments such as CN, OH, NO, and O2 that are directly formed in the photodissociation of many kinds of molecules. The ready availability of high-quality, tunable, nanosecond lasers has made determination of the above-mentioned collisionless energy distributions a relatively straightforward process. The determination of product translational energies has long effectively been handled by angularly resolved time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy, or by sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy, including a recently improved version of the latter, velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (Xu et al., 1986).

  2. Elucidating ultrafast electron dynamics at surfaces using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) reflection-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Somnath; Husek, Jakub; Baker, L Robert

    2018-04-24

    Here we review the recent development of extreme ultraviolet reflection-absorption (XUV-RA) spectroscopy. This method combines the benefits of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, such as element, oxidation, and spin state specificity, with surface sensitivity and ultrafast time resolution, having a probe depth of only a few nm and an instrument response less than 100 fs. Using this technique we investigated the ultrafast electron dynamics at a hematite (α-Fe2O3) surface. Surface electron trapping and small polaron formation both occur in 660 fs following photoexcitation. These kinetics are independent of surface morphology indicating that electron trapping is not mediated by defects. Instead, small polaron formation is proposed as the likely driving force for surface electron trapping. We also show that in Fe2O3, Co3O4, and NiO, band gap excitation promotes electron transfer from O 2p valence band states to metal 3d conduction band states. In addition to detecting the photoexcited electron at the metal M2,3-edge, the valence band hole is directly observed as transient signal at the O L1-edge. The size of the resulting charge transfer exciton is on the order of a single metal-oxygen bond length. Spectral shifts at the O L1-edge correlate with metal-oxygen bond covalency, confirming the relationship between valence band hybridization and the overpotential for water oxidation. These examples demonstrate the unique ability to measure ultrafast electron dynamics with element and chemical state resolution using XUV-RA spectroscopy. Accordingly, this method is poised to play an important role to reveal chemical details of previously unseen surface electron dynamics.

  3. Structural investigation of new vanadium-bismuth-phosphate glasses by IR and ESR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedeanu, N.; Cozar, O.; Stanescu, R.; Cozar, I. B.; Ardelean, I.

    2013-07-01

    IR spectra changes of the xV2O5(1 - x)[0.8P2O5ṡ0.2Bi2O3] glass system with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 50 mol% show that vanadium oxide acts as a network modifier at low concentration (x ⩽ 5 mol%), affecting especially the Bi2O3 network. In the same time the phosphate groups (structures) impose their presence by themselves, fact which is illustrated by the increasing of the intensity of characteristic 910, 1040, 1230 cm-1 bands. The IR bands belonging to the phosphate groups are strongly reduced for x ⩾ 10 mol% due to the phosphate network depolymerization and to the appearance of new vibrations characteristic for POV and VOV linkages, showing the network former role of V2O5. In the same time the changes observed in the ESR spectra of these glasses are explained supposing the superposition of two signals, one with a well-resolved hyperfine structure typical for isolated V4+ ions and a broad line characteristic for clustered ions. The line width dependence versus V2O5 content shows that dipole-dipole interactions exist between vanadium ions until x = 5 mol% and the superexchange interactions prevail at high content (x ⩾ 10 mol%).

  4. High Resolution X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Distribution of Matter in and around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert; MIT/CAT Team

    2015-10-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe embraces aspects that reachdeep into modern astrophysics and cosmology. We want to know how present and past matter is affected by various levels and types of nucleo-synthesis and stellar evolution. Three major categories were be identified: 1. The study of pre-mordial star formation including periods of super-massive black hole formation, 2. The embedded evolution of the intergalactic medium IGM, 3. The status and evolution of stars and the interstellar medium ISM in galaxies. Today a fourth category relates to our understanding of dark matter in relationwith these three categories. The X-ray band is particularly sensitive to K- and L-shell absorption and scattering from high abundant elements like C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S,Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni. Like the Lyman alpha forest in the optical band, absorbers in the IGM produce an X-ray line forest along the line of sight in the X-rayspectrum of a background quasar. Similary bright X-ray sources within galaxies and the Milky Way produce a continuum, which is being absorbed by elements invarious phases of the ISM. High resolution X-ray absorption surveys are possible with technologies ready for flight within decade. == high efficiency X-ray optics with optical performance 3== high resolution X-ray gratings with R 3000 for E 1.5 keV== X-ray micro-calorimeters with R 2000 for E 1.5 keV. The vision for the next decade needs to lead to means and strategies which allows us to perform such absorption surveys as effectively as surveys are now or in very near future quite common in astronomy pursued in other wave length bands such as optical, IR, and sub-mm.

  5. Conformational switching between protein substates studied with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Sayan; Thorpe, Dayton G; Thorpe, Ian F; Voth, Gregory A; Fayer, M D

    2010-12-30

    Myoglobin is an important protein for the study of structure and dynamics. Three conformational substates have been identified for the carbonmonoxy form of myoglobin (MbCO). These are manifested as distinct peaks in the IR absorption spectrum of the CO stretching mode. Ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments are used to observed switching between two of these substates, A(1) and A(3), on a time scale of <100 ps for two mutants of wild-type Mb. The two mutants are a single mutation of Mb, L29I, and a double mutation, T67R/S92D. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to model the structural differences between the substates of the two MbCO mutants. The MD simulations are also employed to examine the substate switching in the two mutants as a test of the ability of MD simulations to predict protein dynamics correctly for a system in which there is a well-defined transition over a significant potential barrier between two substates. For one mutant, L29I, the simulations show that translation of the His64 backbone may differentiate the two substates. The simulations accurately reproduce the experimentally observed interconversion time for the L29I mutant. However, MD simulations exploring the same His64 backbone coordinate fail to display substate interconversion for the other mutant, T67R/S92D, thus pointing to the likely complexity of the underlying protein interactions. We anticipate that understanding conformational dynamics in MbCO via ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments can help to elucidate fast conformational switching processes in other proteins.

  6. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; Sharma, Surbhi; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Hong-Ji; Guo, Jinghua; Pong, Way-Faung

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:Nx) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH2)2]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nx synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp2-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.

  7. Evolution of synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy for various isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Makoto; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Hosokawa, Shuuich; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mibu, Ko

    2017-11-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy that yields absorption type Mössbauer spectra has been applied to various isotopes. This method enables the advanced measurement by using the excellent features of synchrotron radiation, such as Mössbauer spectroscopic measurement under high-pressures. Furthermore, energy selectivity of synchrotron radiation allows us to measure 40K Mössbauer spectra, of which observation is impossible by using ordinary radioactive sources because the first excited state of 40K is not populated by any radioactive parent nuclides. Moreover, this method has flexibility of the experimental setup that the measured sample can be used as a transmitter or a scatterer, depending on the sample conditions. To enhance the measurement efficiency of the spectroscopy, we developed a detection system in which a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector is combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect internal conversion electrons adding to X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. In particular, by selecting the emission from the scatterer sample, depth selective synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy is possible. Furthermore, limitation of the time window in the delayed components enables us to obtain narrow linewidth in Mössbauer spectra. Measurement system that records velocity dependent time spectra and energy information simultaneously realizes the depth selective and narrow linewidth measurement.

  8. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    DOE PAGES

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; ...

    2017-02-10

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:N x) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH 2) 2 ]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:N x synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in whichmore » each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp 2 -hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:N x . The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.« less

  9. Regeneration of LOHC dehydrogenation catalysts: In-situ IR spectroscopy on single crystals, model catalysts, and real catalysts from UHV to near ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amende, Max; Kaftan, Andre; Bachmann, Philipp; Brehmer, Richard; Preuster, Patrick; Koch, Marcus; Wasserscheid, Peter; Libuda, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) concept offers an efficient route to store hydrogen using organic compounds that are reversibly hydrogenated and dehydrogenated. One important challenge towards application of the LOHC technology at a larger scale is to minimize degradation of Pt-based dehydrogenation catalysts during long-term operation. Herein, we investigate the regeneration of Pt/alumina catalysts poisoned by LOHC degradation. We combine ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) studies on Pt(111), investigations on well-defined Pt/Al2O3 model catalysts, and near-ambient pressure (NAP) measurements on real core⿿shell Pt/Al2O3 catalyst pellets. The catalysts were purposely poisoned by reaction with the LOHC perhydro-dibenzyltoluene (H18-MSH) and with dicyclohexylmethane (DCHM) as a simpler model compound. We focus on oxidative regeneration under conditions that may be applied in real dehydrogenation reactors. The degree of poisoning and regeneration under oxidative reaction conditions was quantified using CO as a probe molecule and measured by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for planar model systems and real catalysts, respectively. We find that regeneration strongly depends on the composition of the catalyst surface. While the clean surface of a poisoned Pt(111) single crystal is fully restored upon thermal treatment in oxygen up to 700 K, contaminated Pt/Al2O3 model catalyst and core⿿shell pellet were only partially restored under the applied reaction conditions. Whereas partial regeneration on facet-like sites on supported catalysts is more facile than on Pt(111), carbonaceous deposits adsorbed at low-coordinated defect sites impede full regeneration of the Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  10. Hyperspectral image analysis for standoff trace detection using IR laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, J.; Fuchs, F.; Hugger, S.; Ostendorf, R.; Butschek, L.; Yang, Q.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Grahmann, J.; Wagner, J.

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past infrared laser backscattering spectroscopy using Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) emitting in the molecular fingerprint region between 7.5 μm and 10 μm proved a highly promising approach for stand-off detection of dangerous substances. In this work we present an active illumination hyperspectral image sensor, utilizing QCLs as spectral selective illumination sources. A high performance Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) imager is used for collection of the diffusely backscattered light. Well known target detection algorithms like the Adaptive Matched Subspace Detector and the Adaptive Coherent Estimator are used to detect pixel vectors in the recorded hyperspectral image that contain traces of explosive substances like PETN, RDX or TNT. In addition we present an extension of the backscattering spectroscopy technique towards real-time detection using a MOEMS EC-QCL.

  11. Nitriles as directionally tolerant hydrogen bond acceptors: IR-UV ion depletion spectroscopy of benzenepropanenitrile and its hydrate clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Patrick A.; Lobo, Isabella A.; Wilson, David J. D.; Robertson, Evan G.

    2016-09-01

    Benzenepropanenitrile (BPN) and its hydrate clusters are studied by R2PI and IR-UV ion-depletion spectroscopy in the CH/OH stretch regions, aided by theoretical calculations. A single water molecule binds to the terminal nitrile 'lone-pair' of the anti-BPN host, but there is also evidence for a side-type structure with OH donating to the nitrile π-electrons. In the gauche-BPN cluster, water is located at an intermediate angle that facilitates O⋯HC(ortho) interaction. A wide range of attachment angles is possible, as the intrinsic preference for linear hydrogen bonding is mediated by additional CH⋯O interactions that depend on molecular geometry near the nitrile group.

  12. Diagnostics of normal and cancer tissues by fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform IR (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.

    1998-06-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy using optical fibers operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the mid-IR region in the range 850 to 4000 cm-1 has recently found an application in the noninvasive diagnostics of tissues in vivo. The method is suitable for nondestructive, nontoxic, fast (seconds), direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo in real time. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications as well as for the research of different materials.

  13. Screening the low molecular weight fraction of human serum using ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Franck; Brachet, Guillaume; Duong, Romain; Sojinrin, Tobiloba; Respaud, Renaud; Aubrey, Nicolas; Baker, Matthew J; Byrne, Hugh J; Chourpa, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic techniques can detect small variations in molecular content, linked with disease, showing promise for screening and early diagnosis. Biological fluids, particularly blood serum, are potentially valuable for diagnosis purposes. The so-called Low Molecular Weight Fraction (LMWF) contains the associated peptidome and metabolome and has been identified as potentially the most relevant molecular population for disease-associated biomarker research. Although vibrational spectroscopy can deliver a specific chemical fingerprint of the samples, the High Molecular Weight Fraction (HMWF), composed of the most abundant serum proteins, strongly dominates the response and ultimately makes the detection of minor spectral variations a challenging task. Spectroscopic detection of potential serum biomarkers present at relatively low concentrations can be improved using pre-analytical depletion of the HMWF. In the present study, human serum fractionation by centrifugal filtration was used prior to analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection infrared spectroscopy. Using a model sample based on glycine spiked serum, it is demonstrated that the screening of the LMWF can be applied to quantify blinded concentrations up to 50 times lower. Moreover, the approach is easily transferable to different bodily fluids which would support the development of more efficient and suitable clinical protocols exploring vibrational spectroscopy based ex-vivo diagnostic tools. Revealing serum LMWF for spectral serological diagnostic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Understanding The Interfacial Structure Of Aqueous Phospholipid Monolayer Films Via External Reflection FT-IR Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Melody L.; Dluhy, Richard A.

    1989-12-01

    Monolayer films of dimyristoyl-phosphatidic-acid (DMPA) at neutral and basic pH exhibit first-order phase transitions in their pressure-area curves. In situ external reflection FT-IR studies in the CH, stretching bands over this phase transition region exhibit a --6 cm-1 shift similar to that observed in previous studies of dipalmitoyl-phosphotidylcholine (DPPC)1. The acid form of DMPA at pH 3.0 does not exhibit the first order phase transition, but a ~1cm-1 frequency shift is observed in the liquid condensed phase and is also present in the neutral pH form. A solid-solid phase transition is proposed. Examination of the polar headgroup region (1300-960 cm-1)for acidic, neutral, and basic forms of DMPA give characteristic bands of each protonation state of PO3.

  16. High precision mapping of kidney stones using μ-IR spectroscopy to determine urinary lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz-Alías, Pilar; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Evolution of urinary lithiasis is determined by the metabolism and life-style of the related patient. The appropriate classification of the stone is mandatory for the identification of the lithogenic process. In this study, cros-sections from a single stone of each of the most frequent urolithiasis types (calcium oxalate mono and dihydrate and carbonate apatite) have been selected and imaged using IR microspectroscopy. Moreover, the use of high definition sFTIR (synchrotron source) has revealed hidden information to the conventional FTIR. This work has demonstrated that minor components become key factors on the description of the stages of stone formation. Intensity map for COM (1630 cm(-1) peak). The high spatial definition achieved is key for the precise description of the kidney stone history. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Solute-solvent complex switching dynamics of chloroform between acetone and dimethylsulfoxide-two-dimensional IR chemical exchange spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kyungwon; Rosenfeld, Daniel E; Chung, Jean K; Fayer, Michael D

    2008-11-06

    Hydrogen bonds formed between C-H and various hydrogen bond acceptors play important roles in the structure of proteins and organic crystals, and the mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage reactions. Chloroform, a C-H hydrogen bond donor, can form weak hydrogen-bonded complexes with acetone and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). When chloroform is dissolved in a mixed solvent consisting of acetone and DMSO, both types of hydrogen-bonded complexes exist. The two complexes, chloroform-acetone and chloroform-DMSO, are in equilibrium, and they rapidly interconvert by chloroform exchanging hydrogen bond acceptors. This fast hydrogen bond acceptor substitution reaction is probed using ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy. Deuterated chloroform is used in the experiments, and the 2D-IR spectrum of the C-D stretching mode is measured. The chemical exchange of the chloroform hydrogen bonding partners is tracked by observing the time-dependent growth of off-diagonal peaks in the 2D-IR spectra. The measured substitution rate is 1/30 ps for an acetone molecule to replace a DMSO molecule in a chloroform-DMSO complex and 1/45 ps for a DMSO molecule to replace an acetone molecule in a chloroform-acetone complex. Free chloroform exists in the mixed solvent, and it acts as a reactive intermediate in the substitution reaction, analogous to a SN1 type reaction. From the measured rates and the equilibrium concentrations of acetone and DMSO, the dissociation rates for the chloroform-DMSO and chloroform-acetone complexes are found to be 1/24 ps and 1/5.5 ps, respectively. The difference between the measured rate for the complete substitution reaction and the rate for complex dissociation corresponds to the diffusion limited rate. The estimated diffusion limited rate agrees well with the result from a Smoluchowski treatment of diffusive reactions.

  18. Rapid Quantitative Determination of Squalene in Shark Liver Oils by Raman and IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hall, David W; Marshall, Susan N; Gordon, Keith C; Killeen, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Squalene is sourced predominantly from shark liver oils and to a lesser extent from plants such as olives. It is used for the production of surfactants, dyes, sunscreen, and cosmetics. The economic value of shark liver oil is directly related to the squalene content, which in turn is highly variable and species-dependent. Presented here is a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis method for the quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with an accuracy of 99.0 %, precision of 0.23 % (standard deviation), and linearity of >0.999. The method has been used to measure the squalene concentration of 16 commercial shark liver oils. These reference squalene concentrations were related to infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the same oils using partial least squares regression. The resultant models were suitable for the rapid quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with cross-validation r (2) values of >0.98 and root mean square errors of validation of ≤4.3 % w/w. Independent test set validation of these models found mean absolute deviations of the 4.9 and 1.0 % w/w for the IR and Raman models, respectively. Both techniques were more accurate than results obtained by an industrial refractive index analysis method, which is used for rapid, cheap quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils. In particular, the Raman partial least squares regression was suited to quantitative squalene analysis. The intense and highly characteristic Raman bands of squalene made quantitative analysis possible irrespective of the lipid matrix.

  19. A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Egan, Mark; Malonis, Andrew; Hellickson, Tim

    2016-09-01

    We present a simple seeing-limited IR spectrometer design for the Giant Magellan Telescope, with continuous R = 6000 coverage from 0.87-2.50 microns for a 0:7" slit. The instrument's design is based on an asymmetric white pupil echelle layout, with dichroics splitting the optical train into yJ, H, and K channels after the pupil transfer mirror. A separate low-dispersion mode offers single-object R ~ 850 spectra which also cover the full NIR bandpass in each exposure. Catalog gratings and H2RG detectors are used to minimize cost, and only two cryogenic rotary mechanisms are employed, reducing mechanical complexity. The instrument dewar occupies an envelope of 1:8×1:5×1:2 meters, satisfying mass and volume requirements for GMT with comfortable margin. We estimate the system throughput at ~35% including losses from the atmosphere, telescope, and instrument (i.e. all coatings, gratings, and sensors). This optical efficiency is comparable to the FIRE spectrograph on Magellan, and we have specified and designed fast cameras so the GMT instrument will have an almost identical pixel scale as FIRE. On the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes, FIRE is read-noise limited in the y and J bands, similar to other existing near-IR spectrometers and also to JWST/NIRSPEC. GMT's twelve-fold increase in collecting area will therefore offer gains in signal-to-noise per exposure that exceed those of moderate resolution optical instruments, which are already sky-noise limited on today's telescopes. Such an instrument would allow GMT to pursue key early science programs on the Epoch of Reionization, galaxy formation, transient astronomy, and obscured star formation environments prior to commissioning of its adaptive optics system. This design study demonstrates the feasibility of developing relatively affordable spectrometers at the ELT scale, in response to the pressures of joint funding for these telescopes and their associated instrument suites.

  20. Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Cybulska, Justyna; Zdunek, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the Iβ content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (XCRAMAN%) varied from −25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose Iβ. However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm−1. Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX) has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls. PMID:22163913

  1. Principles, performance, and applications of spectral reconstitution (SR) in quantitative analysis of oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Sedman, Jacqueline; van de Voort, Frederik R

    2013-04-01

    Spectral reconstitution (SR) is a dilution technique developed to facilitate the rapid, automated, and quantitative analysis of viscous oil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This technique involves determining the dilution factor through measurement of an absorption band of a suitable spectral marker added to the diluent, and then spectrally removing the diluent from the sample and multiplying the resulting spectrum to compensate for the effect of dilution on the band intensities. The facsimile spectrum of the neat oil thus obtained can then be qualitatively or quantitatively analyzed for the parameter(s) of interest. The quantitative performance of the SR technique was examined with two transition-metal carbonyl complexes as spectral markers, chromium hexacarbonyl and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. The estimation of the volume fraction (VF) of the diluent in a model system, consisting of canola oil diluted to various extents with odorless mineral spirits, served as the basis for assessment of these markers. The relationship between the VF estimates and the true volume fraction (VF(t)) was found to be strongly dependent on the dilution ratio and also depended, to a lesser extent, on the spectral resolution. These dependences are attributable to the effect of changes in matrix polarity on the bandwidth of the ν(CO) marker bands. Excellent VF(t) estimates were obtained by making a polarity correction devised with a variance-spectrum-delineated correction equation. In the absence of such a correction, SR was shown to introduce only a minor and constant bias, provided that polarity differences among all the diluted samples analyzed were minimal. This bias can be built into the calibration of a quantitative FT-IR analytical method by subjecting appropriate calibration standards to the same SR procedure as the samples to be analyzed. The primary purpose of the SR technique is to simplify preparation of diluted samples such that

  2. Spectroscopy of N,N-dimethylformamide in the VUV and IR regions: Experimental and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Aparna; Das, Asim Kumar; Krishnakumar, Sunanda; Singh, Param Jeet; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is studied in the 45 000-80 000 cm-1 (5.6-9.9 eV) region using synchrotron radiation. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum comprises mostly of Rydberg series of ns, np, and nd types converging to the first two ionization potentials (IPs). Quantum defect values obtained are consistent with excitation of an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbitals localized on nitrogen (4a″) and oxygen (16a'); in addition, the 3s Rydberg transition converging to the third IP (3a″) is observed at 8.95 eV. A reinvestigation of the infrared spectrum of DMF in the 500-4000 cm-1 region with the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations establishes the planarity of the ground state and leads to revision of several vibrational assignments. Vertical excited state energies and their valence/Rydberg character are predicted using time dependent DFT calculations; excellent correlation is achieved between theoretical results and experimentally observed spectral features. Potential energy curves of the first few excited states give additional insights into the nature of the excited states and their role in photodissociation dynamics. The absorption spectrum of DMF in the region >63 400 cm-1 (7.85 eV) as well as a complete set of spectral assignments in the VUV region (45 000-80 000 cm-1) is reported for the first time. This work represents a comprehensive study of the absorption spectra of DMF in the VUV and infrared regions.

  3. Verification of Ganoderma (lingzhi) commercial products by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, Yew-Keong; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Lan, Jin; Lee, Han-Lim; Chen, Xiang-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Ganoderma commercial products are typically based on two sources, raw material (powder form and/or spores) and extract (water and/or solvent). This study compared three types of Ganoderma commercial products using 1 Dimensional Fourier Transform infrared and second derivative spectroscopy. The analyzed spectra of Ganoderma raw material products were compared with spectra of cultivated Ganoderma raw material powder from different mushroom farms in Malaysia. The Ganoderma extract product was also compared with three types of cultivated Ganoderma extracts. Other medicinal Ganoderma contents in commercial extract product that included glucan and triterpenoid were analyzed by using FTIR and 2DIR. The results showed that water extract of cultivated Ganoderma possessed comparable spectra with that of Ganoderma product water extract. By comparing the content of Ganoderma commercial products using FTIR and 2DIR, product content profiles could be detected. In addition, the geographical origin of the Ganoderma products could be verified by comparing their spectra with Ganoderma products from known areas. This study demonstrated the possibility of developing verification tool to validate the purity of commercial medicinal herbal and mushroom products.

  4. Spectroscopy of luminous infrared galaxies at 2 microns: 1. The ultraluminous galaxies (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10 (exp 12) solar luminosity)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.; Joseph, R. D.; Doyon, Rene; Sanders, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    We present high-quality spectra covering the K window at a resolving power of 340 for a sample of 13 ultraluminous (L(sub IR) approximately greater than 10(exp 12) solar luminosity) infrared-selected galaxies, and line fluxes for a comparison sample of 24 lower luminosity galaxies. The 2 micrometers spectra of 10 of the ultraluminous galaxies are characterized by emission and absorption features commonly associated with stars and star formation; two others have the red power-law spectra and Br gamma line widths of Seyfert 1 galaxies; the final galaxy has strong emission from hot dust. We have found no broad-line active nuclei not already known from optical observations, despite the fact that the extinction at 2 micrometers is 1/10 that at optical wavelengths; any putative Seyfert 1 nuclei must be deeply buried. Powerful continua and emission lines from H2 and Br gamma are detected in all the ultraluminous galaxies. Comparing the H2 1-0 S(1), Br gamma, and 2 micrometers and far-infrared luminosities to those of the lower luminosity galaxies yields several major results. First, the dereddened Br gamma emission, relative to the far-infrared luminosity is significantly depressed in the ultraluminous sample, when compared to the lower luminosity galaxies. Five of the ultraluminous galaxies have L(sub Br gamma)L(sub IR) ratios lower than for any of the comparison objects. Second, the H2 1-0 S(1) luminosity is also responsible, directly or indirectly, for producing the excited H2, and that the H2 apparently comes from optically thin regions in both classes of objects. Third, eight of the 13 ultraluminous systems have lower 2 micrometers/far-infrared luminosity ratios than any of the lower luminosity galaxies, and five of these are the galaxies also deficient in Br gamma. These three findings may be understood if the the H2, Br gamma, and 2 mircometers continua in the ultraluminous galaxies arise from spatially distinct regions, with the continuum and Br gamma largely

  5. Understanding the sensitivity of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: pathlength enhancement versus noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, B.; Jones, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy is now widely used as an ultrasensitive technique in observing weak spectroscopic absorptions. Photons inside the cavity are reflected back and forth between the mirrors with reflectivities R close to one and thus (on average) exploit an absorption pathlength L that is 1/(1 - R) longer than a single pass measurement. As suggested by the Beer-Lambert law, this increase in L results in enhanced absorbance A (given by αL with α being the absorption coefficient) which in turn favours the detection of weak absorptions. At the same time, however, only (1 - R) of the incident light can enter the cavity [assuming that mirror transmission T is equal to (1 - R)], so that the reduction in transmitted light intensity Δ I caused by molecular absorption equates to that would be obtained if in fact no cavity were present. The enhancement in A = Δ I/ I, where I is the total transmitted light intensity, achievable from CEAS therefore comes not from an increase in Δ I, but a sharp decrease in I. In this paper, we calculate the magnitudes of these two terms before and after a cavity is introduced, and aim at interpreting the sensitivity improvement offered by cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy from this observable-oriented (i.e. Δ I and I) perspective. It is first shown that photon energy stored in the cavity is at best as intense as the input light source, implying that any absorbing sample within the cavity is exposed to the same or even lower light intensity after the cavity is formed. As a consequence, the intensity of the light absorbed or scattered by the sample, which corresponds to the Δ I term aforementioned, is never greater than would be the case in a single pass measurement. It is then shown that while this "numerator" term is not improved, the "denominator" term, I, is reduced considerably; therefore, the increase in contrast ratio Δ I/ I is solely contributed by the attenuation of transmitted background light I and is

  6. Electronic processes in TTF-derived complexes studied by IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graja, Andrzej

    2001-09-01

    We focus our attention on the plasma-edge-like dispersion of the reflectance spectra of the selected bis(ethylenodithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF)-derived organic conductors. The standard procedure to determine the electron transport parameters in low-dimensional organic conductors consists of fitting the appropriate theoretical models with the experimental reflectance data. This procedure provides us with basic information like plasma frequency, the optical effective mass of charge carriers, their number, mean free path and damping constant. Therefore, it is concluded that the spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study the electronic processes in conducting organic solids.

  7. Magneto-optical far-infrared absorption spectroscopy of the hole states of indium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Wang, Y.-J.

    2005-03-01

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy in magnetic fields of up to 30 T of the zinc acceptor impurity in indium phosphide has revealed for the first time a series of free-hole transitions (Landau-related series) in addition to the familiar bound-hole transitions (Lyman series) as well as hitherto unobserved phonon replicas of both series. Analysis of these data permits the simultaneous direct experimental determination of (i) the hole effective mass, (ii) the species-specific binding energy of the acceptor impurity, (iii) the absolute energy levels of the acceptor excited states of both odd and even parity, (iv) more reliable, and in some cases the only, g factors for acceptor states, through relaxation of the selection rules for phonon replicas, and (v) the LO phonon energy. The method is applicable to other semiconductors and may lead to the reappraisal of their physical parameters.

  8. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 microm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppmm, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  9. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the interactions of Ni2+ with yeast enolase.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Scott, R A; Lebioda, L; Zhou, Z H; Brewer, J M

    1995-05-15

    An x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study was carried out at pH 7.6 on solutions of Ni2+ and yeast enolase depleted of its physiological cofactor (Mg2+) in the presence or absence of substrate/product, the very strongly bound competitive inhibitor 2-phosphonoacetohydroxamate and Mg2+. Both "conformational" and "catalytic" Ni2+ are distorted octahedral in coordination, in agreement with several spectroscopic studies but in contrast to the coordination in the crystal at pH 6.0. The data are consistent with direct coordination of what must be the catalytic Ni2+ to the phosphate of the substrate, in agreement with some previous data but in disagreement with recent interpretations by other workers. The ligands around the metal ions obtained from the x-ray structure give simulated XAS spectra in good agreement with the observed spectra.

  10. Optical Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy of Multiple Shocked Liquid Benzene to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, S.

    2005-07-01

    Liquid benzene samples were multiply shocked to peak pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa to examine physical and chemical changes in benzene. A xenon flashlamp was used to probe the visible spectrum of benzene for loses in transmitted light intensity caused by changes in the electronic structure (absorption) or a possible liquid to solid phase transition (scattering). Raman spectroscopy was used to corroborate transmission measurements by examining changes in the benzene vibrational modes. The C-C symmetric ring breathing mode (992 cm-1), C-H symmetric stretch (3061 cm-1), along with several weaker modes at 607 cm-1, 1178 cm-1, 1586 cm-1, and 1606 cm-1 were monitored during shock loading. An EOS was developed to calculate the temperature of the shock compressed benzene. The present work has demonstrated that liquid benzene remains unchanged during multiple shock loading up to 10 GPa. Work supported by ONR and DOE.

  11. Microreactor Cells for High-Throughput X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Beesley, Angela; Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Weiher, Norbert

    2007-01-19

    High-throughput experimentation has been applied to X-ray Absorption spectroscopy as a novel route for increasing research productivity in the catalysis community. Suitable instrumentation has been developed for the rapid determination of the local structure in the metal component of precursors for supported catalysts. An automated analytical workflow was implemented that is much faster than traditional individual spectrum analysis. It allows the generation of structural data in quasi-real time. We describe initial results obtained from the automated high throughput (HT) data reduction and analysis of a sample library implemented through the 96 well-plate industrial standard. The results show that a fullymore » automated HT-XAS technology based on existing industry standards is feasible and useful for the rapid elucidation of geometric and electronic structure of materials.« less

  12. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transientmore » reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.« less

  13. Performance improvements in temperature reconstructions of 2-D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Doo-Won; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Cho, Gyeong-Rae; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Doh, Deog-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Performance improvement was attained in data reconstructions of 2-dimensional tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) algorithm was adopted for data reconstruction. The data obtained in an experiment for the measurement of temperature and concentration fields of gas flows were used. The measurement theory is based upon the Beer-Lambert law, and the measurement system consists of a tunable laser, collimators, detectors, and an analyzer. Methane was used as a fuel for combustion with air in the Bunsen-type burner. The data used for the reconstruction are from the optical signals of 8-laser beams passed on a cross-section of the methane flame. The performances of MART algorithm in data reconstruction were validated and compared with those obtained by Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm.

  14. Melting of iron determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to 100 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Trapananti, Angela; Karandikar, Amol

    2015-09-14

    There is a long-standing controversy over the melting curve of Fe at high pressure as determined from static laser heated diamond anvil cell and dynamic compression studies. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements are used here as a criterion to detect melting under pressure. Confronted with a diversity of obtained melting curves, this technique, used at such pressure and temperature conditions, is eligible to be at the forefront to probe Earth's deep interior. Furthermore, the experiment reported here holds promise for addressing important issues related to the structure and phase diagram of compressed melts, such as the existence of structural complexity (polyamorphism)more » in the liquid phase or the extent of icosahedral ordering whose investigation has been limited until now to ambient conditions.« less

  15. Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-10-20

    Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific, real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of the sensors are strongly affected by the long-term and short term baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability which has not been previously considered or corrected by existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5%,more » which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.« less

  16. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  17. Electronic structure of transition metal-cysteine complexes from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Bonnie O; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2008-04-17

    The electronic structures of HgII, NiII, CrIII, and MoV complexes with cysteine were investigated by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and density functional theory. The covalency in the metal-sulfur bond was determined by analyzing the intensities of the electric-dipole allowed pre-edge features appearing in the XANES spectra below the ionization threshold. Because of the well-defined structures of the selected cysteine complexes, the current work provides a reference set for further sulfur K-edge XAS studies of bioinorganic active sites with transition metal-sulfur bonds from cysteine residues as well as more complex coordination compounds with thiolate ligands.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of embedded and extracted nano-oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Stan, Tiberiu; Sprouster, David J.; Ofan, Avishai; ...

    2016-12-29

    Here, the chemistries and structures of both embedded and extracted Ysingle bondTisingle bondO nanometer-scale oxides in a nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) were probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Y 2Ti 2O 7 is the primary embedded phase, while the slightly larger extracted oxides are primarily Y 2TiO 5. Analysis of the embedded nano-oxides is difficult partly due to the multiple Ti environments associated with different oxides and those still residing in matrix lattice sites. Thus, bulk extraction followed by selective filtration was used to isolate the larger Y 2TiO 5 oxides for XAS, while the smaller predominant embedded phase Ymore » 2Ti 2O 7 oxides passed through the filters and were analyzed using the log-ratio method.« less

  19. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  20. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals, Final Technical Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Curl, Robert F.; Glass, Graham P.

    2004-11-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of the chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. Work on the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde has been completed and published and work on the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} has been completed and submitted for publication. In the course of our investigation of branching ratios of the reactions of O({sup 1}D) with acetaldehyde and methane, we discovered that hot atom chemistry effects are not negligible at the gas pressures (13 Torr) initially used. Branching ratios of the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} have been measured at a tenfold higher He flow and fivefold higher pressure.

  1. NO binding kinetics in myoglobin investigated by picosecond Fe K-edge absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silatani, Mahsa; Lima, Frederico A.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rittmann, Jochen; Reinhard, Marco E.; Rittmann-Frank, Hannelore M.; Borca, Camelia; Grolimund, Daniel; Milne, Christopher J.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Diatomic ligands in hemoproteins and the way they bind to the active center are central to the protein’s function. Using picosecond Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we probe the NO-heme recombination kinetics with direct sensitivity to the Fe-NO binding after 532-nm photoexcitation of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbNO) in physiological solutions. The transients at 70 and 300 ps are identical, but they deviate from the difference between the static spectra of deoxymyoglobin and MbNO, showing the formation of an intermediate species. We propose the latter to be a six-coordinated domed species that is populated on a timescale of ∼200 ps by recombination with NO ligands. This work shows the feasibility of ultrafast pump–probe X-ray spectroscopic studies of proteins in physiological media, delivering insight into the electronic and geometric structure of the active center. PMID:26438842

  2. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  3. A quantum perturbative pair distribution for determining interatomic potentials from extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, F.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we develop a technique for determining interatomic potentials in materials in the quantum regime from single-shell extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) spectra. We introduce a pair distribution function, based on ordinary quantum time-independent perturbation theory. In the proposed scheme, the model potential parameters enter the distribution through a fourth-order Taylor expansion of the potential, and are directly refined in the fit of the model signal to the experimental spectrum. We discuss in general the validity of our theoretical framework, namely the quantum regime and perturbative treatment, and work out a simple tool for monitoring the sensitivity of our theory in determining lattice anharmonicities based on the statistical F-test. As an example, we apply our formalism to an EXAFS spectrum at the Ag K edge of AgI at T = 77 K. We determine the Ag-I potential parameters and find good agreement with previous studies.

  4. Single-mode interband cascade laser multiemitter structure for two-wavelength absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, Julian; Weih, Robert; Becker, Steffen; Fischer, Marc; Koeth, Johannes; Höfling, Sven

    2018-01-01

    An interband cascade laser multiemitter with single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) emission at two wavelengths is presented. Continuous-wave laser operation is measured from 0°C to 40°C with threshold currents of around 25 mA and output powers of around 9 mW at 20°C. The ridge waveguide DFB structures are monolithically integrated with a spacing of 70 μm and each is provided with an individual metal DFB grating to select specific single-mode wavelengths of interest for absorption spectroscopy. The emission windows at 3.92 and 4.01 μm are targeting hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, which are of importance for industrial applications since both gases are reagents of the Claus process in sulfur recovery units, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown,D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinkedmore » Sn4+O6 units.« less

  6. Multi-species detection using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northern, J. H.; Thompson, A. W. J.; Hamilton, M. L.; Ewart, P.

    2013-06-01

    The detection of multiple species using a single laser and single detector employing multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS) is reported. An in-house constructed, diode-pumped, Er:Yb:glass micro-laser operating at 1,565 nm with 10 modes separated by 18 GHz was used to record MUMAS signals in a gas mixture containing C2H2, N2O and CO. The components of the mixture were detected simultaneously by identifying multiple transitions in each of the species. By using temperature- and pressure-dependent modelled spectral fits to the data, partial pressures of each species in the mixture were determined with an uncertainty of ±2 %.

  7. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  8. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; ...

    2014-12-16

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  9. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  10. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  11. Temperature determination of resonantly excited plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Van de Broek, Bieke; Grandjean, Didier; Trekker, Jesse; Ye, Jian; Verstreken, Kris; Maes, Guido; Borghs, Gustaaf; Nikitenko, Sergey; Lagae, Liesbet; Bartic, Carmen; Temst, Kristiaan; Van Bael, Margriet J

    2011-09-05

    The fields of bioscience and nanomedicine demand precise thermometry for nanoparticle heat characterization down to the nanoscale regime. Since current methods often use indirect and less accurate techniques to determine the nanoparticle temperature, there is a pressing need for a direct and reliable element-specific method. In-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to determine the thermo-optical properties of plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. With EXAFS, the direct determination of the nanoparticle temperature increase upon laser illumination is possible via the thermal influence on the gold lattice parameters. More specifically, using the change of the Debye-Waller term representing the lattice disorder, the temperature increase is selectively measured within the plasmonic branched nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. In addition, the signal intensity shows that the nanoparticle concentration in the beam more than doubles during laser illumination, thereby demonstrating that photothermal heating is a dynamic process. A comparable temperature increase is measured in the nanoparticle suspension using a thermocouple. This good correspondence between the temperature at the level of the nanoparticle and at the level of the suspension points to an efficient heat transfer between the nanoparticle and the surrounding medium, thus confirming the potential of branched gold nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. This work demonstrates that X-ray absorption spectroscopy-based nanothermometry could be a valuable tool in the fast-growing number of applications of plasmonic nanoparticles, particularly in life sciences and medicine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Iron pentacarbonyl detection limits in the cigarette smoke matrix using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Milton E.; Plunkett, Susan E.; Harward, Charles N.

    2005-11-01

    Endogenous metals present in tobacco from agricultural practices have been purported to generate metal carbonyls in cigarette smoke. Transition metal catalysts, such as iron oxide, have been investigated for the reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) in cigarette smoke. These studies motivated the development of an analytical method to determine if iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO) 5] is present in mainstream smoke from cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide. An FT-IR puff-by-puff method was developed and the detection limit was determined using two primary reference spectra from different sources to estimate the amount of Fe(CO) 5 present in a high-pressure steel cylinder of CO. We do not detect Fe(CO) 5 in a single 35 mL puff from reference cigarettes or from those cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide, with a 30-ppbV limit of detection (LOD). Also, it was shown that a filter containing activated carbon would remove Fe(CO) 5.

  13. Low Mass AGN: Combining IRAC With Near-IR Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bagley, Micaela; Baronchelli, Ivano; Hayden-Pawson, Connor; Rafelski, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Low mass AGN are critical to understanding the evolution of AGNs and stars in galaxies, marking the time periods of highest accretion efficiency and greatest likely deviations from the black hole mass - sigma correlation. Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP), we have just recently identified 68 candidate z > 1 AGN in 27 fields from their near-infrared emission line ratios. The WISP survey selects emission line galaxies without any pre-selection bias and is exquisitely sensitive to low mass (down to 10^7 solar masses), high-equivalent width galaxies that are missed by most other surveys. We propose to take IRAC 4.5 micron imaging of these AGN candidate fields in order to confirm 68 low mass AGN candidates, identify additional low mass IR-AGN missed by emission line selection, and produce the SED fits that can separate hot dust from star light, allowing comparison of stellar mass to AGN bolometric luminosity. The upcoming Euclid and WFIRST missions will generate hundreds of thousands of near-infrared spectra over a similar redshift range to WISP. For most of these objects, near-infrared emission line ratios will be the only viable AGN diagnostic. The Spitzer IRAC color AGN selection is one of the most robust AGN identifiers available. We wish to test these near-infrared emission line selection methods against the IRAC selection in order to evaluate the reliability of the AGN these future missions are likely to produce.

  14. Chemical curing in alkyd paints: an evaluation via FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, G; Marchiafava, V; Mirabello, V; Peruzzini, M; Picollo, M

    2014-01-24

    A study aimed at determining the time necessary for an alkyd paint to attain chemical curing is presented. In particular, the object of our investigation was an oil paint made by Winsor & Newton, namely French ultramarine (PB29) in the Griffin Alkyd "fast drying oil colour" series. Using this paint, we prepared several mock-ups on glass. These were left in the laboratory at room temperature in a piece of furniture with glass doors for a total of 70 days. Samples were taken at different times, and the changes in their composition were monitored by means of FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic analyses. Since the cross-linking reactions involved in the formation of the pictorial film mainly affect the amount of carbon-carbon double bonds, we monitored the decrease in allyl, diallyl and vinyl protons and carbons. The data obtained from the use of both techniques led us to conclude that, in our particular experimental conditions, the chemical curing of the paint layer is reached within the first 70 days, thus establishing the beginning of the ageing phenomena. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical curing in alkyd paints: An evaluation via FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolozzi, G.; Marchiafava, V.; Mirabello, V.; Peruzzini, M.; Picollo, M.

    2014-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the time necessary for an alkyd paint to attain chemical curing is presented. In particular, the object of our investigation was an oil paint made by Winsor & Newton, namely French ultramarine (PB29) in the Griffin Alkyd “fast drying oil colour” series. Using this paint, we prepared several mock-ups on glass. These were left in the laboratory at room temperature in a piece of furniture with glass doors for a total of 70 days. Samples were taken at different times, and the changes in their composition were monitored by means of FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic analyses. Since the cross-linking reactions involved in the formation of the pictorial film mainly affect the amount of carbon-carbon double bonds, we monitored the decrease in allyl, diallyl and vinyl protons and carbons. The data obtained from the use of both techniques led us to conclude that, in our particular experimental conditions, the chemical curing of the paint layer is reached within the first 70 days, thus establishing the beginning of the ageing phenomena.

  16. Computational IR spectroscopy of water: OH stretch frequencies, transition dipoles, and intermolecular vibrational coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2013-05-01

    The Hessian matrix reconstruction method initially developed to extract the basis mode frequencies, vibrational coupling constants, and transition dipoles of the delocalized amide I, II, and III vibrations of polypeptides and proteins from quantum chemistry calculation results is used to obtain those properties of delocalized O-H stretch modes in liquid water. Considering the water symmetric and asymmetric O-H stretch modes as basis modes, we here develop theoretical models relating vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and coupling constants of basis modes to local water configuration and solvent electric potential. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to generate an ensemble of water configurations that was in turn used to construct vibrational Hamiltonian matrices. Obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices and using the time-averaging approximation method, which was developed by the Skinner group, to calculating the vibrational spectra of coupled oscillator systems, we could numerically simulate the O-H stretch IR spectrum of liquid water. The asymmetric line shape and weak shoulder bands were quantitatively reproduced by the present computational procedure based on vibrational exciton model, where the polarization effects on basis mode transition dipoles and inter-mode coupling constants were found to be crucial in quantitatively simulating the vibrational spectra of hydrogen-bond networking liquid water.

  17. Correlation-driven charge migration following double ionization and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, Maximilian; Santra, Robin; Pfannkuche, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate charge migration following prompt double ionization. Thereby, we extend the concept of correlation-driven charge migration, which was introduced by Cederbaum and coworkers for single ionization [Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 205 (1999), 10.1016/S0009-2614(99)00508-4], to doubly ionized molecules. This allows us to demonstrate that compared to singly ionized molecules, in multiply ionized molecules, electron dynamics originating from electronic relaxation and correlation are particularly prominent. In addition, we also discuss how these correlation-driven electron dynamics might be evidenced and traced experimentally using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. For this purpose, we determine the time-resolved absorption cross section and find that the correlated electron dynamics discussed are reflected in it with exceptionally great detail. Strikingly, we find that features in the cross section can be traced back to electron hole populations and time-dependent partial charges and hence, can be interpreted with surprising ease. By taking advantage of element-specific core-to-valence transitions even atomic spatial resolution can be achieved. Thus, with the theoretical considerations presented, not only do we predict particularly diverse and correlated electron dynamics in molecules to follow prompt multiple ionization but we also identify a promising route towards their experimental investigation.

  18. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films by Resonant Photothermal Bending Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, Toshie; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Hori, Yasuro; Nonomura, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    A resonant photothermal bending spectroscopy (PBS) is demonstrated for the measurement of absorption coefficient spectra in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (μc-3C-SiC:H) films. The resonant vibration technique utilized in PBS establishes the sensitivity as α d˜ 5× 10-5 in a vacuum measurement. Appling resonant PBS to μc-Si:H films, a new extra absorption coefficient αex spectrum is observed from 0.6 to 1.2 eV. The αex spectrum has a peak at ˜1.0 eV, and the localized states inducing the αex are located ˜0.35 eV below the conduction band edge of μc-Si:H. A possible explanation for the observed localized state is that an oxidation produces weak bonds at the grain boundaries and/or amorphous silicon tissues. In μc-3C-SiC:H film, an optical band-gap energy of ˜2.2 eV was demonstrated assuming an indirect optical transition. The temperature coefficient of the optical band-gap energy was ˜2.3× 10-4 eV K-1. The αex spectrum of μc-3C-SiC:H film is plateau-shaped and its magnitude is in accord with an increase in grain size.

  19. Optical Measurement of Radiocarbon below Unity Fraction Modern by Linear Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Liu, Qingnan; Gameson, Lyn; Hodges, Joseph T

    2017-09-21

    High-precision measurements of radiocarbon ( 14 C) near or below a fraction modern 14 C of 1 (F 14 C ≤ 1) are challenging and costly. An accurate, ultrasensitive linear absorption approach to detecting 14 C would provide a simple and robust benchtop alternative to off-site accelerator mass spectrometry facilities. Here we report the quantitative measurement of 14 C in gas-phase samples of CO 2 with F 14 C < 1 using cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the linear absorption regime. Repeated analysis of CO 2 derived from the combustion of either biogenic or petrogenic sources revealed a robust ability to differentiate samples with F 14 C < 1. With a combined uncertainty of 14 C/ 12 C = 130 fmol/mol (F 14 C = 0.11), initial performance of the calibration-free instrument is sufficient to investigate a variety of applications in radiocarbon measurement science including the study of biofuels and bioplastics, illicitly traded specimens, bomb dating, and atmospheric transport.

  20. [Study on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Data Processing Based on Chirp-Z Transformation].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-ming; Li, Guang-jie; Wu, Hao

    2015-06-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is a commonly used atmospheric pollution monitoring method. Denoising of monitoring spectral data will improve the inversion accuracy. Fourier transform filtering method is effectively capable of filtering out the noise in the spectral data. But the algorithm itself can introduce errors. In this paper, a chirp-z transform method is put forward. By means of the local thinning of Fourier transform spectrum, it can retain the denoising effect of Fourier transform and compensate the error of the algorithm, which will further improve the inversion accuracy. The paper study on the concentration retrieving of SO2 and NO2. The results show that simple division causes bigger error and is not very stable. Chirp-z transform is proved to be more accurate than Fourier transform. Results of the frequency spectrum analysis show that Fourier transform cannot solve the distortion and weakening problems of characteristic absorption spectrum. Chirp-z transform shows ability in fine refactoring of specific frequency spectrum.

  1. Identifying anthropogenic uranium compounds using soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark; Tom Resch, C.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Prendergast, David; Duffin, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium ores mined for industrial use are typically acid-leached to produce yellowcake and then converted into uranium halides for enrichment and purification. These anthropogenic chemical forms of uranium are distinct from their mineral counterparts. The purpose of this study is to use soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize several common anthropogenic uranium compounds important to the nuclear fuel cycle. Chemical analyses of these compounds are important for process and environmental monitoring. X-ray absorption techniques have several advantages in this regard, including element-specificity, chemical sensitivity, and high spectral resolution. Oxygen K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl nitrate, uranyl fluoride, and uranyl chloride, and fluorine K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl fluoride and uranium tetrafluoride. Interpretation of the data is aided by comparisons to calculated spectra. The effect of hydration state on the sample, a potential complication in interpreting oxygen K-edge spectra, is discussed. These compounds have unique spectral signatures that can be used to identify unknown samples.

  2. Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of mass-selected flavin adenine dinucleotide mono-anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomozzi, L.; Kjær, C.; Langeland Knudsen, J.; Andersen, L. H.; Brøndsted Nielsen, S.; Stockett, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    We report the absorption profile of isolated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) mono-anions recorded using photo-induced dissociation action spectroscopy. In this charge state, one of the phosphoric acid groups is deprotonated and the chromophore itself is in its neutral oxidized state. These measurements cover the first four optical transitions of FAD with excitation energies from 2.3 to 6.0 eV (210-550 nm). The S0 → S2 transition is strongly blue shifted relative to aqueous solution, supporting the view that this transition has a significant charge-transfer character. The remaining bands are close to their solution-phase positions. This confirms that the large discrepancy between quantum chemical calculations of vertical transition energies and solution-phase band maxima cannot be explained by solvent effects. We also report the luminescence spectrum of FAD mono-anions in vacuo. The gas-phase Stokes shift for S1 is 3000 cm-1, which is considerably larger than any previously reported for other molecular ions and consistent with a significant displacement of the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces. Consideration of the vibronic structure is thus essential for simulating the absorption and luminescence spectra of flavins.

  3. Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Watching atoms dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Chris J.; Pham, Van-Thai; Gawelda, Wojciech; van der Veen, Renske M.; El Nahhas, Amal; Johnson, Steven L.; Beaud, Paul; Ingold, Gerhard; Lima, Frederico; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Kaiser, Maik; Hauser, Andreas; Abela, Rafael; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed

    2009-11-01

    The introduction of pump-probe techniques to the field of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has allowed the monitoring of both structural and electronic dynamics of disordered systems in the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, both in time and in space. We present results on the electronically excited high-spin state structure of an Fe(II) molecular species, [FeII(bpy)3]2+, in aqueous solution, resolving the Fe-N bond distance elongation as 0.2 Å. In addition an analysis technique using the reduced χ2 goodness of fit between FEFF EXAFS simulations and the experimental transient absorption signal in energy space has been successfully tested as a function of excited state population and chemical shift, demonstrating its applicability in situations where the fractional excited state population cannot be determined through other measurements. Finally by using a novel ultrafast hard x-ray 'slicing' source the question of how the molecule relaxes after optical excitation has been successfully resolved using femtosecond XANES.

  4. Diamond sensors and polycapillary lenses for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ravel, B; Attenkofer, K; Bohon, J; Muller, E; Smedley, J

    2013-10-01

    Diamond sensors are evaluated as incident beam monitors for X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. These single crystal devices pose a challenge for an energy-scanning experiment using hard X-rays due to the effect of diffraction from the crystalline sensor at energies which meet the Bragg condition. This problem is eliminated by combination with polycapillary lenses. The convergence angle of the beam exiting the lens is large compared to rocking curve widths of the diamond. A ray exiting one capillary from the lens meets the Bragg condition for any reflection at a different energy from the rays exiting adjacent capillaries. This serves to broaden each diffraction peak over a wide energy range, allowing linear measurement of incident intensity over the range of the energy scan. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data are measured with a combination of a polycapillary lens and a diamond incident beam monitor. These data are of comparable quality to data measured without a lens and with an ionization chamber monitoring the incident beam intensity.

  5. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine; ...

    2017-07-18

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  6. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.C.

    In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal IImore » EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.« less

  8. Use of interfacial layers to prolong hole lifetimes in hematite probed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradzah, Alexander T.; Diale, Mmantsae; Maabong, Kelebogile; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Hematite is a widely investigated material for applications in solar water oxidation due primarily to its small bandgap. However, full realization of the material continues to be hampered by fast electron-hole recombination rates among other weaknesses such as low hole mobility, short hole diffusion length and low conductivity. To address the problem of fast electron-hole recombination, researchers have resorted to growth of nano-structured hematite, doping and use of under-layers. Under-layer materials enhance the photo-current by minimising electron-hole recombination through suppressing of back electron flow from the substrate, such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), to hematite. We have carried out ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on hematite in which Nb2O5 and SnO2 materials were used as interfacial layers to enhance hole lifetimes. The transient absorption data was fit with four different lifetimes ranging from a few hundred femtoseconds to a few nanoseconds. We show that the electron-hole recombination is slower in samples where interfacial layers are used than in pristine hematite. We also develop a model through target analysis to illustrate the effect of under-layers on electron-hole recombination rates in hematite thin films.

  9. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sathe, V G; Dubey, Aditi; Banik, Soma; Barman, S R; Olivi, L

    2013-01-30

    The austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys was studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra at all the three elements', namely, Mn, Ga and Ni, K-edges in several Ni-Mn-Ga samples (with both Ni and Mn excess) were analyzed at room temperature and low temperatures. The EXAFS analysis suggested a displacement of Mn and Ga atoms in opposite direction with respect to the Ni atoms when the compound transforms from the austenite phase to the martensite phase. The first coordination distances around the Mn and Ga atoms remained undisturbed on transition, while the second and subsequent shells showed dramatic changes indicating the presence of a modulated structure. The Mn rich compounds showed the presence of antisite disorder of Mn and Ga. The XANES results showed remarkable changes in the unoccupied partial density of states corresponding to Mn and Ni, while the electronic structure of Ga remained unperturbed across the martensite transition. The post-edge features in the Mn K-edge XANES spectra changed from a double peak like structure to a flat peak like structure upon phase transition. The study establishes strong correlation between the crystal structure and the unoccupied electronic structure in these shape memory alloys.

  10. Time-resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Electron Transport Study in Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Bae, Leejin; Engelhorn, Kyle; Heimann, Philip; Ping, Yuan; Barbrel, Ben; Fernandez, Amalia; Beckwith, Martha Anne; Cho, Byoung-Ick; GIST Team; IBS Team; LBNL Collaboration; SLAC Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The warm dense Matter represents states of which the temperature is comparable to Fermi energy and ions are strongly coupled. One of the experimental techniques to create such state in the laboratory condition is the isochoric heating of thin metal foil with femtosecond laser pulses. This concept largely relies on the ballistic transport of electrons near the Fermi-level, which were mainly studied for the metals in ambient conditions. However, they were barely investigated in warm dense conditions. We present a time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy measured for the Au/Cu dual layered sample. The front Au layer was isochorically heated with a femtosecond laser pulse, and the x-ray absorption changes around L-edge of Cu, which was attached on the backside of Au, was measured with a picosecond resolution. Time delays between the heating of the `front surface' of Au layer and the alternation of x-ray spectrum of Cu attached on the `rear surface' of Au indicate the energetic electron transport mechanism through Au in the warm dense conditions. IBS (IBS-R012-D1) and the NRF (No. 2013R1A1A1007084) of Korea.

  11. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica “Daza de Valdés,” CSIC, 28006-Madrid; Fuentes, L. M.

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed tomore » resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.« less

  12. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and optical absorption spectroscopy for a quantitative size characterization of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2016-11-04

    Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPR MAX ), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm. The computed sizes were compared with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and resulted in agreement with the nominal values in a range between 13% (for 20nm NPs) and 1% (for 100nm NPs), The second method is based on the masterly combination of the Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF - now sold as Centrifugal FFF-CFFF) and the Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OAS) techniques to accomplish sizes and quantitative particle size distributions for monodispersed, non-aggregated AgNPs suspensions. The SdFFF separation abilities, well exploited to size NPs, greatly benefits from the application of Mie's theory to the UV-vis signal elaboration, producing quantitative mass-based particle size distributions, from which trusted number-sized particle size distributions can be derived. The silver mass distributions were verified and supported by detecting off-line the Ag concentration with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-tone and two-tone AM-FM spectral calculations for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Sachse, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.

  14. Towards a standard for the dynamic measurement of pressure based on laser absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, K O; Olson, D A

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach for creating a standard for the dynamic measurement of pressure based on the measurement of fundamental quantum properties of molecular systems. From the linewidth and intensities of ro-vibrational transitions we plan on making an accurate determination of pressure and temperature. The goal is to achieve an absolute uncertainty for time-varying pressure of 5 % with a measurement rate of 100 kHz, which will in the future serve as a method for the traceable calibration of pressure sensors used in transient processes. To illustrate this concept we have used wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), due to inherent advantages over direct absorption spectroscopy, to perform rapid measurements of carbon dioxide in order to determine the pressure. The system records the full lineshape profile of a single ro-vibrational transition of CO2 at a repetition rate of 4 kHz and with a systematic measurement uncertainty of 12 % for the linewidth measurement. A series of pressures were measured at a rate of 400 Hz (10 averages) and from these measurements the linewidth was determined with a relative uncertainty of about 0.5 % on average. The pressures measured using WMS have an average difference of 0.6 % from the absolute pressure measured with a capacitance diaphragm sensor. PMID:27881884

  15. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Polymer-Based Organophotoredox Catalysts Mimicking Transition-Metal Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhawi, Abdelqader; Paul, Anam C.; Smith, Justin D.; Handa, Sachin; Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Transition-metal complexes of rare earth metals including ruthenium and iridium are most commonly employed as visible-light photocatalysts. Despite their highly important and broad applications, they have many disadvantages including high cost associated with low abundance in earth crust, potential toxicity, requirement of specialized ligands for desired activity, and difficulty in recycling of metal contents as well as associated ligands. Polymer-based organophotoredox catalysts are promising alternatives and possess unique advantages such as easier synthesis from inexpensive starting material, longer excited state life time, broad range of activity, sustainability, and recyclability. In this research talk, time-resolved photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements of three novel polymer-based organophotoredox catalysts will be presented. By our synthetic team, their catalytic activity has been proven in some highly valuable chemical transformations, that otherwise require transition metal complexes. Time-resolved spectroscopic investigations have demonstrated that photoinduced processes in these catalysts are similar to the transition metal complexes. Especially, intramolecular vibrational relaxation, internal conversion, and intersystem crossing from the S1 state to the T1 state all occur on a sub-picosecond timescale. The long lifetime of the T1 state ( 2-3 microsecond) renders these polymers potent oxidizing and reducing agents. A spectroscopic and kinetic model has been developed for global fitting of TA spectra in both the frequency and time domains. Implication of the current ultrafast spectroscopy studies of these novel molecules to their roles in photocatalysis will be discussed.

  16. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch modemore » frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.« less

  17. A flexible gas flow reaction cell for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kroner, Anna B., E-mail: anna.kroner@diamond.ac.uk; Gilbert, Martin; Duller, Graham

    2016-07-27

    A capillary-based sample environment with hot air blower and integrated gas system was developed at Diamond to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of materials under time-resolved, in situ conditions. The use of a hot air blower, operating in the temperature range of 298-1173 K, allows introduction of other techniques e.g. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy for combined techniques studies. The flexibility to use either quartz or Kapton capillaries allows users to perform XAS measurement at energies as low as 5600 eV. To demonstrate performance, time-resolved, in situ XAS results of Rh catalysts during the process of activation (Rh K-edge,more » Ce L{sub 3}-edge and Cr K-edge) and the study of mixed oxide membrane (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3−δ}) under various partial oxygen pressure conditions are described.« less

  18. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Mona; Doherty, Brenda; Hamperl, Jonas; Kobelke, Jens; Weber, Karina; Henkel, Thomas; Schmidt, Markus A

    2018-02-06

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume-that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sodium salicylate (SS), were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb) and 0.4 µM (64 ppb), respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration.

  19. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.

  20. A reaction cell for ambient pressure soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castán-Guerrero, C.; Krizmancic, D.; Bonanni, V.; Edla, R.; Deluisa, A.; Salvador, F.; Rossi, G.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new experimental setup for performing X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in the soft X-ray range at ambient pressure. The ambient pressure XAS setup is fully compatible with the ultra high vacuum environment of a synchrotron radiation spectroscopy beamline end station by means of ultrathin Si3N4 membranes acting as windows for the X-ray beam and seal of the atmospheric sample environment. The XAS detection is performed in total electron yield (TEY) mode by probing the drain current from the sample with a picoammeter. The high signal/noise ratio achievable in the TEY mode, combined with a continuous scanning of the X-ray energies, makes it possible recording XAS spectra in a few seconds. The first results show the performance of this setup to record fast XAS spectra from sample surfaces exposed at atmospheric pressure, even in the case of highly insulating samples. The use of a permanent magnet inside the reaction cell enables the measurement of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at ambient pressure.

  1. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Mona; Doherty, Brenda; Hamperl, Jonas; Kobelke, Jens; Weber, Karina; Henkel, Thomas; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2018-01-01

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume—that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sodium salicylate (SS), were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb) and 0.4 µM (64 ppb), respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration. PMID:29415468

  2. Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC): From Visual Observation to X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, W. A.; Mibe, K.

    2006-05-01

    A fluid sample contained in a Re gasket between two diamond anvils can be subjected to pressures up to 2.5 GPa and temperatures up to 1200°C in a resistively heated hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). Thermocouples are used to measure temperature. The constant-volume sample chamber permits isochoric measurements that can be used to determine pressure from the equation of state of H2O and to map phases and properties in P-T space. A movie of reactions between K-feldspar and water up to 2.5 GPa and 880°C illustrates the use of visual observations for mapping coexisting solution, melt, and solid phases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of ZnBr2 in solution up to 500°C and 500 MPa shows hydrogen bond breaking in the hydration shells of the ZnBr42- and Br- ions with increasing temperature. In other studies the stability field of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) has been mapped by visual observation and Raman spectroscopy; the phases of montmorillonite have been mapped by X-ray diffraction; and the leaching of Pb from zircon has been measured by X-ray microprobe.

  3. THz and mid-IR spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs: methyl and carboxylic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, S; McGuire, B A; Allodi, M A; Blake, G A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in astrochemistry concerns the synthesis and survival of complex organic molecules (COMs) throughout the process of star and planet formation. While it is generally accepted that most complex molecules and prebiotic species form in the solid phase on icy grain particles, a complete understanding of the formation pathways is still largely lacking. To take full advantage of the enormous number of available THz observations (e.g., Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA), laboratory analogs must be studied systematically. Here, we present the THz (0.3-7.5 THz; 10-250 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) spectra of astrophysically-relevant species that share the same functional groups, including formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and acetone ((CH3)2CO), compared to more abundant interstellar molecules such as water (H2O), methanol (CH3OH), and carbon monoxide (CO). A suite of pure and mixed binary ices are discussed. The effects on the spectra due to the composition and the structure of the ice at different temperatures are shown. Our results demonstrate that THz spectra are sensitive to reversible and irreversible transformations within the ice caused by thermal processing, suggesting that THz spectra can be used to study the composition, structure, and thermal history of interstellar ices. Moreover, the THz spectrum of an individual species depends on the functional group(s) within that molecule. Thus, future THz studies of different functional groups will help in characterizing the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium (ISM).

  4. Characterization of soil organic matter by FT-IR spectroscopy and its relationship with chlorpyrifos sorption.

    PubMed

    Parolo, María Eugenia; Savini, Mónica Claudia; Loewy, Ruth Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (K OC ) assuming that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content (OC) of the soil. However, K OC can vary across a range of soils. The influence of certain soil characteristics on the chlorpyrifos K OC values variation for 12 representative soils of the Northpatagonian Argentinian region with different physicochemical properties was investigated for this study. The chlorpyrifos sorption coefficients normalized by the OC content were experimentally obtained using the batch equilibrium method; the K OC values ranged between 9000-20,000 L kg -1 . The soil characteristics assessed were pH, clay content and spectral data indicative of soil organic matter (SOM) quality measured by FT-IR on the whole soil. The bands considered in the spectroscopic analyses were those corresponding to the aliphatic components, 2947-2858 cm -1 (band A) and the hydrophilic components, 1647-1633 cm -1 (band B). A significant relationship was found (R 2  = 0.66) between chlorpyrifos sorption (K OC ) and the variables pH and A/B height band ratio. The correlation between the values predicted by the derived model and the experimental data was significant (r = 0.89 p < 0.05). Thus, this methodology could be used to estimate chlorpyrifos sorption coefficient through the use of a simple, rapid, and environmentally-friendly measurement. K OC analysis in relation to soil properties represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of the attenuation phenomena of the organic contaminants off-site migration in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coupling MD Simulations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Ions in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, E. Sánchez; Beret, E. C.; Martínez, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. R.; Ayala, R.; Muñoz-Páez, A.

    2007-12-01

    The structure of ionic solutions is a key-point in understanding physicochemical properties of electrolyte solutions. Among the reduced number of experimental techniques which can supply direct information on the ion environment, X-ray Absorption techniques (XAS) have gained importance during the last decades although they are not free of difficulties associated to the data analysis leading to provide reliable structures. Computer simulations of ions in solution is a theoretical alternative to provide information on the solvation structure. Thus, the use of computational chemistry can increase the understanding of these systems although an accurate description of ionic solvation phenomena represents nowadays a significant challenge to theoretical chemistry. We present: (a) the assignment of features in the XANES spectrum to well defined structural motif in the ion environment, (b) MD-based evaluation of EXAFS parameters used in the fitting procedure to make easier the structural resolution, and (c) the use of the agreement between experimental and simulated XANES spectra to help in the choice of a given intermolecular potential for Computer Simulations. Chemical problems examined are: (a) the identification of the second hydration shell in dilute aqueous solutions of highly-charged cations, such as Cr3+, Rh3+, Ir3+, (b) the invisibility by XAS of certain structures characterized by Computer Simulations but exhibiting high dynamical behavior and (c) the solvation of Br- in acetonitrile.

  6. Coupling MD Simulations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Ions in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, E. Sánchez; Beret, E. C.; Martínez, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. R.; Ayala, R.; Muñoz-Páez, A.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of ionic solutions is a key-point in understanding physicochemical properties of electrolyte solutions. Among the reduced number of experimental techniques which can supply direct information on the ion environment, X-ray Absorption techniques (XAS) have gained importance during the last decades although they are not free of difficulties associated to the data analysis leading to provide reliable structures. Computer simulations of ions in solution is a theoretical alternative to provide information on the solvation structure. Thus, the use of computational chemistry can increase the understanding of these systems although an accurate description of ionic solvation phenomena represents nowadays a significant challenge to theoretical chemistry. We present: (a) the assignment of features in the XANES spectrum to well defined structural motif in the ion environment, (b) MD-based evaluation of EXAFS parameters used in the fitting procedure to make easier the structural resolution, and (c) the use of the agreement between experimental and simulated XANES spectra to help in the choice of a given intermolecular potential for Computer Simulations. Chemical problems examined are: (a) the identification of the second hydration shell in dilute aqueous solutions of highly-charged cations, such as Cr3+, Rh3+, Ir3+, (b) the invisibility by XAS of certain structures characterized by Computer Simulations but exhibiting high dynamical behavior and (c) the solvation of Br- in acetonitrile.

  7. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  8. Photochemical Kinetics of a Phosphine Oxide Free Radical Initiator from Femtosecond UV-Pump/Mid-IR-Probe Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Straub, Steffen; Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter

    2017-07-06

    Femtosecond UV-pump/mid-infrared-probe spectroscopy was used to explore in detail the primary photochemical events of the free radical initiator, (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)diphenylphosphine oxide, in liquid dichloromethane solution at room temperature. Following electronic excitation of its lowest excited singlet state, S 1 , the radical initiator undergoes an intersystem crossing to the triplet ground state, T 1 , with a time constant of 135 ps. A subsequent α-cleavage occurs from the triplet state with a time constant of 15 ps and yields a trimethylbenzoyl radical together with a diphenylphosphinoyl radical. Transient absorptions from the S 1 and T 1 states are observed that can be assigned to the P═O stretching mode and the symmetric in-plane deformation mode of the trimethylphenyl moiety of the radical initiator.

  9. The studies of FT-IR and CD spectroscopy on catechol oxidase I from tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hourong; Xie, Yongshu; Liu, Qingliang; Xu, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunhua

    2005-10-01

    A novel copper-containing enzyme named COI (catechol oxidase I) has been isolated and purified from tobacco by extracting acetone-emerged powder with phosphate buffer, centrifugation at low temperature, ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, and column chromatography on DEAE-sephadex (A-50), sephadex (G-75), and DEAE-celluse (DE-52). PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to detect the enzyme purity, and to determine its molecular weight. Then the secondary structures of COI at different pH, different temperatures and different concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) were studied by the FT-IR, Fourier self-deconvolution spectra, and circular dichroism (CD). At pH 2.0, the contents of both α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease, and that of random coil increases, while β-turn is unchanged compared with the neutral condition (pH 7.0). At pH 11.0, the results indicate that the contents of α-helix, anti-parallel β-sheet and β-turn decrease, while random coil structure increases. According to the CD measurements, the relative average fractions of α-helix, anti-parallel β-sheet, β-turn/parallel β-sheet, aromatic residues and disulfide bond, and random coil/γ-turn are 41.7%, 16.7%, 23.5%, 11.3%, and 6.8% at pH 7.0, respectively, while 7.2%, 7.7%, 15.2%, 10.7%, 59.2% at pH 2.0, and 20.6%, 9.5%, 15.2%, 10.5%, 44.2% at pH 11.0. Both α-helix and random coil decrease with temperature increasing, and anti-parallel β-sheet increases at the same time. After incubated in 6 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride for 30 min, the fraction of α-helix almost disappears (only 1.1% left), while random coil/γ-turn increases to 81.8%, which coincides well with the results obtained through enzymatic activity experiment.

  10. Near-IR Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Archaerhodopsin 3: Effects of Transmembrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Saint Clair, Erica C.; Ogren, John I.; Mamaev, Sergey; Russano, Daniel; Kralj, Joel M.; Rothschild, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Archaerhodopsin 3 (AR3) is a light driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense that has been used as a genetically targetable neuronal silencer and an effective fluorescent sensor of transmembrane potential. Unlike the more extensively studied bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum, AR3 readily incorporates into the plasma membrane of both E. coli and mammalian cells. Here, we used near-IR resonance Raman confocal microscopy to study the effects of pH and membrane potential on the AR3 retinal chromophore structure. Measurements were performed both on AR3 reconstituted into E. coli polar lipids and in vivo in E. coli expressing AR3 in the absence and presence of a negative transmembrane potential. The retinal chromophore structure of AR3 is in an all-trans configuration almost identical to BR over the entire pH range from 3–11. Small changes are detected in the retinal ethylenic stretching frequency and Schiff Base (SB) hydrogen bonding strength relative to BR which may be related to a different water structure near the SB. In the case of the AR3 mutant D95N, at neutral pH an all-trans retinal O-like species (Oall-trans) is found. At higher pH a second 13-cis retinal N-like species (N13-cis) is detected which is attributed to a slowly decaying intermediate in the red-light photocycle of D95N. However, the amount of N13-cis detected is less in E. coli cells but is restored upon addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) or sonication, both of which dissipate the normal negative membrane potential. We postulate that these changes are due to the effect of membrane potential on the N13-cis to M13-cis levels accumulated in the D95N red-light photocycle and on a molecular level by the effects of the electric field on the protonation/deprotonation of the cytoplasmic accessible SB. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed fluorescence dependence of AR3 and other microbial rhodopsins on transmembrane potential

  11. Development of Aluminum LEKIDs for Balloon-Borne Far-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Barlis, A. C. M.; Aguirre, J. E.; Bradford, C. M.; Redford, J. G.; Billings, T. S.; LeDuc, H. G.; McKenney, C. M.; Hollister, M. I.

    2018-04-01

    We are developing lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to achieve background-limited sensitivity for far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy on a stratospheric balloon. The spectroscopic terahertz airborne receiver for far-infrared exploration will study the evolution of dusty galaxies with observations of the [CII] 158 μm and other atomic fine-structure transitions at z=0.5 -1.5, both through direct observations of individual luminous infrared galaxies, and in blind surveys using the technique of line intensity mapping. The spectrometer will require large format (˜ 1800 detectors) arrays of dual-polarization sensitive detectors with NEPs of 1 × 10^{-17} W Hz^{-1/2} . The low-volume LEKIDs are fabricated with a single layer of aluminum (20-nm-thick) deposited on a crystalline silicon wafer, with resonance frequencies of 100-250 MHz. The inductor is a single meander with a linewidth of 0.4 μm , patterned in a grid to absorb optical power in both polarizations. The meander is coupled to a circular waveguide, fed by a conical feedhorn. Initial testing of a small array prototype has demonstrated good yield and a median NEP of 4 × 10^{-18} W Hz^{-1/2}.

  12. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Measure Charge Organization in Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Burba, Christopher M.; Janzen, Jonathan; Butson, Eric D.; Coltrain, Gage L.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in the field of ionic liquids is correlating transport property trends with the underlying liquid structure of the compounds, such as the degree of charge organization among the constituent ions. Traditional techniques for experimentally assessing charge organization are specialized and not readily available for routine measurements. This represents a significant roadblock in elucidating these correlations. We use a combination of transmission and polarized-ATR infrared spectroscopy to measure the degree of charge organization for ionic liquids. The technique is illustrated with a family of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethansulfonate ionic liquids at 30°C. As expected, the amount of charge organization decreases as the alkyl side chain is lengthened, highlighting the important role of short-range repulsive interactions in defining quasilattice structure. Inherent limitations of the method are identified and discussed. The quantitative measurements of charge organization are then correlated with trends in the transport properties of the compounds to highlight the relationship between charge and momentum transport and the underlying liquid structure. Most research laboratories possess infrared spectrometers capable of conducting these measurements, thus, the proposed method may represent a cost-effective solution for routinely measuring charge organization in ionic liquids. PMID:23781877

  13. Synchrotron Based High Resolution Far-Ir Spectroscopy of 1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, Rebecca A.; Elmuti, Lena F.; Peebles, Sean A.; Obenchain, Daniel A.

    2013-06-01

    Six vibrational bands of the ^{35}Cl_2C=CH_2 isotopologue of 1,1-dichloroethylene have been recorded in the 350 - 1150 cm^{-1} range using the 0.00096 cm^{-1} resolution far-infrared beamline of the Canadian Light Source synchrotron facility. Results from the analysis of one a-type (ν_9 = 796.01904(8) cm^{-1}, CCl asymmetric stretch) and one c-type (ν_{11} = 868.488626(26) cm^{-1}, CH_2 flap) band will be presented. Over 6000 transitions have now been fitted for these two bands, with ground state rotational and centrifugal distortion constants fixed to values determined by rotational spectroscopy, while the upper state constants have been varied. Anharmonic frequency calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level were instrumental in assigning the dense spectra. Assignment of additional bands around 603 cm^{-1} (b-type, CCl symmetric stretch, ν_4) and 456 cm^{-1} (c-type, CCl_2 flap, ν_{12}), as well as attempts at assigning the mixed ^{35}Cl^{37}Cl isotopologue spectra for ν_9 and ν_{11}, are in progress. Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczółkowski, Z. Naturforsch, {{50a}, (1995), 347-351.

  14. Diagnosing the predisposition for diabetes mellitus by means of mid-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, Johanna; Jacob, Stephan; Dolenko, Brion; Haering, Hans-Ullrich; Mischler, Reinhold; Quarder, Ortrud; Renn, Walter; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Staib, Arnulf; Werner, Gerhard H.; Petrich, Wolfgang H.

    2002-03-01

    The vicious circle of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia is considered to precede the manifestation of diabetes type-2 by decades and the corresponding cluster of risk factors is described as the 'insulin resistance syndrome' or 'metabolic syndrome'. Since the present diagnosis of insulin resistance is expensive, time consuming and cumbersome, there is a need for diagnostic alternatives. We conducted a clinical study on 129 healthy volunteers and 99 patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. We applied mid-infrared spectroscopy to dried serum samples from these donors and evaluated the spectra by means of disease pattern recognition (DPR). Substantial differences were found between the spectra originating from healthy volunteers and those spectra originating from patients with the metabolic syndrome. A linear discriminant analysis was performed using approximately one half of the sample set for teaching the classification algorithm. Within this teaching set, a classification sensitivity and specificity of 84 percent and 81 percent respectively can be derived. Furthermore, the resulting discriminant function was applied to an independent validation of the remaining half of the samples. For the discrimination between 'healthy' and 'metabolic syndrome' a sensitivity and a specificity of 80 percent and 82 percent respectively is obtained upon validating the algorithm with the independent validation set.

  15. Preparation, IR spectroscopy, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry of halogenated and methylated Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salingue, Nils; Hess, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The preparation of chlorine-, bromine-, and iodine-terminated silicon surfaces (Si(111):Cl, Br, and I) using atomically flat Si(111)-(1×1):H is described. The halogenated surfaces were obtained by photochemically induced radical substitution reactions with the corresponding dihalogen in a Schlenk tube by conventional inert gas chemistry. The nucleophilic substitution of the Si-Cl functionality with the Grignard reagent (CH3MgCl) resulted in the unreconstructed methylated Si(111)-(1×1):CH3 surface. The halogenated and methylated silicon surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and laser-induced desorption of monolayers (LIDOM). Calibration of the desorption temperature via analysis of time-of-flight (TOF) distributions as a function of laser fluence allowed the determination of the originally emitted neutral fragments by TOF mass spectrometry using e